WorldWideScience

Sample records for increasing world-wide urban

  1. Increasing efficiency of information dissemination and collection through the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel P. Huebner; Malchus B. Baker; Peter F. Ffolliott

    2000-01-01

    Researchers, managers, and educators have access to revolutionary technology for information transfer through the World Wide Web (Web). Using the Web to effectively gather and distribute information is addressed in this paper. Tools, tips, and strategies are discussed. Companion Web sites are provided to guide users in selecting the most appropriate tool for searching...

  2. Increasing public understanding of transgenic crops through the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Patrick F; Namuth, Deana M; Harrington, Judy; Ward, Sarah M; Lee, Donald J; Hain, Patricia

    2002-07-01

    Transgenic crops among the most controversial "science and society" issues of recent years. Because of the complex techniques involved in creating these crops and the polarized debate over their risks and beliefs, a critical need has arisen for accessible and balanced information on this technology. World Wide Web sites offer several advantages for disseminating information on a fast-changing technical topic, including their global accessibility; and their ability to update information frequently, incorporate multimedia formats, and link to networks of other sites. An alliance between two complementary web sites at Colorado State University and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln takes advantage of the web environment to help fill the need for public information on crop genetic engineering. This article describes the objectives and features of each site. Viewership data and other feedback have shown these web sites to be effective means of reaching public audiences on a complex scientific topic.

  3. Hidradenitis suppurativa gains increasing interest on World Wide Web: a source for patient information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessam, Schapoor; Salem, Johannes; Bechara, Falk G; Haferkamp, Axel; Heidenreich, Axel; Paffenholz, Pia; Sand, Michael; Tsaur, Igor; Borgmann, Hendrik

    2017-07-01

    Gathering health information from Internet websites is increasingly utilized by patients. No data exist about hidradenitis suppurativa (HS)-related online health information. Thus, we aimed to study the quality, popularity, readability, and timeliness of the most frequented websites on HS. Google Trends was used to evaluate the public interest in HS. An Internet search on Google was performed for the terms "hidradenitis suppurativa," "acne inversa," and "Verneuil's disease." Readability scores, HONcode quality certification, Alexa popularity rank, and content were assessed. Google search queries on HS have steadily risen in the last 10 years. The website analysis revealed 39 unique websites, which were difficult to read. Ten websites (26%) had HONcode quality certification, and the median (IQR) Alexa popularity rank was 48871 (2333-361275). Thirteen websites (33%) yielded disease-specific photos with a median rating between "quite useful" and "uncertain." A therapy option with adalimumab was mentioned on 11 websites (28%). In addition to an increasing interest, we found a broad variation in the quality, readability, popularity, and timeliness of content on HS-related websites. Improvement of the quality and readability of HS-related websites is desirable to potentially raise disease awareness and contribute to an earlier presentation of patients suffering with undiagnosed HS. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. World wide spatial capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rijurekha; Quercia, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales) and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion). Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where). They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK). We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  5. World wide spatial capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijurekha Sen

    Full Text Available In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion. Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where. They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK. We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  6. World-wide environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlers, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    Man and the physical and natural resources necessary to support him in a civilized society are on a collision course. It is simple to say that man cannot continue to grow in number at an ever-increasing rate without a destructive effect upon the environment. Positive scientific proof for this impending calamity is not now available, yet many indications--sometimes physical and sometimes natural--point toward major world-wide environmental troubles in the near future. A number of environmental problems are described, particularly as they relate to the total world system. A computer model simulating future world-wide environmental trends from 1900 to 2100 A.D. is evaluated and suggested as a major tool for data-gathering purposes to determine the extent of world-wide environmental problems. It is suggested that scientists take an active role in the study of the environment, particularly in relation to man's future on earth

  7. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  8. World Wide Web Homepage Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Michael L.

    This paper examines hypermedia design and draws conclusions about how educational research and theory applies to various aspects of World Wide Web (WWW) homepage design. "Hypermedia" is defined as any collection of information which may be textual, graphical, visual, or auditory in nature and which may be accessed via a nonlinear route.…

  9. Unit 148 - World Wide Web Basics

    OpenAIRE

    148, CC in GIScience; Yeung, Albert K.

    2000-01-01

    This unit explains the characteristics and the working principles of the World Wide Web as the most important protocol of the Internet. Topics covered in this unit include characteristics of the World Wide Web; using the World Wide Web for the dissemination of information on the Internet; and using the World Wide Web for the retrieval of information from the Internet.

  10. Introduction to the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, P K

    2007-05-12

    The World Wide Web used to be nicknamed the 'World Wide Wait'. Now, thanks to high speed broadband connections, browsing the web has become a much more enjoyable and productive activity. Computers need to know where web pages are stored on the Internet, in just the same way as we need to know where someone lives in order to post them a letter. This section explains how the World Wide Web works and how web pages can be viewed using a web browser.

  11. The World Wide Web Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owston, Ron

    2007-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago the author wrote in one of the first widely-cited academic articles, Educational Researcher, about the educational role of the web. He argued that educators must be able to demonstrate that the web (1) can increase access to learning, (2) must not result in higher costs for learning, and (3) can lead to improved learning. These…

  12. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  13. Management van World-Wide Web Servers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hengstum, F.P.H.; Pras, Aiko

    1996-01-01

    Het World Wide Web is een populaire Internet toepassing waarmee het mogelijk is documenten aan willekeurige Internet gebruikers aan te bieden. Omdat hiervoor nog geen voorzieningen zijn getroffen, was het tot voor kort niet goed mogelijk het World Wide Web op afstand te beheren. De Universiteit

  14. Consistency in the World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær

    Tim Berners-Lee envisioned that computers will behave as agents of humans on the World Wide Web, where they will retrieve, extract, and interact with information from the World Wide Web. A step towards this vision is to make computers capable of extracting this information in a reliable...... and consistent way. In this dissertation we study steps towards this vision by showing techniques for the specication, the verication and the evaluation of the consistency of information in the World Wide Web. We show how to detect certain classes of errors in a specication of information, and we show how...... the World Wide Web, in order to help perform consistent evaluations of web extraction techniques. These contributions are steps towards having computers reliable and consistently extract information from the World Wide Web, which in turn are steps towards achieving Tim Berners-Lee's vision. ii...

  15. Promoting and supporting PBL interests world wide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Kolmos, Anette; Moesby, Egon

    2006-01-01

    of projects world wide focusing on institutional change toward a more student centred, project organised, and problem based approach to learning. The Centre is also establishing a UCPBL Global Network on Problem Based Learning in order to facilitate better access to and co-operation within the PBL area.......-Based Learning (PBL) in Engineering Education, an increasing number of universities and engineering schools throughout the world are seeking consultancy and cooperation with Aalborg University. The establishment of UCPBL is therefore a timely opportunity to merge the efforts into one organisational structure...... aiming to promote and support PBL interests worldwide. This paper presents the UCPBL profile and plan of action. This includes a wide range of activities such as promoting research and development within the various PBL models and their implementation; Education and training in PBL through offering...

  16. The World Wide Web of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Craig A

    2006-01-01

    Modern communications, combined with the near instantaneous publication of information on the World Wide Web, are providing the means to dramatically affect the pursuit, conduct, and public opinion of war on both sides...

  17. Emergency Medicine for medical students world wide!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perinpam, Larshan; Thi Huynh, Anh-Nhi

    2015-01-01

    A guest blog from Larshan Perinpam (President of ISAEM) and Anh-Nhi Thi Huynh (Vice president of external affairs, ISAEM) - http://blogs.bmj.com/emj/2015/04/17/emergency-medicine-for-medical-students-world-wide/......A guest blog from Larshan Perinpam (President of ISAEM) and Anh-Nhi Thi Huynh (Vice president of external affairs, ISAEM) - http://blogs.bmj.com/emj/2015/04/17/emergency-medicine-for-medical-students-world-wide/...

  18. Bitcoin – the World-Wide Currency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuba Olena А.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching bitcoin, the digital currency. It has been found that Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, that is, the virtual money, which has no material equivalent. The history of creation and development of cryptocurrency was reviewed. There is a reduction in volatility, which guarantees the security of currency, as well as the increase in currency volume and the inability to estimate the profitability of bitcoins. The dynamics of the value of digital currency in US dollars over recent years has been analyzed. Improvement of attitude of many countries to the considered cryptocurrency, in particular the USA, Germany, Spain, Canada, Australia, Israel and Scandinavian countries has been identified. The reasons of Ukraine’s interest in Bitcoin have been considered. Possibilities of creation of cryptocurrency on the territory of Ukraine have been analyzed, i.e. cost of electricity for mining, the legal status of mining firms, and the attitude of the National Bank of Ukraine to the digital currency. It has been concluded that the recognition of Bitcoin by the world countries in the future will allow it to be granted the status of world-wide currency.

  19. Review of stellarator research world wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shonet, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The world-wide effort in stellarators has evolved considerably during the past few years. Stellarator facilities are located in the Australia, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, the Soviet Union, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. Dimensions of stellarators range from less than 20 centimeters in major radius to more than 2 meters, and magnetic field values between 0.2 Tesla to more than 3.0 Tesla. Stellarators are made in a variety of magnetic configurations with wide ranges of toroidal aspect ratios and methods of generating the stellarator magnetic surfaces. In particular, continuous helical coils, twisted modular coils, or twisted vacuum chambers all provide different means to generate nested toroidal magnetic surfaces without the need for currents flowing in the plasma. The goal of present day experiments is to accumulate a physics data base. This is being done by increasing electron and ion temperatures with non-ohmic heating, by transport and scaling studies considering neoclassical scaling, global scaling, effects of electric fields, the bootstrap current and magnetic islands. Higher betas are being attempted by designing suitable magnetic configurations, pellet injection and/or minimizing transport losses. Plasma-wall interactions and particle control are being examined by divertor, pumped-limiter and carbonization experiments

  20. Happy 20th Birthday, World Wide Web!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 13 March CERN celebrated the 20th anniversary of the World Wide Web. Check out the video interview with Web creator Tim Berners-Lee and find out more about the both the history and future of the Web. To celebrate CERN also launched a brand new website, CERNland, for kids.

  1. WorldWide Web: Hypertext from CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Gord

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of software tools for accessing information on the Internet focuses on the WorldWideWeb (WWW) system, which was developed at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland to build a worldwide network of hypertext links using available networking technology. Its potential for use with multimedia documents is also…

  2. Utilization of the world wide web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, P.; Mallard, G.; Ralchenko, U.; Schultz, D.

    1998-01-01

    Two aspects of utilization of the World Wide Web are examined: (i) the communication of technical data through web cites that provide repositories of atomic and molecular data accessible through searchable databases; and (ii) the communication about issues of mutual concern among data producers, data compilers and evaluators, and data users. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  3. News Resources on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notess, Greg R.

    1996-01-01

    Describes up-to-date news sources that are presently available on the Internet and World Wide Web. Highlights include electronic newspapers; AP (Associated Press) sources and Reuters; sports news; stock market information; New York Times; multimedia capabilities, including CNN Interactive; and local and regional news. (LRW)

  4. World-Wide Web: The Information Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berners-Lee, Tim; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the World-Wide Web (W3) project, which is designed to create a global information universe using techniques of hypertext, information retrieval, and wide area networking. Discussion covers the W3 data model, W3 architecture, the document naming scheme, protocols, document formats, comparison with other systems, experience with the W3…

  5. Re-Framing the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, August

    2011-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation studies and describes how technical standards, protocols, and application programming interfaces (APIs) shape the aesthetic, functional, and affective nature of our most dominant mode of online communication, the World Wide Web (WWW). I examine the politically charged and contentious battle over browser…

  6. Internet and The World Wide Web

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Internet and The World Wide Web. Neelima Shrikhande. General Article Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 64-74. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0064-0074 ...

  7. Using the World Wide Web To Teach Francophone Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Deborah Berg; Van Ells, Paula Hartwig

    2002-01-01

    Examined use of the World Wide Web to teach Francophone culture. Suggests that bolstering reading comprehension in the foreign language and increased proficiency in navigating the Web are potential secondary benefits gained from the cultural Web-based activities proposed in the study.(Author/VWL)

  8. PENYEBARAN INFORMASI MENGGUNAKAN WWW (WORLD WIDE WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Atman Satya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Media Informasi secara tradisional telah kita kenai dengan menggunakan koran, televisi, radio dan buku referensi. Media informasi tersebut untuk penyebarannya memerlukan penunjang agar informasi tersebut dapat disebarkan secara lutis. Selain penggunaan media tradisional tersebut penyebaran informasi dengan menggunakan jaringan komputer Internet juga berkembang. Salah satu cara penyebaran informasi dengan menggunakan aplikasi WWW (World Wide Web yang mempunyai kemampuan menggabungkan gambar, text dan suara secara interaktif. Pada tulisan ini akan dibahas tentang kemampuan, penggunaan dan pengembangan server WWW.

  9. World-Wide Web the information universe

    CERN Document Server

    Berners-Lee, Tim; Groff, Jean-Francois; Pollermann, Bernd

    1992-01-01

    Purpose - The World-Wide Web (W-3) initiative is a practical project designed to bring a global information universe into existence using available technology. This paper seeks to describe the aims, data model, and protocols needed to implement the "web" and to compare them with various contemporary systems. Design/methodology/approach - Since Vannevar Bush's article, men have dreamed of extending their intellect by making their collective knowledge available to each individual by using machines. Computers provide us two practical techniques for human-knowledge interface. One is hypertext, in which links between pieces of text (or other media) mimic human association of ideas. The other is text retrieval, which allows associations to be deduced from the content of text. The W-3 ideal world allows both operations and provides access from any browsing platform. Findings - Various server gateways to other information systems have been produced, and the total amount of information available on the web is...

  10. Golden Jubilee Photos: World Wide Web

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the end of the 1980s, the Internet was already a valuable tool to scientists, allowing them to exchange e-mails and to access powerful computers remotely. A more simple means of sharing information was needed, however, and CERN, with its long tradition of informatics and networking, was the ideal place to find it. Moreover, hundreds of scientists from all over the world were starting to work together on preparations for the experiments at the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider. In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee (see photo), a young scientist working at CERN, drafted a proposal for an information-management system combining the internet, personal computers and computer-aided document consultation, known as hypertext. In 1990 he was joined by Robert Cailliau and the weaving of the World Wide Web began in earnest, even though only two CERN computers were allocated to the task at the time. The Web subsequently underwent a steady expansion to include the world's main particle physics institutes. The Web was not the...

  11. Interoperation of World-Wide Production e-Science Infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, M; Soddemann, T; Field, L; Navarro, JP; Casey, J; Litmaath, M; Baud, J; Koblitz, B; Catlett, C; Skow, D; Wang, S; Saeki, Y; Sato, H; Matsuoka, S; Geddes, N

    Many production Grid and e-Science infrastructures have begun to offer services to end-users during the past several years with an increasing number of scientific applications that require access to a wide variety of resources and services in multiple Grids. Therefore, the Grid Interoperation Now—Community Group of the Open Grid Forum—organizes and manages interoperation efforts among those production Grid infrastructures to reach the goal of a world-wide Grid vision on a technical level in the near future. This contribution highlights fundamental approaches of the group and discusses open standards in the context of production e-Science infrastructures.

  12. Remote sensing education and Internet/World Wide Web technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.A.; Egbert, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    Remote sensing education is increasingly in demand across academic and professional disciplines. Meanwhile, Internet technology and the World Wide Web (WWW) are being more frequently employed as teaching tools in remote sensing and other disciplines. The current wealth of information on the Internet and World Wide Web must be distilled, nonetheless, to be useful in remote sensing education. An extensive literature base is developing on the WWW as a tool in education and in teaching remote sensing. This literature reveals benefits and limitations of the WWW, and can guide its implementation. Among the most beneficial aspects of the Web are increased access to remote sensing expertise regardless of geographic location, increased access to current material, and access to extensive archives of satellite imagery and aerial photography. As with other teaching innovations, using the WWW/Internet may well mean more work, not less, for teachers, at least at the stage of early adoption. Also, information posted on Web sites is not always accurate. Development stages of this technology range from on-line posting of syllabi and lecture notes to on-line laboratory exercises and animated landscape flyovers and on-line image processing. The advantages of WWW/Internet technology may likely outweigh the costs of implementing it as a teaching tool.

  13. WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors, a Year 3 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, A. A.; Wong, C.

    2013-01-01

    The WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors (WWTA) Program has a track record of inspiring middle school students and getting them excited about science. The WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is a stunningly beautiful and freely available data visualization environment developed by Microsoft Research in collaboration with professional astronomers. Trained volunteer Ambassadors show teachers and students how to use WWT in their classrooms to explore and learn about our Universe. Our initial study has shown that WWT increases student understanding of astrophysical concepts and interest in astronomy and science. As an example of how excited students feel about learning astronomy with WWT, one middle school boy exclaimed, “This is way cooler than Call of Duty!” Our vision is to capitalize on the demonstrated inspirational and educational potential of WWT to increase the number of students who express interest in STEM fields. In this oral presentation, we provide a status update on the WWTA program, including ongoing results from our work with over 700 middle school students to date, and preliminary results from a new NSF-funded study comparing learning and interest gains for students studying Moon phases with WWT vs with the 2-dimensional simulator activity that accompanies their textbook. More information is available at wwtambassadors.org

  14. Use of World Wide Web and NCSA Mcsaic at Langley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael

    1994-01-01

    A brief history of the use of the World Wide Web at Langley Research Center is presented along with architecture of the Langley Web. Benefits derived from the Web and some Langley projects that have employed the World Wide Web are discussed.

  15. Bitcoin – the World-Wide Currency

    OpenAIRE

    Shuba Olena А.; Honcharova Yuliia Yu.; Bulygina Anastasia V.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at researching bitcoin, the digital currency. It has been found that Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, that is, the virtual money, which has no material equivalent. The history of creation and development of cryptocurrency was reviewed. There is a reduction in volatility, which guarantees the security of currency, as well as the increase in currency volume and the inability to estimate the profitability of bitcoins. The dynamics of the value of digital currency in US dollars o...

  16. Judging nursing information on the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cader, Raffik

    2013-02-01

    The World Wide Web is increasingly becoming an important source of information for healthcare professionals. However, finding reliable information from unauthoritative Web sites to inform healthcare can pose a challenge to nurses. A study, using grounded theory, was undertaken in two phases to understand how qualified nurses judge the quality of Web nursing information. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and focus groups. An explanatory framework that emerged from the data showed that the judgment process involved the application of forms of knowing and modes of cognition to a range of evaluative tasks and depended on the nurses' critical skills, the time available, and the level of Web information cues. This article mainly focuses on the six evaluative tasks relating to assessing user-friendliness, outlook and authority of Web pages, and relationship to nursing practice; appraising the nature of evidence; and applying cross-checking strategies. The implications of these findings to nurse practitioners and publishers of nursing information are significant.

  17. WorldWide Telescope in High School Astronomy Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Ana-Maria; Goodman, A. A.; Udomprasert, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    This project aims to improve astronomy education at the high school level, and to increase awareness in astronomy for pre-university students, on an international scale. In 2013, the WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors Program began a collaboration with the International Olympiad in Astronomy and Astrophysics (IOAA), which was held in the city of Volos, Greece in August 2013. Now at its VIIth edition, IOAA is the largest annual astronomy competition for high school students, and it consists of one team task and three individual ones - Theoretical, Data Analysis, and Observational. Each of the participating countries (35 in 2013, compared to 21 in 2007) is responsible for selecting up to five representative students for the International round. IOAA is meant to promote future collaborations between these students, and to encourage friendships inside a global scientific community. Ana-Maria Constantin, a current Harvard undergraduate student and a former medalist of IOAA, represented WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors in Greece by giving a talk on the advantages of using WWT as a tool for research and education. As a result, the President and the International Board of the Olympiad have expressed support for including WWT in the competition for future editions. WWTA is working with the Organizing Board for next year’s competition in Romania, to include WWT as a testing tool. This poster will summarize key points from the WWTA presentation in Greece, present ideas for WWT-based activities in future IOAA competitions, and outline plans for new collaborations from representatives of Sri Lanka, Poland, Bangladesh, and Colombia. Given the positive feedback we have received after the presentation in Greece, we are also considering future implementations of WWT in summer research camps for high school students, such as the Summer Science Program.

  18. Distributing Congestion Management System Information Using the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Internet is a unique medium for the distribution of information, and it provides a tremendous opportunity to take advantage of peoples innate interest in transportation issues as they relate to their own lives. In particular, the World Wide Web (...

  19. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  20. WorldWideScience.org: Bringing Light to Grey

    OpenAIRE

    Hitson, Brian A. (OSTI-DOE); Johnson, Lorrie A. (OSTI-DOE); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2008-01-01

    WorldWideScience.org and its governance structure, the WorldWideScience Alliance, are putting a brighter spotlight on grey literature. Through this new tool, grey literature is getting broader exposure to audiences all over the world. Improved access to and sharing of research information is the key to accelerating progress and breakthroughs in any field, especially science. Includes: Conference preprint, Powerpoint presentation, Abstract and Biographical notes, Pratt student commentary ...

  1. The world wide web: exploring a new advertising environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C R; Neath, I

    1999-01-01

    The World Wide Web currently boasts millions of users in the United States alone and is likely to continue to expand both as a marketplace and as an advertising environment. Three experiments explored advertising in the Web environment, in particular memory for ads as they appear in everyday use across the Web. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effect of advertising repetition on the retention of familiar and less familiar brand names, respectively. Experiment 1 demonstrated that repetition of a banner ad within multiple web pages can improve recall of familiar brand names, and Experiment 2 demonstrated that repetition can improve recognition of less familiar brand names. Experiment 3 directly compared the retention of familiar and less familiar brand names that were promoted by static and dynamic ads and demonstrated that the use of dynamic advertising can increase brand name recall, though only for familiar brand names. This study also demonstrated that, in the Web environment, much as in other advertising environments, familiar brand names possess a mnemonic advantage not possessed by less familiar brand names. Finally, data regarding Web usage gathered from all experiments confirm reports that Web usage among males tends to exceed that among females.

  2. Playing with the internet through world wide web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Tae; Jang, Jin Seok

    1995-07-01

    This book describes how to use the internet with world wide web. It is divided into six chapters, which are Let's go to the internet ocean, the internet in information superhighway are, connecting the world with a telephone wire such as link with the internet cable and telephone modem, internet service providers, text mode connection, Domain and IP address, the principle and use of world wide web ; business, music, fashion, movie and photo, internet news and e-mail, making internet map with web language, and from installation to application of base program such as TCP/IP, SLIP/PPP 3270 Emulator, Finger and NCSA Mosaic.

  3. Collecting behavioural data using the world wide web: considerations for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, S D; Bowie, D A; Hergenrather, K C

    2003-01-01

    To identify and describe advantages, challenges, and ethical considerations of web based behavioural data collection. This discussion is based on the authors' experiences in survey development and study design, respondent recruitment, and internet research, and on the experiences of others as found in the literature. The advantages of using the world wide web to collect behavioural data include rapid access to numerous potential respondents and previously hidden populations, respondent openness and full participation, opportunities for student research, and reduced research costs. Challenges identified include issues related to sampling and sample representativeness, competition for the attention of respondents, and potential limitations resulting from the much cited "digital divide", literacy, and disability. Ethical considerations include anonymity and privacy, providing and substantiating informed consent, and potential risks of malfeasance. Computer mediated communications, including electronic mail, the world wide web, and interactive programs will play an ever increasing part in the future of behavioural science research. Justifiable concerns regarding the use of the world wide web in research exist, but as access to, and use of, the internet becomes more widely and representatively distributed globally, the world wide web will become more applicable. In fact, the world wide web may be the only research tool able to reach some previously hidden population subgroups. Furthermore, many of the criticisms of online data collection are common to other survey research methodologies.

  4. WorldWideScience.org: the global science gateway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2009-10-01

    WorldWideScience.org is a Web-based global gateway connecting users to both national and international scientific databases and portals. This column will provide background information on the resource as well as introduce basic searching practices for users.

  5. Sources of Militaria on the World Wide Web | Walker | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Having an interest in military-type topics is one thing, finding information on the web to quench your thirst for knowledge is another. The World Wide Web (WWW) is a universal electronic library that contains millions of web pages. As well as being fun, it is an addictive tool on which to search for information. To prevent hours ...

  6. Touring the Campus Library from the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Pixey Anne; Xiao, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    The philosophy, design, implementation and evaluation of a World Wide Web-accessible Virtual Library Tour of Texas A & M University's Evans Library is presented. Its design combined technical computer issues and library instruction expertise. The tour can be used to simulate a typical walking tour through the library or heading directly to a…

  7. The World Wide Web and the Television Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Cleborne D.

    1996-01-01

    The hypermedia nature of the World Wide Web may represent a true paradigm shift in telecommunications, but barriers exist to the Web having similar impact on education. Some of today's college students compare the Web with "bad TV"--lengthy pauses, links that result in error messages, and animation and sound clips that are too brief.…

  8. Teaching Critical Evaluation Skills for World Wide Web Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Marsha; Alexander, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Outlines a lesson plan used by an academic library to evaluate the quality of World Wide Web information. Discusses the traditional evaluation criteria of accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency, and coverage as it applies to the unique characteristics of Web pages: their marketing orientation, variety of information, and instability. The…

  9. Tim Berners-Lee, World Wide Web inventor

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    The "Internet, Web, What's next?" conference on 26 June 1998 at CERN: Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web and Director of the W3C, explains how the Web came to be and gave his views on the future.

  10. Wikinews interviews World Wide Web co-inventor Robert Cailliau

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "The name Robert Caillau may not ring a bell to the general pbulic, but his invention is the reason why you are reading this: Dr. Cailliau together with his colleague Sir Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web, making the internet accessible so it could grow from an academic tool to a mass communication medium." (9 pages)

  11. Tim Berners-Lee: inventor de la World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Universidad de Granada. Biblioteca

    2015-01-01

    El presente Cat??logo contiene la exposici??n organizada por la Biblioteca de la ETSIIT de la Universidad de Granada durante los meses de noviembre-diciembre de 2015 y titulada: "Tim Berners-Lee: inventor de la World Wide Web"

  12. A World Wide Web Region-Based Image Search Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Strintzis, Michael G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the development of an intelligent image content-based search engine for the World Wide Web is presented. This system will offer a new form of media representation and access of content available in WWW. Information Web Crawlers continuously traverse the Internet and collect images...

  13. World Wide Web Homepages: An Examination of Content and Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Betty; And Others

    This paper shows how the content of a World Wide Web page is selected and how an examination of the intended audience influences content. Examples from the New Mexico Tech (NMT) Library homepage show what sources are selected and what level of detail is appropriate for the intended audience. Six fundamental functions of libraries and information…

  14. Service Learning and Building Community with the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longan, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    The geography education literature touts the World Wide Web (Web) as a revolutionary educational tool, yet most accounts ignore its uses for public communication and creative expression. This article argues that students can be producers of content that is of service to local audiences. Drawing inspiration from the community networking movement,…

  15. Introduction to the World Wide Web and Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, Jim

    1994-01-01

    This tutorial provides an introduction to some of the terminology related to the use of the World Wide Web and Mosaic. It is assumed that the user has some prior computer experience. References are included to other sources of additional information.

  16. Contemporary Approaches to Critical Thinking and the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Melanie L.

    2007-01-01

    Teaching critical thinking skills is often endorsed as a means to help students develop their abilities to navigate the complex world in which people live and, in addition, as a way to help students succeed in school. Over the past few years, this author explored the idea of teaching critical thinking using the World Wide Web (WWW). She began…

  17. Radar Images of the Earth and the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, B.; Freeman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A perspective of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a center of planetary exploration, and its involvement in studying the earth from space is given. Remote sensing, radar maps, land topography, snow cover properties, vegetation type, biomass content, moisture levels, and ocean data are items discussed related to earth orbiting satellite imaging radar. World Wide Web viewing of this content is discussed.

  18. The Relationship of the World Wide Web to Thinking Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Amy C.; Bishop, Jeanne L.; Gens, Linda S.; Miller, Sharla L.; Rogers, Martha A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses use of the World Wide Web in education and its possibilities for developing higher order critical thinking skills to successfully deal with the demands of the future information society. Suggests that teachers need to provide learning environments that are learner-centered, authentic, problem-based, and collaborative. (Contains 61…

  19. Perspectives for Electronic Books in the World Wide Web Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bry, Francois; Kraus, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the rapid growth of the World Wide Web and the lack of use of electronic books and suggests that specialized contents and device independence can make Web-based books compete with print. Topics include enhancing the hypertext model of XML; client-side adaptation, including browsers and navigation; and semantic modeling. (Author/LRW)

  20. White Supremacists, Oppositional Culture and the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Josh; Roscigno, Vincent J.

    2005-01-01

    Over the previous decade, white supremacist organizations have tapped into the ever emerging possibilities offered by the World Wide Web. Drawing from prior sociological work that has examined this medium and its uses by white supremacist organizations, this article advances the understanding of recruitment, identity and action by providing a…

  1. Basic support for cooperative work on the World Wide Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentley, R.; Appelt, W.; Busbach, U.; Hinrichs, E.; Kerr, D.; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Trevor, J.; Woetzel, G.

    The emergence and widespread adoption of the World Wide Web offers a great deal of potential in supporting cross-platform cooperative work within widely dispersed working groups. The Basic Support for Cooperative Work (BSCW) project at GMD is attempting to realize this potential through development

  2. Process Support for Cooperative Work on the World Wide Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkel, Nicolaas; Neumann, Olaf; Sachweh, Sabine

    The World Wide Web is becoming a dominating factor in information technology. Consequently, computer supported cooperative work on the Web has recently drawn a lot of attention. Process Support for Cooperative Work (PSCW) is a Web based system supporting both structured and unstructured forms of

  3. Surfing the World Wide Web to Education Hot-Spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrli, Odvard Egil

    1995-01-01

    Provides a brief explanation of Web browsers and their use, as well as technical information for those considering access to the WWW (World Wide Web). Curriculum resources and addresses to useful Web sites are included. Sidebars show sample searches using Yahoo and Lycos search engines, and a list of recommended Web resources. (JKP)

  4. Interactivity, Information Processing, and Learning on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremayne, Mark; Dunwoody, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Examines the role of interactivity in the presentation of science news on the World Wide Web. Proposes and tests a model of interactive information processing that suggests that characteristics of users and Web sites influence interactivity, which influences knowledge acquisition. Describes use of a think-aloud method to study participants' mental…

  5. Collaborative Design of World Wide Web Pages: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Paige G; Musser, Linda R.

    1997-01-01

    This case study of the collaborative design of an earth science World Wide Web page at Pennsylvania State University highlights the role of librarians. Discusses the original Web site and links, planning, the intended audience, and redesign and recommended changes; and considers the potential contributions of librarians. (LRW)

  6. Business use of the World Wide Web: a report on further investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooi-Im Ng

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available As a continuation of a previous study this paper reports on a series of studies into business use of the World Wide Web and, more generally the Internet. The use of the World Wide Web as a business tool has increased rapidly for the past three years, and the benefits of the World Wide Web to business and customers are discussed, together with the barriers that hold back future development of electronic commerce. As with the previous study we report on a desk survey of 300 randomly selected business Web sites and on the results of an electronic mail questionnaire sent to the sample companies. An extended version of this paper has been submitted to the International Journal of Information Management

  7. Can the future, world-wide energy supply be achieved without nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugeler, K.

    1995-01-01

    In the future the world-wide energy demand is going to increase considerably. The use of nuclear energy will continuously grow if the demand of climate researchers for a reduction of the world-wide CO 2 emission is fulfilled and if the possible contribution of regenerative energy sources is assessed realistically. In the future a world-wide use of nuclear energy will be realised according to even higher safety standards. The modification of the German Atom Law, which determines the limitation of damage caused to the reactor plant for future reactors fulfils this demand. The efforts in the field of nuclear technical development will concentrate on the proof of the required safety properties. (orig.) [de

  8. Wood Utilization Research Dissemination on the World Wide Web: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Matthew F. Winn; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    Because many research products are informational rather than tangible, emerging information technologies, such as the multi-media format of the World Wide Web, provide an open and easily accessible mechanism for transferring research to user groups. We have found steady, increasing use of our Web site over the first 6-1/2 months of operation; almost one-third of the...

  9. Wired World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Groot, Nicolo

    2003-05-07

    WIRED (World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display) is a framework, written in the Java{trademark} language, for building High Energy Physics event displays. An event display based on the WIRED framework enables users of a HEP collaboration to visualize and analyze events remotely using ordinary WWW browsers, on any type of machine. In addition, event displays using WIRED may provide the general public with access to the research of high energy physics. The recent introduction of the object-oriented Java{trademark} language enables the transfer of machine independent code across the Internet, to be safely executed by a Java enhanced WWW browser. We have employed this technology to create a remote event display in WWW. The combined Java-WWW technology hence assures a world wide availability of such an event display, an always up-to-date program and a platform independent implementation, which is easy to use and to install.

  10. Tim Berners-Lee, World Wide Web inventor

    CERN Multimedia

    1994-01-01

    Former physicist, Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web as an essential tool for high energy physics at CERN from 1989 to 1994. Together with a small team he conceived HTML, http, URLs, and put up the first server and the first 'what you see is what you get' browser and html editor. Tim is now Director of the Web Consortium W3C, the International Web standards body based at INRIA, MIT and Keio University.

  11. Collaborative Information Agents on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie; Wolfe, Shawn; Koga, Dennis J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present DIAMS, a system of distributed, collaborative information agents which help users access, collect, organize, and exchange information on the World Wide Web. Personal agents provide their owners dynamic displays of well organized information collections, as well as friendly information management utilities. Personal agents exchange information with one another. They also work with other types of information agents such as matchmakers and knowledge experts to facilitate collaboration and communication.

  12. Role of Librarian in Internet and World Wide Web Environment

    OpenAIRE

    K. Nageswara Rao; KH Babu

    2001-01-01

    The transition of traditional library collections to digital or virtual collections presented the librarian with new opportunities. The Internet, Web en-vironment and associated sophisticated tools have given the librarian a new dynamic role to play and serve the new information based society in bet-ter ways than hitherto. Because of the powerful features of Web i.e. distributed, heterogeneous, collaborative, multimedia, multi-protocol, hyperme-dia-oriented architecture, World Wide Web has re...

  13. WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors: A Year 3 Update

    OpenAIRE

    Udomprasert, Patricia S; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Wong, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    We give a brief overview of some key features of WorldWide Telescope and its Ambassadors Program, and we describe two goals for expanding the program in the coming year: scaling up training efforts; and developing “plug and play” Visualization Lab modules that teach key Earth and Space Science concepts to students while emphasizing important scientific processes and skills. We discuss several different ways that members of the astronomy education and outreach community can incorporate WWT-bas...

  14. World's Biggest Astronomy Event on the World-Wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    `Astronomy On-Line' will connect students all over Europe Astronomy On-Line is a major, all-European project that will take place in conjunction with the 4th European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture later this year. It is based on intensive use of the World-Wide-Web (WWW) and represents the first large-scale attempt in the world to bring together pupils and their teachers all over one continent to explore challenging scientific questions, using modern communication tools, both for obtaining and for communicating information. The programme will be carried out in a collaboration between the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) [1] and the European Southern Observatory, and together with the European Commission (EC). The active phase of Astronomy On-Line will start on October 1 and reach a climax on November 18 - 22, 1996 . What is `Astronomy On-Line'? In this project, a large number of students and their teachers at schools all over Europe, together with professional and amateur astronomers and others interested in astronomy, will become associated in a unique experience that makes intensive use of the vast possibilities of the World-Wide-Web (WWW). Although the exact number of participants will not be known until the beginning of October, it is expected to run into thousands, possibly many more. The unusual size and scope of Astronomy On-Line will contribute to make it an important all-European media event. The central idea is that the participants, through the WWW, will `meet' in a `marketplace' where a number of different `shops' will be available, each of which will tempt them with a number of exciting and educational `events', carefully prepared to cater for different age groups, from 12 years upwards. The events will cover a wide spectrum of activities, some of which will be timed to ensure the proper progression of this very complex project through its main phases. The benefits In fact, Astronomy On-Line will be the first

  15. Distributing flight dynamics products via the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Mark; Matusow, David

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Flight Dynamics Products Center (FDPC), which make available selected operations products via the World Wide Web, is reported on. The FDPC can be accessed from any host machine connected to the Internet. It is a multi-mission service which provides Internet users with unrestricted access to the following standard products: antenna contact predictions; ground tracks; orbit ephemerides; mean and osculating orbital elements; earth sensor sun and moon interference predictions; space flight tracking data network summaries; and Shuttle transport system predictions. Several scientific data bases are available through the service.

  16. Status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, I.G.

    2004-01-01

    Results compiled in the research reactor spent fuel database are used to assess the status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide. Fuel assemblies, their types, enrichment, origin of enrichment and geological distribution among the industrialised and developed countries of the world are discussed. Fuel management practices in wet and dry storage facilities and the concerns of reactor operators about long-term storage of their spent fuel are presented and some of the activities carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the issues associated with research reactor spent fuel are outlined. (author)

  17. Mapping world-wide science at the paper level.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klavans, Richard (SciTech Strategies, Inc., Berwyn, PA); Boyack, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes recent improvements in mapping a highly representative set of the world-wide scientific literature. The process described in this article extends existing work in this area in three major ways. First, we argue that a separate structural analysis of current literature vs. reference literature is required for R&D planning. Second, visualization software is used to improve coverage of the literature while maintaining structural integrity. Third, quantitative techniques for measuring the structural integrity of a map are introduced. Maps with high structural integrity, covering far more of the available literature, are presented.

  18. The World-Wide Web: An Interface between Research and Teaching in Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Aiton

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion occurring in World-Wide Web activity is beginning to make the concepts of ‘global hypermedia’ and ‘universal document readership’ realistic objectives of the new revolution in information technology. One consequence of this increase in usage is that educators and students are becoming more aware of the diversity of the knowledge base which can be accessed via the Internet. Although computerised databases and information services have long played a key role in bioinformatics these same resources can also be used to provide core materials for teaching and learning. The large datasets and arch ives th at have been compiled for biomedical research can be enhanced with the addition of a variety of multimedia elements (images. digital videos. animation etc.. The use of this digitally stored information in structured and self-directed learning environments is likely to increase as activity across World-Wide Web increases.

  19. An information filtering system prototype for world wide web; Prototipo di sistema di information filtering per world wide web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordoni, L. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Funzione Centrale Studi

    1999-07-01

    In this report the architecture of an information filtering system for world wide web, developed by the Rome Third University (Italy) for ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment), is described. This prototype allows for selecting documents in text/HTML format from the web according to the interests of users. A user modeling shell allows ro build a model of user's interests, obtained during the interaction. The experimental results support the choice of embedding methods for this kind of application. [Italian] In questo rapporto viene descritta l'architettura di un sistema adattivo di information filtering su world wide web, sviluppato dall'universita' di Roma III in collaborazione con l'ENEA. Il prototipo descritto e' in grado di selezionare documenti in formato testo/html, raccolti dal web, in accordo con le caratteristiche e gli interessi degli utenti. Una shell di modellazione utente consente di costruire un modello degli interessi dell'utente, ottenuto nel corso dell'interazione. I risultati sperimentali rafforzano la scelta di usare metodi di modellazione utente per questo genere di applicazioni.

