Pontoppidan, Maiken W.; Klest, Sihu; Sandoy, Tróndur Møller
Introduction Infancy is an important period of life; adverse experiences during this stage can have both immediate and lifelong impacts on the child’s mental health and well-being. This study evaluates the effects of the Incredible Years Parents and Babies (IYPB) program as a universal intervention...
Gardner, Frances; Leijten, Patty
The Incredible Years parenting intervention is a social learning theory-based programme for reducing children's conduct problems. Dozens of randomized trials, many by independent investigators, find consistent effects of Incredible Years on children's conduct problems across multiple countries and settings. However, in common with other interventions, these average effects hide much variability in the responses of individual children and families. Innovative moderator research is needed to enhance scientific understanding of why individual children and parents respond differently to intervention. Additionally, research is needed to test whether there are ways to make Incredible Years more effective and accessible for families and service providers, especially in low resource settings, by developing innovative delivery systems using new media, and by systematically testing for essential components of parenting interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
This paper examines the Incredible Years Parent and Teacher Programmes that have originated from the work of Webster-Stratton. It provides a brief background on the programmes and a critical analysis of the issues as identified in current literature. The issues can be grouped into four main categories, the first being government decision-making…
This paper takes a post-structural approach, examining what and how issues are framed in the parenting policy, "Incredible Years," through Foucault's (1977, 1980, 1991, 2003, 2004) notion of "governmentality and discursive normalisation." By unpacking discourses of parenting produced by Incredible Years as an accepted parenting…
Leijten, P.; Raaijmakers, M.A.J.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van den Ban, E.; Matthys, W.
Families with socioeconomically disadvantaged and ethnic minority backgrounds are often hard to reach for the prevention and treatment of disruptive child behavior problems. We examined whether the Incredible Years parenting intervention can successfully reach and benefit families with socioeconomic
Full Text Available This paper takes a post-structural approach, examining what and how issues are framed in the parenting policy, Incredible Years, through Foucault’s (1977, 1980, 1991, 2003, 2004 notion of governmentality and discursive normalisation . By unpacking discourses of parenting produced by Incredible Years as an accepted parenting programme, it aims to reveal the norm of parenting that is promoted by the current system, and explores how this concept of truth in parenting influences the everyday life of families. The critical analysis of Incredible Years shows that the programme (reproduces the economic/neoliberal discourses as the normal/desirable norm of parenting, thus maintaining/reinforcing the existing power relations in society. The author argues that this notion of a curriculum for parents provides only a limited understanding of the issue, and intensifies inequality and injustice in the milieu. This paper aims to provide the insights for reconceptualising our understanding of parenting for future policy decisions and effective pedagogy.
Dababnah, Sarah; Parish, Susan L.
Objective: This article reports on the acceptability and results from an evaluation of an empirically supported practice, The Incredible Years, tailored to parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Two groups of parents (N = 17) participated in a mixed methods test with no comparison group of the 15-week intervention. Data…
Trillingsgaard, Tea; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn
This study examined the effectiveness of an evidence-based parent training program in a real-world Scandinavian setting. Parents of 36 young children with or at risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) self-referred to participate in the Incredible Years® Parent Training Program (IYPT...
Gridley, N; Hutchings, J; Baker-Henningham, H
Parental language is associated with children's later language development. Parenting programmes, based on social learning theory, enhance a range of parenting behaviours, yet there is limited evidence for their effect on parental language. To assess the benefits of a behavioural-based parenting programme, which features components of language and communication, to enhance parental language. Parents of toddlers, aged 12 to 36 months, were recruited from eight Flying Start early intervention centres across Wales. Participants were randomised 2:1 either to a parenting programme (n = 60) or to a wait-list control group (n = 29). Researchers were blind to participant allocation throughout the trial. Fifteen-minute video-recorded observations of parents and children interacting during free-play, both at a pre-intervention and at 6-month follow-up, provided the data for the study. Five observed measures of parental language were assessed; quantity and variety, encouraging, critical, child-led and parent led interactions. The Incredible Years Parent-Toddler Programme (IYPTP) is a 12-week group-based behavioural intervention that teaches effective relationship and behavioural management skills including social, emotional and persistence coaching to enable parents to better support their children's development. Of 89 dyads that completed pre-intervention assessments 81 (54 intervention and 27 control) met the criteria for the current study. Intention to treat analysis indicated that child-led language interactions significantly benefited from the intervention [regression coefficient (B) = -1.44, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = -2.59 to -0.29, P = 0.015, effect size (ES) = 0.47] and a positive trend for encouraging language in favour of the intervention sample was evident. Per-protocol sample analysis replicated these findings with encouraging language reaching statistical significance (B = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.11 to 2.03, P = 0.03, ES = 0.52). No further benefits were evident
Morpeth, Louise; Blower, Sarah; Tobin, Kate; Taylor, Rod S.; Bywater, Tracey; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Axford, Nick; Lehtonen, Minna; Jones, Carys; Berry, Vashti
The prognosis for children with early-onset conduct disorder is poor. Conduct disorder also has a social cost for families and communities, and an economic cost for society through the increased use of health, education, social, legal and detention services. In this study, the Incredible Years (IY) BASIC programme was delivered to parents of…
Menting, Ankie T A; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter
The present meta-analytic review examined effectiveness of the Incredible Years parent training (IYPT) regarding disruptive and prosocial child behavior, and aimed to explain variability in intervention outcomes. Fifty studies, in which an intervention group receiving the IYPT was compared to a comparison group immediately after intervention, were included in the analyses. Results showed that the IYPT is an effective intervention. Positive effects for distinct outcomes and distinct informants were found, including a mean effect size of d=.27 concerning disruptive child behavior across informants. For parental report, treatment studies were associated with larger effects (d=.50) than indicated (d=.20) and selective (d=.13) prevention studies. Furthermore, initial severity of child behavior revealed to be the strongest predictor of intervention effects, with larger effects for studies including more severe cases. Findings indicate that the IYPT is successful in improving child behavior in a diverse range of families, and that the parent program may be considered well-established. © 2013.
Stewart, Latoya S.; Carlson, John S.
This study takes an in-depth look at parental acceptability (i.e., the ability to meet parent needs) of an intervention that has shown strong empirical support for treating and preventing childhood conduct disorder. The authors obtained acceptability data from 30 parents of children ages 5 to 12 years presenting externalizing behavior problems…
Pontoppidan, Maiken W.
support parents in providing sensitive and responsive care, and reinforce healthy development for their infants. This study aims to evaluate the impact of the Incredible Years™ Parents and Babies Program in a universal setting for parents with infants. Methods/Design: This is a pragmatic, two......-arm, parallel, pilot, randomized controlled trial (RCT) where 128 families with newborn infants up to four-months-old are recruited in two municipalities in Denmark. Families are randomized to the Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program or usual care with a 2:1 allocation ratio. The primary outcome....... Discussion: This is the first RCT of the Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program, and one of the first rigorous evaluations of a universally offered preventive intervention for parents with infants. The trial will provide important information on the effectiveness of a relatively brief, universally...
A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of adding a structured home visiting intervention to improve outcomes for high-risk families attending the Incredible Years Parent Programme: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
Lees, Dianne G; Fergusson, David M; Frampton, Christopher M; Merry, Sally N
Antisocial behaviour and adult criminality often have their origins in childhood and are best addressed early in the child's life using evidence-based treatments such as the 'Incredible Years Parent Programme'. However, families with additional risk factors who are at highest risk for poor outcomes do not always make sufficient change while attending such programmes. Additional support to address barriers and improve implementation of positive parenting strategies while these families attend the Incredible Years Programme may improve overall outcomes.The study aims to evaluate the efficacy of adding a structured home visiting intervention (Home Parent Support) to improve outcomes in families most at risk of poor treatment response from the Incredible Years intervention. This study will inform the design of a larger prospective randomised controlled trial. A pilot single-blind, parallel, superiority, randomised controlled trial. Randomisation will be undertaken using a computer-generated sequence in a 1:1 ratio to the two treatments arranged in permuted blocks with stratification by age, sex, and ethnicity. One hundred and twenty six participants enrolled in the Incredible Years Parent Programme who meet the high-risk criteria will be randomly allocated to receive either Incredible Years Parent Programme and Home Parent Support, or the Incredible Years Parent Programme alone. The Home Parent Support is a 10-session structured home visiting intervention provided by a trained therapist, alongside the usual Incredible Years Parent Programme, to enhance the adoption of key parenting skills. The primary outcome is the change in child behaviour from baseline to post-intervention in parent reported Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory Problem Scale. This is the first formal evaluation of adding Home Parent Support alongside Incredible Years Parent Programme for families with risk factors who typically have poorer treatment outcomes. We anticipate that the intervention will help
Leijten, Patty; Gardner, Frances; Landau, Sabine; Harris, Victoria; Mann, Joanna; Hutchings, Judy; Beecham, Jennifer; Bonin, Eva-Maria; Scott, Stephen
Parenting programs aim to reduce children's conduct problems through improvement of family dynamics. To date, research on the precise benefits and possible harms of parenting programs on family well-being has been unsystematic and likely to be subject to selective outcome reporting and publication bias. Better understanding of program benefits and harms requires full disclosure by researchers of all included measures, and large enough numbers of participants to be able to detect small effects and estimate them precisely. We obtained individual participant data for 14 of 15 randomized controlled trials on the Incredible Years parenting program in Europe (total N = 1,799). We used multilevel modeling to estimate program effects on 13 parent-reported outcomes, including parenting practices, children's mental health, and parental mental health. Parental use of praise, corporal punishment, threats, and shouting improved, while parental use of tangible rewards, monitoring, or laxness did not. Children's conduct problems and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms improved, while emotional problems did not. Parental mental health (depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and stress) did not improve. There was no evidence of harmful effects. The Incredible Years parenting program improves the aspects of family well-being that it is primarily designed to improve: parenting and children's conduct problems. It also improves parent-reported ADHD symptoms in children. Wider benefits are limited: the program does not improve children's emotional problems or parental mental health. There are no signs of harm on any of the target outcomes. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
What Works Clearinghouse, 2012
"The Incredible Years" is an intervention composed of training programs for children, parents, and teachers that is intended to reduce children's aggression and improve their social skills. The three programs (child, parent, and teacher) can be used independently or in combination. The child program focuses on building social and…
Does the Incredible Years reduce child externalizing problems through improved parenting? The role of child negative affectivity and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype.
Weeland, Joyce; Chhangur, Rabia R; Jaffee, Sara R; Van Der Giessen, Danielle; Matthys, Walter; Orobio De Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan
In a randomized controlled trial, the Observational Randomized Controlled Trial of Childhood Differential Susceptibility (ORCHIDS study), we tested whether observed parental affect and observed and reported parenting behavior are mechanisms of change underlying the effects of the behavioral parent training program the Incredible Years (IY). Furthermore, we tested whether some children are more susceptible to these change mechanisms because of their temperamental negative affectivity and/or serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype. Participants were 387 Dutch children between 4 and 8 years of age (M age = 6.31, SD = 1.33; 55.3% boys) and their parents. Results showed that although IY was successful in improving parenting behavior and increasing parental positive affect, these effects did not explain the significant decreases in child externalizing problems. We therefore found no evidence for changes in parenting behavior or parental affect being the putative mechanisms of IY effectiveness. Furthermore, intervention effects on child externalizing behavior were not moderated by child negative affectivity or 5-HTTLPR genotype. However, child 5-HTTLPR genotype did moderate intervention effects on negative parenting behavior. This suggests that in research on behavioral parent training programs, "what works for which parents" might also be an important question.
Full Text Available Disruptive behavior disorders in children are on the increase. However, there is evidence that the younger a child is at the time of intervention, the more positive the behavioral effects on his/her adjustment at home and at school. Parental education might be an effective way of addressing early problems. The Incredible Years (IY programs were designed to prevent and treat behavior problems when they first appear (in infancy-toddlerhood through middle childhood and to intervene in multiple areas through parent, teacher, and child training. This paper summarizes the literature demonstrating the impact of the IY parent, teacher and child intervention programs, and describes in more detail the work done in Portugal so far to disseminate IY programs with fidelity, with particular emphasis on the IY Basic Preschool Parenting and Teacher Classroom Management programs.
Prevention of Filipino Youth Behavioral Health Disparities: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Participating in "Incredible Years," an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention, Los Angeles, California, 2012.
Flores, Nicole; Supan, Jocelyn; Kreutzer, Cary B; Samson, Allan; Coffey, Dean M; Javier, Joyce R
Evidence-based interventions for training parents are proven to prevent onset and escalation of childhood mental health problems. However, participation in such programs is low, especially among hard-to-reach, underserved populations such as Filipino Americans. Filipinos, the largest Asian subgroup in California, have significant behavioral health disparities compared with non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups. The purpose of this study was to learn about Filipinos' barriers and facilitators to participating in "Incredible Years" (IY), a parenting program. We conducted 4 focus groups in Los Angeles, California, in 2012; the groups consisted of 20 Filipino parents of children aged 6 to 12 years who recently completed the IY parenting program, which was offered as a prevention workshop. Three reviewers, including two co-authors (A.S., J.J.) and a research assistant used content analysis to independently code the interview transcripts and extract subthemes. Grounded theory analytic methods were used to analyze interview transcripts. Parents' perceived benefits of participation in IY were learning more effective parenting techniques, networking with other parents, improved spousal relationships, and improvements in their children's behavior. Parents' most common motivating factor for enrollment in IY was to improve their parenting skills and their relationships with their children. The most common barriers to participation were being uncomfortable sharing problems with others and the fear of being stigmatized by others judging their parenting skills. Participants said that parent testimonials would be the most effective way to promote IY. Many recommended outreach at schools, pediatricians' offices, and churches. Increasing Filipino American parent enrollment in IY in culturally relevant ways will reduce the incidence of mental health disorders among children in this growing population.
Posthumus, Jocelyne A.; Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; Maassen, Gerard H.; van Engeland, Herman; Matthys, Walter
The present study evaluated preventive effects of the Incredible Years program for parents of preschool children who were at risk for a chronic pattern of conduct problems, in the Netherlands. In a matched control design, 72 parents of children with conduct problems received the Incredible Years program. These families (intervention group) were…
Bywater, Tracey Jane; Hutchings, Judith Mary; Gridley, Nicole; Jones, Karen
Parenting programmes are effective interventions for preventing and treating conduct problems in young children. Up to 20% of children in disadvantaged areas have conduct disorder. Recent government initiatives such as targeting early years services to designated disadvantaged Flying Start areas in Wales have resulted in increased nursery-care…
Parenting problems and child behavior problems are being viewed as putative precursors of adult criminal and violent behavior. Moreover, aggressive behavior in early childhood affects daily life of both children and their surroundings, resulting in serious economic implications to society. In many
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; McCoy, Kathleen P.
The Incredible Years® (IY) program series is a set of interlocking and comprehensive training programs for parents, teachers, and children. This article briefly reviews the theoretical foundations, goals, and research underlying these programs. The main purpose of the paper is to describe how the IY programs have been scaled up slowly and…
Weeland, Joyce; Chhangur, Rabia R.; van der Giessen, Danielle; Matthys, Walter; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Overbeek, Geertjan
We tested the effectiveness of the preventive behavioral parent training (BPT) program, The Incredible Years (IY), and the independent effects of previously suggested sociodemographic and intervention-based moderator variables (i.e., initial severity of externalizing problem behavior, child gender,
Prevention of Filipino Youth Behavioral Health Disparities: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Participating in “Incredible Years,” an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention, Los Angeles, California, 2012
Flores, Nicole; Supan, Jocelyn; Kreutzer, Cary B.; Samson, Allan; Coffey, Dean M.
Introduction Evidence-based interventions for training parents are proven to prevent onset and escalation of childhood mental health problems. However, participation in such programs is low, especially among hard-to-reach, underserved populations such as Filipino Americans. Filipinos, the largest Asian subgroup in California, have significant behavioral health disparities compared with non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups. The purpose of this study was to learn about Filipinos’ barriers and facilitators to participating in “Incredible Years” (IY), a parenting program. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups in Los Angeles, California, in 2012; the groups consisted of 20 Filipino parents of children aged 6 to 12 years who recently completed the IY parenting program, which was offered as a prevention workshop. Three reviewers, including two co-authors (A.S., J.J.) and a research assistant used content analysis to independently code the interview transcripts and extract subthemes. Grounded theory analytic methods were used to analyze interview transcripts. Results Parents’ perceived benefits of participation in IY were learning more effective parenting techniques, networking with other parents, improved spousal relationships, and improvements in their children's behavior. Parents’ most common motivating factor for enrollment in IY was to improve their parenting skills and their relationships with their children. The most common barriers to participation were being uncomfortable sharing problems with others and the fear of being stigmatized by others judging their parenting skills. Participants said that parent testimonials would be the most effective way to promote IY. Many recommended outreach at schools, pediatricians’ offices, and churches. Conclusion Increasing Filipino American parent enrollment in IY in culturally relevant ways will reduce the incidence of mental health disorders among children in this growing population. PMID:26491813
Does the Incredible Years reduce child externalizing problems through improved parenting? : The role of child negative affectivity and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype
Weeland, J.; Chhangur, R.R.; Jaffee, S.R.; van der Giessen, D.; Matthys, W.; Orobio De Castro, B.; Overbeek, G.
In a randomized controlled trial, the Observational Randomized Controlled Trial of Childhood Differential Susceptibility (ORCHIDS study), we tested whether observed parental affect and observed and reported parenting behavior are mechanisms of change underlying the effects of the behavioral parent
Chhangur, Rabia R.; Weeland, Joyce; Overbeek, Geertjan; Matthys, Walter; Orobio De Castro, Bram; Van Der Giessen, Danielle; Belsky, Jay
This study investigated whether children scoring higher on a polygenic plasticity index based on five dopaminergic genes (DRD4, DRD2, DAT1, MAOA, and COMT) benefited the most from the Incredible Years (IY) parent program. Data were used from a randomized controlled trial including 341 Dutch families
Foster, E. Michael; Olchowski, Allison E.; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H.
The cost-effectiveness of delivering stacked multiple intervention components for children is compared to implementing single intervention by analyzing the Incredible Years Series program. The result suggests multiple intervention components are more cost-effective than single intervention components.
Karlsson, Patrik; Bergmark, Anders; Lundström, Tommy
We explore how four evidence-producing organisations in the US go ahead when they rate the evidence base for psychosocial interventions, using the Incredible Years programme as our case study. The findings demonstrate variation in the procedures and resulting evidence claims across the organisations, with some organisations being strict and some…
Joaquín de Paul
Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation process of two evidence-based programs in Gipuzko as Child Protection System (Spain: SafeCare and Incredible Years. SafeCare is a home visiting program for high-riskand neglectful families with children under 5 years. Incredible Years is a parenting skills training program for families with children between 4 to 8 years with behavior problems whose parents have significantdifficulties to manage. The paper describes the process by which public institutions responsible for child protection in Gipuzkoa decided to shift from current intervention programs towards more structured, focused, and short-term programs that have shown positive results in previous applications in other countries. Issues related to programs adaptation, selection, and training of professionals and pre- and postresults obtained in the preliminary application of SafeCare and Incredible Years to a limited set of families are presented. Finally, the next step of the implementation process (pilot implementation with a randomized control trial design is described. The paper discusses a significant number of issues that have been important throughout this process and that may be useful for administrations and institutions that wish to undertake a similar process.
Carlson, John S.; Tiret, Holly B.; Bender, Stacy L.; Benson, Laurie
This study examined changes in preschool teachers' perceptions of classroom management strategies following group training in the recently revised Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program (C. Webster-Stratton, 2006). The authors used a pre/post follow-up design across 2 groups that each met for 8 sessions over an 8-10-week period for…
Reinke, Wendy M.; Stormont, Melissa; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Newcomer, Lori L.; Herman, Keith C.
This article focuses on the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training (IY TCM) intervention as an example of an evidence-based program that embeds coaching within its design. First, the core features of the IY TCM program are described. Second, the IY TCM coaching model and processes utilized to facilitate high fidelity of…
Murray, Desiree W; Rabiner, David L; Kuhn, Laura; Pan, Yi; Sabet, Raha Forooz
The present paper reports on the results of a cluster randomized trial of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management Program (IY-TCM) and its effects on early elementary teachers' management strategies, classroom climate, and students' emotion regulation, attention, and academic competence. IY-TCM was implemented in 11 rural and semi-rural schools with K-2 teachers and a diverse student sample. Outcomes were compared for 45 teachers who participated in five full day training workshops and brief classroom consultation and 46 control teachers; these 91 teachers had a total of 1192 students. A high level of teacher satisfaction was found and specific aspects of the training considered most valuable for early elementary teachers were identified. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated a statistically significant intervention effect on Positive Climate in the classroom (d=0.45) that did not sustain into the next school year. No main effects on student outcomes were observed, although a priori moderator analyses indicated that students with elevated social-behavioral difficulties benefitted with regard to prosocial behavior (d=0.54) and inattention (d=-0.34). Results highlight potential benefits and limitations of a universal teacher training program for elementary students, and suggest strategies for future delivery of the IY-TCM program and areas for future research. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background School interventions such as the Incredible Years Classroom Dinosaur Programme targets pupil behaviour across whole classrooms, yet for some children a more intense approach is needed. The Incredible Years Therapeutic Dinosaur Programme is effective for clinically referred children by enhancing social, problem-solving skills, and peer relationship-building skills when delivered in a clinical setting in small groups. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Therapeutic Programme, delivered with small groups of children at high-risk of developing conduct disorder, delivered in schools already implementing the Classroom Programme. Methods/Design This is a pragmatic, parallel, randomised controlled trial. Two hundred and forty children (aged 4-8 years rated by their teacher as above the 'borderline cut-off' for concern on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and their parents, will be recruited. Randomisation is by individual within blocks (schools; 1:1 ratio, intervention to waiting list control. Twenty schools will participate in two phases. Two teachers per school will deliver the programme to six intervention children for 2-hours/week for 18 weeks between baseline and first follow-up. The control children will receive the intervention after first follow up. Phase 1 comprises three data collection points - baseline and two follow-ups eight months apart. Phase 2 includes baseline and first follow-up. The Therapeutic Programme includes elements on; Learning school rules; understanding, identifying, and articulating feelings; problem solving; anger management; how to be friendly; how to do your best in school. Primary outcomes are; change in child social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Secondary outcomes are; teacher and parent mental wellbeing, child academic attainment, child and teacher school attendance. Intervention delivery will be assessed for fidelity. Intention to treat analyses
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of behaviours characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. This study evaluates the effects of a tailored Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IYTCM) programme aimed to improve participating children's on-task behaviour in a group of 6 to 10 year old…
McDaniel, Benny; Braiden, Hannah Jane; Onyekwelu, June; Murphy, Mary; Regan, Hassan
Children who are looked after experience significantly higher levels of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties than children who live with their family of origin. Such difficulties tend to be pervasive and can have detrimental consequences for placement stability, and ultimately for the child's ability to reach their potential. Government…
Baker-Henningham, H; Walker, S; Powell, C; Gardner, J Meeks
School-based interventions involving teacher and/or child training have been shown to benefit teacher practices and to prevent conduct problems and improve children's social and emotional competence in developed countries; however, we are aware of no reports from a developing country. We conducted a pilot study of the Incredible Years Teacher Training programme and a curriculum unit on social and emotional skills based on concepts and activities drawn from the Incredible Years Dina Dinosaur Classroom Curriculum to determine if this approach is appropriate for use with Jamaican pre-school teachers and children. Five pre-schools in Kingston, Jamaica were randomly assigned to an intervention (3 pre-schools with 15 classrooms) or control (2 pre-schools with 12 classrooms) condition. Intervention involved seven whole-day teacher workshops using the Incredible Years Teacher Training programme supplemented by 14 child lessons in each class. The project was evaluated through structured observations of four categories of teacher behaviour and four observer ratings: two rating scales of child behaviour and two rating scales of classroom atmosphere. Significant intervention benefits were found to teachers' behaviour with increased positive behaviour [b = 7.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5, 12.3], reduced negative behaviour (b =-3.5; 95% CI: -6.6, -0.2) and increases in the extent to which teachers promoted children's social and emotional skills (b = 46.4; 95% CI: 11.0, 81.7). The number of teacher commands was not significantly reduced (b =-2.71; 95% CI: -6.01, 0.59). Significant intervention benefits were found to ratings of child behaviour with an increase in children's appropriate behaviour (b = 5.7, 95% CI: 1.0, 10.8) and in children's interest and enthusiasm (b = 7.2, 95% CI: 0.9, 13.5). Intervention also benefited classroom atmosphere with increases in opportunities provided for children to share and help each other (b = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.5, 2.1) and in teacher warmth
Reedtz, Charlotte; Klest, Sihu
The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether the effects of a short, six session version of an evidence-based parent training programme (The Incredible Years), delivered in a non-clinical community sample in the northern Norway, are maintained 4 years following the initial intervention. Data were collected primarily from mothers in a randomized controlled trial (N = 117). Children's mean age at 4 year follow-up was 7.5 years. A mixed model analyses of linear change with a time by condition interaction revealed that statistically significant differences were maintained between the parent training and control groups for several outcomes. The parent training group showed a reduction in harsh disciple and an increase of both self-reported positive parenting and parental efficacy when compared to the control group who received services as usual. No significant differences between the two groups were found for child behaviour problems as measured by the ECBI Intensity scale. In addition, mixed model analyses of quadratic change were conducted to test the differences in the trajectory of change over four time points. There were significant differences in the trajectory of change for (1) the ECBI with the parent training group showing an immediate drop in the intensity of problem behaviour and (2) the positive parenting scale showing an immediate steep increase; no other significant differences in trajectory were detected. Families from a non-clinical sample who participated in a brief version of the Incredible Years Basic parent training programme maintained changes in positive parenting, harsh discipline, and parental efficacy 4 years after completion of the intervention. ClinicalTrials. gov NCT02850510 . Retrospectively registered 29 July 2016.
Supporting teachers and children in schools: the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the incredible years teacher classroom management programme in primary school children: a cluster randomised controlled trial, with parallel economic and process evaluations
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood antisocial behaviour has high immediate and long-term costs for society and the individual, particularly in relation to mental health and behaviours that jeopardise health. Managing challenging behaviour is a commonly reported source of stress and burn out among teachers, ultimately resulting in a substantial number leaving the profession. Interventions to improve parenting do not transfer easily to classroom-based problems and the most vulnerable parents may not be easily able to access them. Honing teachers’ skills in proactive behaviour management and the promotion of socio-emotional regulation, therefore, has the potential to improve both child and teacher mental health and well-being and the advantage that it might potentially benefit all the children subsequently taught by any teacher that accesses the training. Methods/Design Cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT of the Incredible Years teacher classroom management (TCM course with combined economic and process evaluations. One teacher of children aged 4–9 years, from 80 schools in the South West Peninsula will be randomised to attend the TCM (intervention arm or to “teach as normal” (control arm. The primary outcome measure will be the total difficulties score from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ completed by the current class teachers prior to randomisation, and at 9, 18 and 30 months follow-up, supplemented by parent SDQs. Secondary measures include academic attainment (teacher report supplemented by direct measurement in a sub-sample, children’s enjoyment of school, and teacher reports of their professional self-efficacy, and levels of burn out and stress, supplemented by structured observations of teachers classroom management skills in a subsample. Cost data for the economic evaluation will be based on parental reports of services accessed. Cost-effectiveness, using the SDQ as the measure of effect, will be examined
Supporting teachers and children in schools: the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Incredible Years teacher classroom management programme in primary school children: a cluster randomised controlled trial, with parallel economic and process evaluations.
Ford, Tamsin; Edwards, Vanessa; Sharkey, Siobhan; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Byford, Sarah; Norwich, Brahm; Logan, Stuart
Childhood antisocial behaviour has high immediate and long-term costs for society and the individual, particularly in relation to mental health and behaviours that jeopardise health. Managing challenging behaviour is a commonly reported source of stress and burn out among teachers, ultimately resulting in a substantial number leaving the profession. Interventions to improve parenting do not transfer easily to classroom-based problems and the most vulnerable parents may not be easily able to access them. Honing teachers' skills in proactive behaviour management and the promotion of socio-emotional regulation, therefore, has the potential to improve both child and teacher mental health and well-being and the advantage that it might potentially benefit all the children subsequently taught by any teacher that accesses the training. Cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the Incredible Years teacher classroom management (TCM) course with combined economic and process evaluations.One teacher of children aged 4-9 years, from 80 schools in the South West Peninsula will be randomised to attend the TCM (intervention arm) or to "teach as normal" (control arm). The primary outcome measure will be the total difficulties score from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) completed by the current class teachers prior to randomisation, and at 9, 18 and 30 months follow-up, supplemented by parent SDQs. Secondary measures include academic attainment (teacher report supplemented by direct measurement in a sub-sample), children's enjoyment of school, and teacher reports of their professional self-efficacy, and levels of burn out and stress, supplemented by structured observations of teachers classroom management skills in a subsample. Cost data for the economic evaluation will be based on parental reports of services accessed. Cost-effectiveness, using the SDQ as the measure of effect, will be examined over the period of the RCT and over the longer term using decision
Rimestad, Marie Louise; O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Hougaard, Esben
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to explore mediators of change in parent training (PT) for 3- to 8-year-old children with ADHD difficulties. METHOD: Parents of 64 children received PT with Incredible Years® and assessed child ADHD symptoms and conduct problems and their parenting strategies, parental self...
Högström, Jens; Olofsson, Viveca; Özdemir, Metin; Enebrink, Pia; Stattin, Håkan
Long-term follow-up studies of selective parent training (PT) programs are scarce, particularly in the case of effectiveness trials conducted within regular care settings. This study evaluated the 2-year effects of 4 programs: Comet, Incredible Years, Cope, and Connect and differences in the rate of change among programs were investigated using Latent Growth Modeling (LGM). Participants were parents who had sought help at 30 local service sector units (e.g., child psychiatric clinics and social services centers) for major problems in managing their children's externalizing behavior. Parents of 749 children (63 % boys) with moderate levels of externalizing behavior, aged 3-12, were randomized to one of the 4 PT programs. Assessments included parent-reported measures of child externalizing, hyperactivity and inattention, as well as parenting practices, sense of competence, and parents' stress and depressive symptoms. At 2-year follow-up, there were no differences in any of the child outcomes among the programs. All programs had reduced externalizing behaviors with large effect sizes (d = 1.21 to d = 1.32), and negative parenting practices with moderate to large effect sizes (d = 0.49 to d = 0.83). LGM analyses showed that the 2 behavioral programs, Comet and Incredible Years, produced more rapid reductions in externalizing behavior during the course of the intervention than the non-behavioral program, Connect. Connect, however, was the only program where children continued to improve after the intervention. Overall, the results indicate that the 4 programs were equally effective in a clinical setting, despite differences in their theoretical origin.
Witte, John F.
A preliminary evaluation and report were conducted of the Milwaukee (Wisconsin) Public Schools' (MPS) Parental Choice Program (PCP) following its first year of operation. The state legislated program provides an opportunity for students meeting specific criteria to attend private, non-sectarian schools in Milwaukee. A payment from public funds…
This article seeks to provide an outline of the basic ideas and approaches used by the Incredible Edible programme, a community enterprise that is based in the United Kingdom. To do this the author briefly (1) defines the context for the programme, (2) defines the concepts that inform the programme, (3) and illustrates some of the action of the…
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Theodore P.
Objective Efficacies of the Incredible Years (IY) interventions are well established in children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), but not among those with a primary diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We sought to evaluate one-year follow-up outcomes among young children with ADHD who were treated with the IY interventions. Method Four- to six-year-olds with ADHD (n=49, 73% males) participated in six months of treatment using the IY parent and child interventions. Results Immediate post-treatment results indicated improvements in parenting, children’s externalizing and attention problems, and social contact at school. At one-year follow up, 22 of 27 variables that showed significant post-treatment effects demonstrated maintenance to one-year follow up. Children with higher ODD symptoms at baseline showed more improvement in oppositionality and total behavior problems, and their mothers showed more improvement on harsh discipline scores. Approximately 70–75% of children were reported by their parents and teachers to fall below clinical cut-offs on measures of externalizing symptoms at the one-year follow up (compared to 50% at baseline) and more than 50% fell below clinical cut-offs on measures of hyperactivity and inattentiveness (all were in the clinical range at baseline). Conclusions Children with ADHD who were treated with the IY parent and child treatment programs showed maintenance of treatment effects one year after treatment. PMID:23020199
van der Watt, Ronél
Research that focuses on combining attachment, parenting styles, bullying and the reciprocal nature thereof in the parent-adolescent and peer relationships is limited. The bio-psychosocial changes that adolescents experience open up broader social realities and are perceived differently by parents and adolescents. Attachment processes and parenting styles may elicit dissimilar perceptions. These processes are also associated with the multifaceted dynamics of bullying. The aim of the article is to advocate for research on the possible link between the implications of attachment, parenting styles and bullying. Exploring the association between attachment, parenting styles and bullying can deepen the understanding of the developmental challenges within the parent-adolescent relationship, add insight to the different perceptions of adolescents and parents, and complement intervention programmes accordingly. Firstly, this article outlines bio-psychosocial changes in the pubertal years as related to the social realities of the adolescent. Secondly, a discussion on the concepts 'attachment', 'parenting styles', 'bullying', and the potential link between these concepts will follow. Thirdly, an outline of the clinical implications of the apparent association between these concepts is given. The article concludes with recommendations that researchers can consider while exploring the relationship between attachment, parenting styles, and bullying and the delineation thereof in the parent-adolescent relationship.
Gazendam-Donofrio, Stacey; Hoekstra, Harald; van der Graaf, Winette; van de Wiel, Harry; Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, Gea; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette
Good parent-child communication is thought to help families adjust more easily during stressful events such as parental cancer. Families dealing with cancer who communicate openly have reported less psychological distress. The first year after diagnosis may be particularly stressful. The authors investigated parents' quality of life (QOL) and stress-response symptoms and parent-child communication during the first year after diagnosis and examined possible relationships between communication and parents' functioning. Recently-diagnosed cancer patients (N=70) and spouses (N=55) participated within 4 months of diagnosis (T1) and 6 months (T2) and 12 months later (T3). Parents reported on communication with the children (PACS) and on their own physical and psychosocial functioning (RAND-36) and stress-response symptoms (IES). Parent-child communication remained stable throughout the first year after diagnosis and was similar to communication in families 1 year to 5 years after diagnosis. Patients' functioning improved and cancer-related distress decreased significantly. Spouses' cancer-related distress decreased; their functioning fluctuated through the year. In concurrent analyses, patients' open communication with the children related only to T1 intrusion. Spouses' open communication related to T3 psychosocial functioning; problem communication related to T1 and T2 psychosocial functioning and T2 avoidance. In prospective analyses, no significant relationships were found between parent-child communication and change in parents' functioning. Communication between parents and children remained stable over time; patients' and spouses' functioning improved. Parent-child communication seems to have a limited affect on parents' functioning. Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P
Clinicians often identify parent-child relationships that are believed to be problematic for the child's future emotional growth, yet there are minimal outcome data on which to base anticipatory guidance. This 2-year follow-up study examined the stability and child behavioral correlates of parental perceptions of increased child vulnerability and parental overprotection. Of 192 potential participants, 114 parents (93% mothers, 86% white, 75% married, 90% middle-upper socioeconomic status) with children age 4 to 7 years successfully completed the Parent Protection Scale, Child Vulnerability Scale, Child Behavior Checklist 4-18, and the Parental Bonding Instrument. The 2-year stability of high parental overprotection was 37%; for high parental perception of child vulnerability, it was 31%. High perceived vulnerability at enrollment was significantly associated with both internalizing (somatic complaints, anxious/depressed) and externalizing (aggressive) behaviors at follow-up. A history of overprotection in the parent's childhood was not associated with current parental report of overprotective behaviors toward the child.
Hoicka, Elena; Mowat, Rachael; Kirkwood, Joanne; Kerr, Tiffany; Carberry, Megan; Bijvoet-van den Berg, Simone
Creativity is an essential human ability, allowing adaptation and survival. Twenty-nine 1-year-olds and their parents were tested on divergent thinking (DT), a measure of creative potential counting how many ideas one can generate. Toddlers' and parents' DT was moderately to highly correlated. Toddlers showed a wide range of DT scores, which were…
Kolkhorst, Brittany B.; Yazedjian, Ani; Toews, Michelle L.
The purpose of this study was to explore the quality of the parent-adult child attachment relationship by examining students' perceptions of how their parents support them and facilitate their independence while they are in college. A total of 58 third-year students participated in an online interview via synchronous chat technology. Our findings…
Behavioural difficulties in the early years and through primary school age present a challenge to community practitioners; and the long-term costs to society of untreated conduct disorder place a huge financial strain on services, as well as leading to a poor prognosis for the children affected. The aim of this study was to establish the long-term effects for participants attending a 12-week Basic Incredible Years Programme, two years post-completion. Fifty-seven participants were interviewed, representing 63% of the original sample, who parented children aged 1-12 years. Pre- and post-intervention and follow-up measures were the General Health Questionnaire (30) and Eyberg Child Behaviour Checklist. The most common theme reported was that it had helped to change their child's behaviour, and this was demonstrated quantitatively with mean average scores for the Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory reducing to below clinical cut-off post-group and at two years. This same pattern was seen for participants' mental health, with improvements largely maintained at two years. Of the one-third of the children whose behaviour deteriorated two years after the course, two-thirds of these children had experienced adverse life events or had a secondary diagnosis.
Murtugudde, R.; Karnauskas, K.
Galapagos Islands are well known for Darwin's epiphany about evolution after his 'discovery' of the islands. The incredible transformation that the key species on this island undergo on ENSO time-scales is recorded extensively. The impact of Galapagos on SSTs and ocean primary production has been conjectured but some recent work demonstrates that their influence extdends thousands of kilometers via stronger TIWs and modulations of the termination of EUC and related air-sea interactions. Tropical Pacific is not only the theater of action for ENSO dynamics but the ecosystem is the most studied iron limited region due to its HNLC characteristics. This study addresses the physical and biogeochemical impacts of the Galapagos islands with a OGCM-biogeochemical model coupled to a simple wind-anomaliy model. The impact of Galapagos is to warm the cold-tongue by upto 1C with a major impact on the termination of the EUC that results in large-scale circulation changes that extend to the South American coast as far south as 20S. If the islands are not included, then the equatorial Kelvin waves extend their impact on thermocline variability all the way to the eastern boundary and lead to a quasi-biennial ENSO whereas the impact of Galapagos islands shifts the frequency to a quasi- quadrennial time-scale. The impacts on the ecosystem are commensurate with the seasonal and interannual variability changes with the addition of dissolved iron supply related to EUC changes. Bio-physical feedbacks in the deep tropical Pacific also tend to warm SSTs and the impact of Galapagos is thus to flatten the east-west SST gradient resulting in less-frequent and weaker ENSO events. The relevance of these results to longer time-scale variability and any potential analogs to global warming and sea level change are discussed in detail.
Donofrio, Stacey; Hoekstra, Harald; van der Graaf, Winette; van de Wiel, Harry; Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, Gea; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette
BACKGROUND: Good parent-child communication is thought to help families adjust more easily during stressful events such as parental cancer. Families dealing with cancer who communicate openly have reported less psychological distress. The first year after diagnosis may be particularly stressful. The
Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Jelinek, Caitlin; Kessel, Ellen M; Frost, Allison; Allmann, Anna E S; Klein, Daniel N
The link between parental depressive history and parenting styles is well established, as is the association of parenting with child psychopathology. However, little research has examined whether a depressive history in one parent predicts the parenting style of the other parent. As well, relatively little research has tested transactional models of the parenting-child psychopathology relationship in the context of parents' depressive histories. In this study, mothers and fathers of 392 children were assessed for a lifetime history of major depression when their children were 3 years old. They then completed measures of permissiveness and authoritarianism and their child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms when children were 3, 6, and 9 years old. The results showed that a depressive history in one parent predicted the other parent's permissiveness. Analyses then showed that child externalizing symptoms at age 3 predicted maternal permissiveness and authoritarianism and paternal permissiveness at age 6. Maternal permissiveness at age 6 predicted child externalizing symptoms at age 9. No relationships in either direction were found between parenting styles and child internalizing symptoms. The results highlight the importance of considering both parents' depressive histories when understanding parenting styles, and support transactional models of parenting styles and child externalizing symptoms.
Siegel, Deborah H
Adoptions today increasingly include contact between adoptive and birth families. What do these "open adoptions" look like? How do the participants feel about them? This article, based on part of a longitudinal study that first examined adoptive parents' perceptions of their infants' open adoptions seven years ago, explores the parents' reactions now that their children are school age. This qualitative descriptive research revealed changes in the openness in the adoptions over time and identified four dimensions along which open adoptions vary. Findings showed parents' enthusiasm for the openness in their adoptions, regardless of the type and extent of openness. Implications for social work practice, education, and policy are explored.
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Theodore P.
Efficacies of the Incredible Years (IY) interventions are well-established in children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) but not among those with a primary diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We sought to evaluate 1-year follow-up outcomes among young children with ADHD who were treated with the IY interventions.…
Jago, Russell; Davison, Kirsten K; Thompson, Janice L; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Fox, Kenneth R
To examine whether parenting styles or practices were associated with children's television (TV) viewing. A total of 431 parent-child dyads (10- to 11-year-old children) from Bristol, United Kingdom, were included. Child and parent TV viewing were self-reported and categorized as 4 hours/day. Children reported maternal parenting style (authoritarian, authoritative, or permissive). Child-reported maternal and paternal sedentary restriction scores were combined to create a family-level restriction score. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether child TV viewing was predicted by parenting style or family restriction. A greater proportion of children with permissive mothers watched >4 hours of TV per day, compared with children with authoritarian or authoritative mothers (P = .033). A greater proportion of children for whom both parents demonstrated high restriction watched 4 hours (vs 4 hours of TV per day was 5.2 times higher for children with permissive (versus authoritative) mothers (P = .010). Clinicians need to talk directly with parents about the need to place limitations on children's screen time and to encourage both parents to reinforce restriction messages.
Jago, Russell; Davison, Kirsten K.; Brockman, Rowan; Page, Angie S.; Thompson, Janice L.; Fox, Kenneth R.
Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether parenting styles and practices are associated with children's physical activity. Methods Cross-sectional survey of seven hundred ninety-two 10- to 11-year-old UK children in Bristol (UK) in 2008–2009 was conducted. Accelerometer-assessed physical activity and mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (mean MVPA) and mean counts per minute (mean CPM) were obtained. Maternal parenting style and physical activity parenti...
Jago, Russell; Davison, Kirsten K; Brockman, Rowan; Page, Angie S; Thompson, Janice L; Fox, Kenneth R
The objective of this study was to determine whether parenting styles and practices are associated with children's physical activity. Cross-sectional survey of seven hundred ninety-two 10- to 11-year-old UK children in Bristol (UK) in 2008-2009 was conducted. Accelerometer-assessed physical activity and mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (mean MVPA) and mean counts per minute (mean CPM) were obtained. Maternal parenting style and physical activity parenting practices were self-reported. In regression analyses, permissive parenting was associated with higher mean MVPA among girls (+6.0 min/day, pparents. Maternal logistic support was associated with mean CPM for girls (+36.2 counts/min, p=0.001), while paternal logistic support was associated with boys' mean MVPA (+4.0 min/day, p=0.049) and mean CPM (+55.7 counts/min, p=0.014). Maternal permissive parenting was associated with higher levels of physical activity than authoritative parenting, but associations differed by child gender and type of physical activity. Maternal logistic support was associated with girls' physical activity, while paternal logistic support was associated with boys' physical activity. Health professionals could encourage parents to increase logistic support for their children's physical activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lindberg, E. Nihal
This study has aimed to determine the knowledge, skills, and views held by pre-service teachers attending different teacher training programs about parent involvement. A total of 520 4th year students receiving education in primary school teaching and in branch teaching programs participated in the study. Data were collected by the "Parent…
Swick, Kevin J.
This book provides early childhood educators with perspectives and tools that will enable them to strengthen parents and families during the child's earliest year of development. The 25 chapters are divided into 6 parts or themes. Part one focuses on understanding families as learners from an ecological and empathetic perspective, with the premise…
Does the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training programme have positive effects for young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school?: a quasi-experimental pre-post study.
Kirkhaug, Bente; Drugli, May Britt; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Lydersen, Stian; Åsheim, Merethe; Fossum, Sturla
Young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school are at risk of developing several poor outcomes. School-based intervention programs have been found to be effective for students with different problems, including those with behavioral problems, emotional distress, or social problems. The present study investigated whether the IY-TCM programme, as a universal stand-alone school intervention programme, reduced severe child externalizing problems as reported by the teacher, and evaluated if these children improved their social competence, internalizing problems, academic performances and student- teacher relationship as a result of the IY TCM training. A quasi-experimental pre-post study was conducted, including 21 intervention schools and 22 control schools. Children in 1 st - 3 rd grade (age 6-8 years) assessed by their teacher as having severe externalizing problems on the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised (SESBI-R) total Intensity score, were included in the study, N = 83 (65 boys and 18 girls). Treatment effects were evaluated using 3- level linear mixed models analysis. In our study we found no differences in change between the two conditions from baseline to follow-up in externalizing problems, social skills, internalizing problems and closeness with teacher. The intervention condition did however show advantageous development in terms of student-teacher conflicts and increased academic performances. The IY Teacher Classroom Management program is not sufficient being a stand-alone universal program in a Norwegian primary school setting, for students with severe externalizing problems. However; some important secondary findings were found. Still, young school children with severe externalizing problems are in need of more comprehensive and tailored interventions.
Does the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training programme have positive effects for young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school?: a quasi-experimental pre-post study
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school are at risk of developing several poor outcomes. School-based intervention programs have been found to be effective for students with different problems, including those with behavioral problems, emotional distress, or social problems. The present study investigated whether the IY-TCM programme, as a universal stand-alone school intervention programme, reduced severe child externalizing problems as reported by the teacher, and evaluated if these children improved their social competence, internalizing problems, academic performances and student- teacher relationship as a result of the IY TCM training. Methods A quasi-experimental pre-post study was conducted, including 21 intervention schools and 22 control schools. Children in 1st – 3rd grade (age 6–8 years assessed by their teacher as having severe externalizing problems on the Sutter–Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised (SESBI-R total Intensity score, were included in the study, N = 83 (65 boys and 18 girls. Treatment effects were evaluated using 3- level linear mixed models analysis. Results In our study we found no differences in change between the two conditions from baseline to follow-up in externalizing problems, social skills, internalizing problems and closeness with teacher. The intervention condition did however show advantageous development in terms of student-teacher conflicts and increased academic performances. Conclusion The IY Teacher Classroom Management program is not sufficient being a stand-alone universal program in a Norwegian primary school setting, for students with severe externalizing problems. However; some important secondary findings were found. Still, young school children with severe externalizing problems are in need of more comprehensive and tailored interventions.
Timko, Christine; Cronkite, Ruth C.; Moos, Rudolf H.
We examined whether parents' stressors and avoidance coping when offspring were children helped to explain associations between parent depression at baseline and offspring's avoidance coping and depression in adulthood. Self-report data were collected at baseline and 1 year from parents (N = 326) and at 23 years from adult offspring (N = 326).…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 8. The Sacred Lotus - An Incredible Wealth of Wetlands. R N Mandal R Bar. General Article Volume 18 Issue 8 August 2013 pp 732-737. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Breitenstein, Susan M.; Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis; Ridge, Alison; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Tucker, Sharon
Data were merged from two prevention randomized trials testing 1-year outcomes of a parenting skills program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP), and comparing its effects for African-American (n=291) versus Latino (n=213) parents and their preschool children. Compared to controls, intervention parents had improved self-efficacy, used less corporal punishment and more consistent discipline, and demonstrated more positive parenting. Intervention children had greater reductions in behavior problems based on parent-report, teacher-report, and observation. Although improvements from CPP were evident for parents in both racial/ethnic groups, Latino parents reported greater improvements in their children’s behavior and in parenting self-efficacy but exhibited greater decreases in praise. Findings support the efficacy of the CPP for African American and Latino parents and young children from low-income urban communities. PMID:22622598
Lock, Theresa F.
The author has been working for over four decades in the field of early childhood education (ECE). She is currently entering her fifth year as an early childhood teacher educator with the University of Hawai'i at Manoa (UHM) College of Education. In her role, the author is teaching future professionals in a dual degree program with a preschool…
Drugli, May Britt; Larsson, Bo
In this study, generalisation effects to day-care/school settings were examined in an outpatient clinic sample of 127 children aged 4-8 years treated because of oppositional conduct problems in the home with parent training (PT) and parent training combined with child therapy (CT) ("Incredible Years"). Before treatment all children scored above the 90th percentile on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) for home problems, and met criteria for a possible or a confirmed diagnosis of either an oppositional defiant (ODD) or a conduct (CD) disorder. Further, 83% of the children showed clinical levels of conduct problems both at home and in day-care/school before treatment. Although most children improved at home, the majority still showed clinical levels of conduct problems in day-care/school settings after treatment and 1-year later. Combined PT and CT produced the most powerful and significant generalisation effects across the treatment period, however these improvements were not maintained 1-year later for most areas. The results of the present study, therefore, underline the need to target conduct problems not only exhibited at home but also in day-care/school settings, and to develop strategies to maintain positive generalisation effects after treatment for this age and problem-group.
Algarvio, Susana; Leal, Isabel; Maroco, João
The aim of this study was to validate the Parental Stress Scale (PSS) for Portuguese parents and to further investigate the scale's criterion-related validity. A two-stage stratified sample of the Portuguese population of parents, with children attending public preschools and primary schools, was obtained, totalizing 3842 parents of children between 3 and 10 years old. Parents completed a Parental Concerns Scale and the Portuguese version of the PSS. Results support the four-factor structure of the Portuguese version of the PSS. Higher levels of parental stress were reported by parents of boys, with lower educational levels; older, divorced or single parents; unemployed mothers; and with a higher number of children. Parental concerns and parental stress' comparative study reported very low correlations between the two constructs. This study supported evidence for the PSS' validity with a stratified sample of Portuguese parents of children between 3 and 10 years old. Moreover, our findings reported the scale's divergent validity with a Parental Concerns Scale. These results point to the importance of assessing both dimensions in family practice.
Golfenshtein, Nadya; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Deatrick, Janet A; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara
While we know that the parents of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD), the most prevalent group of congenital anomalies, experience increased parenting stress, the stress levels throughout infancy have yet to be studied. Stress experienced by parents beyond the normative stress of parenting can interfere with parenting processes, and bear adverse family outcomes. This prospective cohort study was conducted to describe and compare parenting stress levels during infancy between parents of infants with complex CHD and parents of healthy infants. The Parenting Stress Index-Long Form was distributed to parents of infants with complex CHD and parents of healthy infants (N = 129). T-tests were used to compare stress between groups at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Parents of infants with complex CHD had higher parenting stress than parents of healthy infants on multiple subscales on the Child and Parent Domains, at 3 months of age. The stress remained higher on the demandingness subscale throughout infancy. Parents of CHD infants also demonstrated significantly higher stress scores on the life stress subscale at 12 months of age. Findings highlight stressful periods related to parenting infants with CHD, which may increase existing psycho-social risk for parents of infants with CHD. Early family intervention may promote parental adaptation to the illness, and help establishing healthy parenting practices.