  20. An information filtering system prototype for world wide web; Prototipo di sistema di information filtering per world wide web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordoni, L [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Funzione Centrale Studi

    1999-07-01

    In this report the architecture of an information filtering system for world wide web, developed by the Rome Third University (Italy) for ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment), is described. This prototype allows for selecting documents in text/HTML format from the web according to the interests of users. A user modeling shell allows ro build a model of user's interests, obtained during the interaction. The experimental results support the choice of embedding methods for this kind of application. [Italian] In questo rapporto viene descritta l'architettura di un sistema adattivo di information filtering su world wide web, sviluppato dall'universita' di Roma III in collaborazione con l'ENEA. Il prototipo descritto e' in grado di selezionare documenti in formato testo/html, raccolti dal web, in accordo con le caratteristiche e gli interessi degli utenti. Una shell di modellazione utente consente di costruire un modello degli interessi dell'utente, ottenuto nel corso dell'interazione. I risultati sperimentali rafforzano la scelta di usare metodi di modellazione utente per questo genere di applicazioni.

  1. Affordable Digital Planetariums with WorldWide Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, P.; Connolly, A.; Fay, J.; Sayres, C.; Tofflemire, B.

    2011-09-01

    Digital planetariums can provide a broader range of educational experiences than the more classical planetariums that use star-balls. This is because of their ability to project images, content from current research, and the 3-D distribution of the stars and galaxies. While there are hundreds of planetariums in the country, the reason that few of these are fully digital is the cost. In collaboration with Microsoft Research (MSR), we have developed a way to digitize existing planetariums for approximately $40,000 using freely available software. We describe here how off the shelf equipment, together with a WorldWide Telescope client, can provide a rich and truly interactive experience. This will enable students and the public to pan though multi-wavelength full-sky scientific data sets, explore 3-D visualizations of our Solar System (including trajectories of millions of minor planets), near-by stars, and the SDSS galaxy catalog.

  2. World-wide online monitoring interface of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kolos, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Mineev, M; Hauser, R; Salnikov, A

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration accounts for more than 3000 members located all over the world. The efficiency of the experiment can be improved allowing system experts not present on site to follow the ATLAS operations in real-time, spotting potential problems which otherwise may remain unattended for a non-negligible time. Taking into account the wide geographical spread of the ATLAS collaboration, the solution of this problem is to have all monitoring information with minimal access latency available world-wide. We have implemented a framework which defines a standard approach for retrieving arbitrary monitoring information from the ATLAS private network via HTTP. An information request is made by specifying one of the predefined URLs with some optional parameters refining data which has to be shipped back in XML format. The framework takes care of receiving, parsing and forwarding such requests to the appropriate plugins. The plugins retrieve the requested data and convert it to XML (or optionally to JSON) format...

  3. World wide web implementation of the Langley technical report server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Gottlich, Gretchen L.; Bianco, David J.

    1994-01-01

    On January 14, 1993, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) made approximately 130 formal, 'unclassified, unlimited' technical reports available via the anonymous FTP Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS). LaRC was the first organization to provide a significant number of aerospace technical reports for open electronic dissemination. LTRS has been successful in its first 18 months of operation, with over 11,000 reports distributed and has helped lay the foundation for electronic document distribution for NASA. The availability of World Wide Web (WWW) technology has revolutionized the Internet-based information community. This paper describes the transition of LTRS from a centralized FTP site to a distributed data model using the WWW, and suggests how the general model for LTRS can be applied to other similar systems.

  4. Lithuanian on-line periodicals on the World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sarlauskiene

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Deals with Lithuanian full-text electronic periodicals distributed through the World Wide Web. An electronic periodical is usually defined as a regular publication on some particular topic distributed in digital form, chiefly through the Web, but also by electronic mail or digital disk. The author has surveyed 106 publications. Thirty-four are distributed only on the Web, and 72 have printed versions. The number of analysed publications is not very big, but four years of electronic publishing and the variety of periodicals enables us to establish the causes of this phenomenon, the main features of development, and some perspectives. Electronic periodicals were analysed according to their type, purpose, contents, publisher, regularity, language, starting date and place of publication, and other features.

  5. Medical mentoring via the evolving world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, Usman; Vaughan-Huxley, Eyston; Standfield, Nigel; John, Nigel W

    2013-01-01

    Mentoring, for physicians and surgeons in training, is advocated as an essential adjunct in work-based learning, providing support in career and non-career related issues. The World Wide Web (WWW) has evolved, as a technology, to become more interactive and person centric, tailoring itself to the individual needs of the user. This changing technology may open new avenues to foster mentoring in medicine. DESIGN, SYSTEMATIC REVIEW, MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A search of the MEDLINE database from 1950 to 2012 using the PubMed interface, combined with manual cross-referencing was performed using the following strategy: ("mentors"[MeSH Terms] OR "mentors"[All Fields] OR "mentor"[All Fields]) AND ("internet"[MeSH Terms] OR "internet"[All Fields]) AND ("medicine"[MeSH Terms] OR "medicine"[All Fields]) AND ("humans"[MeSH Terms] AND English[lang]). Abstracts were screened for relevance (UJ) to the topic; eligibility for inclusion was simply on screening for relevance to online mentoring and web-based technologies. Forty-five papers were found, of which 16 were relevant. All studies were observational in nature. To date, all medical mentoring applications utilizing the World Wide Web have enjoyed some success limited by Web 1.0 and 2.0 technologies. With the evolution of the WWW through 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 generations, the potential for meaningful tele- and distance mentoring has greatly improved. Some engagement has been made with these technological advancements, however further work is required to fully realize the potential of these technologies. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Information about liver transplantation on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, F; Sivaprakasam, R; Butler, A; Huguet, E; Pettigrew, G J; Michael, E D A; Praseedom, R K; Jamieson, N V; Bradley, J A; Gibbs, P

    2006-09-01

    Orthotopic liver transplant (OLTx) has evolved to a successful surgical management for end-stage liver diseases. Awareness and information about OLTx is an important tool in assisting OLTx recipients and people supporting them, including non-transplant clinicians. The study aimed to investigate the nature and quality of liver transplant-related patient information on the World Wide Web. Four common search engines were used to explore the Internet by using the key words 'Liver transplant'. The URL (unique resource locator) of the top 50 returns was chosen as it was judged unlikely that the average user would search beyond the first 50 sites returned by a given search. Each Web site was assessed on the following categories: origin, language, accessibility and extent of the information. A weighted Information Score (IS) was created to assess the quality of clinical and educational value of each Web site and was scored independently by three transplant clinicians. The Internet search performed with the aid of the four search engines yielded a total of 2,255,244 Web sites. Of the 200 possible sites, only 58 Web sites were assessed because of repetition of the same Web sites and non-accessible links. The overall median weighted IS was 22 (IQR 1 - 42). Of the 58 Web sites analysed, 45 (77%) belonged to USA, six (10%) were European, and seven (12%) were from the rest of the world. The median weighted IS of publications originating from Europe and USA was 40 (IQR = 22 - 60) and 23 (IQR = 6 - 38), respectively. Although European Web sites produced a higher weighted IS [40 (IQR = 22 - 60)] as compared with the USA publications [23 (IQR = 6 - 38)], this was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). Web sites belonging to the academic institutions and the professional organizations scored significantly higher with a median weighted IS of 28 (IQR = 16 - 44) and 24(12 - 35), respectively, as compared with the commercial Web sites (median = 6 with IQR of 0 - 14, p = .001). There

  7. Business use of the World-Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cockburn

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were employed in this study of the use of the World Wide Web by business: first, a sample of 300 businesses with Web sites, across a wide range of industry types, was examined, by selecting (rather than sampling companies from the Yahoo! directory. The sites were investigated in relation to several areas - the purpose of the Web site, the use being made of electronic mail and the extent to which multi-media was being utilised. In addition, any other aspects of the site which were designed to make it more interesting to potential customers were also noted. Secondly, an electronic-mail questionnaire was sent to 222 of the 300 companies surveyed: that is, those that provided an e-mail address for contact. 14 were returned immediately due to unknown addresses or technical problems. Of the remaining 208, 102 replies were received, five of which were of no relevance, leaving 97 completed questionnaires to examine; a response rate of 47%, which is surprisingly good for a survey of this kind.

  8. WEBSLIDE: A "Virtual" Slide Projector Based on World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Maria; Ferrandino, Salvatore; Scarano, Vittorio

    1999-03-01

    We present here the design key concepts of WEBSLIDE, a software project whose objective is to provide a simple, cheap and efficient solution for showing slides during lessons in computer labs. In fact, WEBSLIDE allows the video monitors of several client machines (the "STUDENTS") to be synchronously updated by the actions of a particular client machine, called the "INSTRUCTOR." The system is based on the World Wide Web and the software components of WEBSLIDE mainly consists in a WWW server, browsers and small Cgi-Bill scripts. What makes WEBSLIDE particularly appealing for small educational institutions is that WEBSLIDE is built with "off the shelf" products: it does not involve using a specifically designed program but any Netscape browser, one of the most popular browsers available on the market, is sufficient. Another possible use is to use our system to implement "guided automatic tours" through several pages or Intranets internal news bulletins: the company Web server can broadcast to all employees relevant information on their browser.

  9. MIMAS, setting the world-wide standard for plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergheynst Alain; Yvon Vanderborck

    2005-01-01

    Deployment of MIMAS MOX fuel irradiation started in 1985 with loading and irradiation in French 900 MWe PWR of EDF. A 20-year comprehensive R and D programme preceded it. This success was greatly facilitated by some early strategy advantages: 1) Development and licensing of a 'UO 2 -like' MOX fuel rod fully interchangeable with UO 2 rods; 2) Joint SCK/BN operation of the BR2 (MTR) and BR3 (PWR) reactors, pilot and industrial MOX fuel plants, PIE hot laboratories in the Mol/Dessel site. The period since 1985 saw the occurrence of some concurrent facts, that have incontestably led MIMAS to the world-wide leader position (99 % of actual MOX fuel is MIMAS): 1) BN-MIMAS has been selected by Cogema for its plants MELOX and Cadarache and has demonstrated to be a flexible, scalable, and industrial process. 2) MIMAS has been further selected by JNFL for its Japanese domestic MOX plant (Rokkasho-mura) and by US-DOE for its domestic MOX plant (Savannah-NC) for the disposition of 34-ton weapon-Pu. 3) Satisfactory fabrication and irradiation over 1840 metric tons of MIMAS MOX fuel. In order to face the worldwide on-going electricity market liberalisation, MIMAS makers and vendors must definitely improve the MOX performances to compete with continuously improving UO 2 fuel. The facing of this continuous challenge is also reviewed in the paper. (authors)

  10. Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux Information on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgowan, Regina; Greer, Leah C; D'Auria, Jennifer P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the type and quality of health information about infant gastroesophageal reflux (GER) that a parent may find on the World Wide Web. The data collection tool included evaluation of Web site quality and infant GER-specific content on the 30 sites that met the inclusion criteria. The most commonly found content categories in order of frequency were management strategies, when to call a primary care provider, definition, and clinical features. The most frequently mentioned strategies included feeding changes, infant positioning, and medications. Thirteen of the 30 Web sites included information on both GER and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Mention of the use of medication to lessen infant symptoms was found on 15 of the 30 sites. Only 10 of the 30 sites included information about parent support and coping strategies. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) should utilize well-child visits to address the normalcy of physiologic infant GER and clarify any misperceptions parents may have about diagnosis and the role of medication from information they may have found on the Internet. It is critical for PNPs to assist in the development of Web sites with accurate content, advise parents on how to identify safe and reliable information, and provide examples of high-quality Web sites about child health topics such as infant GER. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Information on infantile colic on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Shana D; D'Auria, Jennifer P; Haushalter, Jamie P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the type and quality of information on infantile colic that a parent might access on the World Wide Web. Two checklists were used to evaluate the quality indicators of 24 Web sites and the colic-specific content. Fifteen health information Web sites met more of the quality parameters than the nine commercial sites. Eight Web sites included information about colic and infant abuse, with six being health information sites. The colic-specific content on 24 Web sites reflected current issues and controversies; however, the completeness of the information in light of current evidence varied among the Web sites. Strategies to avoid complications of parental stress or infant abuse were not commonly found on the Web sites. Pediatric professionals must guide parents to reliable colic resources that also include emotional support and understanding of infant crying. A best evidence guideline for the United States would eliminate confusion and uncertainty about which colic therapies are safe and effective for parents and professionals. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Accessing NASA Technology with the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Bianco, David J.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) began using the World Wide Web (WWW) in the summer of 1993, becoming the first NASA installation to provide a Center-wide home page. This coincided with a reorganization of LaRC to provide a more concentrated focus on technology transfer to both aerospace and non-aerospace industry. Use of WWW and NCSA Mosaic not only provides automated information dissemination, but also allows for the implementation, evolution and integration of many technology transfer and technology awareness applications. This paper describes several of these innovative applications, including the on-line presentation of the entire Technology OPportunities Showcase (TOPS), an industrial partnering showcase that exists on the Web long after the actual 3-day event ended. The NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) provides uniform access to many logically similar, yet physically distributed NASA report servers. WWW is also the foundation of the Langley Software Server (LSS), an experimental software distribution system which will distribute LaRC-developed software. In addition to the more formal technology distribution projects, WWW has been successful in connecting people with technologies and people with other people.

  13. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - A world wide review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high-level waste (HLW), which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. The most widely accepted method of doing this is to seal the radioactive materials in metal canisters that are enclosed by a protective sheath and placed underground in a repository that has been carefully constructed in an appropriate rock formation. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised, and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. Table 1 presents a summary of the various formations under investigation according to the reports submitted for this world wide review. It can be seen that in those countries that are searching for repository sites, granitic and metamorphic rocks are the prevalent rock type under investigation. Six countries have developed underground research facilities that are currently in use. All of these investigations are in saturated systems below the water table, except the United States project, which is in the unsaturated zone of a fractured tuff.

  14. Role of Librarian in Internet and World Wide Web Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nageswara Rao

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition of traditional library collections to digital or virtual collections presented the librarian with new opportunities. The Internet, Web en-vironment and associated sophisticated tools have given the librarian a new dynamic role to play and serve the new information based society in bet-ter ways than hitherto. Because of the powerful features of Web i.e. distributed, heterogeneous, collaborative, multimedia, multi-protocol, hyperme-dia-oriented architecture, World Wide Web has revolutionized the way people access information, and has opened up new possibilities in areas such as digital libraries, virtual libraries, scientific information retrieval and dissemination. Not only the world is becoming interconnected, but also the use of Internet and Web has changed the fundamental roles, paradigms, and organizational culture of libraries and librarians as well. The article describes the limitless scope of Internet and Web, the existence of the librarian in the changing environment, parallelism between information sci-ence and information technology, librarians and intelligent agents, working of intelligent agents, strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities in-volved in the relationship between librarians and the Web. The role of librarian in Internet and Web environment especially as intermediary, facilita-tor, end-user trainer, Web site builder, researcher, interface designer, knowledge manager and sifter of information resources is also described.

  15. Finding Emotional-Laden Resources on the World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Rasmussen Neal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Some content in multimedia resources can depict or evoke certain emotions in users. The aim of Emotional Information Retrieval (EmIR and of our research is to identify knowledge about emotional-laden documents and to use these findings in a new kind of World Wide Web information service that allows users to search and browse by emotion. Our prototype, called Media EMOtion SEarch (MEMOSE, is largely based on the results of research regarding emotive music pieces, images and videos. In order to index both evoked and depicted emotions in these three media types and to make them searchable, we work with a controlled vocabulary, slide controls to adjust the emotions’ intensities, and broad folksonomies to identify and separate the correct resource-specific emotions. This separation of so-called power tags is based on a tag distribution which follows either an inverse power law (only one emotion was recognized or an inverse-logistical shape (two or three emotions were recognized. Both distributions are well known in information science. MEMOSE consists of a tool for tagging basic emotions with the help of slide controls, a processing device to separate power tags, a retrieval component consisting of a search interface (for any topic in combination with one or more emotions and a results screen. The latter shows two separately ranked lists of items for each media type (depicted and felt emotions, displaying thumbnails of resources, ranked by the mean values of intensity. In the evaluation of the MEMOSE prototype, study participants described our EmIR system as an enjoyable Web 2.0 service.

  16. 76 FR 46854 - Hewlett Packard Company, Imaging and Printing Group, World Wide Product Data Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ..., Imaging and Printing Group, World Wide Product Data Management Operations, Including On-Site Leased... Company, Imaging and Printing Group, World Wide Products Data Management Operations, Boise, Idaho and Fort... of Hewlett Packard Company, Imaging and Printing Group, World Wide Product Data Management Operations...

  17. World-Wide Web Tools for Locating Planetary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanefsky, Bob; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The explosive growth of the World-Wide Web (WWW) in the past year has made it feasible to provide interactive graphical tools to assist scientists in locating planetary images. The highest available resolution images of any site of interest can be quickly found on a map or plot, and, if online, displayed immediately on nearly any computer equipped with a color screen, an Internet connection, and any of the free WWW browsers. The same tools may also be of interest to educators, students, and the general public. Image finding tools have been implemented covering most of the solar system: Earth, Mars, and the moons and planets imaged by Voyager. The Mars image-finder, which plots the footprints of all the high-resolution Viking Orbiter images and can be used to display any that are available online, also contains a complete scrollable atlas and hypertext gazetteer to help locating areas. The Earth image-finder is linked to thousands of Shuttle images stored at NASA/JSC, and displays them as red dots on a globe. The Voyager image-finder plots images as dots, by longitude and apparent target size, linked to online images. The locator (URL) for the top-level page is http: //ic-www.arc.nasa.gov/ic/projects/bayes-group/Atlas/. Through the efforts of the Planetary Data System and other organizations, hundreds of thousands of planetary images are now available on CD-ROM, and many of these have been made available on the WWW. However, locating images of a desired site is still problematic, in practice. For example, many scientists studying Mars use digital image maps, which are one third the resolution of Viking Orbiter survey images. When they douse Viking Orbiter images, they often work with photographically printed hardcopies, which lack the flexibility of digital images: magnification, contrast stretching, and other basic image-processing techniques offered by off-the-shelf software. From the perspective of someone working on an experimental image processing technique for

  18. World-Wide Effort Produces Dramatic "Movie" of Cosmic Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Astronomers using a world-wide collection of radio telescopes, including the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), have made a dramatic "movie" of a voracious, superdense neutron star repeatedly spitting out subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light into two narrow jets as it pulls material from a companion star. The movie shows these jets ejecting clouds of hot plasma that are then "zapped" by pulses of energy in the jets as they move away from the neutron star. Frame from Radio-Telescope 'Movie' of Scorpius X-1 "We have directly measured the speed of energy flow in a cosmic jet for the first time," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the NRAO in Charlottesville, Virginia. Fomalont worked with Barry Geldzahler and Charles Bradshaw of George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. The astronomers used the VLBA, the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) and the Green Bank 140-foot telescope, along with radio telescopes from the European VLBI Network, Australia, Japan and South Africa to record the double-star system's eruptions continuously for 56 hours. "This study is going to be extremely valuable in helping us understand a phenomenon that we see throughout the universe," Fomalont said. Cosmic jets of superfast particles are ejected from the cores of numerous galaxies. On a smaller scale, similar jets are ejected from binary-star systems closer to home, in our own Milky Way Galaxy. While the jets from galaxy cores are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes millions of times more massive than the Sun, the closer "microquasars" are powered by much smaller black holes or by neutron stars only a few times more massive than the sun. "Studying one of the closer, smaller examples will help us understand how they all work, including the bigger ones," Geldzahler said. "The jets coming from distant galaxies are harder to study because of their much greater distance and the slowness of their

  19. World-wide architecture of osteoporosis research: density-equalizing mapping studies and gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggmann, D; Mäule, L-S; Klingelhöfer, D; Schöffel, N; Gerber, A; Jaque, J M; Groneberg, D A

    2016-10-01

    While research activities on osteoporosis grow constantly, no concise description of the global research architecture exists. Hence, we aim to analyze and depict the world-wide scientific output on osteoporosis combining bibliometric tools, density-equalizing mapping projections and gender analysis. Using the NewQIS platform, we analyzed all osteoporosis-related publications authored from 1900 to 2012 and indexed by the Web of Science. Bibliometric details were analyzed related to quantitative and semi-qualitative aspects. The majority of 57 453 identified publications were original research articles. The USA and Western Europe dominated the field regarding cooperation activity, publication and citation performance. Asia, Africa and South America played a minimal role. Gender analysis revealed a dominance of male scientists in almost all countries except Brazil. Although the scientific performance on osteoporosis is increasing world-wide, a significant disparity in terms of research output was visible between developed and low-income countries. This finding is particularly concerning since epidemiologic evaluations of future osteoporosis prevalences predict enormous challenges for the health-care systems in low-resource countries. Hence, our study underscores the need to address these disparities by fostering future research endeavors in these nations with the aim to successfully prevent a growing global burden related to osteoporosis.

  20. Does urban poverty increase body fluctuating asymmetry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozener, Bariş

    2011-12-01

    Perturbations during development leave enduring signs on the adult body. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is a good bio-indicator of stress during ontogeny. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of urban poverty on the fluctuating asymmetry of young Turkish males. Young males from a lower socioeconomic group (N = 140, Mean age = 18.17 +/- 0.61) were selected from slum areas of Ankara, the capital of Turkey, where urban poverty is intense. An upper socioeconomic group, on the other hand, consisted of students from two private colleges and included children from some of the richest families in Turkey (N = 120, Mean age = 18.08 +/- 0.54). Eight anthropometric traits of all subjects were measured. Considering the seven measurements demonstrate ideal FA, the individuals living in poor areas of the city displayed higher FA. The discrepancy between the two groups was even greater for a measure of composite FA. In conclusion, poor living conditions in Ankara, where urban poverty is intense, adversely impact the developmental stability of young Turkish males.

  1. Exploratory Analysis of the Effect of Consultants on the Use of World Wide Web Sites in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigi Goode

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little published research on the role of consultants in technology adoption. Given the increasing popularity of the World Wide Web in commercial environments and the number of consultants now offering web development services, some analysis into the effects of their engagement would be of benefit. In an extension of an ongoing study, an existing sample of 113 World Wide Web adopters was used to examine the nature of World Wide Web site use with respect to consultant and Internet Service Provider (ISP engagement. Analysis was also conducted into the use of consultants and ISPs as developers and maintainers of these sites. This preliminary research finds a number of interesting outcomes. No significant relationship is found between consultant or ISP engagement and World Wide Web site use, regardless of whether the consultant was engaged as site developer or site maintainer. The study raises a number of additional findings that are of interest but are not directly related to this study. These findings merit further research.

  2. The International Energy Agency`s role in world-wide wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangi, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Ancona, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Wind energy is now being deployed world-wide at a rapidly increasing rate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has a changing role in its growth. IEA was founded in 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collaborate on comprehensive international energy programs. IEA membership consists of eighteen parties from sixteen countries and the European Commission. Recently there has been increasing interest in IEA participation from both OECD and non-OECD countries. Non-OECD countries participating in various IEA Agreements include: China, India, Israel, Korea, and Russia. Because of its diverse international makeup, the IEA is viewed as a source of reliable technical and economic information. The World Bank has approached the Executive Committee for Wind Energy R & D, through the IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, to assist in the expansion of wind deployment. In addition, IEA is moving from R & D programs to include tracking of implementation incentives offered by its members.

  3. The online discourse on the Demjanjuk trial. New memory practices on the World Wide Web?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien SOMMER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I want to discuss the question if and how the World Wide Web changes social memory practices. Therefore I examine the relationship between the World Wide Web, social memory practices and public discourses. Towards discussing mediated memory processes I focus on the online discourse about the trial against the former concentration camp guard John Demjanjuk.

  4. World wide developments in shortwall and wide web mining techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, T

    1975-11-01

    The paper describes the progress to date with continuous pillar extraction, and how the typical longwall powered support has been modified to be both strong enough and stable enough to provide roof support for very wide webs. It also describes the operating systems which have been specially designed. The next stages of development are discussed, particularly the provision of continuous conveyor haulage in place of the present-day shuttle car. The author suggests that marrying American coal-getting technology and British roof support technology might increase productivity.

  5. The future of nuclear power: A world-wide perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Ismail

    This study analyzes the future of commercial nuclear electric generation worldwide using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) concept. The Tobit panel data estimation technique is applied to analyze the data between 1980 and 1998 for 105 countries. EKC assumes that low-income countries increase their nuclear reliance in total electric production whereas high-income countries decrease their nuclear reliance. Hence, we expect that high-income countries should shut down existing nuclear reactors and/or not build any new ones. We encounter two reasons for shutdowns: economic or political/environmental concerns. To distinguish these two effects, reasons for shut down are also investigated by using the Hazard Model technique. Hence, the load factor of a reactor is used as an approximation for economic reason to shut down the reactor. If a shut downed reactor had high load factor, this could be attributable to political/environmental concern or else economic concern. The only countries with nuclear power are considered in this model. The two data sets are created. In the first data set, the single entry for each reactor is created as of 1998 whereas in the second data set, the multiple entries are created for each reactor beginning from 1980 to 1998. The dependent variable takes 1 if operational or zero if shut downed. The empirical findings provide strong evidence for EKC relationship for commercial nuclear electric generation. Furthermore, higher natural resources suggest alternative electric generation methods rather than nuclear power. Economic index as an institutional variable suggests higher the economic freedom, lower the nuclear electric generation as expected. This model does not support the idea to cut the carbon dioxide emission via increasing nuclear share. The Hazard Model findings suggest that higher the load factor is, less likely the reactor will shut down. However, if it is still permanently closed downed, then this could be attributable to political

  6. P-001: Koi herpes virus world wide: results of the global KHV questionnaire 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haenen, Olga; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    , prevention, detection, and control of epizootic diseases within Europe to reduce the economic and social impact of future outbreaks of emerging/notifiable diseases, like Foot-and-mouth disease through increased excellence by collaboration. Within EPIZONE, Work package 6.1 covers emerging diseases of fish...... was sent to > 65 countries world wide. By the start of May 2009, 40 countries had responded, i.e. > 60%. The results of the KHV questionnaire will be presented as a poster, and hand-out. Questions of the questionnaire were about koi (1), cultured (2) and wild carp (3), all Cyprinus carpio: • Prevalence...... and confirmation? Did/do you participate in the KHV PCR ring test of CEFAS (UK); • Susceptible fish species: Was KHV isolated from other species than koi/carp? • Latent carriers: Do you have any experience with latency of KHV in koi/carp? • Measures (stamping out, temp change, therapy) and effects in 1, 2, and 3...

  7. Information consumerism on the World Wide Web: implications for dermatologists and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Robin L

    2002-09-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) is continuing to grow exponentially both in terms of numbers of users and numbers of web pages. There is a trend toward the increasing use of the WWW for medical educational purposes, both among physicians and patients alike. The multimedia capabilities of this evolving medium are particularly relevant to visual medical specialties such as dermatology. The origins of information consumerism on the WWW are examined, and the public health issues surrounding dermatologic information and misinformation, and how consumers navigate through the WWW are reviewed. The economic realities of medical information as a "capital good," and the impact this has on dermatologic information sources on the WWW are also discussed.Finally, strategies for guiding consumers and ourselves toward credible medical information sources on the WWW are outlined.

  8. Educational use of World Wide Web pages on CD-ROM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Thomas P; Smith, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The World Wide Web is increasingly important for medical education. Internet served pages may also be used on a local hard disk or CD-ROM without a network or server. This allows authors to reuse existing content and provide access to users without a network connection. CD-ROM offers several advantages over network delivery of Web pages for several applications. However, creating Web pages for CD-ROM requires careful planning. Issues include file names, relative links, directory names, default pages, server created content, image maps, other file types and embedded programming. With care, it is possible to create server based pages that can be copied directly to CD-ROM. In addition, Web pages on CD-ROM may reference Internet served pages to provide the best features of both methods.

  9. World-wide anthropogenic climate changes: facts, uncertainties and open questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenwiese, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    Various human activities are, without a doubt, leading to a steady increase world-wide in the emissions of trace gases which affect the climate into the atmosphere. As a result, the global climate is also forced to change. The evidence from climate models regarding this is uncertain, however, both with respect to the quantitative aspect and the regional aspect, especially concerning climatic elements apart from temperature. It is therefore important to examine the data of climate history for anthropogenic climate signals. It is difficult, though, to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic climate effects. Despite these uncertainties, however, which result in many questions remaining open, estimations of risk and the principle of responsibility lead to immediate, international climate protection measures being demanded. (orig.) [de

  10. Quality analysis of patient information about knee arthroscopy on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambandam, Senthil Nathan; Ramasamy, Vijayaraj; Priyanka, Priyanka; Ilango, Balakrishnan

    2007-05-01

    This study was designed to ascertain the quality of patient information available on the World Wide Web on the topic of knee arthroscopy. For the purpose of quality analysis, we used a pool of 232 search results obtained from 7 different search engines. We used a modified assessment questionnaire to assess the quality of these Web sites. This questionnaire was developed based on similar studies evaluating Web site quality and includes items on illustrations, accessibility, availability, accountability, and content of the Web site. We also compared results obtained with different search engines and tried to establish the best possible search strategy to attain the most relevant, authentic, and adequate information with minimum time consumption. For this purpose, we first compared 100 search results from the single most commonly used search engine (AltaVista) with the pooled sample containing 20 search results from each of the 7 different search engines. The search engines used were metasearch (Copernic and Mamma), general search (Google, AltaVista, and Yahoo), and health topic-related search engines (MedHunt and Healthfinder). The phrase "knee arthroscopy" was used as the search terminology. Excluding the repetitions, there were 117 Web sites available for quality analysis. These sites were analyzed for accessibility, relevance, authenticity, adequacy, and accountability by use of a specially designed questionnaire. Our analysis showed that most of the sites providing patient information on knee arthroscopy contained outdated information, were inadequate, and were not accountable. Only 16 sites were found to be providing reasonably good patient information and hence can be recommended to patients. Understandably, most of these sites were from nonprofit organizations and educational institutions. Furthermore, our study revealed that using multiple search engines increases patients' chances of obtaining more relevant information rather than using a single search

  11. Health and medication information resources on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Sara; Zerilli, Tina

    2013-04-01

    Health care practitioners have increasingly used the Internet to obtain health and medication information. The vast number of Internet Web sites providing such information and concerns with their reliability makes it essential for users to carefully select and evaluate Web sites prior to use. To this end, this article reviews the general principles to consider in this process. Moreover, as cost may limit access to subscription-based health and medication information resources with established reputability, freely accessible online resources that may serve as an invaluable addition to one's reference collection are highlighted. These include government- and organization-sponsored resources (eg, US Food and Drug Administration Web site and the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Drug Shortage Resource Center Web site, respectively) as well as commercial Web sites (eg, Medscape, Google Scholar). Familiarity with such online resources can assist health care professionals in their ability to efficiently navigate the Web and may potentially expedite the information gathering and decision-making process, thereby improving patient care.

  12. Rotorcraft Aeromechanics Branch Home Page on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Randall L.; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    , strength, and location of the tip vortex, therefore changing the BVI acoustics of the rotor. The subwings are approximately 20% of the blade chord and increase the rotor radius by about 3 percent. Four different subwing configurations will be tested, including square tipped subwings with different angles of incidence. The ability of active controls to reduce BVI acoustics will also be assessed. The dynamic control system of the RTA will be used to implement open- and closed-loop active control techniques, including individual blade control. Open-loop testing will be conducted using a personal computer based, automated, real-time data acquisition system. This system features combined automated output of open loop control signals and automated data acquisition of the resulting test data. A final technique to alter the noise of the rotor will be examined. This will involve changing the number of blades from three to four. A four-bladed rotor hub has been fabricated on which the XV-15 blades will be mounted. While the solidity of the rotor will increase, much useful information can be gained by examining the changes in the thrust and RPM with four blades.

  13. Status and Trends of Nuclear Power World-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueorguiev, B.; Spiegelberg-Planer, R.

    1996-01-01

    The reliable and adequate supply of energy, especially electricity, is necessary not only for economic development but to enhance the quality of life. Nuclear power is a proven technology which already supplies about 17% of the world''s electricity generation. In 1995, seven countries produce more than 40% of their electricity from nuclear power plants: Lithuanian, France, Belgium, Sweden, Bulgaria, Slovak and Hungary. It is quite clear that many countries are heavily reliant on nuclear power and are well beyond the point where nuclear power could be replaced by some other source, so, nuclear power remains one of the few technologically proven, economically promising and environmentally benign energy sources. An important factor in the continued development of nuclear power is the extent to which nuclear generated electricity remains economically competitive. Factors such as plant availability, standardisation of systems, components and equipment, as well as the cost of equipment to meet safety and environmental regulations play also an important role in determining the relative competitiveness of nuclear power plants. Many operating organizations have already impressive results in the reduction of plant unavailability. The number of nuclear power plants currently operating with annual availability factor exceeding 85% is increasing. Good performance of some operators should establish performance targets for operators everywhere. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the only international and almost complete information system, the Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) with nuclear power plant status and performance data. This paper presents the current status of nuclear power plants, according to information contained in the IAEA. It discusses the plant performance indicators available in PRIS and the improvement trend in the performance of nuclear power plants based on these indicators. It also presents the future trends of nuclear power focusing

  14. A Galaxy Zoo - WorldWide Telescope Mashup: Expanding User Defined Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbert, Jarod; Sands, M.; Fay, J.; Smith, A.; Gay, P. L.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2010-01-01

    We present a new way of exploring your favorite Galaxy Zoo galaxies within the context of the sky using Microsoft Research's WorldWide Telescope. Galaxy Zoo has a fantastic community that is eager to learn and contribute to science through morphological classifications of galaxies. WorldWide Telescope is an interactive observatory that allows users to explore the sky. WorldWide Telescope uses images from the world's best telescopes, including the galaxies of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. WorldWide Telescope provides a fantastic sense of size and distance that is hard to experience in Galaxy Zoo. Creating tours from favorite galaxies directly from Galaxy Zoo aims to solve this dilemma.The incorporation of Galaxy Zoo and WorldWide telescope provides a great resource for users to learn more about the galaxies they are classifying. Users can now explore the areas around certain galaxies and view information about that location from within WorldWide Telescope. Not only does this encourage self-motivated research but after tours are created they can be shared with anyone. We hope this will help spread citizen science to different audiences via email, Facebook, and Twitter.Without the WorldWide Telescope team at Microsoft Research this project would not have been possible. Please go start exploring at http://wwt.galaxyzoo.org. This project was funded through the Microsoft Research Academic Program.

  15. Diffuse urban pollution increases metal tolerance of natural heterotrophic biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, Lise C.; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Bourgeault, Adeline; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    This study is a first attempt to investigate the impact of urban contamination on metal tolerance of heterotrophic river biofilms using a short-term test based on β-glucosidase activity. Tolerance levels to Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni and Pb were evaluated for biofilms collected at three sites along an urban gradient in the Seine river (France). Metallic pollution increased along the river, but concentrations remained low compared to environmental quality standards. Biofilm metal tolerance increased downstream from the urban area. Multivariate analysis confirmed the correlation between tolerance and contamination and between multi-metallic and physico-chemical gradients. Therefore, tolerance levels have to be interpreted in relation to the whole chemical and physical characteristics and not solely metal exposure. We conclude that community tolerance is a sensitive biological response to urban pressure and that mixtures of contaminants at levels lower than quality standards might have a significant impact on periphytic communities. - Highlights: ► A new short-term test based on β-glucosidase activity to assess biofilm metal tolerance. ► Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn tolerance of natural biofilms collected along an urban gradient. ► Metal tolerance levels increase upstream to downstream the river. ► Community tolerance increases at environmental quality standard exposure concentrations. ► Biofilm tolerance is a sensitive biological response to diffuse urban pollution. - Metal concentrations below environmental quality standards increase tolerance levels of natural, hetetrophic biofilms downstream from an urban area.

  16. Bumble bees (Bombus spp along a gradient of increasing urbanization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Ahrné

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bumble bees and other wild bees are important pollinators of wild flowers and several cultivated crop plants, and have declined in diversity and abundance during the last decades. The main cause of the decline is believed to be habitat destruction and fragmentation associated with urbanization and agricultural intensification. Urbanization is a process that involves dramatic and persistent changes of the landscape, increasing the amount of built-up areas while decreasing the amount of green areas. However, urban green areas can also provide suitable alternative habitats for wild bees. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied bumble bees in allotment gardens, i.e. intensively managed flower rich green areas, along a gradient of urbanization from the inner city of Stockholm towards more rural (periurban areas. Keeping habitat quality similar along the urbanization gradient allowed us to separate the effect of landscape change (e.g. proportion impervious surface from variation in habitat quality. Bumble bee diversity (after rarefaction to 25 individuals decreased with increasing urbanization, from around eight species on sites in more rural areas to between five and six species in urban allotment gardens. Bumble bee abundance and species composition were most affected by qualities related to the management of the allotment areas, such as local flower abundance. The variability in bumble bee visits between allotment gardens was higher in an urban than in a periurban context, particularly among small and long-tongued bumble bee species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that allotment gardens and other urban green areas can serve as important alternatives to natural habitats for many bumble bee species, but that the surrounding urban landscape influences how many species that will be present. The higher variability in abundance of certain species in the most urban areas may indicate a weaker reliability of the ecosystem

  17. Increasing the availability of urban passenger transport on objective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing the availability of urban passenger transport on objective control data ... mathematical modeling, probability theory and mathematical statistics, expert ... intended for development of methods and means of operative management of ...

  18. GeoCENS: a geospatial cyberinfrastructure for the world-wide sensor web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Steve H L; Huang, Chih-Yuan

    2013-10-02

    The world-wide sensor web has become a very useful technique for monitoring the physical world at spatial and temporal scales that were previously impossible. Yet we believe that the full potential of sensor web has thus far not been revealed. In order to harvest the world-wide sensor web's full potential, a geospatial cyberinfrastructure is needed to store, process, and deliver large amount of sensor data collected worldwide. In this paper, we first define the issue of the sensor web long tail followed by our view of the world-wide sensor web architecture. Then, we introduce the Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Environmental Sensing (GeoCENS) architecture and explain each of its components. Finally, with demonstration of three real-world powered-by-GeoCENS sensor web applications, we believe that the GeoCENS architecture can successfully address the sensor web long tail issue and consequently realize the world-wide sensor web vision.

  19. Integrating Mathematics, Science, and Language Arts Instruction Using the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kenneth; Hosticka, Alice; Kent, Judi; Browne, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Addresses issues of access to World Wide Web sites, mathematics and science content-resources available on the Web, and methods for integrating mathematics, science, and language arts instruction. (Author/ASK)

  20. Histology on the World Wide Web: A Digest of Resources for Students and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, John R.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a list of 37 World Wide Web sites that are devoted to instruction in histology and include electronic manuals, syllabi, atlases, image galleries, and quizzes. Reviews the topics, content, and highlights of these Web sites. (DDR)

  1. Advanced use of World-Wide Web in the online system of DELPHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doenszelmann, M.; Carvalho, D.; Du, S.; Tennebo, F.

    1996-01-01

    The World-Wide Web technologies used by the DELPHI experiment at CERN to provide easy access to information of the On-line System. WWW technology on both client and server side is used in five different projects. The World-Wide Web has its advantages concerning the network technology, the practical user interface and its scalability. It however also demands a stateless protocol and format negotiation. (author)

  2. Radiation protection and environmental radioactivity. A voyage to the World Wide Web for beginners; Strahlenschutz und Umweltradioaktivitaet im Internet. Eine Reise in das World Wide Web fuer Anfaenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, S [Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg, Referat ' ' Umweltradioaktivitaet, Strahlenschutz' ' (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    According to the enormous growth of the Internet service 'World Wide Web' there is also a big growth in the number of web sites in connection with radiation protection. An introduction is given of some practical basis of the WWW. The structure of WWW addresses and navigating through the web with hyperlinks is explained. Further some search engines are presented. The paper lists a number of WWW addresses of interesting sites with radiological protection informations. (orig.) [German] Mit dem rasanten Wachstum des Internet-Dienstes 'World Wide Web' ist auch das Angebot von Web-Seiten im Bereich Strahlenschutz stark gewachsen. Es wird eine Einfuehrung in die wichtigsten praktischen Grundlagen des WWW gegeben. Es wird der Aufbau der WWW-Adressen erklaert und das Navigieren mit Hyperlinks. Ausserdem werden einige Suchmaschinen vorgestellt. Der Beitrag stellt eine groessere Zahl an WWW-Adressen zu interessanten Seiten mit Strahlenschutzinformationen zur Verfuegung. (orig.)

  3. Increasing the Supply of Affordable Housing in Urban India - Mumbai

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, Upasna

    2014-01-01

    The need for housing in today's world is irrefutable. The growing population, accompanied with the fast pace of urbanization, are producing great housing demand, in urban areas in particular. This study focused on one segment of housing - affordable housing, in Mumbai, India, the demand for which has been on a steady rise over the past decade. Though traditionally the State was the provider of affordable housing, private sector has been increasingly involved in the segment, beginning the econ...

  4. Contribution of urbanization to the increase of extreme heat events in an urban agglomeration in east China: Urbanization and the Increase of EHEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xuchao [Institute of Island and Coastal Ecosystems, Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Zhoushan China; Ruby Leung, L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zhao, Naizhuo [Department of Geosciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock Texas USA; Zhao, Chun [School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei China; Qian, Yun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Hu, Kejia [Institute of Island and Coastal Ecosystems, Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Zhoushan China; Liu, Xiaoping [School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou China; Chen, Baode [Shanghai Typhoon Institute of China Meteorological Administration, Shanghai China

    2017-07-03

    The urban agglomeration of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) is emblematic of China’s rapid urbanization during the past decades. Based on homogenized daily maximum and minimum temperature data, the contributions of urbanization to trends of extreme temperature indices (ETIs) during summer in YRD are evaluated. Dynamically classifying the observational stations into urban and rural areas, this study presents unexplored changes in temperature extremes during the past four decades in the YRD region and quantifies the amplification of the positive trends in ETIs by the urban heat island effect. Overall, urbanization contributes to more than one third in the increase of intensity of extreme heat events in the region, which is comparable to the contribution of greenhouse gases. Compared to rural stations, more notable shifts to the right in the probability distribution of temperature and ETIs were observed in urban stations.

  5. Urbanization Increases Pathogen Pressure on Feral and Managed Honey Bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Youngsteadt

    Full Text Available Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus, the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens. We also measured worker survival in a laboratory bioassay. We found that pathogen pressure on honey bees increased with urbanization and management, and the probability of worker survival declined 3-fold along our urbanization gradient. The effect of management on pathogens appears to be mediated by immunity, with feral bees expressing immune genes at nearly twice the levels of managed bees following an immune challenge. The effect of urbanization, however, was not linked with immunity; instead, urbanization may favor viability and transmission of some disease agents. Feral colonies, with lower disease burdens and stronger immune responses, may illuminate ways to improve honey bee management. The previously unexamined effects of urbanization on honey-bee disease are concerning, suggesting that urban areas may favor problematic diseases of pollinators.

  6. Urbanization Increases Pathogen Pressure on Feral and Managed Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Appler, R Holden; López-Uribe, Margarita M; Tarpy, David R; Frank, Steven D

    2015-01-01

    Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus), the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens. We also measured worker survival in a laboratory bioassay. We found that pathogen pressure on honey bees increased with urbanization and management, and the probability of worker survival declined 3-fold along our urbanization gradient. The effect of management on pathogens appears to be mediated by immunity, with feral bees expressing immune genes at nearly twice the levels of managed bees following an immune challenge. The effect of urbanization, however, was not linked with immunity; instead, urbanization may favor viability and transmission of some disease agents. Feral colonies, with lower disease burdens and stronger immune responses, may illuminate ways to improve honey bee management. The previously unexamined effects of urbanization on honey-bee disease are concerning, suggesting that urban areas may favor problematic diseases of pollinators.

  7. Glue ear: how good is the information on the World Wide Web?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, L; Tornari, C; Patel, P M; Lakhani, R

    2016-02-01

    This paper objectively evaluates current information available to the general public related to glue ear on the World Wide Web. The term 'glue ear' was typed into the 3 most frequently used internet search engines - Google, Bing and Yahoo - and the first 20 links were analysed. The first 400 words of each page were used to calculate the Flesch-Kincaid readability score. Each website was subsequently graded using the Discern instrument, which gauges quality and content of literature. The websites Webmd.boots.com, Bupa.co.uk and Patient.co.uk received the highest overall scores. These reflected top scores in either readability or Discern instrument assessment, but not both. Readability and Discern scores increased with the presence of a marketing or advertising incentive. The Patient.co.uk website had the highest Discern score and third highest readability score. There is huge variation in the quality of information available to patients on the internet. Some websites may be accessible to a wide range of reading ages but have poor quality content, and vice versa. Clinicians should be aware of indicators of quality, and use validated instruments to assess and recommend literature.

  8. Factors influencing the adoption of the World Wide Web for job-seeking in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pavon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, the use of the World Wide Web (WWW as a tool for job-seeking and recruitment has increased globally, changing the dynamics for job-seekers and recruitment organisations. The purpose of this study was to gain greater insight into the factors that influence the adoption of the Internet (WWW for job-seeking within a South African context. The impact of the Internet (WWW and newspaper-reading habits on the adoption process was of specific interest. Data was gathered by survey through telephonic interviews with 228 job seekers applying for information technology (IT work in Cape Town, South Africa. The findings show that the income of a job-seeker influences the favourability of internet facilitating conditions they encounter. Facilitating conditions in turn influence Internet (WWW usage habits. Such habits influence performance expectancy, effort expectancy and intentions to use the Internet (WWW for job-seeking. The actual extent of Internet (WWW usage for job-seeking is positively influenced by these usage intentions and negatively influenced by newspaper-reading habits. These and other findings are discussed and implications drawn.

  9. Factors influencing the adoption of the World Wide Web for job-seeking in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pavon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, the use of the World Wide Web (WWW as a tool for job-seeking and recruitment has increased globally, changing the dynamics for job-seekers and recruitment organisations. The purpose of this study was to gain greater insight into the factors that influence the adoption of the Internet (WWW for job-seeking within a South African context. The impact of the Internet (WWW and newspaper-reading habits on the adoption process was of specific interest. Data was gathered by survey through telephonic interviews with 228 job seekers applying for information technology (IT work in Cape Town, South Africa. The findings show that the income of a job-seeker influences the favourability of internet facilitating conditions they encounter. Facilitating conditions in turn influence Internet (WWW usage habits. Such habits influence performance expectancy, effort expectancy and intentions to use the Internet (WWW for job-seeking. The actual extent of Internet (WWW usage for job-seeking is positively influenced by these usage intentions and negatively influenced by newspaper-reading habits. These and other findings are discussed and implications drawn.

  10. Virtual Reality Astronomy Education Using AAS WorldWide Telescope and Oculus Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, A. David; Moraitis, Christina D.

    2017-01-01

    The Boyd E. Christenberry Planetarium at Samford University (Birmingham, AL) offers family friendly, live, and interactive planetarium presentations that educate the public on topics from astronomy basics to current cutting edge astronomical discoveries. With limited funding, it is not possible to provide state of the art planetarium hardware for these community audiences. In a society in which many people, even young children, have access to high resolution smart phones and highly realistic video games, it is important to leverage cutting-edge technology to intrigue young and old minds alike. We use an Oculus Rift virtual reality headset running AAS WorldWide Telescope software to visualize 3D data in a fully immersive environment. We create interactive experiences and videos to highlight astronomical concepts and also to communicate the beauty of our universe. The ease of portability enables us to set up at Virtual Reality (VR) experience at various events, festivals, and even in classrooms to provide a community outreach that a fixed planetarium cannot. This VR experience adds the “wow” factor that encourages children and adults to engage in our various planetarium events to learn more about astronomy and continue to explore the final frontier of space. These VR experiences encourages our college students to participate in our astronomy education resulting in increased interest in STEM fields, particularly physics and math.

  11. Meeting the challenge of finding resources for ophthalmic nurses on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffel, P G

    1998-12-01

    The World Wide Web ("the Web") is a macrocosm of resources that can be overwhelming. Often the sheer volume of material available causes one to give up in despair before finding information of any use. The Web is such a popular resource that it cannot be ignored. Two of the biggest challenges to finding good information on the Web are knowing where to start and judging whether the information gathered is pertinent and credible. This article addresses these two challenges and introduces the reader to a variety of ophthalmology and vision science resources on the World Wide Web.

  12. Simplification of arboreal marsupial assemblages in response to increasing urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Bronwyn; White, John; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Cooke, Raylene

    2014-01-01

    Arboreal marsupials play an essential role in ecosystem function including regulating insect and plant populations, facilitating pollen and seed dispersal and acting as a prey source for higher-order carnivores in Australian environments. Primarily, research has focused on their biology, ecology and response to disturbance in forested and urban environments. We used presence-only species distribution modelling to understand the relationship between occurrences of arboreal marsupials and eco-geographical variables, and to infer habitat suitability across an urban gradient. We used post-proportional analysis to determine whether increasing urbanization affected potential habitat for arboreal marsupials. The key eco-geographical variables that influenced disturbance intolerant species and those with moderate tolerance to disturbance were natural features such as tree cover and proximity to rivers and to riparian vegetation, whereas variables for disturbance tolerant species were anthropogenic-based (e.g., road density) but also included some natural characteristics such as proximity to riparian vegetation, elevation and tree cover. Arboreal marsupial diversity was subject to substantial change along the gradient, with potential habitat for disturbance-tolerant marsupials distributed across the complete gradient and potential habitat for less tolerant species being restricted to the natural portion of the gradient. This resulted in highly-urbanized environments being inhabited by a few generalist arboreal marsupial species. Increasing urbanization therefore leads to functional simplification of arboreal marsupial assemblages, thus impacting on the ecosystem services they provide.

  13. Simplification of arboreal marsupial assemblages in response to increasing urbanization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Isaac

    Full Text Available Arboreal marsupials play an essential role in ecosystem function including regulating insect and plant populations, facilitating pollen and seed dispersal and acting as a prey source for higher-order carnivores in Australian environments. Primarily, research has focused on their biology, ecology and response to disturbance in forested and urban environments. We used presence-only species distribution modelling to understand the relationship between occurrences of arboreal marsupials and eco-geographical variables, and to infer habitat suitability across an urban gradient. We used post-proportional analysis to determine whether increasing urbanization affected potential habitat for arboreal marsupials. The key eco-geographical variables that influenced disturbance intolerant species and those with moderate tolerance to disturbance were natural features such as tree cover and proximity to rivers and to riparian vegetation, whereas variables for disturbance tolerant species were anthropogenic-based (e.g., road density but also included some natural characteristics such as proximity to riparian vegetation, elevation and tree cover. Arboreal marsupial diversity was subject to substantial change along the gradient, with potential habitat for disturbance-tolerant marsupials distributed across the complete gradient and potential habitat for less tolerant species being restricted to the natural portion of the gradient. This resulted in highly-urbanized environments being inhabited by a few generalist arboreal marsupial species. Increasing urbanization therefore leads to functional simplification of arboreal marsupial assemblages, thus impacting on the ecosystem services they provide.

  14. Identifying the causes of water crises: A configurational frequency analysis of 22 basins world wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Lambin, E.; Rozelle, S.; Thompson, B.

    2010-12-01

    Freshwater "scarcity" has been identified as being a major problem world-wide, but it is surprisingly hard to assess if water is truly scarce at a global or even regional scale. Most empirical water research remains location specific. Characterizing water problems, transferring lessons across regions, to develop a synthesized global view of water issues remains a challenge. In this study we attempt a systematic understanding of water problems across regions. We compared case studies of basins across different regions of the world using configurational frequency analysis. Because water crises are multi-symptom and multi-causal, a major challenge was to categorize water problems so as to make comparisons across cases meaningful. In this study, we focused strictly on water unsustainability, viz. the inability to sustain current levels of the anthropogenic (drinking water, food, power, livelihood) and natural (aquatic species, wetlands) into the future. For each case, the causes of three outcome variables, groundwater declines, surface water declines and aquatic ecosystem declines, were classified and coded. We conducted a meta-analysis in which clusters of peer-reviewed papers by interdisciplinary teams were considered to ensure that the results were not biased towards factors privileged by any one discipline. Based on our final sample of 22 case study river basins, some clear patterns emerged. The meta-analysis suggests that water resources managers have long overemphasized the factors governing supply of water resources and while insufficient attention has been paid to the factors driving demand. Overall, uncontrolled increase in demand was twice as frequent as declines in availability due to climate change or decreased recharge. Moreover, groundwater and surface water declines showed distinct causal pathways. Uncontrolled increases in demand due to lack of credible enforcement were a key factor driving groundwater declines; while increased upstream abstractions

  15. Gender Equity in Advertising on the World-Wide Web: Can it be Found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kevin M.; Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    Recent attention to gender equity in computer environments, as well as in print-based and televised advertising for technological products, suggests that gender bias in the computer environment continues. This study examined gender messages within World Wide Web advertisements, specifically the type and number of visual images used in Web banner…

  16. Delivering an Alternative Medicine Resource to the User's Desktop via World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Wu, Gang; Marks, Ellen; Fan, Weiyu

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the design and implementation of a World Wide Web-based alternative medicine virtual resource. This homepage integrates regional, national, and international resources and delivers library services to the user's desktop. Goals, structure, and organizational schemes of the system are detailed, and design issues for building such a…

  17. Uses and Gratifications of the World Wide Web: From Couch Potato to Web Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Barbara K.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates uses and gratifications of the World Wide Web and its impact on traditional mass media, especially television. Identifies six Web use motivations: entertainment, social interaction, passing of time, escape, information, and Web site preference. Examines relationships between each use motivation and Web affinity, perceived realism, and…

  18. Navigational Structure on the World Wide Web: Usability Concerns, User Preferences, and "Browsing Behavior."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Theodore; Monson, John A.; Xaver, Richard F.; Kilic, Gulsen; Conley, Aaron T.; Wamey, Beatrice

    There are several approaches a World Wide Web site designer considers in developing a menu structure. One consideration is the content of the menus (what choices are available to the user). Another consideration is the physical layout of the menu structure. The physical layout of a menu may be described as being one of at least three different…

  19. GeoCENS: A Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for the World-Wide Sensor Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve H.L. Liang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide sensor web has become a very useful technique for monitoring the physical world at spatial and temporal scales that were previously impossible. Yet we believe that the full potential of sensor web has thus far not been revealed. In order to harvest the world-wide sensor web’s full potential, a geospatial cyberinfrastructure is needed to store, process, and deliver large amount of sensor data collected worldwide. In this paper, we first define the issue of the sensor web long tail followed by our view of the world-wide sensor web architecture. Then, we introduce the Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Environmental Sensing (GeoCENS architecture and explain each of its components. Finally, with demonstration of three real-world powered-by-GeoCENS sensor web applications, we believe that the GeoCENS architecture can successfully address the sensor web long tail issue and consequently realize the world-wide sensor web vision.

  20. WWW.Cell Biology Education: Using the World Wide Web to Develop a New Teaching Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Robert V.; MacAlpine, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    "Cell Biology Education" calls attention each quarter to several Web sites of educational interest to the biology community. The Internet provides access to an enormous array of potential teaching materials. In this article, the authors describe one approach for using the World Wide Web to develop a new college biology laboratory exercise. As a…

  1. El creador de World Wide Web gana premio Millennium de tecnologia

    CERN Multimedia

    Galan, J

    2004-01-01

    "El creador de la World Wide Web (WWW), el fisico britanico Tim Berners-Lee, gano hoy la primera edicion del Millennium Technology Prize, un galardon internacional creado por una fundacion finlandesa y dotado con un millon de euros" (1/2 page)

  2. How Commercial Banks Use the World Wide Web: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leovic, Lydia K.

    New telecommunications vehicles expand the possible ways that business is conducted. The hypermedia portion of the Internet, the World Wide Web, is such a telecommunications device. The Web is presently one of the most flexible and dynamic methods for electronic information dissemination. The level of technological sophistication necessary to…

  3. Marketing and Selling CD-ROM Products on the World-Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Becki

    1995-01-01

    Describes three companies' approaches to marketing and selling CD-ROM products on the World Wide Web. Benefits include low overhead for Internet-based sales, allowance for creativity, and ability to let customers preview products online. Discusses advertising, information delivery, content, information services, and security. (AEF)

  4. World Wide Web of Your Wide Web? Juridische aspecten van zoekmachine-personalisatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Het world wide web is een enorme bron van informatie. Iedere internetgebruiker maakt gebruik van zoekmachines om die informatie te kunnen vinden. Veel gebruikers weten echter niet dat zoekresultaten behorende bij een bepaalde zoekterm niet voor iedereen hetzelfde zijn. Dit personaliseren van

  5. How Students Evaluate Information and Sources when Searching the World Wide Web for Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, Amber; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2009-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) has become the biggest information source for students while solving information problems for school projects. Since anyone can post anything on the WWW, information is often unreliable or incomplete, and it is important to evaluate sources and information before using them. Earlier research has shown that students have…

  6. Documenting historical data and accessing it on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchus B. Baker; Daniel P. Huebner; Peter F. Ffolliott

    2000-01-01

    New computer technologies facilitate the storage, retrieval, and summarization of watershed-based data sets on the World Wide Web. These data sets are used by researchers when testing and validating predictive models, managers when planning and implementing watershed management practices, educators when learning about hydrologic processes, and decisionmakers when...

  7. A World Wide Web Human Dimensions Framework and Database for Wildlife and Forest Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Tarrant; Alan D. Bright; H. Ken Cordell

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes a human dimensions framework(HDF) for application in wildlife and forest planning. The HDF is delivered via the world wide web and retrieves data on-line from the Social, Economic, Environmental, Leisure, and Attitudes (SEELA) database. The proposed HDF is guided by ten fundamental HD principles, and is applied to wildlife and forest planning using...

  8. From theater to the world wide web--a new online era for surgical education.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D Peter

    2012-07-01

    Traditionally, surgical education has been confined to operating and lecture theaters. Access to the World Wide Web and services, such as YouTube and iTunes has expanded enormously. Each week throughout Ireland, nonconsultant hospital doctors work hard to create presentations for surgical teaching. Once presented, these valuable presentations are often never used again.

  9. Environmental Reporting for Global Higher Education Institutions using the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J.; Alabaster, T.; Richardson, S.; Harrison, R.

    1997-01-01

    Proposes the value of voluntary environmental reporting by higher education institutions as an aid to implementing environmental policies. Suggests that the World Wide Web can provide a fast, up-to-date, flexible, participatory, multidimensional medium for information exchange and management. Contains 29 references. (PVD)

  10. Spiders and Worms and Crawlers, Oh My: Searching on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagan, Ann; Bender, Laura

    Searching on the world wide web can be confusing. A myriad of search engines exist, often with little or no documentation, and many of these search engines work differently from the standard search engines people are accustomed to using. Intended for librarians, this paper defines search engines, directories, spiders, and robots, and covers basics…

  11. Recent invasion of world-wide wheat growing areas by two aggressive strains of Puccinia striiformis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Ali, Sajid; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer

    2012-01-01

    The ever more frequent and severe large-scale epidemics of wheat yellow/stripe rust disease (caused by Puccinia striiformis) pose a severe threat to the world’s wheat production (Hovmøller et al. 2010). The onset of a new series of world-wide wheat yellow rust epidemics in 2000 has been linked...

  12. Integrating Temporal Media and Open Hypermedia on the World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Schade, René

    1999-01-01

    The World Wide Web has since its beginning provided linking to and from text documents encoded in HTML. The Web has evolved and most Web browsers now support a rich set of media types either by default or by the use of specialised content handlers, known as plug-ins. The limitations of the Web...

  13. Exploring Geology on the World-Wide Web--Volcanoes and Volcanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmrich, Steven Henry; Gore, Pamela J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on sites on the World Wide Web that offer information about volcanoes. Web sites are classified into areas of Global Volcano Information, Volcanoes in Hawaii, Volcanoes in Alaska, Volcanoes in the Cascades, European and Icelandic Volcanoes, Extraterrestrial Volcanism, Volcanic Ash and Weather, and Volcano Resource Directories. Suggestions…

  14. Outreach to International Students and Scholars Using the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei

    1998-01-01

    Describes the creation of a World Wide Web site for the Science Library International Outreach Program at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Discusses design elements, content, and promotion of the site. Copies of the home page and the page containing the outreach program's statement of purpose are included. (AEF)

  15. Tapping the Resources of the World Wide Web for Inquiry in Middle Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windschitl, Mark; Irby, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Argues for the cautiously expanded use of the World Wide Web for inquiry across the middle school curriculum, noting how the Internet can be used in schools. Describes the Internet and appraises its distractions and academic utility, identifying features that support student inquiry in science, mathematics, social studies, and language arts. (JPB)

  16. Le world wide web: l'hypermedià sur internet | Houmel | Revue d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The telecommunication's networks technology linked to the electronic document has changed abroad the information specialists' methods of work. The Internet network did a lot in thèse big changes and especially after the World Wide Web intégration wich is a high hypermedia distributed information System. In Algeria lots ...

  17. Reading on the World Wide Web: Dealing with conflicting information from multiple sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Strien, Johan; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Els

    2011-01-01

    Van Strien, J. L. H., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2011, August). Reading on the World Wide Web: Dealing with conflicting information from multiple sources. Poster session presented at the biannual conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, Exeter,

  18. Increasing plant diversity with border crops reduces insecticide use and increases crop yield in urban agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Cai, You-Ming; Shen, Yan-Jun; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Wu, Xiang-Wen; Zheng, Xiang-Rong; Cheng, Wei; Li, Jun; Jiang, Yao-Pei; Chen, Xin; Weiner, Jacob; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Nie, Ming; Ju, Rui-Ting; Yuan, Tao; Tang, Jian-Jun; Tian, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Hao; Li, Bo

    2018-05-24

    Urban agriculture is making an increasing contribution to food security in large cities around the world. The potential contribution of biodiversity to ecological intensification in urban agricultural systems has not been investigated. We present monitoring data collected from rice fields in 34 community farms in mega-urban Shanghai, China, from 2001 to 2015, and show that the presence of a border crop of soybeans and neighboring crops (maize, eggplant and Chinese cabbage), both without weed control, increased invertebrate predator abundance, decreased the abundance of pests and dependence on insecticides, and increased grain yield and economic profits. Two 2 year randomized experiments with the low and high diversity practices in the same locations confirmed these results. Our study shows that diversifying farming practices can make an important contribution to ecological intensification and the sustainable use of associated ecosystem services in an urban ecosystem. © 2018, Wan et al.

  19. A comprehensive and cost-effective preparticipation exam implemented on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, J E; Haskell, W L; Matheson, G O

    1999-12-01

    Mandatory preparticipation examinations (PPE) are labor intensive, offer little routine health maintenance and are poor predictors of future injury or illness. Our objective was to develop a new PPE for the Stanford University varsity athletes that improved both quality of primary and preventive care and physician time efficiency. This PPE is based on the annual submission, by each athlete, of a comprehensive medical history questionnaire that is then summarized in a two-page report for the examining physician. The questionnaire was developed through a search of MEDLINE from 1966 to 1997, review of PPE from 11 other institutions, and discussion with two experts from each of seven main content areas: medical and musculoskeletal history, eating, menstrual and sleep disorders, stress and health risk behaviors. Content validity was assessed by 10 sports medicine physicians and four epidemiologists. It was then programmed for the World Wide Web (http:// www.stanford.edu/dept/sportsmed/). The questionnaire demonstrated a 97 +/- 2% sensitivity in detecting positive responses requiring physician attention. Sixteen physicians administered the 1997/98 PPE; using the summary reports, 15 found improvement in their ability to provide overall medical care including health issues beyond clearance; 13 noted a decrease in time needed for each athlete exam. Over 90% of athletes who used the web site found it "easy" or "moderately easy" to access and complete. Initial assessment of this new PPE format shows good athlete compliance, improved exam efficiency and a strong increase in subjective physician satisfaction with the quality of screening and medical care provided. The data indicate a need for improvement of routine health maintenance in this population. The database offers opportunities to study trends, risk factors, and results of interventions.

  20. On the necessity of making geoethics a central concern in eduethics world-wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookall, David; Promduangsri, Pimnutcha

    2017-04-01

    Our planet is in dire need of ethical behaviour by all its citizens. However, recent research has highlighted the increasingly dangerous impact of human activity on life systems of the planet. CO2 emissions continue to rise (400+ppm, end 2016), methane emissions are accelerating. The Arctic is about 28°C above the normal average. Average global temperature is reaching 1° above normal. Air, water and ground pollution levels are reaching devastating levels. Resource depletion is accelerating. Yet most governments still beat the drums of growth, while hypocritically humming the tune of sustainability. Humans are overshooting the carrying capacity of the planet; as attested by top scientists and organizations. Earth overshoot day in 2016 was 8 August; we need 5½ earths to live like Australians. Of course, efforts are being made globally and locally to combat impending disaster and to encourage more respectful behaviour towards the planet and its life. Individuals include scientists, writers, film makers, journalists. World-wide organizations include Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN), the Climate Change Education Partnership Alliance, the International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO), and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). A key organization is the International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG) because it focuses firmly and explicitly on the key issue of ethics, which few others appear to do. One might argue that the general lack of major progress in environmental care is rooted to a large degree in the world-wide lack of strong adherence to geoethical principles. Learning to behave ethically needs far more than knowledge about energy imbalance, pollution, acidity, ice melt, etc. It needs people to learn, and grow up learning, about what is right and wrong in regard to each aspect of our personal earth citizen lives. That needs nothing short of a revolution in educational practice for all schools across the globe

  1. Comparison of student outcomes and preferences in a traditional vs. World Wide Web-based baccalaureate nursing research course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leasure, A R; Davis, L; Thievon, S L

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compare student outcomes in an undergraduate research course taught using both World Wide Web-based distance learning technology and traditional pedagogy. Reasons given for enrolling in the traditional classroom section included the perception of increased opportunity for interaction, decreased opportunity to procrastinate, immediate feedback, and more meaningful learning activities. Reasons for selecting the Web group section included cost, convenience, and flexibility. Overall, there was no significant difference in examination scores between the two groups on the three multiple-choice examinations or for the course grades (t = -.96, P = .343). Students who reported that they were self-directed and had the ability to maintain their own pace and avoid procrastination were most suited to Web-based courses. The Web-based classes can help provide opportunities for methods of communication that are not traditionally nurtured in traditional classroom settings. Secondary benefits of the World Wide Web-based course were to increase student confidence with the computer, and introduce them to skills and opportunities they would not have had in the classroom. Additionally, over time and with practice, student's writing skills improved.

  2. The World-Wide Web past present and future, and its application to medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Sendall, D M

    1997-01-01

    The World-Wide Web was first developed as a tool for collaboration in the high energy physics community. From there it spread rapidly to other fields, and grew to its present impressive size. As an easy way to access information, it has been a great success, and a huge number of medical applications have taken advantage of it. But there is another side to the Web, its potential as a tool for collaboration between people. Medical examples include telemedicine and teaching. New technical developments offer still greater potential in medical and other fields. This paper gives some background to the early development of the World-Wide Web, a brief overview of its present state with some examples relevant to medicine, and a look at the future.

  3. World-wide sexual compatibility in Medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), and its implications for SIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayol, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of the sterile insect technique, described by Knipling (1953), to control and/or eradicate insect pest populations has been applied to many Lepidoptera and Diptera species. Among Diptera species, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is often referred to as the most important agricultural pest in the world (Liquido et al. 1990) and it is also a major target of SIT action programmes world-wide. The use of SIT requires that mass rearing facilities be developed to produce sterile insects for use in national programmes, with mass reared strains being established by colonising wild insects collected from the SIT target area. More recently, with the increasing demand for sterile Medflies and the limited number of production facilities, some rearing facilities began to export Medflies to other national/regional programmes. Eight facilities have now reached production levels which allow them to export sterile insects (Fisher and Caceres 199) on a regional or inter-regional basis. When this procedure is used, the flies released have to compete with wild flies of a different geographic origin. The increasing use of Medfly genetic sexing strains (GSS) has also resulted in the same strain being used in different countries. To date, five rearing facilities in the world produce GSS (Fisher and Caceres 1999). Since GSS are assembled from specific components, it is impossible to 'colonise' them from each country where sterile GSS flies are needed. The GSS are often backcrossed with insects from the target population to increase the genetic variability (Franz et al. 1996), although in some cases this presents problems (Franz, personal communication). In practice, a single wild population is used as a basis for the synthesis of the GSS. Consequently, the same GSS based on the same wild genetic material may be used in various countries/continents and the question was raised concerning the sexual compatibility of these strains with

  4. Thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    The results on the concentrations of thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general populations are summarized. The majority of thorium and uranium are accumulated in the skeleton, whereas, plutonium is divided between two major organs: the liver and skeleton. However, there is a wide variation in the fractions of plutonium in the liver and the skeleton of the different populations. (author) 44 refs.; 15 figs

  5. Network Formation and the Structure of the Commercial World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Zsolt Katona; Miklos Sarvary

    2008-01-01

    We model the commercial World Wide Web as a directed graph that emerges as the equilibrium of a game in which utility maximizing websites purchase (advertising) in-links from each other while also setting the price of these links. In equilibrium, higher content sites tend to purchase more advertising links (mirroring the Dorfman-Steiner rule) while selling less advertising links themselves. As such, there seems to be specialization across sites in revenue models: high content sites tend to ea...

  6. THE NEW “UNIVERSAL TRUTH” OF THE WORLD WIDE WEB

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Tăbușcă

    2011-01-01

    We all see that the world wide web is permanently evolving and developing. New websites are created continuously and push the limits of the old HTML specs in all respects. HTML4 is the real standard for almost 10 years and developers are starting to look for new and improved technologies to help them provide greater functionality. In order to give the authors flexibility and interoperability and to enable much more interactive and innovative websites and applications, HTML5 introduces and enh...

  7. Do We Need to Impose More Regulation Upon the World Wide Web? -A Metasystem Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. van Gigch

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Every day a new problem attributable to the World Wide Web's lack of formal structure and/or organization is made public. What arguably could be represented as one of its main strengths is rapidly turning out to be one of its most flagrant weaknesses. The intent of this article is to show the need to establish a more formal organization than presently exists over the World Wide Web. (This article will use the terms the Internet and Cyberspace interchangeably. It is proposed that this formal organization take the form of a metacontrol system--to be explained-- and rely, at least in part, for this control to self-regulate. The so-called metasystem system would be responsible for preventing some of the unanticipated situations that take place in cyberspace and that, due to the web's lack of maturity, have not been encountered heretofore. Some activities, such as the denial-of-service (DoS attacks, may well be illicit. Others, like the question of establishing a world-wide democratic board to administer the Internet's address system, are so new that there are no technical, legal or political precedents to ensure its design will succeed. What is needed is a formal, over-arching control system, i.e. a "metasystem," to arbitrate over controversies, decide on the legality of new policies and, in general, act as a metalevel controller over the activities of the virtual community called Cyberspace. The World Wide Web Consortium has emerged as a possible candidate for this role.This paper uses control theory to define both the problem and the proposed solution. Cyberspace lacks a metacontroller that can be used to resolve the many problems that arise when a new organizational configuration, such as the Internet, is created and when questions surface about the extent to which new activities interfere with individual or corporate freedoms.

  8. Radiation protection and environmental radioactivity. A voyage to the World Wide Web for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, S.

    1998-01-01

    According to the enormous growth of the Internet service 'World Wide Web' there is also a big growth in the number of web sites in connection with radiation protection. An introduction is given of some practical basis of the WWW. The structure of WWW addresses and navigating through the web with hyperlinks is explained. Further some search engines are presented. The paper lists a number of WWW addresses of interesting sites with radiological protection informations. (orig.) [de

  9. Consécration pour les Inventeurs du World-Wide Web

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    Nearly seven years after it was invented at CERN, the World-Wide Web has woven its way into every corner of the Internet. On Saturday, 17 February, the inventors of the Web, Tim Berners-Lee, now at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Robert Cailliau of CERN's Electronics and Computing for Physics (ECP) Division, will be honoured with one of computing's highest distinctions: the Association for Computing (ACM) Software System Award 1995.

  10. Multi-dimensional effects of color on the world wide web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jill

    2002-06-01

    Color is the most powerful building material of visual imagery on the World Wide Web. It must function successfully as it has done historically in traditional two-dimensional media, as well as address new challenges presented by this electronic medium. The psychological, physiological, technical and aesthetic effects of color have been redefined by the unique requirements of the electronic transmission of text and images on the Web. Color simultaneously addresses each of these dimensions in this electronic medium.

  11. Application of World Wide Web (W3) Technologies in Payload Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Picinich, Lou

    1996-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies are considered in relation to their application to space missions. It is considered that such technologies, including the hypertext transfer protocol and the Java object-oriented language, offer a powerful and relatively inexpensive framework for distributed application software development. The suitability of these technologies for payload monitoring systems development is discussed, and the experience gained from the development of an insect habitat monitoring system based on W3 technologies is reported.

  12. User Interface on the World Wide Web: How to Implement a Multi-Level Program Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, Jonathan W.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) research project was to write a user interface that utilizes current World Wide Web (WWW) technologies for an existing computer program written in C, entitled LaRCRisk. The project entailed researching data presentation and script execution on the WWW and than writing input/output procedures for the database management portion of LaRCRisk.

  13. World Wide Webs: Crossing the Digital Divide through Promotion of Public Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Liezl

    “As Bill Gates and Steve Case proclaim the global omnipresence of the Internet, the majority of non-Western nations and 97 per cent of the world's population remain unconnected to the net for lack of money, access, or knowledge. This exclusion of so vast a share of the global population from the Internet sharply contradicts the claims of those who posit the World Wide Web as a ‘universal' medium of egalitarian communication.” (Trend 2001:2)

  14. Embedded Web Technology: Applying World Wide Web Standards to Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponyik, Joseph G.; York, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Embedded Systems have traditionally been developed in a highly customized manner. The user interface hardware and software along with the interface to the embedded system are typically unique to the system for which they are built, resulting in extra cost to the system in terms of development time and maintenance effort. World Wide Web standards have been developed in the passed ten years with the goal of allowing servers and clients to intemperate seamlessly. The client and server systems can consist of differing hardware and software platforms but the World Wide Web standards allow them to interface without knowing about the details of system at the other end of the interface. Embedded Web Technology is the merging of Embedded Systems with the World Wide Web. Embedded Web Technology decreases the cost of developing and maintaining the user interface by allowing the user to interface to the embedded system through a web browser running on a standard personal computer. Embedded Web Technology can also be used to simplify an Embedded System's internal network.

  15. World Wide Web voted most wonderful wonder by web-wide world

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The results are in, and the winner is...the World Wide Web! An online survey conducted by the CNN news group ranks the World Wide Web-invented at CERN--as the most wonderful of the seven modern wonders of the world. (See Bulletin No. 49/2006.) There is currently no speculation about whether they would have had the same results had they distributed the survey by post. The World Wide Web won with a whopping 50 per cent of the votes (3,665 votes). The runner up was CERN again, with 16 per cent of voters (1130 votes) casting the ballot in favour of the CERN particle accelerator. Stepping into place behind CERN and CERN is 'None of the Above' with 8 per cent of the votes (611 votes), followed by the development of Dubai (7%), the bionic arm (7%), China's Three Gorges Damn (5%), The Channel Tunnel (4%), and France's Millau viaduct (3%). Thanks to everyone from CERN who voted. You can view the results on http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2006/modern.wonders/

  16. Student participation in World Wide Web-based curriculum development of general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William John Forbes

    1998-12-01

    This thesis describes an action research investigation of improvements to instruction in General Chemistry at Purdue University. Specifically, the study was conducted to guide continuous reform of curriculum materials delivered via the World Wide Web by involving students, instructors, and curriculum designers. The theoretical framework for this study was based upon constructivist learning theory and knowledge claims were developed using an inductive analysis procedure. This results of this study are assertions made in three domains: learning chemistry content via the World Wide Web, learning about learning via the World Wide Web, and learning about participation in an action research project. In the chemistry content domain, students were able to learn chemical concepts that utilized 3-dimensional visualizations, but not textual and graphical information delivered via the Web. In the learning via the Web domain, the use of feedback, the placement of supplementary aids, navigation, and the perception of conceptual novelty were all important to students' use of the Web. In the participation in action research domain, students learned about the complexity of curriculum. development, and valued their empowerment as part of the process.

  17. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake J Beaulieu

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams can increase watershed-scale N retention.

  18. Enhanced photosynthetic efficiency in trees world-wide by rising atmospheric CO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Ina; Wieloch, Thomas; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; van der Sleen, Peter; Zuidema, Pieter A.; Robertson, Iain; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    signals is a fundamental advantage of isotopomer ratios (Augusti et al., Chem. Geol 2008). These results demonstrate that increasing [CO2] has reduced the ratio of photorespiration to photosynthesis on a global scale. Photorespiration is a side reaction that decreases the C gain of plants; the suppression of photorespiration in all analyzed trees indicates that increasing atmospheric [CO2] is enhancing the photosynthetic efficiency of trees world-wide. The consensus response of the trees agrees with the response of annual plants in greenhouse experiments, with three important conclusions. First, the generality of the isotopomer shift confirms that the CO2 response reflects the ratio of photosynthesis to photorespiration, and that it creates a robust signal in tree rings. Second, the agreement between greenhouse-grown plants and trees indicates that there has not been an acclimation response of the trees during the past centuries. Third, the results show that the regulation of tree gas exchange has during past centuries been governed by the same rules as observed in manipulative experiments, in contradiction to recent reports (Keenan et al., Nature 2013).