Nevski, Elyna; Siibak, Andra
In this manuscript, we analyse the attitudes and practices of Estonian parents (N = 198) who allowed their 0-3-year olds to use smart devices. We aimed to discover if there was an interaction between parental use of smart technologies, parents' attitudes and the child's age that would predict young children's usage of smart devices. We also wanted…
van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.
This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to
Friesen, Myron D; John Horwood, L; Fergusson, David M; Woodward, Lianne J
Previous research has documented that exposure to parental separation/divorce during childhood can be associated with long-term consequences into adulthood. This study sought to extend this literature by examining associations between childhood exposure to parental separation/divorce and later parenting behavior as an adult in a New Zealand birth cohort. Data were drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1,265 children born in 1977 in Christchurch, New Zealand. Information about exposure to parental separation and divorce was gathered annually from birth to 15 years. At the 30-year follow-up, all cohort members who had become parents (biological or nonbiological) were assessed on several parenting dimensions (sensitivity, warmth, overreactivity, inconsistency, quality of child management, and physical punishment). The analyses showed that exposure to more frequent parental separation in childhood and adolescence was associated with lower levels of parental sensitivity and warmth, greater overreactivity, and an increased use of physical punishment as a parent, after controlling for a wide range of family socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and individual child characteristics. The findings suggest that as exposure to parental separation increases, so does the likelihood of experiencing multiple developmental challenges in childhood and adolescence. As an adult, these life-course experiences can have small but significant associations with the quality of parenting behavior. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A
Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5-6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5-6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5-6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Sebire, Simon J.; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L.; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A.
Rationale Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5–6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. Methods 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5–6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Results Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Conclusions Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5–6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. PMID:26647364
Scavenius Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer; Amilon, Anna; Schultz, Esben Anton
ADHD in children has considerable negative consequences for both affected individuals and their families. One way to milden these negative consequences is by offering parents training in how to handle the child’s difficulties. However, running parent training programs is associated with substanti...... programs. Although direct comparison is difficult due to different outcome measures being used in comparable studies, our findings suggest that Caring in Chaos constitutes a commendable alternative to validated parent training programs such as Triple P and The Incredible Years...
Lawry, James V
Because vertebrate circulations do not work when shrunk to insect sizes, insects may help us design our smallest machines. Within small bodies, bees separate diffusing substances in an open cavity assisted by locomotion and the beat of the heart. The open arthropod circulation, however, is most efficient when shrunk until its large three-dimensional volume of blood turns into a two-dimensional film of fluid covering only the internal surfaces. This transformation increases the chances to near-certainty that molecules can diffuse from one point to another without getting lost.The Incredible Shr
Williams, Kathryn E; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L
Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined the longitudinal relationships between perceived parenting style and psychological flexibility among students at five Australian schools (N= 749) over 6 years, beginning in Grade 7 (50.3% female, mean age 12.39 years). Parenting style was measured in Grades 7 and 12, and psychological flexibility from Grade 9 through 12. Psychological flexibility decreased, on average, with age. Multi-level modelling indicated that authoritarian parenting (low warmth, high control) in Grade 7 predicted later (low) psychological flexibility. Moreover, increases in authoritarian parenting and decreases in authoritative parenting (high warmth and control) were associated with adolescent psychological flexibility across the high school years. Change in parenting predicted future psychological flexibility but did not predict change over time. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that adolescent psychological flexibility in Grade 9 predicted later decreases in authoritarian and increases in authoritative parenting. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how parenting changes and the consequences of such change for the development of psychological flexibility.
Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C M J; Egeler, R M; Koopman, H M; Bresters, D; Norberg, A L; Grootenhuis, M A
With the aim of assessing parental stress after SCT, 73 parents of children and adolescents who underwent SCT 5 or 10 years ago responded to questionnaires on general distress (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)), disease-related stress (Pediatric Inventory for Parents-short form (PIP-SF)) and perceptions of child vulnerability (Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS)). General distress scores were comparable with the reference groups, but 40% of the mothers at 5 years after SCT reported increased stress levels as compared with 26% in the community-based reference group. Disease-related stress was comparable with the reference group of parents of children who were just off cancer treatment, 5 years after SCT. At 10 years after SCT, scores were lower than the reference group. Perceived child vulnerability did diminish over time, but remained high in parents of SCT survivors, compared with parents of healthy children: 96% of the parents at 5 years after SCT and 76% of the parents at 10 years after SCT scored above the cutoff point. Perceived vulnerability was found to be a predictor for parental disease-related stress. To conclude, although most parents of SCT survivors are resilient, the majority of parents perceive their child to be much more vulnerable as compared with parents of healthy children. This perception is associated with disease-related stress and may induce overprotective parenting.
Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Jelinek, Caitlin; Kessel, Ellen; Frost, Allison; Allmann, Anna E.S.; Klein, Daniel N.
The link between parental depressive history and parenting styles is well established, as is the association of parenting with child psychopathology. However, little research has examined whether a depressive history in one parent predicts the parenting style of the other parent. As well, relatively little research has tested transactional models of the parenting-child psychopathology relationship in the context of parents’ depressive histories. In this study, mothers and fathers of 392 children were assessed for a lifetime history of major depression when their children were 3 years old. They then completed measures of permissiveness and authoritarianism and their child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms when children were 3, 6, and 9 years old. Results showed that a depressive history in one parent predicted the other parent’s permissiveness. Analyses then showed that child externalizing symptoms at age 3 predicted maternal permissiveness and authoritarianism and paternal permissiveness at age 6. Maternal permissiveness at age 6 predicted child externalizing symptoms at age 9. No relationships in either direction were found between parenting styles and child internalizing symptoms. Results highlight the importance of considering both parents’ depressive histories when understanding parenting styles, and support transactional models of parenting styles and child externalizing symptoms. PMID:28414019
Perrin, Ellen C; Sheldrick, R Christopher; McMenamy, Jannette M; Henson, Brandi S; Carter, Alice S
Disruptive behavior disorders, such as attention-deficient/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, are common and stable throughout childhood. These disorders cause long-term morbidity but benefit from early intervention. While symptoms are often evident before preschool, few children receive appropriate treatment during this period. Group parent training, such as the Incredible Years program, has been shown to be effective in improving parenting strategies and reducing children's disruptive behaviors. Because they already monitor young children's behavior and development, primary care pediatricians are in a good position to intervene early when indicated. To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of parent-training groups delivered to parents of toddlers in pediatric primary care settings. This randomized clinical trial was conducted at 11 diverse pediatric practices in the Greater Boston area. A total of 273 parents of children between 2 and 4 years old who acknowledged disruptive behaviors on a 20-item checklist were included. A 10-week Incredible Years parent-training group co-led by a research clinician and a pediatric staff member. Self-reports and structured videotaped observations of parent and child behaviors conducted prior to, immediately after, and 12 months after the intervention. A total of 150 parents were randomly assigned to the intervention or the waiting-list group. An additional 123 parents were assigned to receive intervention without a randomly selected comparison group. Compared with the waiting-list group, greater improvement was observed in both intervention groups (P parenting practices and child disruptive behaviors that were attributable to participation in the Incredible Years groups. This study demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of parent-training groups conducted in pediatric office settings to reduce disruptive behavior in toddlers. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00402857.
Waa, Andrew; Edwards, Richard; Newcombe, Rhiannon; Zhang, Jane; Weerasekera, Deepa; Peace, Jo; McDuff, Ingrid
To explore whether parental behaviours related to smoking socialisation and parenting are associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking in 14-15 year old students. Data were sourced from the New Zealand 2006 Year 10 In-depth Survey, a school-based survey of 3,189 students. Outcome measures were susceptibility to smoking and current smoking. Potential determinants were second-hand smoke exposure in the home, parental smoking, parental anti-smoking expectations, anti-smoking rules, pocket money, monitoring of pocket money expenditure, general rule setting and monitoring, and concern about education. Analysis used logistic regression to adjust for potential confounding factors. Exposure to second-hand smoke and lack of parental anti-smoking expectations were independently associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking. Parental smoking was not independently associated with current smoking or susceptibility. Receiving pocket money and an absence of monitoring of expenditure were associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking. Lack of parental rule setting was associated with smoking susceptibility. Findings were similar whether or not one or more parents were smokers. Not allowing smoking in the home, communicating non-smoking expectations to children, monitoring pocket money, and setting rules to guide behaviour are strategies which are likely to reduce risk of smoking uptake. The study provides evidence to inform the development of parent-focused interventions to reduce the risk of smoking initiation by children. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.
Jonynienė, Jolita; Kern, Roy M
Background. Although numerous research studies related to the connection between parents’ personality and parenting have continually supported the significance of personality as an important variable in predicting parenting behaviors, the findings are mostly limited to the five-trait personality model, parental psychopathology or the samples of adolescents’ parents. Purpose. In this research study we examined the relationship of the personality construct of lifestyle proposed in the theory of...
Earle, Andrew M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.
University personnel tend to view "helicopter" parents as problematic. This article presents an alternative view in which these highly engaged parents can instead be utilized productively. The authors describe and assess the fidelity of a novel program in which involved parents were effectively leveraged to mitigate student…
Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C. M. J.; Egeler, R. M.; Koopman, H. M.; Bresters, D.; Norberg, A. L.; Grootenhuis, M. A.
With the aim of assessing parental stress after SCT, 73 parents of children and adolescents who underwent SCT 5 or 10 years ago responded to questionnaires on general distress (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)), disease-related stress (Pediatric Inventory for Parents-short form (PIP-SF)) and
Smith, Gregory J.
The present study was undertaken to determine the impact of different parenting styles on college students' adaptation to college. During the second week of college, 80 first-year students from two-parent families completed the Tests of Reactions and Adaptations to College, English version and the Parental Authority Questionnaire. Authoritative…
Schlechty, Phillip C.
Part of the Virginia Beach year-round school program evaluation, this final report contains a detailed analysis of parental attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions. The data leads to the following conclusions: a majority (53.3 percent) of parents are dubious or negative toward the 45-15 pilot project; a slight majority of parents in the pilot schools…
Gfellner, Barbara M.; McLaren, Lorraine; Metcalfe, Arron
This article is a 20-year evaluation of the Parent-Child Home Program (PCHP) of Child and Family Services in Western Manitoba. Following Levenstein's (1979, 1988) approach, home visitors model parent-child interchanges using books and toys to enhance children's cognitive development through appropriate parenting behaviors. The evaluation provides…
Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John A.
Objective: Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their…
... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...
The Inspection Validation Centre (IVC) of AEA Reactor Services in the UK has begun an eighteen month programme to validate the procedures and personnel of OIS plc, the inspection agents chosen by Nuclear Electric to carry out the pre-service ultrasonic inspection of the Sizewell B Pressurized Water Reactor components assigned to the ''Incredibility of Failure'' (IoF) category. The work involves several Sizewell B primary circuit components - the steam generators, pressurizer, and primary pumps - and will consider the inspections to be applied to the circumferential and nozzle-to-shell welds, nozzle inner radii and the pump fly-wheel forging. The validation will provide independent confirmation that OIS personnel are capable of using manual and automated methods to find and size any flaws of structural concern in these components. (author)
Earle, Andrew M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.
University personnel tend to view ?helicopter? parents as problematic. This paper presents an alternative view in which these highly engaged parents can instead be utilized productively. We describe and assess the fidelity of a novel program in which involved parents were effectively leveraged to mitigate student alcohol-related risk. The feasibility of utilizing similar programs at other schools is discussed as are implications for alcohol risk prevention.
Reid, M J; Webster-Stratton, C; Beauchaine, T P
The effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parenting Program was evaluated in a low-income sample of Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Asian mothers whose children were enrolled in Head Start. Data from two prior intervention studies [Webster-Stratton (1998) Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(5), 715-730; Webster-Stratton et al. (in press) Journal of Clinical Child Psychology] were combined, yielding a sample of 634 families (370 Caucasian, 120 African American, 73 Asian, 71 Hispanic) across 23 Head Start centers. Centers were matched and assigned randomly to either an experimental condition (8-12 weeks of weekly 2-hr parenting classes), or a control condition (the regular Head Start Program without parenting groups). Families in both conditions were assessed using home observations of parent-child interactions and parent reports of parenting style and discipline strategies and child behavior problems in the fall (baseline) and spring (postintervention) of the children's Head Start year. Families were reassessed 1 year later. Following treatment, intervention mothers were observed to be more positive, less critical, more consistent, and more competent in their parenting than were control mothers. Additionally, children of intervention parents were observed to exhibit fewer behavior problems than were control children. Differences in treatment response across ethnic groups were few, and did not exceed the number expected by chance. Parents from all groups reported high satisfaction levels following the parenting program. Results indicate that the Incredible Years Program is accepted by and effective with diverse populations.
Price, Simani M; Huhman, Marian; Potter, Lance D
The CDC's VERB campaign was designed to increase physical activity among children aged 9-13 years (tweens). As part of the strategy to surround tweens with support to be physically active, VERB developed messages for parents, the secondary target audience, to encourage them to support their tween's physical activity. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine whether parent awareness of VERB was a significant predictor of seven factors that related to parental attitudes, beliefs, and supportive behaviors for tweens' physical activity using the Youth Media Campaign Longitudinal Survey (YMCLS). Parents (N=1946) of U.S. children aged 9-13 years. Advertising directed at tweens through paid television, radio, print, Internet, and schools was the primary VERB intervention; tween advertising could have been also seen by parents. Messages directed at parents encouraging their support of tweens' physical activity were delivered in English through mainly print and radio. In-language messages for Latino and Asian audiences were delivered through print, radio, television, and at events. Parents' awareness of VERB; parents' attitudes, beliefs, and support for their tweens' physical activities. Awareness increased each year of the campaign; more than 50% of parents were aware of VERB by the third year of the campaign. Parents reported that their main source of awareness was television, the main channel used to reach tweens. Awareness of VERB was predictive of positive attitudes about physical activity for all children, belief in the importance of physical activity for their own child, and the number of days parents were physically active with their child. Parents' awareness of VERB was associated with positive attitudes, beliefs, and behavior. Parents' awareness probably resulted from a combination of messages directed to parents and tweens. To maximize audience reach, social marketers who are developing health messages should consider the potential value of
van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M
This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell
This study aims to examine the associations between parenting quality and children's screen-time. Data from the US National Institute Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, collected in 2001, were analysed. Videotaped interaction tasks of 874 mother-child dyads were rated for ten parenting qualities (i.e., agency, persistence, negativity, affection, felt security, affective mutuality, autonomy granting, stimulation of cognitive development, quality of assistance & hostility). Children (aged 10-11yrs) self-reported television viewing on weekdays and weekends. Associations between parenting quality and television viewing were examined using logistic regression. Greater felt security was associated with lower odds of watching >2h of television on weekdays among boys (p=0.05). High agency was associated with greater odds of watching >2h of television per day on weekdays among girls (p=0.02). High supportive presence and quality of child assistance were associated with lower odds of watching >2h of television on Saturdays (p=0.05) among girls. Child agency (i.e., self-direction and confidence) was associated with greater television viewing whereas parenting characterised by perceived security, support and structured yet flexible guidance was associated with lower television viewing. Parent-child interactions and communication may be an appropriate target for sedentary behaviour interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Douglas, Tracy; Redley, Bernice; Ottmann, Goetz
To describe the support needs of parents caring for a child with an intellectual disability in the first year of life. Parents of children with intellectual disabilities face significant challenges during the first year of their child's life which is an important developmental period not previously addressed in the literature. The provision of support by health professionals, particularly nurses and midwives, during this crucial period can impact on parental well-being and on the health and developmental outcomes of their children. However, parents often feel unsupported. The study used a qualitative descriptive methodology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of eleven children with an intellectual disability in Victoria, Australia, during 2014. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic data analysis. Three key areas of support need were identified to assist parents to provide effective care for their child with an intellectual disability in the first year of life: (1) emotional support as parents adjusted to their role of caring for a child with an intellectual disability; (2) information support as they embarked on a quest for knowledge; and (3) support to facilitate their connection to peer networks. The findings highlighted inconsistent provision of support for parents. This study informs health professionals about how to provide holistic, timely support to parents of children with intellectual disabilities in the first year of life. There is an urgent need to review how nurses and midwives can provide relevant support that is responsive to parents' needs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Ngaosusit, Chutima; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai
To investigate the influences of parenting styles on development of children aged three to six years. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 360 children and their parents selected by multi-stage random sampling. The data were collected from July 24th to August 31st, 2004. The Denver II test kit and the scale by Baumrind D were used to test the child development and parenting styles respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect the family and child factors. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution and Multiple logistic regression with the significant level set at p-value of Parenting styles had significant influences on child development (p-value parenting style had a 1.9 times higher chance of having delayed development compared with those with democratic parenting style. In addition, significant family and child factors for explaining child development were family type, mother's education, father's occupation, relationship within the family, nutritional status and sex. Parenting styles had a significant influence on child development. The children raised with mixed parenting style had a 1.9 timds higher chance of having delayed development compared to those whose parents used democratic parenting style. Therefore, the parents should rear their children by using the democratic parenting style that leads to the age-appropriate development child
Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming; Cottrell, Lesley; Deveaux, Lynette; Kaljee, Linda
The literature suggests that parental monitoring can best be conceptualized and measured through the domains of parental knowledge, youth disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control. Using longitudinal data on 913 grade-six Bahamian students followed over a period of three years, we examined the unique and independent roles of these domains of parental monitoring and parent–adolescent communication in relation to adolescent involvement in delinquency, substance use, and sexual ris...
Treyvaud, Karli; Doyle, Lex W; Lee, Katherine J; Roberts, Gehan; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Inder, Terrie E; Anderson, Peter J
Examining rates of difficulties in family functioning following very preterm birth has been a relatively neglected area of research. To examine family functioning, burden and parenting stress in families with very preterm compared with term born children, and investigate influences of parental mental health problems and child neurodevelopmental disability on family outcomes in families with preterm children. Participants were 184 very preterm and 71 term children and their parents. Parents completed the Family Assessment Device, Parenting Stress Index and Impact on Family questionnaires when their children were 2 years old (corrected for prematurity). Parental mental health and social risk information were also collected. Children were assessed for neurodevelopmental disability. Families with very preterm children reported poorer family functioning (p=.03) compared with families with term born children, with less evidence for differences between families with very preterm and term born children in parenting stress and family burden. Within very preterm families, parental mental health problems were associated with higher levels of parenting stress (p=.001), and parents of children with a neurodevelopmental disability were more likely to report higher family burden (p=.04). For families with very preterm children, parental mental health symptoms and child neurodevelopmental disability may identify families at risk of greater stress and burden who may benefit from additional support. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Checa, Purificación; Abundis-Gutierrez, Alicia
Children spend a lot of time with their parents who are the first agents that educate them. The parenting style implemented in the family influences other contexts outside home such as the school. There is evidence that a positive parenting style has an influence on school success. However, there are other variables related to school success, for example, temperament. The influence of parenting decreases with age as children develop abilities to self-regulate without parents' external control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of parenting style and temperament in 9-13 years old children on both academic performance and school adjustment skills. Our hypothesis was that not only parenting style is crucial to academic performance and school adjustment, but also temperament plays an important role in them. We used a Parenting Guide line questionnaire to evaluate parenting style, Early Adolescence Temperament Questionnaire-R to evaluate temperament; Health Resources Inventory to assess children's school adjustment, and academic grades, as indicator of academic performance. We were interested in testing whether or not the effect of parenting style on academic performance and school adjustment was mediated by temperament. We found that emotional and behavioral regulation mediates the relation between parenting and academic performance. These findings inform of the relevance of child's temperament on school success. Implications for education are discussed with emphasis on the importance of understanding students' temperament to promote school adjustment and good academic performance.
A comparison of the effectiveness of three parenting programmes in improving parenting skills, parent mental-well being and children's behaviour when implemented on a large scale in community settings in 18 English local authorities: the parenting early intervention pathfinder (PEIP
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that parenting programmes can improve parenting skills and thereby the behaviour of children exhibiting or at risk of developing antisocial behaviour. Given the high prevalence of childhood behaviour problems the task is to develop large scale application of effective programmes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the UK government funded implementation of the Parenting Early Intervention Pathfinder (PEIP. This involved the large scale rolling out of three programmes to parents of children 8-13 years in 18 local authorities (LAs over a 2 year period. Methods The UK government's Department for Education allocated each programme (Incredible Years, Triple P and Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities to six LAs which then developed systems to intervene using parenting groups. Implementation fidelity was supported by the training of group facilitators by staff of the appropriate parenting programme supplemented by supervision. Parents completed measures of parenting style, efficacy, satisfaction, and mental well-being, and also child behaviour. Results A total of 1121 parents completed pre- and post-course measures. There were significant improvements on all measures for each programme; effect sizes (Cohen's d ranged across the programmes from 0.57 to 0.93 for parenting style; 0.33 to 0.77 for parenting satisfaction and self-efficacy; and from 0.49 to 0.88 for parental mental well-being. Effectiveness varied between programmes: Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities was significantly less effective than both the other two programmes in improving parental efficacy, satisfaction and mental well-being. Improvements in child behaviour were found for all programmes: effect sizes for reduction in conduct problems ranged from -0.44 to -0.71 across programmes, with Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities again having significantly lower reductions than Incredible Years. Conclusions
A comparison of the effectiveness of three parenting programmes in improving parenting skills, parent mental-well being and children's behaviour when implemented on a large scale in community settings in 18 English local authorities: the parenting early intervention pathfinder (PEIP).
Lindsay, Geoff; Strand, Steve; Davis, Hilton
There is growing evidence that parenting programmes can improve parenting skills and thereby the behaviour of children exhibiting or at risk of developing antisocial behaviour. Given the high prevalence of childhood behaviour problems the task is to develop large scale application of effective programmes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the UK government funded implementation of the Parenting Early Intervention Pathfinder (PEIP). This involved the large scale rolling out of three programmes to parents of children 8-13 years in 18 local authorities (LAs) over a 2 year period. The UK government's Department for Education allocated each programme (Incredible Years, Triple P and Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities) to six LAs which then developed systems to intervene using parenting groups. Implementation fidelity was supported by the training of group facilitators by staff of the appropriate parenting programme supplemented by supervision. Parents completed measures of parenting style, efficacy, satisfaction, and mental well-being, and also child behaviour. A total of 1121 parents completed pre- and post-course measures. There were significant improvements on all measures for each programme; effect sizes (Cohen's d) ranged across the programmes from 0.57 to 0.93 for parenting style; 0.33 to 0.77 for parenting satisfaction and self-efficacy; and from 0.49 to 0.88 for parental mental well-being. Effectiveness varied between programmes: Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities was significantly less effective than both the other two programmes in improving parental efficacy, satisfaction and mental well-being. Improvements in child behaviour were found for all programmes: effect sizes for reduction in conduct problems ranged from -0.44 to -0.71 across programmes, with Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities again having significantly lower reductions than Incredible Years. Evidence-based parenting programmes can be implemented
Liu, Hong-Hua; Chen, Jin-Jin
To investigate the relationship between the eating behavior of children aged 1-3 years and parental feeding behavior and the effect of family status on feeding behavior. With stratified random sampling, 2 324 children aged 1-3 years were selected from Shanghai. Questionnaires were filled out by their parents or feeders to investigate the basic family information, parental feeding behavior, the eating behavior of children, and the basic information on children. The eating behavior of children was positively correlated with eating environment (r=0.223) and parental monitoring behavior (r=0.245) but negatively correlated with parental compulsive behavior (r=-0.264) (Pparental compulsive behavior (r=-0.569) but positively correlated with parental monitoring behavior (r=0.615) and eating environment (r=0.621). The emotional undereating of children was positively correlated with parental emotional feeding (r=0.259) and parental compulsive behavior (r=0.279). Parental monitoring behavior showed significant differences between different families (PParental feeding behavior is closely related to the eating behavior of children. Parental feeding behavior may vary across different family status.
Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming; Cottrell, Lesley; Deveaux, Lynette; Kaljee, Linda
The literature suggests that parental monitoring can best be conceptualized and measured through the domains of parental knowledge, youth disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control. Using longitudinal data on 913 grade-six Bahamian students followed over a period of three years, we examined the unique and independent roles of these domains of parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication in relation to adolescent involvement in delinquency, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. The results obtained with mixed-effects models indicate that parental knowledge, youth disclosure, and parental control are negatively associated with both delinquency and substance use. Open parent-adolescent communication was associated with decreased sexual risk behavior, whereas problematic parent-adolescent communication was associated with increased sexual risk behavior. The results obtained with path models indicate that youth disclosure is a significant longitudinal predictor of reduced adolescent delinquency and that parental control during early adolescence predicted reduced substance use in middle adolescence. The findings suggest that parental knowledge, youth disclosure and parental control differ in their impacts on substance use, delinquency and sexual risk behaviors. Problematic parent-adolescent communication is consistently associated with increases in all three types of adolescent risk behaviors. Future parental monitoring interventions should focus on enhancing parents' interpersonal communication skills and emphasize the differences in and importance of the unique components of parental monitoring. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Usher, Amelia M; Breslin, Curtis; MacEachen, Ellen; Koehoorn, Mieke; Laberge, Marie; Laberge, Luc; Ledoux, Élise; Wong, Imelda
Survey research indicates that a surprising number of 12 to 14 year olds in North America engage in some form of paid work, and work-related injuries for this age group are reported at rates similar to older teens. Parents exhibit significant involvement in many aspects of their teens' work and may influence perceptions of work safety, yet few studies have explored this phenomenon from a qualitative perspective with parents of working 12 to 14 year olds. This paper focuses on parental perceptions and understandings of work safety based on focus groups conducted with urban Canadian parents of young teens who work for pay. Parents discussed the types of job held by their 12 to 14 year olds, the perceived costs and benefits to working at this age, and their understanding of risk and supervision on the job. A grounded theory approach was used to thematically analyze the focus group transcripts. Parents in this study held favourable attitudes towards their 12 to 14 year olds' working. Parents linked pro-social moral values and skills such as responsibility, work ethic, time management, and financial literacy with their young teen's employment experience. Risks and drawbacks were generally downplayed or discounted. Perceptions of workplace safety were mitigated by themes of trust, familiarity, sense of being in control and having discretion over their 12 to 14 year olds' work situation. Further, parental supervision and monitoring fell along a continuum, from full parental responsibility for monitoring to complete trust and delegation of supervision to the workplace. The findings suggest that positive parental attitudes towards working overshadow occupational health and safety concerns. Parents may discount potential hazards based on the presence of certain mitigating factors.
Wolke, Dieter; Baumann, Nicole; Busch, Barbara; Bartmann, Peter
Parents of preterm children experience increased distress early in their children's lives. Whether the quality of life of parents of preterm children is comparable to that of parents of term children by the time their offspring reach adulthood is unknown. What precursors in their offspring's childhood predict parental quality of life? A prospective whole-population study in Germany followed very preterm (VP) (parents (VP or VLBW: N = 219; term: N = 227) from birth to adulthood. Parental quality of life was evaluated with the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment and the Satisfaction with Life questionnaire when their offspring were adults (mean age 27.3 years, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.2 to 27.3). Childhood standard assessments of VP or VLBW and term offspring included neurosensory disability, academic achievement, mental health, and parent-child and peer relationships. Overall quality of life of parents of VP or VLBW adults was found to be comparable to parents of term individuals ( P > .05). Parental quality of life was not predicted by their children being born VP or VLBW, experiencing disability, academic achievement, or the parent-child relationship in childhood but by their offspring's mental health (B = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.22) and peer relationships (B = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.16) in childhood. As a testament to resilience, parents of VP or VLBW adults had quality of life comparable to parents of term adults. Support and interventions to improve mental health and peer relationships in all children are likely to improve parents' quality of life. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Teti, Douglas M.; Shimizu, Mina; Crosby, Brian; Kim, Bo-Ram
The present longitudinal study addressed the ongoing debate regarding the benefits and risks of infant-parent cosleeping by examining associations between sleep arrangement patterns across the first year of life and infant and parent sleep, marital and family functioning, and quality of mothers' behavior with infants at bedtime. Patterns of infant…
Dunlop, Rosemary; Burns, Ailsa; Bermingham, Suzanne
Explored links between self-image, family structure (divorced or intact), parent-child relations, and gender at 3 intervals over 10 years during adolescence to early adulthood. Results suggest a consistent relationship between high parental care, low overprotective control, and better self-image scores with a stronger effect among subjects from…
Brown, Josephine V.; Bakeman, Roger; Coles, Claire D.; Platzman, Kathleen A.; Lynch, Mary Ellen
Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and parental versus nonparental care on outcome at 2 years of age were examined. The sample included 83 cocaine-exposed and 63 nonexposed children and their caregivers; 49 and 34 of the cocaine-exposed children experienced parental and nonparental care, respectively. Prenatal drug exposure was not related…
Forehand, Rex; And Others
Describes investigation examining individual, relative, and interactive influences of parental divorce and interparental conflict on adolescent functioning. Results demonstrate that multiple areas of functioning in multiple years were predicted by parental divorce, current interparental conflict, and interaction of both variables. (CRR)
Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, Washington, DC.
An April 2000 telephone survey queried a nationwide sample of 1,000 adults, including 283 parents of children ages 5 to 17 years, concerning school violence and other issues in the news. The vast majority of those surveyed said they believe it is the responsibility of parents to ensure that school shootings, such as occurred at Columbine High…
Klein, Ulrich; Manangkil, Rochelle; DeWitt, Peter
To investigate parents' ability to assess dental anxiety of their six- to 10-year-old children and to determine how parents' and children's fear assessments correlate with patient behavior during dental treatment. From a continuous convenience sample, 184 child/parent dyads were recruited to complete the Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) questionnaire prior to dental treatment. One provider treated all children, assessed their behavior, and assigned a Frankl score rating to them. Parent/child anxiety scores were compared to each other and to the behavior children presented during dental treatment. The mean dental anxiety score reported by the children was 30.30; the score reported by their parents was 2.94 points higher (P=.0016). There was poor consistency within parent/child pairs when precisely assessing dental anxiety. Parental assessments of their children's dental anxiety were a poor to fair predictor for observed behavior, whereas the children's self-assessments were fair to good. Child age was not associated with ability to assess anxiety. Parents of children with low anxiety overestimated their children's anxiety, whereas parents of children with high anxiety underestimated their children's anxiety. Parents and children showed moderate agreement assessing dental anxiety measured by the CFSS-DS. The child's score is preferable for predicting behavior.
Background Despite the large number of parenting questionnaires, considerable disagreement exists about how to best assess parenting. Most of the instruments only assess limited aspects of parenting. To overcome this shortcoming, the “Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire” (CGPQ) was systematically developed. Such a measure is frequently requested in the area of childhood overweight. Methods First, an item bank of existing parenting measures was created assessing five key parenting constructs that have been identified across multiple theoretical approaches to parenting (Nurturance, Overprotection, Coercive control, Behavioral control, and Structure). Caregivers of 5- to 13-year-olds were asked to complete the online survey in the Netherlands (N = 821), Belgium (N = 435) and the United States (N = 241). In addition, a questionnaire regarding personality characteristics (“Big Five”) of the caregiver was administered and parents were asked to report about their child’s height and weight. Factor analyses and Item-Response Modeling (IRM) techniques were used to assess the underlying parenting constructs and for item reduction. Correlation analyses were performed to assess the relations between general parenting and personality of the caregivers, adjusting for socio-economic status (SES) indicators, to establish criterion validity. Multivariate linear regressions were performed to examine the associations of SES indicators and parenting with child BMI z-scores. Additionally, we assessed whether scores on the parenting constructs and child BMI z-scores differed depending on SES indicators. Results The reduced questionnaire (62 items) revealed acceptable fit of our parenting model and acceptable IRM item fit statistics. Caregiver personality was related as hypothesized with the GCPQ parenting constructs. While correcting for SES, overprotection was positively related to child BMI. The negative relationship between structure and BMI was
Sleddens, Ester F C; O'Connor, Teresia M; Watson, Kathleen B; Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Thijs, Carel; De Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J
Despite the large number of parenting questionnaires, considerable disagreement exists about how to best assess parenting. Most of the instruments only assess limited aspects of parenting. To overcome this shortcoming, the "Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire" (CGPQ) was systematically developed. Such a measure is frequently requested in the area of childhood overweight. First, an item bank of existing parenting measures was created assessing five key parenting constructs that have been identified across multiple theoretical approaches to parenting (Nurturance, Overprotection, Coercive control, Behavioral control, and Structure). Caregivers of 5- to 13-year-olds were asked to complete the online survey in the Netherlands (N = 821), Belgium (N = 435) and the United States (N = 241). In addition, a questionnaire regarding personality characteristics ("Big Five") of the caregiver was administered and parents were asked to report about their child's height and weight. Factor analyses and Item-Response Modeling (IRM) techniques were used to assess the underlying parenting constructs and for item reduction. Correlation analyses were performed to assess the relations between general parenting and personality of the caregivers, adjusting for socio-economic status (SES) indicators, to establish criterion validity. Multivariate linear regressions were performed to examine the associations of SES indicators and parenting with child BMI z-scores. Additionally, we assessed whether scores on the parenting constructs and child BMI z-scores differed depending on SES indicators. The reduced questionnaire (62 items) revealed acceptable fit of our parenting model and acceptable IRM item fit statistics. Caregiver personality was related as hypothesized with the GCPQ parenting constructs. While correcting for SES, overprotection was positively related to child BMI. The negative relationship between structure and BMI was borderline significant. Parents with a high
Hymowitz, Norman; Pyle, Sara A; Haddock, C Keith; Schwab, Joseph V
To assess parent behavioral change and perception of resident intervention on tobacco. In a long-term study of the efficacy of training pediatric residents to address tobacco conducted at the New Jersey Medical School, sixteen pediatric training programs were assigned randomly to either special or standard training conditions. Parent surveys were administered in the fall of 2001 and 2005 in order to assess the effects of resident intervention on parent behavior, as well as parent perceptions of resident intervention. The percent of parents who smoke at sites associated with the special training condition, but not of those at sites associated with standard training, who reported that residents advised them to stop smoking, offered to help them quit, and provided quit smoking materials increased significantly from baseline to year 4. The percent of parents in the special training condition who reported quitting smoking in the past year also increased, although the increase was not statistically significant. A majority of the parents associated with each training condition reported receiving intervention for second hand smoke (SHS). For each training condition, the level of intervention to prevent exposure of infants and children to SHS exposure was similar at baseline and year 4, as was the percent of parents who reported having a smoke-free household. The results support the efficacy of the special training program and underscore the importance of preparing pediatric residents to address tobacco.
To explore associations between helicopter, little emperor, tiger mom, and concerted cultivation hyper-parenting styles with child physical activity. 724 North American parents of 7-12 year olds completed a survey (May, 2014) that assessed their engagement in the hyper-parenting styles and the frequency that their child played outdoors, walked/bicycled, and played organized sports. Z-scores were generated for each hyper-parenting style and four groups were created: low (1 SD). Outdoor play, active transportation, and organized sport did not differ across helicopter parenting groups. Children in the low little emperor group had higher (Pparenting styles were associated with lower physical activity among 7-12 year olds. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Monga, Suneeta; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Tanha, Azadeh; Owens, Mary; Young, Arlene
Childhood anxiety disorders (AD) are prevalent, debilitating disorders. The most effective treatment approach for children less than 8 years old requires further investigation. The study's primary objective was to compare 2 cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group programs. CBT was delivered to children 5 to 7 years old and their parents (child-parent) or only to parents (parent-only), whereas children attended group sessions but did not receive CBT. Using a prospective, repeated measures, longitudinal study design, 77 children (29 male, mean age = 6.8 years; SD = 0.8 year) with AD and their parents participated in either a 12-week child-parent or parent-only CBT group treatment after a 3-month no-treatment wait-time. Well-validated treatment outcome measures were completed at 5 assessment time points: initial assessment, pretreatment, immediately posttreatment, 6 months, and 12 months posttreatment. A mixed models analysis was used to assess change in AD severity and global functioning improvements from baseline within each treatment and between treatments. No significant changes were noted in child-parent or parent-only treatment during the 3-month no-treatment wait time. Both treatments saw significant improvements posttreatment and at longer-term follow-up with significant reductions in AD severity measured by clinician and parent report and increases in global functioning. Significantly greater improvements were observed in the child-parent compared to the parent-only treatment. This study suggests that both parent-only and child-parent group CBT improves AD severity in children 5 to 7 years old. Study results suggest that involvement of both children and parents in treatment is more efficacious than working with parents alone. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Verdeli, Helen; Wickramaratne, Priya; Warner, Virginia; Mancini, Anthony; Weissman, Myrna
Understanding differences in factors leading to positive outcomes in high-risk and low-risk offspring has important implications for preventive interventions. We identified variables predicting positive outcomes in a cohort of 235 offspring from 76 families in which one, both, or neither parent had major depressive disorder. Positive outcomes were termed resilient in offspring of depressed parents, and competent in offspring of non-depressed parents, and defined by two separate criteria: absence of psychiatric diagnosis and consistently high functioning at 2, 10, and 20 years follow-up. In offspring of depressed parents, easier temperament and higher self-esteem were associated with greater odds of resilient outcome defined by absence of diagnosis. Lower maternal overprotection, greater offspring self-esteem, and higher IQ were associated with greater odds of resilient outcome defined by consistently high functioning. Multivariate analysis indicated that resilient outcome defined by absence of diagnosis was best predicted by offspring self-esteem; resilient outcome defined by functioning was best predicted by maternal overprotection and self-esteem. Among offspring of non-depressed parents, greater family cohesion, easier temperament and higher self-esteem were associated with greater odds of offspring competent outcome defined by absence of diagnosis. Higher maternal affection and greater offspring self-esteem were associated with greater odds of competent outcome, defined by consistently high functioning. Multivariate analysis for each criterion indicated that competent outcome was best predicted by offspring self-esteem. As the most robust predictor of positive outcomes in offspring of depressed and non-depressed parents, self-esteem is an important target for youth preventive interventions. PMID:25374449
Spearman, Christina J.
Parental involvement in higher education has greatly increased, specifically in the last 30 years. Some parents are hyper-involved in their children's lives, and educational leaders often spend almost as much time working with parents as they do students. The body of literature on parental involvement in higher education is limited. Therefore, the…
Walczak, Monika; Esbjørn, Barbara H; Breinholst, Sonja; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise
Parental factors have been linked to childhood anxiety, hence, parental involvement in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxious children has been examined. However, findings do not consistently show added effects of parent-enhanced CBT, longitudinal investigations are scarce and long-term effects unclear. In the present study, 40 out of 54 families who, 3 years previously, completed one of two types of CBT treatment: with limited or active parental involvement, were assessed using semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Diagnostic status at 3-years follow-up was compared between groups. Changes in diagnostic status across assessment points: posttreatment, 6-month and 3-year follow-up were analyzed within groups. Diagnostic change from 6-month to 3-year follow-up was compared between groups. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed no significant difference in diagnostic status between groups at 3-year follow-up. Nonetheless, children whose parents actively participated in treatment showed significantly more remission from 6-month to 3-year follow-up than children with limited parental participation.
Heaven, Patrick C L; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Leeson, Peter
The authors examined the effect of Grade 7 parental styles on Grade 10 religious values. The authors surveyed 784 participants (382 boys, 394 girls; 8 unreported) in Grade 7. The mean age of the group at Time 1 was 12.3 years (SD = 0.5 years). Time 2 occurred 3 years later when students were in Grade 10 (372 boys, 375 girls). In addition to assessing parental styles at Time 1, we also controlled for a number of Time 1 variables thought to possibly influence Time 2 religious values, namely, self-esteem, trait hope, and students' levels of conscientiousness. Time 1 measures (except self-esteem) were significantly correlated with Time 2 religious values, but only parental authoritativeness and hope significantly predicted religious values. The authors discuss these results with reference to the nature of parental styles and hope and their impact on religious values.
Furlong, Mairead; McGilloway, Sinead; Bywater, Tracey; Hutchings, Judy; Smith, Susan M; Donnelly, Michael
Early-onset child conduct problems are common and costly. A large number of studies and some previous reviews have focused on behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting interventions, but methodological limitations are commonplace and evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these programmes has been unclear. To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for improving child conduct problems, parental mental health and parenting skills. We searched the following databases between 23 and 31 January 2011: CENTRAL (2011, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to current), EMBASE (1980 to current), CINAHL (1982 to current), PsycINFO (1872 to current), Social Science Citation Index (1956 to current), ASSIA (1987 to current), ERIC (1966 to current), Sociological Abstracts (1963 to current), Academic Search Premier (1970 to current), Econlit (1969 to current), PEDE (1980 to current), Dissertations and Theses Abstracts (1980 to present), NHS EED (searched 31 January 2011), HEED (searched 31 January 2011), DARE (searched 31 January 2011), HTA (searched 31 January 2011), mRCT (searched 29 January 2011). We searched the following parent training websites on 31 January 2011: Triple P Library, Incredible Years Library and Parent Management Training. We also searched the reference lists of studies and reviews. We included studies if: (1) they involved randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-randomised controlled trials of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting interventions for parents of children aged 3 to 12 years with conduct problems, and (2) incorporated an intervention group versus a waiting list, no treatment or standard treatment control group. We only included studies that used at least one standardised instrument to measure child conduct problems. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias in the trials and the methodological quality of
Kerruish, Nicola J; Healey, Dione M; Gray, Andrew R
Little is known about the psychosocial consequences of testing newborns for genetic susceptibility to multifactorial diseases. This study reports quantitative psychosocial evaluations of parents and children 12 years after screening for type 1 diabetes (T1D). Two parent-child cohorts participated: children at increased genetic risk of T1D and children at low genetic risk. T1D risk status was determined at birth as part of a prospective study investigating potential environmental triggers of autoimmunity. Parent measures included ratings of children's emotional, behavioural and social functioning (Child Behaviour Checklist) and parenting style (Alabama Parenting Questionnaire). Child self-concept was assessed using the self-description questionnaire (SDQ1). Statistical analyses were conducted to test for differences between the groups. Twelve years after testing there was no evidence that knowledge of a child's increased genetic risk of T1D adversely affected parental ratings of their child's emotional, behavioural or social functioning, or impacted upon parenting style. There was no adverse effect upon the child's assessment of their self-concept. This study provides important preliminary data concerning longer-term psychosocial effects of incorporating tests for genetic risk of complex disorders into NBS panels. While it is reassuring that no significant adverse effects have been detected, more data will be required to adequately inform policy. PMID:28120838
Phuphaibul, Rutja; Wittayasooporn, Jariya; Choprapawon, Chanpen
This descriptive study identifies and examines the consistency of parenting styles during the first year of their children's lives. The data were collected from interviewing 4088 parents or primary care takers of the 6 month old infants during the third wave of data collection of The Prospective Cohort of Thai Children project. The instrument used was the Infant Parenting Styles Questionnaire, developed by the researchers, which reflected parental responses to infant care in five different situations. After the answers were categorized into controlling, reasoning, overprotection, and neglectful parenting styles, the weighted kappa was used for the consistency analysis. The findings revealed that during the first 6 months of life, the overprotection style was the most common, followed by the reasoning style. The controlling and neglectful styles were very seldom used. The consistency of the parental styles in the same care givers using the kappa values showed that agreement between each of the styles was very low (-0.0419 to 0.0688). This suggests that parenting styles during the first year of life seem to occur in random patterns. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Haghighi, Mahmoud H.; Howe, Kathleen E.; Chandler, John R.
led to development of the project characterization and criticality incredibility project plan, which will close any data gaps to support the implementation of the re-planned project during the next few years, results from the characterization will support not only the criticality incredible decision(s), but also waste management and disposal along with environmental release requirements
Linden, Mark A; Cepeda, Ivan L; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E
To examine factors which predict parenting stress in a longitudinal cohort of children born very preterm, and seen at age 7 years. We recruited 100 very preterm (≤32 weeks gestational age) child-parent dyads and a control group of 50 term-born dyads born between 2001 and 2004 with follow-up at 7 years. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Child Behavior Check List, Beck Depression Inventory and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires. Child IQ was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale-IV. After controlling for maternal education, parents of preterm children (95% CI 111.1 to 121.4) scored higher (p=0.027) on the Parenting Stress Index than term-born controls (95% CI 97.8 to 113.2). Regression analyses showed that child externalising behaviour, sex and parent escape/avoidance coping style, predicted higher parenting stress in the preterm group. Parents of preterm girls expressed higher levels of stress than those of boys. Maladaptive coping strategies contribute to greater stress in parents of very preterm children. Our findings suggest that these parents need support for many years after birth of a very preterm infant. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background: With regards to importance of the role of parents in children's life, imbalance in the roles of parents can lead to serious mental, emotional and physical damages of the child. The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks in parents of children with disability (physical- mental younger than 7 years in the city of Arak in 2016. Materials and Methods: In this study, the parenting role's tasks questionnaire for 120 parents of children with disability was completed. The effect of demographic characteristics on how to perform the role of parents was studied. Results: Based on data collected and analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient for the relationship between the parents and other factors, we have found no significant relationship between role of parents with the child's age. In disabled children, between parent's role and maternal age was significant difference which its correlation coefficient was -0.18, represented the inverse association between maternal age and the parent's role with disabled children. In comparison of parent's role based on child's gender, significant difference was not seen in any of cases. The impact of the seizure on performance of parenting role's tasks implied no relationship between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks. Economic situation as well as on how to do tasks was ineffective. Conclusion: Imbalance in performance of parenting role's tasks in primary care, education, leisure and cognition promotion showed that existence of a disabled child in the family had negative impact on the parenting role's tasks in different aspects, for example further focus on one of the domains lead to ignorance of other domains. Total score confirmed the negative impact of disabled children on efficient implementation of parenting role's tasks.
Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary
Background Research on family meals in the last decade has shown a positive association between family meal frequency and adolescent healthy dietary intake. However, less is known about factors within the home environment, such as parenting style, which may be associated with family meal patterns. Objective The purpose of this study is to test cross-sectional and five-year longitudinal associations between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) and the frequency of family meals among adolescents. Study Design Data were from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study comprised of youth from diverse ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Two cohorts of adolescents (middle school, high school) completed in-class surveys in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean frequency of family meals at Time 1 and Time 2 from adolescent report of parenting style (both mother and father) at Time 1. Cross-sectional analyses included both adolescent cohorts (n = 4,746) and longitudinal analyses included only the younger cohort (n = 806) because family meal frequency was not assessed in the older cohort at Time 2. Results Cross-sectional results for adolescent girls indicated a positive association between maternal and paternal authoritative parenting style and frequency of family meals. For adolescent boys, maternal authoritative parenting style was associated with more frequent family meals. Longitudinal results indicated that authoritative parenting style predicted higher frequency of family meals five years later, but only between opposite sex parent/adolescent dyads. Conclusions Future research should identify additional factors within the home environment that are associated with family meal frequency in order to develop effective interventions that result in increased family meals for youth. Also, future research should investigate the mealtime behaviors
Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary
Research on family meals in the past decade has shown a positive association between family meal frequency and adolescent healthy dietary intake. However, less is known about factors within the home environment, such as parenting style, that may be associated with family meal patterns. The purpose of this study is to test cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful) and the frequency of family meals among adolescents. Data were from Project Eating Among Teens, a population-based study comprised of youth from diverse ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Two cohorts of adolescents (middle school and high school) completed in-class surveys in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean frequency of family meals at Time 1 and Time 2 from adolescent report of parenting style (both mother and father) at Time 1. Cross-sectional analyses included both adolescent cohorts (n=4,746) and longitudinal analyses included only the younger cohort (n=806) because family meal frequency was not assessed in the older cohort at Time 2. Cross-sectional results for adolescent girls indicated a positive association between maternal and paternal authoritative parenting style and frequency of family meals. For adolescent boys, maternal authoritative parenting style was associated with more frequent family meals. Longitudinal results indicated that authoritative parenting style predicted higher frequency of family meals 5 years later, but only between opposite sex parent/adolescent dyads. Future research should identify additional factors within the home environment that are associated with family meal frequency to develop effective interventions that result in increased family meals for youth. Also, future research should investigate the mealtime behaviors of authoritative parents and identify specific behaviors that dietetics
Alcilene Maria Gomes
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: In the child’s first year of life, motor development is critical for the other areas of child development. Beliefs and parenting practices influence the parents’ care and encouragement of their children, reflecting in their motor development; however, the Brazilian literature on this subject is scarce. Objective: to characterize the parental practices and beliefs associated with motor development in the first year of life; and to verify if practices and beliefs are interrelated. Methods: Two questionnaires were developed and applied, one about parenting practices and the other about parental beliefs on motor development in the first year life, to 27 caregivers of children between 12 and 24 months of age, who participated in an aquatic stimulation program. The agreement between practices and beliefs was verified by a graphical method, based on the transformation of ordinal scores to an interval scale using Rasch analysis. Results: The participants had higher levels of education and economic status. They reported a variety of practices focused on the motor development of their children, such as family interaction through playing, toy offers, lap time and free movement space. Conclusion: Most of the practices were based on parental beliefs, for some activities, however, beliefs and practices diverged, demonstrating the complexity inherent to the formation of parental beliefs.
Gluschkoff, Kia; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Jokela, Markus; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli; Hintsanen, Mirka
Both hostile parenting and parental psychopathology have been shown to predict depression in the offspring. However, whether and how they interact in predicting the longitudinal course of depression from adolescence to adulthood remains unclear. Participants were from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study, aged 3-18 years at baseline in 1980. We used multilevel modeling for repeated measurements to examine the associations of hostile parenting (i.e., parental intolerance and emotional distance) and parental history of psychopathology with trajectories of depressive symptoms across five study phases from 1992 to 2012. On average, depressive symptoms decreased in a curvilinear pattern with age. A relatively steep decreasing trend was also observed among offspring of parents with a history of psychopathology but low intolerance. By contrast, among the offspring of parents with a history of psychopathology and high intolerance there was a rising trend in depressive symptoms starting from young adulthood. There was no similar interaction between parental history of psychopathology, emotional distance, and age. Non-standardized, parental self-report scales were used to measure hostile parenting. The observed effects were small, and the depressive symptoms scale applied in the study may not be used for measuring clinical depression. Parental psychopathology might render individuals sensitive to the unfavorable characteristics of the caregiving environment. Intolerance towards the child can exacerbate the effects of parental psychopathology and have a long-term significance on the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms over the life-course. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Jelinek, Caitlin; Kessel, Ellen; Frost, Allison; Allmann, Anna E.S.; Klein, Daniel N.
The link between parental depressive history and parenting styles is well established, as is the association of parenting with child psychopathology. However, little research has examined whether a depressive history in one parent predicts the parenting style of the other parent. As well, relatively little research has tested transactional models of the parenting-child psychopathology relationship in the context of parents’ depressive histories. In this study, mothers and fa...