  19. What is WorldWide Telescope, and Why Should Researchers Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    As of 2015, about 20 million people have downloaded the computer program called "WorldWide Telescope," and even more have accessed it via the web, at http://worldwidetelescope.org. But, the vast majority of these millions are not professional astronomers. This talk will explain why WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is also a powerful tool for research astronomers. I will focus on how WWT can be, and is, being built-in to Journals, and into day-to-day research environments. By way of example, I will show how WWT already: allows users to display images, including those in Journals, in the context of multi-wavelength full-sky imagery; allows for the display of which parts of the Sky have been studied, when, how, and for what reason (see http://adsass.org); allows, via right-click, immediate access to ADS, SIMBAD, and other professional research tools. I will also highlight new work, currently in development, that is using WWT as a tool for observation planning, and as a display mode for advanced high-dimensional data visualization tools, like glue (see http://glueviz.org). WWT is now well-known in the education community (see http://wwtambassadors.org), so the explicit goal of this talk will be to make researchers more aware of its full power. I will explain how WWT transitioned, over 8 years, from a Microsoft Research project to its current open-source state (see https://github.com/WorldWideTelescope), and I will conclude with comments on the future of WWT, and its relationship to how research should be carried out in the future (see http://tinyurl.com/aas-potf).

  20. Test and calibration of the Digital World-Wide Standardized Seismograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade there has been steady progress in the modernization of the global seismograph network operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN) has been augmented by new stations with advanced instrumentation, including the Seismic Research Observatories (SRO) and the modified High-Gain Long-Period (ASRO) stations. One goal in the modernization effort has been to improve signal resolution in the long-period band. A second goal has been to generate a global digital data base to support contemporary computer-based analysis and research. In 1976, a Panel on Seismograph Networks was established by the Committee on Seismology of the National Academy of Sciences to review progress in network seismology and recommend actions that would lead to an improved global data base for seismology. One recommendation in the Panel report (Engdahl, 1977) called for upgrading selected WWSSN stations by the installation of digital recorders. This was viewed as an economical way of expanding the digital network, which had proven itself to be a very promising new tool for earthquake and explosion research. Funds for the development and assembly of 15 digital recorders were provided to the USGS by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and an ad Inoc panel of scientists was convened by the Committee on Seismology to advise the USGS on the selection of stations to be upgraded and on data recording requirements, A total of 19 digital World-Wide Standardized Seismograph (DWWSS) systems will be operational when all are installed. The additional systems were made available through purchase by the USGS and other organizations; for example, the University of Bergen purchased and installed a DWWSS-type recorder and agreed to furnish the USGS with the data. A list of operational and planned DWWSS network stations is given in Table 1.1.As one might expect, the digital recorder turned out to be somewhat more sophisticated than

  1. The Land of Confusion? High School Students and Their Use of the World Wide Web for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examines high school students' use of the World Wide Web to complete assignments. Findings showed the students used a good variety of resources, including libraries and the World Wide Web, to find information for assignments. However, students were weak at determining the quality of the information found on web sites. Students did poorly at…

  2. Developing as new search engine and browser for libraries to search and organize the World Wide Web library resources

    OpenAIRE

    Sreenivasulu, V.

    2000-01-01

    Internet Granthalaya urges world wide advocates and targets at the task of creating a new search engine and dedicated browseer. Internet Granthalaya may be the ultimate search engine exclusively dedicated for every library use to search and organize the world wide web libary resources

  3. Spectral properties of the Google matrix of the World Wide Web and other directed networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgeot, Bertrand; Giraud, Olivier; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2010-05-01

    We study numerically the spectrum and eigenstate properties of the Google matrix of various examples of directed networks such as vocabulary networks of dictionaries and university World Wide Web networks. The spectra have gapless structure in the vicinity of the maximal eigenvalue for Google damping parameter α equal to unity. The vocabulary networks have relatively homogeneous spectral density, while university networks have pronounced spectral structures which change from one university to another, reflecting specific properties of the networks. We also determine specific properties of eigenstates of the Google matrix, including the PageRank. The fidelity of the PageRank is proposed as a characterization of its stability.

  4. An Image Retrieval and Processing Expert System for the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo; Rondon, Angelica; Bruno, Maria I.; Vasquez, Ramon

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a system that is being developed in the Laboratory of Applied Remote Sensing and Image Processing at the University of P.R. at Mayaguez. It describes the components that constitute its architecture. The main elements are: a Data Warehouse, an Image Processing Engine, and an Expert System. Together, they provide a complete solution to researchers from different fields that make use of images in their investigations. Also, since it is available to the World Wide Web, it provides remote access and processing of images.

  5. Status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide: Database summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    Results complied in the research reactor spent fuel database are used to assess the status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide. Fuel assemblies, their types, enrichment, origin of enrichment and geological distribution among the industrialized and developed countries of the world are discussed. Fuel management practices in wet and dry storage facilities and the concerns of reactor operators about long-term storage of their spent fuel are presented and some of the activities carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the issues associated with research reactor spent fuel are outlined. (author). 4 refs, 17 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Statistical Analysis with Webstat, a Java applet for the World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster West

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The Java programming language has added a new tool for delivering computing applications over the World Wide Web (WWW. WebStat is a new computing environment for basic statistical analysis which is delivered in the form of a Java applet. Anyone with WWW access and a Java capable browser can access this new analysis environment. Along with an overall introduction of the environment, the main features of this package are illustrated, and the prospect of using basic WebStat components for more advanced applications is discussed.

  7. World-wide trend of long-lived radionuclides transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Lee, Il Hee; Yoo, Jae Hyung

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the concepts of partitioning and transmutation studies which are being conducted in several countries. This review was focused on the analysis of such areas as radiotoxicities of radwaste containing long-lived radionuclides, transmutation by reactors or accelerators, and separation of minor actinides. The world-wide trend of partitioning and transmutation studies was also investigated on the basis of each country's R and D activities in this area. (author). 5 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Using the World-Wide Web to Facilitate Communications of Non-Destructive Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, Sean

    1995-01-01

    The high reliability required for Aeronautical components is a major reason for extensive Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation. Here at Langley Research Center (LaRC), there are highly trained and certified personal to conduct such testing to prevent hazards from occurring in the workplace and on the research projects for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The purpose of my studies was to develop a communication source to educate others of the services and equipment offered here. This was accomplished by creating documents that are accessible to all in the industry via the World Wide Web.

  9. International Markedsføring på World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Buch, Niels Jakob

    1999-01-01

    Denne artikel tager udgangspunkt i en gruppe af danske virksomheders anvendelse af World Wide Web til international markedsføring i en periode fra 1996 til 1998. Der identificeres tre interaktionstyper for virksomhedernes profil på Web, nemlig Brochuren, Håndbogen og Handelspladsen. Der reflekteres...... over de krav de enkelte interaktionstyper i forhold til automatisering, formalisering, integration og evaluering kunne kræve. Konklusionen bliver, at de tre interaktionstyper afspejler de udfordringer og muligheder, der er i anvendelsen af Web til markedsføring primært i et internationalt perspektiv......, men kan også bruges som input til nationale Web markedsføringsaktiviteter....

  10. Interactive fluka: a world wide web version for a simulation code in proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garelli, S.; Giordano, S.; Piemontese, G.; Squarcia, S.

    1998-01-01

    We considered the possibility of using the simulation code FLUKA, in the framework of TERA. We provided a window under World Wide Web in which an interactive version of the code is available. The user can find instructions for the installation, an on-line FLUKA manual and interactive windows for inserting all the data required by the configuration running file in a very simple way. The database choice allows a more versatile use for data verification and update, recall of old simulations and comparison with selected examples. A completely new tool for geometry drawing under Java has also been developed. (authors)

  11. Recent world-wide advances in irradiation of food and its identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Sadao; Saito, Yukio

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation (ionizing radiation) of various foods is growing in popularity internationally. For example, it is used as a substitute for the use of post-harvest pesticides. This trend has served to intensify research on the identification of irradiated foods. The first Research Co-ordinated Meeting on Analytical Detection Method for Irradiated Foods was held in Poland under the sponsorship of FAO/IAEA in 1990 in order to solve problems related to the international trade of irradiated foods and to ensure their correct labelling in the market. In this review, the world-wide advances in the irradiation of food and its identification are introduced and discussed. (author)

  12. World wide web and virtual reality in developing and using environmental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guariso, G.

    2001-01-01

    The application of World wide web as an active component of environmental decision support system is still largely unexplored. Environmental problems are distributed in nature, both from the physical and from the social point of view; the Web is thus an ideal tool to share concepts and decisions among multiple interested parties. Also Virtual Reality (VR) that has not find, up to know, a large application in the development and teaching of environmental models. The paper shows some recent applications that highlight the potential of these tools [it

  13. E-Learning and Role of World Wide Web in E-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jahankhani, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the aspects of the E-learning through the World Wide Web. E-revolution as new phenomenon influenced the society by its means and strategies. E-learning is one of the sub-products of E-revolution, towards making more convenient and effective learning. In time Internet become a source of information, people start to learn through the Internet instead of books. It gives the flexibility to remote access at any time. The working people and the students are inspired by th...

  14. Increasing urban water self-sufficiency: New era, new challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Binning, Philip John; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    and 15 in-depth case studies, solutions used to increase water self-sufficiency in urban areas are analyzed. The main drivers for increased self-sufficiency were identified to be direct and indirect lack of water, constrained infrastructure, high quality water demands and commercial and institutional...... pressures. Case studies demonstrate increases in self-sufficiency ratios to as much as 80% with contributions from recycled water, seawater desalination and rainwater collection. The introduction of alternative water resources raises several challenges: energy requirements vary by more than a factor of ten...... amongst the alternative techniques, wastewater reclamation can lead to the appearance of trace contaminants in drinking water, and changes to the drinking water system can meet tough resistance from the public. Public water-supply managers aim to achieve a high level of reliability and stability. We...

  15. A review of images of nurses and smoking on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the World Wide Web, historic images previously having limited distributions are now widely available. As tobacco use has evolved, so have images of nurses related to smoking. Using a systematic search, the purpose of this article is to describe types of images of nurses and smoking available on the World Wide Web. Approximately 10,000 images of nurses and smoking published over the past century were identified through search engines and digital archives. Seven major themes were identified: nurses smoking, cigarette advertisements, helping patients smoke, "naughty" nurse, teaching women to smoke, smoking in and outside of health care facilities, and antitobacco images. The use of nursing images to market cigarettes was known but the extent of the use of these images has not been reported previously. Digital archives can be used to explore the past, provide a perspective for understanding the present, and suggest directions for the future in confronting negative images of nursing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The World Wide Web as a Medium of Instruction: What Works and What Doesn't

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Marianne; Grabowski, Barbara; Hernandez, Angel; Koszalka, Tiffany; Duke, Lee

    1997-01-01

    A conference was held on March 18-20, 1997 to investigate the lessons learned by the Aeronautics Cooperative Agreement Projects with regard to the most effective strategies for developing instruction for the World Wide Web. The conference was a collaboration among the NASA Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology Centers (Ames, Dryden, Langley, and Lewis), NASA Headquarters, the University of Idaho and The Pennsylvania State University. The conference consisted of presentations by the Aeronautics Cooperative Agreement Teams, the University of Idaho, and working sessions in which the participants addressed teacher training and support, technology, evaluation and pedagogy. The conference was also undertaken as part of the Dryden Learning Technologies Project which is a collaboration between the Dryden Education Office and The Pennsylvania State University. The DFRC Learning Technology Project goals relevant to the conference are as follows: conducting an analysis of current teacher needs, classroom infrastructure and exemplary instructional World Wide Web sites, and developing models for Web-enhanced learning environments that optimize teaching practices and student learning.

  17. Quality of information available on the World Wide Web for patients undergoing thyroidectomy: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumarasamy, S; Osmani, Z; Sharpe, A; England, R J A

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the quality of information available on the World Wide Web for patients undergoing thyroidectomy. The first 50 web-links generated by internet searches using the five most popular search engines and the key word 'thyroidectomy' were evaluated using the Lida website validation instrument (assessing accessibility, usability and reliability) and the Flesch Reading Ease Score. We evaluated 103 of a possible 250 websites. Mean scores (ranges) were: Lida accessibility, 48/63 (27-59); Lida usability, 36/54 (21-50); Lida reliability, 21/51 (4-38); and Flesch Reading Ease, 43.9 (2.6-77.6). The quality of internet health information regarding thyroidectomy is variable. High ranking and popularity are not good indicators of website quality. Overall, none of the websites assessed achieved high Lida scores. In order to prevent the dissemination of inaccurate or commercially motivated information, we recommend independent labelling of medical information available on the World Wide Web.

  18. Use of World Wide Web-based directories for tracing subjects in epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, M M; Rohan, T E

    2000-11-01

    The recent availability of World Wide Web-based directories has opened up a new approach for tracing subjects in epidemiologic studies. The completeness of two World Wide Web-based directories (Canada411 and InfoSpace Canada) for subject tracing was evaluated by using a randomized crossover design for 346 adults randomly selected from respondents in an ongoing cohort study. About half (56.4%) of the subjects were successfully located by using either Canada411 or InfoSpace. Of the 43.6% of the subjects who could not be located using either directory, the majority (73.5%) were female. Overall, there was no clear advantage of one directory over the other. Although Canada411 could find significantly more subjects than InfoSpace, the number of potential matches returned by Canada411 was also higher, which meant that a longer list of potential matches had to be examined before a true match could be found. One strategy to minimize the number of potential matches per true match is to first search by InfoSpace with the last name and first name, then by Canada411 with the last name and first name, and finally by InfoSpace with the last name and first initial. Internet-based searches represent a potentially useful approach to tracing subjects in epidemiologic studies.

  19. Increasing STEM Competence in Urban, High Poverty Elementary School Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueanne McKinney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing STEM competence (e.g., interests, knowledge, skills, and dispositions among urban, high poverty, elementary school populations in the United States (U.S. is and remains a growing national concern, especially since Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM competence is and will continue to be a necessary requisite for gainful employment in the future, according to workforce development experts. In an attempt to address this gap, many urban elementary schools have begun to offer STEM-related programs to increase STEM learning at an early age. STEM competence (interest, knowledge, skills, and dispositions, however, remains low. This paper results in a matrix used to analyze children's fictional literary selections and a model that argues that elementary teachers, as the first point of contact with young students, can affect STEM competence. By adopting a more culturally responsive pedagogy that attends to the 21st Century Learning Skills and the Next Generation Science Standards, teachers can choose literature that serves to excite and reinforce STEM learning.

  20. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, Eric V.; Murphy, Dan; Stefan, Heinz G.

    2008-01-01

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds

  1. Clear-sky classification procedures and models using a world-wide data-base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, S.; Muneer, T.

    2007-01-01

    Clear-sky data need to be extracted from all-sky measured solar-irradiance dataset, often by using algorithms that rely on other measured meteorological parameters. Current procedures for clear-sky data extraction have been examined and compared with each other to determine their reliability and location dependency. New clear-sky determination algorithms are proposed that are based on a combination of clearness index, diffuse ratio, cloud cover and Linke's turbidity limits. Various researchers have proposed clear-sky irradiance models that rely on synoptic parameters; four of these models, MRM, PRM, YRM and REST2 have been compared for six world-wide-locations. Based on a previously-developed comprehensive accuracy scoring method, the models MRM, REST2 and YRM were found to be of satisfactory performance in decreasing order. The so-called Page radiation model (PRM) was found to underestimate solar radiation, even though local turbidity data were provided for its operation

  2. Growth and structure of the World Wide Web: Towards realistic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka

    2002-08-01

    We simulate evolution of the World Wide Web from the dynamic rules incorporating growth, bias attachment, and rewiring. We show that the emergent double-hierarchical structure with distinct distributions of out- and in-links is comparable with the observed empirical data when the control parameter (average graph flexibility β) is kept in the range β=3-4. We then explore the Web graph by simulating (a) Web crawling to determine size and depth of connected components, and (b) a random walker that discovers the structure of connected subgraphs with dominant attractor and promoter nodes. A random walker that adapts its move strategy to mimic local node linking preferences is shown to have a short access time to "important" nodes on the Web graph.

  3. The World Wide Web: A Web Even a Fly Would Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, E.

    Ever since my introduction to the World Wide Web (WWW), it's been love at first byte. Searching on the WWW is similar to being able to go to a public library and allow yourself to be transported to any other book or library around the world by looking at a reference or index and clicking your heels together like Dorothy did in "The Wizard of Oz", only the clicking is done with a computer mouse. During this presentation, we will explore the WWW protocols which allow clients and servers to communicate on the Internet. We will demonstrate the ease with which users can navigate the virtual tidal wave of information available with a mere click of a button. In addition, the workshop will discuss the revolutionary aspects of this network information system and how it's impacting our libraries as a primary mechanism for rapid dissemination of knowledge.

  4. Introducing chinese treatment experience of Budd-Chiari syndrome to world wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Linsun

    2008-01-01

    During the latest 20 years, the crucial progress has been made in the field of treatment for Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS)in China with therapeutic methods transferring from surgical to interventional and achieving successful rate of 96%. Our unique contribution to the BCS interventional therapy should have made ourselves proud for being as a superior world position on account of large number of cases, abundant therapeutic contents and consummate skills. What a pity is that our achievement was not appreciated by international colleagues because of only a few papers published in SCI journals. So that, Chinese scholars ought to have doing more necessarily through diligently learning English, doing long term follow-up and performing more basic researches and actively joining international academic exchanges, let our good experiences of treatment for BCS be introduced to the world-wide. (authors)

  5. World-Wide Benchmarking of ITER Nb$_{3}$Sn Strand Test Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Jewell, MC; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Shikov, Alexander; Devred, Arnaud; Vostner, Alexander; Liu, Fang; Wu, Yu; Jewell, Matthew C; Boutboul, Thierry; Bessette, Denis; Park, Soo-Hyeon; Isono, Takaaki; Vorobieva, Alexandra; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Seo, Kazutaka

    2010-01-01

    The world-wide procurement of Nb$_{3}$Sn and NbTi for the ITER superconducting magnet systems will involve eight to ten strand suppliers from six Domestic Agencies (DAs) on three continents. To ensure accurate and consistent measurement of the physical and superconducting properties of the composite strand, a strand test facility benchmarking effort was initiated in August 2008. The objectives of this effort are to assess and improve the superconducting strand test and sample preparation technologies at each DA and supplier, in preparation for the more than ten thousand samples that will be tested during ITER procurement. The present benchmarking includes tests for critical current (I-c), n-index, hysteresis loss (Q(hys)), residual resistivity ratio (RRR), strand diameter, Cu fraction, twist pitch, twist direction, and metal plating thickness (Cr or Ni). Nineteen participants from six parties (China, EU, Japan, South Korea, Russia, and the United States) have participated in the benchmarking. This round, cond...

  6. Distributed nuclear medicine applications using World Wide Web and Java technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, P.; Hoell, K.; Koriska, K.; Mirzaei, S.; Koehn, H.

    2000-01-01

    At present, medical applications applying World Wide Web (WWW) technology are mainly used to view static images and to retrieve some information. The Java platform is a relative new way of computing, especially designed for network computing and distributed applications which enables interactive connection between user and information via the WWW. The Java 2 Software Development Kit (SDK) including Java2D API, Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) technology, Object Serialization and the Java Advanced Imaging (JAI) extension was used to achieve a robust, platform independent and network centric solution. Medical image processing software based on this technology is presented and adequate performance capability of Java is demonstrated by an iterative reconstruction algorithm for single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). (orig.)

  7. WORLD-WIDE PERSPECTIVES ON IMPROVISATIONAL MUSIC THERAPY FROM THE TIME-A PROJECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottfried, Tali; Thompson, Grace; Geretsegger, Monika

    Background Improvisational music therapy methods have been viewed as a valuable way of working with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) since the pioneering efforts of Alvin and Nordoff and Robbins (Alvin, 1978; Nordoff & Robbins, 1977). The TIME-A project is a unique international...... collaboration targeted at investigating the effectiveness of improvisational music therapy (IMT) (Geretsegger, Holck, & Gold, 2012; Wigram, 2004) for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Within this project, an international “consensus model” for IMT has been developed by drawing on the worldwide...... perspectives of the international collaborators. World Wide Perspectives on Improvisational Music Therapy with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Clinicians from 4 continents around the world presented examples of clinical work highlighting an aspect of working improvisationally in their local context...

  8. Software Project Management and Measurement on the World-Wide-Web (WWW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, John; Ramakrishnan, Sudhaka

    1996-01-01

    We briefly describe a system for forms-based, work-flow management that helps members of a software development team overcome geographical barriers to collaboration. Our system, called the Web Integrated Software Environment (WISE), is implemented as a World-Wide-Web service that allows for management and measurement of software development projects based on dynamic analysis of change activity in the workflow. WISE tracks issues in a software development process, provides informal communication between the users with different roles, supports to-do lists, and helps in software process improvement. WISE minimizes the time devoted to metrics collection and analysis by providing implicit delivery of messages between users based on the content of project documents. The use of a database in WISE is hidden from the users who view WISE as maintaining a personal 'to-do list' of tasks related to the many projects on which they may play different roles.

  9. Real-Time Payload Control and Monitoring on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies such as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the Java object-oriented programming environment offer a powerful, yet relatively inexpensive, framework for distributed application software development. This paper describes the design of a real-time payload control and monitoring system that was developed with W3 technologies at NASA Ames Research Center. Based on Java Development Toolkit (JDK) 1.1, the system uses an event-driven "publish and subscribe" approach to inter-process communication and graphical user-interface construction. A C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) compatible inference engine provides the back-end intelligent data processing capability, while Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) provides the data management function. Preliminary evaluation shows acceptable performance for some classes of payloads, with Java's portability and multimedia support identified as the most significant benefit.

  10. Health information seeking and the World Wide Web: an uncertainty management perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty management theory was applied in the present study to offer one theoretical explanation for how individuals use the World Wide Web to acquire health information and to help better understand the implications of the Web for information seeking. The diversity of information sources available on the Web and potential to exert some control over the depth and breadth of one's information-acquisition effort is argued to facilitate uncertainty management. A total of 538 respondents completed a questionnaire about their uncertainty related to cancer prevention and information-seeking behavior. Consistent with study predictions, use of the Web for information seeking interacted with respondents' desired level of uncertainty to predict their actual level of uncertainty about cancer prevention. The results offer evidence that respondents who used the Web to search for cancer information were better able than were respondents who did not seek information to achieve a level of uncertainty commensurate with the level of uncertainty they desired.

  11. Remote monitoring using technologies from the Internet and World Wide Web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puckett, J.M.; Burczyk, L.

    1997-01-01

    Recent developments in Internet technologies are changing and enhancing how one processes and exchanges information. These developments include software and hardware in support of multimedia applications on the World Wide Web. In this paper the authors describe these technologies as they have applied them to remote monitoring and show how they will allow the International Atomic Energy Agency to efficiently review and analyze remote monitoring data for verification of material movements. The authors have developed demonstration software that illustrates several safeguards data systems using the resources of the Internet and Web to access and review data. This Web demo allows the user to directly observe sensor data, to analyze simulated safeguards data, and to view simulated on-line inventory data. Future activities include addressing the technical and security issues associated with using the Web to interface with existing and planned monitoring systems at nuclear facilities. Some of these issues are authentication, encryption, transmission of large quantities of data, and data compression

  12. Implementation of a World Wide Web server for the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, R.E.; Martin, F.D.; Emery, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Gas and Oil Technology Exchange and Communication Highway (GO-TECH) provides an electronic information system for the petroleum community for exchanging ideas, data, and technology. The PC-based system fosters communication and discussion by linking the oil and gas producers with resource centers, government agencies, consulting firms, service companies, national laboratories, academic research groups, and universities throughout the world. The oil and gas producers can access the GO-TECH World Wide Web (WWW) home page through modem links, as well as through the Internet. Future GO-TECH applications will include the establishment of virtual corporations consisting of consortia of small companies, consultants, and service companies linked by electronic information systems. These virtual corporations will have the resources and expertise previously found only in major corporations

  13. Where to find nutritional science journals on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C M

    1997-08-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) is a burgeoning information resource that can be utilized for current awareness and assistance in manuscript preparation and submission. The ever changing and expanding nature of the WWW allows it to provide up to the minute information, but this inherent changeability often makes information access difficult. To assist nutrition scientists in locating useful information about nutritional science journals on the WWW, this article critically reviews and describes the WWW sites for seventeen highly ranked nutrition and dietetics journals. Included in each annotation are the site's title, web address or Universal Resource Locator (URL), journal ranking and site authorship. Also listed is whether or not the site makes available the guidelines for authors, tables of contents, abstracts, online ordering, as well as information about the editorial board. This critical survey illustrates that the information on the web, regardless of its authority, is not of equal quality.

  14. WorldWide Telescope: A Newly Open Source Astronomy Visualization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Jonathan; Roberts, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    After eight years of development by Microsoft Research, WorldWide Telescope (WWT) was made an open source project at the end of June 2015. WWT was motivated by the desire to put new surveys of objects, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in the context of the night sky. The development of WWT under Microsoft started with the creation of a Windows desktop client that is widely used in various education, outreach and research projects. Using this, users can explore the data built into WWT as well as data that is loaded in. Beyond exploration, WWT can be used to create tours that present various datasets a narrative format.In the past two years, the team developed a collection of web controls, including an HTML5 web client, which contains much of the functionality of the Windows desktop client. The project under Microsoft has deep connections with several user communities such as education through the WWT Ambassadors program, http://wwtambassadors.org/ and with planetariums and museums such as the Adler Planetarium. WWT can also support research, including using WWT to visualize the Bones of the Milky Way and rich connections between WWT and the Astrophysical Data Systems (ADS, http://labs.adsabs.harvard.edu/adsabs/). One important new research connection is the use of WWT to create dynamic and potentially interactive supplements to journal articles, which have been created in 2015.Now WWT is an open source community lead project. The source code is available in GitHub (https://github.com/WorldWideTelescope). There is significant developer documentation on the website (http://worldwidetelescope.org/Developers/) and an extensive developer workshops (http://wwtworkshops.org/?tribe_events=wwt-developer-workshop) has taken place in the fall of 2015.Now that WWT is open source anyone who has the interest in the project can be a contributor. As important as helping out with coding, the project needs people interested in documentation, testing, training and other roles.

  15. Using the World Wide Web to Connect Research and Professional Practice: Towards Evidence-Based Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Moody

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In most professional (applied disciplines, research findings take a long time to filter into practice, if they ever do at all. The result of this is under-utilisation of research results and sub-optimal practices. There are a number of reasons for the lack of knowledge transfer. On the "demand side", people working in professional practice have little time available to keep up with the latest research in their field. In addition, the volume of research published each year means that the average practitioner would not have time to read all the research articles in their area of interest even if they devoted all their time to it. From the "supply side", academic research is primarily focused on the production rather than distribution of knowledge. While they have highly developed mechanisms for transferring knowledge among themselves, there is little investment in the distribution of research results be-yond research communities. The World Wide Web provides a potential solution to this problem, as it provides a global information infrastructure for connecting those who produce knowledge (researchers and those who need to apply this knowledge (practitioners. This paper describes two projects which use the World Wide Web to make research results directly available to support decision making in the workplace. The first is a successful knowledge management project in a health department which provides medical staff with on-line access to the latest medical research at the point of care. The second is a project currently in progress to implement a similar system to support decision making in IS practice. Finally, we draw some general lessons about how to improve transfers of knowledge from research and practice, which could be applied in any discipline.

  16. Global Deliberative Democracy and Climate Change: Insights from World Wide Views on Global Warming in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Riedy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On 26 September 2009, approximately 4,000 citizens in 38 countries participated in World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews. WWViews was an ambitious first attempt to convene a deliberative mini-public at a global scale, giving people from around the world an opportunity to deliberate on international climate policy and to make recommendations to the decision-makers meeting at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15 in December 2009. In this paper, we examine the role that deliberative mini-publics can play in facilitating the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response. We pursue this intent through a reflective evaluation of the Australian component of the World Wide Views on Global Warming project (WWViews. Our evaluation of WWViews is mixed. The Australian event was delivered with integrity and feedback from Australian participants was almost universally positive. Globally, WWViews demonstrated that it is feasible to convene a global mini-public to deliberate on issues of global relevance, such as climate change. On the other hand, the contribution of WWViews towards the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response was limited and it achieved little influence on global climate change policy. We identify lessons for future global mini-publics, including the need to prioritise the quality of deliberation and provide flexibility to respond to cultural and political contexts in different parts of the world. Future global mini-publics may be more influential if they seek to represent discourse diversity in addition to demographic profiles, use designs that maximise the potential for transmission from public to empowered space, run over longer time periods to build momentum for change and experiment with ways of bringing global citizens together in a single process instead of discrete national events.

  17. Women, pharmacy and the World Wide Web: could they be the answer to the obesity epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Souhiela; Hussainy, Safeera; Marriott, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this article is to explore how giving women access to evidence-based information in weight management through pharmacies, and by utilising the World Wide Web, is a much needed step towards dealing with the obesity crisis. Women's needs should be considered when developing evidence-based information on weight. Excess weight places them at high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, infertility and complications following pregnancy and giving birth. Women are also an important population group because they influence decision-making around meal choices for their families and are the biggest consumers of weight-loss products, many of which can be purchased in pharmacies. Pharmacies are readily accessible primary healthcare locations and given the pharmacist's expertise in being able to recognise underlying causes of obesity (e.g. medications, certain disease states), pharmacies are an ideal location to provide women with evidence-based information on all facets of weight management. Considering the exponential rise in the use of the World Wide Web, this information could be delivered as an online educational resource supported by other flexible formats. The time has come for the development of an online, evidence-based educational resource on weight management, which is combined with other flexible formats and targeted at women in general and according to different phases of their lives (pregnancy, post-partum, menopause). By empowering women with this knowledge it will allow them and their families to take better control of their health and wellbeing, and it may just be the much needed answer to complement already existing resources to help curb the obesity epidemic. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Sea surface temperature data from a world wide distribution from 01 January 1971 to 31 December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000712)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature data were collected in a world wide distribution from January 1, 1971 to December 31, 2000. Data were submitted by Japan Meteorological...

  19. Landscaping climate change: a mapping technique for understanding science and technology debates on the world wide web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.; Marres, N.

    2000-01-01

    New World Wide Web (web) mapping techniques may inform and ultimately facilitate meaningful participation in current science and technology debates. The technique described here "landscapes" a debate by displaying key "webby" relationships between organizations. "Debate-scaping" plots two

  20. Prioritizing conservation areas for coastal plant diversity under increasing urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxa, Aggeliki; Albert, Cécile Hélène; Leriche, Agathe; Saatkamp, Arne

    2017-10-01

    Coastal urban expansion will continue to drive further biodiversity losses, if conservation targets for coastal ecosystems are not defined and met. Prioritizing areas for future protected area networks is thus an urgent task in such urbanization-threatened ecosystems. Our aim is to quantify past and future losses of coastal vegetation priority areas due to urbanization and assess the effectiveness of the existing protected area network for conservation. We conduct a prioritization analysis, based on 82 coastal plants, including common and IUCN red list species, in a highly-urbanized but biotically diverse region, in South-Eastern France. We evaluate the role of protected areas, by taking into account both strict and multi-use areas. We assess the impact of past and future urbanization on high priority areas, by combining prioritization analyses and urbanization models. We show that half of the highly diverse areas have already been lost due to urbanization. Remaining top priority areas are also among the most exposed to future urban expansion. The effectiveness of the existing protected area (PA) network is only partial. While strict PAs coincide well with top priority areas, they only represent less than one third of priority areas. The effectiveness of multi-use PAs, such as the Natura 2000 network, also remains limited. Our approach highlights the impact of urbanization on plant conservation targets. By modelling urbanization, we manage to identify those areas where protection could be more efficient to limit further losses. We suggest to use our approach in the future to expand the PA network in order to achieve the 2020 Aichi biodiversity targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A World Wide Web-based antimicrobial stewardship program improves efficiency, communication, and user satisfaction and reduces cost in a tertiary care pediatric medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agwu, Allison L; Lee, Carlton K K; Jain, Sanjay K; Murray, Kara L; Topolski, Jason; Miller, Robert E; Townsend, Timothy; Lehmann, Christoph U

    2008-09-15

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs aim to reduce inappropriate hospital antimicrobial use. At the Johns Hopkins Children's Medical and Surgical Center (Baltimore, MD), we implemented a World Wide Web-based antimicrobial restriction program to address problems with the existing restriction program. A user survey identified opportunities for improvement of an existing antimicrobial restriction program and resulted in subsequent design, implementation, and evaluation of a World Wide Web-based antimicrobial restriction program at a 175-bed, tertiary care pediatric teaching hospital. The program provided automated clinical decision support, facilitated approval, and enhanced real-time communication among prescribers, pharmacists, and pediatric infectious diseases fellows. Approval status, duration, and rationale; missing request notifications; and expiring approvals were stored in a database that is accessible via a secure Intranet site. Before and after implementation of the program, user satisfaction, reports of missed and/or delayed doses, antimicrobial dispensing times, and cost were evaluated. After implementation of the program, there was a $370,069 reduction in projected annual cost associated with restricted antimicrobial use and an 11.6% reduction in the number of dispensed doses. User satisfaction increased from 22% to 68% and from 13% to 69% among prescribers and pharmacists, respectively. There were 21% and 32% reductions in the number of prescriber reports of missed and delayed doses, respectively, and there was a 37% reduction in the number of pharmacist reports of delayed approvals; measured dispensing times were unchanged (P = .24). In addition, 40% fewer restricted antimicrobial-related phone calls were noted by the pharmacy. The World Wide Web-based antimicrobial approval program led to improved communication, more-efficient antimicrobial administration, increased user satisfaction, and significant cost savings. Integrated tools, such as this World

  2. AAS Publishing: What Can WorldWide Telescope Do for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    During the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting last week in Kissimmee, the AAS announced the exciting news that it will become the new institutional home of Microsofts WorldWide Telescope (WWT) astronomy software.WWT is a scriptable and interactive way of browsing the multi-wavelength sky as it is seen from Earth, and the universe as we would travel within it. WWT can be run either as a desktop app or from within an internet browser. And of interest to researchers especially its an incredibly useful way to visualize and contextualize astronomical data.What does WWTs transition to the AAS as its new host mean? WWT was open-sourced by Microsoft Research last year, and hosting by the AAS will permit broad community involvement in the form of contribution of both code and guidance in WWTs further development.All of this begs the question: why might YOU want to use WWT? That depends on whether your goal is to use it for research, education, or just for fun.WWT for ResearchIfyou thought WWT was just for education and outreach, think again! Here are just a few things you can do with WWT to advance your astronomical research1:1) Put surveys into context, on top of more than 40 different all-sky images, spanning the electromagnetic spectrum.2) Perform literature searches from the sky.3) Compare images and catalogs at different wavelengths, on-the-fly in seconds.4) Show your own online data to the world, in an API that allows users to see it on the sky in their browsers.5) Communicate to colleagues and learners about the sky using interactive tours of your data and ideas.An example of WWT used to perform astronomy research is the recently highlighted work on the bones of the Milky Way, in which the authors used WWT to overlay multiple data sets and visually identify and then search for infrared dark clouds along the predicted positions of Milky Way spiral arms.An example of WWT used to communicate research is given in this paper, wherein a link in the caption of a

  3. Fast 3D Net Expeditions: Tools for Effective Scientific Collaboration on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Val; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Two new technologies, the FASTexpedition and Remote FAST, have been developed that provide remote, 3D (three dimensional), high resolution, dynamic, interactive viewing of scientific data. The FASTexpedition permits one to access scientific data from the World Wide Web, take guided expeditions through the data, and continue with self controlled expeditions through the data. Remote FAST permits collaborators at remote sites to simultaneously view an analysis of scientific data being controlled by one of the collaborators. Control can be transferred between sites. These technologies are now being used for remote collaboration in joint university, industry, and NASA projects. Also, NASA Ames Research Center has initiated a project to make scientific data and guided expeditions through the data available as FASTexpeditions on the World Wide Web for educational purposes. Previously, remote visualization of dynamic data was done using video format (transmitting pixel information) such as video conferencing or MPEG (Motion Picture Expert Group) movies on the Internet. The concept for this new technology is to send the raw data (e.g., grids, vectors, and scalars) along with viewing scripts over the Internet and have the pixels generated by a visualization tool running on the viewers local workstation. The visualization tool that is currently used is FAST (Flow Analysis Software Toolkit). The advantages of this new technology over using video format are: (1) The visual is much higher in resolution (1280x1024 pixels with 24 bits of color) than typical video format transmitted over the network. (2) The form of the visualization can be controlled interactively (because the viewer is interactively controlling the visualization tool running on his workstation). (3) A rich variety of guided expeditions through the data can be included easily. (4) A capability is provided for other sites to see a visual analysis of one site as the analysis is interactively performed. Control of

  4. Two virtual astro refresher courses on the world-wide-web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldwein, Joel W.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The Internet offers a novel venue for providing educational material to radiation oncologists. This exhibit demonstrates its utility for providing the complete content of two past ASTRO refresher courses. Materials and Methods: The audio recording, handout and slides from the 1995 ASTRO refresher course entitled 'Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Brain Tumors; Standards of Care, Current Clinical Trials and New Directions' and the 1996 ASTRO refresher course entitled 'Internet-based communications in Radiation Oncology' were digitized and placed on an Internet World-Wide-Web site. The Web address was posted on the refresher course handout and in the meeting book ('http://goldwein 1.xrt.upenn.edu/brain95.html' and 'http://goldwein 1.xrt.upenn.edu/astro96/'). The computer distributing this material is an Intel-based 486 DEC50 personal computer with a 50 Mhz processor running Windows NT 3.51 workstation. Software utilized to distribute the material is in the public domain and includes EWMAC's 'httpd', and Progressive Network's 'RealAudio Server' and 'Encoder'. The University's dedicated Internet connection is used to 'serve' this material. Results: The two approximately 100 minute lectures have been encoded into several 'RealAudio' files totaling 10 Megabytes in size. These files are accessible with moderate to excellent quality and speed utilizing as little as a 14.4k modem connection to the Internet. Use of 'streaming' technology provides a means for playing the audio files over the Internet after downloading only a small portion of the files. The time required to digitize the material has been approximately 40 hours, with most time related to digitizing slides from a Powerpoint presentation. Not all slides have been digitized as of this time. To date, approximately 400 accesses to this resource have been logged on the system. Seven electronic comment forms for the second course have all rated it as 'superior'. Pitfalls include the difficulty

  5. Increases in Use and Activity Due to Urban Renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Christiansen, Lars Breum; Klinker, Charlotte Demant

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Urban green space and other recreational facilities are associated with physical activity. For adolescents living in multistory housing, public outdoor spaces that support physical activity may play an important role in activity promotion strategies. However, stronger evidence for a ...