Gray, Peter H; Edwards, Dawn M; Gibbons, Kristen
To examine levels of parenting stress in mothers of preterm and term infants when the children were 2 years old; to determine the trajectory of stress over three time periods and to examine the association of maternal and neonatal factors and developmental outcomes with parenting stress. It is a prospective longitudinal study to determine parenting stress in mothers of preterm and term infants with outcomes having been previously obtained at 4 and 12 months. At 2 years, 79 preterm mothers (96 babies) and 64 term mothers (77 babies) participated. The mothers completed the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS) and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). The infants had a neurological examination and the Bayley-III scales were administered. The mean total PSI-SF at 2 years was significantly higher for the preterm group compared with the term group of mothers (p=0.007). There was a significant increase in the mean total PSI over time for the preterm mothers (pparenting stress and abnormal scores on the DASS (pparenting stress and maternal demographics, neonatal factors or Bayley-III results. Parenting stress in mothers of preterm infants continues to be high at 2 years having increased over time. Maternal mental health problems and infant behavioural issues contribute to the stress. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Zwi, Morris; Jones, Hannah; Thorgaard, Camilla; York, Ann; Dennis, Jane A
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by high levels of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity that are present before the age of seven years, seen in a range of situations, inconsistent with the child's developmental level and causing social or academic impairment. Parent training programmes are psychosocial interventions aimed at training parents in techniques to enable them to manage their children's challenging behaviour. To determine whether parent training interventions are effective in reducing ADHD symptoms and associated problems in children aged between five and eigtheen years with a diagnosis of ADHD, compared to controls with no parent training intervention. We searched the following electronic databases (for all available years until September 2010): CENTRAL (2010, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to 10 September 2010), EMBASE (1980 to 2010 Week 36), CINAHL (1937 to 13 September 2010), PsycINFO (1806 to September Week 1 2010), Dissertation Abstracts International (14 September 2010) and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (14 September 2010). We contacted experts in the field to ask for details of unpublished or ongoing research. Randomised (including quasi-randomised) studies comparing parent training with no treatment, a waiting list or treatment as usual (adjunctive or otherwise). We included studies if ADHD was the main focus of the trial and participants were over five years old and had a clinical diagnosis of ADHD or hyperkinetic disorder that was made by a specialist using the operationalised diagnostic criteria of the DSM-III/DSM-IV or ICD-10. We only included trials that reported at least one child outcome. Four authors were involved in screening abstracts and at least 2 authors looked independently at each one. We reviewed a total of 12,691 studies and assessed five as eligible for inclusion. We extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in the five included trials. Opportunities for
Murphy, Gillian; Peters, Kath; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra
Children who have lived with parental mental illness experience long-standing reduced health and social outcomes, alongside ongoing personal distress. While there has been some dialogue regarding interventions to support children who are living with parental mental illness, there remains a paucity of knowledge regarding adult children's experiences and potential needs. Given this, the aim of the present study was to establish parenting narratives of adult children who had experienced childhood parental mental illness. This included their experiences of being parented alongside their own subsequent parenting roles. Three men and 10 women, ranging from 30 to 78 years old, met individually with a researcher to tell their stories. Narratives were thematically analysed to establish themes. The findings of the study demonstrated that individuals who have lived with childhood parental mental illness dehumanized their parent with mental illness. The authors argue that all mental health services should be underpinned with a whole of family assessment and care philosophy. There is also a need for all mental health services to consider how policies and procedures might inadvertently dehumanize clients who are parents, which could contribute to familial dehumanization. This could prevent the dehumanization of parents who experience mental illness to preserve parental and child relationships. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Seymour, M; Giallo, R; Cooklin, A; Dunning, M
The antecedents and consequences of maternal post-natal anxiety have received comparatively less attention than depression despite being one of the most frequently reported mental health difficulties experienced by parents following childbirth. The aim of this study was to extend emerging literature on post-natal anxiety by investigating the prevalence of maternal anxiety symptoms, and its relationship with parenting behaviours (i.e. warmth, hostility) and experiences (i.e. parenting efficacy and satisfaction) within the first post-natal year. The psychosocial risk factors for post-natal anxiety symptoms were also explored. A community sample of 224 Australian mothers of infants (aged 0-12 months) completed a self-report questionnaire. Mothers in the current sample reported significantly more symptoms of anxiety compared with a normative sample. Approximately 18% of mothers reported mild to extremely severe symptoms of anxiety, with a high proportion experiencing co-morbid depressive symptoms. Maternal anxiety was associated with low parenting warmth, involvement, efficacy and satisfaction, and high parenting hostility. Yet, co-morbid depression and anxiety was more strongly associated with these parenting behaviours and experiences than anxiety alone. A range of psychosocial risk factors (e.g. education, sleep, relationship quality) were associated with maternal post-natal anxiety symptoms, providing opportunities for early identification and targeted early intervention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Fever is very common in children and is usually due to self-limiting viral infections. Management of fever is based on culture, community and religion of people all over the world. Parental concerns arise in part because of the belief that fever is a disease rather than a symptom or sign of illness. Misconceptions about childhood fevers heighten parents' concerns leading to inappropriate use of antipyretic drugs or overdosing may cause drug toxicity and frequent use of health care services. This study aimed to identify parental views of fever management in their children aged 0-5 yr.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study, 350 parents with children less than 5 years referred to various units of clinics covered by community oriented center of Kermanshah, completed the research questionnaire. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were determined and the data was analyzed by SPSS Software.Results: Findings showed that the first medical care was sponging (53.1%. Sponging with saltwater was common (47.7% and Over - the - counter medications were (30%. Acetaminophen was the first drug in 90% of the cases. However, many parents express high levels of anxiety so that they seek for self-medication with antibiotic 34% of the cases. Our study showed that correlation between over concern about fever management and parents who had a positive past medical history in their children with P=0.02, parents education (P=0.018 and in employed mothers (P=0.005 was statistically significant.Conclusion: Considerable efforts will be required to educate parents about fever and its management.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(2:28-33
Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.; Zimanyi, Louise, Ed.
This theme issue of Coordinators' Notebook focuses on how early childhood care and development (ECCD) programs world-wide can work with parents and caregivers to support children from birth to 3 years of age. Section 1 of the journal describes the needs of parents and families and the development of parent programs around the world. Section 2…
Peters, Jacqueline; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John
During the early years, parents have a major influence on their children's diets, food choices and development of eating habits. However, research concerning the influence of parental feeding practices on young children's diets is limited. This paper presents a systematic review of intervention studies with parents of preschool children. The aim…
Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others
This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…
Full Text Available Anxiety is a recurrent topic in personality psychology of today. According to Z. Matějček’s (1991 estimation, the issue of anxiety assumes the third place as for the number of clients in children’s counselling service (behind the issue of intellectual capabilities and ADHD in the Czech Republic. In children where it occurs to a higher degree, it can have a negative impact on their socialisation, achievements, development of self-confidence. The most influential factor in developing an anxious personality appears to be family environment. If the family fails to satisfy the child’s basic needs – feeling of security and confidence – the child’s development can be in jeopardy. The current research is concentrated on how the style of parenting in families (the so-called parenting styles is related to anxiety in children at a younger school age. The aim of the research is to find out what relationship there is between the individual components of parenting in families (positive – negative component, component of requirements – freedom and anxiety in eight-year-olds. These relationships were inquired into from mothers’ perspective by means of questionnaire surveys (Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale and Questionnaire for acquiring the parenting style in family. The data from 407 mothers of eight-year-old children have been analysed. An assumption that anxiety in children of younger school age is significantly influenced by parenting styles in family has been confirmed. The most anxious children appear to be children raised in families with a negative parental emotional involvement towards the child and at the same time with discordant control. They were also some differences in the importance of individual components of parenting by fathers and mothers for anxious orientation of the child identified.
Loveman, Emma; Al-Khudairy, Lena; Johnson, Rebecca E; Robertson, Wendy; Colquitt, Jill L; Mead, Emma L; Ells, Louisa J; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Rees, Karen
Child and adolescent overweight and obesity have increased globally, and are associated with short- and long-term health consequences. To assess the efficacy of diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions delivered to parents only for the treatment of overweight and obesity in children aged 5 to 11 years. We performed a systematic literature search of databases including the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and LILACS as well trial registers. We checked references of identified trials and systematic reviews. We applied no language restrictions. The date of the last search was March 2015 for all databases. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions delivered to parents only for treating overweight or obesity in children aged 5 to 11 years. Two review authors independently assessed trials for risk of bias and evaluated overall study quality using the GRADE instrument. Where necessary, we contacted authors for additional information. We included 20 RCTs, including 3057 participants. The number of participants ranged per trial between 15 and 645. Follow-up ranged between 24 weeks and two years. Eighteen trials were parallel RCTs and two were cluster RCTs. Twelve RCTs had two comparisons and eight RCTs had three comparisons. The interventions varied widely; the duration, content, delivery and follow-up of the interventions were heterogeneous. The comparators also differed. This review categorised the comparisons into four groups: parent-only versus parent-child, parent-only versus waiting list controls, parent-only versus minimal contact interventions and parent-only versus other parent-only interventions.Trial quality was generally low with a large proportion of trials rated as high risk of bias on individual risk of bias criteria.In trials comparing a parent-only intervention with a parent-child intervention, the body mass index (BMI) z score change showed a mean difference (MD
Emotional intelligence rating tools are not available for children, but mostly for children. So, the present study investigated the measurement and assessment of Emotional Intelligence in children with the age range of 4-8 years old by parents (mothers) through a preliminary research-made questionnaire. This study was based on an…
Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda
Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentially traumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic posttraumatic
Labrell, Florence; Ubersfeld, Guillaume
In order to study the influence on memorization of external inputs as well as children's own strategies, we examined both parental discourses in terms of distancing (Sigel, 1970) and spontaneous rehearsal by children during a memory task. Our aim was to assess the influence of each factor for children between 3 and 5 years of age. In our study of…
Meeuwesen, L.; Bensing, J.; Kaptein, M.
Objective: This study focuses on the verbal behaviour in the triad doctor-parent-child communication, containing a comparison of the interactional patterns over a period of 15 years. Have any interactional changes taken place over this period? Setting: The General Practitioner's Surgery. Material:
Tabak, Izabela; Mazur, Joanna; Granado Alcon, Maria del Carmen; Orkenyi, Agota; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Aasvee, Katrin; Moreno, Carmen
The aim of this study was to analyze changes in communication with parents about matters of concern to 11- and 13-year olds. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys conducted in Austria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, and…
Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki
This study examined immigrant parents' involvement in early years mathematics learning, focusing on learning of multiplication in in- and out-of-school settings. Ethnographic interviews and workshops were conducted in an urban city in Japan, to examine out-of-school practices of immigrant families. Drawing from sociocultural theory of learning and…
Baker, Amy J. L.; Piotrkowski, Chaya S.
The Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) is a free 2-year family oriented early childhood education and parent involvement program for parents with limited formal education to help them provide educational enrichment for their 4-year-old and 5-year-old children. As of 1996, HIPPY programs serve over 15,000 economically…
This brochure illustrates the incredible journey of a proton as he winds his way through the CERN accelerator chain and ends up inside the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC is CERN's flagship particle accelerator which can collide protons together at close to the speed of light, creating circumstances like those just seconds after the Big Bang.
This brochure illustrates the incredible journey of a proton as he winds his way through the CERN accelerator chain and ends up inside the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC is CERN's flagship particle accelerator which can collide protons together at close to the speed of light, creating circumstances like those just seconds after the Big Bang.
Okado, Yuko; Haskett, Mary E.
Background: There is limited knowledge about how positive and negative parenting practices differ across individuals and change over time in parents with substantiated physical abuse history, and how trajectories of these parenting practices affect child adjustment. Objective: The present study examined latent trajectories of positive and negative…
Parents are an important influence on children's dietary intake and eating behaviors. However, the lack of a conceptual framework and inconsistent assessment of food parenting practices limits our understanding of which food parenting practices are most influential on children. The aim of this study...
de Zoysa, Piyanjali; Newcombe, Peter A; Rajapakse, Lalini
To study the association between parental corporal punishment and psychological maladjustment in children. Potential mediating variables of this association were explored. The relationship between corporal punishment and physical abuse was also investigated. DESIGN, SETTING AND SAMPLE: The children (N = 1226, 12-year olds) were selected from government schools in the Colombo district, using a stratified random sampling technique. Self-administered instruments, adapted and validated to the Sri Lankan context were used. The experience of parental corporal punishment was shown to be moderately, but significantly, associated with psychological maladjustment in children. This association was enhanced by the child witnessing or experiencing non-parent-to-child violence (eg. domestic, community, teacher and peer violence). The extent of the child's support network, the nature of the parent-child relationship and the child's attitude to corporal punishment did not significantly alter the association between corporal punishment and psychological maladjustment. Corporal punishment was also moderately, but significantly, associated with child physical abuse. Parental corporal punishment is associated with psychological harm for children; this association is further enhanced by other forms of violence in a child's life.
Barkin, Shari; Ip, Edward; Richardson, Irma; Klinepeter, Sara; Finch, Stacia; Krcmar, Marina
Studies indicate that children use media (television, video, and computer) more than the recommended limit of 2 h/d, but little is known about parents' role in mediating their children's media use. Office-based survey. Data were collected on demographics, reported media behaviors, parental awareness about media effects, television in the bedroom, and parental concern. We developed logistic regression models to examine factors associated with the following 3 mediation approaches: restrictive, instructive, and unlimited. Pediatric Research in Office Settings practices. Parents with children aged 2 to 11 years (n = 1831) presenting for a well-child visit. Almost half of parents reported a single mediation approach, including restrictive for 23%, instructive for 11%, and unlimited for 7%, with 59% reporting the use of multiple strategies. Restrictive (odds ratio [OR], 1.16; Peffects, whereas a decreased awareness existed for those who used an unlimited approach (OR, 0.87; Pparental concern (OR, 1.77; Pchildren (OR, 1.41; Pparents permitted a television in the child's bedroom (OR, 2.13; Pparental practices and reinforce active media mediation strategies.
Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C
Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions.
ElKarmi, R; Shore, E; O'Connell, A
To evaluate baseline knowledge and behaviour of parents with regard to the oral and dental health of their young children. Following ethical approval, six urban and rural schools were identified. Questionnaires were distributed to the parents of pupils (children aged 4-6 years). The questionnaire included several questions evaluating parental knowledge and behaviour of oral and dental health issues in their children. Each question was assigned a score of either 0 or 1 being inconsistent or consistent with current paediatric guidelines giving a maximum score of 6 for knowledge and 7 for behaviour. Chi-square analysis was used to analyse associations among variables. Parental knowledge varied widely among parents and across questions; however, 70.2 % of parents had scores greater than 3 (range 0-6). The majority of parents (65.8 %) also had scores greater than 3 (range 0-7) for behaviour. Deficiencies were noted in oral hygiene practices; very few parents brushed their child's teeth and were not aware of the recommended age of the first dental visit at 1 year (Age 1 visit). Parents without free medical care demonstrated high levels of knowledge (P parents thought that the information available to them on the oral health of their young children was insufficient. Parents appeared to have limited knowledge regarding the dental and oral health of their young children. This study indicates a need for improved education for parents, particularly in toothbrushing behaviour and use of toothpaste. Education strategies tailored to the Irish population should be explored.
Johnson, Sarah E; Lawrence, David; Sawyer, Michael; Zubrick, Stephen R
To describe the extent to which parents report that 4- to 17-year-olds with symptoms meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria for mental disorders need help, the types of help needed, the extent to which this need is being met and factors associated with a need for help. During 2013-2014, a national household survey of the mental health of Australia's young people (Young Minds Matter) was conducted, involving 6310 parents (and carers) of 4- to 17-year-olds. The survey identified 12-month mental disorders using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children - Version IV ( n = 870) and asked parents about the need for four types of help - information, medication, counselling and life skills. Parents of 79% of 4- to 17-year-olds with mental disorders reported that their child needed help, and of these, only 35% had their needs fully met. The greatest need for help was for those with major depressive disorder (95%) and conduct disorder (93%). Among these, 39% of those with major depressive disorder but only 19% of those with conduct disorder had their needs fully met. Counselling was the type of help most commonly identified as being needed (68%). In multivariate models, need for counselling was higher when children had autism or an intellectual disability, in blended families, when parents were distressed, and in the most advantaged socioeconomic areas. Many children and adolescents meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria for mental disorders have a completely unmet need for help, especially those with conduct disorders. Even with mild disorders, lack of clinical assessment represents an important missed opportunity for early intervention and treatment.
Dieleman, Lisa M; De Pauw, Sarah S W; Soenens, Bart; Beyers, Wim; Prinzie, Peter
Longitudinal bidirectional effects between parents and children are usually studied in samples of typically developing children, but remain understudied in families with a child with autism spectrum disorder. This three-wave longitudinal study examined how parents and children with autism spectrum disorder influence one another, relying on parent reports of parenting behaviors and children's problem behaviors across 9 years, in a sample of 139 youngsters (M age Time 1 = 10.2 years, 83% boys). Cross-lagged analyses indicated that children's externalizing problems at Time 1 predicted negative controlling parenting 6 years later (Time 2) that in turn predicted externalizing problems 3 years later (Time 3). Negative parental control at Time 1 also increased the risk for internalizing problems at Time 2. It was surprising that externalizing problems at Time 2 also predicted positive parental involvement at Time 3. Thus, although results indicate that externalizing problems generally elicit maladaptive reactions in parents, this study also suggests that parents adjust their way of reacting to externalizing child problems as their child reaches adolescence/emerging adulthood. Implications for future research on parenting dynamics in families with a child with autism spectrum disorder are discussed.
Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) are defined by their relatively narrow spectral line features associated with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM) formed by the progenitor star. The nature of the progenitor and mass loss remains relatively unknown. Shock interaction with the dense CSM can often result in significant UV emission for several years post-explosion, thereby probing the CSM characteristics, progenitor mass loss history and, ultimately, the progenitor itself. The Type IIn SN 2005ip proves to be one of the most interesting and well-studied targets within this subclass. Compared to all other supernovae, SN 2005ip is the most luminous for its age. Now more than 11 years post-explosion, the SN has released >10^51 erg throughout its lifetime as the forward shock continues to collide with a dense CSM. Here we propose HST/STIS-MAMA UV observations of SN 2005ip to investigate the massive CSM. When accounting for the shock travel time, these observations will probe material lost from the progenitor more than 1000 years prior to the explosion. We already have a single HST/STIS spectrum of SN 2005ip from 2014, which was obtained while the shock was still within a higher mass regime. With just 5 orbits, a second spectrum will allow us to directly trace the evolution of the CSM and produce new constraints on the pre-SN mass-loss history. Coinciding with Cycle 24's UV Initiative, this program offers new insight regarding both the progenitor and explosion characteristics of the SN IIn subclass.
Nieuwesteeg, Anke M; Hartman, Esther E; Aanstoot, Henk-Jan
UNLABELLED: To test whether parenting stress and the quality of parent-child interaction were associated with glycemic control and quality of life (QoL) in young children (0-7 years) with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), we videotaped 77 families with a young child with T1DM during mealtime (including...... (like stress and parent-child interactions) are associated with important child outcomes. Therefore, it is important for health-care providers to not only focus on the child with T1DM, but also on the family system....... glucose monitoring and insulin administration). Parent-child interactions were scored with a specifically designed instrument. Questionnaires assessed general and disease-related parenting stress and (diabetes-specific (DS)) QoL. HbA(1c) (glycemic control) was extracted from the medical records. Both...
Jackson, Christine; Dickinson, Denise
To evaluate effects of a home-based antismoking socialization program on the initiation of smoking among children whose parents smoke. Three-year randomized controlled trial. Parents who were current smokers and had a child in the third grade who had not tried smoking were eligible; 873 parents-offspring pairs met these criteria, completed baseline interviews, and were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition; 776 children (89%) completed an interview 3 years after baseline and were included in the study. During 3 months, the intervention group (n = 371) received 5 printed activity guides, parenting tip sheets, child newsletters, and incentives; this group also received a booster activity guide 1 year later. The control group (n = 405) received fact sheets about smoking. Initiation of smoking (first instance of puffing on a cigarette) was reported by 12% vs 19% of children in the intervention vs control groups. Logistic regression analysis indicated that children in the control condition had twice the odds of reporting initiation of smoking as children in the intervention condition (adjusted odds ratio, 2.16; Pparent sex, parent race, parent educational achievement, child's best friends' smoking, parent smoking rate at baseline, and parent cessation status. Children in the pre-initiation phase of smoking who receive antismoking socialization from their parents are less likely to initiate smoking, even if their parents smoke.
Zeratsion, Henok; Bjertness, Cecilie B; Bjertness, Espen; Dalsklev, Madeleine; Haavet, Ole R; Halvorsen, Jon A; Lien, Lars; Claussen, Bjørgulf
Former studies have shown that children and adolescents of divorced parents have significantly poorer educational attainment than their peers from continuously married parents. Educational ambition is important because it has relationship with educational attainment. Our aim was to investigate the associations between parental divorce and educational ambitions among adolescents in the Scandinavian region. Data were used from Young-HUBRO surveys that were conducted in Oslo in the years 2000/2001 and 2004. A change in educational ambition was investigated in a prospective study (n = 1,861) by comparing 18/19 year-olds who experienced late parental divorce with adolescents of continuously married parents. 18/19 year-old adolescents who experienced parental divorce during childhood or adolescence were compared in a cross-sectional study (n = 2,391) with their peers from continuously married parents. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted to include, among others, mental health problem as a potential confounder. The prospective study showed that a change from ambition for university/college education to having undecided educational ambition was significantly higher among adolescents with experience of late parental divorce than among adolescents of continuously married parents (OR 1.8; 95 % CI 1.1-3.0). In the cross-sectional study, adolescents who experienced parental divorce during childhood or adolescence were more likely to have undecided educational ambition, compared to their peers from continuously married parents (OR 1.3; 95 % CI 1.1-1.8). In conclusion, experience of parental divorce seems to be associated with undecided educational ambition among 18/19 year-old adolescents. Mechanisms that reduce the adverse influence of parental divorce on educational ambitions need to be in place.
Food insecurity may negatively impact children’s nutritional status by affecting parenting quality. Because parents have a strong influence on their children’s eating and food choices, examining the effects of food insecurity on parenting may provide important insights into obesity prevention effort...
Ablewhite, Joanne; McDaid, Lisa; Hawkins, Adrian; Peel, Isabel; Goodenough, Trudy; Deave, Toity; Stewart, Jane; Watson, Michael; Kendrick, Denise
Childhood unintentional injury represents an important global health problem. Many unintentional injuries experienced by children aged under 5 years occur within the home and are preventable. The aim of this study was to explore the approaches used by parents of children under five in order to help prevent unintentional injuries in the home and the factors which influence their use. Understanding how parents approach risk-management in the home has important implications for injury practitioners. A multi-centre qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. A thematic approach was used to analyse the data. Sixty five parents of children aged under 5 years, from four study areas were interviewed: Bristol, Newcastle, Norwich and Nottingham. Three main injury prevention strategies used by parents were: a) Environmental such as removal of hazards, and use of safety equipment; b) parental supervision; and c) teaching, for example, teaching children about safety and use of rules and routine. Strategies were often used in combination due to their individual limitations. Parental assessment of injury risk, use of strategy and perceived effectiveness were fluid processes dependent on a child's character, developmental age and the prior experiences of both parent and child. Some parents were more proactive in their approach to home safety while others only reacted if their child demonstrated an interest in a particular object or activity perceived as being an injury risk. Parents' injury prevention practices encompass a range of strategies that are fluid in line with the child's age and stage of development; however, parents report that they still find it challenging to decide which strategy to use and when.
Sepúlveda, G; Almonte, C; Valenzuela, C; Avendaño, A
To study relationships between perceptions that 16 to 19 year old adolescents have about socialization styles and disciplinary methods used by their parents, with their view of the world, interpersonal relations, moral development, use of psychotropic substances and maladjusted behaviours, 241 adolescents--123 males--which belong to a follow up study on growth and development from northern metropolitan Santiago, Chile, were asked to answer a questionary of psychosocial development, previously elaborated by two of the authors (GS and CA). The most used socialization styles by these fathers and mothers were the negative power one (39.2% and 38.5%) and the inductive one (23.8% and 30.0%), while permissive styles occurred at much lower frequency (1.5% and 1.1%). Coincidence among parents in socialization styles was found in 47.7% and disagreement in 19.2% of cases. The inductive style and coincidence in it's use by both parents, were frequently associated to idealistic world views, autonomous and conventional moral development, satisfactory interpersonal relationships and low frequency of psychotropic consumption, and maladjusted behaviours while negative power based styles by both parents and disagreement of styles among them were rather related to realistic or negative world view, preconventional moral development, higher frequency of relational problems, psychotropic consumption and maladjusted behaviours.
Treyvaud, Karli; Doyle, Lex W; Lee, Katherine J; Ure, Alexandra; Inder, Terrie E; Hunt, Rod W; Anderson, Peter J
Parenting influences child development, but it is unclear whether early parenting behavior can influence school-age outcomes in very preterm (VPT) children, and/or if certain groups of VPT children may be more affected by early parenting behavior. These research questions were examined. Participants were 147 children born parent-child interaction was assessed, and at 7 years CA, general intelligence (IQ), language, executive function, academic skills, and social-emotional functioning were assessed. Higher levels of parent-child synchrony, and parent facilitation, sensitivity and positive affect at 2 years were associated with better child outcomes at 7 years, while higher levels of intrusiveness and negative affect were associated with poorer outcomes. Many of these relationships remained after controlling for early child cognitive development. Interactions between child medical risk (higher/lower) and parenting were limited to child reading, math, and executive functioning outcomes, with stronger relationships for lower medical risk children. The contribution of early parenting to VPT children's school-age performance is significant, with stronger effects for lower medical risk children in some outcomes. These findings support the premise that parenting strategies should be included in the NICU and early interventions programs for VPT infants. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Nieuwesteeg, Anke M; Hartman, Esther E; Aanstoot, Henk-Jan; van Bakel, Hedwig J A; Emons, Wilco H M; van Mil, Edgar; Pouwer, Frans
To test whether parenting stress and the quality of parent-child interaction were associated with glycemic control and quality of life (QoL) in young children (0-7 years) with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), we videotaped 77 families with a young child with T1DM during mealtime (including glucose monitoring and insulin administration). Parent-child interactions were scored with a specifically designed instrument. Questionnaires assessed general and disease-related parenting stress and (diabetes-specific (DS)) QoL. HbA(1c) (glycemic control) was extracted from the medical records. Both general and disease-related parenting stress were associated with a lower (DS)QoL (r ranged from -0.39 to -0.70, p child interaction, emotional involvement of parents (r = 0.23, p child (r = 0.23, p child interaction and (DS)QoL. The results support the notion that diabetes does not only affect the child with T1DM: T1DM is a family disease, as parenting factors (like stress and parent-child interactions) are associated with important child outcomes. Therefore, it is important for health-care providers to not only focus on the child with T1DM, but also on the family system.
Presnall, Ned; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H; Constantino, John N
The Incredible Years Series intervention has demonstrated efficacy for decreasing conduct disorder (CD) symptomatology in clinically affected youth in multiple randomized controlled trials. Because children with family psychiatric histories of antisocial behavior are at markedly increased risk for enduring symptoms of antisocial behavior (compared with their counterparts with a negative family history), the authors examined whether intervention effects across studies would prevail in that subgroup or would be relatively restricted to children without genetic risk. A reanalysis was conducted of 5 randomized controlled trials of Incredible Years involving 280 clinically affected children 3 to 8 years of age for whom a family psychiatric history of externalizing behavior in first- and second-degree relatives was ascertained from at least 1 parent. Incredible Years equally benefitted children with CD with and without family psychiatric histories of externalizing behavior. Family psychiatric history of externalizing behavior and parental depressive symptomatology predicted greater severity of CD symptomatology at baseline. The beneficial effects of IY are evident in children with CD, irrespective of whether their conditions are more or less attributable to inherited susceptibility to enduring antisocial syndromes. A next phase of research should address whether earlier implementation of group-based education for parents of young children at increased familial risk for antisocial behavior syndromes-before the development of disruptive patterns of behavior-would result in even more pronounced effects and thereby constitute a cost-effective, targeted, preventive intervention for CD. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huhtala, Mira; Korja, Riikka; Lehtonen, Liisa; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Rautava, Päivi
Preterm children are at risk for developing behavioral and emotional problems, as well as being less socially competent. Premature birth causes chronic distress in the parents. The aim of the paper is to discover whether parental psychological well-being is associated with the social, behavioral, and functional development of very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500g) children at 5years of age. A longitudinal prospective cohort study. A cohort of 201 VLBW infants (≤1500g, parents independently completed validated questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Parenting Stress Index and Sense of Coherence Scale). At 5years, parents and day-care providers evaluated the development of the child by completing the Five to Fifteen questionnaire. The parents of VLBW children reported significantly more problems in child development compared to the Finnish normative data. Depressive symptoms and weaker sense of coherence in mothers, but not in fathers, were associated with more problems in child development. Parenting stress, for both mothers and fathers, was associated with developmental problems in their child at 5years of age. Maternal depressive symptoms and parenting stress of both parents may be risk factors for the social, behavioral, and functional development of 5-year-old preterm children. On the other hand, stronger maternal sense of coherence may be a protective factor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
An image made of about 300 million pixels is being released by ESO, based on more than 64 hours of observations with the Wide-Field Camera on the 2.2m telescope at La Silla (Chile). The image covers an 'empty' region of the sky five times the size of the full moon, opening an exceptionally clear view towards the most distant part of our universe. It reveals objects that are 100 million times fainter than what the unaided eye can see. Easter is in many countries a time of great excitement for children who are on the big hunt for chocolate eggs, hidden all about the places. Astronomers, however, do not need to wait this special day to get such an excitement: it is indeed daily that they look for faraway objects concealed in deep images of the sky. And as with chocolate eggs, deep sky objects, such as galaxies, quasars or gravitational lenses, come in the wildest variety of colours and shapes. ESO PR Photo 11/06 ESO PR Photo 14a/06 The Deep 3 'Empty' Field The image presented here is one of such very deep image of the sky. It is the combination of 714 frames for a total exposure time of 64.5 hours obtained through four different filters (B, V, R, and I)! It consists of four adjacent Wide-Field Camera pointings (each 33x34 arcmin), covering a total area larger than one square degree. Yet, if you were to look at this large portion of the firmament with the unaided eye, you would just see... nothing. The area, named Deep 3, was indeed chosen to be a random but empty, high galactic latitude field, positioned in such a way that it can be observed from the La Silla observatory all over the year. Together with two other regions, Deep 1 and Deep 2, Deep 3 is part of the Deep Public Survey (DPS), based on ideas submitted by the ESO community and covering a total sky area of 3 square degrees. Deep 1 and Deep 2 were selected because they overlapped with regions of other scientific interest. For instance, Deep 1 was chosen to complement the deep ATESP radio survey carried out
Riaño-Galán, Isolina; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Rodríguez-Dehli, Cristina; Valvi, Damaskini; Vrijheid, Martine; Tardón, Adonina
To determine lipid profiles in early childhood and evaluate their association with weight status at 4 years of age. Additionally, we evaluated whether the risk of overweight or having an altered lipid profile was associated with parental weight status. Five hundred eighty two mothers and their 4-year-old children from 2 Spanish population-based cohorts were studied. Weight status in children at 4 years of age was classified as overweight or obese using the International Obesity Task Force criteria. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined in children and lipid ratios were calculated. A proatherogenic lipid profile was defined as having the 3 lipid ratios in the third tertile. A total of 12.9% of children were overweight and 6.4% were obese. Weight status at 4 years of age was related to maternal prepregnancy body mass index, paternal body mass index, gestational diabetes, and birth weight, but not with other sociodemographic characteristics of the mother. We found no association with gestational age, sex of the child, or breastfeeding. The risk of overweight/obesity was increased 4.17-fold if mothers were overweight/obese (95% CI 1.76-9.88) and 5.1-fold (95% CI 2.50-10.40) if both parents were overweight/obese. There were 133 children (22.8%) with a proatherogenic lipid profile. The risk of a proatherogenic lipid profile was increased 2.44-fold (95% CI 1.54-3.86) if they were overweight/obese at 4 years of age and 2-fold if the father was overweight/obese (95% CI 1.22-3.35). Four-year-old overweight/obese children have higher lipid risk profiles. Offspring of overweight/obese parents have an increased risk for obesity and a proatherogenic lipid profile. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Farr, Rachel H.; Goldberg, Abbie E.
Despite growing visibility of lesbian- and gay-parent adoption, only one qualitative study has examined birth family contact among adoptive families with lesbian and gay parents (Goldberg, Kinkler, Richardson, & Downing, 2011). We studied adoptive parents’ (34 lesbian, 32 gay, and 37 heterosexual; N = 103 families) perspectives of birth family contact across the first year post-placement. Using questionnaire and interview data, we found few differences in openness dynamics by parental sexual ...
Connell, Lauren E.; Francis, Lori A.
Objective This study sought to determine whether parenting style moderated the effects of delay of gratification on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years. Methods Longitudinal data were analyzed on 778 children drawn from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) was created from measures of mothers’ sensitivity and expectations for self-control when children were age 4 years. Self-regulation was also measured at 4 years using a well-known delay of gratification protocol. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight at each time point. Mixed modeling was used to test the interaction of parenting styles and ability to delay gratification on BMI trajectories from 4 to 15 years. Results There was a significant interaction effect of parenting and ability to delay on BMI growth from 4 to 15 years for boys. Boys who had authoritarian mothers and failed to delay gratification had a significantly steeper rate of growth in BMI from childhood through adolescence than children in any other parenting x delay group. Conclusions Authoritative and permissive parenting styles were protective against more rapid BMI gains for boys who could not delay gratification. Ability to delay gratification was protective against BMI gains for boys who had parents with authoritarian or neglectful parenting styles. PMID:23977874
Full Text Available Establishment and maintenance of the contact is a major condition of the successful advising of parents on questions of feeding. An author is divided his own experience with parents not only after the birth of child, but also in the period of pregnancy, as it is particularly important in forming of correct relation of mother to the breast-feeding. The aims of consulting physician are not only a revival of culture of breast-feeding but also providing and control of the correct feeding and care of kid on the first year of life.Key words: advising, breast-feeding, extra feed. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:106-112
Ekaterina S. Ralston
Full Text Available The literature indicates that the quality of affective relationships between youth and parents is associated with lower levels of a range of problem behaviors during childhood, early and late adolescence. While the protective effect of parental monitoring on substance use in the high school and post high school years has been demonstrated, there is a knowledge gap concerning effects of parent-child affective quality (PCAQ during the same periods. We tested a conceptual theoretical model to examine the effects of PCAQ on substance use following high school. The sample was from a RCT that assessed adolescents in rural Iowa from the seventh grade through two years after high school (N=456. We specified direct effects of PCAQ in 12th grade on drunkenness, smoking and illicit drug use during the two years immediately following high school graduation. We also specified the effects of early substance use initiation (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use reported at baseline on later use. The direct effect of PCAQ in 12th grade on substance use was significant for all substances during at least one of the two years past graduation (ypg. Results were: drunkenness 1 ypg, β=-.126, p<.05; smoking 1 ypg, β=-.119, p<.05; 2 ypg, β=-.146, p<.05; illicit drug use 2 ypg, β=-.165, p<.05. Some significant indirect effects of PCAQ at baseline, via PCAQ at 12th grade, were found. Results also indicated significant direct effects of early initiation on two of the three substances, albeit with a different pattern of effects over time for each substance by years post high school. Importantly, while early initiation remains the strongest predictor of long-term tobacco and illicit drug use, results show how PCAQ might reduce its harmful effects.
Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Micco, Jamie A; Henin, Aude; Petty, Carter; Faraone, Stephen V; Mazursky, Heather; Bruett, Lindsey; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F; Biederman, Joseph
The authors examined the specificity and course of psychiatric disorders from early childhood through adolescence in offspring of parents with confirmed panic disorder and major depressive disorder. The authors examined rates of psychiatric disorders at 10-year-follow-up (mean age, 14 years) in four groups: offspring of referred parents with panic and depression (N=137), offspring of referred parents with panic without depression (N=26), offspring of referred parents with depression without panic (N=48), and offspring of nonreferred parents with neither disorder (N=80). Follow-up assessments relied on structured interviews with the adolescents and their mothers; diagnoses were rated present if endorsed by either. Parental panic disorder, independently of parental depression, predicted lifetime rates in offspring of multiple anxiety disorders, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Parental depression independently predicted offspring bipolar, drug use, and disruptive behavior disorders. Parental panic and depression interacted to predict specific phobia and major depressive disorder. Phobias were elevated in all at-risk groups, and depression was elevated in both offspring groups of parents with depression (with or without panic disorder), with the highest rates in the offspring of parents with depression only. Parental depression independently predicted new onset of depression, parental panic disorder independently predicted new onset of social phobia, and the two interacted to predict new onset of specific phobia and generalized anxiety disorder. At-risk offspring continue to develop new disorders as they progress through adolescence. These results support the need to screen and monitor the offspring of adults presenting for treatment of panic disorder or major depressive disorder.
Angarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie
The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.
Seven, Memnun; Güvenç, Gülten; Şahin, Eda; Akyüz, Aygül
This study aimed to determine the willingness of parents to allow their sons and/or daughters aged 10-13 years to be vaccinated for human papillomavirus (HPV). This was a descriptive study conducted in an elementary school to recruit students' parents into the study. The sample consisted of 368 (69.1%) parents of children aged 10-13 years who were willing to participate in the study as a couple. Questionnaire-based data were collected from the couples. Prior information regarding HPV and vaccination and the opinions of parents of children aged 10-13 about HPV vaccination for their daughter or son. Only 26.9% of mothers and 25.0% of fathers claimed to be aware of HPV, and only 24.5% of mothers and 21.2% of fathers claimed to be aware of its vaccine. If the vaccine were available in Turkey, 21.6% of mothers and 22.4% of fathers would be willing to vaccinate their sons; although the vaccine for girls is available in Turkey, only 14.4% of mothers and 15.5% of fathers were willing to vaccinate their daughters. Few participants reported knowing about the HPV vaccine, while far fewer intended to vaccinate their daughters and sons against the infection. Both males and females should be informed about HPV and its vaccine, and initiatives to increase both awareness and the information of health care professionals should be encouraged. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jago, Russell; Solomon-Moore, Emma; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Thompson, Janice L; Lawlor, Deborah A; Sebire, Simon J
Parents could be important influences on child physical activity and parents are often encouraged to be more active with their child. This paper examined the association between parent and child physical activity and sedentary time in a UK cohort of children assessed when the children were in Year 1 (5-6 years old) and in Year 4 (8-9 years old). One thousand two hundred twenty three children and parents provided data in Year 4 and of these 685 participated in Year 1. Children and parents wore an accelerometer for five days including a weekend. Mean minutes of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) were derived. Multiple imputation was used to impute all missing data and create complete datasets. Linear regression models examined whether parent MVPA and sedentary time at Year 4 and at Year 1 predicted child MVPA and sedentary time at Year 4. Change in parent MVPA and sedentary time was used to predict change in child MVPA and sedentary time between Year 1 and Year 4. Imputed data showed that at Year 4, female parent sedentary time was associated with child sedentary time (0.13, 95% CI = 0.00 to 0.27 mins/day), with a similar association for male parents (0.15, 95% CI = -0.02 to 0.32 mins/day). Female parent and child MVPA at Year 4 were associated (0.16, 95% CI = 0.08 to 0.23 mins/day) with a smaller association for male parents (0.08, 95% CI = -0.01 to 0.17 mins/day). There was little evidence that either male or female parent MVPA at Year 1 predicted child MVPA at Year 4 with similar associations for sedentary time. There was little evidence that change in parent MVPA or sedentary time predicted change in child MVPA or sedentary time respectively. Parents who were more physically active when their child was 8-9 years old had a child who was more active, but the magnitude of association was generally small. There was little evidence that parental activity from three years earlier predicted child activity at age 8-9, or
Galende, Nuria; de Miguel, Manuel Sanchez; Arranz, Enrique
The aim of this study was to analyse the relation between parents' distancing strategies and the performance of five-year-old children (N = 70) in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. The children's performances were assessed during individual sessions held at school. The distancing strategies practiced by the parents (cognitive and linguistic scaffolding,…
Farr, Rachel H; Goldberg, Abbie E
Despite growing visibility of lesbian- and gay-parent adoption, only one qualitative study has examined birth family contact among adoptive families with lesbian and gay parents (Goldberg, Kinkler, Richardson, & Downing, 2011). We studied adoptive parents' (34 lesbian, 32 gay, and 37 heterosexual; N = 103 families) perspectives of birth family contact across the first year post-placement. Using questionnaire and interview data, we found few differences in openness dynamics by parental sexual orientation. Most reported some birth mother contact, most had legally finalized their adoption, and few described plans to withhold information from children. We discuss implications for clinical practice, policy, and research.
Shim, Soyeon; Barber, Bonnie L; Card, Noel A; Xiao, Jing Jian; Serido, Joyce
This cross-sectional study tests a conceptual financial socialization process model, specifying four-levels that connect anticipatory socialization during adolescence to young adults' current financial learning, to their financial attitudes, and to their financial behavior. A total of 2,098 first-year college students (61.9% females) participated in the survey, representing a diverse ethnic group (32.6% minority participation: Hispanic 14.9%, Asian/Asian American 9%, Black 3.4%, Native American 1.8% and other 3.5%). Structural equation modeling indicated that parents, work, and high school financial education during adolescence predicted young adults' current financial learning, attitude and behavior, with the role played by parents substantially greater than the role played by work experience and high school financial education combined. Data also supported the proposed hierarchical financial socialization four-level model, indicating that early financial socialization is related to financial learning, which in turn is related to financial attitudes and subsequently to financial behavior. The study presents a discussion of how the theories of consumer socialization and planned behavior were combined effectively to depict the financial development of young adults. Several practical implications are also provided for parents, educators and students.
Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Gripshover, Sarah J.; Romero, Carissa; Dweck, Carol S.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.
In laboratory studies, praising children’s effort encourages them to adopt incremental motivational frameworks—they believe ability is malleable, attribute success to hard work, enjoy challenges, and generate strategies for improvement. In contrast, praising children’s inherent abilities encourages them to adopt fixed-ability frameworks. Does the praise parents spontaneously give children at home show the same effects? Although parents’ early praise of inherent characteristics was not associated with children’s later fixed-ability frameworks, parents’ praise of children’s effort at 14-38 months (N=53) did predict incremental frameworks at 7-8 years, suggesting that causal mechanisms identified in experimental work may be operating in home environments. PMID:23397904
Shek, Daniel T L; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Ma, Cecilia M S
This study investigated how parental behavioral control, parental psychological control, and parent-child relational qualities predicted the initial level and rate of change in adolescent internet addiction (IA) across the junior high school years. The study also investigated the concurrent and longitudinal effects of different parenting factors on adolescent IA. Starting from the 2009/2010 academic year, 3,328 Grade 7 students ( M age = 12.59 ± 0.74 years) from 28 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong responded on a yearly basis to a questionnaire measuring multiple constructs including socio-demographic characteristics, perceived parenting characteristics, and IA. Individual growth curve (IGC) analyses showed that adolescent IA slightly decreased during junior high school years. While behavioral control of both parents was negatively related to the initial level of adolescent IA, only paternal behavioral control showed a significant positive relationship with the rate of linear change in IA, suggesting that higher paternal behavioral control predicted a slower decrease in IA. In addition, fathers' and mothers' psychological control was positively associated with the initial level of adolescent IA, but increase in maternal psychological control predicted a faster drop in IA. Finally, parent-child relational qualities negatively and positively predicted the initial level and the rate of change in IA, respectively. When all parenting factors were considered simultaneously, multiple regression analyses revealed that paternal behavioral control and psychological control as well as maternal psychological control and mother-child relational quality were significant concurrent predictors of adolescent IA at Wave 2 and Wave 3. Regarding the longitudinal predicting effects, paternal psychological control and mother-child relational quality at Wave 1 were the two most robust predictors of later adolescent IA at Wave 2 and Wave 3. The above findings underscore
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available This study investigated how parental behavioral control, parental psychological control, and parent-child relational qualities predicted the initial level and rate of change in adolescent internet addiction (IA across the junior high school years. The study also investigated the concurrent and longitudinal effects of different parenting factors on adolescent IA. Starting from the 2009/2010 academic year, 3,328 Grade 7 students (Mage = 12.59 ± 0.74 years from 28 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong responded on a yearly basis to a questionnaire measuring multiple constructs including socio-demographic characteristics, perceived parenting characteristics, and IA. Individual growth curve (IGC analyses showed that adolescent IA slightly decreased during junior high school years. While behavioral control of both parents was negatively related to the initial level of adolescent IA, only paternal behavioral control showed a significant positive relationship with the rate of linear change in IA, suggesting that higher paternal behavioral control predicted a slower decrease in IA. In addition, fathers' and mothers' psychological control was positively associated with the initial level of adolescent IA, but increase in maternal psychological control predicted a faster drop in IA. Finally, parent-child relational qualities negatively and positively predicted the initial level and the rate of change in IA, respectively. When all parenting factors were considered simultaneously, multiple regression analyses revealed that paternal behavioral control and psychological control as well as maternal psychological control and mother-child relational quality were significant concurrent predictors of adolescent IA at Wave 2 and Wave 3. Regarding the longitudinal predicting effects, paternal psychological control and mother-child relational quality at Wave 1 were the two most robust predictors of later adolescent IA at Wave 2 and Wave 3. The above
Christiansen, Dorte M; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda
Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentially traumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Participants filled out a questionnaire package including measures of PTSD (the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), coping (the Coping Style Questionnaire), perceived social support (the Crisis Support Scale) and attachment (the Revised Adult Attachment Scale). Associations between variables were examined through the use of analyses of variance, correlation analyses and a regression analysis. We found an estimated PTSD prevalence of 12.3%. Type of loss (pre-, peri- or postnatal) did not have any effect on PTSD severity, but lower gestational age was associated with more symptoms. Time since the loss, female sex, attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, emotion-focused coping, rational coping, feeling let down and social support satisfaction accounted for 42% of the variance in PTSD severity. The study highlights the long-term impact of infant loss and points to attachment, coping and social support as important contributors to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress symptoms. © 2013.
Berntsson, Leeni T; Ringsberg, Karin C
Nordic children's health has declined. Studies show that parents' engagement in children's leisure-time activities might provide beneficial health outcomes for children. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between Swedish parents' activities together with their children, the parents' experiences of time pressure and their children's health. Data of 1461 Swedish children aged 2-17 years old that were collected in the NordChild study of 2011 were used. We analyzed physical health, diseases and disabilities, psychosomatic health and well-being, and the parents' experiences of time pressure; and we calculated the associations between parental activity together with the child and health indicators. Activities that were significantly and positively associated with children's health at ages 2-17 years of age were: playing and playing games; going to the cinema, theatre, and sporting events; reading books; playing musical instruments/singing; sports activities; watching TV/video/DVD. Playing video games or computer games, driving child to activities and going for walks were significantly and positively associated at age groups 7-12 years and 13-17 years. Activities that were negatively associated with health were: surfing/blogging on the Internet, going shopping and doing homework. Parents who were not experiencing time pressures had a higher level of activity together with their children. The parental experience of time pressure was associated with work time, with less homework activity and more symptoms in children. The family and home are important settings for the development of children's health we found eight parental activities together with their children that promoted the children's health parents' working time and their time pressure experiences affected their activities with their children there is a need for an increased focus on parental activities that are positively associated with children's health. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of
Furlong, M; McGilloway, S
Child conduct problems are a major public health priority. Group-based parenting programmes are popular in addressing such problems, but evidence for their longer-term effectiveness is limited. Moreover, process evaluations are rare and little is understood about the key facilitative and inhibitive factors associated with maintaining outcomes in the longer term. This study involved the use of qualitative methods as part of a larger process evaluation to explore the longer-term experiences of parents who participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the Incredible Years Parenting Programme (IYPP) in disadvantaged settings in Ireland. A series of one-to-one in-depth interviews was conducted with parents at 12- (n = 20) and 18-month follow-up (n = 8) and analysed using constructivist grounded theory. Most parents reported positive child behaviour despite several challenges, but a substantial subset reported periods of relapse in positive outcomes. A relapse in child behaviour was linked to relinquishing skills in stressful times, the negative influence of an unsupportive environment, and the perceived ineffectiveness of parenting skills. Resilience in implementing skills despite adversity, and the utilization of available social supports, were associated with the maintenance of positive outcomes. Strengthening resilience and social support capacities may be important factors in maintaining positive longer-term outcomes. Those who design, research and deliver parenting programmes might consider the possibility of including a relapse-prevention module and/or the provision of post-intervention supports for more vulnerable families. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mei, Hong; Johansson, Elin; Hagströmer, Maria; Xiong, Yuelin; Zhang, Lanlan; Zhang, Jianduan; Marcus, Claude
Physical activity (PA) is associated with health benefits, already in childhood. However, little is known about actual levels, patterns and gender differences in PA level in very young children. This study examines Chinese one-year-old children and their parents' PA levels and patterns, and assesses the correlations between children's PA level and gender, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS), parental BMI and parental PA level. Data from 123 families participating in the Early STOPP China study were used. Families were recruited based on parental BMI and were classified as either high-risk or low-risk of obesity. Parents and children wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ to assess the average PA levels. PA levels and hourly patterns during weekdays and weekends were examined as were correlations with gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA levels. There were no significant differences in children's averaged PA between risk groups, genders, or between weekdays and weekends. Children's peak average activity level was at 7 pm and they were least active at 3 pm (pgender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA levels. Maternal PA was found positively associated with child PA (pgender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA. Larger scale studies with more contextual information are needed to improve the understanding of our findings.
Säfsten, Eleonor; Nyberg, Gisela; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer; Norman, Åsa; Patterson, Emma
Little is known about how parental migration status may be associated with children's diets. We examined whether the intake of selected foods by six-year-old children differed according to their parents' migration status, taking education level into account. This study used pooled baseline data from two clustered randomised controlled trials of A Healthy School Start, conducted in municipalities of low-to-medium socio-economic status in Stockholm County, Sweden. The children's intake of selected healthy and unhealthy foods was reported by parents using the Eating and Physical Activity Questionnaire, and the children's height and weight were measured. Parental education and country of birth were self-reported. Data were available for 520 children. Low parental education was associated with significantly higher intakes of fruit, higher intakes of several unhealthy foods and lower intakes of vegetables. Children of parents born outside the Nordic region had higher intakes of all unhealthy foods as well as fruit and vegetables, even when adjusted for education. A negative association between high education and overweight was only seen in children of Nordic-born parents. Parental migration status was a strong predictor of the intake of selected foods and was a stronger predictor than parental education. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Background Evidence based parenting programmes can improve parenting skills and the behaviour of children exhibiting, or at risk of developing, antisocial behaviour. In order to develop a public policy for delivering these programmes it is necessary not only to demonstrate their efficacy through rigorous trials but also to determine that they can be rolled out on a large scale. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the UK government funded national implementation of its Parenting Early Intervention Programme, a national roll-out of parenting programmes for parents of children 8–13 years in all 152 local authorities (LAs) across England. Building upon our study of the Pathfinder (2006–08) implemented in 18 LAs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first comparative study of a national roll-out of parenting programmes and the first study of parents of children 8–13 years. Methods The UK government funded English LAs to implement one or more of five evidence based programmes (later increased to eight): Triple P, Incredible Years, Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities, Families and Schools Together (FAST), and the Strengthening Families Programme (10–14). Parents completed measures of parenting style (laxness and over-reactivity), and mental well-being, and also child behaviour at three time points: pre- and post-course and again one year later. Results 6143 parents from 43 LAs were included in the study of whom 3325 provided post-test data and 1035 parents provided data at one-year follow up. There were significant improvements for each programme, with effect sizes (Cohen’s d) for the combined sample of 0.72 parenting laxness, 0.85 parenting over-reactivity, 0.79 parent mental well-being, and 0.45 for child conduct problems. These improvements were largely maintained one year later. All four programmes for which we had sufficient data for comparison were effective. There were generally larger effects on both parent and child measures
Lindsay, Geoff; Strand, Steve
Evidence based parenting programmes can improve parenting skills and the behaviour of children exhibiting, or at risk of developing, antisocial behaviour. In order to develop a public policy for delivering these programmes it is necessary not only to demonstrate their efficacy through rigorous trials but also to determine that they can be rolled out on a large scale. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the UK government funded national implementation of its Parenting Early Intervention Programme, a national roll-out of parenting programmes for parents of children 8-13 years in all 152 local authorities (LAs) across England. Building upon our study of the Pathfinder (2006-08) implemented in 18 LAs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first comparative study of a national roll-out of parenting programmes and the first study of parents of children 8-13 years. The UK government funded English LAs to implement one or more of five evidence based programmes (later increased to eight): Triple P, Incredible Years, Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities, Families and Schools Together (FAST), and the Strengthening Families Programme (10-14). Parents completed measures of parenting style (laxness and over-reactivity), and mental well-being, and also child behaviour at three time points: pre- and post-course and again one year later. 6143 parents from 43 LAs were included in the study of whom 3325 provided post-test data and 1035 parents provided data at one-year follow up. There were significant improvements for each programme, with effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the combined sample of 0.72 parenting laxness, 0.85 parenting over-reactivity, 0.79 parent mental well-being, and 0.45 for child conduct problems. These improvements were largely maintained one year later. All four programmes for which we had sufficient data for comparison were effective. There were generally larger effects on both parent and child measures for Triple P, but not all between
Checa, Purificaci?n; Abundis-Gutierrez, Alicia
Children spend a lot of time with their parents who are the first agents that educate them. The parenting style implemented in the family influences other contexts outside home such as the school. There is evidence that a positive parenting style has an influence on school success. However, there are other variables related to school success, for example, temperament. The influence of parenting decreases with age as children develop abilities to self-regulate without parents' external control...
Murray, Desiree W.; Rabiner, David L.; Carrig, Madeline M.
Professional development for teachers has historically been fairly didactic in nature (Garet et al., 2001; Rose & Church, 1998), which is believed to limit effectiveness and translation to teacher practice change (Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005). One well-established program with a more active, collaborative training…
Hutchings, Judy; Williams, Margiad Elen
Students who demonstrate conduct problems pose ongoing challenges for teachers. Therefore, prevention programs that all families and teachers of young children can use to promote social and emotional learning, emotion regulation, and problem solving are of great interest to researchers and practitioners alike. This article describes the Incredible…
Jago, R; Zahra, J; Edwards, M J; Kesten, J M; Solomon-Moore, E; Thompson, J L; Sebire, S J
The present study used qualitative methods to: (1) examine the strategies that were used by parents of children aged 5-6 years to manage screen viewing; (2) identify key factors that affect the implementation of the strategies and (3) develop suggestions for future intervention content. Telephone interviews were conducted with parents of children aged 5-6 years participating in a larger study. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using an inductive and deductive content analysis. Coding and theme generation was iterative and refined throughout. Parents were recruited through 57 primary schools located in the greater Bristol area (UK). 53 parents of children aged 5-6 years. Parents reported that for many children, screen viewing was a highly desirable behaviour that was difficult to manage, and that parents used the provision of screen viewing as a tool for reward and/or punishment. Parents managed screen viewing by setting limits in relation to daily events such as meals, before and after school, and bedtime. Screen-viewing rules were often altered depending on parental preferences and tasks. Inconsistent messaging within and between parents represented a source of conflict at times. Potential strategies to facilitate reducing screen viewing were identified, including setting screen-viewing limits in relation to specific events, collaborative rule setting, monitoring that involves mothers, fathers and the child, developing a family-specific set of alternative activities to screen viewing and developing a child's ability to self-monitor their own screen viewing. Managing screen viewing is a challenge for many parents and can often cause tension in the home. The data presented in this paper provide key suggestions of new approaches that could be incorporated into behaviour change programmes to reduce child screen viewing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Pärssinen, Olavi; Kauppinen, Markku
To study the connection between parental myopia and their children's myopia from school age to adulthood. Two hundred and forty myopic schoolchildren (119 boys, 121 girls, mean age 10.9 years) with no previous spectacles for myopia were recruited to a 3-year treatment trial with different use of spectacles. Follow-ups were performed at mean ages of 13.9, 23.7 and 33.2 years for 238, 176 and 170 subjects respectively. Subjective refraction was calibrated to the spherical equivalent at corneal level (SEcor). Corneal refractive power (CR) and axial length (AL) were measured. Parental myopia was assessed with a questionnaire and the children assigned accordingly to one of three hereditary groups: both parents myopic H++, one myopic parent = H+- and no myopic parents = H-. At baseline, no significant gender differences in age or SEcor were found in the different hereditary groups. Among girls, CR was significantly higher in hereditary group H++ (45.20 ± 1.08 D) than in group H+- (44.19 ± 1.28 D; p = 0.006) or H- (43.84 ± 1.18 D; p parents were myopic and -3.19 ± 1.36 D if neither parent was myopic (p = 0.035), but no significant difference was observed in AL. The main difference between the hereditary groups was higher CR and myopic progression among females with myopic parents than non-myopic parents, but with no significant difference in AL with respect to parental myopia at study end. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Williams, Kathryn E.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.
Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined…
Kelly, Adrian B; Chan, Gary C K; Weier, Megan; Quinn, Catherine; Gullo, Matthew J; Connor, Jason P; Hall, Wayne D
Most adolescents begin alcohol consumption during adolescence, heavy alcohol use by adolescents is common, and alcohol-related harm amongst adolescents is a major public health burden. Parents are a common source of alcohol amongst adolescents, but little is known about how parental supply of alcohol has changed over recent years. This study examines national trends in parental supply of alcohol to adolescent children in Australia since 1998. Six Australian National Drug Strategy Household Surveys (1998-2013) yielded rates of parental supply of current and first ever alcohol consumed. Lifetime and current alcohol use were also estimated. The surveys were conducted for households across all Australian states and territories. Surveyed adolescents were aged 14-17 years (N = 7357, 47.6 % male). Measures included the reported source of currently consumed alcohol and first ever alcoholic beverage (parents/friends/others), lifetime alcohol use, number of standard alcohol units consumed on drinking days, and frequency of alcohol use. Corrected Pearson chi-squared tests were used to compare survey years. There was a significant drop in parental supply of current alcohol use from 21.3 % in 2004 to 11.79 % in 2013 (p supply coincided with legislative changes on parental supply of alcohol to adolescents, but causality cannot be established because of the variation in the timing and reach of parental supply legislation, and small samples in some states. There were downward trends in adolescent experimentation, quantity and frequency of alcohol use across years, with the largest drop in alcohol use in 2010 and 2013. In Australia, there has been a substantial reduction in parental supply of alcohol to adolescents from 2010, and this factor may partially account for reductions in adolescent alcohol use.
Wigen, Tove I; Skaret, Erik; Wang, Nina J
The aim of this study was to explore associations between avoidance behaviour and dental anxiety in both parents and children and caries experience in 5-year-old children. It was hypothesised that parents' dental avoidance behaviour and dental anxiety were related to dental caries in 5-year-old children. Data were collected from dental records and by clinical and radiographic examination of 523 children. The parents completed a questionnaire regarding education, national background, dental anxiety, dental attendance, and behaviour management problems. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was conducted. Children having one or more missed dental appointments (OR = 4.7), child behaviour management problems (OR = 3.3), child dental anxiety (OR = 3.1), and parents avoiding dental care (OR = 2.1) were bivariately associated with caries experience at the age of 5 years. In multivariate logistic regression, having one or more missed dental appointments (OR = 4.0) and child behaviour management problems (OR = 2.4) were indicators for dental caries in 5-year-old children, when controlling for parents education and national origin. Parents that avoid bringing their child to scheduled dental appointments and previous experiences of behaviour management problems for the child indicated risk for dental caries in 5-year-old children.
Harris, Michelle A; Donnellan, M B; Guo, Jen; McAdams, Dan P; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Trzesniewski, Kali H
The current study explored parental processes associated with children's global self-esteem development. Eighty 5- to 13-year-olds and one of their parents provided qualitative and quantitative data through questionnaires, open-ended questions, and a laboratory-based reminiscing task. Parents who included more explanations of emotions when writing about the lowest points in their lives were more likely to discuss explanations of emotions experienced in negative past events with their child, which was associated with child attachment security. Attachment was associated with concurrent self-esteem, which predicted relative increases in self-esteem 16 months later, on average. Finally, parent support also predicted residual increases in self-esteem. Findings extend prior research by including younger ages and uncovering a process by which two theoretically relevant parenting behaviors impact self-esteem development. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Mantymaa, Mirjami; Puura, Kaija; Luoma, Ilona; Latva, Reija; Salmelin, Raili K.; Tamminen, Tuula
This study examined child and parental factors in infancy and toddlerhood predicting subclinical or clinical levels of internalizing and externalizing problems at 5 years of age. Ninety-six children and their families participated. They were assessed when the children were 4-10 weeks old (T1), 2 years (T2) and 5 years old (T3). Child risks…
Wills, Wendy J; Lawton, Julia
As most young teenagers grow up in families, parents might be well situated to facilitate and support their weight management and thereby prevent or manage obesity prior to adulthood. This paper explores parents' perceptions of, and views about, their teenage children's weight and the factors that influence parents' weight management strategies. We conducted two qualitative studies in Scotland, UK, involving in-depth interviews with the parents of overweight/obese and 'normal' weight 13-15 year olds (n = 69). Parents' concerns about their own weight provided useful context for understanding their attitudes or actions with regards to their teenage child. Some parents described their teenager's weight as being of concern to them, although puberty often introduced confusion about a child's weight status. Genetic explanations were very often put forward as a way of making sense of teenage weight or body size. Frustration about advising teenagers about weight management was expressed, and some parents worried about giving their growing child a 'problem' if they directly raised concerns about weight with them. Parents' views about their own weight as well as social and moral norms about labelling a teenager as overweight or as needing help with their weight could usefully inform patient-centred service development. Parent/teenage partnerships and supporting parents to create a healthy home in which teenagers can make healthier choices are suggestions for intervention development. The study highlights the importance of taking parents' perceptions into account when developing family-based interventions to address teenage overweight and obesity. © 2014 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Siomos, Konstantinos; Floros, Georgios; Fisoun, Virginia; Evaggelia, Dafouli; Farkonas, Nikiforos; Sergentani, Elena; Lamprou, Maria; Geroukalis, Dimitrios
We present results from a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-18 of the island of Kos and their parents, on Internet abuse, parental bonding and parental online security practices. We also compared the level of over involvement with personal computers of the adolescents to the respective estimates of their parents. Our results indicate that Internet addiction is increased in this population where no preventive attempts were made to combat the phenomenon from the initial survey, 2 years ago. This increase is parallel to an increase in Internet availability. The best predictor variables for Internet and computer addiction were parental bonding variables and not parental security practices. Parents tend to underestimate the level of computer involvement when compared to their own children estimates. Parental safety measures on Internet browsing have only a small preventive role and cannot protect adolescents from Internet addiction. The three online activities most associated with Internet addiction were watching online pornography, online gambling and online gaming. © Springer-Verlag 2012
Belsky, J; Domitrovich, C; Crnic, K
To examine individual differences in pride and shame reactions of 3-year-olds and their temperamental and parenting antecedents, 110 boys were studied at ages 36 and 37 months in a "rigged" achievement situation. After being trained to complete explicitly stipulated "easy" and "difficult" tasks before a buzzer sounded, success and failure were manipulated by artificially "rigging" how much time the child had to work on these tasks. Children's facial, verbal, and postural reactions to success and failure were composited to create pride scores following success and shame scores following failure. As expected, pride reactions were greater following success on the difficult than on the easy task, and shame reactions were greater following failure on the easy than on the difficult task. Early temperament (at 12/13 months) proved unrelated to pride and shame. With respect to parenting, measurements composited across 15, 21, 27, and 33 months showed that mothers and fathers who were more positive in their parenting had children who displayed less pride, and that children whose parents (especially mothers) were more negative in their parenting evinced less shame. These counterintuitive findings are discussed in terms of differences between assessments of parenting obtained in this investigation of parenting antecedents and those obtained in other studies of parental responses in the achievement situation itself. Directions for future research are outlined.
McGilloway, Sinead; NiMhaille, Grainne; Bywater, Tracey; Leckey, Yvonne; Kelly, Paul; Furlong, Mairead; Comiskey, Catherine; O'Neill, Donal; Donnelly, Michael
The effectiveness of the Incredible Years Basic parent programme (IYBP) in reducing child conduct problems and improving parent competencies and mental health was examined in a 12-month follow-up. Pre- to post-intervention service use and related costs were also analysed. A total of 103 families and their children (aged 32-88 months), who previously participated in a randomised controlled trial of the IYBP, took part in a 12-month follow-up assessment. Child and parent behaviour and well-being were measured using psychometric and observational measures. An intention-to-treat analysis was carried out using a one-way repeated measures ANOVA. Pairwise comparisons were subsequently conducted to determine whether treatment outcomes were sustained 1 year post-baseline assessment. Results indicate that post-intervention improvements in child conduct problems, parenting behaviour and parental mental health were maintained. Service use and associated costs continued to decline. The results indicate that parent-focused interventions, implemented in the early years, can result in improvements in child and parent behaviour and well-being 12 months later. A reduced reliance on formal services is also indicated.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. METHODS: This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067 collected for the 'Be active, eat right' study. RESULTS: Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room.
Veldhuis, Lydian; van Grieken, Amy; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A; Raat, Hein
The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067) collected for the 'Be active, eat right' study. Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room.
Luyckx, Koen; Tildesley, Elizabeth A.; Soenens, Bart; Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Peterson, Missy; Duriez, Bart
This study investigated how parenting accounted for inter-individual differences in developmental trajectories of different child behaviors across childhood and adolescence. In a cohort sequential community sample of 1,049 children, latent class growth analysis was applied to three parent-reported dimensions (monitoring, positive parenting, inconsistent discipline) across 12 annual assessments (ages 6–18). Four longitudinal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, uninvolved) were differentiated on the basis of levels and rates of change in the constituent parenting dimensions. Multi-group analyses demonstrated that these parenting styles were differentially related to changes in parent- and child-reported measures of children’s alcohol and cigarette use, antisocial behavior, and internalizing symptoms, with the authoritative parenting class being related to the most optimal long-term development. Practical implications and future research suggestions are discussed. PMID:21534057
Luyckx, Koen; Tildesley, Elizabeth A; Soenens, Bart; Andrews, Judy A; Hampson, Sarah E; Peterson, Missy; Duriez, Bart
This study investigated how parenting accounted for interindividual differences in developmental trajectories of different child behaviors across childhood and adolescence. In a cohort sequential community sample of 1,049 children, latent class growth analysis was applied to three parent-reported dimensions (monitoring, positive parenting, inconsistent discipline) across 12 annual assessments (ages 6-18). Four longitudinal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, uninvolved) were differentiated on the basis of levels and rates of change in the constituent parenting dimensions. Multigroup analyses demonstrated that these parenting styles were differentially related to changes in parent- and child-reported measures of children's alcohol and cigarette use, antisocial behavior, and internalizing symptoms, with the authoritative parenting class being related to the most optimal long-term development.
A 2-year longitudinal study was conducted to test 3 causal models about adolescent autonomy, filial piety, beliefs about parental authority, and obedience in terms of personal, prudential, and multifaceted issues. Four hundred and thirty-six students from 10 junior and senior high schools in Taiwan (boys, n = 223; senior high school, n = 211) participated in the study. Hypothesis I predicted that autonomy (individuating autonomy vs. relating autonomy) would positively correlate with beliefs about authority legitimacy and obligation to obey, but was not supported. Hypothesis 2 predicted that filial piety (authoritarian piety vs. reciprocal piety) would positively associate with authority beliefs, and was partially supported. Authoritarian piety showed the positive relation with authority beliefs. Hypothesis 3 predicted that beliefs about authority legitimacy and obligation to obey would positively associate with obedience, and was supported. Hypothesis 4 predicted that age might moderate the structure models across domains, but the results indicated that age did not moderate the structural model in the prudential and multifaceted domains. The overall findings of this study reveal that adolescent beliefs about authority serve as a mediator between authoritarian piety and obedience, suggesting that traditional piety still has an influence on parent-child interaction in today's society.
Parental abuse is supposedly objectionable because it is the instigation of the child's delinquency. This instigation is likely to stem from the impairment of parental control arising from parental abuse, with respect to social control theory. For the substantiation of this likelihood, the present study surveyed 229 users of youth social work…
Luyckx, Koen; Tildesley, Elizabeth A.; Soenens, Bart; Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Peterson, Missy; Duriez, Bart
This study investigated how parenting accounted for interindividual differences in developmental trajectories of different child behaviors across childhood and adolescence. In a cohort sequential community sample of 1,049 children, latent class growth analysis was applied to three parent-reported dimensions (monitoring, positive parenting,…
Oddi, Kate B.; Murdock, Kyle W.; Vadnais, Sarah; Bridgett, David J.; Gartstein, Maria A.
Although prominent models emphasize that maternal, child, and situational variables are associated with parenting stress, previous research has often neglected to examine associations between maternal and infant temperament characteristics and stress experienced in the parenting role. Additionally, while predictors of global parenting stress have…
Moriarty, Elizabeth A.
Anecdotally, college administrators report that parents are increasingly more involved in every aspect of their students' college experience. Several factors are believed to contribute to this perceived increase in parental involvement. Advances in technology make it easier for parents and students to stay in contact (Henning, 2007). The…
Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J.
The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the middle school years. A longitudinal sample (580 boys, 698 girls) was assessed in Grades 6 and 8. Peer acceptance, peer rejection, and their interact...
Samruddhi Karnik; Neha Sahasrabudhe
Adolescence is a period of great turbulence characterized by cognitive, emotional, social and physical changes. Family environment and role of peers is extremely crucial in the development of an adolescent. Presenting here is a brief case of 15 year old boy who was referred for counseling by his parents for lack of concentration in studies. In the counseling sessions with the boy and his parents it was found that the boy was psychologically disturbed as he was teased at school by ...
Full Text Available Physical activity (PA is associated with health benefits, already in childhood. However, little is known about actual levels, patterns and gender differences in PA level in very young children. This study examines Chinese one-year-old children and their parents' PA levels and patterns, and assesses the correlations between children's PA level and gender, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA level.Data from 123 families participating in the Early STOPP China study were used. Families were recruited based on parental BMI and were classified as either high-risk or low-risk of obesity. Parents and children wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ to assess the average PA levels. PA levels and hourly patterns during weekdays and weekends were examined as were correlations with gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA levels.There were no significant differences in children's averaged PA between risk groups, genders, or between weekdays and weekends. Children's peak average activity level was at 7 pm and they were least active at 3 pm (p<0.001. Both mothers and fathers demonstrated a similar PA pattern as their children, although paternal PA level was consistently lower than that of mothers and children. No significant association was found between children's PA and their gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA levels. Maternal PA was found positively associated with child PA (p<0.05.PA in one-year-old Chinese children vary over the day but weekdays and weekends are similar. At this age, children's PA is not related to gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA. Larger scale studies with more contextual information are needed to improve the understanding of our findings.
Mannings, Carol; Kalynych, Colleen; Joseph, Madeline Matar; Smotherman, Carmen; Kraemer, Dale F
Sports-related concussion among professional, collegiate, and, more recently, high school athletes has received much attention from the media and medical community. To our knowledge, there is a paucity of research regarding parental knowledge of sports-related concussion. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental knowledge of concussion in young children who participated in recreational tackle football. Parents of children aged 5 years to 15 years attending recreational tackle football games were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports Quiz. The parents were asked about their level of agreement regarding statements that represent definition, symptoms, and treatment of concussion. A total of 310 of 369 parents (84% response rate) voluntarily completed the questionnaire, with 94% believing that their child had never had a concussion. However, only 13% (n = 41) could correctly identify all seven statements. Most did not identify that a concussion is considered a mild traumatic brain injury and can be achieved from something other than a direct blow to the head. Race, sex, and zip code had no significant association with correctly answering statements. Education (r = 0.24, p child played (r = 0.11, p = 0.049) had a small association. Fifty-three percent and 58% of the parents reported that someone had discussed the definition and the symptoms of concussion with them, respectively, with only about half reporting that information came from their health care provider. No parent was able to classify all symptoms listed as correctly related or not related to concussion. However, identification of correct concussion statements correlated with identification of correct symptoms (r = 0.25, p < 0.001). While most parents of young athletes demonstrated some knowledge regarding concussion, important misconceptions remain regarding the definition, symptoms, and treatment of
Reddy, Arathi; Graves, Crista; Augustyn, Marilyn
increasingly challenging because he does not like the sensation of soap and the water temperature must be "just right." You refer the child to a Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrician for evaluation and at 28 months he is seen. During his testing visit, he had decreased eye contact and followed his own agenda but improved significantly as testing progressed. As he got more comfortable, he began making good eye contact, social referenced, and exhibited joint attention with his parents and the examiner. He did not meet criteria for an autism spectrum disorder or specifically pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). He was given a diagnosis of mixed receptive and expressive language delay and disruptive behavior disorder with sensory processing problems.The parents come to you a month after their evaluation visit asking you to give him a "listed diagnosis of PDD-NOS" that could be removed when he turns 3 years so that he may qualify for increased hours of services-up to 15 hours per week-as well as applied behavioral analysis therapy. A behavioral therapist through early intervention has told the family that he would benefit from this increased intervention, specifically applied behavioral analysis but the only way he can receive it is with a "medical diagnosis" on the autism spectrum. What do you do next?
Nowicka, Paulina; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Faith, Myles S
The Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) assesses parental feeding attitudes, beliefs and practices concerned with child feeding and obesity proneness. The questionnaire has been developed in the U.S., and validation studies in other countries are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the CFQ in Sweden and the associations between parenting practices and children's weight status. Based on records from the Swedish population register, all mothers of 4-year-olds (n = 3007) from the third largest city in Sweden, Malmö, were contacted by mail. Those who returned the CFQ together with a background questionnaire (n = 876) received the CFQ again to enable test-retest evaluation; 564 mothers completed the CFQ twice. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test whether the original 7-factor model was supported. Good fit (CFI = 0.94, TLI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.04, SRMR = 0.05) was obtained after minor modifications such as dropping 2 items on restriction and adding 3 error covariances. The internal reliability and the 2-week test-retest reliability were good. The scores on restriction were the lowest ever reported. When the influence of parenting practices on child BMI (dependent variable) was examined in a structural equation model (SEM), child BMI had a positive association with restriction and a negative association with pressure to eat. Restriction was positively influenced by concern about child weight. The second SEM treated parenting practices as dependent variables. Parental foreign origin and child BMI had direct effects on restriction, while pressure to eat was also influenced by parental education. While the results of the study support the usefulness of the CFQ in Sweden, carefully designed cross-cultural comparisons are needed to explain why the levels of restrictive feeding in Swedish families are the lowest reported. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits
Vargas Lascano, Dayuma I.; Galambos, Nancy L.; Krahn, Harvey J.; Lachman, Margie E.
This study examined trajectories of perceived control and their association with parents' education and personal educational experience (educational attainment and years of full-time postsecondary education) in 971 Canadian high school seniors tracked 7 times across 25 years. Latent growth models showed that, on average, perceived control…
Sánchez-Martín, José R; Azurmendi Imaz, Aitziber; Fano Ardanaz, Eduardo; Braza Lloret, Francisco; Muñoz Sánchez, José M; Carreras de Alba, María R
Androgen levels, parenting styles and aggressive behavior in 5-6-year-old boys and girls. This study explores the relationship between androgen levels, parenting styles, and physical, verbal, and indirect aggression measures in 5-6-year-old children. 129 children (60 boys and 69 girls) were assessed in relation to their aggression levels using a peer-rating technique. Parents completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire, from which the different parenting styles were obtained. Testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured using an enzymoimmunoassay technique in saliva samples. A regression analysis indicated that the directive mother-androstenedione interaction at the age of 5 was predictive of physical aggression at the age of 6. In specific terms, the results showed that, in boys with high androstenedione levels, directive maternal behavior is associated with physical aggression. The results are subsequently discussed in light of postulates related to parenting characteristic of developmental psychology and we suggest a potential link of our results with the hypothesis of maternal dominance.
Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of great turbulence characterized by cognitive, emotional, social and physical changes. Family environment and role of peers is extremely crucial in the development of an adolescent. Presenting here is a brief case of 15 year old boy who was referred for counseling by his parents for lack of concentration in studies. In the counseling sessions with the boy and his parents it was found that the boy was psychologically disturbed as he was teased at school by his peers. In addition his father had an authoritarian parenting style which was adding to his troubles resulting in low academic scores. The boy’s scores on “The Study Habits Inventory” were lower, indicating poor study habits which includes study concentration. The counsellors used an eclectic approach for the boy and his parents, to develop a healthy family environment, which improved his self-esteem and study habits.
Carson, Valerie; Clark, Marianne; Berry, Tanya; Holt, Nicholas L; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E
Minimizing sedentary behavior, in particular screen-based sedentary behavior, during the early years is important for healthy growth and development. Consequently, new Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years) were recently released. Researchers are unclear what messages should supplement the guidelines when disseminating them to parents and when using the guidelines in behaviour-change interventions to increase adoption. The objective of this study was to qualitatively examine parents' perceptions of the new Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years. Parents with a child ≤4 years who attended a child care centre were purposefully recruited from child care centres. A total of 7 semi-structured focus groups with 2 to 5 parents were conducted from August to November, 2013 by a trained and experienced moderator. Participants were asked a series of open-ended questions pertaining to the Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines information sheet. Initial themes were identified followed by further review and analysis. For the most part parents thought the guidelines were clear and did not disagree with the recommendations per se. However, some confusion arose around the value of some sedentary activities, such as reading and coloring, for social and cognitive development. Many parents described feeling guilty after reading the guidelines and perceived several barriers in meeting the daily recommendations. Common barriers included the need to balance multiple demands of family life, the prevalence and accessibility of screen technology, and the weather and built environment where families live. Parents expressed the importance of communicating the guidelines early enough for good habits to be established and the need for realistic strategies and ideas to help them meet the recommendations. Overall the findings indicate that gain-framed messages around the role of screen-based and non-screen-based sedentary behavior for children
Allely, C. S.; Purves, D.; McConnachie, A.; Marwick, H.; Johnson, P.; Doolin, O.; Puckering, C.; Golding, J.; Gillberg, C.; Wilson, P.
This study investigated the utility of adult and infant vocalisation in the prediction of child psychopathology. Families were sampled from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Vocalisation patterns were obtained from 180 videos (60 cases and 120 randomly selected sex-matched controls) of parent-infant…
Golombok, Susan; Murray, Clare; Jadva, Vasanti; MacCallum, Fiona; Lycett,Emma
Findings are presented of a study of families created through surrogacy arrangements. Forty-two surrogacy families were compared with 51 egg-donation families and 80 natural-conception families on standardized interview and questionnaire measures of the psychological well-being of the parents, the quality of parent-child relationships, and infant…
Orgilés, Mireia; Penosa, Patricia; Morales, Alexandra; Fernández-Martínez, Iván; Espada, José P
Maternal anxiety is known to be associated with childhood separation anxiety. However, there is little research on the mediating factors of this relationship, despite the possible consequences separation anxiety might have for children's development and autonomy. The objective of this study was to analyze the possible mediating effects of 4 parenting styles (overprotective, assertive, punitive, and inhibited) on the relationship between maternal anxiety and child separation anxiety. Participants were 235 mothers with children aged 3 to 6 years, recruited from 6 preschools in the southeast of Spain. Maternal trait anxiety, maternal parenting style, and child separation anxiety were evaluated. A parallel multiple-mediation analysis revealed that the overprotective parenting style was a significant mediator of the relationship between maternal trait anxiety and child separation anxiety. In addition, mothers with higher trait anxiety scores exhibited a greater likelihood of using an overprotective, punitive, or less assertive parenting style. Younger mothers were more likely to use an overprotective parenting style, and compared with girls, boys were more exposed to the assertive style. This study provides initial evidence that parenting style acts as a mediator of the relationship between maternal anxiety and child separation anxiety.
Kepple, Nancy Jo
Child maltreatment studies predominantly have operationalized parental substance use as dichotomous variables for any use, any harmful/risky use, or any substance use disorder (SUD). This limits our understanding about how a range of use behaviors may contribute to child maltreatment. Build upon prior studies by incorporating a multi-faceted approach to operationalizing parental substance use. Cross-sectional, secondary data analyses were conducted using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW I). The study used weighted negative binomial regression to examine relationships between annual child maltreatment frequency and different ways of operationalizing substance use among 2,100 parents. Several, inter-related behaviors (i.e., heavy drinking, illicit drug use, polysubstance use, SUD, and prior SUD child maltreatment frequencies. A gradient effect was detected across five substance use behavior patterns: (1) lowest estimated counts were observed for nonusers, light-to-moderate drinkers, and parents with a prior (but not past year) SUD (ӯ child harm. Parents reporting risky substance use behaviors may benefit from prevention or brief intervention services related to both their substance use and parenting behaviors. Administrative systems also could benefit from detailed tracking of substance use behaviors for future program evaluation and development.
Using a sample of 156 Chinese children aged 2-3 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socio-economic status, specifically family income and parental education, on the children's internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and whether these effects were mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. Results indicated that family income, maternal education and paternal education all negatively predicted externalizing symptoms. Income also negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among boys but not girls. Maternal education negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among girls but not boys. The effects of income on psychopathology were fully mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. In contrast, the effects of education were not mediated or only partially mediated by conflict. Findings are discussed in the framework of the family stress model. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.
Silverstein, Merril D.
Objective. Although intergenerational relationships have been extensively examined, studies applying dynamic multidimensional treatments are rare. Employing the life course framework and the intergenerational solidarity and ambivalence paradigms, a typology of intergenerational relationships was derived and propositions about dynamics of intergenerational relationships were tested. Method. Using latent transition analysis, we modeled 4 waves of panel data spanning 18 years from the Longitudinal Study of Generations to examine how older parent–child relationships (N = 938) transitioned in and out of complex relational configurations. Results. We derived 5 relationship types roughly corresponding to those found in earlier research. Transitions in relationship type occurred mostly when both generations were relatively young, and along the lines of what attachment, ambivalence, and latent kinship theories would predict. When change did occur, it was primarily structured by factors affecting the availability of adult children, as well as circumstances that elevated the dependency of older parents and promoted both positive and negative reactivity in their adult children. Discussion. This study has demonstrated how typological analysis captures both the complexities and dynamics of intergenerational relationships in mature families. By including behavioral, emotional, and normative aspects of later life intergenerational relationships, we told a story that was more about continuity than change. PMID:24958693
McDowall, Philippa S; Taumoepeau, Mele; Schaughency, Elizabeth
This study described the relations of parents' and teachers' beliefs and attitudes to forms of parents' involvement in children's first two years of primary school. Parents of children in their first year of primary school (age 5) were recruited from 12 classrooms within four schools in New Zealand; 196 families participated in their child's first year, and 124 families continued to participate in their child's second school year. Parents completed the Family-Involvement Questionnaire, New Zealand, and we archivally collected parent-documented children's oral reading homework. Teachers' rated helpfulness of parents' involvement at school (level 2) and parents' rated teacher invitations to be involved and their perceived time and energy (level 1) contributed to school-based involvement in Year 1 in multilevel models, with parents' rated teacher invitations for involvement also found to predict Year 1 home-school communication in regression analyses. Contributors to Year 1 child-parent reading in multilevel models included level 1 predictors of two or more adults in the home and parents' perceived time and energy. Longitudinal analyses suggested both consistency and change in each form of involvement from Year 1 to Year 2, with increases in each form of involvement found to be associated with increases in parents' and/or teachers' views about involvement in Year 2 in cross-sectional time-series analyses. Implications for schools wanting to engage families are that parents' involvement in children's schooling may be influenced by parents' perceptions of their capacity, teachers' engagement efforts, and the school's climate for involvement. This is a special issue paper "Family Engagement in Education and Intervention". Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele
A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular activities. The parents of fourth-grade pupils (10-11 years at baseline) completed questionnaires before intervention in spring 2008 (N = 348) and after intervention in spring 2010 (N = 358). A two-way analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether time (2008/2010) and group (intervention/control) influenced parents' perceptions and experiences of parental involvement, health education and health support received from the school. Compared with controls, the intervention schools' parents experienced greater involvement ethos (Cohen's d = 0.57, P education (Cohen's d = 0.60, P = 0.02) and health support (Cohen's d = 0.35, P = 0.02). Health education participation among parents increased only partially during the intervention (Cohen's d = -0.12, P = 0.193). School health interventions based on schools' needs may have the potential to influence positively the relationship between home and school and increase the visibility of health education. The study was undertaken within the Schools for Health in Europe program.
Basch, Corey Hannah; Hammond, Rodney; Ethan, Danna; Samuel, Lalitha
Obesity rates among American youth have prompted an examination of food advertisements geared towards children. Research indicates children's high exposure to these advertisements and their influence on food preferences. Less is known about the presence of these advertisements in parenting magazines. This study's objective was to examine prevalence of food advertisements in popular parenting magazines and identify products by USDA food category. We analyzed 116 issues of two popular U.S. parenting magazines across five years. All food and beverage advertisements for USDA Food Category were coded. Breakfast cereals were coded for nutritional quality. The coding took place at varied libraries in New Jersey, in the United States. A total of 19,879 food and beverage products were analyzed. One-third of advertisements (32.5%) were for baked goods, snacks, and sweets -- products generally low in nutrient density. Two-thirds of the breakfast cereals were low in nutritional quality (64.6%). Beverages comprised 11% of the advertisements, fruit juices the highest proportion. Less than 3% of advertisements were for fruits and vegetables combined. No significant food product trends were evident across the five-year period. Food advertisements identified in parenting magazines were generally low in nutritional value. Additional research is necessary to determine the influence of food advertisements on parents' purchasing habits.
Graham, Alice M; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A
Aggression between partners represents a potential guiding force in family dynamics. However, research examining the influence of partner aggression (physically and psychologically aggressive acts by both partners) on harsh parenting and young child adjustment has been limited by a frequent focus on low-risk samples and by the examination of partner aggression at a single time point. Especially in the context of multiple risk factors and around transitions such as childbirth, partner aggression might be better understood as a dynamic process. In the present study, longitudinal trajectories of partner aggression from birth to age 3 years in a large, high-risk, and ethnically diverse sample (N = 461) were examined. Specific risk factors were tested as predictors of aggression over time, and the longitudinal effects of partner aggression on maternal harsh parenting and child maladjustment were examined. Partner aggression decreased over time, with higher maternal depression and lower maternal age predicting greater decreases in partner aggression. While taking into account contextual and psychosocial risk factors, higher partner aggression measured at birth and a smaller decrease over time independently predicted higher levels of maternal harsh parenting at age 3 years. Initial level of partner aggression and change over time predicted child maladjustment indirectly (via maternal harsh parenting). The implications of understanding change in partner aggression over time as a path to harsh parenting and young children's maladjustment in the context of multiple risk factors are discussed.
Asaka, Yoko; Takada, Satoshi
The aim of this study was to compare infants' sleep measures through an actigraph and maternal parenting stress among preterm and full-term mothers, and to explore the factors affecting maternal parenting stress in relation to infants' sleep. The subjects were 44 pairs of mothers and children. Twenty-one were in the preterm group, and 23 were in the full-term group. Inclusion criteria for preterm infants were born at less than 36 weeks and birthweight of less than 2500 g. The Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form assesses maternal perception of the degree of parenting stress: the children's domain, and the parent's domain. An actigraph was applied to assess the infants' sleep measures. The PSI showed significant differences, with high scores in parenting stress in the preterm group. Also, the number of mothers who complained about their infant's sleep issues was significantly higher in the preterm group. Most of the sleep measures showed improvement by their age in both preterm and full-term infants. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that sleep efficiency, longest sleep duration at nighttime accounted for 71% of stress in the children's domain of the PSI of the preterm group. The parenting stress among mothers of preterm infants was significantly higher than that of mothers of full-term infants. The mothers of preterm infants were concerned about their infant's nocturnal sleep quality. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.
Holt, Laura J.
Although numerous studies have documented an association between parent attachment and college student adjustment, less is known about the mechanisms that underlie this relation. Accordingly, this short-term longitudinal study examined first-year college students' attitudes about academic help-seeking as one possible mechanism. As predicted,…
Becht, Andrik I.; Nelemans, Stefanie A.; van Dijk, Marloes P. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Meeus, W.H.J.
This study examined reciprocal associations between adolescents' self-concept clarity (SCC) and their relationship quality with parents and best friends in a five-wave longitudinal study from age 13 to 18years. In all, 497 adolescents (57% boys) reported on their SCC and all informants (i.e.,
McDonald, Sarah; Slade, Pauline; Spiby, Helen; Iles, Jane
This study examined the prevalence of childbirth-related post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms at 2 years postpartum and the relationship between such symptoms and both self-reported parenting stress and perceptions of the mother-child relationship. 81 women completed measures of childbirth-related PTS symptoms at 6 weeks and 3 months postpartum; these results were used in an exploration of their predictive links with mother-child relationship and parenting measures at 2 years. 17.3% of respondents reported some PTS symptoms at a clinically significant level at 2 years postpartum. However, these symptoms were only weakly linked to parenting stress and were not related to mothers' perceptions of their children. However earlier PTS symptoms within 3 months of childbirth did show limited associations with parenting stress at 2 years but no association with child relationship outcomes once current depression was taken into account. Implications for clinical practice and the concept of childbirth-related post-traumatic stress disorder are discussed.
Dewrang, Petra; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren
Development and behavior during the first 2 years of life was assessed retrospectively by the parents to 23 adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome and 13 typically developing adolescents and young adults. The groups were matched on chronological age and the participants were within the normal range of intelligence. The questionnaire,…
Pal, S.M. van der; Maguire, C.M.; Bruil, J.; Cessie, S. le; Zwieten, P. van; Veen, S.; Wit, J.M.; Walther, F.J.
This study explored the effects of basic developmental care on the behaviour of very pre-term infants and parental stress at I and 2 years of corrected age. A randomized controlled trial was done to compare basic Developmental Care (standardized nests and incubator covers) and controls (standard
Kristensen, Pål; Heir, Trond; Herlofsen, Pål H; Langsrud, Øyvind; Weisæth, Lars
We prospectively studied parental mental health after suddenly losing a son in a military training accident. Parents (N = 32) were interviewed at 1, 2 and 23 years after the death of their son. The General Health Questionnaire and Expanded Texas Inventory of Grief were self-reported at 1, 2, 5, and 23 years; the Inventory of Complicated Grief was self-reported at 23 years. We observed a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders at 1- and 2-year follow-ups (57% and 45%, respectively), particularly major depression (43% and 31%, respectively). Only one mental disorder was diagnosed at the 23-year follow-up. Grief and psychological distress were highest at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Spouses exhibited a high concordance of psychological distress. Mothers reported more intense grief reactions than did fathers. The loss of a son during military service may have a substantial impact on parental mental health particularly during the first 2 years after death. Spouses' grief can be interrelated and may contribute to their psychological distress.
de Haan, A.D.
Current theories and models on child development emphasize that children and their environmennt form a system with bidirectional processes of interactions. Transactional models, which integrate parent and child effects, may be especially successful in describing and explaining the development of
Javier, Joyce R; Coffey, Dean M; Schrager, Sheree M; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Miranda, Jeanne
This study aims to test an evidence-based parenting program offered in churches among Filipino-American parents and estimate effect size for a fully powered trial. Twenty-two parents of children aged 6 to 12 years were randomly assigned to either an intervention or a waiting-list control group. Parents' perceptions of child behavior, parenting practices, and parenting stress were obtained at baseline. Parents in the experimental group attended The Incredible Years School Age Program, which consisted of 12 weekly 2-hour sessions. A follow-up assessment was performed after the intervention and 12 weeks later. The intervention was subsequently repeated with the control group. Satisfaction was assessed with a 40-item measure. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the intervention group postintervention versus the control group. Paired t-tests compared mean parenting practices, parenting stress, and child behavior outcomes. Satisfaction was assessed descriptively. Twenty-two parents completed all assessments and the intervention. Analysis of variance comparing intervention and control groups with repeated measures (pre- and post-test measures) revealed that the program has a positive impact on parenting stress, parenting practices (physical punishment, positive verbal discipline), and parent's perception of their child's behavior (internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and number of problematic behaviors). Analyses of all participants comparing pre- and post intervention revealed improvements in parenting stress, positive verbal discipline, and child externalizing and total problem behaviors. Families reported high satisfaction with the content and format of the intervention. Results support the feasibility of providing an evidence-based parenting program to Filipino parents in churches to prevent future behavioral health problems.
Ponappa, Sujata; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Holowacz, Eugene; Ferriby, Megan
Guided by Bowen theory, we investigated the relationships between parent-child triangulation, parental differential treatment (PDT), sibling warmth, and individual depressive symptoms in a sample of 77 sibling dyads, aged 18-25 years, recruited through undergraduate classes at a U.S. public University. Results of the actor-partner interdependence models suggested that being triangulated into parental conflict was positively related to both siblings' perception of PDT; however, as one sibling felt triangulated, the other perceived reduced levels of PDT. For both siblings, the perception of higher levels of PDT was related to decreased sibling warmth and higher sibling warmth was associated with fewer depressive symptoms. The implications of these findings for research and the treatment of depression in the college-aged population are discussed. © 2016 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Samia S. Al-Ghannami
Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and specific parental risk factors that may contribute to the development of ADHD in children. Methods: The study was conducted in Oman among fourth-grade students (aged nine to 10 years. A standardized Arabic version of the National Initiative for Children’s Health Quality Vanderbilt Assessment Scale (Teachers questionnaire was used to determine the presence of ADHD. Parental factors such as socioeconomic status, education, and occupation were documented. Results: The prevalence rate of ADHD was 8.8%. Poor maternal education status, low familial socioeconomic status, and paternal occupation were significantly associated with an increased risk of ADHD. Conclusions: This was the first study that examined familial and parental characteristics of children with ADHD as potential risk factors for the condition. Such psychosocial factors could be employed to further the development of more proficient preventative measures and remedial services.
Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J
The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the middle school years. A longitudinal sample (580 boys, 698 girls) was assessed in Grades 6 and 8. Peer acceptance, peer rejection, and their interaction predicted increases in problem behavior. Having high-achieving friends predicted less problem behavior. Parental monitoring predicted less problem behavior in general, but also acted as a buffer for students who were most vulnerable to developing problem behavior on the basis of being well liked by some peers, and also disliked by several others. These findings highlight the importance of studying the family-peer mesosystem when considering risk and resilience in early adolescence, and when considering implications for intervention.
Oellingrath, Inger M; Hersleth, Margrethe; Svendsen, Martin V
To determine (i) the importance of parents’ motives for everyday family food choices; and (ii) the relationship between parental food choice motives and eating patterns of 12- to 13-year-old children. Cross-sectional study. A modified version of the Food Choice Questionnaire was used to determine parental motives for food choices. The children’s food and drink intake was reported by their parents using a retrospective FFQ. Eating patterns were derived using principal component analysis. The association between food choice motives and eating patterns was examined using multiple linear regression analysis. Primary schools, Telemark County, Norway. In total, 1095 children aged 12–13 years and their parents. The parental motive ‘sensory appeal’ was the most important for food choice, followed by ‘health’, ‘convenience’, ‘natural content’ and ‘weight control’. The food choice motives were associated with the eating patterns of the children, independent of background variables. The motive ‘health’ was most strongly associated with a ‘varied Norwegian’ eating pattern, representing a diverse diet and regular meals, while the motive ‘convenience’ appeared to be the most important barrier to this eating pattern. ‘Weight control’ was not associated with the ‘varied Norwegian’ eating pattern. To encourage parents to make healthy food choices for their children, health promotion activities should focus on the health benefits of a diverse diet and regular meals, rather than weight control. Recommended food products should be made more convenient and easily available for families with children.
Huttunen, K; Rimmanen, S; Vikman, S; Virokannas, N; Sorri, M; Archbold, S; Lutman, M E
Cochlear implants for children are known to have impact on the lives of recipients and their families in a variety of ways. To obtain a clearer picture of these benefits, we explored the quality of life of 36 Finnish children and their families 2-3 years after unilateral cochlear implantation. The studied children were, on average 5 years old, and had received their implant at the median age of 2 years:5 months (range 1:6 to 12:3). Most (67%) of the children used speech, eight (22%) used speech and signs, and four (11%) used sign language as their main communication mode. A third of the children had concomitant problems in addition to their profound hearing impairment. A validated closed-set questionnaire "Children with cochlear implants: parental perspectives" (available, e.g., at http://www.earfoundation.org.uk/research/questionnaires.html) was used to find out parents' views and experiences on implantation and explore life after it. Parents were most satisfied with improved/expanded social relations, improved communication (the development of spoken language), general functioning with the help of hearing and improved self-reliance of the child. Benefit of cochlear implantation was also detected with the Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP), which was concordant with views of the parents on the progress of their child in the areas of communication and education. When deciding on implantation, the parents particularly expected auditory information to enhance their child's safety in traffic, joining socially the hearing world, and better employment prospects as adults. Concerning the process of implantation, parents especially valued the know-how and fluent services of the implant centre, positive attitude within the family and information received from other families during the time they were considering the implant decision. Parents also found it important that they have the possibility to influence the communication mode that is used in their child
Tu, Andrew W; O'Connor, Teresia M; Beauchamp, Mark R; Hughes, Sheryl O; Baranowski, Tom; Mâsse, Louise C
Parents have the potential to substantively influence their child's physical activity. This study identified the parenting practices of US and Canadian parents to encourage or discourage their 5-12 year-old child's physical activity and to examine differences in parenting practices by country, parental sex, age of child, and income. The sample consisted of 134 US and Canadian parents (54.5% US; 60.4% female) recruited from a web-based panel by a polling firm. The parents answered open-ended questions about what they and other parents do to encourage or discourage their child to be active. Responses were coded using a scheme previously developed to code items used in the published literature. Coded responses were summarized by domain and dimension with differences in responses by country, parental sex, age of child, or household income assessed with a log-linear analysis. The 134 parents provided 649 and 397 responses to ways that parents encourage or discourage their child's physical activity, respectively. Over 70% of responses for practices that encourage physical activity were related to structure of the environment, parental encouragement, and co-participation. The most common response was co-participation in activity with the child. Of the practices that discourage physical activity, 67% were related to structure of the environment, lack of parental control, and modeling poor behaviors. The most common response was allowing screen time. There were no differences in response by country, parental sex, child age, or household income. Parents most often encouraged physical activity through structure and emotional support and discouraged physical activity through lack of structure and control. Understanding how parents influence their child's physical activity may help improve intervention strategies. The current results will inform the development of a physical activity parenting practices instrument.
Nøvik, Torunn Stene; Jozefiak, Thomas
Studies about changes in the prevalence of emotional and behaviour problems across time are lacking, especially among younger children. To determine if the level of parent-reported emotional and behaviour problems and competencies in young Norwegian school children had changed across a 16-year time interval. We compared parent reports obtained by the Child Behavior Checklist in two samples of children aged 7-9 years from the general population assessed in 1991 and 2007. The results demonstrated overall stability or slight decreases of emotional and behaviour problems and a significant increase in competencies, mainly due to increased activity and social competence scores in the 2007 sample. Boys obtained higher scores than girls in Total Problems, Externalizing and Attention problems at both time points and there was a high stability of the rank order of items. The findings suggest stability in child emotional and behaviour problems, and an increase of competencies across the period.
Cartmill, Erica A; Armstrong, Benjamin F; Gleitman, Lila R; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Medina, Tamara N; Trueswell, John C
Children vary greatly in the number of words they know when they enter school, a major factor influencing subsequent school and workplace success. This variability is partially explained by the differential quantity of parental speech to preschoolers. However, the contexts in which young learners hear new words are also likely to vary in referential transparency; that is, in how clearly word meaning can be inferred from the immediate extralinguistic context, an aspect of input quality. To examine this aspect, we asked 218 adult participants to guess 50 parents' words from (muted) videos of their interactions with their 14- to 18-mo-old children. We found systematic differences in how easily individual parents' words could be identified purely from this socio-visual context. Differences in this kind of input quality correlated with the size of the children's vocabulary 3 y later, even after controlling for differences in input quantity. Although input quantity differed as a function of socioeconomic status, input quality (as here measured) did not, suggesting that the quality of nonverbal cues to word meaning that parents offer to their children is an individual matter, widely distributed across the population of parents.
Basch, Corey H.; Hammond, Rodney N.; Ethan, Danna; Samuel, Lalitha
Obesity rates among American youth have prompted an examination of food advertisements geared towards children. Research indicates children’s high exposure to these advertisements and their influence on food preferences. Less is known about the presence of these advertisements in parenting magazines. This study’s objective was to examine prevalence of food advertisements in popular parenting magazines and identify products by USDA food category. We analyzed 116 issues of two popular U.S. parenting magazines across five years. All food and beverage advertisements for USDA Food Category were coded. Breakfast cereals were coded for nutritional quality. The coding took place at varied libraries in New Jersey, in the United States. A total of 19,879 food and beverage products were analyzed. One-third of advertisements (32.5%) were for baked goods, snacks, and sweets -- products generally low in nutrient density. Two-thirds of the breakfast cereals were low in nutritional quality (64.6%). Beverages comprised 11% of the advertisements, fruit juices the highest proportion. Less than 3% of advertisements were for fruits and vegetables combined. No significant food product trends were evident across the five-year period. Food advertisements identified in parenting magazines were generally low in nutritional value. Additional research is necessary to determine the influence of food advertisements on parents’ purchasing habits. PMID:24576378
Franquet, M; Husson, M; Dubus, J-C; Rimet, Y
This study aimed at assessing parents' knowledge and perception in relation to their child's condition when arriving at the emergency ward following an asthma attack. The overall objective was to determine how parent education could be improved. This study was conducted over 9 months as a multicenter descriptive and qualitative study based on a self-administered questionnaire for parents of asthmatic children, aged 2-15 years. The questionnaire was delivered to 88 children out of 1472 (6%). Approximately 69% of the children included in the study presented with partially controlled or uncontrolled asthma. Fifty percent of the patients were insufficiently monitored and without therapy. Half of the parents said they had never received any information concerning their child's condition. The majority (86%) did not know the basic cause of the disease, 30% percent were unable to detect the features of clinical exacerbation, and 17% were not using an adequate emergency protocol. The illness experience was relatively easy for two-thirds of the children and the parents' perceptions were in line in 50% of the cases. Knowledge of parents and their children suffering from asthma is insufficient for optimal control and disease management. Instructions on detecting the signs of asthma severity as well as the establishment of an individualized emergency protocol and medical follow-up should be of prime concern and could reduce emergency department use. Doctors have a key role to play in educating and explaining disease characteristics to patients and their families. Therapeutic education also needs to be intensified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Basch, Corey H; Shaffer, Ellen J; Hammond, Rodney; Rajan, Sonali
Marketing of infant formula contributes to a decreased likelihood to breastfeed. This study established the prevalence of infant formula advertisements in two popular US parenting magazines and explored trends in infant formula advertisement prevalence from 2007 to 2012. Advertisements were analyzed using a comprehensive coding schematic. We established a high proportion of 0.43 advertisements per page of content in both magazines and observed a significant increase in infant formula advertisement prevalence beginning in 2009. Infant formula companies use aggressive marketing in parenting magazines. Nurses who are well-trained in breastfeeding best practices can offer new mothers evidence-based information on the benefits of breastfeeding. © 2013.