  6. Global Patterns of Material Flows and their Socio-Economic and Environmental Implications: A MFA Study on All Countries World-Wide from 1980 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Giljum

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses world-wide patterns of material extraction, trade, consumption and productivity based on a new data set for economy-wide material flows, covering used materials for all countries world-wide between 1980 and 2009. We show that global material extraction has grown by more than 90% over the past 30 years and is reaching almost 70 billion tonnes today. Also, trade volumes in physical terms have increased by a factor of 2.5 over the past 30 years, and in 2009, 9.3 billion tonnes of raw materials and products were traded around the globe. China has turned into the biggest consumer of materials world-wide and together with the US, India, Brazil and Russia, consumes more than 50% of all globally extracted materials. We also show that the per-capita consumption levels are very uneven, with a factor of more than 60 between the country with the lowest and highest consumption in 2009. On average, each human being consumed 10 tonnes of materials in 2009, 2 tonnes more than in 1980. We discuss whether decoupling of economies’ growth from resource use has occurred and analyse interrelations of material use with human development. Finally, we elaborate on key environmental problems related to various material groups.

  7. The use of the World Wide Web by medical journals in 2003 and 2005: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriger, David L; Ouk, Sripha; Altman, Douglas G

    2007-01-01

    The 2- to 6-page print journal article has been the standard for 200 years, yet this format severely limits the amount of detailed information that can be conveyed. The World Wide Web provides a low-cost option for posting extended text and supplementary information. It also can enhance the experience of journal editors, reviewers, readers, and authors through added functionality (eg, online submission and peer review, postpublication critique, and e-mail notification of table of contents.) Our aim was to characterize ways that journals were using the World Wide Web in 2005 and note changes since 2003. We analyzed the Web sites of 138 high-impact print journals in 3 ways. First, we compared the print and Web versions of March 2003 and 2005 issues of 28 journals (20 of which were randomly selected from the 138) to determine how often articles were published Web only and how often print articles were augmented by Web-only supplements. Second, we examined what functions were offered by each journal Web site. Third, for journals that offered Web pages for reader commentary about each article, we analyzed the number of comments and characterized these comments. Fifty-six articles (7%) in 5 journals were Web only. Thirteen of the 28 journals had no supplementary online content. By 2005, several journals were including Web-only supplements in >20% of their papers. Supplementary methods, tables, and figures predominated. The use of supplementary material increased by 5% from 2% to 7% in the 20-journal random sample from 2003 to 2005. Web sites had similar functionality with an emphasis on linking each article to related material and e-mailing readers about activity related to each article. There was little evidence of journals using the Web to provide readers an interactive experience with the data or with each other. Seventeen of the 138 journals offered rapid-response pages. Only 18% of eligible articles had any comments after 5 months. Journal Web sites offer similar

  8. Compact Optical Discs and the World Wide Web: Two Mediums in Digitized Information Delivery Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyu Lin

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:40-52

    Compact optical discs (CDs and the World Wide Web (the Web are two mechanisms that contemporary libraries extensively use for digitized information storage, dissemination, and retrieval. The Web features an unparalleled global accessibility free from many previously known temporal and spatial restrictions. Its real-time update capability is impossible for CDs. Web-based information delivery can reduce the cost in hardware and software ownership and management of a local library, and provide one-to-one zcustomization to better serve library's clients. The current limitations of the Web include inadequate speed in data transmission, particularly for multimedia applications, and its insufficient reliability, search capabilities, and security. In comparison, speed, quality, portability, and reliability are the current advantages of CDs over the Web. These features, together with the trend in the PC industry and market, suggest that CDs will exist and continue to develop. CD/Web hybrids can combine the best of both developing mechanisms and offer optimal results. Through a comparison of CDs and the Web, it is argued that the functionality and unique features of a technology determine its future.

  9. Securing the anonymity of content providers in the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Thomas; Rieke, Andreas

    1999-04-01

    Nowadays the World Wide Web (WWW) is an established service used by people all over the world. Most of them do not recognize the fact that they reveal plenty of information about themselves or their affiliation and computer equipment to the providers of web pages they connect to. As a result, a lot of services offer users to access web pages unrecognized or without risk of being backtracked, respectively. This kind of anonymity is called user or client anonymity. But on the other hand, an equivalent protection for content providers does not exist, although this feature is desirable for many situations in which the identity of a publisher or content provider shall be hidden. We call this property server anonymity. We will introduce the first system with the primary target to offer anonymity for providers of information in the WWW. Beside this property, it provides also client anonymity. Based on David Chaum's idea of mixes and in relation to the context of the WWW, we explain the term 'server anonymity' motivating the system JANUS which offers both client and server anonymity.

  10. The Culture-Transmission Motive in Immigrants: A World-Wide Internet Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchitarjan, Irina; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A world-wide internet survey was conducted to test central assumptions of a recent theory of cultural transmission in minorities proposed by the authors. 844 1st to 2nd generation immigrants from a wide variety of countries recruited on a microjob platform completed a questionnaire designed to test eight hypotheses derived from the theory. Support was obtained for all hypotheses. In particular, evidence was obtained for the continued presence, in the immigrants, of the culture-transmission motive postulated by the theory: the desire to maintain the culture of origin and transmit it to the next generation. Support was also obtained for the hypothesized anchoring of the culture-transmission motive in more basic motives fulfilled by cultural groups, the relative intra- and intergenerational stability of the culture-transmission motive, and its motivating effects for action tendencies and desires that support cultural transmission under the difficult conditions of migration. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the assumption that people have a culture-transmission motive belongs to the folk psychology of sociocultural groups, and that immigrants regard the fulfillment of this desire as a moral right. PMID:26529599

  11. World-wide French experience in research reactor fuel cycle transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisonnier, D.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1963 Transnucleaire has safely performed a large number of national and international transports of radioactive material. Transnucleaire has also designed and supplied suitable packagings for all types of nuclear fuel cycle radioactive material from front-end and back-end products and for power or for research reactors. Transportation of the nuclear fuel material for power reactors is made on a regular and industrial basis. The transportation of material for the research reactor fuel cycle is quite different due to the small quantities involved, the categorisation of material and the numerous places of delivery world-wide. Adapted solutions exist, which require a reactive organisation dealing with all the transportation issues for LEU and HEU products as metal, oxide, fresh fuel elements, spent fuel elements including supply of necessary transport packaging and equipment. This presentation will: - explain the choices made by Transnucleaire and its associates to provide and optimise the corresponding services, - demonstrate the capability to achieve, through reliable partnership, transport operations involving new routes, specific equipment and new political constraints while respecting sophisticated safety and security regulations. (author)

  12. WebPresent: a World Wide Web-based telepresentation tool for physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath-Kumar, Srihari; Banerjea, Anindo; Moshfeghi, Mehran

    1997-05-01

    In this paper, we present the design architecture and the implementation status of WebPresent - a world wide web based tele-presentation tool. This tool allows a physician to use a conference server workstation and make a presentation of patient cases to a geographically distributed audience. The audience consists of other physicians collaborating on patients' health care management and physicians participating in continuing medical education. These physicians are at several locations with networks of different bandwidth and capabilities connecting them. Audiences also receive the patient case information on different computers ranging form high-end display workstations to laptops with low-resolution displays. WebPresent is a scalable networked multimedia tool which supports the presentation of hypertext, images, audio, video, and a white-board to remote physicians with hospital Intranet access. WebPresent allows the audience to receive customized information. The data received can differ in resolution and bandwidth, depending on the availability of resources such as display resolution and network bandwidth.

  13. The Culture-Transmission Motive in Immigrants: A World-Wide Internet Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchitarjan, Irina; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A world-wide internet survey was conducted to test central assumptions of a recent theory of cultural transmission in minorities proposed by the authors. 844 1st to 2nd generation immigrants from a wide variety of countries recruited on a microjob platform completed a questionnaire designed to test eight hypotheses derived from the theory. Support was obtained for all hypotheses. In particular, evidence was obtained for the continued presence, in the immigrants, of the culture-transmission motive postulated by the theory: the desire to maintain the culture of origin and transmit it to the next generation. Support was also obtained for the hypothesized anchoring of the culture-transmission motive in more basic motives fulfilled by cultural groups, the relative intra- and intergenerational stability of the culture-transmission motive, and its motivating effects for action tendencies and desires that support cultural transmission under the difficult conditions of migration. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the assumption that people have a culture-transmission motive belongs to the folk psychology of sociocultural groups, and that immigrants regard the fulfillment of this desire as a moral right.

  14. The readability of pediatric patient education materials on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, D M; Kingsley, P; Johnson-West, J

    2001-07-01

    Literacy is a national and international problem. Studies have shown the readability of adult and pediatric patient education materials to be too high for average adults. Materials should be written at the 8th-grade level or lower. To determine the general readability of pediatric patient education materials designed for adults on the World Wide Web (WWW). GeneralPediatrics.com (http://www.generalpediatrics.com) is a digital library serving the medical information needs of pediatric health care providers, patients, and families. Documents from 100 different authoritative Web sites designed for laypersons were evaluated using a built-in computer software readability formula (Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid reading levels) and hand calculation methods (Fry Formula and SMOG methods). Analysis of variance and paired t tests determined significance. Eighty-nine documents constituted the final sample; they covered a wide spectrum of pediatric topics. The overall Flesch Reading Ease score was 57.0. The overall mean Fry Formula was 12.0 (12th grade, 0 months of schooling) and SMOG was 12.2. The overall Flesch-Kincaid grade level was significantly lower (Peducation materials on the WWW are not written at an appropriate reading level for the average adult. We propose that a practical reading level and how it was determined be included on all patient education materials on the WWW for general guidance in material selection. We discuss suggestions for improved readability of patient education materials.

  15. Alaskan Auroral All-Sky Images on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.

    1997-01-01

    In response to a 1995 NASA SPDS announcement of support for preservation and distribution of important data sets online, the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska, proposed to provide World Wide Web access to the Poker Flat Auroral All-sky Camera images in real time. The Poker auroral all-sky camera is located in the Davis Science Operation Center at Poker Flat Rocket Range about 30 miles north-east of Fairbanks, Alaska, and is connected, through a microwave link, with the Geophysical Institute where we maintain the data base linked to the Web. To protect the low light-level all-sky TV camera from damage due to excessive light, we only operate during the winter season when the moon is down. The camera and data acquisition is now fully computer controlled. Digital images are transmitted each minute to the Web linked data base where the data are available in a number of different presentations: (1) Individual JPEG compressed images (1 minute resolution); (2) Time lapse MPEG movie of the stored images; and (3) A meridional plot of the entire night activity.

  16. A Computing Environment to Support Repeatable Scientific Big Data Experimentation of World-Wide Scientific Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Kulesz, James J [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Kruse, Kara L [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    A principal tenant of the scientific method is that experiments must be repeatable and relies on ceteris paribus (i.e., all other things being equal). As a scientific community, involved in data sciences, we must investigate ways to establish an environment where experiments can be repeated. We can no longer allude to where the data comes from, we must add rigor to the data collection and management process from which our analysis is conducted. This paper describes a computing environment to support repeatable scientific big data experimentation of world-wide scientific literature, and recommends a system that is housed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to provide value to investigators from government agencies, academic institutions, and industry entities. The described computing environment also adheres to the recently instituted digital data management plan mandated by multiple US government agencies, which involves all stages of the digital data life cycle including capture, analysis, sharing, and preservation. It particularly focuses on the sharing and preservation of digital research data. The details of this computing environment are explained within the context of cloud services by the three layer classification of Software as a Service , Platform as a Service , and Infrastructure as a Service .

  17. Migrating the facility profile information management system into the world wide web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kero, R.E.; Swietlik, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy - Office of Special Projects and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), along with the Department of Energy - office of Scientific and Technical Information have previously designed and implemented the Environment, Safety and Health Facility Profile Information Management System (FPIMS) to facilitate greater efficiency in searching, analyzing and disseminating information found within environment, safety and health oversight documents. This information retrieval based system serves as a central repository for full-text electronic oversight documents, as well as a management planning and decision making tool that can assist in trend and root cause analyses. Continuous improvement of environment, safety and health programs are currently aided through this personal computer-based system by providing a means for the open communication of lessons learned across the department. Overall benefits have included reductions in costs and improvements in past information management capabilities. Access to the FPIMS has been possible historically through a headquarters-based local area network equipped with modems. Continued demand for greater accessibility of the system by remote DOE field offices and sites, in conjunction with the Secretary of Energy` s call for greater public accessibility to Department of Energy (DOE) information resources, has been the impetus to expand access through the use of Internet technologies. Therefore, the following paper will discuss reasons for migrating the FPIMS system into the World Wide Web (Web), various lessons learned from the FPIMS migration effort, as well as future plans for enhancing the Web-based FPIMS.

  18. World wide web for database of Japanese translation on international nuclear event scale reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio; Hirano, Masashi

    1999-01-01

    The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) is a means designed for providing prompt, clear and consistent information related to nuclear events, that occurred at nuclear facilities, and facilitating communication between the nuclear community, the media and the public. The INES is jointly operated by the IAEA and the OECD-NEA. Nuclear events reported are rated by the Scale', a consistent safety significance indicator. The scale runs from level 0, for events with no safety significance, to level 7 for a major accident with widespread health and environmental effects. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been promptly translating the INES reports into Japanese and developing a world-wide-web database for the Japanese translation, aiming at more efficient utilization of the INES information inside Japan. The present paper briefly introduces the definitions of INES rating levels and the scope of the Scale, and describes the outlines of the database (the information stored in the database, its functions and how to use it). As well, technical use of the INES reports and the availability/ effectiveness of the database are discussed. (author)

  19. Validity and client use of information from the World Wide Web regarding veterinary anesthesia in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik H; Watson, Victoria; Snyder, Lindsey B C; Love, Emma J

    2008-12-15

    To determine the validity of the information on the World Wide Web concerning veterinary anesthesia in dogs and to determine the methods dog owners use to obtain that information. Web-based search and client survey. 73 Web sites and 92 clients. Web sites were scored on a 5-point scale for completeness and accuracy of information about veterinary anesthesia by 3 board-certified anesthesiologists. A search for anesthetic information regarding 49 specific breeds of dogs was also performed. A survey was distributed to the clients who visited the University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital during a 4-month period to solicit data about sources used by clients to obtain veterinary medical information and the manner in which information obtained from Web sites was used. The general search identified 73 Web sites that included information on veterinary anesthesia; these sites received a mean score of 3.4 for accuracy and 2.5 for completeness. Of 178 Web sites identified through the breed-specific search, 57 (32%) indicated that a particular breed was sensitive to anesthesia. Of 83 usable, completed surveys, 72 (87%) indicated the client used the Web for veterinary medical information. Fifteen clients (18%) indicated they believed their animal was sensitive to anesthesia because of its breed. Information available on the internet regarding anesthesia in dogs is generally not complete and may be misleading with respect to risks to specific breeds. Consequently, veterinarians should appropriately educate clients regarding anesthetic risk to their particular dog.

  20. Expert knowledge in palliative care on the World Wide Web: palliativedrugs.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrin, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In my last Internet-related article, I speculated that social networking would be the coming wave in the effort to share knowledge among experts in various disciplines. At the time I did not know that a palliative care site on the World Wide Web (WWW), palliativedrugs.com, already provided the infrastructure for sharing expert knowledge in the field. The Web site is an excellent traditional formulary but it is primarily devoted to "unlicensed" ("off-label") use of medications in palliative care, something we in the specialty often do with little to support our interventions except shared knowledge and experience. There is nothing fancy about this Web site. In a good way, its format is a throwback to Web sites of the 1990s. In only the loosest sense can one describe it as "multimedia." Yet, it provides the perfect forum for expert knowledge and is a "must see" resource. Its existing content is voluminous and reliable, filtered and reviewed by renowned clinicians and educators in the field. Although its origin and structure were not specifically designed for social or professional networking, the Web site's format makes it a natural way for practitioners around the world to contribute to an ever-growing body of expertise in palliative care.

  1. Creation and utilization of a World Wide Web based space radiation effects code: SIREST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleterry, R. C. Jr; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Tripathi, R. K.; Thibeault, S. A.; Noor, A. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badavi, F. F.; Chang, C. K.; Qualls, G. D.; hide

    2001-01-01

    In order for humans and electronics to fully and safely operate in the space environment, codes like HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) must be included in any designer's toolbox for design evaluation with respect to radiation damage. Currently, spacecraft designers do not have easy access to accurate radiation codes like HZETRN to evaluate their design for radiation effects on humans and electronics. Today, the World Wide Web is sophisticated enough to support the entire HZETRN code and all of the associated pre and post processing tools. This package is called SIREST (Space Ionizing Radiation Effects and Shielding Tools). There are many advantages to SIREST. The most important advantage is the instant update capability of the web. Another major advantage is the modularity that the web imposes on the code. Right now, the major disadvantage of SIREST will be its modularity inside the designer's system. This mostly comes from the fact that a consistent interface between the designer and the computer system to evaluate the design is incomplete. This, however, is to be solved in the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) program currently being funded by NASA.

  2. TOGA COARE Satellite data summaries available on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. S.; Houze, R. A., Jr.; Mapes, B. E.; Brodzick, S. R.; Yutler, S. E.

    1995-01-01

    Satellite data summary images and analysis plots from the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE), which were initially prepared in the field at the Honiara Operations Center, are now available on the Internet via World Wide Web browsers such as Mosaic. These satellite data summaries consist of products derived from the Japanese Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite IR data: a time-size series of the distribution of contiguous cold cloudiness areas, weekly percent high cloudiness (PHC) maps, and a five-month time-longitudinal diagram illustrating the zonal motion of large areas of cold cloudiness. The weekly PHC maps are overlaid with weekly mean 850-hPa wind calculated from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global analysis field and can be viewed as an animation loop. These satellite summaries provide an overview of spatial and temporal variabilities of the cloud population and a large-scale context for studies concerning specific processes of various components of TOGA COARE.

  3. Studying Acute Coronary Syndrome Through the World Wide Web: Experiences and Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Angelo A

    2017-10-13

    This study details my viewpoint on the experiences, lessons, and assessments of conducting a national study on care-seeking behavior for heart attack in the United States utilizing the World Wide Web. The Yale Heart Study (YHS) was funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Grounded on two prior studies, the YHS combined a Web-based interview survey instrument; ads placed on the Internet; flyers and posters in public libraries, senior centers, and rehabilitation centers; information on chat rooms; a viral marketing strategy; and print ads to attract potential participants to share their heart attack experiences. Along the way, the grant was transferred from Ohio State University (OSU) to Yale University, and significant administrative, information technology, and personnel challenges ensued that materially delayed the study's execution. Overall, the use of the Internet to collect data on care-seeking behavior is very time consuming and emergent. The cost of using the Web was approximately 31% less expensive than that of face-to-face interviews. However, the quality of the data may have suffered because of the absence of some data compared with interviewing participants. Yet the representativeness of the 1154 usable surveys appears good, with the exception of a dearth of African American participants. ©Angelo A Alonzo. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 13.10.2017.

  4. Testing Quantum Models of Conjunction Fallacy on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Arguëlles, Jonito Aerts; Beltran, Lester; Beltran, Lyneth; de Bianchi, Massimiliano Sassoli; Sozzo, Sandro; Veloz, Tomas

    2017-12-01

    The `conjunction fallacy' has been extensively debated by scholars in cognitive science and, in recent times, the discussion has been enriched by the proposal of modeling the fallacy using the quantum formalism. Two major quantum approaches have been put forward: the first assumes that respondents use a two-step sequential reasoning and that the fallacy results from the presence of `question order effects'; the second assumes that respondents evaluate the cognitive situation as a whole and that the fallacy results from the `emergence of new meanings', as an `effect of overextension' in the conceptual conjunction. Thus, the question arises as to determine whether and to what extent conjunction fallacies would result from `order effects' or, instead, from `emergence effects'. To help clarify this situation, we propose to use the World Wide Web as an `information space' that can be interrogated both in a sequential and non-sequential way, to test these two quantum approaches. We find that `emergence effects', and not `order effects', should be considered the main cognitive mechanism producing the observed conjunction fallacies.

  5. World-wide risk assessment of the transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, A.M.; Elert, M.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the project reported in this paper is to develop the means and methods for a risk analysis of the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the world. The project was initiated by the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials (SAGSTRAM) of the IAEA. In 1979 the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the IAEA signed an agreement on the development of a model for calculation of the transport risk. Member States of the IAEA are invited to use the model for a risk assessment of the transportation of radioactive materials in their own country. These assessments will be collected and analyzed and a world-wide risk assessment performed. The IAEA has the overall responsibility for the project and administers it. Sweden manages the project and has performed the applied research with the assistance of research support groups which have supplied data and analyses and performed some other parts of the project. An Oversight Committee with participants from eight Member States has reviewed the progress and has given valuable recommendations. It was important that the model had the sophistication and flexibility required for its use by all Member States but still was easy to handle. The risk calculations are performed by the computer code INTERTRAN which is based on the American computer code RADTRAN II developed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. The methodology of the RADTRAN II as well as data and format of the input and output was changed to make the code more internationally oriented. 2 references

  6. WorldWide Telescope and Google Sky: New Technologies to Engage Students and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, R. H.; Subbarao, M. U.; Dettloff, L.

    2010-08-01

    New, visually rich, astronomical software environments coupled with large web-accessible data sets hold the promise of new and exciting ways to teach, collaborate, and explore the universe. These freeware tools provide contextual views of astronomical objects, real time access to multi-wavelength sky surveys, and, most importantly, the ability to incorporate new data and to produce user created content. This interactive panel examined the capabilities of Google Sky and WorldWide Telescope, and explored case studies of how these tools have been used to create compelling and participatory educational experiences in both formal (i.e., K-12 and undergraduate non-science majors classrooms), and informal (e.g., museum) settings. The overall goal of this session was to stimulate a discussion about future uses of these technologies. Substantial time was allotted for participants to create conceptual designs of learning experiences for use at their home institutions, with feedback provided by the panel members. Activities included technical discussions (e.g., mechanisms for incorporating new data and dissemination tools), exercises in narrative preparation, and a brainstorming session to identify potential future uses of these technologies.

  7. INTERNET and information about nuclear sciences. The world wide web virtual library: nuclear sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this work author proposes to constitute new virtual library which should centralize the information from nuclear disciplines on the INTERNET, in order to them to give first and foremost the connection on the most important links in set nuclear sciences. The author has entitled this new virtual library The World Wide Web Library: Nuclear Sciences. By constitution of this virtual library next basic principles were chosen: home pages of international organizations important from point of view of nuclear disciplines; home pages of the National Nuclear Commissions and governments; home pages of nuclear scientific societies; web-pages specialized on nuclear problematic, in general; periodical tables of elements and isotopes; web-pages aimed on Chernobyl crash and consequences; web-pages with antinuclear aim. Now continue the links grouped on web-pages according to single nuclear areas: nuclear arsenals; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear aspects of biology (radiobiology); nuclear chemistry; nuclear company; nuclear data centres; nuclear energy; nuclear energy, environmental aspects of (radioecology); nuclear energy info centres; nuclear engineering; nuclear industries; nuclear magnetic resonance; nuclear material monitoring; nuclear medicine and radiology; nuclear physics; nuclear power (plants); nuclear reactors; nuclear risk; nuclear technologies and defence; nuclear testing; nuclear tourism; nuclear wastes; nuclear wastes. In these single groups web-links will be concentrated into following groups: virtual libraries and specialized servers; science; nuclear societies; nuclear departments of the academic institutes; nuclear research institutes and laboratories; centres, info links

  8. Increasing of Urban Radiation due to Climate Change and Reduction Strategy using Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C.; Lee, D.; Heo, H. K.; Ahn, S.

    2017-12-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) which means urban air temperature is higher than suburban area is one of the most important environmental issues in Urban. High density of buildings and high ratio of impervious surfaces increases the radiation fluxes in urban canopy. Furthermore, climate change is expected to make UHI even more seriously in the future. Increased irradiation and air temperature cause high amount of short wave and long wave radiation, respectively. This increases net radiation negatively affects heat condition of pedestrian. UHI threatens citizen's health by increasing violence and heat related diseases. For this reason, understanding how much urban radiation will increase in the future, and exploring radiation reduction strategies is important for reducing UHI. In this research, we aim to reveal how the radiation flux in the urban canyon will change as the climate change and determine how much of urban vegetation will be needed to cover this degradation. The study area is a commercial district in Seoul where highly populated area. Due to the high density of buildings and lack of urban vegetation, this area has a poor thermal condition in summer. In this research, we simulate the radiation flux on the ground using multi-layer urban canopy model. Unlike conventionally used urban canopy model to simulate radiation transfer using vertically single layer, the multi-layer model we used here, enables to consider the vertical heterogeneous of buildings and urban vegetation. As a result, net radiation of urban ground will be increase 2.1 W/m² in the 2050s and 2.7 W/m² in the 2100s. And to prevent the increase of radiation, it is revealed that the urban vegetation should by increased by 10%. This research will be valuable in establishing greening planning as a strategy to reduce UHI effect.

  9. Architecture for biomedical multimedia information delivery on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, L. Rodney; Goh, Gin-Hua; Neve, Leif; Thoma, George R.

    1997-10-01

    Research engineers at the National Library of Medicine are building a prototype system for the delivery of multimedia biomedical information on the World Wide Web. This paper discuses the architecture and design considerations for the system, which will be used initially to make images and text from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) publicly available. We categorized our analysis as follows: (1) fundamental software tools: we analyzed trade-offs among use of conventional HTML/CGI, X Window Broadway, and Java; (2) image delivery: we examined the use of unconventional TCP transmission methods; (3) database manager and database design: we discuss the capabilities and planned use of the Informix object-relational database manager and the planned schema for the HNANES database; (4) storage requirements for our Sun server; (5) user interface considerations; (6) the compatibility of the system with other standard research and analysis tools; (7) image display: we discuss considerations for consistent image display for end users. Finally, we discuss the scalability of the system in terms of incorporating larger or more databases of similar data, and the extendibility of the system for supporting content-based retrieval of biomedical images. The system prototype is called the Web-based Medical Information Retrieval System. An early version was built as a Java applet and tested on Unix, PC, and Macintosh platforms. This prototype used the MiniSQL database manager to do text queries on a small database of records of participants in the second NHANES survey. The full records and associated x-ray images were retrievable and displayable on a standard Web browser. A second version has now been built, also a Java applet, using the MySQL database manager.

  10. Towards a global service registry for the world-wide LHC computing grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, Laurence; Pradillo, Maria Alandes; Girolamo, Alessandro Di

    2014-01-01

    The World-Wide LHC Computing Grid encompasses a set of heterogeneous information systems; from central portals such as the Open Science Grid's Information Management System and the Grid Operations Centre Database, to the WLCG information system, where the information sources are the Grid services themselves. Providing a consistent view of the information, which involves synchronising all these informations systems, is a challenging activity that has lead the LHC virtual organisations to create their own configuration databases. This experience, whereby each virtual organisation's configuration database interfaces with multiple information systems, has resulted in the duplication of effort, especially relating to the use of manual checks for the handling of inconsistencies. The Global Service Registry aims to address this issue by providing a centralised service that aggregates information from multiple information systems. It shows both information on registered resources (i.e. what should be there) and available resources (i.e. what is there). The main purpose is to simplify the synchronisation of the virtual organisation's own configuration databases, which are used for job submission and data management, through the provision of a single interface for obtaining all the information. By centralising the information, automated consistency and validation checks can be performed to improve the overall quality of information provided. Although internally the GLUE 2.0 information model is used for the purpose of integration, the Global Service Registry in not dependent on any particular information model for ingestion or dissemination. The intention is to allow the virtual organisation's configuration databases to be decoupled from the underlying information systems in a transparent way and hence simplify any possible future migration due to the evolution of those systems. This paper presents the Global Service Registry architecture, its advantages

  11. Role of Halden Reactor Project for world-wide nuclear energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, M.A.; Volkov, B.

    2011-07-01

    The great interest for utilization of nuclear materials to produce energy in the middle of last century needed special investigations using first class research facilities. Common problems in the area of nuclear fuel development motivated the establishment of joint research efforts. The OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP) is a good example of such a cooperative research effort, which has been performing for more than 50 years. During that time, the Halden Reactor evolved from a prototype heavy water reactor envisaged as a power source for different applications to a research reactor that is able to simulate in-core conditions of modern commercial power reactors. The adaptability of the Halden Reactor enables the HRP to be an important international test facility for nuclear fuels and materials development. The long-term international cooperation is based on the flexible HRP organizational structure which also provides the continued success. [1,2] This paper gives a brief history of the Halden Reactor Project and its contribution to world-wide nuclear energy development. Recent expansion of the Project to the East and Asian countries may also assist and stimulate the development of a nuclear industry within these countries. The achievements of the HRP rely on the versatility of the research carried out in the reactor with reliable testing techniques and in-pile instrumentation. Diversification of scientific activity in the areas of development of alternative energy resources and man-machine technology also provide the HRP with a stable position as one of the leaders in the world scientific community. All of these aspects are described in this paper together with current experimental works, including the investigation of ULBA (Kazakhstan) production fuel in comparison with other world fuel suppliers, as well as other future and prospective plans of the Project.(Author)

  12. Role of Halden Reactor Project for world-wide nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, M.A.; Volkov, B.

    2011-01-01

    The great interest for utilization of nuclear materials to produce energy in the middle of last century needed special investigations using first class research facilities. Common problems in the area of nuclear fuel development motivated the establishment of joint research efforts. The OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP) is a good example of such a cooperative research effort, which has been performing for more than 50 years. During that time, the Halden Reactor evolved from a prototype heavy water reactor envisaged as a power source for different applications to a research reactor that is able to simulate in-core conditions of modern commercial power reactors. The adaptability of the Halden Reactor enables the HRP to be an important international test facility for nuclear fuels and materials development. The long-term international cooperation is based on the flexible HRP organizational structure which also provides the continued success. [1,2] This paper gives a brief history of the Halden Reactor Project and its contribution to world-wide nuclear energy development. Recent expansion of the Project to the East and Asian countries may also assist and stimulate the development of a nuclear industry within these countries. The achievements of the HRP rely on the versatility of the research carried out in the reactor with reliable testing techniques and in-pile instrumentation. Diversification of scientific activity in the areas of development of alternative energy resources and man-machine technology also provide the HRP with a stable position as one of the leaders in the world scientific community. All of these aspects are described in this paper together with current experimental works, including the investigation of ULBA (Kazakhstan) production fuel in comparison with other world fuel suppliers, as well as other future and prospective plans of the Project.(Author)

  13. Online Access to Weather Satellite Imagery Through the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, W.; Baldwin, D.

    1998-01-01

    Both global area coverage (GAC) and high-resolution picture transmission (HRTP) data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) are made available to laternet users through an online data access system. Older GOES-7 data am also available. Created as a "testbed" data system for NASA's future Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), this testbed provides an opportunity to test both the technical requirements of an onune'd;ta system and the different ways in which the -general user, community would employ such a system. Initiated in December 1991, the basic data system experienced five major evolutionary changes In response to user requests and requirements. Features added with these changes were the addition of online browse, user subsetting, dynamic image Processing/navigation, a stand-alone data storage system, and movement,from an X-windows graphical user Interface (GUI) to a World Wide Web (WWW) interface. Over Its lifetime, the system has had as many as 2500 registered users. The system on the WWW has had over 2500 hits since October 1995. Many of these hits are by casual users that only take the GIF images directly from the interface screens and do not specifically order digital data. Still, there b a consistent stream of users ordering the navigated image data and related products (maps and so forth). We have recently added a real-time, seven- day, northwestern United States normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composite that has generated considerable Interest. Index Terms-Data system, earth science, online access, satellite data.

  14. From theater to the world wide web--a new online era for surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, D Peter; Corrigan, Mark A; McHugh, Seamus M; Hill, A D; Redmond, H Paul

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, surgical education has been confined to operating and lecture theaters. Access to the World Wide Web and services, such as YouTube and iTunes has expanded enormously. Each week throughout Ireland, nonconsultant hospital doctors work hard to create presentations for surgical teaching. Once presented, these valuable presentations are often never used again. We aimed to compile surgical presentations online and establish a new online surgical education tool. We also sought to measure the effect of this educational tool on surgical presentation quality. Surgical presentations from Cork University Hospital and Beaumont Hospital presented between January 2010 and April 2011 were uploaded to http://www.pilgrimshospital.com/presentations. A YouTube channel and iTunes application were created. Web site hits were monitored. Quality of presentations was assessed by 4 independent senior surgical judges using a validated PowerPoint assessment form. Judges were randomly given 6 presentations; 3 presentations were pre-web site setup and 3 were post-web site setup. Once uploading commenced, presenters were informed. A total of 89 presentations have been uploaded to date. This includes 55 cases, 17 journal club, and 17 short bullet presentations. This has been associated with 46,037 web site page views. Establishment of the web site was associated with a significant improvement in the quality of presentations. Mean scores for pre- and post-web site group were 6.2 vs 7.7 out of 9 respectively, p = 0.037. This novel educational tool provides a unique method to enable surgical education become more accessible to trainees, while also improving the overall quality of surgical teaching PowerPoint presentations. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The World Wide Web and Technology Transfer at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Bianco, David J.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) began using the World Wide Web (WWW) in the summer of 1993, becoming the first NASA installation to provide a Center-wide home page. This coincided with a reorganization of LaRC to provide a more concentrated focus on technology transfer to both aerospace and non-aerospace industry. Use of the WWW and NCSA Mosaic not only provides automated information dissemination, but also allows for the implementation, evolution and integration of many technology transfer applications. This paper describes several of these innovative applications, including the on-line presentation of the entire Technology Opportunities Showcase (TOPS), an industrial partnering showcase that exists on the Web long after the actual 3-day event ended. During its first year on the Web, LaRC also developed several WWW-based information repositories. The Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS), a technical paper delivery system with integrated searching and retrieval, has proved to be quite popular. The NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS), an outgrowth of LTRS, provides uniform access to many logically similar, yet physically distributed NASA report servers. WWW is also the foundation of the Langley Software Server (LSS), an experimental software distribution system which will distribute LaRC-developed software with the possible phase-out of NASA's COSMIC program. In addition to the more formal technology distribution projects, WWW has been successful in connecting people with technologies and people with other people. With the completion of the LaRC reorganization, the Technology Applications Group, charged with interfacing with non-aerospace companies, opened for business with a popular home page.

  16. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Online: What Patients Find when Searching the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Minal; Laskar, Nabila; Modi, Bhavik N

    2016-06-01

    To objectively assess the quality of information available on the World Wide Web on cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Patients frequently search the internet regarding their healthcare issues. It has been shown that patients seeking information can help or hinder their healthcare outcomes depending on the quality of information consulted. On the internet, this information can be produced and published by anyone, resulting in the risk of patients accessing inaccurate and misleading information. The search term "Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy" was entered into the three most popular search engines and the first 50 pages on each were pooled and analyzed, after excluding websites inappropriate for objective review. The "LIDA" instrument (a validated tool for assessing quality of healthcare information websites) was to generate scores on Accessibility, Reliability, and Usability. Readability was assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES). Of the 150 web-links, 41 sites met the eligibility criteria. The sites were assessed using the LIDA instrument and the FRES. A mean total LIDA score for all the websites assessed was 123.5 of a possible 165 (74.8%). The average Accessibility of the sites assessed was 50.1 of 60 (84.3%), on Usability 41.4 of 54 (76.6%), on Reliability 31.5 of 51 (61.7%), and 41.8 on FRES. There was a significant variability among sites and interestingly, there was no correlation between the sites' search engine ranking and their scores. This study has illustrated the variable quality of online material on the topic of CRT. Furthermore, there was also no apparent correlation between highly ranked, popular websites and their quality. Healthcare professionals should be encouraged to guide their patients toward the online material that contains reliable information. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Towards a Global Service Registry for the World-Wide LHC Computing Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Laurence; Alandes Pradillo, Maria; Di Girolamo, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    The World-Wide LHC Computing Grid encompasses a set of heterogeneous information systems; from central portals such as the Open Science Grid's Information Management System and the Grid Operations Centre Database, to the WLCG information system, where the information sources are the Grid services themselves. Providing a consistent view of the information, which involves synchronising all these informations systems, is a challenging activity that has lead the LHC virtual organisations to create their own configuration databases. This experience, whereby each virtual organisation's configuration database interfaces with multiple information systems, has resulted in the duplication of effort, especially relating to the use of manual checks for the handling of inconsistencies. The Global Service Registry aims to address this issue by providing a centralised service that aggregates information from multiple information systems. It shows both information on registered resources (i.e. what should be there) and available resources (i.e. what is there). The main purpose is to simplify the synchronisation of the virtual organisation's own configuration databases, which are used for job submission and data management, through the provision of a single interface for obtaining all the information. By centralising the information, automated consistency and validation checks can be performed to improve the overall quality of information provided. Although internally the GLUE 2.0 information model is used for the purpose of integration, the Global Service Registry in not dependent on any particular information model for ingestion or dissemination. The intention is to allow the virtual organisation's configuration databases to be decoupled from the underlying information systems in a transparent way and hence simplify any possible future migration due to the evolution of those systems. This paper presents the Global Service Registry architecture, its advantages compared to the

  18. Integrating video and animation with physics problem- solving exercises on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Aaron Patrick

    1998-10-01

    Problem solving is of paramount importance in teaching and learning physics. An important step in solving a problem is visualization. To help students visualize a problem, we included video clips with homework questions delivered via the World Wide Web. Although including video with physics problems has a positive effect with some problems, we found that this may not be the best way to integrate multimedia with physics problems since improving visualization is probably not as helpful as changing students' approach. To challenge how students solve problems and to help them develop a more expert-like approach, we developed a type of physics exercise called a multimedia-focused problem where students take data from an animation in order to solve a problem. Because numbers suggestive of a solution are not given in the text of the question, students have to consider the problem conceptually before analyzing it mathematically. As a result, we found that students had difficulty solving such problems compared to traditional textbook-like problems. Students' survey responses showed that students indeed had difficulty determining what was needed to solve a problem when it was not explicitly given to them in the text of the question. Analyzing think-aloud interviews where students verbalized their thoughts while solving problems, we found that multimedia-focused problems indeed required solid conceptual understanding in order for them to be solved correctly. As a result, we believe that when integrated with instruction, multimedia-focused problems can be a valuable tool in helping students develop better conceptual understanding and more expert-like problem solving skills by challenging novice beliefs and problem solving approaches. Multimedia-focused problems may also be useful for diagnosing conceptual understanding and problem skills.