The study is descriptive- post hoc. A sample of 220 mothers were selected from Tehran by purposeful and accessible sampling method. They completed Parenting Stress Index, Sources of Social Support Scale, Maternal efficacy Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Maternal separation anxiety scale and Child temperament questionnaire. Stepwise regression analysis showed that child temperament, mother depression and parenting stress, in three steps, could explain 33% of variance in maternal self-efficacy. Therefore, educational programs relevant to the mentioned factors can enhance maternal self-efficacy and prevent children’s psychological problems.
Willoughby, Teena; Hamza, Chloe A.
This longitudinal study investigated the importance of parental monitoring to the deterrence of adolescent problem behavior by examining bidirectional associations among perceived parental monitoring, adolescent disclosure and problem behaviors across the high school years. Adolescents (N = 2,941; 50.3% female) were surveyed each year from grades…
O'Connor, Teresia M; Mâsse, Louise C; Tu, Andrew W; Watts, Allison W; Hughes, Sheryl O; Beauchamp, Mark R; Baranowski, Tom; Pham, Truc; Berge, Jerica M; Fiese, Barbara; Golley, Rebecca; Hingle, Melanie; Kremers, Stef P J; Rhee, Kyung E; Skouteris, Helen; Vaughn, Amber
Parents are an important influence on children's dietary intake and eating behaviors. However, the lack of a conceptual framework and inconsistent assessment of food parenting practices limits our understanding of which food parenting practices are most influential on children. The aim of this study was to develop a food parenting practice conceptual framework using systematic approaches of literature reviews and expert input. A previously completed systematic review of food parenting practice instruments and a qualitative study of parents informed the development of a food parenting practice item bank consisting of 3632 food parenting practice items. The original item bank was further reduced to 110 key food parenting concepts using binning and winnowing techniques. A panel of 32 experts in parenting and nutrition were invited to sort the food parenting practice concepts into categories that reflected their perceptions of a food parenting practice conceptual framework. Multi-dimensional scaling produced a point map of the sorted concepts and hierarchical cluster analysis identified potential solutions. Subjective modifications were used to identify two potential solutions, with additional feedback from the expert panel requested. The experts came from 8 countries and 25 participated in the sorting and 23 provided additional feedback. A parsimonious and a comprehensive concept map were developed based on the clustering of the food parenting practice constructs. The parsimonious concept map contained 7 constructs, while the comprehensive concept map contained 17 constructs and was informed by a previously published content map for food parenting practices. Most of the experts (52%) preferred the comprehensive concept map, while 35% preferred to present both solutions. The comprehensive food parenting practice conceptual map will provide the basis for developing a calibrated Item Response Modeling (IRM) item bank that can be used with computerized adaptive testing
Jackson M. Leonard; Alvin L. Medina; Daniel G. Neary; Aregai Tecle
This study examined the effects of two types of parent material, sandstone and limestone, on the response of vegetation growth after the 1990 Dude Fire in central Arizona. The operating hypothesis of the study was that, given the right conditions, severe wildfire can trigger vegetation type conversion. Overall, three patterns emerged: (1) oak density increased by 413%...
When literature is examined, it is seen that generally there are descriptive studies examining the effects of young children with autism in a certain age or age range on their parents' marital and family relationships as well as psychological conditions such as mourning, stress, anxiety, and depression. Longitudinal studies on the social…
Cremeens, Jennifer L.; Usdan, Stuart L.; Brock-Martin, Amy; Martin, Ryan J.; Watkins, Ken
With extreme rates of binge drinking among young adults, college students continue to be a primary focus for a range of alcohol prevention efforts. Most universities are attempting to change the alcohol environment by implementing a variety of strategies to reduce heavy drinking among college students. With the exception of parental notification…
Johnson, Ann; Johnston, Elizabeth
In the 1920s and 1930s, the parent education movement opened doors for many female psychologists and other child development professionals by providing training and jobs. Female experts in the parent education movement spread the emerging "gospel of child development" to other women-mothers-in a variety of formats. Although psychologists like John B. Watson advocated traditional definitions of motherhood focusing on role adjustment, there is evidence that women psychologists and parent educators introduced ways of thinking about family life that challenged tradition, encouraging role expansion and self-fulfillment. We explore examples provided by women at the Minnesota Institute of Child Welfare who produced radio programs on child rearing. Starting in 1932, advice about child rearing was embedded within stories featuring a fictional family, the Bettersons. The family narrative format provides an opportunity to identify implicit (and sometimes explicit) values and norms informing prescribed roles for mothers, fathers, and children. Analysis suggests that gender roles were shifting in more egalitarian directions, with an awareness of new identity options for both women and men. We explore implications for evaluating the impact of female experts involved in the parent education movement. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Gillespie, Laura; Hicks, Caitlin W; Santana, Melissa; Worley, Sarah E; Banas, David A; Holmes, Sumayya; Rome, Ellen S
The purpose of our study was to evaluate HPV vaccine acceptance among parents and guardians of children aged 0-10 years. Prospective questionnaire study. Cleveland Clinic Children's Hospital. Parents and guardians of children aged 0-10 years. Brief HPV vaccine educational intervention. Desire for child to get HPV vaccine. We enrolled 81 participants in the study; 70 (86%) were female, and 39 (49%) were Caucasian. Prior to receiving an educational fact sheet about HPV and the HPV vaccine, only 49% of participants reported that they wanted their young child to receive the HPV vaccine when it becomes available. After receiving the fact sheet, this number increased to 70%, suggesting that a simple educational intervention could significantly affect vaccine acceptance in this population (P = .001). Other significant results of this study included that HPV vaccination would receive greater acceptance if the participants believed that it can prevent HPV infection in their child (P = .0024), it was perceived to be safe (P = .0005), and if the vaccine were recommended by a physician (P HPV vaccination were not affected by concerns over whether receiving the vaccine might mean the child is more likely to have sex or to have multiple sexual partners. Our results suggest that if it were approved for children aged 0-10 years, the HPV vaccine would be accepted by the parents and guardians provided they received adequate educational information about it. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Palmu, Sauli; Heikkilä, Paula; Uski, Virpi; Niitty, Siina; Kurikka, Sari; Korppi, Matti
The ten-year Finnish national allergy programme was launched in 2008 to lessen the disease and psychological burden of allergy. This study assessed the prevalence of parent-reported food allergies requiring avoidance diets at primary school in children aged six and seven years. The cohort comprised 1937 children (51% boys) who started primary school in Tampere, Finland, in August 2016. School health nurses charted parent-reported, doctor-diagnosed food allergies requiring avoidance diets as part of the routine health examination. We found that 127 (6.6%) children had parent-reported, doctor-diagnosed allergies to at least one food and 37 (1.9%) were allergic to basic foods, namely cows' milk, wheat and one other grain. All required an avoidance diet. The figure did not differ significantly from the 2.7% and 2.5% found by studies of this age group in 2009 and 2013, respectively. Allergies to fresh fruit and vegetables decreased from 5.8% in 2009 to 3.6% in 2016. We studied the national allergy programme that started in 2008 and found that there was a nonsignificant overall decrease in the number of children aged six to seven years on avoidance diets for allergies between 2009 and 2016. The only allergies that showed significant decreases were fresh fruit and vegetables. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Verhoeven, M.R.W.; Dekoviç, M.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Baar, A.L. van
Parenting is a multifaceted task and the way in which parents fulfill this task plays an important role in children's growth and development, especially in early childhood. Conceptualization and assessment of parenting behavior is elementary for research on child and family development and would
Verhoeven, Marjolein; Dekovic, Maja; Bodden, Denise; van Baar, Anneloes
Parenting is a multifaceted task and the way in which parents fulfill this task plays an important role in children’s growth and development, especially in early childhood. Conceptualization and assessment of parenting behavior is elementary for research on child and family development and would
Gao, Yongqing; Huang, Yuee; Zhang, Yongjun; Liu, Fengqiong; Feng, Cindy; Liu, Tingting; Li, Changwei; Lin, Dongdong; Mu, Yongping; Tarver, Siobhan; Wang, Mao; Sun, Wenjie
A community-based intervention study was conducted to assess a nutrition education intervention on western style fast food consumption among Chinese children and parents. Eight kindergartens from three district areas of Hefei City (a total of 1252 children aged 4–6 years and their parents) were randomly selected. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used to evaluate the baseline, midterm, and final western style fast food knowledge, attitude, and practice in both parents and c...
Connell, Lauren E; Francis, Lori A
This study sought to determine whether parenting style moderates the effects of delay of gratification on body mass index (BMI) trajectories from ages 4-15 years. Longitudinal data were analyzed for 778 children drawn from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Parenting style (i.e., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful) was created from measures of mothers' sensitivity and expectations for self-control when children were age 4 years. Self-regulation was also measured at 4 years using a well-known delay of gratification protocol. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight at each time point. Mixed modeling was used to test the interaction of parenting styles and ability to delay gratification on BMI trajectories from 4-15 years. There was a significant interaction effect of parenting and ability to delay on BMI growth from 4-15 years for boys. Boys who had authoritarian mothers and failed to delay gratification had a significantly steeper rate of growth in BMI from childhood through adolescence than children in any other parenting by delay group. Authoritative and permissive parenting styles were protective against more rapid BMI gains for boys who could not delay gratification. Ability to delay gratification was protective against BMI gains for boys who had parents with authoritarian or neglectful parenting styles.
Sourander, Andre; McGrath, Patrick J; Ristkari, Terja; Cunningham, Charles; Huttunen, Jukka; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Kinnunen, Malin; Vuorio, Jenni; Sinokki, Atte; Fossum, Sturla; Unruh, Anita
There is a large gap worldwide in the provision of evidence-based early treatment of children with disruptive behavioral problems. To determine whether an Internet-assisted intervention using whole-population screening that targets the most symptomatic 4-year-old children is effective at 6 and 12 months after the start of treatment. This 2-parallel-group randomized clinical trial was performed from October 1, 2011, through November 30, 2013, at a primary health care clinic in Southwest Finland. Data analysis was performed from August 6, 2015, to December 11, 2015. Of a screened population of 4656 children, 730 met the screening criteria indicating a high level of disruptive behavioral problems. A total of 464 parents of 4-year-old children were randomized into the Strongest Families Smart Website (SFSW) intervention group (n = 232) or an education control (EC) group (n = 232). The SFSW intervention, an 11-session Internet-assisted parent training program that included weekly telephone coaching. Child Behavior Checklist version for preschool children (CBCL/1.5-5) externalizing scale (primary outcome), other CBCL/1.5-5 scales and subscores, Parenting Scale, Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits, and the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale. All data were analyzed by intention to treat and per protocol. The assessments were made before randomization and 6 and 12 months after randomization. Of the children randomized, 287 (61.9%) were male and 79 (17.1%) lived in other than a family with 2 biological parents. At 12-month follow-up, improvement in the SFSW intervention group was significantly greater compared with the control group on the following measures: CBCL/1.5-5 externalizing scale (effect size, 0.34; P anxiety (effect size, 0.26; P = .003), and emotional problems (effect size, 0.31; P = .001); Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits callousness scores (effect size, 0.19; P = .03); and self-reported parenting skills (effect size
Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Wight, Daniel
Research on predictors of young children's psychosocial well-being currently relies on adult-reported outcomes. This study investigated whether early family circumstances and parenting predict 7-year-olds' subjective well-being. Information on supportive friendships, liking school and life satisfaction was obtained from 7-year-olds in one Growing Up in Scotland birth cohort in 2012-2013 (N = 2869). Mothers provided information on early childhood factors from 10 to 34 months, parenting (dysfunctional parenting, home learning and protectiveness) from 46 to 70 months, and 7-year-olds' adjustment. Multivariable path models explored associations between early childhood factors, parenting and 7-year-olds' subjective well-being. Supplementary analyses compared findings with those for mother-reported adjustment. In a model of early childhood factors, maternal distress predicted less supportive friendships and lower life satisfaction (coefficients -0.12), poverty predicted less supportive friendships (-0.09) and remote location predicted all outcomes (-0.20 to -0.27). In a model with parenting added, dysfunctional parenting predicted all outcomes (-10 to -0.16), home learning predicted liking school (0.11) and life satisfaction (0.08), and protectiveness predicted life satisfaction (0.08). Effects of maternal distress were fully mediated, largely via dysfunctional parenting, while home learning mediated negative effects of low maternal education. Direct effects of poverty and remote location remained. Findings for mother-reported child adjustment were broadly similar. Unique prospective data show parenting and early childhood impact 7-year-olds' subjective well-being. They underline the benefits for children of targeting parental mental health and dysfunctional parenting, and helping parents develop skills to support children at home and school.
O'Connor, Teresia M; Cerin, Ester; Hughes, Sheryl O; Robles, Jessica; Thompson, Deborah; Baranowski, Tom; Lee, Rebecca E; Nicklas, Theresa; Shewchuk, Richard M
Hispanic preschoolers are less active than their non-Hispanic peers. As part of a feasibility study to assess environmental and parenting influences on preschooler physical activity (PA) (Niños Activos), the aim of this study was to identify what parents do to encourage or discourage PA among Hispanic 3-5 year old children to inform the development of a new PA parenting practice instrument and future interventions to increase PA among Hispanic youth. Nominal Group Technique (NGT), a structured multi-step group procedure, was used to elicit and prioritize responses from 10 groups of Hispanic parents regarding what parents do to encourage (5 groups) or discourage (5 groups) preschool aged children to be active. Five groups consisted of parents with low education (less than high school) and 5 with high education (high school or greater) distributed between the two NGT questions. Ten NGT groups (n = 74, range 4-11/group) generated 20-46 and 42-69 responses/group for practices that encourage or discourage PA respectively. Eight to 18 responses/group were elected as the most likely to encourage or discourage PA. Parental engagement in child activities, modeling PA, and feeding the child well were identified as parenting practices that encourage child PA. Allowing TV and videogame use, psychological control, physical or emotional abuse, and lack of parental engagement emerged as parenting practices that discourage children from being active. There were few differences in the pattern of responses by education level. Parents identified ways they encourage and discourage 3-5 year-olds from PA, suggesting both are important targets for interventions. These will inform the development of a new PA parenting practice scale to be further evaluated. Further research should explore the role parents play in discouraging child PA, especially in using psychological control or submitting children to abuse, which were new findings in this study.
Javier, Joyce R; Reyes, Angela; Coffey, Dean M; Schrager, Sheree M; Samson, Allan; Palinkas, Lawrence; Kipke, Michele D; Miranda, Jeanne
Filipinos, the second largest Asian subgroup in the U.S., experience significant youth behavioral health disparities but remain under-represented in health research. We describe lessons learned from using the Matching Model of Recruitment to recruit 215 Filipinos to participate in a large, randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored video aimed at increasing enrollment in the Incredible Years® Parent Program. We recruited participants from schools, churches, clinics, community events, and other community-based locations. Facilitators of participation included: partnership with local community groups, conducting research in familiar settings, building on existing social networks, and matching perspectives of community members and researchers. Findings suggest recruitment success occurs when there is a match between goals of Filipino parents, grandparents and the research community. Understanding the perspectives of ethnic minority communities and effectively communicating goals of research studies are critical to successful recruitment of hard-to-reach immigrant populations in randomized controlled trials.
Full Text Available To describe the experience of parenting a child diagnosed with cancer by examining particularly negative and positive experiences reported by parents of childhood cancer survivors and parents of children lost to cancer.168 parents (88 mothers, 80 fathers participated. Data were collected five years after the end of successful treatment or the child's death. The parents' experiences were identified by open-ended semi-structured questions about particularly negative and positive experiences of the child's cancer. An inductive approach was used in which the manifest verbal content of the answers was analysed using content analysis.The analysis revealed eight categories of negative experience (child late effects; distressing events; healthcare; impaired relationships; long-term psychological consequences; own reactions; surrounding institutions; the fact that the child got cancer and seven categories of positive experience (healthcare; improved relationships; long-term consequences for the child; personal development; support systems; treatment outcome; unexpected joy. The categories were related to past events or to the present situation. The findings indicate variations in experiences between parents of survivors and bereaved parents, and between fathers and mothers, as some experiences were only reported by parents of survivors and some experiences were only reported by mothers.The results highlight the importance of past and present events to parents, and accordingly the long-lasting impact of paediatric cancer on parents. The results also point to the wide range of negative as well as positive experiences involved in parenting a child diagnosed with cancer, and provide a comprehensive understanding of the overall experience for parents of children with cancer. Specifically, the findings give guidance to healthcare providers by illustrating the need to provide healthcare personnel with continuous training in communication skills, offering
Jacquot, Cyril; Seo, Andrew; Miller, Peter M; Lezama, Niara; Criss, Valli R; Colvin, Camilla; Luban, Naomi L C; Wong, Edward C C
Directed donation is associated with a higher prevalence of donations that are positive for infectious disease markers; however, little is known about the positive rates among parental-directed, non-parental-directed, and allogeneic donations. We reviewed blood-collection records from January 1997 through December 2008, including infectious disease results, among parental, non-parental, and community donations. Infectious disease rates were compared by Mann-Whitney U test. In total, 1532 parental, 4910 non-parental, and 17,423 community donations were examined. Among parental donors, the median rate of positive infectious disease testing was 8.66% (interquartile range (IQR), 4.49%) for first-time donors and 1.26% (IQR, 5.86%) for repeat donors; among non-parental donors, the rate was 1.09% (IQR, 0.98%) for first-time donors and 0% (IQR, 0.83%) for repeat donors; and, among community donors, the rate was 2.95% (IQR, 1.50%) for first-time donors and 0.45% (IQR, 0.82%) for repeat donors. The mean rate of positive infectious disease testing for first-time parental donors was significantly higher (7.63%), whereas all repeat donors had similar rates. However, the rate of positive infectious disease testing among first-time non-parental donors was significantly lower than that in the other groups, especially for the period from 2001 through 2008. First-time non-parental and community donors had significantly higher infectious disease risk than the respective repeat donors. First-time parental donors had the highest rates of positive infectious disease testing. We suggest that first-time parental blood donation should be discouraged. Repeat community donors or first-time non-parental donors provide a safer alternative. These findings can foster better patient education, donor selection, and possibly a reduced risk of infectious disease. © 2017 AABB.
Peters, Jacqueline; Dollman, James; Petkov, John; Parletta, Natalie
During the early years, parents have a major influence on children’s diets and developing food choices. We investigated parenting styles as predictors of 2–5-year-old children’s diets and whether general nutrition knowledge (GNK) mediated these influences. Cross-sectional research. Questionnaires measured demographic and lifestyle variables, family environment, parenting styles and feeding practices, child diet and GNK. Regression models tested GNK as a mediator of relationships between parenting variables and child diet (fruit/vegetable and non-core food consumption), controlling for confounders and family environment. Questionnaires were completed by main caregivers at home. Parents of children aged 2–5 years (n 269). Higher child fruit/vegetable consumption was associated with lower overreactive parenting and restriction, higher authoritative parenting and dining together as a family; with lax parenting approaching statistical significance (P50?083) and 19% of variance explained by the model. GNK was not a significant predictor. Conversely, non-core food consumption was associated with higher over-reactive and lax parenting as well as child age, increased takeaway food consumption and higher television viewing; GNK had a small effect (P = 0.043) and 28% of variance was explained by the model. GNK was a significant mediator only for authoritative parenting on non-core food (effect = -0.005). These findings highlight that young children’s diets may be improved by interventions targeting a range of positive and supportive parenting practices in conjunction with nutrition knowledge education for parents of young children. Further insights will come from closer attention to the nature and role of restrictive feeding practices v. laxness and longitudinal research.
Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Vries, N.K.de; Thijs, C.
This study examined the relationship between diet-related parenting practices, parental characteristics, child characteristics, and 2-year-old child's dietary intake. Cross-sectional data (N = 2578) originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Principal component analyses revealed two restrictive
Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.
In the current study, we examined longitudinal changes in, and bidirectional effects between, parenting practices and child behavior problems in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up period. The sample comprised 139 parent-child dyads (child ages 6-11) who participated in a modular treatment protocol for early-onset ODD or…
Carter, Margaret Anne; Frewen, Amie; Chunn, Jennifer
This study reports the importance 244 parents of six-year-old children living in Singapore placed on cognitive (problem-solving and creativity) and non-cognitive (practical school skills and conforming) behaviours. Our research team hypothesised that, as the age of the parent increased, the importance placed on each covariant skill (problem…
Hickman, Gregory P.; Andrews, David W.
A self-report questionnaire on academic achievement, birth order, and family structure; the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire; the Parental Authority Questionnaire; and the Coping Humor Scale were administered to 257 first-year college students. Researchers examined the relationships among (a) authoritative parenting style, (b) family…
Yogan, Lissa; Freedle, Agata; Ringenberg, Matthew
This study explored the effects of parents' and students' communication patterns on students' social, emotional, and academic adjustment to college. It matched 118 pairs of parents and students (n = 236) and asked them to report their frequency and mode of communication, as well as the first-year students' perceived adjustment to college. The…
Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Sumter, Sindy R.; Westenberg, P. Michiel
Age and gender differences in perceived social support from parents, friends, classmates, and teachers were investigated in 304 boys and 351 girls aged 9-18 years. The social support scale for children and adolescents was used for this purpose. Analyses showed that the level of perceived social support from parents and friends was similar across…
Zeratsion, Henok; Bjertness, Cecilie B; Lien, Lars; Haavet, Ole R; Dalsklev, Madeleine; Halvorsen, Jon A; Bjertness, Espen; Claussen, Bjørgulf
Several studies have reported an increase in risk behaviors among adolescents after experience of parental divorce. The aim of the study was to investigate whether parental divorce is associated with risk behavior among adolescents independent of mental health problems, first when early divorce was experienced, and second after experience of late parental divorce. One prospective (n=1861) and one cross-sectional study (n=2422) were conducted using data from two Young-HUBRO surveys in Oslo, Norway. All 15/16 year-old 10(th) grade students who participated in the first survey in the school year 2000/01 were followed-up in 2004 when they were 18/19 year-olds. The follow-up rate was 68%. The prospective study investigated the influence of late parental divorce that occurred between the age of 15/16 and 18/19. In the cross-sectional study we focused on early parental divorce that occurred before the participants were 15/16 year-old. In the prospective study we could not discern a significant association between experiencing late parental divorce and an increase in risk behaviors among 18/19 year-old adolescents. In the cross-sectional study parental divorce was significantly associated with cigarette smoking and using doping agents. Parental divorce that occurs when the children of divorced parents are 15/16 year-old or younger is associated with an increase in cigarette smoking and use of doping agents. However, no evidence of significant association is found between experience of late parental divorce and risk behaviors in late adolescence.
Full Text Available Conduct disorder is a category to describe the behaviors which have an adverse affect on the individual, family or society, violate the basic rights of other people and ignore the age-appropriate social norms and rules. Parental behaviors should be shaped as well as those of the children in order for conduct disorder to be treated. The reason for this is that parental attitudes play a key role in emergence of anti-social behaviors among children. Therefore, parent programs have been undertaken for the last thirty years. It has been proved that parent programs are effective in children with conduct disorder who display highly disruptive behaviors. The two best parent programs implemented on the parents of children diagnosed with conduct disorder are Triple P and Incredible Years which cooperate with families and the society, reduce the risk factors, support the protective factors, have a multi-disciplinary approach (psychiatrist, psychologist, nurse, child development and educationalist, social service specialist, psychological consultant, teacher, etc., having high evidence standards, use randomized controlled studies and yield long-term results. For that reason, this literature review was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of these two programs, to determine the differences, what is known about the issue.
Meyer, Alexandria; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Bufferd, Sara J; Kujawa, Autumn J; Laptook, Rebecca S; Torpey, Dana C; Klein, Daniel N
The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential (ERP) occurring approximately 50 ms after error commission at fronto-central electrode sites and is thought to reflect the activation of a generic error monitoring system. Several studies have reported an increased ERN in clinically anxious children, and suggest that anxious children are more sensitive to error commission--although the mechanisms underlying this association are not clear. We have previously found that punishing errors results in a larger ERN, an effect that persists after punishment ends. It is possible that learning-related experiences that impact sensitivity to errors may lead to an increased ERN. In particular, punitive parenting might sensitize children to errors and increase their ERN. We tested this possibility in the current study by prospectively examining the relationship between parenting style during early childhood and children's ERN approximately 3 years later. Initially, 295 parents and children (approximately 3 years old) participated in a structured observational measure of parenting behavior, and parents completed a self-report measure of parenting style. At a follow-up assessment approximately 3 years later, the ERN was elicited during a Go/No-Go task, and diagnostic interviews were completed with parents to assess child psychopathology. Results suggested that both observational measures of hostile parenting and self-report measures of authoritarian parenting style uniquely predicted a larger ERN in children 3 years later. We previously reported that children in this sample with anxiety disorders were characterized by an increased ERN. A mediation analysis indicated that ERN magnitude mediated the relationship between harsh parenting and child anxiety disorder. Results suggest that parenting may shape children's error processing through environmental conditioning and thereby risk for anxiety, although future work is needed to confirm this
Meyer, Alexandria; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Bufferd, Sara J.; Kujawa, Autumn J.; Laptook, Rebecca S.; Torpey, Dana C.; Klein, Daniel N.
The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential (ERP) occurring approximately 50 ms after error commission at fronto-central electrode sites and is thought to reflect the activation of a generic error monitoring system. Several studies have reported an increased ERN in clinically anxious children, and suggest that anxious children are more sensitive to error commission—although the mechanisms underlying this association are not clear. We have previously found that punishing errors results in a larger ERN, an effect that persists after punishment ends. It is possible that learning-related experiences that impact sensitivity to errors may lead to an increased ERN. In particular, punitive parenting might sensitize children to errors and increase their ERN. We tested this possibility in the current study by prospectively examining the relationship between parenting style during early childhood and children’s ERN approximately three years later. Initially, 295 parents and children (approximately 3 years old) participated in a structured observational measure of parenting behavior, and parents completed a self-report measure of parenting style. At a follow-up assessment approximately three years later, the ERN was elicited during a Go/No-Go task, and diagnostic interviews were completed with parents to assess child psychopathology. Results suggested that both observational measures of hostile parenting and self-report measures of authoritarian parenting style uniquely predicted a larger ERN in children 3 years later. We previously reported that children in this sample with anxiety disorders were characterized by an increased ERN. A mediation analysis indicated that ERN magnitude mediated the relationship between harsh parenting and child anxiety disorder. Results suggest that parenting may shape children’s error processing through environmental conditioning and thereby risk for anxiety, although future work is needed to
Whitesell, Corey J; Teti, Douglas M; Crosby, Brian; Kim, Bo-Ram
Household chaos is a construct often overlooked in studies of human development, despite its theoretical links with the integrity of individual well-being, family processes, and child development. The present longitudinal study examined relations between household chaos and well-established correlates of chaos (sociodemographic risk, major life events, and personal distress) and several constructs that, to date, are theoretically linked with chaos but never before assessed as correlates (quality of coparenting and emotional availability with infants at bedtime). In addressing this aim, we introduce a new measure of household chaos (the Descriptive In-home Survey of Chaos--Observer ReporteD, or DISCORD), wholly reliant on independent observer report, which draws from household chaos theory and prior empirical work but extends the measurement of chaos to include information about families' compliance with a home visiting protocol. Household chaos was significantly associated with socioeconomic risk, negative life events, less favorable coparenting, and less emotionally available bedtime parenting, but not with personal distress. These findings emphasize the need to examine household chaos as a direct and indirect influence on child and family outcomes, as a moderator of intervention attempts to improving parenting and child development, and as a target of intervention in its own right. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Francis, K; Dougali, A; Sideri, K; Kroupis, C; Vasdekis, V; Dima, K; Douzenis, A
Several lines of evidence point to a probable relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but studies have yielded inconsistent findings on the BDNF serum level in ASD. The study aimed to assess those levels in children with ASD and their families. BDNF serum levels were measured in 45 ASD children without intellectual disability (ID) and allergies, age 30-42 months and age-matched normal controls. BDNF serum levels in the parents of the ASD subjects were compared to normal controls. BDNF serum levels in the ASD subjects were followed up for 3 years and correlated with adaptive functioning changes. BDNF serum levels were measured to be lower in children with ASD and independent of all the major baseline characteristics of the subjects. Having a child with ASD raises the BDNF levels in parents comparing to controls. Prospectively, no correlation between the change of BDNF variables in time and the change of the Vineland scores was found. Our results contradict those from recent published meta-analyses with the age, the presence of ID and allergies being possible contributing factors. The parents' data indeed point to a role of BDNF in the pathophysiology of ASD. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jadva, V; Imrie, S; Golombok, S
How do the psychological health and experiences of surrogate mothers change from 1 year to 10 years following the birth of the surrogacy child? The psychological well-being of surrogate mothers did not change 10 years following the birth, with all remaining positive about the surrogacy arrangement and the majority continuing to report good mental health. Studies have found that surrogates may find the weeks following the birth difficult, but do not experience psychological problems 6 months or 1 year later. Research has also shown that surrogates can form close relationships with the intended parents during the pregnancy which may continue after the birth. This study used a prospective longitudinal design, in which 20 surrogates were seen at two time points: 1 year following the birth of the surrogacy child and 10 years later. The 20 surrogates (representing 59% of the original sample) participated in a semi-structured interview and completed self-report questionnaires. Eleven surrogates were gestational carriers and nine surrogates had used their own oocyte (genetic surrogacy). Four were previously known to the intended parents and 16 were previously not known. Ten years following the birth of the surrogacy child, surrogate mothers scored within the normal range for self-esteem and did not show signs of depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory. Marital quality remained positive over time. All surrogates reported that their expectations of their relationship with the intended parents had been either met or exceeded and most reported positive feelings towards the child. In terms of expectations for the future, most surrogates reported that they would like to maintain contact or would be available to the child if the child wished to contact them. None expressed regrets about their involvement in surrogacy. The sample size of this study was small and the women may not be representative of all surrogates. Therefore the extent to which these findings can
'right@home': a randomised controlled trial of sustained nurse home visiting from pregnancy to child age 2 years, versus usual care, to improve parent care, parent responsivity and the home learning environment at 2 years.
Goldfeld, Sharon; Price, Anna; Bryson, Hannah; Bruce, Tracey; Mensah, Fiona; Orsini, Francesca; Gold, Lisa; Hiscock, Harriet; Smith, Charlene; Bishop, Lara; Jackson, Dianne; Kemp, Lynn
By the time children start school, inequities in learning, development and health outcomes are already evident. Sustained nurse home visiting (SNHV) offers a potential platform for families experiencing adversity, who often have limited access to services. While SNHV programmes have been growing in popularity in Australia and internationally, it is not known whether they can improve children's learning and development when offered via the Australian service system. The right@home trial aims to investigate the effectiveness of an SNHV programme, offered to women from pregnancy to child age 2 years, in improving parent care of and responsivity to the child, and the home learning environment. Pregnant Australian women (n=722) are identified after completing a screening survey of 10 factors known to predict children's learning and development (eg, young pregnancy, poor mental or physical health, lack of support). Consenting women-surveyed while attending clinics at 10 hospitals in Victoria and Tasmania-are enrolled if they report having 2 or more risk factors. The intervention comprises 25 home visits from pregnancy to 2 years, focusing on parent care of the child, responsivity to the child and providing a good quality home learning environment. The standard, universal, Australian child and family health service provides the comparator (control). Primary outcome measures include a combination of parent-reported and objective assessments of children's sleep, safety, nutrition, parenting styles and the home learning environment, including the Home Observation of the Environment Inventory and items adapted from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. This study is approved by the Royal Children's Hospital Human Research Ethics Committees (HREC 32296) and site-specific HRECs. The investigators and sponsor will communicate the trial results to stakeholders, participants, healthcare professionals, the public and other relevant groups via presentations and
De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Te Velde, S J; Maes, L; Pérez-Rodrigo, C; de Almeida, M D V; Brug, J
To investigate whether fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in 11-year-olds, and social-environmental correlates of F&V intake such as parental modelling and encouragement, family food rules and home availability, differ according to general parenting styles in Belgium, The Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Cross-sectional study. Primary schools in four countries. Pupils and one of their parents completed questionnaires to measure F&V intake, related social-environmental correlates and general parenting styles. The sample size was 4555 (49.3 % boys); 1180 for Belgium, 883 for The Netherlands, 1515 for Portugal and 977 for Spain. Parenting styles were divided into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful. No differences were found in F&V intake across parenting styles and only very few significant differences in social-environmental correlates. The authoritarian (more parental encouragement and more demands to eat fruit) and the authoritative (more availability of fruit and vegetables) parenting styles resulted in more favourable correlates. Despite earlier studies suggesting that general parenting styles are associated with health behaviours in children, the present study suggests that this association is weak to non-existent for F&V intakes in four different European countries.
Barbot, Baptiste; Crossman, Elizabeth; Hunter, Scott R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Luthar, Suniya S.
This study examines longitudinally the bidirectional influences between maternal parenting (behaviors and parenting stress) and mothers' perceptions of their children's adjustment, in a multivariate approach. Data was gathered from 361 low-income mothers (many with psychiatric diagnoses) reporting on their parenting behavior, parenting stress and their child's adjustment, in a two-wave longitudinal study over 5 years. Measurement models were developed to derive four broad parenting constructs (Involvement, Control, Rejection, and Stress) and three child adjustment constructs (Internalizing problems, Externalizing problems, and Social competence). After measurement invariance of these constructs was confirmed across relevant groups and over time, both measurement models were integrated in a single crossed-lagged regression analysis of latent constructs. Multiple reciprocal influence were observed between parenting and perceived child adjustment over time: Externalizing and internalizing problems in children were predicted by baseline maternal parenting behaviors, while child social competence was found to reduce parental stress and increase parental involvement and appropriate monitoring. These findings on the motherhood experience are discussed in light of recent research efforts to understand mother-child bi-directional influences, and their potential for practical applications. PMID:25089759
Hautmann, Christopher; Hoijtink, Herbert; Eichelberger, Ilka; Hanisch, Charlotte; Plück, Julia; Walter, Daniel; Döpfner, Manfred
The long-term effectiveness of parent training for children with externalizing behaviour problems under routine care within the German health care system is unclear. We report the 1-year follow-up results of the parent training component of the Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behaviour (PEP) for 270 children aged 3-10 years with externalizing behaviour problems. Outcome measures included child behaviour problems (externalizing behaviour problems, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and Oppositional Defiant Disorder symptoms) and parenting (self efficacy of parenting and perceived ability to solve difficult parenting situations). Data were analysed using multilevel modelling. Comparison of the changes during the 3-month waiting and treatment periods revealed significantly stronger treatment effects on all outcome measures, indicating a substantial decrease in child behaviour problems and a significant increase in parenting due to treatment. At 1-year follow-up, initial treatment effects on child behaviour problems were maintained, while parenting continued to improve. Families whose children exhibited externalizing problem behaviour profit from PEP and improvements are maintained for at least one year.
Palbusa, Julienne Marie Alipio
This study examined conceptions of a good college student, parent-student communication about college, academic achievement, college student retention, and college generation status among first-year college students. 344 undergraduates described the characteristics and skills of a good college student. In addition, they reported the frequency, perceived helpfulness, and quality (instrumental and emotional support) of parent-student communication about college. Student GPA and second year rete...
Nyberg, Tommy; Hed Myrberg, Ida; Omerov, Pernilla; Steineck, Gunnar; Nyberg, Ullakarin
Parents who lose a child by suicide have elevated risks of depression. No clinical prediction tools exist to identify which suicide-bereaved parents will be particularly vulnerable; we aimed to create a prediction model for long-term depression for this purpose. During 2009 and 2010 we collected data using a nationwide study-specific questionnaire among parents in Sweden who had lost a child aged 15-30 by suicide in years 2004-2007. Current depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and a single question on antidepressant use. We considered 26 potential predictors assumed clinically assessable at the time of loss, including socio-economics, relationship status, history of psychological stress and morbidity, and suicide-related circumstances. We developed a novel prediction model using logistic regression with all subsets selection and stratified cross-validation. The model was assessed for classification performance and calibration, overall and stratified by time since loss. In total 666/915 (73%) participated. The model showed acceptable classification performance (adjusted area under the curve [AUC] = 0.720, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.673-0.766), but performed classification best for those at shortest time since loss. Agreement between model-predicted and observed risks was fair, but with a tendency for underestimation and overestimation for individuals with shortest and longest time since loss, respectively. The identified predictors include female sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.84); sick-leave (OR = 2.81) or unemployment (OR = 1.64); psychological premorbidity debuting during the last 10 years, before loss (OR = 3.64), or more than 10 years ago (OR = 4.96); suicide in biological relatives (OR = 1.54); with non-legal guardianship during the child's upbringing (OR = 0.48); and non-biological parenthood (OR = 0.22) found as protective. Our prediction model shows promising internal validity, but should be externally validated before
Aktar, Evin; Bögels, Susan M
Depression and anxiety load in families. In the present study, we focus on exposure to parental negative emotions in first postnatal year as a developmental pathway to early parent-to-child transmission of depression and anxiety. We provide an overview of the little research available on the links between infants' exposure to negative emotion and infants' emotional development in this developmentally sensitive period, and highlight priorities for future research. To address continuity between normative and maladaptive development, we discuss exposure to parental negative emotions in infants of parents with as well as without depression and/or anxiety diagnoses. We focus on infants' emotional expressions in everyday parent-infant interactions, and on infants' attention to negative facial expressions as early indices of emotional development. Available evidence suggests that infants' emotional expressions echo parents' expressions and reactions in everyday interactions. In turn, infants exposed more to negative emotions from the parent seem to attend less to negative emotions in others' facial expressions. The links between exposure to parental negative emotion and development hold similarly in infants of parents with and without depression and/or anxiety diagnoses. Given its potential links to infants' emotional development, and to later psychological outcomes in children of parents with depression and anxiety, we conclude that early exposure to parental negative emotions is an important developmental mechanism that awaits further research. Longitudinal designs that incorporate the study of early exposure to parents' negative emotion, socio-emotional development in infancy, and later psychological functioning while considering other genetic and biological vulnerabilities should be prioritized in future research.
Bohman, Hannes; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Päären, Aivar; Jonsson, Ulf
Earlier research has investigated the association between parental separation and long-term health outcomes among offspring, but few studies have assessed the potentially moderating role of mental health status in adolescence. The aim of this study was to analyze whether parental separation in childhood predicts depression in adulthood and whether the pattern differs between individuals with and without earlier depression. A community-based sample of individuals with adolescent depression in 1991-93 and matched non-depressed peers were followed up using a structured diagnostic interview after 15 years. The participation rate was 65% (depressed n = 227; non-depressed controls n = 155). Information on parental separation and conditions in childhood and adolescence was collected at baseline. The outcome was depression between the ages 19-31 years; information on depression was collected at the follow-up diagnostic interview. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. Our analyses showed that depressed adolescents with separated parents had an excess risk of recurrence of depression in adulthood, compared with depressed adolescents with non-separated parents. In addition, among adolescents with depression, parental separation was associated with an increased risk of a switch to bipolar disorder in adulthood. Among the matched non-depressed peers, no associations between parental separation and adult depression or bipolar disorder were found. Parental separation may have long-lasting health consequences for vulnerable individuals who suffer from mental illness already in adolescence.
Wikman, Anna; Hovén, Emma; Cernvall, Martin; Ljungman, Gustaf; Ljungman, Lisa; von Essen, Louise
Cancer in a child is associated with a significant impact on parental employment. We assessed the proportions of parents of survivors and bereaved parents working and reporting sick leave five years after end of successful treatment (ST)/child's death (T7) compared with one year after end of ST/child's death (T6) and the association between partial post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and work situation and sick leave at T7. Participants and procedure: The sample included 152 parents of survivors (77 mothers, 75 fathers) and 42 bereaved parents (22 mothers, 20 fathers) of children diagnosed with cancer in Sweden. The proportions of parents working or reporting sick leave did not differ among mothers and fathers of survivors (92% vs. 96% working, 20% vs. 18% on sick leave) or among bereaved mothers and fathers (91% vs. 90% working, 14% vs. 20% on sick leave) at T7. There was no change from T6 to T7 in the proportion of fathers working (fathers of survivors 91% vs. 96%, bereaved fathers 95% vs. 90%). Although more mothers of survivors (92% vs. 82%) and bereaved mothers (91% vs. 77%) worked at T7 than at T6, this increase was not significant. Fewer bereaved mothers reported sick leave at T7 than at T6 (14% vs. 59%, p leave at T7 than at T6 (fathers of survivors 18% vs. 8%, bereaved fathers 20% vs. 15%), this was not significant. Partial PTSD was not associated with parents' work situation or sick leave at T7. Results suggest little adverse effect on work situation and sick leave among parents of survivors and bereaved parents five years after end of ST/child's death from cancer. However, the pattern of change observed differed between parents, which could potentially indicate possible delayed consequences for fathers not captured in the present paper.
Treyvaud, Karli; Doyle, Lex W.; Lee, Katherine J.; Ure, Alexandra; Inder, Terrie E.; Hunt, Rod W.; Anderson, Peter J.
Parenting influences child development, but it is unclear whether early parenting behavior can influence school-age outcomes in very preterm (VPT) children, and/or if certain groups of VPT children may be more affected by early parenting behavior. These research questions were examined. Participants were 147 children born <30 weeks' gestation…
Ticehurst, R L; Henry, R L
Behavioural problems in preschool (1-4 years) children are a common cause of referral to health services. Parents of children presenting to the child development unit with behavioural problems (n = 18) were compared with a control group (n = 45). A questionnaire was utilized to examine the parents' expectations of the children's behaviours. As might be expected, the parents of children presenting to the Unit rated their children as having more difficult behaviours. These parents had unrealistic expectations, particularly for the 'negative' behaviours (disobedience, temper tantrums, defiance and whinging). However, they were able to anticipate normal age-related difficulties in some problem areas (dawdling during mealtimes, masturbating, not sharing toys and being jealous of one's siblings). Counselling should address the issue of matching the expectations of parents with the individual rates of development of their children.
Sagami, Ayumi; Kayama, Mami; Senoo, Eiichi
The relationships between postpartum depression and demographic characteristics, social support, marital relationship, negative and passive acceptance of the mother role, and parenting behavior were examined in 215 mothers who live in Tokyo, Japan, and who have a child less than 1 year old. Social support from husbands or friends and marital relationship were found to be significantly related to the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score. Although negative and passive acceptance of the mother role was also related to the EPDS score and neglectful parenting behavior, it was not found to be related to aggressive parenting behavior. The correlation between EPDS score and neglectful or aggressive parenting behavior was also significant, with aggressive parenting behavior more strongly related to the EPDS score.
Karppanen, Anna-Kaisa; Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Tammelin, Tuija; Vanhala, Marja; Korpelainen, Raija
Objectives To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n =53) to normal weight children (n=65), and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design A cross-sectional study. Methods A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C). Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run). Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72) were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p=0.004); no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p=0.741). Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r=0.363, pphysical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and their families and focus on helping parents and children to be physically active together. PMID:22456036
Noor, Azimah M; Leelavathi, M; Shamsul, Azhar S; Hizlinda, T; Khairani, O; Fatimah, A
Body weight of children is affected by many factors including food habits which are influenced by their parents. Studies in the West have shown that parents tend to control child feeding in response to their child's weight status. The aim of this study was to assess Malaysian parental concerns about child weight and the control they exert on child feeding. This cross-sectional study was conducted on parents and their children aged 9 to 12 years from a primary school in Kuala Lumpur. The weight status of the children was classified according to the body mass index-for-age growth chart. Parental concerns about child weight and control in child feeding was assessed using the adapted Malay version of Child Feeding Questionnaire. A total of 204 parents participated in this study. The study found that being a female served as a protective factor against becoming overweight (OR: 0.28, CI: 0.13-0.62). Parents with overweight children were significantly older (OR: 1.08, CI: 1.01-1.15), concerned about their child's weight (OR: 2.77, CI: 1.49-5.12) and controlled their child's feeding by restricting food intake (OR: 2.70, CI: 1.30-5.60). They were less likely to pressure their children to eat (OR: 0.32, CI: 0.19-0.56). Parents from the low income group were more likely to have underweight children (OR: 4.15, CI: 1.28-13.47). There was significant difference in level of parental concern across differing child weight status. Parents with overweight children were likely to be more concerned about their child's weight, tending to control their feeding. In contrast, parents with underweight children did not exert control on their feeding.
Terp, Karina; Sjöström-Strand, Annica
For parents, having a child admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is a very stressful experience filled with anxiety. Parents are often scared and traumatised. This stress can lead to PTSD. The aim was to describe parents' experiences and the effect on the family two years after their child was admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit. Ten parents were interviewed according to a semi-structured interview guide. An inductive approach was applied for the study and qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The parents carried vivid memories and they were still strongly affected by the experience of having their child admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit. They could clearly recall the environment, feelings that affected them and how they felt powerless. The relationship between the parents had been strengthened. Parents, siblings and the ill child could all show symptoms of anxiety, stress and sleeping disorders. The parents valued life differently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Veldhuis, Lydian; van Grieken, Amy; Renders, Carry M.; HiraSing, Remy A.; Raat, Hein
Introduction The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. Methods This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067) collected for the ‘Be active, eat right’ study. Results Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Conclusion The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room. PMID:24533092
Prinzie, Peter; Dekovic, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L.; de Haan, Amaranta D.; Stoltz, Sabine E. M. J.; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn
We investigated fathers' personality and its interaction with children's personality as predictors of adolescent perceived parenting behavior. Data were used from the Flemish Study on Parenting, Personality and Development including 353 children. At Time 1 fathers rated their personality whereas
Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Miles, Donna; Perrin, Eliana M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Ford, Carol
We compared parental reports of children's height and weight when the values were estimated vs. parent-measured to determine how these reports influence the estimated prevalence of childhood obesity. In the 2007 and 2008 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program surveys, parents reported height and weight for children aged 3-17 years. When parents reported the values were not measured (by doctor, school, or home), they were asked to measure their child and were later called back. We categorized body mass index status using standard CDC definitions, and we used Chi-square tests and the Stuart-Maxwell test of marginal homogeneity to examine reporting differences. About 80% (n=509) of the 638 parents who reported an unmeasured height and/or weight participated in a callback and provided updated measures. Children originally classified as obese were subsequently classified as obese (67%), overweight (13%), and healthy weight (19%). An estimated 28% of younger children (children (aged ≥10 years) were reclassified on callback. Having parents who guessed the height and weight of their children and then reported updated values did not significantly change the overall population estimates of obesity. Our findings demonstrate that using parent-reported height and weight values may be sufficient to provide reasonable estimates of obesity prevalence. Systematically asking the source of height and weight information may help improve how it is applied to research of the prevalence of childhood obesity when gold-standard measurements are not available.
Schrank, Beate; Moran, Katherine; Borghi, Cristiana; Priebe, Stefan
There are well-established risks for parents with severe mental illness (i.e. psychotic and bipolar disorders), both for their children and themselves. Interventions to help parents fulfil their role should therefore be a public health objective, but their implementation needs to be underpinned by research evidence. This systematic review determines what is known about the nature and effectiveness of interventions for parents with severe mental illness. We conducted a narrative synthesis of controlled and uncontrolled studies reporting interventions for this patient group after the post-natal period (i.e. after the child has turned 1 year old). Eighteen publications reported data from 15 studies. All but two studies were rated as low quality studies. Interventions included home visiting programmes, complex community programmes, residential treatments, and online interventions. Interventions targeted diverse areas, with parenting skills and understanding the impact of mental illness on parenting most frequently addressed. Both parent and child-related outcomes improved, but children were only assessed via observers and follow-up times were short. Interventions were diverse with respect to their nature and effectiveness. Future interventions should combine different intervention strategies to target multiple areas in a flexible manner. The addition of positively focussed and resource-oriented components should be investigated. Trials should include direct assessments of both parents and children, outcomes that are relevant from a public health perspective, and establish the long-term effects ideally until children have reached 18 years of age.
Guisinger, Shan; And Others
Examined determinants of marital quality over 3 years for 62 remarried fathers and their new wives, including their sense of self, division of family work, relationships with children, and relationships with former wives. Findings support hypothesis that ambiguity in remarriage role expectations and quality of relations with husband's children and…
Although sociology education is celebrating its 100th year anniversary in Turkish higher education, the field itself is not known quite well by the society. Familial worries in the context of emotional sociology are very important because families may have when they think of their child's future especially after graduation from university. Primary…
Hicks-Hoste, Taylor B.; Carlson, John S.; Tiret, Holly B.
The need for and importance of bringing evidence-based interventions into school settings has been firmly established. Adapting and adjusting intervention programs to meet the unique needs of a school district requires personnel to use a data-based approach to implementation. This pilot study is the first to report on after-school care providers'…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of involving parents in the end-of-life decision-making-process (EOL DMP for their child in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU is recognised by ethical guidelines in numerous countries. However, studies exploring parents' opinions on the type of involvement report conflicting results. This study sought to explore parents' experience of the EOL DMP for their child in the NICU. METHODS: The study used a retrospective longitudinal design with a qualitative analysis of parental experience 3 years after the death of their child in four NICUs in France. 53 face-to-face interviews and 80 telephone interviews were conducted with 164 individuals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore how parents perceived their role in the decision process, what they valued about physicians' attitudes in this situation and whether their long-term emotional well being varied according to their perceived role in the EOL DMP. FINDINGS: Qualitative analysis identified four types of perceived role in the DMP: shared, medical, informed parental decision, and no decision. Shared DM was the most appreciated by parents. Medical DM was experienced as positive only when it was associated with communication. Informed parental DM was associated with feelings of anxiousness and abandonment. The physicians' attitudes that were perceived as helpful in the long term were explicit sharing of responsibility, clear expression of staff preferences, and respectful care and language toward the child. INTERPRETATION: Parents find it valuable to express their opinion in the EOL DMP of their child. Nonetheless, they do need continuous emotional support and an explicit share of the responsibility for the decision. As involvement preferences and associated feelings can vary, parents should be able to decide what role they want to play. However, our study suggests that fully autonomous decisions should be misadvised in these types of tragic choices.
Mooney-Doyle, Kim; Deatrick, Janet A; Horowitz, June Andrews
Every day, normative functions of parenting and their significance are under-investigated. An integrative review of tasks and communication involved in parenting young children informed by Horowitz (1995) and Blumer (1969) was conducted.Research articles consistent with inclusion criteria were published from 1995 to 2013 and focused on parenting tasks and communication. Themes consistent with Horowitz and Blumer were identified. Nurses are reminded about the significance of attending to the everyday, normative work of parenting young children, the potential meaning derived from this work, and the importance of assessing parental development as well as the importance of continuing research in this area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dinka Čorkalo Biruški
Full Text Available The year 2007 marked the 10th anniversary of the Erdut Agreement, which, among other issues, regulated the rights of the Serbian minority in the Croatian Danube region to education in their mother tongue and the Cyrillic script. In practice, this agreement separates the children in schools according to the ethnic principle, so that Croatian and Serbian children attend separate educational programs, thus preventing their interethnic contact also in a school which is their everyday environment. At the same time, the city of Vukovar has become an ethnically divided community in which out-of-school contacts among children are not encouraged either. The objective of this study is to compare attitudes towards several aspects of education in Vukovar that were assessed twice, in 2001 and 2007. In the first study, 718 pupils in the 6th and 8th grades of elementary school, and the 2nd grade of secondary schools participated, together with 953 parents and 113 teachers lecturing on the so-called “national group of subjects”. The children attended the educational program either in the Croatian or in the Serbian language. In the follow-up study, 703 pupils of the same age participated, with an additional sample of pupils from the 1st grade of secondary school, and a total of 849 parents and 88 teachers. Attitudes towards school integration, out-of-school social integration of children, multiculturalism and assimilation of minorities were assessed, as well as preferences for the three options in which the education of ethnic minorities in Croatia can be organized. The results showed small but consistent and statistically significant convergence over the period of six years in attitudes of the majority and the minority groups regarding some aspects of education and out-of-school relations. The implications of separated schooling of children in Vukovar for current and future inter-ethnic relations in the community are discussed.