  19. Pollination services enhanced with urbanization despite increasing pollinator parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzevičiūtė, Rita; Murray, Tomás E.

    2016-01-01

    Animal-mediated pollination is required for the reproduction of the majority of angiosperms, and pollinators are therefore essential for ecosystem functioning and the economy. Two major threats to insect pollinators are anthropogenic land-use change and the spread of pathogens, whose effects may interact to impact pollination. Here, we investigated the relative effects on the ecosystem service of pollination of (i) land-use change brought on by agriculture and urbanization as well as (ii) the prevalence of pollinator parasites, using experimental insect pollinator-dependent plant species in natural pollinator communities. We found that pollinator habitat (i.e. availability of nesting resources for ground-nesting bees and local flower richness) was strongly related to flower visitation rates at the local scale and indirectly influenced plant pollination success. At the landscape scale, pollination was positively related to urbanization, both directly and indirectly via elevated visitation rates. Bumblebees were the most abundant pollinator group visiting experimental flowers. Prevalence of trypanosomatids, such as the common bumblebee parasite Crithidia bombi, was higher in urban compared with agricultural areas, a relationship which was mediated through higher Bombus abundance. Yet, we did not find any top-down, negative effects of bumblebee parasitism on pollination. We conclude that urban areas can be places of high transmission of both pollen and pathogens. PMID:27335419

  20. URBAN STREAM BURIAL INCREASES WATERSHED-SCALE NITRATE EXPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial reduces the capacity of streams to remove nitrate (NO3-) from the water column by in...

  1. Increased body size along urbanization gradients at both community and intraspecific level in macro-moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Thomas; Kaiser, Aurélien; Van Dyck, Hans

    2018-05-23

    Urbanization involves a cocktail of human-induced rapid environmental changes and is forecasted to gain further importance. Urban-heat-island effects result in increased metabolic costs expected to drive shifts towards smaller body sizes. However, urban environments are also characterized by strong habitat fragmentation, often selecting for dispersal phenotypes. Here, we investigate to what extent, and at which spatial scale(s), urbanization drives body size shifts in macro-moths-an insect group characterized by positive size-dispersal links-at both the community and intraspecific level. Using light and bait trapping as part of a replicated, spatially nested sampling design, we show that despite the observed urban warming of their woodland habitat, macro-moth communities display considerable increases in community-weighted mean body size because of stronger filtering against small species along urbanization gradients. Urbanization drives intraspecific shifts towards increased body size too, at least for a third of species analysed. These results indicate that urbanization drives shifts towards larger, and hence, more mobile species and individuals in order to mitigate low connectivity of ecological resources in urban settings. Macro-moths are a key group within terrestrial ecosystems, and since body size is central to species interactions, such urbanization-driven phenotypic change may impact urban ecosystem functioning, especially in terms of nocturnal pollination and food web dynamics. Although we show that urbanization's size-biased filtering happens simultaneously and coherently at both the inter- and intraspecific level, we demonstrate that the impact at the community level is most pronounced at the 800 m radius scale, whereas species-specific size increases happen at local and landscape scales (50-3,200 m radius), depending on the species. Hence, measures-such as creating and improving urban green infrastructure-to mitigate the effects of urbanization on

  2. Urbanization Increases Pathogen Pressure on Feral and Managed Honey Bees

    OpenAIRE

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Appler, R. Holden; L?pez-Uribe, Margarita M.; Tarpy, David R.; Frank, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus), the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens....

  3. Efficacy of the World Wide Web in K-12 environmental education

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Kimberly Jane

    1998-11-01

    Despite support by teachers, students, and the American public in general, environmental education is not a priority in U.S. schools. Teachers face many barriers to integrating environmental education into K--12 curricula. The focus of this research is teachers' lack of access to environmental education resources. New educational reforms combined with emerging mass communication technologies such as the Internet and World Wide Web present new opportunities for the infusion of environmental content into the curriculum. New technologies can connect teachers and students to a wealth of resources previously unavailable to them. However, significant barriers to using technologies exist that must be overcome to make this promise a reality. Web-based environmental education is a new field and research is urgently needed. If teachers are to use the Web meaningfully in their classrooms, it is essential that their attitudes and perceptions about using this new technology be brought to light. Therefore, this exploratory research investigates teachers' attitudes toward using the Web to share environmental education resources. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to investigate this problem. Two surveys were conducted---self-administered mail survey and a Web-based online survey---to elicit teachers perceptions and comments about environmental education and the Web. Preliminary statistical procedures including frequencies, percentages and correlational measures were performed to interpret the data. In-depth interviews and participant-observation methods were used during an extended environmental education curriculum development project with two practicing teachers to gain insights into the process of creating curricula and placing it online. Findings from the both the mail survey and the Web-based survey suggest that teachers are interested in environmental education---97% of respondents for each survey agreed that environmental education should be taught in K

  4. Educational Applications on the World Wide Web: An Example Using Amphion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jane

    1998-01-01

    There is a great deal of excitement about using the internet and the World Wide Web in education. There are such exciting possibilities and there is a wealth and variety of material up on the web. There are however many problems, problems of access and resources, problems of quality -- for every excellent resource there are many poor ones, and there are insufficiently explored problems of teacher training and motivation. For example, Wiesenmayer and Meadows report on a study of 347 West Virginia science teachers. These teachers were enrolled in a week-long summer workshop to introduce them to the internet and its educational potential. The teachers were asked to review science sites as to overall quality and then about their usefulness in their own classrooms. The teachers were enthusiastic about the web, and gave two-thirds of the sites high ratings, and essentially all the rest average ratings. But alarmingly, over 80% of these sites were viewed as having no direct applicability in the teacher's own classroom. This summer I was assigned to work on the Amphion project in the Automated Software Engineering Group under the leadership of Michael Lowry. I wished to find educational applications of the Amphion system, which in its current implementation can be used to create fortran programs and animations using the SPICE libraries created by the NAIF group at JPL. I wished to find an application which provided real added educational value, which was in line with educational curriculum standards and which would serve a documented need of the educational community. The application selected was teaching about the causes of the seasons -- at the approximately the fourth, fifth, sixth grade level. This topic was chosen because it is in line with national curriculum standards. The fourth, fifth, sixth grade level was selected to coincide with the grade level served by the Ames Aerospace Encounter, which services 10,000 children a year on field trips. The hope is that

  5. Obtaining Streamflow Statistics for Massachusetts Streams on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Kernell G.; Steeves, Peter A.; Freeman, Aleda; Singh, Raj

    2000-01-01

    A World Wide Web application has been developed to make it easy to obtain streamflow statistics for user-selected locations on Massachusetts streams. The Web application, named STREAMSTATS (available at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/massachusetts.html ), can provide peak-flow frequency, low-flow frequency, and flow-duration statistics for most streams in Massachusetts. These statistics describe the magnitude (how much), frequency (how often), and duration (how long) of flow in a stream. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published streamflow statistics, such as the 100-year peak flow, the 7-day, 10-year low flow, and flow-duration statistics, for its data-collection stations in numerous reports. Federal, State, and local agencies need these statistics to plan and manage use of water resources and to regulate activities in and around streams. Engineering and environmental consulting firms, utilities, industry, and others use the statistics to design and operate water-supply systems, hydropower facilities, industrial facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, and roads, bridges, and other structures. Until now, streamflow statistics for data-collection stations have often been difficult to obtain because they are scattered among many reports, some of which are not readily available to the public. In addition, streamflow statistics are often needed for locations where no data are available. STREAMSTATS helps solve these problems. STREAMSTATS was developed jointly by the USGS and MassGIS, the State Geographic Information Systems (GIS) agency, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Departments of Environmental Management and Environmental Protection. The application consists of three major components: (1) a user interface that displays maps and allows users to select stream locations for which they want streamflow statistics (fig. 1), (2) a data base of previously published streamflow statistics and descriptive information for 725 USGS data

  6. Autonomous Satellite Command and Control through the World Wide Web: Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Brian; Twiggs, Robert

    1998-01-01

    NASA's New Millenium Program (NMP) has identified a variety of revolutionary technologies that will support orders of magnitude improvements in the capabilities of spacecraft missions. This program's Autonomy team has focused on science and engineering automation technologies. In doing so, it has established a clear development roadmap specifying the experiments and demonstrations required to mature these technologies. The primary developmental thrusts of this roadmap are in the areas of remote agents, PI/operator interface, planning/scheduling fault management, and smart execution architectures. Phases 1 and 2 of the ASSET Project (previously known as the WebSat project) have focused on establishing World Wide Web-based commanding and telemetry services as an advanced means of interfacing a spacecraft system with the PI and operators. Current automated capabilities include Web-based command submission, limited contact scheduling, command list generation and transfer to the ground station, spacecraft support for demonstrations experiments, data transfer from the ground station back to the ASSET system, data archiving, and Web-based telemetry distribution. Phase 2 was finished in December 1996. During January-December 1997 work was commenced on Phase 3 of the ASSET Project. Phase 3 is the subject of this report. This phase permitted SSDL and its project partners to expand the ASSET system in a variety of ways. These added capabilities included the advancement of ground station capabilities, the adaptation of spacecraft on-board software, and the expansion of capabilities of the ASSET management algorithms. Specific goals of Phase 3 were: (1) Extend Web-based goal-level commanding for both the payload PI and the spacecraft engineer; (2) Support prioritized handling of multiple PIs as well as associated payload experimenters; (3) Expand the number and types of experiments supported by the ASSET system and its associated spacecraft; (4) Implement more advanced resource

  7. Effects of Learning Style and Training Method on Computer Attitude and Performance in World Wide Web Page Design Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Huey-Wen; Wang, Yu-Fang

    1999-01-01

    Compares the effects of two training methods on computer attitude and performance in a World Wide Web page design program in a field experiment with high school students in Taiwan. Discusses individual differences, Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory and Learning Style Inventory, Computer Attitude Scale, and results of statistical analyses.…

  8. Use of World Wide Web Server and Browser Software To Support a First-Year Medical Physiology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of a World Wide Web server to support a team-taught physiology course for first-year medical students. The students' evaluations indicate that computer use in class made lecture material more interesting, while the online documents helped reinforce lecture materials and textbooks. Lists factors which contribute to the…

  9. A brief history of the World Wide Web Where it as invented, how it's used, and where it's headed

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrnin, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    The World Wide Web has its historical roots in things such as the creation of the telegraph, the launching of the Sputnik and more, but it really all started in March 1989, when Tim Berners-Lee, a computer scientist at CERN in Geneva wrote a paper called Information Management: A proposal

  10. The poor quality of information about laparoscopy on the World Wide Web as indexed by popular search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J W; Finch, R J; Coleman, M G; Nathanson, L K; O'Rourke, N A; Fielding, G A

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the quality of information on the Internet regarding laparoscopy. Four popular World Wide Web search engines were used with the key word "laparoscopy." Advertisements, patient- or physician-directed information, and controversial material were noted. A total of 14,030 Web pages were found, but only 104 were unique Web sites. The majority of the sites were duplicate pages, subpages within a main Web page, or dead links. Twenty-eight of the 104 pages had a medical product for sale, 26 were patient-directed, 23 were written by a physician or group of physicians, and six represented corporations. The remaining 21 were "miscellaneous." The 46 pages containing educational material were critically reviewed. At least one of the senior authors found that 32 of the pages contained controversial or misleading statements. All of the three senior authors (LKN, NAO, GAF) independently agreed that 17 of the 46 pages contained controversial information. The World Wide Web is not a reliable source for patient or physician information about laparoscopy. Authenticating medical information on the World Wide Web is a difficult task, and no government or surgical society has taken the lead in regulating what is presented as fact on the World Wide Web.

  11. Taking risks on the world wide web: The impact of families and societies on adolescents' risky online behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Hof, S. van der; Berg, B. van den; Schermer, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    Children’s engagement in risky online behavior—such as providing personal information or agreeing to meet with a stranger—is an important predictor of whether they will encounter harmful content on the World Wide Web or be confronted with situations such as sexual harassment and privacy violations.

  12. An Exploratory Survey of Digital Libraries on the World Wide Web: Art and Literature of the Early Italian Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Suzanne J.

    This study assessed the ongoing development of digital libraries (DLs) on the World Wide Web. DLs of art and literature were surveyed for selected works from the early Italian Renaissance in order to gain insight into the current trends prevalent throughout the larger population of DLs. The following artists and authors were selected for study:…

  13. Enhancing Student Performance in First-Semester General Chemistry Using Active Feedback through the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kent A.; Blake, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web recently launched a new interactive feedback system for the instructors, so that can better understanding about their students and their problems. The feedback, in combination with tailored lectures is expected to enhance student performance in the first semester of general chemistry.

  14. Pre-Service Teachers Critically Evaluate Scientific Information on the World-Wide Web: What Makes Information Believable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iding, Marie; Klemm, E. Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The present study addresses the need for teachers to critically evaluate the credibility, validity, and cognitive load associated with scientific information on Web sites, in order to effectively teach students to evaluate scientific information on the World Wide Web. A line of prior research investigating high school and university students'…

  15. Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a Research and Teaching Tool in Science Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan; Gunstone, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a research and teaching tool in promoting self-directed learning groups of 15-year-old students. Discusses the perceptions of students of the effectiveness of the WWW in assisting them with the construction of knowledge on photosynthesis and respiration. (Contains 33 references.) (Author/YDS)

  16. Engineer pioneer plants respond to and affect geomorphic constraints similarly along water–terrestrial interfaces world-wide

    OpenAIRE

    Corenblit, D.; Baas, A.; Balke, T.; Bouma, T.J.; Fromard, F.; Garófano-Gómez, V.; González, E.; Gurnell, A.M.; Hortobágyi, B.; Julien, F.; Kim, D.; Lambs, L.; Stallins, J.A.; Steiger, J.; Tabacchi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Within fluvial and coastal ecosystems world-wide, flows of water, wind and sediment generate a shifting landscape mosaic composed of bare substrate and pioneer and mature vegetation successional stages. Pioneer plant species that colonize these ecosystems at the land–water interface have developed specific traits in response to environmental constraints (response...

  17. ETDEWEB versus the World-Wide-Web: a specific database/web comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Debbie

    2010-06-28

    A study was performed comparing user search results from the specialized scientific database on energy-related information, ETDEWEB, with search results from the internet search engines Google and Google Scholar. The primary objective of the study was to determine if ETDEWEB (the Energy Technology Data Exchange – World Energy Base) continues to bring the user search results that are not being found by Google and Google Scholar. As a multilateral information exchange initiative, ETDE’s member countries and partners contribute cost- and task-sharing resources to build the largest database of energy-related information in the world. As of early 2010, the ETDEWEB database has 4.3 million citations to world-wide energy literature. One of ETDEWEB’s strengths is its focused scientific content and direct access to full text for its grey literature (over 300,000 documents in PDF available for viewing from the ETDE site and over a million additional links to where the documents can be found at research organizations and major publishers globally). Google and Google Scholar are well-known for the wide breadth of the information they search, with Google bringing in news, factual and opinion-related information, and Google Scholar also emphasizing scientific content across many disciplines. The analysis compared the results of 15 energy-related queries performed on all three systems using identical words/phrases. A variety of subjects was chosen, although the topics were mostly in renewable energy areas due to broad international interest. Over 40,000 search result records from the three sources were evaluated. The study concluded that ETDEWEB is a significant resource to energy experts for discovering relevant energy information. For the 15 topics in this study, ETDEWEB was shown to bring the user unique results not shown by Google or Google Scholar 86.7% of the time. Much was learned from the study beyond just metric comparisons. Observations about the strengths of each

  18. Assessing increasing susceptibility to wildfire at the wildland-urban fringe in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, A. M.; Hogue, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Much of the western U.S. is increasingly susceptible to wildfire activity due to drier conditions, elevated fuel loads, and expanding urbanization. As population increases, development pushes the urban boundary further into wildlands, creating more potential for human interaction at the wildland-urban interface (WUI), primarily from human ignitions and fire suppression policies. The immediate impacts of wildfires include vulnerability to debris flows, flooding, and impaired water quality. Fires also alter longer-term hydrological and ecosystem behavior. The current study utilizes geospatial datasets to investigate historical wildfire size and frequency relative to the WUI for a range of cities across western North America. California, the most populous state in the U.S., has an extensive fire history. The decennial population and acres burned for four major counties (Los Angeles, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Shasta) in California show that increasing wildfire size and frequency follow urbanization trends, with high correlation between the last decade of burned area, urban-fringe proximity, and increasing population. Ultimately, results will provide information on urban fringe communities that are most vulnerable to the risks associated with wildfire and post-fire impacts. In light of evolving land use policies (i.e. forest management and treatment, development at the urban-fringe) and climate change, it is critical to advance our knowledge of the implications that these conditions pose to urban centers, communicate risks to the public, and ultimately provide guidance for wildfire management.

  19. Atlanta households’ willingness to increase urban forests to mitigate cimate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Tran; J. P.  Siry; J. M.  Bowker; N. C.  Poudyal

    2017-01-01

    Investments in urban forests have been increasing in many US cities. Urban forests have been shownto provide countless ecosystem benefits with many addressing climate change issues, such as seques-tering carbon, reducing air pollution, and decreasing the heat island effect. Individual groups within theAmerican public may not respond to the issue of climate change in...

  20. Use of the World Wide Web in Lower-Division Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Karen E.; Stevens, Richard E.

    1996-10-01

    Recent articles have identified the plethora of chemical information existing currently on the World-Wide Web (WWW) available via the Internet (1). This information medium is particularly valuable because it represents a very up-to-date source of information. Site managers can update information and it can be "instantaneously visited" by someone. As an example, several current topics of chemical significance were highlighted in a nonmajor chemistry class held in January 1996 at our college. December 31, 1995, represented the last day that leaded gasoline could be sold for use in automobiles. In early January, the FDA approved the synthetic fat olestra for use in snack foods. Both of these topics provoked great interest in students as they brought up issues of relevance and interest to their lives that were currently being discussed in the news. The WWW was utilized extensively as a source of information and current updates. Print media, such as texts and reference manuals, have a much longer "lag-time" before current information can be typeset, printed, and accessed by a researcher. Previous articles (1, 2) have focused on Internet use for upper-division classes, but we have found a useful way to bring the Internet into nonmajor and freshman level classes composed of 20-50 students. The student assignment was to find information on a chemical topic currently in the news by using the WWW and use that information to write a 2-3 page essay (3, 4). Using the Internet to find information presents one issue not previously encountered when using encyclopedias, reference books, or textbooks, but an issue raised in previous editorials in this Journal (5, 6). That difference is that virtually anyone can post information on the WWW. Thus, the WWW can have governmental organizations, environmental groups, large corporations, or just individuals posting their views. Hence, when searching a particular topic, students might find a very factual article, or they might find a very

  1. Does tree harvesting in riparian areas increase stream sedimentation and turbidity - world-wide experience relative to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, D.; Smethurst, P.; Petrone, K.

    2009-04-01

    A typical improved-pasture property in the high-rainfall zone of Australia contains 0.5-2.0 km of waterways per 100 ha. Nationwide, some 25-30 million ha of improved pasture contains about 100,000 km of streams, of which about 75% are currently un-buffered and contributing to soil and water degradation. Farmers and natural resource managers are considering ways to enhance environmental outcomes at farm and catchment scales using stream-side buffers of trees and other perennial vegetation. Benefits of buffers include improved water quality, biodiversity, carbon sequestration and aesthetics. Lack of sound information and funding for establishing and managing buffer zones is hindering wide-scale adoption of this practice. Stream-side areas of farms are generally highly productive (wet and nutrient-rich) and contain a high biodiversity, but they are also high-risk zones for soil and water values and stock safety. Development of options based on a balance between environmental and economic outcomes would potentially promote wider adoption. Australian codes of forest practice currently discourage or prevent harvesting of trees in streamside buffers. These codes were developed exclusively for large-scale native forests and industrial-scale plantations, and were applicable to farm forestry as now required. In countries including USA and Germany trees in stream-side buffers are harvested using Best Management Practices. Trees may grow at a faster rate in riparian zones and provide a commercial return, but the impacts of tree establishment and harvesting on water yield and quality must be evaluated. However, there have been few designed experiments investigating this problem. Australia has recently initiated studies to explore the use of high-value timber species and associated vegetation in riparian zones to improve water quality, particularly suspended sediment. Preliminary information from the Yan Yan Gurt Catchment in Victoria indicate that forested riparian strips can retain 98% of the sediment entrained in runoff from agricultural sections of the catchment. This paper examines the science background from North American and European experiences relative to Australia, with particular emphasis on sediment relationships after tree harvesting using Best Management Practices.

  2. An Ontology of Quality Initiatives and a Model for Decentralized, Collaborative Quality Management on the (Semantic) World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This editorial provides a model of how quality initiatives concerned with health information on the World Wide Web may in the future interact with each other. This vision fits into the evolving "Semantic Web" architecture - ie, the prospective that the World Wide Web may evolve from a mess of unstructured, human-readable information sources into a global knowledge base with an additional layer providing richer and more meaningful relationships between resources. One first prerequisite for forming such a "Semantic Web" or "web of trust" among the players active in quality management of health information is that these initiatives make statements about themselves and about each other in a machine-processable language. I present a concrete model on how this collaboration could look, and provide some recommendations on what the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other policy makers in this framework could be. PMID:11772549

  3. AAS WorldWide Telescope: A Seamless, Cross-platform Data Visualization Engine for Astronomy Research, Education, and Democratizing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Philip; Fay, Jonathan; Gilchrist, Ronald K.; Cui, Chenzhou; Weigel, A. David; Robitaille, Thomas; Otor, Oderah Justin; Goodman, Alyssa

    2018-05-01

    The American Astronomical Society’s WorldWide Telescope (WWT) project enables terabytes of astronomical images, data, and stories to be viewed and shared among researchers, exhibited in science museums, projected into full-dome immersive planetariums and virtual reality headsets, and taught in classrooms, from middle school to college. We review the WWT ecosystem, how WWT has been used in the astronomical community, and comment on future directions.

  4. Gross α/β analysis of spiked qater for IAEA 2008 world-wide open proficiency test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yaoling; Zhao Feng; Wu Meigui; Du Jinzhou

    2010-01-01

    The gross α/β analysis of the IAEA 2008 world-wide open proficiency test on the determination of natural radionuclides in spiked water was conducted. The Sample 03, Sample 04 and Sample 05 were tested for the gross α/β radioactivity according to the requirement of IAEA. The feedback statistics showed that the values of gross α/β of all of the three samples fell in the acceptable range of IAEA. (authors)

  5. World-wide developments in motor vehicle inspection/maintenance (I/M) programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klausmeier, R. [Consulting Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Kishan, S. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Motor vehicles contribute much to urban air pollution. As a result, most governments have enacted emission standards that significantly lower pollutant emission levels from new motor vehicles. For example, vehicles built in the United States emit 95 % fewer pollutants than uncontrolled vehicles when they are new. However, studies indicate that proper maintenance is needed to obtain the full benefit of vehicle emission controls. Furthermore, there is evidence that a significant percentage of the vehicle fleet is not properly maintained. This has led to the creation of motor vehicle Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) Programs. I/M programs inspect vehicles for indications that they are emitting excessive quantities of pollutants. Vehicles that fail the inspection must be repaired in order to comply with program requirements. The first I/M programs were implemented in the United States in the early 1970s. With substantial urging from the federal government, most of the U.S. states with severe air pollution problems have implemented I/M programs. Recently, with the passage of the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, many states have been required to significantly upgrade the performance and coverage of their I/M programs. I/M programs also have been implemented in Europe and recently in Asia. This presentation reviews developments in I/M programs for light-duty gasoline powered vehicles. Developments in I/M programs for diesel powered vehicles are briefly described. (author)

  6. World-wide developments in motor vehicle inspection/maintenance (I/M) programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klausmeier, R [Consulting Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Kishan, S [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Motor vehicles contribute much to urban air pollution. As a result, most governments have enacted emission standards that significantly lower pollutant emission levels from new motor vehicles. For example, vehicles built in the United States emit 95 % fewer pollutants than uncontrolled vehicles when they are new. However, studies indicate that proper maintenance is needed to obtain the full benefit of vehicle emission controls. Furthermore, there is evidence that a significant percentage of the vehicle fleet is not properly maintained. This has led to the creation of motor vehicle Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) Programs. I/M programs inspect vehicles for indications that they are emitting excessive quantities of pollutants. Vehicles that fail the inspection must be repaired in order to comply with program requirements. The first I/M programs were implemented in the United States in the early 1970s. With substantial urging from the federal government, most of the U.S. states with severe air pollution problems have implemented I/M programs. Recently, with the passage of the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, many states have been required to significantly upgrade the performance and coverage of their I/M programs. I/M programs also have been implemented in Europe and recently in Asia. This presentation reviews developments in I/M programs for light-duty gasoline powered vehicles. Developments in I/M programs for diesel powered vehicles are briefly described. (author)

  7. Fast increases in urban sewage inputs to rivers of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwarno, D.; Löhr, A.; Kroeze, C.; Widianarko, B.

    2014-01-01

    We present estimates for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sewage inputs to 19 Indonesian rivers for 1970–2050. Future trends are based on the four scenarios of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Our results indicate a rapid increase in N and P pollution from sewage over time. In 1970, N and P

  8. The world wide web: an emerging technology for marketing special forest products (poster abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.L. Hammett; Shelby Jones; Philip A. Araman

    1999-01-01

    Interest by forest landowners and agriculturist in Special Forest Products (SFPs) is increasing rapidly. At present there are numerous efforts to increase awareness of these products and the market potential. However, there is a shortage of information available and there are few means effective in disseminating the information necessary for the sustainable management...

  9. Urbanization increased metal levels in lake surface sediment and catchment topsoil of waterscape parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong-Bo [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Shen, E-mail: syu@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Li, Gui-Lin [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu, Yi; Yu, Guang-Bin [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Deng, Hong [Department of Environmental Sciences, Tiantong National Station of Forest Ecosystem, Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wu, Sheng-Chun [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Biology and Chemistry Department, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming-Hung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-08-15

    Lake surface sediment is mainly derived from topsoil in its catchment. We hypothesized that distribution of anthropogenic metals would be homogenous in lake surface sediment and the lake's catchment topsoil. Anthropogenic metal distributions (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in fourteen waterscape parks were investigated in surface sediments and catchment topsoils and possible source homogeneity was tested using stable Pb isotopic ratio analysis. The parks were located along an urbanization gradient consisting of suburban (SU), developing urban (DIU), developed urban (DDU), and central urban core (CUC) areas in Shanghai, China. Results indicated that surface lake sediments and catchment topsoils in the CUC parks were highly contaminated by the investigated anthropogenic metals. Total metal contents in surface sediment and topsoil gradually increased along the urbanization gradient from the SU to CUC areas. Generally, the surface sediments had greater total metal contents than their catchment topsoils. These results suggest that urbanization drives the anthropogenic metal enrichment in both surface sediment and its catchment topsoil in the waterscape parks. Soil fine particles (< 63 {mu}m) and surface sediments had similar enrichment ratios of metals, suggesting that surface runoff might act as a carrier for metals transporting from catchment to lake. Stable Pb isotope ratio analysis revealed that the major anthropogenic Pb source in surface sediment was coal combustion as in the catchment topsoil. Urbanization also correlated with chemical fractionation of metals in both surface sediment and catchment topsoil. From the SU to the CUC parks, amounts of labile metal fractions increased while the residual fraction of those metals remained rather constant. In short, urbanization in Shanghai drives anthropogenic metal distribution in environmental matrices and the sources were homogenous. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Obvious

  10. Urbanization increased metal levels in lake surface sediment and catchment topsoil of waterscape parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong-Bo; Yu, Shen; Li, Gui-Lin; Liu, Yi; Yu, Guang-Bin; Deng, Hong; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Lake surface sediment is mainly derived from topsoil in its catchment. We hypothesized that distribution of anthropogenic metals would be homogenous in lake surface sediment and the lake's catchment topsoil. Anthropogenic metal distributions (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in fourteen waterscape parks were investigated in surface sediments and catchment topsoils and possible source homogeneity was tested using stable Pb isotopic ratio analysis. The parks were located along an urbanization gradient consisting of suburban (SU), developing urban (DIU), developed urban (DDU), and central urban core (CUC) areas in Shanghai, China. Results indicated that surface lake sediments and catchment topsoils in the CUC parks were highly contaminated by the investigated anthropogenic metals. Total metal contents in surface sediment and topsoil gradually increased along the urbanization gradient from the SU to CUC areas. Generally, the surface sediments had greater total metal contents than their catchment topsoils. These results suggest that urbanization drives the anthropogenic metal enrichment in both surface sediment and its catchment topsoil in the waterscape parks. Soil fine particles (< 63 μm) and surface sediments had similar enrichment ratios of metals, suggesting that surface runoff might act as a carrier for metals transporting from catchment to lake. Stable Pb isotope ratio analysis revealed that the major anthropogenic Pb source in surface sediment was coal combustion as in the catchment topsoil. Urbanization also correlated with chemical fractionation of metals in both surface sediment and catchment topsoil. From the SU to the CUC parks, amounts of labile metal fractions increased while the residual fraction of those metals remained rather constant. In short, urbanization in Shanghai drives anthropogenic metal distribution in environmental matrices and the sources were homogenous. -- Highlights: ► Obvious urbanization effect on metal

  11. What is on a demographer's mind? A world-wide survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the years, the community of demographers has grown in numbers and research interests, and has become increasingly interdisciplinary. The question is whether this process of growth and diversity has led to a fragmented community of demographers. Objective: We examine whether or not

  12. World Wide Web as a Research Tool for Self Motivated Learning of Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Student use of computers and the internet has increased rapidly in recent years. Teachers ask what types of learning experiences can be facilitated by using the internet in their classrooms (NSBF, 2007). Various surveys of U.S. teachers on internet usage report that having students use the internet for research and information gathering purposes…

  13. Possible world-wide middle miocene iridium anomaly and its relationship to periodicity of impacts and extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaro, F.; Alvarez, W.; Michel, H. V.; Alvarez, L. W.; Anders, Mark H.; Montanari, A.; Kennett, James P.

    1988-01-01

    In a study of one million years of Middle Miocene sediment deposition in ODP Hole 689B in the Weddell Sea near Antarctica, a single iridium (Ir) anomaly of 44 (+ or - 10) x 10 to the 12th gram Ir per gram rock (ppt) was observed in core 6H, section 3, 50 to 60 cm, after background contributions associated with manganese precipitates and clay are subtracted. The ODP Hole 689B is 10,000 km away from another site, DSDP Hole 588B in the Tasman Sea north of New Zealand, where a single Ir anomaly of 144 + or - 7 ppt over a background of 11 ppt was found in an earlier study of 3 million years of deposition. From chemical measurements the latter deposition was thought to be impact-related. Ir measurements were made, following neutron activation, with the Iridium Coincidence Spectrometer. The age vs depth calibration curves given in the DSDP and ODP preliminary reports indicate the ages of the Iranomalies are identical, 11.7 million years, but the absolute and relative uncertainties in the curves are not known. Based on the newest age data the age estimate is 10 million years. As the Ir was deposited at the two sites at about the same time and they are one quarter of the way around the world from each other it seems likely that the deposition was world-wide. The impact of a large asteroid or comet could produce the wide distribution, and this data is supportive of the impact relationship deduced for Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) 588B from the chemical evidence. If the surface densities of Ir at the two sites are representative of the world-wide average, the diameter of a Cl type asteroid containing the necessary Ir would be 3 + or - 1 km, which is large enough to cause world-wide darkness and hence extinctions although the latter point is disputed.

  14. U.S. Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World. Volume IX. World-Wide Means and Standard Deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    TITLE (..d SobtII,) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED U. S. Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World Volume IX World-wide Means and Standard Reference...Ives the best estimate of the population standard deviations. The means, , are com~nuted from: EX IIN I 90 80 70 60" 50’ 40, 30 20 10 0 1070 T- VErr ...or 10%, whichever is greater Since the mean ice limit approximates the minus two de l temperature isopleth, this analyzed lower limit was Wave Heights

  15. The PEP-II/BaBar Project-Wide Database using World Wide Web and Oracle*Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.; Crane, G.; MacGregor, I.; Meyer, S.

    1995-12-01

    The PEP-II/BaBar Project Database is a tool for monitoring the technical and documentation aspects of the accelerator and detector construction. It holds the PEP-II/BaBar design specifications, fabrication and installation data in one integrated system. Key pieces of the database include the machine parameter list, components fabrication and calibration data, survey and alignment data, property control, CAD drawings, publications and documentation. This central Oracle database on a UNIX server is built using Oracle*Case tools. Users at the collaborating laboratories mainly access the data using World Wide Web (WWW). The Project Database is being extended to link to legacy databases required for the operations phase

  16. Tracing agents and other automatic sampling procedures for the World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Aguillo, Isidro F.

    1999-01-01

    Many of the search engines and recovery tools are not suitable to make samples of web resources for quantitative analysis. The increasing size of the web and its hypertextual nature offer opportunities for a novel approach. A new generation of recovering tools involving tracing hypertext links from selected sites are very promising. Offering capabilities to automate tasks Extracting large samples of high pertinence Ready to use in standard database formats Selecting additional resour...

  17. The biogeochemical fingerprint of urbanization: increasing carbon quality in Maine headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, T.; Cronan, C.; Ohno, T.; Simon, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    Conversion of land cover to urban use is an accelerating global phenomenon. Physical landscape change manifests as the replacement of forests, grasslands, and wetlands with buildings, novel vegetation, and infrastructure. This physical change also brings with it a change in the human management of the landscape for aesthetic and practical purposes (i.e. road salt applications). Although urbanization's effects on inorganic nutrients have been well studied, far less is known about the interactive influences of urbanization and urban landscape management practices on dissolved organic matter (DOM), a key energy source essential to ecosystem function. We examined the seasonal abundance and composition of DOM, nutrients, and common cations in 116 small streams along a gradient of urbanization (0-60% total watershed imperviousness, TWI), in Maine, USA. Dissolved organic carbon concentration ranged from 0.5 to 20 ppm with no clear relationship to watershed urbanization. In contrast, DOM composition, quantified with specific ultra violet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA_{254}), fluorescence indices, and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), changed considerably with increasing urbanization. SUVA_{254} indicated a shift from higher molecular weight humic compounds (SUVA_{254}>4) toward lower molecular weight compounds (SUVA_{254}road salt application may mobilize base cations into streams draining urbanized watersheds. There was a strong negative relationship between humic-like DOM components and Ca^{2+} (R^2=0.3-0.5, psalts over a natural range (0 - 6 mM) showed that ^{2+} cations (esp. Ca^{2+}) preferentially flocculated the humic fraction of DOM (R^2=0.6-0.9, premoving terrestrial C from the aquatic DOM pool in urban landscapes.

  18. A world wide public health problem: the principal re-emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca D'Alessandro, E; Giraldi, G

    2011-01-01

    The extraordinary progress in the knowledge of infectious disease, the discovery of antibiotics and effective vaccines are among the great achievement of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These achievement have led to a dramatic reduction in the levels of mortality from these diseases. According to the World Health Organization, the term "re-emerging infectious diseases" refers to infectious diseases, which although well known, have not been of recent public health importance. However, climate change, migration, changes in health services, antibiotic resistance, population increase, international travel, the increase in the number of immune-depressed patients ,etc have lead to the re-emergence of these diseases. The climate changes are exposing sectors of the population to inadequate fresh air, water, food and resources for survival which, in consequence, provoke increases in both internal and international migration. In this particular period in which we find ourselves, characterized by globalization, the international community has become aware that the re-emergence of these diseases poses an important risk for public health underlines the necessity to adopt appropriate strategies for their prevention and control. The re-emerging diseases of the twenty-first century are a serious problem for public health and even though there has been enormous progress in medical science and in the battle against infectious diseases, they are still a long way from being really brought under control. A well organized monitoring system would enable the epidemiological characteristics of the infectious diseases to be analyzed and the success or otherwise of preventive interventions to be precisely evaluated. For this reason, the World Health Organization and the European Union have discussed the formation of a collaborative network for the monitoring and control of re-emerging diseases and has initiated special programmes. The battle between humanity and infectious disease

  19. Distribution of 129I: Evidence for world-wide influence of nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehn, U.; Snyder, G.; Moran, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Iodine-129 is one of the radioisotopes which have seen significant increases in the environment since the beginning of the nuclear age. Other prominent representatives of this group include tritium, 14 C and 36 Cl. Most members of this group have gone through a cycle of initial release (associated mainly with atmospheric bomb tests during the late fifties and early sixties) and subsequent decay (e.g. T) or dispersion (e.g. 14 C and 36 Cl) so that their concentrations are again close to pre-anthropogenic levels. 129 I has, however, remained at significantly elevated levels even after the stop of nuclear weapon tests

  20. News, views, trends: a world-wide survey of recent developments, fresh ideas and production plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    Recent developments in the tobacco industry in several countries are described: 1) in the USSR the policy is not to encourage smoking but to produce pleasant cigarettes which are as harmless as possible; 2) in the US, a survey shows that in 1975 not more than 12.4% of men over age 21 smoked a pipe; 3) in Britain a new cigarette tax structure will cripple the cigarette industry's coupon scheme of which manufacturers make great use to secure brand loyalty; 4) in the Philippines a proposal to print a health warning on cigarette packets and in advertisements might affect cigarette and tobacco taxes, which contribute 47% of government income; 5) in the Netherlands health warnings will be printed on cigarette packs, 6) in Austria there has been an increase of 4.2% in cigarette smoking since late 1975; 7) in Poland anti-smoking officials have proposed that the name of the popular "Sport" cigarette be changed; 8) in Indonesia there has been a recovery in kretek sales; 9) in Denmark cigarette consumption increased 6% from 1974; and 10) in western Europe it has been shown that up to 99% of grocery stores in Ireland sell tobacco products, 91% in Britain, 30% in Austria, 17% in Spain, and 7% in Italy.

  1. Diverse urban plantings managed with sufficient resource availability can increase plant productivity and arthropod diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon eMuller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Buildings structures and surfaces are explicitly being used to grow plants, and these ‘urban plantings’ are typically designed for aesthetic value. Urban plantings also have the potential to contribute significant ‘ecological values’ by increasing urban habitat for animals such as arthropods and by increasing plant productivity. In this study, we evaluated how the provision of these additional ecological values is affected by plant species richness; the availability of essential resources for plants, such as water, light, space; and soil characteristics. We sampled 33 plantings located on the exterior of three buildings in the urban centre of Brisbane, Australia (subtropical climatic region over two, six week sampling periods characterised by different temperature and rainfall conditions. Plant cover was estimated as a surrogate for productivity as destructive sampling of biomass was not possible. We measured weekly light levels (photosynthetically active radiation, plant CO2 assimilation, soil CO2 efflux, and arthropod diversity.Differences in plant cover were best explained by a three-way interaction of plant species richness, management water regime and sampling period. As the richness of plant species increased in a planter, productivity and total arthropod richness also increased significantly - likely due to greater habitat heterogeneity and quality. Overall we found urban plantings can provide additional ecological values if essential resources are maintained within a planter such as water, light and soil temperature. Diverse urban plantings that are managed with these principles in mind can contribute to the attraction of diverse arthropod communities, and lead to increased plant productivity within a dense urban context.

  2. Patient information on breast reconstruction in the era of the world wide web. A snapshot analysis of information available on youtube.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M L H; Kok, K; Ganesh, V; Thomas, S S

    2014-02-01

    Breast cancer patient's expectation and choice of reconstruction is increasing and patients often satisfy their information needs outside clinic time by searching the world wide web. The aim of our study was to analyse the quality of content and extent of information regarding breast reconstruction available on YouTube videos and whether this is an appropriate additional source of information for patients. A snapshot qualitative and quantitative analysis of the first 100 videos was performed after the term 'breast reconstruction' was input into the search window of the video sharing website www.youtube.com on the 1st of September 2011. Qualitative categorical analysis included patient, oncological and reconstruction factors. It was concluded that although videos uploaded onto YouTube do not provide comprehensive information, it is a useful resource that can be utilised in patient education provided comprehensive and validated videos are made available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Urbanization is Associated with Increased Trends in Cardiovascular Mortality Among Indigenous Populations: the PAI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson da Costa Armstrong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The cardiovascular risk burden among diverse indigenous populations is not totally known and may be influenced by lifestyle changes related to the urbanization process. Objectives: To investigate the cardiovascular (CV mortality profile of indigenous populations during a rapid urbanization process largely influenced by governmental infrastructure interventions in Northeast Brazil. Methods: We assessed the mortality of indigenous populations (≥ 30 y/o from 2007 to 2011 in Northeast Brazil (Bahia and Pernambuco states. Cardiovascular mortality was considered if the cause of death was in the ICD-10 CV disease group or if registered as sudden death. The indigenous populations were then divided into two groups according to the degree of urbanization based on anthropological criteria:9,10 Group 1 - less urbanized tribes (Funi-ô, Pankararu, Kiriri, and Pankararé; and Group 2 - more urbanized tribes (Tuxá, Truká, and Tumbalalá. Mortality rates of highly urbanized cities (Petrolina and Juazeiro in the proximity of indigenous areas were also evaluated. The analysis explored trends in the percentage of CV mortality for each studied population. Statistical significance was established for p value < 0.05. Results: There were 1,333 indigenous deaths in tribes of Bahia and Pernambuco (2007-2011: 281 in Group 1 (1.8% of the 2012 group population and 73 in Group 2 (3.7% of the 2012 group population, CV mortality of 24% and 37%, respectively (p = 0.02. In 2007-2009, there were 133 deaths in Group 1 and 44 in Group 2, CV mortality of 23% and 34%, respectively. In 2009-2010, there were 148 deaths in Group 1 and 29 in Group 2, CV mortality of 25% and 41%, respectively. Conclusions: Urbanization appears to influence increases in CV mortality of indigenous peoples living in traditional tribes. Lifestyle and environmental changes due to urbanization added to suboptimal health care may increase CV risk in this population.

  4. Finding Web-Based Anxiety Interventions on the World Wide Web: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Miriam Thiel; Olander, Ellinor K; Ayers, Susan

    2016-06-01

    One relatively new and increasingly popular approach of increasing access to treatment is Web-based intervention programs. The advantage of Web-based approaches is the accessibility, affordability, and anonymity of potentially evidence-based treatment. Despite much research evidence on the effectiveness of Web-based interventions for anxiety found in the literature, little is known about what is publically available for potential consumers on the Web. Our aim was to explore what a consumer searching the Web for Web-based intervention options for anxiety-related issues might find. The objectives were to identify currently publically available Web-based intervention programs for anxiety and to synthesize and review these in terms of (1) website characteristics such as credibility and accessibility; (2) intervention program characteristics such as intervention focus, design, and presentation modes; (3) therapeutic elements employed; and (4) published evidence of efficacy. Web keyword searches were carried out on three major search engines (Google, Bing, and Yahoo-UK platforms). For each search, the first 25 hyperlinks were screened for eligible programs. Included were programs that were designed for anxiety symptoms, currently publically accessible on the Web, had an online component, a structured treatment plan, and were available in English. Data were extracted for website characteristics, program characteristics, therapeutic characteristics, as well as empirical evidence. Programs were also evaluated using a 16-point rating tool. The search resulted in 34 programs that were eligible for review. A wide variety of programs for anxiety, including specific anxiety disorders, and anxiety in combination with stress, depression, or anger were identified and based predominantly on cognitive behavioral therapy techniques. The majority of websites were rated as credible, secure, and free of advertisement. The majority required users to register and/or to pay a program access

  5. Dermatology on Reddit: elucidating trends in dermatologic communications on the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntinx-Krieg, Talayesa; Caravaglio, Joseph; Domozych, Renee; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2017-07-15

    Platforms of social media, including the website Reddit, have become increasingly popular sites for users to communicate medical information. A study investigating dermatology content on Reddit has not been performed in the current literature. The purpose of this study is to enumerate the dermatology subreddits, quantify subscribers, and characterize posts to estimate the presence of dermatology-related content on Reddit. A Reddit search of the fourteen most common skin diseases globally was performed. Additionally, the terms "dermatology", and "skin" were searched in order to identify more subreddits relevant to the field. Dermatology-related subreddits that had ≥1000 subscribers were evaluated for content and categorized for analysis. We identified 38 subreddits related to dermatology with subscriber numbers ranging from 52 to 209,973. For 17 of the 38 subreddits that were further analyzed, most posts fell under the category of "seeking health/cosmetic advice." Reddit serves as a communication stage for individuals to discuss, engage, and connect on dermatologic topics. Furthermore, the platform offers an opportunity for medical professionals to distribute evidence-based information concerning dermatologic conditions.

  6. Orthopaedic Patient Information on the World Wide Web: An Essential Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, John Tristan; Baker, Joseph F

    2016-02-17

    Patients increasingly use the Internet to research health-related issues. Internet content, unlike other forms of media, is not regulated. Although information accessed online can impact patients' opinions and expectations, there is limited information about the quality or readability of online orthopaedic information. PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar were searched using anatomic descriptors and three title keywords ("Internet," "web," and "online"). Articles examining online orthopaedic information from January 1, 2000, until April 1, 2015, were recorded. Articles were assessed for the number of reviewers evaluating the online material, whether the article examined for a link between authorship and quality, and the use of recognized quality and readability assessment tools. To facilitate a contemporary discussion, only publications since January 1, 2010, were considered for analysis. A total of thirty-eight peer-reviewed articles published since 2010 examining the quality and/or readability of online orthopaedic information were reviewed. For information quality, there was marked variation in the quality assessment methods utilized, the number of reviewers, and the manner of reporting. To date, the majority of examined information is of poor quality. Studies examining readability have focused on pages produced by professional orthopaedic societies. The quality and readability of online orthopaedic information are generally poor. For modern practices to adapt to the Internet and to prevent misinformation, the orthopaedic community should develop high-quality, readable online patient information. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  7. Cytological analysis of atypical squamous epithelial cells of undetermined significance using the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washiya, Kiyotada; Abe, Ichinosuke; Ambo, Junichi; Iwai, Muneo; Okusawa, Estuko; Asanuma, Kyousuke; Watanabe, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The low-level consistency of the cytodiagnosis of uterine cervical atypical squamous epithelial cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) employing the Bethesda System has been reported, suggesting the necessity of a wide survey. We presented cases judged as ASC-US on the Web and analyzed the voting results to investigate ASC-US cytologically. Cytology samples from 129 patients diagnosed with ASC-US were used. Images of several atypical cells observed in these cases were presented on the Web. The study, based on the voting results, was presented and opinions were exchanged at the meeting of the Japanese Society of Clinical Cytology. The final diagnosis of ASC-US was benign lesions in 76 cases and low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in 44, but no definite diagnosis could be made for the remaining 9. The total number of votes was 17,884 with a 36.5% consistency of cases judged as ASC-US. Benign cases were divided into 6 categories. Four categories not corresponding to the features of koilocytosis and small abnormal keratinized cells were judged as negative for an intraepithelial lesion or malignancy at a high rate. A Web-based survey would be useful which could be viewed at any time and thereby facilitate the sharing of cases to increase consistency. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Capataz: a framework for distributing algorithms via the World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo J. Martínez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some scientists have embraced the distributed computing paradigm. As experiments and simulations demand ever more computing power, coordinating the efforts of many different processors is often the only reasonable resort. We developed an open-source distributed computing framework based on web technologies, and named it Capataz. Acting as an HTTP server, web browsers running on many different devices can connect to it to contribute in the execution of distributed algorithms written in Javascript. Capataz takes advantage of architectures with many cores using web workers. This paper presents an improvement in Capataz´ usability and why it was needed. In previous experiments the total time of distributed algorithms proved to be susceptible to changes in the execution time of the jobs. The system now adapts by bundling jobs together if they are too simple. The computational experiment to test the solution is a brute force estimation of pi. The benchmark results show that by bundling jobs, the overall perfomance is greatly increased.

  9. ePlant and the 3D data display initiative: integrative systems biology on the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucile, Geoffrey; Di Biase, David; Nahal, Hardeep; La, Garon; Khodabandeh, Shokoufeh; Chen, Yani; Easley, Kante; Christendat, Dinesh; Kelley, Lawrence; Provart, Nicholas J

    2011-01-10

    Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed "ePlant" (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant) - a suite of open-source world wide web-based tools for the visualization of large-scale data sets from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These tools display data spanning multiple biological scales on interactive three-dimensional models. Currently, ePlant consists of the following modules: a sequence conservation explorer that includes homology relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism data, a protein structure model explorer, a molecular interaction network explorer, a gene product subcellular localization explorer, and a gene expression pattern explorer. The ePlant's protein structure explorer module represents experimentally determined and theoretical structures covering >70% of the Arabidopsis proteome. The ePlant framework is accessed entirely through a web browser, and is therefore platform-independent. It can be applied to any model organism. To facilitate the development of three-dimensional displays of biological data on the world wide web we have established the "3D Data Display Initiative" (http://3ddi.org).

  10. Development of a world wide web-based interactive education program to improve detectability of pulmonary nodules on chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohm, Joon Young; Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Sung Soo; Han, Ki Tae; Ahn, Young Seob; Shin, Byung Seok; Bae, Kyongtae T.

    2007-01-01

    To design and develop a World Wide Web-based education program that will allow trainees to interactively learn and improve the diagnostic capability of detecting pulmonary nodules on chest radiographs. Chest radiographs with known diagnosis were retrieved and selected from our institutional clinical archives. A database was constructed by sorting radiographs into three groups: normal, nodule, and false positive (i.e., nodule-like focal opacity). Each nodule was assigned with the degree of detectability: easy, intermediate, difficult, and likely missed. Nodules were characterized by their morphology (well-defined, ill-defined, irregular, faint) and by other associated pathologies or potentially obscuring structures. The Web site was organized into four sections: study, test, record and information. The Web site allowed a user interactively to undergo the training section appropriate to the user's diagnostic capability. The training was enhanced by means of clinical and other pertinent radiological findings included in the database. The outcome of the training was tested with clinical test radiographs that presented nodules or false positives with varying diagnostic difficulties. A World Wide Web-based education program is a promising technique that would allow trainees to interactively learn and improve the diagnostic capability of detecting and characterizing pulmonary nodules

  11. Financing energy investments world-wide and in the economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1998-01-01

    The necessity of mobilizing the finance under given circumstances is pointed out. The energy sector investments needs correspond to only 3-4% of world GDP or 6-7% of world capital formation. In most developing countries mobilizing financing is a issue, where the risk/return ratio of a given energy investment project does not compare favourably with competing projects and if their handicap is not compensating for by public financing or government guarantees. Compared to the other regions, the energy systems of the economies in transition absorb a high proportion of domestic capital. This is due to past and continuing supply-oriented energy policies and inefficiencies and the export orientation of the energy-rich countries, and to limited domestic capital markets. As a result only a estimated 9-13% of long-term investment 'needs' is presently financed. The root of the problem is slow progress in the reform of energy and capital markets at a time government withdraw from financing and guaranteeing energy investments. Recommendations include transition to sustainable energy strategies ; the liberalization of energy prices and tariffs; the phasing out of subsides and cross-subsides; the stabilization of tax and depreciation regimes; neutrality with regard of the various forms of ownership; reliable law enforcement; non-discrimination of foreign investors, shareholders, competitors; the ratification of the Energy Charter Treaty; and generally, institutional and regulatory frameworks that address market imperfections. Regarding domestic capital markets the goal is to increase traded volume, reduce volatility, and avoid discrimination and favour international integration

  12. Geothermal resources in Italy and world-wide: scientific debate and market evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, M.; Rizzi, F.

    2008-01-01

    to the distribution and characteristics of the geothermal resources. The specialization of Italy in GPG appears not to be adequately represented within European programmes and the Tuscany region is still considered not a leading market by the investors in geothermal heat pumps and geothermal district heating. Both according to the communitarian prescriptions and the requests from local actors, a few scenarios for the development of guidelines, certification schemes and regulations are here described. These elements are consistent with the purpose of sustainability and competitiveness of local economic activities. On the basis of these evidences, the third section describes the perspectives of development of medium and low enthalpy utilizations in Italy. According to the present financial incentives schemes and the predicted modifications in relevant regulations (i.e. city plans, building regulations, etc.), a booming growth of installations is expected. This geothermal green new deal is pulled by the increasing number of life-long learning programmes for professionals (i.e. geologists) and, even more, is expected to be pulled by the implementation of risk management tools and certification schemes. As result, the analysis sets a road map for addressing the needs of geothermal actors and removing the barriers to successful investing in this local and renewable energy resource. When we return to the initial question, it seems to be the moment for changing attitude towards energy production and to win back competitiveness and sustainability in the geothermal market. [it

  13. The Increase of Exotic Zoonotic Helminth Infections: The Impact of Urbanization, Climate Change and Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Jones, Malcolm K; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic parasitic diseases are increasingly impacting human populations due to the effects of globalization, urbanization and climate change. Here we review the recent literature on the most important helminth zoonoses, including reports of incidence and prevalence. We discuss those helminth diseases which are increasing in endemic areas and consider their geographical spread into new regions within the framework of globalization, urbanization and climate change to determine the effect these variables are having on disease incidence, transmission and the associated challenges presented for public health initiatives, including control and elimination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. World Wide Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Grätzel von Grätz, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    Whether for genetic risk analysis or 3D-rekonstruktion of the cerebral vessels: the modern medicine requires more computing power. With a grid infrastructure, this one can be if necessary called by the network. (4 pages)

  15. Medical knowledge packages and their integration into health-care information systems and the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Rappelsberger, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Software-based medical knowledge packages (MKPs) are packages of highly structured medical knowledge that can be integrated into various health-care information systems or the World Wide Web. They have been established to provide different forms of clinical decision support such as textual interpretation of combinations of laboratory rest results, generating diagnostic hypotheses as well as confirmed and excluded diagnoses to support differential diagnosis in internal medicine, or for early identification and automatic monitoring of hospital-acquired infections. Technically, an MKP may consist of a number of inter-connected Arden Medical Logic Modules. Several MKPs have been integrated thus far into hospital, laboratory, and departmental information systems. This has resulted in useful and widely accepted software-based clinical decision support for the benefit of the patient, the physician, and the organization funding the health care system.

  16. The Brussels-Capital Region. Increasing the Density of Urban Spaces and Preserving the Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Ioulia Pankratieva

    2013-01-01

    Since its foundation in 1989, Region of Brussels Capital has its own government and conducts an independent urban policy. With the constant increase in population the main objectives for the Region are concentrated on development of housing and infrastructure objects, transport security, and improvement of functioning of urban structures.Urban policy is based on the Regional Plan for Sustainable Development (Plan Régional de Développement Durable - PRDD), which is a strategic tool for urban p...

  17. International use of an academic nephrology World Wide Web site: from medical information resource to business tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kevin C; Oliver, David K; Boal, Thomas R; Gadiyak, Grigorii; Boocks, Carl; Yuan, Christina M; Welch, Paul G; Poropatich, Ronald K

    2002-04-01

    Studies of the use of the World Wide Web to obtain medical knowledge have largely focused on patients. In particular, neither the international use of academic nephrology World Wide Web sites (websites) as primary information sources nor the use of search engines (and search strategies) to obtain medical information have been described. Visits ("hits") to the Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) Nephrology Service website from April 30, 2000, to March 14, 2001, were analyzed for the location of originating source using Webtrends, and search engines (Google, Lycos, etc.) were analyzed manually for search strategies used. From April 30, 2000 to March 14, 2001, the WRAMC Nephrology Service website received 1,007,103 hits and 12,175 visits. These visits were from 33 different countries, and the most frequent regions were Western Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Pacific Islands, and South America. The most frequent organization using the site was the military Internet system, followed by America Online and automated search programs of online search engines, most commonly Google. The online lecture series was the most frequently visited section of the website. Search strategies used in search engines were extremely technical. The use of "robots" by standard Internet search engines to locate websites, which may be blocked by mandatory registration, has allowed users worldwide to access the WRAMC Nephrology Service website to answer very technical questions. This suggests that it is being used as an alternative to other primary sources of medical information and that the use of mandatory registration may hinder users from finding valuable sites. With current Internet technology, even a single service can become a worldwide information resource without sacrificing its primary customers.

  18. Strategy Development for Incumbent Urban Universities: Moving Forward in an Increasingly Competitive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk

    2002-01-01

    Recently, many urban public universities have seen a drastic increase in competition. This project integrates Schumpeter's economic theories from 70 years ago with current strategic management theory in order to provide a framework for strategic response to that competition. This article explores all possible combinations of the high-low quality…

  19. Increase of Investment Appeal of Projects for Noise Control Measures in Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmakov, A. V.; Ignatyeva, V. O.

    2017-11-01

    The authors analyzed the contemporary noise pollution level in the large cities of the Russian Federation. The article identifies the factors causing the reduction of acoustically comfortable urban territories. It states the task for the increase of investment appeal of the projects aimed at noise control measures adoption.

  20. Chlorophyll, temperature, depth, and irradiance data from bottle in a world-wide distribution from 28 February 1964 to 02 April 1994 (NODC Accession 0000268)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chlorophyll, temperature, depth, and irradiance data were collected using bottle from multiple vessels in a world-wide distribution from 28 February 1964 to 02 April...

  1. Temperature profile data from MBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 23 December 1964 to 19 December 1991 (NODC Accession 0000216)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using MBT casts from multiple platforms in a world-wide distribution from December 23, 1964 to December 19, 1991. Additonal...

  2. Temperature profile data from XBT casts in a world wide distribution from multiple platforms from 02 April 2003 to 21 May 2003 (NODC Accession 0001042)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from SEA-LAND DEFENDER and other platforms in a world wide distribution from 02 April 2003 to 21 May 2003....

  3. Temperature profile data collected using XBT casts from multiple platforms in a world wide distribution from 07 November 2001 to 24 July 2002 (NODC Accession 0000762)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from OLEANDER, TAI HE, SEA-LAND ENTERPRISE, and other platforms in a world wide distribution. Data were...

  4. Temperature profile data from MBT casts from NAUKA and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 26 July 1966 to 09 September 1990 (NODC Accession 0000228)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using MBT casts in a World-wide distribution from the NAUKA, FIOLENT, LESNOYE, and other platforms from 26 July 1966 to 09...

  5. Temperature profile data from XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 1996-06-01 to 1997-08-10 (NODC Accession 9700224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from XBT casts from several research vessels in a world wide distribution. Data were collected from June 1, 1996 to August...

  6. Temperature profile data from XBT casts in a world wide distribution from multiple platforms from 04 September 2002 to 18 November 2002 (NODC Accession 0000831)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts from LYKES COMMANDER and other platforms in a world wide distribution from 04 September 2002 to 18 November...

  7. Temperature profile and oxygen data collected from multiple ships using CTD casts in a world wide distribution from 04 September 1979 to 15 April 1998 (NODC Accession 0002716)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and oxygen data were collected using CTD casts in a world wide distribution from multiple platforms from 04 September 1979 to 15 April 1998. Data...

  8. Temperature profile data collected using XBT casts from multiple platforms in a world wide distribution from 01 March 2002 to 26 August 2002 (NODC Accession 0000777)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from MELBOURNE STAR and other platforms in a world wide distribution. Data were collected from 01 March 2002...

  9. Temperature profile data from MBT casts from NAUKA and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 18 June 1970 to 05 May 1989 (NODC Accession 0000229)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using MBT casts in a World-wide distribution from the NAUKA, AELITA, LESNOYE, and other platforms from 18 June 1970 to 05 May...

  10. Temperature profile data collected in a world wide distribution using XBT casts from 01 January 1994 to 25 May 1994 (NODC Accession 9600159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from the ANGO and other platforms in a world wide distribution. Data were collected from 01 January 1994 to...

  11. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from a World-Wide distribution from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from 1979-06-03 to 1988-05-27 (NODC Accession 8800182)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from 03 June 1979 to 27 May 1988. Data...

  12. Temperature profile data from bucket, surface seawater intake, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 07 December 1995 to 18 October 1996 (NODC Accession 9600167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bucket, surface seawater intake, and XBT casts from several vessels in a world wide distribution from December 07, 1995...

  13. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from a World-Wide distribution from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from 1948-04-08 to 1968-12-14 (NODC Accession 9300131)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from MBT casts from a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from 08 April 1948 to 14 Decmeber...

  14. Temperature profile data from XBT casts from a World-Wide Distribution 31 March 1985 to 24 November 1990 (NODC Accession 9700191)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical data were collected from XBT casts from from a World-Wide Distribution from 31 March 1985 to 24 November 1990. Physical parameters include temperature...

  15. Chemical, temperature, and other data from bottle casts in a world-wide distribution from 04 October 1961 to 24 August 1990 (NODC Accession 0000231)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, temperature, and other data were collected using bottle casts in a world-wide distribution from multiple ships from October 4, 1961 to August 24, 1990....

  16. Temperature profile data from XBT casts in a world wide distribution from multiple platforms from 20 February 2003 to 24 April 200 (NODC Accession 0001019)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts from LYKES RAIDER and other platforms in a world wide distribution from 20 February 2003 to 24 April 2003....

  17. Temperature profile data from XBT casts from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from a World-Wide distribution from 02 January 1990 to 31 December 1995 (NODC Accession 0001268)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from a World-Wide distribution from 02 January 1990 to 31 December 1995. Data were submitted by the UK Hydrographic...

  18. Temperature profile data from MBT casts from AELITA and other platforms in a World wide distribution from 30 January 1970 to 26 July 1990 (NODC Accession 0000227)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using MBT casts in a world wide distribution from AELITA, ESTAFETA OKTYABRYA, MARLIN, ORHEVI, POLYAKOV, and ZVEZDA AZOVA from...

  19. Depth, chlorophyll, and total pigment data were collected using bottle casts in a world-wide distribution from 16 March 1997 to 30 January 1998 (NODC Accession 0000292)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Depth, chlorophyll, and total pigment data were collected using bottle casts from TIOGA and other platforms in a world-wide distribution from March 16, 1997 to...

  20. Dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen data collected using bottle in a world wide distribution from 02 September 1998 to 02 November 2003 (NODC Accession 0002403)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) data were collected using bottle casts in a world wide distribution. Data were collected from 02...

  1. Temperature and other data from XBT and MBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 06 March 1958 to 01 April 1958 (NODC Accession 0000336)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and other data were collected using XBT and MBT casts in a world-wide distribution from March 6, 1958 to April 1, 1958. Data were submitted by Duetsches...

  2. Observational evidence of a long-term increase in precipitation due to urbanization effects and its implications for sustainable urban living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, K M; Wang, X M; Lin, T H; Wong, M S; Zeng, S K; He, N; Ng, E; Lau, K; Wang, D H

    2017-12-01

    Although projected precipitation increases in East Asia due to future climate change have aroused concern, less attention has been paid by the scientific community and public to the potential long-term increase in precipitation due to rapid urbanization. A ten-year precipitation dataset was analysed for both a rapidly urbanized megacity and nearby suburban/rural stations in southern China. Rapid urbanization in the megacity was evident from satellite observations. A statistically significant, long-term, increasing trend of precipitation existed only at the megacity station (45.6mm per decade) and not at the other stations. The increase was attributed to thermal and dynamical modifications of the tropospheric boundary layer related to urbanization, which was confirmed by the results of our WRF-SLUCM simulations. The results also suggested that a long-term regional increase in precipitation, caused by greenhouse gas-induced climate change, for instance, was not evident within the study period. The urbanization-induced increase was found to be higher than the precipitation increase (18.3mm per decade) expected from future climate change. The direct climate impacts due to rapid urbanization is highlighted with strong implications for urban sustainable development and the planning of effective adaptation strategies for issues such as coastal defenses, mosquito-borne disease spread and heat stress mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling Air Temperature/Water Temperature Relations Along a Small Mountain Stream Under Increasing Urban Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedders, E. R.; Anderson, W. P., Jr.; Hengst, A. M.; Gu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Boone Creek is a headwater stream of low to moderate gradient located in Boone, North Carolina, USA. Total impervious surface coverage in the 5.2 km2 catchment drained by the 1.9 km study reach increases from 13.4% in the upstream half of the reach to 24.3% in the downstream half. Other markers of urbanization, including culverting, lack of riparian shade vegetation, and bank armoring also increase downstream. Previous studies have shown the stream to be prone to temperature surges on short timescales (minutes to hours) caused by summer runoff from the urban hardscaping. This study investigates the effects of urbanization on the stream's thermal regime at daily to yearly timescales. To do this, we developed an analytical model of daily average stream temperatures based on daily average air temperatures. We utilized a two-part model comprising annual and biannual components and a daily component consisting of a 3rd-order Markov process in order to fit the thermal dynamics of our small, gaining stream. Optimizing this model at each of our study sites in each studied year (78 total site-years of data) yielded annual thermal exchange coefficients (K) for each site. These K values quantify the strength of the relationship between stream and air temperature, or inverse thermal stability. In a uniform, pristine catchment environment, K values are expected to decrease downstream as the stream gains discharge volume and, therefore, thermal inertia. Interannual average K values for our study reach, however, show an overall increase from 0.112 furthest upstream to 0.149 furthest downstream, despite a near doubling of stream discharge between these monitoring points. K values increase only slightly in the upstream, less urban, half of the reach. A line of best fit through these points on a plot of reach distance versus K value has a slope of 2E-6. But the K values of downstream, more urbanized sites increase at a rate of 2E-5 per meter of reach distance, an order of magnitude

  4. Affordances of students' using the World Wide Web as a publishing medium in project-based learning environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Nathan Daniel

    This dissertation investigates the emerging affordance of the World Wide Web as a place for high school students to become authors and publishers of information. Two empirical studies lay groundwork for student publishing by examining learning issues related to audience adaptation in writing, motivation and engagement with hypermedia, design, problem-solving, and critical evaluation. Two models of student publishing on the World Wide Web were investigated over the course of two 11spth grade project-based science curriculums. In the first curricular model, students worked in pairs to design informative hypermedia projects about infectious diseases that were published on the Web. Four case studies were written, drawing on both product- and process-related data sources. Four theoretically important findings are illustrated through these cases: (1) multimedia, especially graphics, seemed to catalyze some students' design processes by affecting the sequence of their design process and by providing a connection between the science content and their personal interest areas, (2) hypermedia design can demand high levels of analysis and synthesis of science content, (3) students can learn to think about science content representation through engagement with challenging design tasks, and (4) students' consideration of an outside audience can be facilitated by teacher-given design principles. The second Web-publishing model examines how students critically evaluate scientific resources on the Web, and how students can contribute to the Web's organization and usability by publishing critical reviews. Students critically evaluated Web resources using a four-part scheme: summarization of content, content, evaluation of credibility, evaluation of organizational structure, and evaluation of appearance. Content analyses comparing students' reviews and reviewed Web documents showed that students were proficient at summarizing content of Web documents, identifying their publishing

  5. Recent urbanization in China is correlated with a Westernized microbiome encoding increased virulence and antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, Kathryn; Howard, Annie Green; Sha, Wei; Gharaibeh, Raad Z; Liu, Jiawu; Jin, Donghui; Fodor, Anthony A; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2017-09-15

    Urbanization is associated with an increased risk for a number of diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer, which all also show associations with the microbiome. While microbial community composition has been shown to vary across continents and in traditional versus Westernized societies, few studies have examined urban-rural differences in neighboring communities within a single country undergoing rapid urbanization. In this study, we compared the gut microbiome, plasma metabolome, dietary habits, and health biomarkers of rural and urban people from a single Chinese province. We identified significant differences in the microbiota and microbiota-related plasma metabolites in rural versus recently urban subjects from the Hunan province of China. Microbes with higher relative abundance in Chinese urban samples have been associated with disease in other studies and were substantially more prevalent in the Human Microbiome Project cohort of American subjects. Furthermore, using whole metagenome sequencing, we found that urbanization was associated with a loss of microbial diversity and changes in the relative abundances of Viruses, Archaea, and Bacteria. Gene diversity, however, increased with urbanization, along with the proportion of reads associated with antibiotic resistance and virulence, which were strongly correlated with the presence of Escherichia and Shigella. Our data suggest that urbanization has produced convergent evolution of the gut microbial composition in American and urban Chinese populations, resulting in similar compositional patterns of abundant microbes through similar lifestyles on different continents, including a loss of potentially beneficial bacteria and an increase in potentially harmful genes via increased relative abundance of Escherichia and Shigella.

  6. The evolution of urban sprawl: evidence of spatial heterogeneity and increasing land fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Elena G; Bockstael, Nancy E

    2007-12-26

    We investigate the dynamics and spatial distribution of land use fragmentation in a rapidly urbanizing region of the United States to test key propositions regarding the evolution of sprawl. Using selected pattern metrics and data from 1973 and 2000 for the state of Maryland, we find significant increases in developed and undeveloped land fragmentation but substantial spatial heterogeneity as well. Estimated fragmentation gradients that describe mean fragmentation as a function of distance from urban centers confirm the hypotheses that fragmentation rises and falls with distance and that the point of maximum fragmentation shifted outward over time. However, rather than outward increases in sprawl balanced by development infill, we find substantial and significant increases in mean fragmentation values along the entire urban-rural gradient. These findings are in contrast to the results of Burchfield et al. [Burchfield M, Overman HG, Puga D, Turner MA (2006) Q J Econ 121:587-633], who conclude that the extent of sprawl remained roughly unchanged in the Unites States between 1976 and 1992. As demonstrated here, both the data and pattern measure used in their study are systematically biased against recording low-density residential development, the very land use that we find is most strongly associated with fragmentation. Other results demonstrate the association between exurban growth and increasing fragmentation and the systematic variation of fragmentation with nonurban factors. In particular, proximity to the Chesapeake Bay is negatively associated with fragmentation, suggesting that an attraction effect associated with this natural amenity has concentrated development.

  7. [Preliminary construction of three-dimensional visual educational system for clinical dentistry based on world wide web webpage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Xu, Xiang-yang; Song, En-min; Tan, Hong-bao; Wang, Yi-ning

    2009-09-01

    To establish a new visual educational system of virtual reality for clinical dentistry based on world wide web (WWW) webpage in order to provide more three-dimensional multimedia resources to dental students and an online three-dimensional consulting system for patients. Based on computer graphics and three-dimensional webpage technologies, the software of 3Dsmax and Webmax were adopted in the system development. In the Windows environment, the architecture of whole system was established step by step, including three-dimensional model construction, three-dimensional scene setup, transplanting three-dimensional scene into webpage, reediting the virtual scene, realization of interactions within the webpage, initial test, and necessary adjustment. Five cases of three-dimensional interactive webpage for clinical dentistry were completed. The three-dimensional interactive webpage could be accessible through web browser on personal computer, and users could interact with the webpage through rotating, panning and zooming the virtual scene. It is technically feasible to implement the visual educational system of virtual reality for clinical dentistry based on WWW webpage. Information related to clinical dentistry can be transmitted properly, visually and interactively through three-dimensional webpage.

  8. How Did I Get to Princess Margaret? (And How Did I Get Her to the World Wide Web?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kip Jones

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the growing use of tools from the arts and humanities for investigation and dissemination of social science research. Emerging spaces for knowledge transfer, such as the World Wide Web, are explored as outlets for "performative social science". Questions of ethnics and questions of evaluation which emerge from performative social science and the use of new technologies are discussed. Contemporary thinking in aesthetics is explored to answer questions of evaluation. The use of the Internet for productions is proposed as supporting the collective elaboration of meaning supported by Relational Aesthetics. One solution to the ethical problem of performing the narrations of others is the use of the writer's own story as autoethnography. The author queries autoethnography's tendency to tell "sad" stories and proposes an amusing story, exemplified by "The One about Princess Margaret" (see http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/rt/suppFiles/281/618. The conclusion is reached that the free and open environment of the Internet sidelines the usual tediousness of academic publishing and begins to explore new answers to questions posed about the evaluation and ethics of performative social science. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070338

  9. Driving nanocars and nanomachines at interfaces: From concept of nanoarchitectonics to actual use in world wide race and hand operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Yasuhiro; Minami, Kosuke; Nakanishi, Waka; Yonamine, Yusuke; Joachim, Christian; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2016-11-01

    Nanomachine and molecular machines are state-of-the-art objects in current physics and chemistry. The operation and manufacturing of nanosize machines are top-level technologies that we have desired to accomplish for a long time. There have been extensive attempts to design and synthesize nanomachines. In this paper, we review the these attempts using the concept of nanoarchitectonics toward the design, synthesis, and testing of molecular machinery, especially at interfacial media. In the first half of this review, various historical attempts to design and prepare nanomachines are introduced as well as their operation mechanisms from their basic principles. Furthermore, in order to emphasize the importance and possibilities of this research field, we also give examples of two new challenging topics in the second half of this review: (i) a world wide nanocar race and (ii) new modes of nanomachine operation on water. The nanocar race event involves actual use of nanomachines and will take place in the near future, and nanomachine operation of a dynamic fluidic interface will enable future advances in nanomachine science and technology.

  10. Effective utilization of technology to meet the information needs of the world-wide natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markuszewski, R.; Capadocia, S.R.; Worster, C.L.; Kosman, J.E. [IGT (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Surveys on technical information relevant to the gas industry showed that no single information source was sufficient for all needs, while a number of sources include some pertinent information as part of their mission. The surveys concluded that access was difficult and wide usage of electronic resources had some real as well as some perceived problems. With the availability of the Internet and World Wide Web, many of these difficulties are being overcome. The natural gas industry is moving rapidly toward an era of electronic information with global access to a wide variety of technical, financial, and operational information. The most important sources of technical information are reviewed, and access to resources is briefly described. Cost comparison, relevancy, ease of use, and other factors are also discussed. The current status and future developments of gas industry information resources and technology are addressed in terms of emerging technologies and management issues which will bring critical information to the desktop of engineers, planners, and marketers. (au)

  11. An assessment of transit ridership: increased suburban to urban public transportation options in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Suburban development is occurring near urban areas across America. Often these communities are : separated by large masses of land with no linkage to the urban core. Referred to as urban sprawl, this type : of development causes a challenge for trans...

  12. Breast cancer on the world wide web: cross sectional survey of quality of information and popularity of websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meric, Funda; Bernstam, Elmer V; Mirza, Nadeem Q; Hunt, Kelly K; Ames, Frederick C; Ross, Merrick I; Kuerer, Henry M; Pollock, Raphael E; Musen, Mark A; Singletary, S Eva

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To determine the characteristics of popular breast cancer related websites and whether more popular sites are of higher quality. Design The search engine Google was used to generate a list of websites about breast cancer. Google ranks search results by measures of link popularity—the number of links to a site from other sites. The top 200 sites returned in response to the query “breast cancer” were divided into “more popular” and “less popular” subgroups by three different measures of link popularity: Google rank and number of links reported independently by Google and by AltaVista (another search engine). Main outcome measures Type and quality of content. Results More popular sites according to Google rank were more likely than less popular ones to contain information on ongoing clinical trials (27% v 12%, P=0.01 ), results of trials (12% v 3%, P=0.02), and opportunities for psychosocial adjustment (48% v 23%, Ppopular sites by number of linking sites were also more likely to provide updates on other breast cancer research, information on legislation and advocacy, and a message board service. Measures of quality such as display of authorship, attribution or references, currency of information, and disclosure did not differ between groups. Conclusions Popularity of websites is associated with type rather than quality of content. Sites that include content correlated with popularity may best meet the public's desire for information about breast cancer. What is already known on this topicPatients are using the world wide web to search for health informationBreast cancer is one of the most popular search topicsCharacteristics of popular websites may reflect the information needs of patientsWhat this study addsType rather than quality of content correlates with popularity of websitesMeasures of quality correlate with accuracy of medical information PMID:11884322

  13. Building a world-wide open source community around a software framework: progress, dos, and don'ts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, Jorge; Antognini, Jonathan; Avarias, Jorge; Caproni, Alessandro; Fuessling, Matthias; Gimenez, Guillermo; Verma, Khushbu; Mora, Matias; Schwarz, Joseph; Staig, Tomás.

    2016-08-01

    As we all know too well, building up a collaborative community around a software infrastructure is not easy. Besides recruiting enthusiasts to work as part of it, mostly for free, to succeed you also need to overcome a number of technical, sociological, and, to our surprise, some political hurdles. The ALMA Common Software (ACS) was developed at ESO and partner institutions over the course of more than 10 years. While it was mainly intended for the ALMA Observatory, it was early on thought as a generic distributed control framework. ACS has been periodically released to the public through an LGPL license, which encouraged around a dozen non-ALMA institutions to make use of ACS for both industrial and educational applications. In recent years, the Cherenkov Telescope Array and the LLAMA Observatory have also decided to adopt the framework for their own control systems. The aim of the "ACS Community" is to support independent initiatives in making use of the ACS framework and to further contribute to its development. The Community provides access to a growing network of volunteers eager to develop ACS in areas that are not necessarily in ALMA's interests, and/or were not within the original system scope. Current examples are: support for additional OS platforms, extension of supported hardware interfaces, a public code repository and a build farm. The ACS Community makes use of existing collaborations with Chilean and Brazilian universities, reaching out to promising engineers in the making. At the same time, projects actively using ACS have committed valuable resources to assist the Community's work. Well established training programs like the ACS Workshops are also being continued through the Community's work. This paper aims to give a detailed account of the ongoing (second) journey towards establishing a world-wide open source collaboration around ACS. The ACS Community is growing into a horizontal partnership across a decentralized and diversified group of

  14. Analysis and Comparison of Shading Strategies to Increase Human Thermal Comfort in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the expected increase in warmer conditions caused by climate change, heat-related illnesses are becoming a more pressing issue. One way that humans can protect themselves from this is to seek shade. The design of urban spaces can provide individuals with a variety of ways to obtain this shade. The objective of this study was to perform a detailed evaluation and comparison of three shading strategies that could be used in an urban environment: shade from a building, from a tree, and from an umbrella. This was done through using field measurements to calculate the impact of each strategy on a thermal comfort index (Comfort Formula (COMFA in two urban settings during sunny days of the summer of 2013 and 2014 in London, Canada. Building shade was found to be the most effective cooling strategy, followed by the tree strategy and the umbrella strategy. As expected, the main determinant of this ranking was a strategy’s ability to block incoming shortwave radiation. Further analysis indicated that changes in the convective loss of energy and in longwave radiation absorption had a smaller impact that caused variations in the strategy effectiveness between settings. This suggests that under non-sunny days, these rankings could change.