Stretch, Rebecca; McCann, Rosemary; Roberts, Stephen A; Elton, Peter; Baxter, David; Brabin, Loretta
In the UK, parental consent for the routine vaccination of 12-13 year olds schoolgirls against human papillomavirus (HPV) is recommended, although legally girls may be able to consent themselves. As part of a vaccine study conducted ahead of the National HPV Vaccine Programme we sought the views of school nurses on vaccinating girls who did not have parental consent. HPV vaccination was offered to all 12 year old girls attending schools in two Primary Care Trusts in Greater Manchester. At the end of the study semi-structured, tape-recorded interviews were conducted with school nurses who had delivered the vaccine (Cervarix). The interview template was based on concepts derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Transcripts were analysed thematically in order to understand school nurses' intentions to implement vaccination based on an assessment of Gillick competency. School nurses knew how to assess the competency of under-16s but were still unwilling to vaccinate if parents had refused permission. If parents had not returned the consent form, school nurses were willing to contact parents, and also to negotiate with parents who had refused consent. They seemed unaware that parental involvement required the child's consent to avoid breaking confidentiality. Nurses' attitudes were influenced by the young appearance and age of the school year group rather than an individual's level of maturity. They were also confused about the legal guidelines governing consent. School nurses acknowledged the child's right to vaccination and strongly supported prevention of HPV infection but ultimately believed that it was the parents' right to give consent. Most were themselves parents and shared other parents' concerns about the vaccine's novelty and unknown long-term side effects. Rather than vaccinate without parental consent, school nurses would defer vaccination. Health providers have a duty of care to girls for whom no parental consent for HPV vaccination has been given
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the UK, parental consent for the routine vaccination of 12–13 year olds schoolgirls against human papillomavirus (HPV is recommended, although legally girls may be able to consent themselves. As part of a vaccine study conducted ahead of the National HPV Vaccine Programme we sought the views of school nurses on vaccinating girls who did not have parental consent. Methods HPV vaccination was offered to all 12 year old girls attending schools in two Primary Care Trusts in Greater Manchester. At the end of the study semi-structured, tape-recorded interviews were conducted with school nurses who had delivered the vaccine (Cervarix™. The interview template was based on concepts derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Transcripts were analysed thematically in order to understand school nurses' intentions to implement vaccination based on an assessment of Gillick competency. Results School nurses knew how to assess the competency of under-16s but were still unwilling to vaccinate if parents had refused permission. If parents had not returned the consent form, school nurses were willing to contact parents, and also to negotiate with parents who had refused consent. They seemed unaware that parental involvement required the child's consent to avoid breaking confidentiality. Nurses' attitudes were influenced by the young appearance and age of the school year group rather than an individual's level of maturity. They were also confused about the legal guidelines governing consent. School nurses acknowledged the child's right to vaccination and strongly supported prevention of HPV infection but ultimately believed that it was the parents' right to give consent. Most were themselves parents and shared other parents' concerns about the vaccine's novelty and unknown long-term side effects. Rather than vaccinate without parental consent, school nurses would defer vaccination. Conclusion Health providers have a duty of care to
Jewitt, David; Agarwal, Jessica; Li, Jing; Weaver, Harold A.; Mutchler, Maximilian J.; Larson, Stephen M.
We present a comprehensive study of the actively disintegrating asteroid P/2013 R3. Using the Hubble and Keck telescopes, we identified thirteen discrete components separating with a mean, pair-wise velocity dispersion of v = 0.33+/-0.03 m/s. Their separation times are staggered over an interval of 5 months. Combined, the components of P/2013 R3 would form a single spherical body with radius 400 m, which is our best estimate of the size of the precursor object. Dust enveloping the system has, in the first observations, a cross-section 30 sq. km but fades monotonically at a rate consistent with the action of radiation pressure sweeping. The individual components exhibit comet-like morphologies and also fade except where secondary fragmentation is accompanied by the release of additional dust. Upper limits to the radii of any embedded solid nuclei are typically 100 to 200 m (geometric albedo 0.05 assumed). The observations are consistent with rotational disruption of a weak (cohesive strength 50 to 100 Pa) parent body, 400 m in radius. Estimated radiation (YORP) spin-up times of this parent are less than 1 Myr, shorter than the collisional lifetime. If present, water ice sublimating at as little as 1 g/s could generate a torque on the parent body rivaling the YORP torque. Under conservative assumptions about the frequency of similar disruptions, the inferred asteroid debris production rate is 1000 kg/s, which is at least 4 percent of the rate needed to maintain the Zodiacal Cloud.The work has been recently published: D. Jewitt, J. Agarwal, J. Li, H. Weaver, M. Mutchler, S. Larson (2017). The Astronomical Journal, 153:223(17pp)
Wang, Zixin; Wang, Jingjing; Fang, Yuan; Gross, Danielle L; Wong, Martin C S; Wong, Eliza L Y; Lau, Joseph T F
This study was to investigate parental acceptability of HPV vaccination for their sons and daughters aged 9-13 years under different cost scenarios, and factors associated with parental acceptability at market price. Participants were: (1) Chinese speaking parents aged 18-60 years with a Hong Kong ID card; (2) had a son or a daughter aged 9-13 years at the date of the survey; (3) the child had the right to abode in Hong Kong. Random telephone numbers were selected from up-to-date telephone directories of Hong Kong. A total of 300 eligible parents (boys' parents: 162; girls' parents: 138, response rate: 68.9% & 69%) provided verbal informed consent and completed the anonymous telephone interview during March to October 2016. Using parental acceptability of HPV vaccination at market price as the dependent variable, univariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted. The prevalence of HPV vaccination was very low among boys and girls (0.6% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.242). Among those whose children had not taken up HPV vaccination, the prevalence of parental acceptability of HPV vaccination for the index son and daughter were: 14.9% and 27.4% (market price), and 51.6% and 63.0% (free vaccination). Adjusted for sociodemographic variables, attitudinal variables based on the Health Belief Model were associated with parental acceptability of HPV vaccination for their sons (perception that it was not worthy, perceived cue to action from mass media and perceived self-efficacy) and for their daughters (perceived susceptibility and perceived severity of HPV infection among females, perceived benefit of HPV vaccination and perceived self-efficacy). Coverage of HPV vaccination among children aged 9-13 years was very low. Instead of waiting for the free universal vaccination to become available, promotion of self-paid HPV vaccination targeting parents is urgently needed. Different strategies should be applied to boys' and girls' parents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier
Guo, Ling-Yu; Eisenberg, Sarita
Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which sample length affected the reliability of total number of words (TNW), number of different words (NDW), and mean length of C-units in morphemes (MLCUm) in parent-elicited conversational samples for 3-year-olds. Method: Participants were sixty 3-year-olds. A 22-min language…
Gao, Yongqing; Huang, Yuee; Zhang, Yongjun; Liu, Fengqiong; Feng, Cindy Xin; Liu, Tingting; Li, Changwei; Ling, Dong Dong; Mu, Yongping; Tarver, Siobhan L; Wang, Mao; Sun, Wenjie
A community-based intervention study was conducted to assess a nutrition education intervention on western style fast food consumption among Chinese children and parents. Eight kindergartens from three district areas of Hefei City (a total of 1252 children aged 4-6 years and their parents) were randomly selected. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used to evaluate the baseline, midterm, and final western style fast food knowledge, attitude, and practice in both parents and children were used to identify and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice in the parents and children. Parents and children were divided into "intervention" and "control" groups based on nutrition education status. Consumption of western style fast food at breakfast in Chinese children and parents is not high. The main reasons for this in children is that consumption of western style fast food is not viewed as "food", but rather as a "gift" or "interesting". The time of children's consumption of western style fast food is mostly likely to be in the weekends. The nutrition education modified the parents' western style fast food behavior (p nutrition concept should be built up among Chinese, especially in children. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the nutrition education.
Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J; Trentacosta, Christopher J
In the current study, we examined longitudinal changes in, and bidirectional effects between, parenting practices and child behavior problems in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up period. The sample comprised 139 parent-child dyads (child ages 6-11) who participated in a modular treatment protocol for early-onset ODD or CD. Parenting practices and child behavior problems were assessed at six time-points using multiple measures and multiple reporters. The data were analyzed using cross-lagged panel analyses. Results indicated robust temporal stabilities of parenting practices and child behavior problems, in the context of treatment-related improvements, but bidirectional effects between parenting practices and child behavior were less frequently detected. Our findings suggest that bidirectional effects are relatively smaller than the temporal stability of each construct for school-age children with ODD/CD and their parents, following a multi-modal clinical intervention that is directed at both parents and children. Implications for treatment and intervention are discussed.
Gage, Heather; Egan, Bernadette; Williams, Peter; Brands, Brigitte; Györei, Eszter; López-Robles, Juan-Carlos; Campoy, Cristina; Decsi, Tamas; Koletzko, Berthold; Raats, Monique
Typically, attention focuses on how nutrition affects physical health. The present study investigated the importance that parents attach to the impact of diet on mental performance when choosing food for their child. Questionnaire. Four European countries. Parents of children aged 4-10 years (n 1574): England (n 397), Germany (n 389), Hungary (n 398) and Spain (n 390). Most parents (80-85 %) considered the effect of food on four elements of mental performance (child's ability to learn, attention, behaviour, mood) to be moderately, very, extremely (v. slightly, not at all) important in food choices; over 90 % considered healthiness of food and making food appealing to their child important; 79·8 % cost; 76·8 % convenience. Belief that food affects mental performance was 57·4 % (ability to learn), 60·5 % (attention); less than 40 % of parents agreed they were aware which foods had an effect. Parents with lower general interest in healthy eating were less likely to consider the effect of food on mental performance elements as important. Respondents from Germany were more likely to rate mental performance as important (except behaviour); those in Hungary less likely. The most important influence on parents' decisions about feeding their child was their own experience, except Spain, where family/friends/health professionals were more important. Nutrition affects brain development and cognitive functioning. Low prioritisation of the effect of food on mental performance indicates potential for educating parents.
Abar, Caitlin; Turrisi, Robert
Building on previous findings supporting the continuing influence of parents on their teens after they have gone to college [Turrisi, R., Jaccard, J., Taki, R., Dunnam, H., & Grimes, J. (2001). Examination of the short-term efficacy of a parent intervention to reduce college student drinking tendencies. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15(4), 366-372.; Turrisi, R., Padilla, K., & Wiersma, K. (2000). College student drinking: An examination of theoretical models of drinking tendencies in freshman and upperclassmen. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 61, 598-602.[28
Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes
Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices.
Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n = 53 to normal weight children (n = 65, and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C. Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run. Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results: Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72 were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p = 0.004; no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p = 0.741. Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r = 0.363, p < 0.001, but no such association was found between fathers and children (r = 0.019, p = 0.864. Conclusion: This study shows an inverse relationship between excess bodyweight and physical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and
Shinnar, Ruth C; Shinnar, Shlomo; Hesdorffer, Dale C; O'Hara, Kathryn; Conklin, Terrie; Cornett, Karen Mohler; Miazga, Diana; Sun, Shumei
Febrile status epilepticus is a serious and frightening event in the life of the child and parent. It is regarded as a medical emergency with potential long lasting consequences. The purpose of this study was to look at the immediate and long term effects of such an event on parental stress and parents' perception of their child's physical and psychosocial wellbeing. From 2003 to 2010, 199 subjects, age 1 month to 5 years, were recruited as part of a prospective, multicenter study (FEBSTAT) of consequences of febrile status epilepticus (FSE). At one month and one year after the episode of FSE, parents were asked to complete the Parenting Stress Index, short form (PSI/SF), the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). In addition to PedsQL and CBCL in the FEBSTAT subjects only, a comparison was made between Columbia Study of First Febrile Seizures subjects with a first simple febrile seizure (SFS) and the FEBSTAT group, including 15 subjects with FSE from the Columbia group, in the area of parental stress which was administered at the same time intervals in both studies. At baseline, the PSI/SF was statistically significantly higher for SFS versus FSE on the parent-child dysfunctional score and the total raw score, however at one year this difference resolved. In the FSE group, significantly higher parental stress over one year was reported in children with abnormal versus normal prior development (p= 0.02). Prior abnormal development was a risk factor at 1 year for lower total PEDSQL (p=0.01) versus prior normal development. Mean scores on the CBCL at baseline and 1 year were within the normal range for both empirically based scales and major risk factors. Parents of children experiencing a SFS experienced more stress at baseline than those with FSE. Families of children in the FEBSTAT cohort with identified development problems at baseline that continued, or progressed over the one year period, reported decreasing QOL
Haszard, Jillian J; Skidmore, Paula M L; Williams, Sheila M; Taylor, Rachael W
Parents report that children's eating behaviours are a major barrier to providing them with a healthy diet. Links between problem eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are not well established and have not previously been examined in overweight children. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between problem food behaviours, dietary intake and parental feeding practices of overweight children aged 4-8 years. Participants were recruited for a lifestyle intervention (n 203). At baseline, children's BMI was measured and parents completed comprehensive questionnaires about the feeding practices they used, the problem food behaviours their children exhibited and the foods their child consumed. A fussy eating scale was developed and associations were determined using correlations and regression analysis, including interactions. Dunedin, New Zealand. Overweight children aged 4-8 years. Healthy eating guidance and monitoring by parents were related to the consumption of fewer unhealthy foods (B=-0·4, P=0·001 and B=-0·4, Pfoods (B = 0·5, Pfood intake less (Pfood-restrictive parents ate more fruit and vegetables (B=2·9, Pfood environment might be beneficial for the diet and food behaviours of young overweight children.
Freeman, Kurt A; Duke, Danny C
The authors assessed the effectiveness of habit reversal training (HRT) to treat a complex motor stereotypy in a healthy 3-year-old female. This data-based case study involved training parents in HRT to deliver the parent-driven intervention to the child. The frequency of the child's behaviors was estimated daily in 30-min intervals by her parents. Outcomes supported the effectiveness of the intervention, with the estimated frequency of the stereotypy decreasing from occurring during approximately 85% of recorded intervals to less than 2% over a period of 4 weeks. Further record keeping over 19 weeks suggested treatment gains were generally maintained over time. The current case study provides preliminary evidence supporting the effectiveness of modified HRT to reduce stereotypies in young children. Further, data suggest that the intervention may be extended to younger ages by teaching parents how to facilitate treatment delivery. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Ringlever, L.; Hiemstra, J.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Schayck, C.P. van; Otten, R.
The present study evaluated long-term effects of a home-based smoking prevention program targeting smoking-specific parenting in families with children with and without asthma. A total of 1398 non-smoking children (mean age 10.1) participated, of which 197 (14.1%) were diagnosed with asthma.
Ringlever, Linda; Hiemstra, Marieke; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; van Schayck, Onno C. P.; Otten, Roy
The present study evaluated long-term effects of a home-based smoking prevention program targeting smoking-specific parenting in families with children with and without asthma. A total of 1398 non-smoking children ("mean age" 10.1) participated, of which 197 (14.1%) were diagnosed with asthma. Families were blinded to group assignment.…
Wei, Yu-Li; Chen, Li-Li; Li, Tsai-Chung; Ma, Wei-Fen; Peng, Niang-Huei; Huang, Li-Chi
Although accidental injury is the main factor involved in the death of young children in many countries, few studies have focused on parents' competence with regard to self-efficacy of first aid for their children following injuries occurring at home. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate parental self-sufficiency of first aid for home accidents in children aged 0-4 years. The study is a cross-sectional designed. Data from 445 parents recruited were collected by purposive sampling at eight metropolitan community health centers in central Taiwan. Measurements were taken from a self-developed questionnaire that included 37 questions. Logistic regression analysis was applied to explore the associations between factors and parents' self-efficacy of first aid at home accident. Our findings show that parents' overall rate of knowledge of first aid was 72%. The mean score for 100% certainty in parents' self-efficacy of first aid was 26.6%. The lowest scores for self-efficacy were with regard to choking and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). There was a significantly positive correlation between parents' knowledge and self-efficacy of first aid (pfirst aid is a predictor of parents' self-efficacy. Knowledge of first aid is also a partly mediator between participants' attending first aid program, participants' first aid information obtained from health personnel and self-efficacy of first aid. Our findings suggest that medical services should provide first aid resources to help manage accidental injuries involving children, particularly information on how to deal with choking and CPR. With an appropriate program provided by health professionals, parents' self-efficacy of first aid for home accidents will be positively enhanced. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Noting that swift growth with the accompanying desire for independence during early adolescence creates tension in the family that is often difficult for parents to understand, accept, and handle, this book is designed to help parents adapt their roles to nurture the physical, social, emotional, and intellectual development of their early teen.…
Engle, Jennifer M.; McElwain, Nancy L.
Using data from a subset of 606 families who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we assessed emotional intimacy in the marriage as a buffer of the negative effects of parental depression on the quality of parent-child interaction. Maternal and paternal…
"True innovation may be defined as a knock-out idea that is so beautifully simple everyone wonders why he didn't think of it. Sometimes, it takes a determined outsider with expertise in a totally different field to put the pieces together. The Geneva-based start-up SpinX Technologies is a case study..." (2 pages)
This study set out to explore the contribution of parents' own school memories to the way they remembered their child's school years and took part in his/her schooling. The respondents were a group of academically and vocationally educated fathers and mothers (N = 326), who participated in a full 9-year follow-up study of their child's schooling.…
Vasilescu, C; Garel, M; Caeymaex, L
The mortality rate both before and after birth is higher in twins. Parents face a particularly difficult mourning experience when confronted with the loss of 1 of their newborn twins. The aim of this article is to describe how parents experience and cope with this situation over the long term, how they describe the loss at the time of the death in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), the way they are able to become attached to the surviving twin, and the role that NICU caregivers can play to help them. This study is part of a larger qualitative study on parental mourning after the loss of a newborn in 4 NICUs in France. Semi-structured research interviews were conducted 3years after the death. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and anonymized. Discourse analysis was used to extract the data on different themes. Among the 166 participating parents, 26 had lost a newborn twin. The parents reported their difficulties when faced with simultaneous contradictory events at the time of the death of a twin child in the NICU. Mourning appeared to be more difficult in this particular case: to combine the loss of a deceased child with the care of the surviving newborn was very complicated. The existence of the "co-twin" was described as an essential support for the parents; however, over the long term, this child could not fulfill the feelings of emptiness. The relation with this surviving child was sometimes disturbed by parental anxiety that the accident could recur. Fathers and mothers showed repression of their sadness and despair. The representations of the 2 children in their parents' mind were sometimes very close or even overlapping and some parents were confused with regards to the place each of them could have. In the NICU, the caregivers should be able to listen to the parents expressing their contradictory feelings, to sustain the acknowledgement of the loss of 1 child, and in becoming attached to the surviving child. Parents need to be reassured about
Edwards, M J; Jago, R; Sebire, S J; Kesten, J M; Pool, L; Thompson, J L
The present study uses qualitative data to explore parental perceptions of how their young child's screen viewing and physical activity behaviours are influenced by their child's friends and siblings. Telephone interviews were conducted with parents of year 1 children (age 5-6 years). Interviews considered parental views on a variety of issues related to their child's screen viewing and physical activity behaviours, including the influence that their child's friends and siblings have over such behaviours. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using deductive content analysis. Data were organised using a categorisation matrix developed by the research team. Coding and theme generation was iterative and refined throughout. Data were entered into and coded within N-Vivo. Parents were recruited through 57 primary schools located in Bristol and the surrounding area that took part in the B-ProAct1v study. Fifty-three parents of children aged 5-6 years. Parents believe that their child's screen viewing and physical activity behaviours are influenced by their child's siblings and friends. Friends are considered to have a greater influence over the structured physical activities a child asks to participate in, whereas the influence of siblings is more strongly perceived over informal and spontaneous physical activities. In terms of screen viewing, parents suggest that their child's friends can heavily influence the content their child wishes to consume, however, siblings have a more direct and tangible influence over what a child watches. Friends and siblings influence young children's physical activity and screen viewing behaviours. Child-focused physical activity and screen viewing interventions should consider the important influence that siblings and friends have over these behaviours. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
The Correlation Between Parenting Parents' and Students' Motivation in Learning English on 4rd Semester at the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education (Fkip) University Batanghari Jambi Academic Year 2016/2017
Parenting parents is very important for children to provide encouragement or motivation in learning. With parenting a good influence for children, although many types of parenting applied parents' of children dependent parents' upbringing is applied parents to children.. The purpose in this research want to know whether there is any correlation between Parenting Parents' and Students Motivation in learning English on43rd Semester at the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education (FKIP) Univers...
Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikke; Currie, Candace
OBJECTIVE: To examine the agreement between parents' and children's reports on four items of family affluence: number of cars, own bedroom, number of family holidays, and number of computers, and to analyse predictors of disagreement. DESIGN: Cross sectional child-parent validation study of selec...
Woodman, Ashley C.; Mawdsley, Helena P.; Hauser-Cram, Penny
Parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) are at increased risk of experiencing psychological stress compared to other parents. Children's high levels of internalizing and externalizing problems have been found to contribute to this elevated level of stress. Few studies have considered the reverse direction of effects, however, in…
L. Veldhuis (Lydian); A. van Grieken (Amy); C.M. Renders (Carry); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)
textabstractIntroduction: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this
Veldhuis, L.; van Grieken, A.; Renders, C.M.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Raat, H.
Introduction: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we
Majdandžić, M.; Möller, E.L.; de Vente, W.; Bögels, S.M.; van den Boom, D.C.
Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers’ challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this
Full Text Available A community-based intervention study was conducted to assess a nutrition education intervention on western style fast food consumption among Chinese children and parents. Eight kindergartens from three district areas of Hefei City (a total of 1252 children aged 4–6 years and their parents were randomly selected. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used to evaluate the baseline, midterm, and final western style fast food knowledge, attitude, and practice in both parents and children were used to identify and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice in the parents and children. Parents and children were divided into “intervention” and “control” groups based on nutrition education status. Consumption of western style fast food at breakfast in Chinese children and parents is not high. The main reasons for this in children is that consumption of western style fast food is not viewed as “food”, but rather as a “gift” or “interesting”. The time of children’s consumption of western style fast food is mostly likely to be in the weekends. The nutrition education modified the parents’ western style fast food behavior (p < 0.01, although it did not change significantly in children. The healthy nutrition concept should be built up among Chinese, especially in children. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the nutrition education.
Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Kroon, Jeroen; Johnson, Newell W
To synthesise data from the literature on the effects of various parent-related characteristics (socio-demographic, behavioural and family environment) on dental caries in the permanent dentition of children. Available studies in which the effects of parent-related characteristics on dental caries experience in the permanent dentition of children aged 6-12 years were evaluated. PubMed, Medline via OVID and CINAHL Plus via EBSCO, restricted to scientific articles, were searched in April 2015. English language and time filters (articles published from 2000) were used. A total of 4162 titles were retrieved, of which 2578 remained after duplicates were removed. After review of titles and their abstracts by two independent reviewers, 114 articles were considered relevant for full text review. Of these, 48 were considered for final inclusion. Data extraction was performed by two authors using piloted data extraction sheets. Most of the literature on determinants of dental caries has been limited to socio-economic and behavioural aspects: we found few studies evaluating the effects of family environment and parental oral hygiene behaviour. Children belonging to lower socio-economic classes experienced more caries. In more than half the studies, children of highly educated, professional and high income parents were at lower risk for dental caries. There were conflicting results from studies on the effect of variables related to family environment, parents' oral hygiene behaviour and parent's disease status on dental caries in their children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of the predictors of the “3 years old childґs crisis” in the field of parent-child interaction (parenting styles, peculiarities of emotional interaction mothers with children, characteristics of family adaptation and cohe- sion. The study involved 117 children (65 boys and 52 girls and 117 their mothers from Vsevolozhsk district of the Leningrad region. The age of children — from 2 years 1 month to 3 years 11 month, Mage = 3 years. We used psychodiagnostic methods and the method of observation. The study revealed that the period from 2 years 1 month to 2 years 9 months is characterized by signs of subcritical phase, critical phase was observed after 2 years 10 months. “3 year old childґs crisis” is more pronounced at lower emotional acceptance of the child, maternal educational uncertainty, underdevelop- ment of parental feelings, indulgence overprotection, immaturity of maternal emotion- al behavior in actual interaction of mothers with children. At the same time the crisis manifestations can be expressed in the case of well-being in family functioning and emotional interaction (family cohesion, the sensitivity of the mother to child, which confirms the normativity of the “3 years old childґs crisis”.
Blake, L.; Casey, P.; Readings, J.; Jadva, V.; Golombok, S.
BACKGROUND The present study explored the process of disclosure in gamete donation families in the UK. METHODS Interviews were conducted with 23 mothers and 15 fathers who had told their 7-year-old child about the nature of their conception. Twelve children were interviewed about what they understood and how they felt about their donor conception (DC). RESULTS The majority of families had disclosed by the age of four and mothers were found to be the main disclosers. Although some parents expressed concerns about the disclosure, the majority did not experience difficulties. No child responded to disclosure in a negative way. Seven-year-old children showed little understanding of their DC, despite parents starting the process of disclosure before the age of four. CONCLUSIONS In spite of mothers' concerns about disclosing DC to their children, children responded to disclosure in a neutral way and most parents did not find disclosure to be problematic. PMID:20719810
Blake, L; Casey, P; Readings, J; Jadva, V; Golombok, S
The present study explored the process of disclosure in gamete donation families in the UK. Interviews were conducted with 23 mothers and 15 fathers who had told their 7-year-old child about the nature of their conception. Twelve children were interviewed about what they understood and how they felt about their donor conception (DC). The majority of families had disclosed by the age of four and mothers were found to be the main disclosers. Although some parents expressed concerns about the disclosure, the majority did not experience difficulties. No child responded to disclosure in a negative way. Seven-year-old children showed little understanding of their DC, despite parents starting the process of disclosure before the age of four. In spite of mothers' concerns about disclosing DC to their children, children responded to disclosure in a neutral way and most parents did not find disclosure to be problematic.
Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Semb, Gunvor; Heliövaara, Arja; Lohmander, Anette; Johannessen, Emma Christine; Boysen, Betty Marie; Havstam, Christina; Lundeborg, Inger; Nyberg, Jill; Pedersen, Nina-Helen; Bogh-Nielsen, Joan; Eyres, Philip; Bradbury, Eileen; Rumsey, Nichola
Few studies have explored children's emotional and behavioural reactions to cleft surgery and treatment-related stress. The objective was to investigate parents' evaluations of appearance and treatment outcomes in their 5-year-old child with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), and their perceptions of how their child was coping with treatment, comparing this information with recorded postsurgical complications. Three parallel group randomised clinical trials were undertaken as an international multicentre study by 10 cleft teams in five countries: Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway, and the UK. Three different surgical procedures for primary palatal repair were tested against a common procedure in the total cohort of 448 children born with a non-syndromic UCLP. A total of 356 parents completed the Scandcleft Parent Questionnaire, and 346 parents completed the Cleft Evaluation Profile. The results indicated that the majority of parents were satisfied with cleft-related features of their child's appearance. Further, most children coped well with treatment according to their parents. Nevertheless, 17.5% of the children showed minor or short-term reactions after treatment experiences, and 2% had major or lasting difficulties. There were no significant relationships between parent perceptions of treatment-related problems and the occurrence of post-surgical medical complications. Most parents reported satisfaction with their child's appearance. However, treatment-related problems were described in some children, urging cleft centres to be aware of potential negative emotional and behavioural reactions to treatment in some young children, with a view to preventing the development of more severe treatment-related anxiety. ISRCTN29932826.
Elfhag, Kristina; Tholin, Sanna; Rasmussen, Finn
We investigated associations between consumption of fruits, vegetables, sweets and soft drinks and the psychological dimensions of eating in parents and their children. The role of the parent's characteristics for their children's food intake was also explored. Food intake patterns were assessed by self-reported consumption of the respective foods. Eating behaviour was measured by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and self-esteem by Harter self-perception scale. The participants were 1441 families (mother, father and their 12-year-old child), and additionally 354 mothers and thirty fathers. Among parents, reported intake of fruit and vegetables were associated with restrained eating, higher self-esteem, and higher education and age. Intake of sweets was related to more external and less restrained eating, and for mothers also emotional eating. Parent's intake of soft drink was foremost related to a younger age, and also weakly associated with psychological characteristics. The food intake of parents was more important for the children's food intake than any other characteristics. However, children's intake of sweets showed clear-cut positive associations with external eating. Psychological dimensions of eating behaviour are associated with patterns of food intake, in particular for consumption of sweets, and are most prominent in the parents. The children's food intake mirrored their parents' intake. Being sensitive to external food cues may increase unhealthy food consumption in our society, whereas more restrained eating may indicate proneness or intention to healthier food choices among parents. Emotional eating may imply a proneness to consume sweets for comfort, in particular among mothers.
Full Text Available Whereas the effects of maternal parenting quality during infants’ 2nd year on later executive function (EF have been studied extensively, less is known about the impact of maternal parenting quality during the 1st year. The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal parenting during infants’ 1st year predicted EF performance at 2 and 3 years of age in a Chinese sample. Data were collected from 96 mother-infant dyads (42 males when the infants were 6, 9, 25, and 38 months old. Cognitive development as a control variable was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II at 6 months. At 9 months, three aspects of maternal parenting quality (sensitivity, mind-mindedness, and encouragement of autonomy were assessed with MBQS, mind-mindedness coding system, and encouragement of autonomy coding schema within a 15-min mother–infant interaction. Three aspects of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, and delay EF were measured at 25 and 38 months with age-appropriate tasks. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that maternal mind-mindedness had a more important effect than did the encouragement of autonomy and maternal sensitivity during infants’ preverbal period. More precisely, maternal mind-mindedness at 9 months predicted inhibitory control at 2 and 3 years, and maternal encouragement of autonomy predicted performance on delay EF tasks at 3 years, maternal sensitivity had no observed effect on children’s EF. This study suggests that maternal parenting quality during the 1st year (maternal mind-mindedness and encouragement of autonomy, but not maternal sensitivity impacts later EF development.
Results: In reliability analyses, Cronbach alpha internal consistency coefficient was found to be very high for child and parent forms (0.965/0.952. Item- total score correlation coefficients are high and very high, respectively and were found to be consistent with the original structure of the scale (0.725 and 0.864 for child form- 0.644 and 0.839 for parent form As for concurrent validity, child form had a high correlation with the Childrens Depression Inventory while parent form had a significant correlation with Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire- Parent Form (r=0.853 p [JCBPR 2017; 6(1.000: 15-21
Brummelman, E.; Thomaes, S.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Overbeek, G.; Bushman, B.J.
In current Western society, children are often lavished with inflated praise (e.g., “You made an incredibly beautiful drawing!”). Inflated praise is often given in an attempt to raise children’s self-esteem. An experiment (Study 1) and naturalistic study (Study 2) found that adults are especially
Brummelman, Eddie; Thomaes, Sander; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan; Bushman, Brad J.
In current Western society, children are often lavished with inflated praise (e.g., "You made an incredibly beautiful drawing!"). Inflated praise is often given in an attempt to raise children's self-esteem. An experiment (Study 1) and naturalistic study (Study 2) found that adults are especially
Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Haukkala, Ari; Yngve, Agneta; Thorsdottir, Inga; Roos, Eva
We examined whether there are sex differences in children's fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and in descriptive norms (i.e. perceived FV intake) related to parents and friends. We also studied whether friends' impact is as important as that of parents on children's FV intake. Data from the PRO GREENS project in Finland were obtained from 424 children at the age 11 years at baseline. At baseline, 2009 children filled in a questionnaire about descriptive norms conceptualised as perceived FV intake of their parents and friends. They also filled in a validated FFQ that assessed their FV intake both at baseline and in the follow-up in 2010. The associations were examined with multi-level regression analyses with multi-group comparisons. Girls reported higher perceived FV intake of friends and higher own fruit intake at baseline, compared with boys, and higher vegetable intake both at baseline and in the follow-up. Perceived FV intake of parents and friends was positively associated with both girls' and boys' FV intake in both study years. The impact of perceived fruit intake of the mother was stronger among boys. The change in children's FV intake was affected only by perceived FV intake of father and friends. No large sex differences in descriptive norms were found, but the impact of friends on children's FV intake can generally be considered as important as that of parents. Future interventions could benefit from taking into account friends' impact as role models on children's FV intake.
Renzaho, Andre M N; Karantzas, Gery
To assess the effect family environment stressors (e.g. poor family functioning and parental psychological distress) and neighbourhood environment on child prosocial behaviour (CPB) and child difficulty behaviour (CDB) among 4-to-12 year old children. Analysis of the 2006 Victorian Child Health and Wellbeing Survey (VCHWS) dataset derived from a statewide cross-sectional telephone survey, with a final total sample of 3,370 children. Only family functioning, parental psychological distress, child gender, and age were associated with CPB, explaining a total of 8% of the variance. Children from healthily functioning families and of parents without any psychological distress exhibited greater prosocial behaviours than those from poorly functioning families and of parents with mental health problems. Neighbourhood environment was not found to contribute to CPB. A total of eight variables were found to predict CDB, explaining a total of 16% of the variance. Poor family and parental psychological functioning as well as poor access to public facilities in the neighbourhood were associated with conduct problems in children. Our results point to the importance of the family environment in providing a context that fosters the development of empathic, caring and responsible children; and in buffering children in exhibiting behaviour difficulties during the formative years of life. Programs aimed at promoting prosocial behaviours in children need to target stressors on the family environment.
Dorell, Christina; Yankey, David; Kennedy, Allison; Stokley, Shannon
We aim to describe factors that influence parental decisions to vaccinate their adolescents. Data from the July to December 2010 National Immunization Survey-Teen Parental Concerns Module were analyzed to determine factors that influence parental decisions to vaccinate their adolescents. Parents reported that their adolescent's health care provider recommended tetanus toxoid/tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Td/Tdap; 74.4%), meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY; 60.3%), and human papillomavirus (HPV; 71.3%). Vaccination coverage estimates were significantly higher among parents who reported receiving a provider recommendation: 85.2% versus 76.7% (Td/Tdap), 77.3% versus 49.7% (MenACWY), and 62.2% versus 21.5% (HPV). Compared with Td/Tdap and MenACWY, fewer HPV vaccination conversations included recommendations for vaccination. Other than health care providers, school requirements (46.1%), news coverage (31.2%), and family (31.0%) were most frequently reported influences on parental vaccination decisions. Many factors influence parental decisions to vaccinate their adolescents; one of the most important factors is the provider recommendation. Missed opportunities for vaccination persist when strong vaccination recommendations are not given or are delayed.
March Cerdá, Joan Carles; Prieto Rodríguez, María Angeles; Danet, Alina; Ruiz Azarola, Ainhoa; García Toyos, Noelia; Ruiz Román, Paloma
To determine the opinions of urban parents on alcohol drinking in teenagers and their positioning regarding the legal restrictive measures. We performed a qualitative study of six focal groups including 42 mothers and fathers of adolescents from six different Spanish regions and from diverse social strata. The quantitative part of the study consisted of a 1-10 scale questionnaire, measuring parents' acceptance and opinion about legal measures restricting underage drinking. Means and standard deviation were calculated. Parents did not consider adolescent alcohol drinking to be a problem so long as it was moderate and leisure time-related. The social and cultural context was permissive with the alcohol consumption. Alcohol intake depended on both external (social pressure) and internal (family) factors. Fathers' preferred to exercise authority, while mothers preferred communication and education skills. Parents approved of teachers' interventions, especially when based on the student's overall education and not restricted to knowledge transmission. Public institutions and authorities were held responsible for adolescents' lack of information, the scarcity of leisure-time alternatives and for not ensuring compliance with current regulations. Parents approved restrictions regarding the sale and advertising of alcohol. Parents recognize adolescent alcohol drinking as a problem and tend to deal with it. Parents use distinct intervention strategies and generally approve legal measures. Copyright 2008 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Abanto, Jenny; Tsakos, Georgios; Paiva, Saul Martins; Carvalho, Thiago S; Raggio, Daniela P; Bönecker, Marcelo
To assess the impact of dental caries and traumatic dental injuries (TDI) on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of 5- to 6-year-olds according to both self- and parental reports. A total of 335 pairs of parents and children who sought dental screening at the Dental School, University of São Paulo, completed the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5), which consists of a child self-report and a parental proxy-report version. Three calibrated examiners assessed the experience of caries according to primary teeth that were decayed, indicated for extraction due to caries, or filled (def-t). TDI were classified into uncomplicated and complicated injuries. Poisson regression models were used to associate the different clinical and sociodemographic factors to the outcome. Overall, 74.6% of children reported an oral impact, and the corresponding estimate for parental reports was 70.5%. The mean (standard deviation) SOHO-5 scores in child self-report and parental versions were 3.32(3.22) and 5.18(6.28), respectively. In both versions, caries was associated with worse children's OHRQoL, for the total score and all SOHO-5 items (P children's OHRQoL, with the exception of two items of the parental version and one item of the child self-report version. In the final multivariate adjusted models, there was a gradient in the association between caries experience and child's OHRQoL with worse SOHO-5 score at each consecutive level with more severe caries experience, for both child and parental perceptions [RR (CI 95%) = 6.37 (4.71, 8.62) and 10.81 (7.65, 15.27)], respectively. A greater family income had a positive impact on the children's OHRQoL for child and parental versions [RR (CI 95%) = 0.68 (0.49, 0.94) and 0.70 (0.54, 0.90)], respectively. Dental caries, but not TDI, is associated with worse OHRQoL of 5- to 6-year-old children in terms of perceptions of both children and their parents. Families with higher income report better OHRQo
Nieuwesteeg, A.M.; Hartman, E.E.; Aanstoot, H.J.; van Bakel, H.J.A.; Emons, W.H.M.; van Mil, E.; Pouwer, F.
To test whether parenting stress and the quality of parent–child interaction were associated with glycemic control and quality of life (QoL) in young children (0–7 years) with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), we videotaped 77 families with a young child with T1DM during mealtime (including glucose monitoring
Hendricks, Karin S.; McPherson, Gary E.
Current literature offers only scant information on very young children who display high attention and engagement in music, but who are not drawn from normal populations. This study of three-year-old Danny, who possesses the neurological disorder Sensory Integration Dysfunction, provides a case study of the types of parent-child interactions that…
Tatiana E. Borovik
Full Text Available Background: Rational nutrition management in infants under 3 years is an important part of their adequate development at this age and in future.Objective: Our aim was to evaluate awareness of pediatricians and parents concerning rational nutrition management in infants under 3 years.Methods: 300 pediatricians and 300 parents of infants under 3 years who live in Moscow, Ivanovo, and Yaroslavl were enrolled in pilot survey.Results: Pediatricians' recommendations on child nutrition management satisfied the majority of parents (252; 84%, however, less than half of families (135; 45% followed them. In other cases the child's ration depended on mother's opinion on the matter (96; 32% and on child's food preference. «Unhealthy» food such as groceries and provision, processed food, spices, seafood, fast food, chocolate, candies, and sweets as well as soda was included in child's ration at the age of 2 and its consumption frequency increased significantly at the age of 3. Pediatricians strongly recommended special dairy for infants from the age of 1 (known as the 3rd formula. In fact, only half of children in Moscow eat them, and 27–30% of children in Ivanovo and Yaroslavl.Conclusion: Harmful breach of nutrition management in infants under 3 years is detected. Evidently, parents are not competent on the question. Optimization of educational activities performed by pediatricians, medical stuff, and mass media is required.
Bokhorst, C.L.; Sumter, S.R.; Westenberg, P.M.
Age and gender differences in perceived social support from parents, friends, classmates, and teachers were investigated in 304 boys and 351 girls aged 9-18 years. The social support scale for children and adolescents was used for this purpose. Analyses showed that the level of perceived social
Becht, Andrik I.; Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Van Dijk, Marloes P. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Van Lier, Pol A C; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
This study examined reciprocal associations between adolescents’ self-concept clarity (SCC) and their relationship quality with parents and best friends in a five-wave longitudinal study from age 13 to 18 years. In all, 497 adolescents (57% boys) reported on their SCC and all informants (i.e.,
Houwen, Suzanne; van der Veer, Gerda; Visser, Jan; Cantell, Marja
It is generally agreed that motor performance and executive functioning (EF) are intertwined. As the literature on this issue concerning preschool children is scarce, we examined the relationship between motor performance and parent-rated EF in a sample of 3- to 5-year-old children with different
Witvliet, Marieke J.; Bakx, Roel; Zwaveling, Sander; van Dijk, Tonnis H.; van der Steeg, Alida F. W.
In 2012, we started the KLANKbord-study. A quality of life (QoL) study that follows patients with an anorectal malformation (ARM) or Hirschsprung disease (HD) and their parents from diagnosis till the age of 18 years. We hypothesized that the diagnosis of ARM or HD initially has a negative influence
Strien, T. van; Bazelier, F.G.
This study examined the prevalence of external, restrained and emotional eating and the relationship of these disturbed types of eating behaviours with perceived parental control of food intake (pressure to eat and restriction) in a group of 7- to 12-year-old boys and girls (n=596). External eating
Kirschenbaum, D S; Pecora, K; Raphaeli, T; Germann, J N
This study compared successful with unsuccessful participants and their mothers 1.5 years following completion of an immersion programme for the treatment of adolescent obesity. Teenagers (M age = 14.5; 69.5% female) participated in a 4- to 8-week therapeutic camp; those who continued losing weight 1.5 years post-camp were identified as 'Losers'; those who regained weight were considered 'Gainers'. Twenty-six Loser campers, 23 Gainer campers and all mothers were interviewed about their current weights and lifestyle habits. Losers' and Gainers' mothers both reported losing weight significantly. Relative to Gainer mothers, however, Loser mothers reported 26% fewer high-fat foods in the house and greater likelihood of self-monitoring. Loser campers, relative to Gainer campers, reported self-monitoring more consistently; using trainers more frequently; and consuming fewer calories and less fat. Gainer campers also reported a tendency to use family therapy more than Loser families. The Loser campers reported following the dictates of the programme more than the Gainer campers, as expected. One striking and unique finding, however, was that Gainer mothers seemed to follow the programme for themselves as much as Loser mothers. Apparently for some participants in immersion treatment (like the Loser campers in this study), parents who participate fully may promote sustained success; for other adolescent weight controllers (like the present Gainer campers), having 'Do as I do' mothers clearly does not guarantee sustained changes in lifestyle for the teenagers. A hypothesis based on these results is that additional cognitive-behaviour therapy subsequent to immersion may be useful for this latter group. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Roset-Salla, Margarita; Ramon-Cabot, Joana; Salabarnada-Torras, Jordi; Pera, Guillem; Dalmau, Albert
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational programme on healthy alimentation, carried out in day-care centres and aimed at the parents of children from 1 to 2 years of age, regarding the acquisition of healthy eating habits among themselves and their children. We performed a multicentre, multidisciplinary, randomized controlled study in a community setting. The EniM study (nutritional intervention study among children from Mataró) was performed in twelve day-care centres in Mataró (Spain). Centres were randomized into a control group (CG) and an intervention group (IG). IG received four or five educational workshops on diet, CG did not have workshops. Children, not exclusively breast-fed, from 1 to 2 years of age, in the participating day-care centres and the persons responsible for their alimentation (mother or father). Thirty-five per cent of the IG did not attend the minimum of three workshops and were excluded. The CG included seventy-four children and seventy-two parents and the IG seventy-five children and sixty-seven parents. Both groups were comparable at baseline. Basal adherence to the Mediterranean diet was 56·4 % in parents (Gerber index) and 7·7 points in children (Kidmed test). At 8 months, Mediterranean diet adherence had improved in the IG by 5·8 points in the Gerber index (P=0·01) and 0·6 points in the Kidmed test (P=0·02) compared with the CG. This educational intervention performed in parents at the key period of incorporation of a 1-2-year-old child to the family table showed significant increases in adherence of the parents to the Mediterranean diet, suggesting future improvement in different indicators of health and an expected influence on the diet of their children.
Kim, Eunjung; Cain, Kevin C; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn
Traditional Korean American discipline is characterized by a lack of expression of affection and use of harsh discipline. The purpose of this study was to pilot test the effect of the Incredible Years Parenting Program among Korean American mothers. A randomized controlled experimental study design was used; 29 first-generation Korean American mothers of young children (3-8 years old) were randomly assigned to intervention (n=20) and control (n=9) groups. Intervention group mothers received a 12-week parenting program. Control group mothers did not receive the intervention. Mothers reported on discipline styles (positive, appropriate, and harsh), level of acculturation, and their child's outcomes (behavioral problems and social competence) at pre-, post-, and 1-year follow-up intervals. After completing the program, intervention group mothers significantly increased use of positive discipline as compared to control group mothers. Among intervention group mothers, high-acculturated mothers significantly increased appropriate discipline whereas low-acculturated mothers significantly decreased harsh discipline. In the 1-year follow-up, intervention group mothers maintained the significant effect for positive discipline. Providing this program appears to be a promising way of promoting positive discipline among Korean American mothers.
Grotmol, Kjersti S; Ekeberg, Øivind; Finset, Arnstein; Gude, Tore; Moum, Torbjørn; Vaglum, Per; Tyssen, Reidar
Elevated rates of suicide and depression among physicians have been reported. The associations between perceived parental bonding and depressive symptoms have yet to be studied longitudinally in this occupational group. In a nationwide cohort, we sought to study parental bonding as a predictor for severe depressive symptoms and to determine whether self-esteem mediates this relationship. After graduation (T1), medical students (N = 631) were followed-up after 1 (T2), 4 (T3), and 10 (T4) years. There were no gender differences in mean depressive scores. Female physicians reported higher levels of care from their mothers (p self-esteem for both sexes.
Basch, Corey H.; Hammond, Rodney N.; Ethan, Danna; Samuel, Lalitha
Obesity rates among American youth have prompted an examination of food advertisements geared towards children. Research indicates children?s high exposure to these advertisements and their influence on food preferences. Less is known about the presence of these advertisements in parenting magazines. This study?s objective was to examine prevalence of food advertisements in popular parenting magazines and identify products by USDA food category. We analyzed 116 issues of two popular U.S. pare...
Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Wight, Daniel
Purpose Research on predictors of young children?s psychosocial well-being currently relies on adult-reported outcomes. This study investigated whether early family circumstances and parenting predict 7-year-olds? subjective well-being. Methods Information on supportive friendships, liking school and life satisfaction was obtained from 7-year-olds in one Growing Up in Scotland birth cohort in 2012?2013 (N?=?2869). Mothers provided information on early childhood factors from 10 to 34?months, p...
Shloim, Netalie; Edelson, Lisa R.; Martin, Nathalie; Hetherington, Marion M.
Childhood is a critical period in the development of obesity. Eating patterns established early in life track into later life. Therefore, parental approaches to feeding in their general parenting style, feeding styles, and specific feeding practices will have a profound impact on how children eat and grow. A systematic research review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to identify, discuss and integrate recent research investigating the relationship between parenting styles, feeding styles, feeding practices, and body mass index (BMI) in children. Medline (Ovid), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts were systematically searched using sensitive search strategies. Studies were limited to papers published in English between 2010 and February 2015 with participants aged 4–12 years old with outcomes including obesity, change in weight, or BMI. The search yielded 31 relevant quantitative peer-reviewed papers meeting all inclusion criteria: seven longitudinal, 23 cross-sectional, one randomized control trial. Associations between parenting style and child BMI were strongest and most consistent within the longitudinal studies. Uninvolved, indulgent or highly protective parenting was associated with higher child BMI, whereas authoritative parenting was associated with a healthy BMI. Similarly for feeding styles, indulgent feeding was consistently associated with risk of obesity within cross-sectional studies. Specific feeding practices such as restriction and pressure to eat were linked to BMI, especially within cross-sectional studies. Where child traits were measured, the feeding practice appeared to be responsive to the child, therefore restriction was applied to children with a high BMI and pressure to eat applied to children with a lower BMI. Behaviors and styles that are specific to the feeding context are consistently associated with child BMI. However, since obesity emerges over time, it is through longitudinal, carefully
Shloim, Netalie; Edelson, Lisa R; Martin, Nathalie; Hetherington, Marion M
Childhood is a critical period in the development of obesity. Eating patterns established early in life track into later life. Therefore, parental approaches to feeding in their general parenting style, feeding styles, and specific feeding practices will have a profound impact on how children eat and grow. A systematic research review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to identify, discuss and integrate recent research investigating the relationship between parenting styles, feeding styles, feeding practices, and body mass index (BMI) in children. Medline (Ovid), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts were systematically searched using sensitive search strategies. Studies were limited to papers published in English between 2010 and February 2015 with participants aged 4-12 years old with outcomes including obesity, change in weight, or BMI. The search yielded 31 relevant quantitative peer-reviewed papers meeting all inclusion criteria: seven longitudinal, 23 cross-sectional, one randomized control trial. Associations between parenting style and child BMI were strongest and most consistent within the longitudinal studies. Uninvolved, indulgent or highly protective parenting was associated with higher child BMI, whereas authoritative parenting was associated with a healthy BMI. Similarly for feeding styles, indulgent feeding was consistently associated with risk of obesity within cross-sectional studies. Specific feeding practices such as restriction and pressure to eat were linked to BMI, especially within cross-sectional studies. Where child traits were measured, the feeding practice appeared to be responsive to the child, therefore restriction was applied to children with a high BMI and pressure to eat applied to children with a lower BMI. Behaviors and styles that are specific to the feeding context are consistently associated with child BMI. However, since obesity emerges over time, it is through longitudinal, carefully
Full Text Available Childhood is a critical period in the development of obesity. Eating patterns established early in life track into later life. Therefore, parental approaches to feeding in their general parenting style, feeding styles and specific feeding practices will have a profound impact on how children eat and grow. A systematic research review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to identify, discuss and integrate recent research investigating the relationship between parenting styles, feeding styles, feeding practices and body mass index (BMI in children. Medline (Ovid, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Food Science and Technology Abstracts were systematically searched using sensitive search strategies. Studies were limited to papers published in English between 2010 and February 2015 with participants aged 4 to 12 years old with outcomes including obesity, change in weight, or BMI. The search yielded 31 relevant quantitative peer-reviewed papers meeting all inclusion criteria: 7 longitudinal, 23 cross-sectional, 1 randomised control trial.. Associations between parenting style and child BMI were strongest and most consistent within the longitudinal studies. Uninvolved, indulgent or highly protective parenting was associated with higher child BMI, whereas authoritative parenting was associated with a healthy BMI. Similarly for feeding styles, indulgent feeding was consistently associated with risk of obesity within cross-sectional studies. Specific feeding practices such as restriction and pressure to eat were linked to BMI, especially within cross-sectional studies. Where child traits were measured, the feeding practice appeared to be responsive to the child, therefore restriction was applied to children with a high BMI and pressure to eat applied to children with a lower BMI. Behaviours and styles that are specific to the feeding context are consistently associated with child BMI. However, since obesity emerges over time, it is through longitudinal
Barlow, Jane; Smailagic, Nadja; Ferriter, Michael; Bennett, Cathy; Jones, Hannah
Emotional and behavioural problems in children are common. Research suggests that parenting has an important role to play in helping children to become well-adjusted, and that the first few months and years are especially important. Parenting programmes may have a role to play in improving the emotional and behavioural adjustment of infants and toddlers. This review is applicable to parents and carers of children up to three years eleven months although some studies included children up to five years old. To:a) establish whether group-based parenting programmes are effective in improving the emotional and behavioural adjustment of children three years of age or less (i.e. maximum mean age of 3 years 11 months); b) assess the role of parenting programmes in the primary prevention of emotional and behavioural problems. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Sociofile, Social Science Citation Index, ASSIA, National Research Register (NRR) and ERIC. The searches were originally run in 2000 and then updated in 2007/8. Randomised controlled trials of group-based parenting programmes that had used at least one standardised instrument to measure emotional and behavioural adjustment. The results for each outcome in each study have been presented, with 95% confidence intervals. Where appropriate the results have been combined in a meta-analysis using a random-effects model. Eight studies were included in the review. There were sufficient data from six studies to combine the results in a meta-analysis for parent-reports and from three studies to combine the results for independent assessments of children's behaviour post-intervention. There was in addition, sufficient information from three studies to conduct a meta-analysis of both parent-report and independent follow-up data. Both parent-report (SMD -0.25; CI -0.45 to -0.06), and independent observations (SMD -0.54; CI -0.84 to -0.23) of children's behaviour produce significant results favouring the
Spengler, Marion; Brunner, Martin; Damian, Rodica I; Lüdtke, Oliver; Martin, Romain; Roberts, Brent W
Drawing on a 2-wave longitudinal sample spanning 40 years from childhood (age 12) to middle adulthood (age 52), the present study was designed to examine how student characteristics and behaviors in late childhood (assessed in Wave 1 in 1968) predict career success in adulthood (assessed in Wave 2 in 2008). We examined the influence of parental socioeconomic status (SES), childhood intelligence, and student characteristics and behaviors (inattentiveness, school entitlement, responsible student, sense of inferiority, impatience, pessimism, rule breaking and defiance of parental authority, and teacher-rated studiousness) on 2 important real-life outcomes (i.e., occupational success and income). The longitudinal sample consisted of N = 745 persons who participated in 1968 (M = 11.9 years, SD = 0.6; 49.9% female) and 2008 (M = 51.8 years, SD = 0.6; 53.3% female). Regression analyses and path analyses were conducted to evaluate the direct and indirect effects (via education) of the predictors on career success. The results revealed direct and indirect influences of student characteristics (responsible student, rule breaking and defiance of parental authority, and teacher-rated studiousness) across the life span on career success after adjusting for differences in parental SES and IQ at age 12. rd (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Verbestel, Vera; De Henauw, Stefaan; Bammann, Karin
Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate if context-specific measures of parental-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour are associated with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in children. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Seven European...... countries taking part in the IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants) study. Subjects: Data were analysed from 2–9-year-old children (n 5982) who provided both parental-reported and accelerometer-derived physical activity....../sedentary behaviour measures. Parents reported their children’s daily screen-time, weekly sports participation and daily outdoor playtime by means of the Outdoor Playtime Checklist (OPC) and Outdoor Playtime Recall Questions (OPRQ). Results: Sports participation, OPC- and OPRQ-derived outdoor play were positively...
Williams, Margiad Elen; Hastings, Richard; Charles, Joanna Mary; Evans, Sue; Hutchings, Judy
Children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) often have associated behavioural difficulties that can present a challenge for parents and parenting. There are several effective social learning theory-based parenting programmes for dealing with behavioural difficulties, including the Incredible Years (IY) parent programmes. However, these programmes typically do not specifically target parents of children with ASD. Recently, a new addition to the IY suite of programmes known as the IY Autistic Spectrum and Language Delays (IY-ASLD) parent programme was developed. The main aims of the present study are to examine the feasibility of delivering this programme within child health services and to provide initial evidence for effectiveness and economic costs. The Parenting for Autism, Language, And Communication Evaluation Study (PALACES) trial is a pragmatic, multicentre, pilot randomised controlled trial comparing the IY-ASLD programme with a wait-list control condition. 72 parents of children with ASD (aged 3-8 years) will be randomly allocated to either the intervention or control condition. Data will be collected prior to randomisation and 6 months postrandomisation for all families. Families in the intervention condition only will also be followed up at 12 and 18 months postrandomisation. This study will provide initial evidence of effectiveness for the newly developed IY-ASLD parenting programme. It will also add to the limited economic evidence for an intervention targeting parents of children with ASD and provide longer term data, an important component for evaluations of parenting programmes. Approval for the study was granted by the Research Ethics Committee at the School of Psychology, Bangor University (reference number: 2016-15768) and the North Wales Research Ethics Committee, UK (reference number: 16/WA/0224). The findings will be disseminated through research conferences and peer-reviewed journals. ISRCTN57070414; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ
Cho, Sun-Mi; Kim, Hyun-Chung; Cho, Hyun; Shin, Yun-Mi
As children with emotional or behavioral problems often fail to receive the treatment available to them, this study examined (1) the degree of perceived need (PN) among Korean parents regarding mental health services for their children, (2) the factors associated with such perceptions, (3) the degree to which Korean parents actually engage mental health services for their children, and (4) the factors associated with such use. To determine the degrees of PN and actual use, 1,058 children aged between 9 and 12 years were asked to complete the Children's Depression Inventory, while their parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. About 11.4% of the parents demonstrated PN, compared to 2.7% who actually engaged child mental health services. While most of the CBCL factors were associated with PN, the child's self-report significantly affected the perception as well. The attention problem score in the CBCL was the only factor that strongly corresponded to the actual use of services in Korea, a country where academic achievement is considered paramount, which suggests that cultural forces may play a powerful role in determining parents' decisions regarding child mental health care.
T. Hosseinzadeh Nik
Full Text Available Objective: The planning of orthodontic treatment within a public health system requires information on the orthodontic treatment needs of the population. The aims of this study were to assess the student, parent and clinician normative need and demand for orthodon-tic treatment in a sample of Iranian students using the IOTN and to compare the treatment need levels according to sex and socio-economic status of the students and parents in ur-ban and rural areas.Material and Methods: A sample of 427, 17-year-old students was selected randomly from schools in Abade. A questionnaire of family socioeconomic status was proposed to the parents. All the students were examined according to the Aesthetic and Dental Health components (AC and DHC of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Students' and par-ents' perceived need was also assessed using AC.Results: According to DHC classification, 18.7% of the students were in the "no need";35.6% in the "border line" and 45.7% in the "definite need" groups. The same categories for students assessed by the dentist were 66%, 30.2% and 3.7% respectively. AC assess-ment by students and parents entitled even more studentsin "no need" category. Sex and family income were the major factors in predicting orthodontic treatment demand (P<0.05.Conclusion: Orthodontic demand was highly related to the AC score and this component is of more value in predicting students demand instead of DHC.
Howe, Anna S; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Lawrence, Julie; Galland, Barbara C; Gray, Andrew R; Taylor, Barry J; Sayers, Rachel; Taylor, Rachael W
Despite the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommending that electronic media be avoided in children under two years of age, screen use is common in infants and toddlers. The aims of this study were to determine how parenting style, infant temperament, and family type are associated with television viewing in two-year-old children. Participants were from the Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI) randomized controlled trial (n = 802) (Dunedin, New Zealand). Demographic information was collected at baseline (late pregnancy), and television and other screen time assessed by questionnaire at 24 months of age. Parenting style (Parenting Practices Questionnaire), infant temperament (Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory), and family type (7 categories) were reported by both parents. Data were available for 487 participants (61% of the original participants). Median television viewing was relatively low at 21 minutes per day, or 30 minutes in those watching television (82%). Children who watched television played with mobile phones (12% of children) or iPads/tablets (22% of children) more frequently than children who did not (6% of children). In terms of parenting style, children of more authoritarian mothers (β = 17, 95% CI: 6-27 minutes), more authoritarian partners (β = 14, 95% CI: 2-26 minutes), or more permissive mothers (β = 10, 95% CI: 3-17 minutes) watched significantly more television. No significant relationships were observed between child temperament and time watching television after adjustment for confounding variables. Children from "active" families (as rated by partners) watched 29 minutes less television each day (P = 0.002). Parenting style and family type were associated with television viewing time in young children, whereas child temperament was not.
Khawaja, Owais; Kotler, Gregory; Gaziano, John Michael; Djoussé, Luc
Heart failure (HF) is one of the leading causes of hospitalization and death in United States and throughout Europe. While a higher risk of HF with antecedent myocardial infarction (MI) has been reported in offspring whose parents had MI before age 55, it is unclear whether adherence to healthful behaviors could mitigate that risk. The aim of the current study was therefore to prospectively examine if adherence to healthy weight, regular exercise, moderate alcohol consumption, and abstinence from smoking can attenuate such increased HF risk. The information on parental history of MI and lifestyle factors was collected using questionnaires. Subjects adhering to at least three healthy lifestyle factors were classified as having good vs. poor lifestyle score. Incident HF was assessed via yearly follow-up questionnaires and validated in a subsample. During an average follow up of 21.7 (6.5) years, 1,323 new HF cases (6.6%) of which 190 (14.4%) were preceded by MI occurred. Compared to subjects with good lifestyle score and no parental history of premature MI, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for incident HF with antecedent MI was 3.21 (1.74–5.91) for people with good lifestyle score and parental history of premature MI; 1.52 (1.12–2.07) for individuals with poor lifestyle score and no parental history of premature MI; and 4.60 (2.55–8.30) for people with poor lifestyle score and parental history of premature MI. In conclusion, our data suggest that even in people at higher risk of HF due to genetic predisposition, adherence to healthful lifestyle factors may attenuate such an elevated HF risk. PMID:22516528
Renzaho, A M N; Kumanyika, S; Tucker, K L
The aim of this analysis was to assess relationships between family functioning, parental psychological distress, child behaviour difficulties and fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption among 4-12-year-old children in Victoria, Australia. We used the 2006 Victorian Child's Health and wellbeing data set that included 3370 randomly selected primary caregivers of 4-12-year-old children interviewed between October 2005 and March 2006. Behavioural problems were measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; level of family functioning was measured using the McMaster Family Assessment Device-General Functioning Scale and parental psychological distress was measured using the Kessler-6 scale. The mean number of servings consumed per day was 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1, 2.3) for fruit and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.9, 2.1) for vegetables. The proportion of children meeting the minimum daily age-specific recommendation was 87.8% (95% CI: 86.4, 89.1%) for fruit and 36.5% (95% CI: 34.5, 38.5) for vegetables. Children with behaviour difficulties, low levels of prosocial behaviours and from poorly functioning households consumed fewer servings of F&V than children who did not experience any environment stressors or behavioural problems. Although parental psychological distress was not associated with fruit intake, daughters of parents who reported higher levels of psychological distress consumed fewer servings of vegetables than daughters of parents who reported lower levels of psychological distress. Child behavioural problems and family functioning and to some extent parental psychological distress were associated with F&V consumption. Programmes aimed at promoting F&V consumption in children should target those families with children experiencing behavioural problems or poorly functioning households.
Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther J; Goldfeld, Keith; Petkova, Eva
Low-income minority children living in urban neighborhoods are at high risk for mental health problems and underachievement. ParentCorps, a family-centered, school-based intervention in prekindergarten, improves parenting and school readiness (ie, self-regulation and preacademic skills) in 2 randomized clinical trials. The longer-term effect on child mental health and academic performance is not known. To examine whether ParentCorps delivered as an enhancement to prekindergarten programs in high-poverty urban schools leads to fewer mental health problems and increased academic performance in the early elementary school years. This is a 3-year follow-up study of a cluster randomized clinical trial of ParentCorps in public schools with prekindergarten programs in New York City. Ten elementary schools serving a primarily low-income, black student population were randomized in 2005, and 4 consecutive cohorts of prekindergarten students were enrolled from September 12, 2005, through December 31, 2008. We report follow-up for the 3 cohorts enrolled after the initial year of implementation. Data analysis was performed from September 1, 2014, to December 31, 2015. ParentCorps included professional development for prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers and a program for parents and prekindergarten students (13 two-hour group sessions delivered after school by teachers and mental health professionals). Annual teacher ratings of mental health problems and academic performance and standardized tests of academic achievement in kindergarten and second grade by testers masked to the intervention or control group randomization. A total of 1050 children (4 years old; 518 boys [49.3%] and 532 girls [50.7%]) in 99 prekindergarten classrooms participated in the trial (88.1% of the prekindergarten population), with 792 students enrolled from 2006 to 2008. Most families in the follow-up study (421 [69.6%]) were low income; 680 (85.9%) identified as non-Latino black, 78 (9.8%) as
Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Zahra, Jesmond; Thompson, Janice L; Sebire, Simon J
Children's screen viewing (SV) is associated with higher levels of childhood obesity. Many children exceed the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline of 2 hours of television (TV) per day. There is limited information about how parenting styles and parental self-efficacy to limit child screen time are associated with children's SV. This study examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children and whether any effects were mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. Data were from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013. Child and parent SV were reported by a parent, who also provided information about their parenting practices and self-efficacy to restrict SV. A four-step regression method examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children. Mediation by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was examined using indirect effects. On a weekday, 90% of children watched TV for mediated associations between parental control and SV. Parental control was associated with lower levels of SV among 5- to 6-year-old children. This association was partially mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. The development of strategies to increase parental self-efficacy to limit screen-time may be useful.
Witvliet, Marieke J; Bakx, Roel; Zwaveling, Sander; van Dijk, Tonnis H; van der Steeg, Alida F W
In 2012, we started the KLANKbord-study. A quality of life (QoL) study that follows patients with an anorectal malformation (ARM) or Hirschsprung disease (HD) and their parents from diagnosis till the age of 18 years. We hypothesized that the diagnosis of ARM or HD initially has a negative influence on QoL and anxiety levels of parents, but that this influence will diminish over time. The aim of this study is to see whether QoL and anxiety levels of parents change within the first year after the diagnosis. Parents of all children born with ARM or HD, were eligible for this study. Within 3 months after the diagnosis ARM or HD, parents received a set of validated QoL questionnaires (measurement 1). Measurement 2 was 12 months after the first questionnaire. During measurement 1 mothers (n = 20) scored significantly higher on the social (p value, 0.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3946-3.1528) and environmental domain (p value, 0.01; 95% CI, 0.4449-2.2851) of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) compared with the known reference values. Fathers (n = 19) scored significantly higher on the physical (p value, 0.01; 95% CI, 0.2964-1.8072), psychological (p value, 0.001; 95% CI, 0.7697-2.4757), and environmental domain (p value, 0.003; 95% CI, 0.5586-2.4214) than the reference values. Comparison of all domains of the WHOQOL-BREF for mothers and fathers between measurements did not show a significant difference. Anxiety levels of mothers were lower during measurement 2 compared with measurement 1. Anxiety levels of fathers were higher during measurement 2 compared with measurement 1. These differences are not significant. Anxiety levels of mothers were significantly higher than anxiety levels of fathers during measurement 1 (p value, 0.002; 95% CI, 0.808-2,956). During measurement 2 this difference in anxiety of mothers versus fathers did not exist (p value, 0.373; 95% CI, -1.157 to 2.922). A negative influence on the QoL of parents having a
Magro, Serena; de Gregorio, Cesare; Magro, Laura; Fernandez, Dalila; Sacchi, Gabriella; Sarullo, Filippo Maria; Magro, Francesco; Novo, Salvatore
Exposure of children to passive tobacco smoking in the household setting has been demonstrated to cause respiratory diseases. Early atherosclerosis has also been demonstrated in young people previously exposed to passive tobacco smoking. Functional damage can initiate at the fetal age due to maternal smoking, with a tendency towards over-time progress. To date only scant data are available about indoor parental smoking attitudes and their changes after campaigns against smoke and risk factors in exposed youths. Questionnaires are useful tools in order to search for information on cigarette smoking and parental household lifestyle. In this study, we asked pupils of primary schools for providing information on their relatives' every 5 years throughout the period 1994-2009. A multiple-choice answer questionnaire about sharing household parental smoking was administered to all primary school children (mean age 10.5 ± 0.5 years) of the city of Agrigento (Sicily, Italy). A total of 2221 questionnaires were collected from 637 children in 1994, 687 in 1999, 516 in 2004, and 381 in 2009. Important findings show a significant reduction in both smoking parents and exposure to passive tobacco smoking (from 64% in 1994 to 45% in 2009, psmoking. These results likely reflect such a greater awareness about smoke-related risks in children, and the effectiveness of medical campaigns against cardiovascular risk factors as well.
Shen, Min; Gao, Jing; Liang, Zenzen; Wang, Youjie; Du, Yukai; Stallones, Lorann
This study aims to explore the prevalence of depression and anxiety in left-behind children, and to identify patterns of parents' migration and relative factors associated with depression and anxiety risk in this population. A cross-sectional survey using a school-based sample was conducted in Puyang, Hebei, North China in December 2012. 2283 students aged 10-18 years. Parental migration status, depression and anxiety disorder. 61.2% of participants were left-behind children. The prevalence rate of depression among left-behind children with both parents migrating (14.2%) was higher than that of children with one parent migrating (11.7%) and no parent migrating (12.6%). The prevalence rate of anxiety disorder for children with no parent migrating (25.1%) was higher than that for children living with one or neither parent (22.2% and 22.0%). The risk factors for depression were low-level social support (OR=3.46, 95% CI 2.00 to 6.01), average academic performance (OR=2.37, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.3) and low academic performance (OR=3.01, 95% CI 1.92 to 4.72), staying up late (OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.39), having difficulty falling asleep (OR=2.04, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.82) and being an only child (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.89). The factors associated with anxiety disorder were being female (OR=2.09, 95% CI 1.64 to 2.66), being in high school (OR=1.8, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.36), physical abuse (OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.15), having difficulty falling asleep (OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.33 to 2.10) and low-level social support (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.28) and middle-level social support (OR=1.82, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.56). Parents' migration was not associated with depression and anxiety in rural children aged 10-18 years, but academic performance at school, sleep problems and lack of social support were associated with depression and anxiety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Mahedy, Liam; Heron, Jon; Stapinski, Lexine A; Pearson, Rebecca M; Evans, Jonathan; Joinson, Carol; Bowes, Lucy; Lewis, Glyn
Background Although the relationship between maternal bonding and risk of offspring depression has been demonstrated, it is unclear whether this risk exists for subsequent generations. This study examines the association between maternal reports of her own mother's parenting and later risk of depression in offspring at age 18. Method This study is based on data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Mothers enrolled in the study, completed the Parental Bonding Instrument to provide an assessment of how they were parented by their own mothers up to the age of 16. Offspring depression was assessed at age of 18 using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised. The sample comprised 10,405 respondents who had completed the Parental Bonding Instrument during the antenatal period. Results were adjusted for grandmother's history of depression, maternal depression, and a range of socioeconomic variables. Results A one standard deviation increase in mothers’ perceived lack of care in their own childhood was associated with a 16% increase in the odds of offspring depression at age 18 (odds ratios = 1.16, 95% confidence intervals = [1.04, 1.30]). This effect remained following adjustment for potential confounders (odds ratios = 1.14, 95% confidence intervals = [1.02, 1.27]). There was no evidence for an association between overprotection and offspring depression. Conclusions This study is consistent with the hypothesis that sensitive caregiving is important to future risk of depression across generations. Preventative interventions could be aimed at promoting positive parenting practices, which may help to reduce the risk of depression in subsequent generations. PMID:24105778
Mahedy, Liam; Heron, Jon; Stapinski, Lexine A; Pearson, Rebecca M; Evans, Jonathan; Joinson, Carol; Bowes, Lucy; Lewis, Glyn
Although the relationship between maternal bonding and risk of offspring depression has been demonstrated, it is unclear whether this risk exists for subsequent generations. This study examines the association between maternal reports of her own mother's parenting and later risk of depression in offspring at age 18. This study is based on data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Mothers enrolled in the study, completed the Parental Bonding Instrument to provide an assessment of how they were parented by their own mothers up to the age of 16. Offspring depression was assessed at age of 18 using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised. The sample comprised 10,405 respondents who had completed the Parental Bonding Instrument during the antenatal period. Results were adjusted for grandmother's history of depression, maternal depression, and a range of socioeconomic variables. A one standard deviation increase in mothers' perceived lack of care in their own childhood was associated with a 16% increase in the odds of offspring depression at age 18 (odds ratios = 1.16, 95% confidence intervals = [1.04, 1.30]). This effect remained following adjustment for potential confounders (odds ratios = 1.14, 95% confidence intervals = [1.02, 1.27]). There was no evidence for an association between overprotection and offspring depression. This study is consistent with the hypothesis that sensitive caregiving is important to future risk of depression across generations. Preventative interventions could be aimed at promoting positive parenting practices, which may help to reduce the risk of depression in subsequent generations. © 2013 The Authors. Depression and Anxiety published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
To examine the effectiveness of expanding and improving oral health education in a clinical setting. Controlled prospective intervention study. Structured comprehensive oral health education (SC-OHE) supported by written information. was performed by 36 clinicians in all of the 30 specialist paediatric practices in the city and the administrative district of Kassel, central Germany. Parents of all children attending the practices for health examinations. SC-OHE was tested in two intervention groups (IG), one with a mean child age of seven months and another with a mean child age of 24 months. The SC-OHE content was adapted to the respective age groups. Control group (CG) subjects were recruited in a similar region in northern Germany and received conventional oral health education only. This consisted of comparable topics but was less comprehensive than SC-OHE. The two IGs comprised 2,170 children; the two age-matched CGs 2,040. Parental knowledge, attitudes and behaviour relevant to decreasing the risk of early childhood caries (ECC) development. The outcomes were measured by questionnaires sent to the parents. The response rate was 88%. On average, control group paediatricians provided 2.1 information items at each child examination whereas the intervention group provided 3.8 items. Parental knowledge increased by 23%. Self-efficacy and attitudes remained unchanged. 41% of 7-month-olds in the CG received baby bottles with cariogenic content during daytime as opposed to 32% in the IG (p parents were less likely to add sugar to puréed baby food of the 7-month-olds. In 24-month-old children, the frequent consumption of cariogenic beverages in the daytime decreased slightly (CG 66%, IG 61%, p parental oral health knowledge. SC-OHE provided by clinicians alone will not be capable of influencing crucial oral health behaviours in such a way that prevents ECC.
Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikke; Holstein, Bjørn E
BACKGROUND: The validity of children's self-reports on medicine use has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To determine the agreement between parents' and children's reports of medicine use for 5 common complaints and to analyze predictors for disagreement. METHODS: We used the child-parent validation......, difficulties in falling asleep, nervousness, and asthma. RESULTS: The percent agreement was lowest with medicine use for headache (64.6%), but was very high for the other 4 complaints (85.3-91.8%). The simple kappa coefficients were moderate to good for medicine use for headaches, stomachache, and asthma (0...
Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom
This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…
Serder, Margareta; Jakobsson, Anders
Large-scale assessment, such as the Programme for International Assessment (PISA), plays an increasingly important role in current educational practice and politics. However, many scholars have questioned the validity and reliability of the tests and the extent to which they actually constitute trustworthy representations of students' knowledge. In the light of such critical voices the present article adopts a sociocultural perspective of human knowledge and action in order to explore the encounters between students and the science test assignments with which their knowledge is tested. Of particular interest in this study are the described "real-life situations" presented as the relevant background in which scientific literacy is assessed in PISA. According to the sociocultural theoretical onset the methodology used to approach the students' meaning making of the image of science as portrayed in the test were collaborative situations in which students work in small groups with units of PISA assignments, enabling a study of student-assignment encounters in action. The data we worked with consists of video-recordings from 71 Swedish 15-year-old students working with three released units from the PISA science test. According to our analysis, the "real-life situations" described in the test emerge as problematic in the students' meaning-making. This is demonstrated for instance by the students' positioning themselves as being different from and opposed to the fictional pictured students who appear in the backstories of the test. This article provides examples of how the scientific and academic language used by the fictional students in the assignments mediates distance and resistance among the students. The fictional students' use of strict scientific language and methods in day-to-day life situations leads them to be perceived as "little scientists" and as elite stereotypes of the scientific culture. We conclude that, by using assignments of this type, measurements of
Verbestel, Vera; De Henauw, Stefaan; Bammann, Karin; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Eiben, Gabriele; Konstabel, Kenn; Kovács, Eva; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Reisch, Lucia; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Maes, Lea; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
The aim of the present study was to investigate if context-specific measures of parental-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour are associated with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in children. Cross-sectional study. Seven European countries taking part in the IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants) study. Data were analysed from 2-9-year-old children (n 5982) who provided both parental-reported and accelerometer-derived physical activity/sedentary behaviour measures. Parents reported their children's daily screen-time, weekly sports participation and daily outdoor playtime by means of the Outdoor Playtime Checklist (OPC) and Outdoor Playtime Recall Questions (OPRQ). Sports participation, OPC- and OPRQ-derived outdoor play were positively associated with accelerometer-derived physical activity. Television viewing and computer use were positively associated with accelerometer-derived sedentary time. All parental-reported measures that were significantly associated with accelerometer outcomes explained only a minor part of the variance in accelerometer-derived physical activity or sedentary time. Parental-reported measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviour are not useful as a proxy for 2-9-year-old children's physical activity and sedentary time. Findings do not preclude the use of context-specific measures but imply that conclusions should be limited to the context-specific behaviours that are actually measured. Depending on the aim of the study, future research should carefully consider the choice of measurements, including the use of subjective or objective measures of the behaviour of interest or a combination of both.
Gormley, Matthew J; Pinho, Trevor; Pollack, Brittany; Puzino, Kristina; Franklin, Melanie K; Busch, Chelsea; DuPaul, George J; Weyandt, Lisa L; Anastopoulos, Arthur D
To test if the relationship between ADHD and academic achievement is mediated by service utilization and/or study skills, and if these mediation effects are moderated by parental education level. A bootstrapping method within structural equation modeling was used with data from 355 first year college students meeting strict criteria for ADHD or clearly without ADHD to test the mediation and moderation effects. Study skills, but not service utilization, significantly mediated the relationship between ADHD status and GPA; however, this relationship was not significant among students with at least one parent holding a master's degree or higher. Among first year college students study skills may be a more salient predictor of educational outcomes relative to ADHD status. Additional research into support services for college students with ADHD is needed, however, results suggest interventions targeting study skills may hold particular promise for these students.
Fraser, J. A. H.; Gurney, P. W.
Studies the perceived source of self-esteem among 300 children aged three to five. Results indicate that peers are the predominant source of self-esteem in the low intensity ("like") condition and parents are the predominant source of self-esteem in the high intensity ("love") condition. (RJC)
Størksen, Ingunn; Ellingsen, Ingunn T.; Wanless, Shannon B.; McClelland, Megan M.
Research Findings: Self-regulation in young children predicts later social adjustment and academic success across cultural contexts. Therefore, it is crucial to identify factors that promote or inhibit behavioral self-regulation skills. In this study, we focus on gender and socioeconomic status (SES; parental education and income) as possible…
Full Text Available Mutually illuminating planes: the silent and the distant in J.S. Foer’s 'Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close' The paper offers an analysis of sub-renting relations in J. S. Foer’s Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close, which are put in the context of the author’s debut novel Everything Is Illuminated. I suggest that the two novels shed light on, or “illuminate”, each other. The writer, a descendant of Polish Jews, precisely stratifies the novels and intertwines two planes: the explicit and the implicit (encoding signs of the Jewish plight, which are also the two planes of the protagonists’ identities. Oświetlające się plany. Ciche i dalekie w „Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close” Jonathana Safrana Foera Artykuł koncentruje się wokół zagadnienia sublokatorstwa w powieści Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close (polski przekład: Strasznie głośno, niesamowicie blisko Jonathana Safrana Foera. W refleksji o żydowskiej kondycji sublokatora (w oryginale: the renter autorka nie pomija debiutanckiej powieści Amerykanina, Wszystko jest iluminacją. Stawia tezę, że oba dzieła wzajemnie się oświetlają. Pisarz, będący potomkiem polskich Żydów, precyzyjnie stratyfikuje powieść i nakłada na siebie dwa plany, będące także planami tożsamości głównych bohaterów: wyrażony i domyślany (szyfrujący znaki żydowskiego losu.
Apouey, Bénédicte H; Geoffard, Pierre-Yves
This paper explores the relationship between parental education and offspring body weight in France. Using two large datasets spanning the 1991-2010 period, we examine the existence of inequalities in maternal and paternal education and reported child body weight measures, as well as their evolution across childhood. Our empirical specification is flexible and allows this evolution to be non-monotonic. Significant inequalities are observed for both parents' education--maternal (respectively paternal) high education is associated with a 7.20 (resp. 7.10) percentage points decrease in the probability that the child is reported to be overweight or obese, on average for children of all ages. The gradient with respect to parents' education follows an inverted U-shape across childhood, meaning that the association between parental education and child body weight widens from birth to age 8, and narrows afterward. Specifically, maternal high education is correlated with a 5.30 percentage points decrease in the probability that the child is reported to be overweight or obese at age 2, but a 9.62 percentage points decrease at age 8, and a 1.25 percentage point decrease at age 17. The figures for paternal high education are respectively 5.87, 9.11, and 4.52. This pattern seems robust, since it is found in the two datasets, when alternative variables for parental education and reported child body weight are employed, and when controls for potential confounding factors are included. The findings for the trajectory of the income gradient corroborate those of the education gradient. The results may be explained by an equalization in actual body weight across socioeconomic groups during youth, or by changes in reporting styles of height and weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Reising, Michelle M.; Seehuus, Martin; Compas, Bruce E.
The current study examined the congruence of parent and adolescent reports of positive and negative parenting with observations of parent-adolescent interactions as the criterion measure. The role of parent and adolescent depressive symptoms in moderating the associations between adolescent or parent report and observations of parenting also was examined. Participants were 180 parents (88.9% female) with a history of clinical depression and one of their 9-to-15 year old children (49.4% female...
Keim, Madelaine C; Lehmann, Vicky; Shultz, Emily L; Winning, Adrien M; Rausch, Joseph R; Barrera, Maru; Gilmer, Mary Jo; Murphy, Lexa K; Vannatta, Kathryn A; Compas, Bruce E; Gerhardt, Cynthia A
To examine parent-child communication (i.e., openness, problems) and child adjustment among youth with advanced or non-advanced cancer and comparison children. Families (n = 125) were recruited after a child's diagnosis/relapse and stratified by advanced (n = 55) or non-advanced (n = 70) disease. Comparison children (n = 60) were recruited from local schools. Children (ages 10-17) reported on communication (Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale) with both parents, while mothers reported on child adjustment (Child Behavior Checklist) at enrollment (T1) and one year (T2). Openness/problems in communication did not differ across groups at T1, but problems with fathers were higher among children with non-advanced cancer versus comparisons at T2. Openness declined for all fathers, while changes in problems varied by group for both parents. T1 communication predicted later adjustment only for children with advanced cancer. Communication plays an important role, particularly for children with advanced cancer. Additional research with families affected by life-limiting conditions is needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Ivy C. Tuason
Full Text Available This cross-sectional survey research aims to explore and compare the relationship of religion, religiosity, and parental communication to the sexual behaviors of Filipinos aged 18-25 years in the United States and the Philippines. The Duke University Religion Index and Parent-Teen Sexual Risk Communication Scale-III was used to measure religiosity and parental communication. There were 130 participants living in the United States and 247 living in the Philippines included in this study. Among respondents from the Philippines, low levels of parental communication were associated with an increased report for the lack of condom use during the last intercourse. Catholics had a decreased likelihood of alcohol or illicit drug use before intercourse, having had multiple sex partners, and engaging in casual sex. Those who had low levels of religiosity were associated with reports of having had casual sex. Among the United States respondents, those who engaged in alcohol or illicit drug use before sexual intercourse were associated with decreased organizational religious activities. The findings of this study confirmed the need for comprehensive and culturally appropriate approaches to health promotion programs that incorporate religious and familial factors appropriate for Filipinos.
Vigoureux, Solène; Bajos, Nathalie; Ringa, Virginie
Most women begin sexual activity as teenagers but nearly 20% of women in France younger than 25 years rely on less effective contraceptive methods (condoms or methods such as withdrawal or periodic abstinence). We sought to analyze the association with less effective contraception among women aged 15-24 years in France and communication about sex and contraception with their parents. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The analyses focused on 713 sexually active women who did not currently want a child, were using contraception, and were interviewed in 2010 in a national cross-sectional probability survey (FEcondité CONtraception Dysfonctions sexuelles [FECOND]) when they were 15-24 years old. Associations between the use of less effective contraception, social and demographic characteristics, sexual activity, health characteristics, and communication with parents and friends about sexuality and contraception were tested with logistic regression models according to age group. Less effective contraception (condoms, and barrier or natural methods) is used more often by younger women: 27.5% of 15- to 19-year-old women and 14.7% of 20- to 24-year-old women (P communication to use less effective contraception (for those 15-19 years, odds ratio = 1.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-4.10, and for those 20-24 years, odds ratio = 2.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-4.26). Difficulty in communicating with their parents, especially their mothers, about sex, is associated with young women's choice of less effective contraception. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Menashe, Atara; Atzaba-Poria, Naama
Although parental language and behaviour have been widely investigated, few studies have examined their unique and interactive contribution to the parent-child relationship. The current study explores how parental behaviour (sensitivity and non-intrusiveness) and the use of parental language (exploring and control languages) correlate with parent-child dyadic mutuality. Specifically, we investigated the following questions: (1) 'Is parental language associated with parent-child dyadic mutuality above and beyond parental behaviour?' (2) 'Does parental language moderate the links between parental behaviour and the parent-child dyadic mutuality?' (3) 'Do these differences vary between mothers and fathers?' The sample included 65 children (M age = 1.97 years, SD = 0.86) and their parents. We observed parental behaviour, parent-child dyadic mutuality, and the type of parental language used during videotaped in-home observations. The results indicated that parental language and behaviours are distinct components of the parent-child interaction. Parents who used higher levels of exploring language showed higher levels of parent-child dyadic mutuality, even when accounting for parental behaviour. Use of controlling language, however, was not found to be related to the parent-child dyadic mutuality. Different moderation models were found for mothers and fathers. These results highlight the need to distinguish parental language and behaviour when assessing their contribution to the parent-child relationship. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... designed for three different age groups: infants and toddlers under 2, 2- to 5-year-olds (preschoolers), ...
Smetana, J G
Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 110 primarily white, middle-class sixth, eighth, and tenth graders (M = 11.98, 13.84, and 16.18 years of age) and their parents (108 mothers and 92 fathers). Parents judged the legitimacy of parental authority and rated family conflict and rules regarding 24 hypothetical moral, conventional, personal, multifaceted (containing conventional and personal components), prudential, and friendship issues. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Parents' parenting styles differentiated their conceptions of parental authority, but adolescents' perceptions did not. Differences were primarily over the boundaries of adolescents' personal jurisdiction. Furthermore, conceptions of parental authority and parenting styles both contributed significantly to emotional autonomy and adolescent-parent conflict. The implications of the findings for typological models of parenting and distinct domain views of social-cognitive development are discussed.
T.H.E. Journal, 2013
If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…
Dale, Jenny; Kellam, Lynda
The "embedded librarian" as a concept has emerged in the literature only recently, but has quickly gained footing as a model of practice. Many scholarly explorations of embedded librarianship have been published, though no two works define this concept in the exact same way. David Shumaker's description seems to be particularly apt: "Embedded…
Ian Stewart explores the astonishing properties of numbers from 1 to10 to zero and infinity, including one figure that, if you wrote it out, would span the universe. He looks at every kind of number you can think of - real, imaginary, rational, irrational, positive and negative - along with several you might have thought you couldn't think of. He explains the insights of the ancient mathematicians, shows how numbers have evolved through the ages, and reveals the way numerical theory enables everyday life. Under Professor Stewart's guidance you will discover the mathematics of codes,
Fischler, W.; Susskind, L.
Using M(atrix) theory, the dualities of toroidally compactified M-theory can be formulated as properties of super Yang Mills theories in various dimensions. We consider the cases of compactification on 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-dimensional tori. The dualities required by string theory lead to conjectures of remarkable symmetries and relations between field theories as well as extremely unusual dynamical properties. By studying the theories in the limit of vanishingly small tori, a wealth of information is obtained about strongly coupled fixed points of super Yang-Mills theory in various dimensions. Perhaps the most striking behavior, as noted by Rozali in this context, is the emergence of an additional dimension of space in the case of a 4-torus. (orig.)
In the oil and gas industry, the implementation of fracture systems using ball and seat technology helped make multistage fracturing possible. However, frac balls can obstruct later production flow by staying in the well. Baker Hughes Inc. developed a technology to solve this problem: IN-Tallic frac balls. The unique feature of these frac balls is that they are made of an electrolytic metallic nanostructured material which is light and strong and which melts away with salt water or brine through a decomposition process governed by electrochemical reactions controlled by nanoscale coatings. These balls need to be kept away from moisture in order to prevent degradation. This technology is more expensive than traditional frac balls but it prevents the need to mill out obstructions created by the balls. The IN-Tallic frac balls are a new technology which provides operators with peace of mind.
Olson, Sheryl L; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Sameroff, Arnold J
Preventing problem behavior requires an understanding of earlier factors that are amenable to intervention. The main goals of our prospective longitudinal study were to trace trajectories of child externalizing behavior between ages 3 and 10 years, and to identify patterns of developmentally significant child and parenting risk factors that differentiated pathways of problem behavior. Participants were 218 3-year-old boys and girls who were reassessed following the transition to kindergarten (age 5-6 years) and during the late school-age years (age 10). Mothers contributed ratings of children's externalizing behavior at all three time points. Children's self-regulation abilities and theory of mind were assessed during a laboratory visit, and parenting risk (frequent corporal punishment and low maternal warmth) was assessed using interview-based and questionnaire measures. Four developmental trajectories of externalizing behavior yielded the best balance of parsimony and fit with our longitudinal data and latent class growth analysis. Most young children followed a pathway marked by relatively low levels of symptoms that continued to decrease across the school-age years. Atypical trajectories marked chronically high, increasing, and decreasing levels of externalizing problems across early and middle childhood. Three-year-old children with low levels of effortful control were far more likely to show the chronic pattern of elevated externalizing problems than changing or low patterns. Early parental corporal punishment and maternal warmth, respectively, differentiated preschoolers who showed increasing and decreasing patterns of problem behavior compared to the majority of children. The fact that children's poor effortful regulation skills predicted chronic early onset problems reinforces the need for early childhood screening and intervention services.
Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Latvala, Antti; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Almqvist, Catarina; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth J F; Kandler, Christian; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Mikio; Rebato, Esther; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; Brescianini, Sonia; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Busjahn, Andreas; Saudino, Kimberly J; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Rose, Richard J; Koskenvuo, Markku; Heikkilä, Kauko; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Jina; Lee, Jooyeon; Lee, Sooji; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Medland, Sarah E; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas S; Rasmussen, Finn; Tynelius, Per; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Lichtenstein, Paul; Goldberg, Jack H; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Maia, José A; Freitas, Duarte L; Turkheimer, Eric; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990-1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
Rochat, Tamsen; Netsi, Elena; Redinger, Stephanie; Stein, Alan
With the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission the development of HIV-negative children with HIV-positive parents has become an important focus. There is considerable evidence that children's developmental risk is heightened because a parental HIV-diagnosis is associated with a range of potential problems such as depression, stigma and financial difficulties. Up to a third of children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are cared for by an HIV-positive parent or caregiver. We review the mechanisms by which HIV affects parenting including its negative effects on parental responsiveness in the early years of parenting and parental avoidant coping styles and parenting deficits in the later years. We describe low-cost parenting interventions suited for low resourced HIV endemic settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Between 2011 and 2014, 388 hair samples from children (age 1-14 years and 594 hair samples from parents/caregivers were analyzed for methadone, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabinoids and benzodiazepines by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. Hair testing was preferentially performed for parents/ caregivers. Children were included in case of positive parents/caregivers results or in urgent cases after a court decision if the parents/caregivers declined the testing. A follow-up hair test was performed after 6-months (positive results or 12-months (negative results. Results: The children hair appeared to be a sensitive indicator of the handling of drugs in their environment and often showed a similar or the same drug profile as their parents. The annual statistics for the initial test of children were no drugs 22-33%, methadone 9-25%, heroin 7.5-28%, cocaine 46-57%, amphetamines and ecstasy 1.6-7.0%, cannabinoids 21-49% and benzodiazepines 0-5%. As a rule, concentrations in hair of younger children were higher than of their elder siblings. In severe cases and based on the entire information about the case, the children were immediately taken into custody, the family court was appealed, the children were admitted to children's homes or foster families, or the drug consuming adult was separated from the family and a withdrawal treatment was initiated. Follow-up tests showed an improvement in the situation of the children particularly in severe cases. Conclusion: Hair analysis proved to be a very efficient working instrument for social authorities in the systematic improvement of child-welfare in drug abusing environments.
Marchal, Jan Pieter; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Hatzmann, Janneke; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Grootenhuis, Martha A
Raising a child with Down syndrome (DS) has been found to be associated with lowered health related quality of life (HRQoL) in the domains cognitive functioning, social functioning, daily activities and vitality. We aimed to explore which socio-demographics, child functioning and psychosocial variables were related to these HRQoL domains in parents of children with DS. Parents of 98 children with DS completed the TNO-AZL adult quality of life questionnaire (TAAQOL) and a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic, child functioning and psychosocial predictors. Using multiple linear regression analyses for each category of predictors, we selected relevant predictors for the final models. The final multiple linear regression models revealed that cognitive functioning was best predicted by the sleep of the child (β=.29, pparent having given up a hobby (β=-.29, pparent having to care for an ill friend or family member (β=-.31, pparent having enough personal time (β=.32, ppressure. Systematic screening of parents to detect problems timely, and interventions targeting the supportive network and the demands in time are recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
G. Rodenburg (Gerda); A. Oenema (Anke); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); H. van de Mheen (Dike)
textabstractThis study examines the association between parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background. A cross-sectional study was performed among 1762 parent-child dyads. Mean age of the children was 8. years. One parent completed
Sampaio, Filipa; Enebrink, Pia; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Feldman, Inna
Parenting programs and self-help parenting interventions employing written materials are effective in reducing child conduct problems (CP) in the short-term compared to control groups, however evidence on the cost-effectiveness of such interventions is insufficient. Few studies have looked at the differences in effects between interventions in the same study design. This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of four parenting programs: Comet, Incredible Years (IY), Cope and Connect, and bibliotherapy, compared to a waitlist control (WC), with a time horizon of 4 months, targeting CP in children aged 3-12 years. This economic evaluation was conducted alongside an RCT of the four parenting interventions and bibliotherapy compared to a WC. The study sample consisted of 961 parents of 3-12 year-old children with CP. CP was measured by the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory. Effectiveness was expressed as the proportion of "recovered" cases of CP. The time horizon of the study was four months with a limited health sector perspective, including parents' time costs. We performed an initial comparative cost analysis for interventions whose outcomes differed significantly from the WC, and later a cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions whose outcomes differed significantly from both the WC and each other. Secondary analyses were performed: (i) joint outcome "recovered and improved", (ii) intervention completers, (iii) exclusion of parents' time costs, (iv) exclusion of training costs. All interventions apart from Connect significantly reduced CP compared to the WC. Of the other interventions Comet resulted in a significantly higher proportion of recovered cases compared to bibliotherapy. A comparative cost analysis of the effective interventions rendered an average cost per recovered case for bibliotherapy of USD 483, Cope USD 1972, Comet USD 3741, and IY USD 6668. Furthermore, Comet had an ICER of USD 8375 compared to bibliotherapy. Secondary analyses of
Sandler, Irwin; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim S
Findings concerning the long-term effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) to reduce suicide ideation and/or attempts of parentally bereaved children and adolescents are presented. Parental death is a significant risk factor for suicide among offspring (Guldin et al., 2015). This study is a long-term follow-up of 244 children and adolescents who had participated in a randomized trial of the FBP, examining the intervention effects on suicide ideation and/or attempts as assessed through multiple sources. Results indicate a significant effect of the FBP to reduce suicide ideation and/or attempts at the 6- and 15-year follow-up evaluation. The findings support the potential benefits of further research on "upstream" suicide prevention. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.
McMullan, Julie; Keeney, Sinead
Objective: This article aims to review the previously published literature on the social and environmental factors which influence children (aged 3-5 years) to be obese/overweight and the accuracy of parental perceptions. Obesity levels are on the increase in today's society and habits are being passed from parents to children, with family…
Johnson, Z; Molloy, B; Scallan, E; Fitzpatrick, P; Rooney, B; Keegan, T; Byrne, P
The Community Mothers Programme aims at using experienced volunteer mothers in disadvantaged areas to give support to first-time parents in rearing their children up to 1 year of age. The programme was evaluated by randomized controlled trial in 1990. Seven years later, trial participants were interviewed about child health, nutrition, cognitive stimulation, parenting skills, and maternal self-esteem. The aim of this study was to see whether the demonstrated benefits at 1 year of age of this programme could be sustained at age 8. One-third of the original group (38 intervention, 38 control), were contacted and interviewed. The risk for having an accident requiring a hospital visit was lower in the intervention group: relative risk (RR) 0.59, 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 0.31-1.11. Intervention children were more likely to visit the library weekly: RR 1.58, 95 per cent CI 1.10-2.26. Intervention mothers were more likely to check homework every night: RR 1.23, 95 per cent CI 1.05-1.43 (p=0.006); and to disagree with the statement 'children should be smacked for persistently bad behaviour': RR 2.11, 95 per cent CI 1.10-4.06. They were more likely to disagree with the statement 'I do not have much to be proud of': RR 1.24, 95 per cent CI 1.04-1.40; and to make a positive statement about motherhood than controls: RR 1.53, 95 per cent CI 1.06-2.20. Subsequent children of intervention mothers were more likely to have completed Haemophilus influenzae b: RR 1.26, 95 per cent CI 1.06-1.51; and polio immunization: RR 1.19, 95 per cent CI 1.02-1.40. The Community Mothers programme had sustained beneficial effects on parenting skills and maternal self-esteem 7 years later with benefit extending to subsequent children.
Bishop Dorothy VM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children who are late talkers go on to develop normal language, but others go on to have longer-term language difficulties. In this study, we considered which factors were predictive of persistent problems in late talkers. Methods Parental report of expressive vocabulary at 18 months of age was used to select 26 late talkers and 70 average talkers, who were assessed for language and cognitive ability at 20 months of age. Follow-up at 4 years of age was carried out for 24 late and 58 average talkers. A psychometric test battery was used to categorize children in terms of language status (unimpaired or impaired and nonverbal ability (normal range or more than 1 SD below average. The vocabulary and non-word repetition skills of the accompanying parent were also assessed. Results Among the late talkers, seven (29% met our criteria for specific language impairment (SLI at 4 years of age, and a further two (8% had low nonverbal ability. In the group of average talkers, eight (14% met the criteria for SLI at 4 years, and five other children (8% had low nonverbal ability. Family history of language problems was slightly better than late-talker status as a predictor of SLI.. The best predictors of SLI at 20 months of age were score on the receptive language scale of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the parent's performance on a non-word repetition task. Maternal education was not a significant predictor of outcome. Conclusions In this study, around three-quarters of late talkers did not have any language difficulties at 4 years of age, provided there was no family history of language impairment. A family history of language-literacy problems was found to be a significant predictor for persisting problems. Nevertheless, there are children with SLI for whom prediction is difficult because they did not have early language delay.
We have built a social interface and funding model based on collaborative consumption to empower public access to powerful telescopes.Slooh’s robotic observatories put anyone with a desire to look up and wonder in the driver’s seat of powerful mountaintop telescopes. Our members have taken millions of images of over 50,000 objects in the night sky, from tracking asteroids for NASA to discovering supernovae. Slooh launched December 25th, 2003 from our flagship observatory at the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands and in the ensuing decade we’ve built a network of 20+ observatory partners around the world to capture every magical moment in outer space. We are the world’s largest community of people peering into space together.About SloohSlooh makes astronomy incredibly easy, engaging and affordable for anyone with a desire to see outer space for themselves. Since 2003 Slooh has connected telescopes to the Internet for access by the broader public. Slooh’s automated observatories develop celestial images in real-time for broadcast to the Internet. Slooh’s technology is protected by Patent No.: US 7,194,146 B2 which was awarded in 2006. Slooh members have taken over 3m photos/150,000 FITS of over 50,000 celestial objects, participated in numerous discoveries with leading astronomical institutions and made over 2,000 submissions to the Minor Planet Center. Slooh’s flagship observatories are situated on Mt. Teide, in partnership with the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC), and in Chile, in partnership with the Catholic University. Slooh has also broadcast live celestial events from partner observatories in Arizona, Japan, Hawaii, Cypress, Dubai, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and Norway. Slooh’s free live broadcasts of potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs), comets, transits, eclipses, solar activity etc. feature narration by astronomy experts Will Gater, Bob Berman, Paul Cox and Eric Edelman and are syndicated to
Most students experience the transition from school to university as challenging. Students from backgrounds with little or no experience of higher education are most vulnerable in the transition, and most at risk of academic failure or early departure. This study examined the role that parents and friends play in the transition to university and in the first academic year. The study examines the mechanisms of this support so as to understand the ways in which support is provided. It examines whether - and if so, how - support mechanisms differed for first-generation students and those with family familiarity of university. Data were collected through focus group and individual interviews with dentistry students in their first and second academic years at a Faculty of Dentistry in South Africa. Concepts from psychology literature - attachment and friendship quality - provided the analytical framework. Findings from the study suggest that the social relationships which students have access to during the transition and the first academic year have the potential to provide emotional resources which ease transition and practical information about appropriate ways of being and doing at university. First-generation university students are less likely to have access to the latter because their parents have no experience of university. The study concludes with suggestions for ways in which universities and their teachers might provide support for all first-year students. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Muthuri, Stella K.; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Church, Timothy S.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.
Background Globally, the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children has serious implications for morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood. Various parental factors are associated with childhood overweight and physical activity. The objective of this paper was to investigate relationships between parental education or overweight, and (i) child overweight, (ii) child physical activity, and (iii) explore household coexistence of overweight, in a large international sample. Methods Data were collected from 4752 children (9–11 years) as part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment in 12 countries around the world. Physical activity of participating children was assessed by accelerometry, and body weight directly measured. Questionnaires were used to collect parents’ education level, weight, and height. Results Maternal and paternal overweight were positively associated with child overweight. Higher household coexistence of parent-child overweight was observed among overweight children compared to the total sample. There was a positive relationship between maternal education and child overweight in Colombia 1.90 (1.23–2.94) [odds ratio (confidence interval)] and Kenya 4.80 (2.21–10.43), and a negative relationship between paternal education and child overweight in Brazil 0.55 (0.33–0.92) and the USA 0.54 (0.33–0.88). Maternal education was negatively associated with children meeting physical activity guidelines in Colombia 0.53 (0.33–0.85), Kenya 0.35 (0.19–0.63), and Portugal 0.54 (0.31–0.96). Conclusions Results are aligned with previous studies showing positive associations between parental and child overweight in all countries, and positive relationships between parental education and child overweight or negative associations between parental education and child physical activity in lower economic status countries. Relationships between maternal and paternal education
Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early onset of impairments in social interaction and communication and unusual, stereotyped behaviors. Autism (i.e., autistic disorder) often is classified with two related, although less severe, developmental disorders: Asperger disorder and pervasive developmental disorder--not otherwise specified. These three constitute the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Diagnosis of ASDs is based exclusively on developmental pattern and behavioral observation. Two population-based studies conducted by CDC in selected U.S. locations reported ASD prevalence of 3.4 and 6.7 per 1,000 children, respectively. CDC also conducts two nationally representative surveys, the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), in which parents are asked whether their child ever received a diagnosis of autism. Because of similarities in methodology used by the two surveys, CDC analyzed 2003-2004 data from NHIS and data from the first-ever NSCH (collected during January 2003-July 2004) to 1) estimate the population-based prevalence of parental report of diagnosed autism in the United States and 2) assess parental reporting of child social, emotional, and behavioral strengths and difficulties and special-health care needs among children with and without reported autism. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that the prevalence of parent-reported diagnosis of autism was 5.7 per 1,000 children in NHIS and 5.5 per 1,000 children in NSCH. Prevalence estimates in the two studies were similar across age, sex, and racial/ethnic populations. The consistency in estimates between the two surveys suggests high reliability for parental report of autism. These estimates suggest that, as of 2003-2004, autism had been diagnosed in at least 300,000 U.S. children aged 4-17 years. In addition, parental reports of autism were associated with reported social, emotional, and
Quach, Jon; Price, Anna M H; Bittman, Michael; Hiscock, Harriet
The aim of this study is to use national Australian time-diary data to examine both (1) cross-sectionally and (2) longitudinally whether being late versus early to sleep or wake is associated with poorer child behavior, quality of life, learning, cognition and weight status, and parental mental health. Data from the first three waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were taken. A national representative sample of 4983 4-5-year-olds, recruited in 2004 from the Australian Medicare database and followed up biennially, was taken; 3631 had analyzable sleep information and a concurrent measure of health and well-being for at least one wave. Parents completed 24-h child time-use diaries for one week and one weekend day at each wave. Using median splits, sleep timing was categorized into early-to-sleep/early-to-wake (EE), early-to-sleep/late-to-wake (EL), late-to-sleep/early-to-wake (LE), and late-to-sleep/late-to-wake (LL) at each wave. The outcomes included parent-reported child behavior, health-related quality of life, maternal/paternal mental health, teacher-reported child language, literacy, mathematical thinking, and approach to learning. The study assessed child body mass index and girth. (1) Using EE as the comparator, linear regression analyses revealed that being late-to-sleep was associated with poorer child quality of life from 6 to 9 years and maternal mental health at 6-7 years. There was inconsistent or no evidence for associations between sleep timing and all other outcomes. (2) Using the count of the number of times (waves) at which a child was categorized as late-to-sleep (range 0-3), longitudinal analyses demonstrated that there was a cumulative effect of late-to-sleep profiles on poorer child and maternal outcomes at the child age of 8-9 years. Examined cross-sectionally, sleep timing is a driver of children's quality of life and maternal depression. Examined longitudinally, there appears to be cumulative and adverse relationships
Lederman, Regina P; Chan, Wenyaw; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia
In this study, the authors compared differences in sexual risk attitudes and intentions for three groups of youth (experimental program, n = 90; attention control, n = 80; and nonparticipant control, n = 634) aged 12-14 years. Two student groups participated with their parents in programs focused on strengthening family interaction and prevention of sexual risks, HIV, and adolescent pregnancy. Surveys assessed students' attitudes and intentions regarding early sexual and other health-risk behaviors, family interactions, and perceived parental disapproval of risk behaviors. The authors used general linear modeling to compare results. The experimental prevention program differentiated the total scores of the 3 groups (p < .05). A similar result was obtained for student intentions to avoid sex (p < .01). Pairwise comparisons showed the experimental program group scored higher than the nonparticipant group on total scores (p < .01) and on students' intention to avoid sex (p < .01). The results suggest this novel educational program involving both parents and students offers a promising approach to HIV and teen pregnancy prevention.
Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika
There is widespread concern about young girls displaying 'grown up' or sexualized behaviours, as well as experiencing body image and appearance concerns that were previously thought to only impact much older girls. The present study examined the influence of three maternal attributes, self-objectification, materialism and parenting style, on sexualized behaviours and appearance concerns in young girls. A sample of 252 Australian mothers of 5-8year old girls reported on the behaviours and appearance concerns observed in their daughters and also completed measures of their own self-objectification, materialism and parenting style. It was found that a significant proportion of young girls were engaging with 'teen' culture, using beauty products and expressing some degree of appearance concern. Maternal self-objectification was related to daughters' engagement in teen culture, use of beauty products and appearance concern. Maternal materialism was related to girls' engagement in teen culture and appearance concern, while an authoritative parenting style was negatively related to girls' use of beauty products. The findings suggest that maternal self-objectification and materialism play a role in the body image and appearance concerns of young girls, and in so doing, identify these maternal attributes as novel potential targets for intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Luecken, Linda J.; Hagan, Melissa J.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun
Objective Childhood parental divorce is associated with an increased risk of behavioral and physical health problems. Alterations in adrenocortical activity may be a mechanism in this relation. Parent-child relationships have been linked to cortisol regulation in children exposed to adversity, but prospective research is lacking. We examined maternal warmth in adolescence as a predictor of young adults’ cortisol stress response 15 years after parental divorce. Methods Participants included 240 youth from recently divorced families. Mother and child reports of maternal warmth were assessed at 6 time points across childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Offspring salivary cortisol was measured in young adulthood before and after a social stress task. Structural equation modeling was used to predict cortisol response from maternal warmth across early and late adolescence. Results Higher child-reported maternal warmth in early adolescence predicted higher child-reported maternal warmth in late adolescence (std. regression = .45, SE = .065, p children from divorced families, a warm mother-child relationship post-divorce and across development, as perceived by the child, may promote efficient biological regulation later in life. PMID:26465217
Luecken, Linda J; Hagan, Melissa J; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Sandler, Irwin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun
The experience of parental divorce during childhood is associated with an increased risk of behavioral and physical health problems. Alterations in adrenocortical activity may be a mechanism in this relation. Parent-child relationships have been linked to cortisol regulation in children exposed to adversity, but prospective research is lacking. We examined maternal warmth in adolescence as a predictor of young adults' cortisol stress response 15 years after parental divorce. Participants included 240 youth from recently divorced families. Mother and child reports of maternal warmth were assessed at 6 time points across childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Offspring salivary cortisol was measured in young adulthood before and after a social stress task. Structural equation modeling was used to predict cortisol response from maternal warmth across early and late adolescence. Higher child-reported maternal warmth in early adolescence predicted higher child-reported maternal warmth in late adolescence (standardized regression = 0.45, standard error = 0.065, p < .01), which predicted lower cortisol response to a challenging interpersonal task in young adulthood (standardized regression = -0.20, standard error = 0.094, p = .031). Neither mother-reported warmth in early adolescence nor late adolescence was significantly related to offspring cortisol response in young adulthood. Results suggest that for children from divorced families, a warm mother-child relationship after divorce and across development, as perceived by the child, may promote efficient biological regulation later in life. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01407120.
Rockers, Peter C; Zanolini, Arianna; Banda, Bowen; Chipili, Mwaba Moono; Hughes, Robert C; Hamer, Davidson H; Fink, Günther
Early childhood interventions have potential to offset the negative impact of early adversity. We evaluated the impact of a community-based parenting group intervention on child development in Zambia. We conducted a non-masked cluster-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia. Thirty clusters of villages were matched based on population density and distance from the nearest health center, and randomly assigned to intervention (15 clusters, 268 caregiver-child dyads) or control (15 clusters, 258 caregiver-child dyads). Caregivers were eligible if they had a child 6 to 12 months old at baseline. In intervention clusters, caregivers were visited twice per month during the first year of the study by child development agents (CDAs) and were invited to attend fortnightly parenting group meetings. Parenting groups selected "head mothers" from their communities who were trained by CDAs to facilitate meetings and deliver a diverse parenting curriculum. The parenting group intervention, originally designed to run for 1 year, was extended, and households were visited for a follow-up assessment at the end of year 2. The control group did not receive any intervention. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed for primary outcomes measured at the year 2 follow-up: stunting and 5 domains of neurocognitive development measured using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (BSID-III). In order to show Cohen's d estimates, BSID-III composite scores were converted to z-scores by standardizing within the study population. In all, 195/268 children (73%) in the intervention group and 182/258 children (71%) in the control group were assessed at endline after 2 years. The intervention significantly reduced stunting (56/195 versus 72/182; adjusted odds ratio 0.45, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.92; p = 0.028) and had a significant positive impact on language (β 0.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.27; p = 0.039). The intervention did not significantly impact cognition (β 0
Peter C Rockers
Full Text Available Early childhood interventions have potential to offset the negative impact of early adversity. We evaluated the impact of a community-based parenting group intervention on child development in Zambia.We conducted a non-masked cluster-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia. Thirty clusters of villages were matched based on population density and distance from the nearest health center, and randomly assigned to intervention (15 clusters, 268 caregiver-child dyads or control (15 clusters, 258 caregiver-child dyads. Caregivers were eligible if they had a child 6 to 12 months old at baseline. In intervention clusters, caregivers were visited twice per month during the first year of the study by child development agents (CDAs and were invited to attend fortnightly parenting group meetings. Parenting groups selected "head mothers" from their communities who were trained by CDAs to facilitate meetings and deliver a diverse parenting curriculum. The parenting group intervention, originally designed to run for 1 year, was extended, and households were visited for a follow-up assessment at the end of year 2. The control group did not receive any intervention. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed for primary outcomes measured at the year 2 follow-up: stunting and 5 domains of neurocognitive development measured using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (BSID-III. In order to show Cohen's d estimates, BSID-III composite scores were converted to z-scores by standardizing within the study population. In all, 195/268 children (73% in the intervention group and 182/258 children (71% in the control group were assessed at endline after 2 years. The intervention significantly reduced stunting (56/195 versus 72/182; adjusted odds ratio 0.45, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.92; p = 0.028 and had a significant positive impact on language (β 0.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.27; p = 0.039. The intervention did not significantly impact
Wang, Marian; Supiano, Beckie; Fuller, Andrea
As the cost of college has spiraled ever upward and median family income has fallen, the loan program, called Parent PLUS, has become indispensable for increasing numbers of parents desperate to make their children's college plans work. Last year the government disbursed $10.6-billion in Parent PLUS loans to just under a million families. Even…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Family is considered to be the first and the most important child development and socialization bond. Nevertheless, parental behaviour model importance for the children, as well as family time for shared activity amount influence upon the child's health-related behaviour habit development has not been yet thoroughly examined. The aim of this paper is to indicate the advanced health-hazardous behaviour modelling possibilities in the families, as well as time spent for joint family activities, and to examine the importance of time spent for joint family activities for the smoking and alcohol use habit initiation among children. Methods This research was carried out in Kaunas, Lithuania, during the school year 2004–2005. The research population consisted of 369 fifth-grade schoolchildren (211 (57.2% boys and 158 (42.8% girls and 565 parents: 323 (57.2% mothers and 242 (48.2% fathers. The response rate was 80.7% for children; 96.1% and 90.6% for mothers and fathers correspondingly. Results Eating a meal together was the most frequent joint family activity, whereas visiting friends or relatives together, going for a walk, or playing sports were the most infrequent joint family activities. More than two thirds (81.5% of parents (248 (77.0% mothers and 207 (85.9% fathers (p Conclusion Joint family activity time deficit together with frequent parental examples of smoking and alcohol use underlie the development of alcohol and smoking addictions in children to some extent. The above-mentioned issues are suggested to be widely addressed in the comprehensive family health education programs.
Taylor, Natalie J; Sahota, Pinki; Sargent, Judith; Barber, Sally; Loach, Jackie; Louch, Gemma; Wright, John
Interventions that make extensive use of theory tend to have larger effects on behaviour. The Intervention Mapping (IM) framework incorporates theory into intervention design, implementation and evaluation, and was applied to the development of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for a multi-ethnic population. IM was applied as follows: 1) Needs assessment of the community and culture; consideration of evidence-base, policy and practice; 2) Identification of desired outcomes and change objectives following identification of barriers to behaviour change mapped alongside psychological determinants (e.g. knowledge, self-efficacy, intention); 3) Selection of theory-based methods and practical applications to address barriers to behaviour change (e.g., strategies for responsive feeding); 4) Design of the intervention by developing evidence-based interactive activities and resources (e.g., visual aids to show babies stomach size). The activities were integrated into an existing parenting programme; 5) Adoption and implementation: parenting practitioners were trained by healthcare professionals to deliver the programme within Children Centres. HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) is aimed at overweight and obese pregnant women (BMI > 25); consists of 12 × 2.5 hr. sessions (6 ante-natal from 24 weeks; 6 postnatal up to 9 months); it addresses mother's diet and physical activity, breast or bottle feeding, infant diet and parental feeding practices, and infant physical activity. We have demonstrated that IM is a feasible and helpful method for providing an evidence based and theoretical structure to a complex health behaviour change intervention. The next stage will be to assess the impact of the intervention on behaviour change and clinical factors associated with childhood obesity. The HAPPY programme is currently being tested as part of a randomised controlled feasibility trial.
Thompson, Janice L; Sebire, Simon J; Kesten, Joanna M; Zahra, Jesmond; Edwards, Mark; Solomon-Moore, Emma; Jago, Russell
Few studies have examined parental perceptions of their child's screen-viewing (SV) within the context of parental SV time. This study qualitatively examined parents' perceptions of their 5-6-year-old child's SV within the context of their own quantitatively measured SV. A mixed-methods design employed semi-structured telephone interviews, demographic and SV questionnaires, objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary time. Deductive content analysis was used to explore parents' perceptions of, and concerns about, their child's SV, and management of their child's SV. Comparisons were made between parent-child dyads reporting low (parents were interviewed (94.3% mothers), with 52 interviews analysed. Fifteen parent-child dyads (28.8%) exceeded the 2-h SV threshold on both weekdays and weekend days; 5 parent-child dyads (9.6%) did not exceed this threshold. The remaining 32 dyads reported a combination of parent or child exceeding/not exceeding the SV threshold on either weekdays or weekend days. Three main themes distinguished the 15 parent-child dyads exceeding the SV threshold from the 5 dyads that did not: 1) parents' personal SV-related views and behaviours; 2) the family SV environment; and 3) setting SV rules and limits. Parents in the dyads not exceeding the SV threshold prioritized and engaged with their children in non-SV behaviours for relaxation, set limits around their own and their child's SV-related behaviours, and described an environment supportive of physical activity. Parents in the dyads exceeding the SV threshold were more likely to prioritise SV as a shared family activity, and described a less structured SV environment with minimal rule setting, influenced their child's need for relaxation time. The majority of parents in this study who exceeded the SV threshold expressed minimal concern and a relaxed approach to managing SV for themselves and their child(ren), suggesting a need to raise awareness amongst these parents about the time
Brown, Alexandra; Creswell, Cathy; Barker, Chris; Butler, Stephen; Cooper, Peter; Hobbs, Catherine; Thirlwall, Kerstin
Brief guided parent-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been developed to meet the demand for non-intensive interventions for children with anxiety disorders, and initial trials have shown it to be effective for children with a range of anxiety disorders. This study examined outcomes 3-5 years post-treatment. A long-term follow-up (LTFU) cohort study. Families who (1) completed at least 50% of allocated treatment sessions of guided parent-delivered CBT for childhood anxiety as part of a randomized control trial (RCT), (2) provided consent to be recontacted, (3) had not received further mental health interventions, and (4) were contactable were invited to take part. Fifty-seven families (29% of the original sample) completed structured diagnostic interviews on average 50 months after treatment (39-61 months). At LTFU, 79% of the assessed children who had received the treatment no longer met criteria for their primary diagnosis, 63% did not meet criteria for any anxiety disorder, and 61% did not meet criteria for any DSM-IV disorder. Treatment gains were mostly maintained (60%), and some children went on to recover during the follow-up period without additional input from mental health services (19%). Few young people had relapsed since their last assessment (12%). Mean scores on standardized symptom questionnaires were within the normal range. Children who recovered from anxiety disorders following brief guided parent-delivered CBT typically maintained good outcomes and few relapsed. These findings suggest that this is a viable first-line, low-intensity treatment approach. This study only included a small subsample of those in the original RCT (29%), and more information is required about those who dropped out of treatment and those who required further intervention immediately after treatment. Treatment gains from brief guided parent-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy for children with anxiety are maintained for most children 3-5 years later. The
Koziel, Slawomir; Kolodziej, Halina; Ulijaszek, Stanley J.
The main aim of this study was to examine changes in relative weight and prevalence of obesity across a ten-year period among 14-year-old boys according to parental education level. Data from two surveys, carried out in 1987 and 1997, of boys attending the 7th grade of primary schools in Wroclaw were used in the analysis. The heights and weights of 3165 boys aged 14 years selected from cohort of 6969 7th and 8th grade boys from all primary schools of the city Wroclaw were used. The data of the second sample of 14-year-old boys (n = 1014) were obtained from a health examination study carried out in the Silesian Centre for Preventive Medicine, 'DOLMED', in Wroclaw in 1997. All boys attended the 7th grade of 34 randomly selected primary schools from a total of 129 schools in the city of Wroclaw. Social status was assessed on the basis of parental education level scored to four categories: university, secondary school, trade school, and elementary school. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was defined as the percentage of children above the 85th and 95th percentiles of the body mass index (BMI), the means of which were 21.27 and 23.75 kg/m 2 respectively. Prevalence of overweight among boys is slightly lower in the 1997 sample, whereas the prevalence of obesity shows the opposite trend and is higher by more than one percent in comparison with the 1987 sample. Similar trends of declining medians and increasing variance are observed in all educational groups. The differences in medians between the two samples within educational groups did not achieve statistical significance for the groups with parents with education at elementary level and fathers with university education. There is a trend toward increasing prevalence of obesity across the decade considered, according to father's education level. With respect to mother's education levels, the most dramatic changes in BMI and obesity occurred in the elementary education group, where the percentage of obese
This is a commentary on a Cochrane review, published in this issue of EBCH, first published as: Furlong M, McGilloway S, Bywater T, Hutchings J, Smith SM, Donnelly M. Behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for early-onset conduct problems in children aged 3 to 12 years. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD008225. DoI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008225.pub2. Copyright © 2013 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Bjerrum, Lars; Boel, Jonas
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of antibiotic prescriptions in primary health care among children aged 0-6 years and its association with socioeconomic factors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study describing antibiotic prescriptions and socioeconomic factors, using different population......-based registers from Statistics Denmark. SETTING: Antibiotic prescriptions in 2012 from primary health care in the Capital Region of Denmark. SUBJECTS: The population of children aged 0-6 years (n = 139,398) in the Capital Region of Denmark. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: High use of antibiotics identified by number...... of antibiotic prescriptions (≥ 3 prescriptions per year) and defined daily doses (DDD). A multinomial logistic regression analysis estimating the association between high antibiotic use and parents' education, employment status, income, child's sex, and ethnic background. RESULTS: Ten percent of children...
Bowdler, Michelle; Kent, Hannah
Physicians must remain vigilant about their ethical duties to patients, especially in high-stakes situations. The question raised by this case-whether a physician should comply with a parent's demand for treatment against her underage child's wishes-is not one of life or death in which a guardian might more credibly argue her judgment should stand. Given that forcing a rape kit exam on a patient who refuses to give assent could be further traumatizing, we argue that the physician should not comply. Deciding upon a course of action in this situation will involve considering what is in the patient's best interest and what constitutes a physician's appropriate role in gathering evidence for criminal investigations. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Elucidating the mechanisms by which infant birth conditions shape development across lengthy periods is critical for understanding typical and pathological development and for targeted early interventions. This study examined how newborns' regulatory capacities impact 10-year outcomes via the bidirectional influences of child emotion regulation (ER) and reciprocal parenting across early development. Guided by dynamic systems theory, 125 infants were tested at seven time points: birth, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months and 5 and 10 years. Initial regulatory conditions were measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; vagal tone) and neurobehavioral regulation (Brazelton, 1973) at birth. At each assessment between 3 months and 5 years, infant ER was microcoded from age-appropriate paradigms and mother-child reciprocity observed during social interactions. Four regulation-related outcomes were measured at 10 years: child RSA, empathy measured by mother-child conflict discussion and a lab paradigm, accident proneness, and behavior problems. An autoregressive cross-lagged structural model indicated that infant birth conditions impacted 10-year outcomes via three mechanisms. First, child ER and reciprocal parenting were individually stable across development and were each predicted by regulatory birth conditions, describing gradual maturation of ER and reciprocity over time. Second, better ER skills at one time point were related to greater reciprocity at the next time point and vice versa, and these cross-time effects defined a field of individual-context mutual influences that mediated the links between neonatal RSA and 10-year outcomes. Third, direct associations emerged between neonatal regulation and outcome, suggesting that birth conditions may establish a neurobiological milieu that promotes a more mature and resilient system. These mechanisms describe distinct "attractor" states that constrain the system's future options, emphasize the importance of defining behavior
O'Connor, Jane; Fotakopoulou, Olga
The rise in personal ownership of touch-screen technology such as iPads and smartphones in the UK in recent years has led to the increasing use of such technology by babies and very young children. This article explores this practice via an online parental survey with 226 UK parents of children aged 0-3 years within the context of the current…
Warland, Jane; O'Leary, Joann; McCutcheon, Helen; Williamson, Victoria
to gain an in-depth understanding of the parenting experiences of bereaved parents in the years following an infant death. an exploratory qualitative study. semi-structured interview in the participants' homes. Data were collected over a five-month period in 2008 and analysed using thematic analysis. a purposive sample of 13 bereaved parents (10 mothers and three fathers) was used. Parents who had accessed the support services offered by two bereavement support agencies were recruited. Participants were asked to describe their experiences of raising their subsequent child. Interviews were conducted when the next born child was at least three years of age. the parents described a 'paradoxical' parenting style where they were trying to parent using two diametrically opposed unsustainable options. For example, they described trying to hold their subsequent child emotionally close but aloof at the same time. the results from this study indicate that the impact of a loss of an infant has far-reaching consequences on subsequent parenting. Support and early intervention at the time of the stillbirth and subsequent pregnancy are likely to be useful. However, further research is required to determine the extent to which early intervention can alter the tendency towards bereaved parents adopting a paradoxical parenting style. The impact of this style on mental health and the emotional health and well-being of the next born child/ren after perinatal loss should also be further examined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jadva, Vasanti Harish; Imrie, S; Golombok, Susan Esther
Study Question: How do surrogates psychological health and experiences of surrogacy change from one year to ten years following the birth of the surrogacy child? Summary answer: Surrogates’ psychological well-being did not change ten years following the birth, with the majority continuing to report good mental health andall surrogates remained positive about the surrogacy arrangement. What is known already: Studies have found that surrogates may find the weeks following the birth difficu...
Kuiper, D.; Hoek, A.; La Bastide-Van Gemert, S.; Seggers, J.; Heineman, M.J.; Hadders-Algra, M.
Study question: Does the in vitro procedure, ovarian hyperstimulation or subfertility affect blood pressure (BP) of 9-year-old IVF children born to subfertile couples? Summary answer: Our study demonstrates that the higher BP in 9-year-old children born to subfertile couples is not due to
While recent years have seen a rapid growth of research exploring the usefulness of parenting support programmes, no empirical research to date has specifically explored experiences of compulsory parenting support. The present study examines the narrative accounts of 17 parents who, through a Parenting Order, were made to participate in such…
Paulson, Sharon E.; Sputa, Cheryl L.
Explores differences in maternal and paternal parenting styles and involvement, the differences between parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and involvement, and changes in parenting style and involvement between the adolescents' 9th and 12th grade years. Subjects were 244 ninth graders from the Southeast and Midwest. Discusses…
Observed parenting behaviors interact with a polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene to predict the emergence of oppositional defiant and callous-unemotional behaviors at age 3 years.
Willoughby, Michael T; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Propper, Cathi B; Waschbusch, Daniel A
Using the Durham Child Health and Development Study, this study (N = 171) tested whether observed parenting behaviors in infancy (6 and 12 months) and toddlerhood/preschool (24 and 36 months) interacted with a child polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene to predict oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors at age 3 years. Child genotype interacted with observed harsh and intrusive (but not sensitive) parenting to predict ODD and CU behaviors. Harsh-intrusive parenting was more strongly associated with ODD and CU for children with a methionine allele of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene. CU behaviors were uniquely predicted by harsh-intrusive parenting in infancy, whereas ODD behaviors were predicted by harsh-intrusive parenting in both infancy and toddlerhood/preschool. The results are discussed from the perspective of the contributions of caregiving behaviors as contributing to distinct aspects of early onset disruptive behavior.
Leijten, Patty; Raaijmakers, Maartje A J; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter
Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care-a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less problematic. There is concern that this difference in problem perception might limit intervention effectiveness. We tested the extent to which ethnic differences in problem perception exist when ethnic minority families engage in mental health service and whether lower levels of problem perception diminish parenting intervention effects to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our sample included 136 mothers of 3- to 8-year-olds (35% female) from the 3 largest ethnic groups in the Netherlands (43% Dutch; 35% Moroccan; 22% Turkish). Mothers reported on their child's externalizing and internalizing behavior and their perception of this behavior as problematic. They were then randomly assigned to the Incredible Years parenting intervention or a wait list control condition. We contrasted maternal reports of problem perception to teacher reports of the same children. Moroccan and Turkish mothers, compared with Dutch mothers, perceived similar levels of child behavior problems as less problematic, and as causing less impairment and burden. Teacher problem perception did not vary across children from different ethnic groups. Importantly, maternal problem perception did not affect parenting intervention effectiveness to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our findings suggest that ethnic differences in problem perception exist once families engage in treatment, but that lower levels of problem perception do not diminish treatment effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Wilkie, Hannah J; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B; Cumming, Sean P; Katzmarzyk, Peter T
Time spent outdoors is associated with higher physical activity levels among children, yet it may be threatened by parental safety concerns and the attraction of indoor sedentary pursuits. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between these factors and outdoor time during children's discretionary periods (i.e., after school and over the weekend). Data from 462 children aged 9-11 years old were analysed using generalised linear mixed models. The odds of spending > 1 h outdoors after school, and > 2 h outdoors on a weekend were computed, according to demographic variables, screen-based behaviours, media access, and parental safety concerns. Interactions with sex and socioeconomic status (SES) were explored. Boys, low SES participants, and children who played on their computer for 1 h outside after school than girls, high SES children and those playing on a computer for ≥2 h, respectively. Counterintuitive results were found for access to media devices and crime-related safety concerns as both of these were positively associated with time spent outdoors after school. A significant interaction for traffic-related concerns*sex was found; higher road safety concerns were associated with lower odds of outdoor time after school in boys only. Age was associated with weekend outdoor time, which interacted with sex and SES; older children were more likely to spend > 2 h outside on weekends but this was only significant among girls and high SES participants. Our results suggest that specific groups of children are less likely to spend their free time outside, and it would seem that only prolonged recreational computer use has a negative association with children's outdoor time after school. Further research is needed to explore potential underlying mechanisms, and parental safety concerns in more detail.
McCann, Donna C; Thompson, Margaret; Daley, David; Barton, Joanne; Laver-Bradbury, Cathy; Hutchings, Judy; Coghill, David; Stanton, Louise; Maishman, Tom; Dixon, Liz; Caddy, Josh; Chorozoglou, Maria; Raftery, James; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund
The New Forest Parenting Programme (NFPP) is a home-delivered, evidence-based parenting programme to target symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool children. It has been adapted for use with 'hard-to-reach' or 'difficult-to-treat' children. This trial will compare the adapted-NFPP with a generic parenting group-based programme, Incredible Years (IY), which has been recommended for children with preschool-type ADHD symptoms. This multicentre randomized controlled trial comprises three arms: adapted-NFPP, IY and treatment as usual (TAU). A sample of 329 parents of preschool-aged children with a research diagnosis of ADHD enriched for hard-to-reach and potentially treatment-resistant children will be allocated to the arms in the ratio 3:3:1. Participants in the adapted-NFPP and IY arms receive an induction visit followed by 12 weekly parenting sessions of 1½ hours (adapted-NFPP) or 2½ hours (IY) over 2.5 years. Adapted-NFPP will be delivered as a one-to-one home-based intervention; IY, as a group-based intervention. TAU participants are offered a parenting programme at the end of the study. The primary objective is to test whether the adapted-NFPP produces beneficial effects in terms of core ADHD symptoms. Secondary objectives include examination of the treatment impact on secondary outcomes, a study of cost-effectiveness and examination of the mediating role of treatment-induced changes in parenting behaviour and neuropsychological function. The primary outcome is change in ADHD symptoms, as measured by the parent-completed version of the SNAP-IV questionnaire, adjusted for pretreatment SNAP-IV score. Secondary outcome measures are: a validated index of behaviour during child's solo play; teacher-reported SNAP-IV (ADHD scale); teacher and parent SNAP-IV (ODD) Scale; Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory - Oppositional Defiant Disorder scale; Revised Client Service Receipt Inventory - Health Economics Costs measure and EuroQol (EQ5D
Background The New Forest Parenting Programme (NFPP) is a home-delivered, evidence-based parenting programme to target symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool children. It has been adapted for use with ‘hard-to-reach’ or ‘difficult-to-treat’ children. This trial will compare the adapted-NFPP with a generic parenting group-based programme, Incredible Years (IY), which has been recommended for children with preschool-type ADHD symptoms. Methods/design This multicentre randomized controlled trial comprises three arms: adapted-NFPP, IY and treatment as usual (TAU). A sample of 329 parents of preschool-aged children with a research diagnosis of ADHD enriched for hard-to-reach and potentially treatment-resistant children will be allocated to the arms in the ratio 3:3:1. Participants in the adapted-NFPP and IY arms receive an induction visit followed by 12 weekly parenting sessions of 1½ hours (adapted-NFPP) or 2½ hours (IY) over 2.5 years. Adapted-NFPP will be delivered as a one-to-one home-based intervention; IY, as a group-based intervention. TAU participants are offered a parenting programme at the end of the study. The primary objective is to test whether the adapted-NFPP produces beneficial effects in terms of core ADHD symptoms. Secondary objectives include examination of the treatment impact on secondary outcomes, a study of cost-effectiveness and examination of the mediating role of treatment-induced changes in parenting behaviour and neuropsychological function. The primary outcome is change in ADHD symptoms, as measured by the parent-completed version of the SNAP-IV questionnaire, adjusted for pretreatment SNAP-IV score. Secondary outcome measures are: a validated index of behaviour during child’s solo play; teacher-reported SNAP-IV (ADHD scale); teacher and parent SNAP-IV (ODD) Scale; Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory - Oppositional Defiant Disorder scale; Revised Client Service Receipt Inventory - Health
Townley, Kim F.; And Others
The Parent and Child Education Program (PACE) is a pilot program, developed in Kentucky, to provide adult, early childhood and parent education. PACE targets families that have one or both parents without a high school diploma or equivalency certificate and one child three or four years of age. Parents and children ride the bus to school together,…
Popkin, Michael H.
Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…
Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Husky, Mathilde; Pitrou, Isabelle; Fermanian, Christophe; Shojaei, Taraneh; Chee, Christine Chan; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Beiser, Morton
In France, one in 10 residents has immigrated mainly from North Africa, West Africa or the Caribbean including the French West Indies. However little is known about how parents from these regions behave when they migrate to countries that have different cultural norms. It is therefore important to determine how ethno-cultural background affects parental behavior and subsequent child mental health in the context of immigration. The objectives are: 1) to compare negative parenting behaviors of French residents from diverse ethno-cultural backgrounds 2) to examine the relationship between parental region of origin and child mental health, and 3) to investigate the extent to which ethno-cultural context moderates the effect of parenting styles on child mental health. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2005 in 100 schools in South-East France. The Dominic Interactive and the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were used to assess child psychopathology. The Parent Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire was used to assess parenting styles. The final sample included data on 1,106 mother and child dyads. Caring and punitive attitudes were significantly different across mothers as a function of region of origin. This association was stronger for punitive attitudes with the highest prevalence in the Caribbean/African group, while mothers from Maghreb were more similar to French natives. Differences in caring behaviors were similar though less pronounced. Among children of Maghrebian descent, punitive parenting was associated with an increased risk of internalizing disorders while this association was weaker among children of African and Afro-Caribbean descent. Parental region of origin is an important component of both parenting styles and their effect on child mental health. Interventions on parenting should consider both the region of origin and the differential impact of origin on the effect of parenting styles, thus allowing for a finer
Janice L. Thompson
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined parental perceptions of their child’s screen-viewing (SV within the context of parental SV time. This study qualitatively examined parents’ perceptions of their 5–6-year-old child’s SV within the context of their own quantitatively measured SV. Methods A mixed-methods design employed semi-structured telephone interviews, demographic and SV questionnaires, objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary time. Deductive content analysis was used to explore parents’ perceptions of, and concerns about, their child’s SV, and management of their child’s SV. Comparisons were made between parent-child dyads reporting low (<2-h per day versus high SV time. Results Fifty-three parents were interviewed (94.3% mothers, with 52 interviews analysed. Fifteen parent-child dyads (28.8% exceeded the 2-h SV threshold on both weekdays and weekend days; 5 parent-child dyads (9.6% did not exceed this threshold. The remaining 32 dyads reported a combination of parent or child exceeding/not exceeding the SV threshold on either weekdays or weekend days. Three main themes distinguished the 15 parent-child dyads exceeding the SV threshold from the 5 dyads that did not: 1 parents’ personal SV-related views and behaviours; 2 the family SV environment; and 3 setting SV rules and limits. Parents in the dyads not exceeding the SV threshold prioritized and engaged with their children in non-SV behaviours for relaxation, set limits around their own and their child’s SV-related behaviours, and described an environment supportive of physical activity. Parents in the dyads exceeding the SV threshold were more likely to prioritise SV as a shared family activity, and described a less structured SV environment with minimal rule setting, influenced their child’s need for relaxation time. Conclusions The majority of parents in this study who exceeded the SV threshold expressed minimal concern and a relaxed approach
Ono, Satomi; Manabe, Yukiko
The aim of this study is to prepare the Parental Self-Efficacy Scale for Child Autonomy toward Minor Surgery (PSESCAMS) and verify its reliability and validity. The PSESCAMS was developed based on the findings of previous qualitative studies on preschool children aged 3-6 years who were undergoing day surgery and their parents. The Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Maternal Self-Accomplishment Scale (MSAS), and Japanese-language version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory A-trait subscale (STAI: A-trait) were used to examine the criterion-related validity of the PSESCAMS. In addition, the test-retest method was utilized for the PSESCAMS. The number of valid responses was 586. A principle component analysis of the PSESCAMS was conducted of 18 items, extracting two factors. As a result of factor analysis that assumed two factors, the two factors were named "self-efficacy for support related to child's emotional control for minor surgery" and "self-efficacy for support related to child's understanding of minor surgery". A structural equation model having high goodness of fit for the PSESCAMS was shown by a covariance structure analysis. The correlations between GSES, MSAS, STAI: A-trait and the PSESCAMS were r = 0.323 (P < 0.001), r = 0.370 (P < 0.001), and r = -0.248 (P < 0.001), respectively. Cronbach's alpha of both the initial test and the test-retest for the PSESCAMS were 0.9 and the correlation between both was significant. The PSESCAMS consists of two categories and includes 18 items. The reliability and validity of the PSESCAMS were proved. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Hye Jin Lee
Full Text Available PurposeWhether parental origin of the intact X chromosome and/or the presence of Y chromosome sequences (Yseq play a role in three-year height response to growth hormone (GH were investigated.MethodsPaternal (Xp or maternal (Xm origin of X chromosome was assessed by microsatellite marker analysis and the presence of hidden Yseq was analyzed. The first-, second-, and third-year GH response was measured as a change in height z-score (Z_Ht in Turner syndrome (TS patients with 45,Xp (n=10, 45,Xm (n=15, and 45,X/46,X,+mar(Y (Xm_Yseq (n=8.ResultsThe mean baseline Z_Ht did not differ according to Xp or Xm origin, however the mean baseline Z_Ht was higher in the Xm_Yseq group than in Xm group, after adjusting for bone age delay and midparental Z_Ht (P=0.04. There was no difference in the height response to GH between the 3 groups. The height response to GH decreased progressively each year (P<0.001, such that the third-year increase in Z_Ht was not significant. This third-year decrease in treatment response was unaffected by Xp, Xm, and Xm_Yseq groups. Increasing GH dosage from the second to third-year of treatment positively correlated with the increase in Z_Ht (P=0.017.ConclusionThere was no evidence of X-linked imprinted genes and/or Yseq affecting height response to 3 years of GH therapy. Increasing GH dosages may help attenuate the decrease in third-year GH response in TS patients with 45,X and/or 46,X/+mar(Y.
Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele
A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular…
There are four different types of love possible between men and women in the middle years. The type they feel for each other depends not upon their ages but upon whether they are married, whether they have children, and what is happening in their occupational careers. The intense feelings of romantic love are dampened by long association. Conjugal…
Hughes, Claire; Ensor, Rosie
Background: Cognitive and family factors are implicated in the origins of behavioural problems, but little is known about their independence or interplay. Methods: We present data from 127 two-year-olds from predominantly disadvantaged families who completed tests of "theory of mind" (ToM), executive function (EF) and verbal ability. Researchers'…
Taylor, Caroline M; Kordas, Katarzyna; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan M
As part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), measures of child IQ were collected by trained psychologists. The Wechsler Pre-school and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised UK edition (WPPSI) was used at age 4 years in a subsample of children enrolled in ALSPAC (the Children in Focus cohort), chosen at random from the last 6 months of ALSPAC births (about 10% of the participants). At age 8 years all children enrolled in the main cohort were invited to complete a short form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)-III UK . Prenatal blood lead (B-Pb) concentrations were measured by inductively-couple plasma mass spectrometry in samples from women at a median gestation age of 11 weeks. Child blood lead was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in samples from children attending the Children in Focus clinic at age 30 months. Maternal reports at 32 weeks' gestation were used to generate data on a range of potential confounders. The data were used to determine the associations between prenatal exposure to lead and child IQ at 4 and 8 years. The effect of child B-Pb at 3 years as a moderator of these associations was tested. (For results, please see doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2017.07.003 Taylor et al., (2017)). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kristensen, Petter; Corbett, Karina; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind
Background Women have shown consistently higher levels of sickness absence from work in comparison to men, but explanations for this gender gap have not been completely understood. Life-course studies suggest that health and health-related social benefits in adult age are influenced by early life experiences. We aimed to estimate intergenerational associations with a 15-year time gap between parents? and offspring sickness absences, pursuing the hypothesis that this parental influence would h...
A three year old girl was observed to have bluish marks on her back, arms and legs. The social services initiated an examination on the local hospital, but no conclusion regarding the marks was reached. The girl was institutionalized before a forensic examination after three days concluded that the marks were Mongolian spots. The case stresses the importance of being able to distinguish between Mongolian spots and skin hematomas and the need for a genuine clinical forensic examination in case...
Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.
The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...
Is it time to bring the "Parent" into the prevention of parent to child transmission programs in India? A study of trends over a 10-year period in a prevention of parent to child transmission clinic in India.
Shiradkar, Swati; Mande, Shubhangi; Bapat, Gauri; Setia, Maninder Singh
The present study evaluated the changes in serology and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing behaviors over a 10-year period in a center in India. We used clinical data collected at the antenatal clinic from 2002 to 2011. The key outcomes were: (1) Proportion of women who opted for HIV test and those who tested positive; (2) proportion of male partners who came in for HIV test and those who tested positive; and (3) proportion of women who opted for continuation of pregnancy or for medical termination of pregnancy. We tested 11,452 women for HIV over the 10-year period from 2002 to 2011. The proportion of women who opted for HIV testing was 72.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 70.7-73.4%). The acceptance of test increased from 35.9% (95% CI: 31.7-40.4%) in 2002 to the peak of 82.6% (95% CI: 78.6-86.8%) in 2009 (P < 0.001). The overall HIV prevalence over the decade was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.55-0.87%). The prevalence high at 1.11% (95% CI: 0.23-3.24%) in 2002 and reduced to 0.37% (95% CI: 0.12-0.87%) in 2011 (P < 0.001). Only 0.57% of male partners tested for HIV over this time period. Strategies to improve acceptance of testing in pregnant women should be included in the Indian guidelines. The male partners do not get tested. Thus, this component needs to be strengthened - by targeted interventions for male spouses - to make the program more effective.
Ruiter, Emilie L M; Fransen, Gerdine A J; Molleman, Gerard R M; van der Velden, Koos; Engels, Rutger C M E
Although parental support is an important component in overweight prevention programs for children, current programs pay remarkably little attention to the role of parenting. To close this gap, we developed a web-based parenting program for parents entitled "Making a healthy deal with your child". This e-learning program can be incorporated into existing prevention programs, thereby improving these interventions by reinforcing the role of parenting and providing parents with practical tools for use in everyday situations in order to stimulate a healthy lifestyle. Here, we report the research design of a study to determine the effectiveness of our e-learning program. The effectiveness of an e-learning program was studied in a two-armed cluster randomized controlled trial. Parents of children 9-13 years of age who live in the Nijmegen region, the Netherlands, and who participated in the existing school-based overweight prevention program "Scoring for Health" were invited to participate in this study. Our goal was to recruit 322 parent-child dyads. At the school grade level, parents were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (which received e-learning and a brochure) or the control group (which received only the brochure); the participants were stratified by ethnicity. Measurements were taken from both the parents and the children at baseline, and then 5 and 12 months after baseline. Primary outcomes included the child's dietary and sedentary behavior, and level of physical activity. Secondary outcomes included general parenting style, specific parenting practices (e.g., set of rules, modeling, and monitoring), and parental self-efficacy. We hypothesize that children of parents who follow the e-learning program will have a healthier diet, will be less sedentary, and will have a higher level of physical activity compared to the children in the control group. If the e-learning program is found to be effective, it can be incorporated into existing
Guajardo, Nicole R.; Snyder, Gregory; Petersen, Rachel
The present study included observational and self-report measures to examine associations among parental stress, parental behaviour, child behaviour, and children's theory of mind and emotion understanding. Eighty-three parents and their 3- to 5-year-old children participated. Parents completed measures of parental stress, parenting (laxness,…
Nowicki, Stephen; Iles-Caven, Yasmin; Gregory, Steven; Ellis, Genette; Golding, Jean
Locus of control is one of the most widely studied concepts in the history of personality psychology. In spite of its popularity and its associations with numerous relevant outcomes, the ability of locus of control to predict future behaviors involving parenting effectiveness has been under researched. The few parent locus of control children's outcome studies are characterized by cross-sectional methodologies that focus on mothers. The present study uses a prospective methodology to compare data on mothers' and fathers' locus of control with their child's behavior outcomes from a large scale research project, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Based on Rotter's Social Learning Theory published in 1954 and past empirical research, it was predicted and found that parent internality was associated with more positive child outcomes than parent externality. More specifically, when both parents were internal, their children had more positive outcomes in sleeping, eating, and tantrum behavior as compared to any other parent locus of control combination. However external parents had a less restrictive attitude which appeared to have a more beneficial effect on picky eating. Results confirmed how important parent locus of control is in the lives of children. Based on the findings, researchers are urged to develop interventions to change advice to parents and promote more internal locus of control among parents.
Nowicki, Stephen; Iles-Caven, Yasmin; Gregory, Steven; Ellis, Genette; Golding, Jean
Locus of control is one of the most widely studied concepts in the history of personality psychology. In spite of its popularity and its associations with numerous relevant outcomes, the ability of locus of control to predict future behaviors involving parenting effectiveness has been under researched. The few parent locus of control children's outcome studies are characterized by cross-sectional methodologies that focus on mothers. The present study uses a prospective methodology to compare data on mothers' and fathers' locus of control with their child's behavior outcomes from a large scale research project, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Based on Rotter's Social Learning Theory published in 1954 and past empirical research, it was predicted and found that parent internality was associated with more positive child outcomes than parent externality. More specifically, when both parents were internal, their children had more positive outcomes in sleeping, eating, and tantrum behavior as compared to any other parent locus of control combination. However external parents had a less restrictive attitude which appeared to have a more beneficial effect on picky eating. Results confirmed how important parent locus of control is in the lives of children. Based on the findings, researchers are urged to develop interventions to change advice to parents and promote more internal locus of control among parents. PMID:28446887
Full Text Available A three year old girl was observed to have bluish marks on her back, arms and legs. The social services initiated an examination on the local hospital, but no conclusion regarding the marks was reached. The girl was institutionalized before a forensic examination after three days concluded that the marks were Mongolian spots. The case stresses the importance of being able to distinguish between Mongolian spots and skin hematomas and the need for a genuine clinical forensic examination in cases where child abuse is suspected. A guide for distinguishing between Mongolian spots and skin hematomas is presented.
Shapiro, Henry L; Prince, Jefferson B; Ireland, Rachel; Stein, Martin T
Tessa is a 7-year-old girl with odd behaviors, worsening over the preceding year. She spends a significant amount of time alone in her room, talking to "Richard." Her father observed that Tessa is "in her own world." In school, she often glares at the teacher and refuses to work. She is alone at recess without any real friends. Her father reports that she eats little and only after he tastes the food. She is increasingly cruel to both real and toy animals. She tied a string around her cat's neck and swung it around, saying she wanted to punish it. She was heard to say to her stuffed cat, "Die, b ... .; die." Richard told her to do this and other "bad" things. Tessa has not had chronic health problems or developmental concerns. During the first 18 months of life, her height was between the 5th and 10th percentiles; it declined to below the 3rd percentile over the past 2 years. Weight has been consistently between the 3rd and 5th percentiles. Tessa's parents both have been diagnosed with schizophrenia. There are at least 7 first- and second-degree relatives with the same diagnosis. Both parents cared for Tessa for 4 years with a lot of support. Then, her father left the home, but he was in contact with her while managing his own illness. When the mother's illness and compliance worsened, Tessa was removed for neglect at 5 (1/2) years old. Two foster homes preceded Dad's award of sole custody 13 months ago. Mother's weekly visitations are quite upsetting to Tessa. Tessa is a verbal, solemn, small, well-dressed girl with no physical abnormalities. She talks with advanced vocabulary and syntax, with normal prosody and good conversational skills. She says Richard is a bad boy who gets her into trouble at school. She equivocates when asked if he is real or imagined or if others can see him. She says that she misses her mother.
Kristensen, Petter; Corbett, Karina; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind
Women have shown consistently higher levels of sickness absence from work in comparison to men, but explanations for this gender gap have not been completely understood. Life-course studies suggest that health and health-related social benefits in adult age are influenced by early life experiences. We aimed to estimate intergenerational associations with a 15-year time gap between parents' and offspring sickness absences, pursuing the hypothesis that this parental influence would have a stronger impact for women than for men. All persons born alive between 1974 and 1976 in Norway were followed up in several national registries. Employed persons considered to be at risk of sickness absence and also with parents at risk of sickness absence (n = 78,878) were followed in the calendar year of their 33(rd) birthday with respect to spells lasting >16 days. The probability of one or more spells during this year constituted the one-year risk under study. Additive risk differences in association with an exposure (parental sickness absence 15 years earlier) were estimated in a binomial regression analysis. The estimates were adjusted for parental socioeconomic factors. The 1-year sickness absence risk was higher for women (30.4%) than for men (12.3%). The crude risk differences between those exposed and those unexposed to parental sickness absence were similar in percentage points (PP) for women (3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6 to 4.9) and men (3.8; 95% CI 2.9 to 4.6). The risk differences were moderately attenuated after adjustment for parental education and father's income to 3.4 PP (2.2 to 4.5) for women and 2.8 PP (2.0 to 3.7) for men. Male absence was more strongly associated with the father's than with the mother's sickness absence, while associations for women were stronger for the same diagnostic groups as their parents. Parental sickness absence was moderately associated with sickness absence in the next generation. Bias from unmeasured confounders cannot
Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Mensah, Fiona K; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M
The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal parenting is in determining these outcomes. Longitudinal data were from a large nationally representative Australian cohort of 5,000 children, aged 0 to 1, 2 to 3, and 4 to 5 years of age. Participants were 354 children with LTM perinatal risk born at 33 to 36 weeks, with birth weight 1,501 to 2,499 grams, or born between the first and 10th percentiles for gestational age; and 2,461 children in the normal birth weight, term comparison group. Child mental health was measured by mother-report on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Parenting irritability, warmth, self-efficacy, maternal separation anxiety, and overprotective parenting were measured when children were 0 to 1 and 2 to 3 years of age. Parents in the LTM perinatal risk group were more likely to experience parenting difficulties on one of eight parenting measures (irritable parenting at age 0-1 year) when adjusting for socio-demographic differences (odds ratio = 1.43; 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.95, p parenting, pathway to psychological risk in children born with LTM perinatal risk. Copyright Â© 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Iskander, Jeannette M; Rohan, Jennifer M; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan; Drotar, Dennis
To examine changes in parent-child communication patterns and their relation to glycemic control and treatment adherence using observational data in a 3-year prospective multisite study of youth with type 1 diabetes aged 9-11 years at baseline and their families (n = 217). Adolescents and caregivers participated in a diabetes problem-solving discussion. Families were rated on negative and positive communication and interactions using the Interaction Behavior Code. Maternal and paternal negative communication decreased over time, whereas adolescent and maternal positive communication and positive reciprocity increased. Baseline preadolescent youth and maternal positive communication predicted adherence 3 years later. Changes in family communication did not predict changes in glycemic control or adherence. During the transition to adolescence, family communication changed in unexpected and positive ways. Additionally, the relationship of baseline family communication to subsequent adherence suggests the need to assess family communication concerning diabetes-related management during preadolescence. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Brummelman, Eddie; Thomaes, Sander; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan; Bushman, Brad J
In current Western society, children are often lavished with inflated praise (e.g., "You made an incredibly beautiful drawing!"). Inflated praise is often given in an attempt to raise children's self-esteem. An experiment (Study 1) and naturalistic study (Study 2) found that adults are especially inclined to give inflated praise to children with low self-esteem. This inclination may backfire, however. Inflated praise might convey to children that they should continue to meet very high standards-a message that might discourage children with low self-esteem from taking on challenges. Another experiment (Study 3) found that inflated praise decreases challenge seeking in children with low self-esteem and has the opposite effect on children with high self-esteem. These findings show that inflated praise, although well intended, may cause children with low self-esteem to avoid crucial learning experiences.
Davison, Brittany; Saeedi, Pouya; Black, Katherine; Harrex, Harriet; Haszard, Jillian; Meredith-Jones, Kim; Quigg, Robin; Skeaff, Sheila; Stoner, Lee; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Skidmore, Paula
Previous research investigating the relationship between parents' and children's diets has focused on single foods or nutrients, and not on global diet, which may be more important for good health. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between parental diet quality and child dietary patterns. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 17 primary schools in Dunedin, New Zealand. Information on food consumption and related factors in children and their primary caregiver/parent were collected. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate dietary patterns in children and diet quality index (DQI) scores were calculated in parents. Relationships between parental DQI and child dietary patterns were examined in 401 child-parent pairs using mixed regression models. PCA generated two patterns; 'Fruit and Vegetables' and 'Snacks'. A one unit higher parental DQI score was associated with a 0.03SD (CI: 0.02, 0.04) lower child 'Snacks' score. There was no significant relationship between 'Fruit and Vegetables' score and parental diet quality. Higher parental diet quality was associated with a lower dietary pattern score in children that was characterised by a lower consumption frequency of confectionery, chocolate, cakes, biscuits and savoury snacks. These results highlight the importance of parental modelling, in terms of their dietary choices, on the diet of children.
Svensson, Viktoria; Sobko, Tanja; Ek, Anna; Forssén, Michaela; Ekbom, Kerstin; Johansson, Elin; Nowicka, Paulina; Westerståhl, Maria; Riserus, Ulf; Marcus, Claude
To compare dietary