  15. Evolution and connectivity in the world-wide migration system of the mallard: Inferences from mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraus Robert HS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Main waterfowl migration systems are well understood through ringing activities. However, in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos ringing studies suggest deviations from general migratory trends and traditions in waterfowl. Furthermore, surprisingly little is known about the population genetic structure of mallards, and studying it may yield insight into the spread of diseases such as Avian Influenza, and in management and conservation of wetlands. The study of evolution of genetic diversity and subsequent partitioning thereof during the last glaciation adds to ongoing discussions on the general evolution of waterfowl populations and flyway evolution. Hypothesised mallard flyways are tested explicitly by analysing mitochondrial mallard DNA from the whole northern hemisphere. Results Phylogenetic analyses confirm two mitochondrial mallard clades. Genetic differentiation within Eurasia and North-America is low, on a continental scale, but large differences occur between these two land masses (FST = 0.51. Half the genetic variance lies within sampling locations, and a negligible portion between currently recognised waterfowl flyways, within Eurasia and North-America. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA at continent scale, incorporating sampling localities as smallest units, also shows the absence of population structure on the flyway level. Finally, demographic modelling by coalescence simulation proposes a split between Eurasia and North-America 43,000 to 74,000 years ago and strong population growth (~100fold since then and little migration (not statistically different from zero. Conclusions Based on this first complete assessment of the mallard's world-wide population genetic structure we confirm that no more than two mtDNA clades exist. Clade A is characteristic for Eurasia, and clade B for North-America although some representatives of clade A are also found in North-America. We explain this pattern by evaluating competing

  16. Empirical studies assessing the quality of health information for consumers on the world wide web: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenbach, Gunther; Powell, John; Kuss, Oliver; Sa, Eun-Ryoung

    The quality of consumer health information on the World Wide Web is an important issue for medicine, but to date no systematic and comprehensive synthesis of the methods and evidence has been performed. To establish a methodological framework on how quality on the Web is evaluated in practice, to determine the heterogeneity of the results and conclusions, and to compare the methodological rigor of these studies, to determine to what extent the conclusions depend on the methodology used, and to suggest future directions for research. We searched MEDLINE and PREMEDLINE (1966 through September 2001), Science Citation Index (1997 through September 2001), Social Sciences Citation Index (1997 through September 2001), Arts and Humanities Citation Index (1997 through September 2001), LISA (1969 through July 2001), CINAHL (1982 through July 2001), PsychINFO (1988 through September 2001), EMBASE (1988 through June 2001), and SIGLE (1980 through June 2001). We also conducted hand searches, general Internet searches, and a personal bibliographic database search. We included published and unpublished empirical studies in any language in which investigators searched the Web systematically for specific health information, evaluated the quality of Web sites or pages, and reported quantitative results. We screened 7830 citations and retrieved 170 potentially eligible full articles. A total of 79 distinct studies met the inclusion criteria, evaluating 5941 health Web sites and 1329 Web pages, and reporting 408 evaluation results for 86 different quality criteria. Two reviewers independently extracted study characteristics, medical domains, search strategies used, methods and criteria of quality assessment, results (percentage of sites or pages rated as inadequate pertaining to a quality criterion), and quality and rigor of study methods and reporting. Most frequently used quality criteria used include accuracy, completeness, readability, design, disclosures, and references provided

  17. Sharing individual patient and parasite-level data through the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network platform: A qualitative case study [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Pisani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasingly, biomedical researchers are encouraged or required by research funders and journals to share their data, but there's very little guidance on how to do that equitably and usefully, especially in resource-constrained settings. We performed an in-depth case study of one data sharing pioneer: the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN. Methods: The case study included a records review, a quantitative analysis of WAARN-related publications, in-depth interviews with 47 people familiar with WWARN, and a witness seminar involving a sub-set of 11 interviewees. Results: WWARN originally aimed to collate clinical, in vitro, pharmacological and molecular data into linked, open-access databases intended to serve as a public resource to guide antimalarial drug treatment policies. Our study describes how WWARN navigated challenging institutional and academic incentive structures, alongside funders' reluctance to invest in capacity building in malaria-endemic countries, which impeded data sharing. The network increased data contributions by focusing on providing free, online tools to improve the quality and efficiency of data collection, and by inviting collaborative authorship on papers addressing policy-relevant questions that could only be answered through pooled analyses. By July 1, 2016, the database included standardised data from 103 molecular studies and 186 clinical trials, representing 135,000 individual patients. Developing the database took longer and cost more than anticipated, and efforts to increase equity for data contributors are on-going. However, analyses of the pooled data have generated new methods and influenced malaria treatment recommendations globally. Despite not achieving the initial goal of real-time surveillance, WWARN has developed strong data governance and curation tools, which are now being adapted relatively quickly for other diseases. Conclusions: To be useful, data sharing requires

  18. Beyond Piñatas, Fortune Cookies, and Wooden Shoes: Using the World Wide Web to Help Children Explore the Whole Wide World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Donna; Shulsky, Debra; Willis, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The advent of technology and access to the internet through the World Wide Web have stretched the traditional ways of teaching social studies beyond classroom boundaries. This article explores how teachers can create authentic and contextualized cultural studies experiences for young children by integrating social studies and technology. To…

  19. Training value of laparoscopic colorectal videos on the World Wide Web: a pilot study on the educational quality of laparoscopic right hemicolectomy videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, V; Browning, M; Hitchins, C; Giglio, M C; Coleman, M G

    2017-11-01

    Instructive laparoscopy videos with appropriate exposition could be ideal for initial training in laparoscopic surgery, but unfortunately there are no guidelines for annotating these videos or agreed methods to measure the educational content and the safety of the procedure presented. Aim of this study is to systematically search the World Wide Web to determine the availability of laparoscopic colorectal surgery videos and to objectively establish their potential training value. A search for laparoscopic right hemicolectomy videos was performed on the three most used English language web search engines Google.com, Bing.com, and Yahoo.com; moreover, a survey among 25 local trainees was performed to identify additional websites for inclusion. All laparoscopic right hemicolectomy videos with an English language title were included. Videos of open surgery, single incision laparoscopic surgery, robotic, and hand-assisted surgery were excluded. The safety of the demonstrated procedure was assessed with a validated competency assessment tool specifically designed for laparoscopic colorectal surgery and data on the educational content of the video were extracted. Thirty-one websites were identified and 182 surgical videos were included. One hundred and seventy-three videos (95%) detailed the year of publication; this demonstrated a significant increase in the number of videos published per year from 2009. Characteristics of the patient were rarely presented, only 10 videos (5.4%) reported operating time and only 6 videos (3.2%) reported 30-day morbidity; 34 videos (18.6%) underwent a peer-review process prior to publication. Formal case presentation, the presence of audio narration, the use of diagrams, and snapshots and a step-by-step approach are all characteristics of peer-reviewed videos but no significant difference was found in the safety of the procedure. Laparoscopic videos can be a useful adjunct to operative training. There is a large and increasing amount of

  20. Air quality and its integration within urban planning: Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elva Alicia Corona–Zambrano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of world wide urbanization and industrialization, urban air pollution shows a growing trend directly proportional to increasing demands on energy for domestic and industrial activities. From this point of view, cities along with their urban, functional and morphological structure are not being planned with pollution prevention or minimum environmental impacts in mind. This work has two purposes: first, it sets an assessment of air quality in Mexicali by analyzing O3, CO, SO2, NO2 and PM10 emissions in relation to urban structure. And second, the assessment of already implemented urban strategies aimed to minimize environmental impacts. This work also presents a scheme that incorporates air quality issues into town planning and urban management.

  1. CHANNELING: SEARCH OF THE METAANTHROPOLOGIC MEAS-UREMENTS OF MIND BEING IN THE UNIVERSE (based on the World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly T. Tshedrin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study. In the context of religious and philosophical movements of the «New Age» gained channeling phenomenon – «laying channel», «transmission channel» information from the consciousness that is not in human form, to the individual and humanity as a whole. In the socio-cultural environment of the postmodern channeling reflects the problem of finding extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI; «ETC-problem»; SETІ problem and to establish contacts with them, this problem has a different projection, important philosophical and anthropological measurements in culture. Investigation of mechanisms of constructing virtual superhuman personalities in the world web is not only of interest for further analysis of the problem of extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI, but also to extend subject field of anthropology of the Internet as an important area of philosophical and anthropological studies. The purpose of the study. Analysis of the phenomenon of channeling as a projection of the fundamental problems of life ETI, its representation on the World Wide Web, the impact on the archaism of postmodern culture posing problems meta an-thropological dimensions of existence in the universe of reason and contact with him in the doctrinal grounds channeling. Analysis of research on the problem and its empirical base. Clustered nature of the problem of ETI and channeling its element involves the widespread use of radio astronomy paradigm works carriers solve CETI; work in anthropology Internet; works of researchers of the phenomenon of «New Age». Empirical basis of the study are network resources, as well as texts–representatives created and introduced into circulation by the channelers, their predecessors. Research Methodology. Channeling as an object of research, its network of representation – as a matter of methods involve the use of analytical hermeneutics and archaeographic commenting text fractal logic cluster analysis. The main

  2. Decreasing abundance, increasing diversity and changing structure of the wild bee community (Hymenoptera: Anthophila along an urbanization gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fortel

    Full Text Available Wild bees are important pollinators that have declined in diversity and abundance during the last decades. Habitat destruction and fragmentation associated with urbanization are reported as part of the main causes of this decline. Urbanization involves dramatic changes of the landscape, increasing the proportion of impervious surface while decreasing that of green areas. Few studies have investigated the effects of urbanization on bee communities. We assessed changes in the abundance, species richness, and composition of wild bee community along an urbanization gradient.Over two years and on a monthly basis, bees were sampled with colored pan traps and insect nets at 24 sites located along an urbanization gradient. Landscape structure within three different radii was measured at each study site. We captured 291 wild bee species. The abundance of wild bees was negatively correlated with the proportion of impervious surface, while species richness reached a maximum at an intermediate (50% proportion of impervious surface. The structure of the community changed along the urbanization gradient with more parasitic species in sites with an intermediate proportion of impervious surface. There were also greater numbers of cavity-nesting species and long-tongued species in sites with intermediate or higher proportion of impervious surface. However, urbanization had no effect on the occurrence of species depending on their social behavior or body size.We found nearly a third of the wild bee fauna known from France in our study sites. Indeed, urban areas supported a diverse bee community, but sites with an intermediate level of urbanization were the most speciose ones, including greater proportion of parasitic species. The presence of a diverse array of bee species even in the most urbanized area makes these pollinators worthy of being a flagship group to raise the awareness of urban citizens about biodiversity.

  3. Decreasing abundance, increasing diversity and changing structure of the wild bee community (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) along an urbanization gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortel, Laura; Henry, Mickaël; Guilbaud, Laurent; Guirao, Anne Laure; Kuhlmann, Michael; Mouret, Hugues; Rollin, Orianne; Vaissière, Bernard E

    2014-01-01

    Wild bees are important pollinators that have declined in diversity and abundance during the last decades. Habitat destruction and fragmentation associated with urbanization are reported as part of the main causes of this decline. Urbanization involves dramatic changes of the landscape, increasing the proportion of impervious surface while decreasing that of green areas. Few studies have investigated the effects of urbanization on bee communities. We assessed changes in the abundance, species richness, and composition of wild bee community along an urbanization gradient. Over two years and on a monthly basis, bees were sampled with colored pan traps and insect nets at 24 sites located along an urbanization gradient. Landscape structure within three different radii was measured at each study site. We captured 291 wild bee species. The abundance of wild bees was negatively correlated with the proportion of impervious surface, while species richness reached a maximum at an intermediate (50%) proportion of impervious surface. The structure of the community changed along the urbanization gradient with more parasitic species in sites with an intermediate proportion of impervious surface. There were also greater numbers of cavity-nesting species and long-tongued species in sites with intermediate or higher proportion of impervious surface. However, urbanization had no effect on the occurrence of species depending on their social behavior or body size. We found nearly a third of the wild bee fauna known from France in our study sites. Indeed, urban areas supported a diverse bee community, but sites with an intermediate level of urbanization were the most speciose ones, including greater proportion of parasitic species. The presence of a diverse array of bee species even in the most urbanized area makes these pollinators worthy of being a flagship group to raise the awareness of urban citizens about biodiversity.

  4. The Brussels-Capital Region. Increasing the Density of Urban Spaces and Preserving the Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioulia Pankratieva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its foundation in 1989, Region of Brussels Capital has its own government and conducts an independent urban policy. With the constant increase in population the main objectives for the Region are concentrated on development of housing and infrastructure objects, transport security, and improvement of functioning of urban structures.Urban policy is based on the Regional Plan for Sustainable Development (Plan Régional de Développement Durable - PRDD, which is a strategic tool for urban planning and deals with a wide range of issues related to the economy, demographics, construction, transport.A new Regional Plan for Sustainable Development was adopted in December 2012. It will direct the development of the Region for the next 25 years. Densification of urban environment was highlighted in a separate section. Development of this section was entrusted to the Bureau COOPARCH.ru.

  5. Increased ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations are associated with asthma exacerbation among urban children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kristin A.; Halterman, Jill S.; Hopke, Philip K.; Fagnano, Maria; Rich, David Q.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Increased air pollutant concentrations have been linked to several asthma-related outcomes in children, including respiratory symptoms, medication use, and hospital visits. However, few studies have examined effects of ultrafine particles in a pediatric population. Our primary objective was to examine the effects of ambient concentrations of ultrafine particles on asthma exacerbation among urban children and determine whether consistent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids could attenuate these effects. We also explored the relationship between asthma exacerbation and ambient concentrations of accumulation mode particles, fine particles (≤ 2.5 micrograms [μm]; PM2.5), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone. We hypothesized that increased 1 to 7 day concentrations of ultrafine particles and other pollutants would be associated with increases in the relative odds of an asthma exacerbation, but that this increase in risk would be attenuated among children receiving school-based corticosteroid therapy. Methods We conducted a pilot study using data from 3–10 year-old children participating in the School-Based Asthma Therapy trial. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit treated with prednisone (n=96 visits among 74 children) associated with increased pollutant concentrations in the previous 7 days. We re-ran these analyses separately for children receiving medications through the school-based intervention and children in a usual care control group. Results Interquartile range increases in ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations in the previous 7 days were associated with increases in the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit, with the largest increases observed for 4-day mean ultrafine particles (interquartile range=2088 p/cm3; OR=1.27; 95% CI=0.90–1.79) and 7-day mean carbon monoxide (interquartile range=0.17 ppm; OR=1.63; 95

  6. Increasing the Use of Urban Greenways in Developing Countries: A Case Study on Wutong Greenway in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiyong; Gu, Weiying; Liu, Tao; Yuan, Lei; Zeng, Mali

    2017-05-23

    Given the benefits of urban greenways on the health and well-being of urban populations, the increased use of urban greenways has garnered increasing attention. Studies on urban greenways, however, have been mostly conducted in Western countries, whereas there is limited knowledge on greenway use in urban areas in developing countries. To address this shortcoming, the present study selected Wutong Greenway in Shenzhen, China, as a case study and focused on the use pattern and factors that influence the frequency and duration of urban greenway use in developing countries. An intercept survey of greenway users was conducted, and 1257 valid questionnaires were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between potential predictors and greenway use. Results showed that visitors with a varied sociodemographic background use Wutong Greenway with high intensity. Various factors affect the use of urban greenways, including individual and environmental factors and greenway use patterns. Unlike previous studies, we found that accommodation type, length of stay at present residence and mode of transportation to the greenway are important factors that affect greenway use. In contrast with studies conducted in Western countries, less-educated and low-income respondents visit the Wutong greenway even more frequently than others. Thus, the greenway is an important public asset that promotes social equity and that all residents can freely use. To better serve citizens, we suggest that the greenway network should be extended to other areas and that its environmental quality should be improved.

  7. Building an urban park increases the intention of adults to practice physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaelly Machado Felix

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical activity levels in adults are low and strategies should be put in place to change this. The aim of this study was to investigate whether building an urban park can increase adult neighborhood residents' intentions to partake in physical activity. In total, 395 adults living near where the park was being built participated in the study. The following information was collected: sociodemographic characteristics, current physical activity levels, and intention to use the park for physical activity. Around 80% of the subjects intended to use the park for physical activity. This frequency was higher among those who were classified as physically active and gradually higher as the distance between the home of the subject and the park decreased (p < 0.05. The offer of a public leisure space can contribute positively to changing population behavior related to regular physical activity.

  8. Recreation as a reinforcer: increasing membership and decreasing disruptions in an urban recreation centre1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Charles H.; Risley, Todd R.

    1974-01-01

    It is presumed that recreation activities have a variety of functions for people, from tension reduction to citizenship development; however, a recreation activity's most empirically obvious function is as a reinforcer. This study demonstrates how two recurrent problems of urban recreation programs—recruitment of members and reduction of disruptive behaviors within the program—can be handled simply by contingently adjusting the amount of time the recreation activities are available. When extra time in the recreation center was provided to those youths who brought new members, dramatic increases in membership were achieved. On the other hand, when the closing time for each evening's recreation program was publicly moved forward by a few minutes for each offense, disruptive behaviors were nearly eliminated. Recreation used as a reinforcer can thus improve the basic operation of a recreation center and might similarly enhance other presumed and desired functions of recreation. PMID:16795471

  9. Rural to urban migration is associated with increased prevalence of childhood wheeze in a Latin-American city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alejandro; Vaca, Maritza G; Chico, Martha E; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L; Cooper, Philip J

    2017-01-01

    The urbanisation process has been associated with increases in asthma prevalence in urban and rural areas of low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, although rural to urban migration and migration between cities are considered important determinants of this process, few studies have evaluated the effects of internal migration on asthma in urban populations of LMICs. The present study evaluated the effects of internal migration on the prevalence of wheeze in an urban area of Latin America. We did a cross-sectional analysis of 2510 schoolchildren living in the city of Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Logistic regression was used to analyse associations between childhood wheeze and different aspects of migration among schoolchildren. 31% of schoolchildren were migrants. Rural to urban migrants had a higher prevalence of wheeze, (adj.OR=2.01,95% CI1.30 to 3.01, p=0.001) compared with non-migrants. Age of migration and time since migration were associated with wheeze only for rural to urban migrants but not for urban to urban migrants. Children who had migrated after 3 years of age had a greater risk of wheeze (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.56 to 3.97, p=0.001) than non-migrants while migrants with less than 5 years living in the new residence had a higher prevalence of wheeze than non-migrants (Latin-American city. Age of migration and time since migration were important determinants of wheeze only among migrants from rural areas. A better understanding of the social and environmental effects of internal migration could improve our understanding of the causes of the increase in asthma and differences in prevalence between urban and rural populations.

  10. The Impact of Albedo Increase to Mitigate the Urban Heat Island in Terni (Italy Using the WRF Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Morini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of the urban heat island (UHI phenomenon on energy consumption, air quality, and human health have been widely studied and described. Mitigation strategies have been developed to fight the UHI and its detrimental consequences. A potential countermeasure is the increase of urban albedo by using cool materials. Cool materials are highly reflective materials that can maintain lower surface temperatures and thus can present an effective solution to mitigate the UHI. Terni’s proven record of high temperatures along with related environmental and comfort issues in its urban areas have reflected the local consequences of global warming. On the other hand, it promoted integrated actions by the government and research institutes to investigate solutions to mitigate the UHI effects. In this study, the main goal is to investigate the effectiveness of albedo increase as a strategy to tackle the UHI, by using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF mesoscale model to simulate the urban climate of Terni (Italy. Three different scenarios through a summer heat wave in the summer of 2015 are analyzed. The Base Scenario, which simulates the actual conditions of the urban area, is the control case. In the Albedo Scenario (ALB Scenario, the albedo of the roof, walls and road of the whole urban area is increased. In the Albedo-Industrial Scenario (ALB-IND Scenario, the albedo of the roof, walls and road of the area occupied by the main industrial site of Terni, located in close proximity to the city center, is increased. The simulation results show that the UHI is decreased up to 2 °C both at daytime and at nighttime in the ALB and in ALB-IND Scenarios. Peak temperatures in the urban area can be decreased by 1 °C at daytime, and by about 2 °C at nighttime. Albedo increase in the area of interest might thus represent an opportunity to decrease the UHI effect and its consequences.

  11. Urbanization and agriculture increase exports and differentially alter elemental stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from tropical catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gücker, Björn; Silva, Ricky C. S.; Graeber, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    , pasture, intensive agriculture, and urban land cover. Streams draining pasture could be distinguished from those draining natural catchments by their lower DOC concentrations, with lower DOM C:N and C:P ratios. Catchments with intensive agriculture had higher DOC exports and lower DOM C:P ratios than...... natural catchments. Finally, with the highest DOC concentrations and exports, as well as the highest DOM C:P and N:P ratios, but the lowest C:N ratios among all land-use types, urbanized catchments had the strongest effects on catchment DOM. Thus, urbanization may have alleviated N limitation...... of heterotrophic DOM decomposition, but increased P limitation. Land use—especially urbanization—also affected the seasonality of catchment biogeochemistry. While natural catchments exhibited high DOC exports and concentrations, with high DOM C:P ratios in the rainy season only, urbanized catchments had high...

  12. Increasing Geothermal Energy Demand: The Need for Urbanization of the Drilling Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoriu, Catalin; Falcone, Gioia

    2008-01-01

    Drilling wells in urban spaces requires special types of rigs that do not conflict with the surrounding environment. For this, a mutation of the current drilling equipment is necessary into what can be defined as an "urbanized drilling rig." Noise reduction, small footprint, and "good looking" rigs all help persuade the general public to accept…

  13. Transmission of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli between cattle, humans and the environment in peri-urban livestock keeping communities in Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupindu, Athumani M; Dalsgaard, Anders; Msoffe, Peter L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Urban and peri-urban livestock farming is expanding world-widely because of increased urbanization and demands for food of animal origin. Such farming practices pose a public health risk as livestock are reservoirs of several zoonotic pathogens. In an attempt to determine the fecal transmission...... infrastructures (Odd Ratio=11.2, 95% CI=1.1-119.3) were associated with E. coli showing identical PFGE types within and between clusters. There is a need to improve animal husbandry and manure management practices to reduce risks of transmission of enteropathogens between livestock and humans in urban and peri-urban...... between livestock and people, 100 household clusters keeping cattle in close proximity of humans were selected in urban and peri-urban areas of Morogoro in Tanzania. One hundred eighteen ampicillin and tetracycline resistant Escherichia coli (40 from human stool, 50 from cattle feces, 21 from soil...

  14. Using Electronic Classrooms and the World Wide Web to Support Science Teaching and Learning: Interactive Session Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellom, Paul; Fetters, Marcia; Beeth, Michael

    Since technology use in schools has been increasing, teachers want to maximize its use in their classroom to increase student learning. Therefore, accreditation requirements for colleges include integrating computer and information technology with teacher education and professional development programs. This paper describes different models for…

  15. Increase urban resilience by planning the public spaces uses for humanitarian interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaitre, Maxime; Barroca, Bruno; Vargas, Jorge; Cornejo, Christian; Sierra, Alexis

    2017-04-01

    Challenges in post-disaster crisis of natural origin seem to have a strong relation with territory characteristics (location, habitat, propagation, etc.). Moreover, they determine those requirements needed for humanitarian interventions. Decision-making at response and recuperation stages are supported or limited depending on the availability of public spaces to be used for victims' accommodation, field hospitals and rubble deposits. In the case of Lima and Callao (Peru), the presence and superposition of multiple governmental levels - national, regional (1), provincial (2) and district (50) - result in a highly-complex local Disaster Risk Management system for response coordination. The diversity of actors, their responsibilities and individual initiative suggest competition for the resources available in an emergency situation. Resource location determines if humanitarian operations can be run in an effective and efficient way. In this context, public space is a fundamental resource; if it is well-selected, it will provide access to accumulated resources such as water, electricity and telecommunications for the affected population. To increase urban resilience, it requires previous planning and coordination for emergency response, where institutional and territorial configurations are decisive factors for the recuperation and rehabilitation processes performance. This communication will present the institutional and territorial dimensions of the Peruvian capital which condition emergency management performances to consider the crisis management opportunities, offered by territorial analysis and estimations of actors' needs. It would be a starting point for decision-making on emergence activities locations and for establishing coordination frameworks concerning territorial issues and challenges.

  16. A case study of campus-based flexible learning using the World Wide Web and computer conferencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Nicholson

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In line with departments in many other universities, the IT Institute (ITI has experienced an increase in student numbers which has not been matched by a commensurate increase in funding or staff numbers. Staff to student ratios have increased to the point where it has become impractical for small group tutorials to take place. This position has affected job satisfaction and caused increasing doubts over the effectiveness of large group lectures for student learning. Furthermore, it has been recognized that over the last ten years the makeup of the student population has radically changed, leading to a larger proportion of 'nontraditional' students such as mature students with family responsibilities. Related to this, many students are now in part-time or even full-time employment. It is recognized that both these groups require greater flexibility in the time and place of their learning.

  17. Do urban environments increase the risk of anxiety, depression and psychosis? An epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Karen; Murray, Aja; Booth, Tom

    2013-09-25

    The present study aimed to investigate whether there is an association between type of living environment (urban versus rural) and anxiety, depression and psychosis in the Scottish population. Data were obtained from the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics database on Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and urban-rural classifications for 6505 data zones across Scotland. Multiple regression was used to test the association between prescriptions for psychotropic medication for anxiety, depression and psychosis, and type of living environment according to urban-rural classification, controlling for a range of socio-economic factors. Urban-rural classification significantly predicted poorer mental health both before (β=-.29) and after (β=-.20) controlling for a large number of socio-economic variables, with more urban areas having higher rates of prescription for psychotropic medication for anxiety, depression and psychosis. The current study focussed on macro-level variables and did not include individual level data. As such, the study did not include data on individual diagnoses, but instead used drug prescriptions for anxiety, depression and psychosis as a proxy for level of affective disorders within data zones. More urban living environments in Scotland are associated with higher rates of prescription for psychotropic medication for anxiety, depression and psychosis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Increasing Surface Albedo on Urban Climate and Air Quality: A Detailed Study for Sacramento, Houston, and Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jandaghian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing surface reflectivity in urban areas can decrease ambient temperature, resulting in reducing photochemical reaction rates, reducing cooling energy demands and thus improving air quality and human health. The weather research and forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem is coupled with the multi-layer of the urban canopy model (ML-UCM to investigate the effects of surface modification on urban climate in a two-way nested approach over North America focusing on Sacramento, Houston, and Chicago during the 2011 heat wave period. This approach decreases the uncertainties associated with scale separation and grid resolution and equip us with an integrated simulation setup to capture the full impacts of meteorological and photochemical reactions. WRF-ChemV3.6.1 simulated the diurnal variation of air temperature reasonably well, overpredicted wind speed and dew point temperature, underpredicted relative humidity, overpredicted ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations, and underpredicted fine particular matters (PM2.5. The performance of PM2.5 is a combination of overprediction of particulate sulfate and underprediction of particulate nitrate and organic carbon. Increasing the surface albedo of roofs, walls, and pavements from 0.2 to 0.65, 0.60, and 0.45, respectively, resulted in a decrease in air temperature by 2.3 °C in urban areas and 0.7 °C in suburban areas; a slight increase in wind speed; an increase in relative humidity (3% and dew point temperature (0.3 °C; a decrease of PM2.5 and O3 concentrations by 2.7 µg/m3 and 6.3 ppb in urban areas and 1.4 µg/m3 and 2.5 ppb in suburban areas, respectively; minimal changes in PM2.5 subspecies; and a decrease of nitrogen dioxide (1 ppb in urban areas.

  19. Meetings on atomic energy. V.26, no.2. A quarterly world-wide list of conferences, exhibitions and training courses in atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvini Plawen, S.

    1994-04-01

    This quarterly list comprises conferences, exhibitions and training courses that have been planned on subjects directly or indirectly related to nuclear energy and its peaceful uses. The designation of countries or territories and the arrangement of material in this publication should not be considered as implying any endorsement or other judgement by the Agency regarding the legal status of any country or territory, or of its authorities, or in respect of the delimitation of its boundaries. The list has a world-wide distribution and is intended to be comprehensive within the field of nuclear science

  20. Meetings on atomic energy. V.26, no.4. A quarterly world-wide list of conferences, exhibitions and training courses in atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvini Plawen, S.

    1994-10-01

    This quarterly list comprises conferences, exhibitions and training courses that have been planned on subjects directly or indirectly related to nuclear energy and its peaceful uses. The designation of countries or territories and the arrangement of material in this publication should not be considered as implying any endorsement or other judgement by the Agency regarding the legal status of any country or territory, or of its authorities, or in respect of the delimitation of its boundaries. The list has a world-wide distribution and is intended to be comprehensive within the field of nuclear science

  1. Meetings on atomic energy. V.26, no.3. A quarterly world-wide list of conferences, exhibitions and training courses in atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvini Plawen, S.

    1994-07-01

    This quarterly list comprises conferences, exhibitions and training courses that have been planned on subjects directly or indirectly related to nuclear energy and its peaceful uses. The designation of countries or territories and the arrangement of material in this publication should not be considered as implying any endorsement or other judgement by the Agency regarding the legal status of any country or territory, or of its authorities, or in respect of the delimitation of its boundaries. The list has a world-wide distribution and is intended to be comprehensive within the field of nuclear science

  2. Utilizing DNA analysis to combat the world wide plague of present day slavery – trafficking in persons

    OpenAIRE

    Palmbach, Timothy; Blom, Jeffrey; Hoynes, Emily; Primorac, Dragan; Gaboury, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A study was conducted to determine if modern forensic DNA typing methods can be properly employed throughout the world with a final goal of increasing arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of perpetrators of modern day trafficking in persons while concurrently reducing the burden of victim testimony in legal proceedings. Without interruption of investigations, collection of samples containing DNA was conducted in a variety of settings. Evidentiary samples wer...

  3. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes with ascending social class in urban South Indians is explained by obesity: The Chennai urban rural epidemiology study (CURES-116)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skar, Mette; Villumsen, Anne Berg; Christensen, Dirk Lund

    2013-01-01

    Rural Epidemiology Study of 1989 individuals, aged ≥20 years. Entered in the analyses were information obtained by self-report on (1) household income; (2) family history of diabetes; (3) physical activity; (4) smoking status; (5) alcohol consumption. Biochemical, clinical and anthropometrical.......001). A significant increase in the risk of diabetes was found with ascending social class (Intermediate class: Odds ratio [OR], 1.7 [confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.3]; High class: OR, 2.0 [CI-1.4-2.9]). The multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the effect of social class on the risk......AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the factors responsible for differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in subjects of different social class in an urban South Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the Chennai Urban...

  4. Utilizing DNA analysis to combat the world wide plague of present day slavery – trafficking in persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmbach, Timothy; Blom, Jeffrey; Hoynes, Emily; Primorac, Dragan; Gaboury, Mario

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if modern forensic DNA typing methods can be properly employed throughout the world with a final goal of increasing arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of perpetrators of modern day trafficking in persons while concurrently reducing the burden of victim testimony in legal proceedings. Without interruption of investigations, collection of samples containing DNA was conducted in a variety of settings. Evidentiary samples were analyzed on the ANDE Rapid DNA system. Many of the collected swabs yielded informative short tandem repeat profiles with Rapid DNA technology. PMID:24577820

  5. Utilizing DNA analysis to combat the world wide plague of present day slavery--trafficking in persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmbach, Timothy M; Blom, Jeffrey; Hoynes, Emily; Primorac, Dragan; Gaboury, Mario

    2014-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine if modern forensic DNA typing methods can be properly employed throughout the world with a final goal of increasing arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of perpetrators of modern day trafficking in persons while concurrently reducing the burden of victim testimony in legal proceedings. Without interruption of investigations, collection of samples containing DNA was conducted in a variety of settings. Evidentiary samples were analyzed on the ANDE Rapid DNA system. Many of the collected swabs yielded informative short tandem repeat profiles with Rapid DNA technology.

  6. The relative contribution of immigration or local increase for persistence of urban schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Ronald E; Barbosa, Lúcio M; Reis, Eliana A; Carmo, Theomira M; Dos Santos, Cláudio R A; Costa, Jackson M; Aminu, Peace T; Blank, Walter A; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Guimarães, Isabel C; Silva, Luciano K; Reis, Mitermayer G

    2015-03-01

    Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the community were interviewed and examined. In order to determine the degree of parasite differentiation between immigrants and the native born, S. mansoni eggs from stools were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The area received migrants from all over the state, but most infected children had never been outside of the city, and infected snails were present at water contact sites. Other epidemiologic features suggested immigration contributed little to the presence of infection. The intensity and prevalence of infection were the same for immigrants and natives when adjusted for age, and length of immigrant residence in the community was positively associated with prevalence of infection. The population structure of the parasites also supported that the contribution from immigration was small, since the host-to-host differentiation was no greater in the urban parasite population than a rural population with little distant immigration, and there had been little differentiation in the urban population over the past 7 years. Public health efforts should focus on eliminating local transmission, and once eliminated, reintroduction from distant migration is unlikely.

  7. The relative contribution of immigration or local increase for persistence of urban schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald E Blanton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the community were interviewed and examined. In order to determine the degree of parasite differentiation between immigrants and the native born, S. mansoni eggs from stools were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The area received migrants from all over the state, but most infected children had never been outside of the city, and infected snails were present at water contact sites. Other epidemiologic features suggested immigration contributed little to the presence of infection. The intensity and prevalence of infection were the same for immigrants and natives when adjusted for age, and length of immigrant residence in the community was positively associated with prevalence of infection. The population structure of the parasites also supported that the contribution from immigration was small, since the host-to-host differentiation was no greater in the urban parasite population than a rural population with little distant immigration, and there had been little differentiation in the urban population over the past 7 years. Public health efforts should focus on eliminating local transmission, and once eliminated, reintroduction from distant migration is unlikely.

  8. Possible development of the world-wide improvement of nuclear energy considering economical, social and political aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaek, W.

    1981-01-01

    Accepting the fact that the growing world energy demand cannot be met in the long term without an increasing use of nuclear energy one has to pay more attention to its possible expansion and consequently also to the geographical distribution of nuclear plants in the world. Due to future large scale deployment problems may arise in the areas of uranium supply, waste disposal, nonprofileration, safeguards, acceptability, and nuclear transfer. Based on the World Energy Conference (1977) global energy scenario a country-by-country analysis has been made to evaluate the possible contribution of nuclear energy in each country within the next 40 years. Against this background the problems of the head- and tail-end of the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed in detail and compared with the international trade of nonnuclear fuels. (orig.) [de

  9. Vitamin D and Calcium Insufficiency-Related Chronic Diseases: an Emerging World-Wide Public Health Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Boonen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D and calcium insufficiencies are risk factors for multiple chronic diseases. Data from 46 recent studies from Europe, North America, South-East Asia and the South Pacific area clearly indicate that a low vitamin D status and inadequate calcium nutrition are highly prevalent in the general population (30–80%, affecting both genders. The extent of insufficiencies is particularly high in older populations, and in some geographical areas, also in children and in young women of child-bearing age, in ethnic minorities and immigrants, as well as in people of low socio-economic status. Enrichment of cereal grain products with vitamin D and calcium would be a viable approach to increase consumption and improve health outcomes in the general population worldwide.

  10. Urbanization Causes Increased Cloud Base Height and Decreased Fog in Coastal Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. Park; Schwartz, Rachel E.; Iacobellis, Sam; Seager, Richard; Cook, Benjamin I.; Still, Christopher J.; Husak, Gregory; Michaelsen, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Subtropical marine stratus clouds regulate coastal and global climate, but future trends in these clouds are uncertain. In coastal Southern California (CSCA), interannual variations in summer stratus cloud occurrence are spatially coherent across 24 airfields and dictated by positive relationships with stability above the marine boundary layer (MBL) and MBL height. Trends, however, have been spatially variable since records began in the mid-1900s due to differences in nighttime warming. Among CSCA airfields, differences in nighttime warming, but not daytime warming, are strongly and positively related to fraction of nearby urban cover, consistent with an urban heat island effect. Nighttime warming raises the near-surface dew point depression, which lifts the altitude of condensation and cloud base height, thereby reducing fog frequency. Continued urban warming, rising cloud base heights, and associated effects on energy and water balance would profoundly impact ecological and human systems in highly populated and ecologically diverse CSCA.

  11. Does the Visibility of Greenery Increase Perceived Safety in Urban Areas? Evidence from the Place Pulse 1.0 Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojiang Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban green space provides a series of esthetic, environmental and psychological benefits to urban residents. However, the relationship between the visibility of green vegetation and perceived safety is still in debate. This research investigated whether green vegetation could help to increase the perceived safety based on a crowdsourced dataset: the Place Pulse 1.0 dataset. Place Pulse 1.0 dataset, which was generated from a large number of votes by online participants, includes geo-tagged Google Street View images and the corresponding perceived safety score for each image. In this study, we conducted statistical analyses to analyze the relationship between perceived safety and green vegetation characteristics, which were extracted from Google Street View images. Results show that the visibility of green vegetation plays an important role in increasing perceived safety in urban areas. For different land use types, the relationship between vegetation structures and perceived safety varies. In residential, urban public/institutional, commercial and open land areas, the visibility of vegetation higher than 2.5 m has significant positive correlations with perceived safety, but there exists no significant correlation between perceived safety and the percentage of green vegetation in transportation and industrial areas. The visibility of vegetation below 2.5 m has no significant relationship with the perceived safety in almost all land use types, except for multifamily residential land and urban public/institutional land. In general, this study provided insight for the relationship between green vegetation characteristics and the perception of environment, as well as valuable reference data for developing urban greening programs.

  12. World-wide and regional intercomparison for the determination of trace elements in tuna fish homogenate sample IAEA-350

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mee, L D; Oregioni, B; Horvat, M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory, Monaco (Monaco)

    1992-12-01

    The accurate and precise determination of trace elements in marine biological samples is an important aspect of marine pollution studies, especially regarding studies of human exposure to toxic elements through sea food consumption. Past intercomparison studies conducted by the Marine Environment Laboratory of IAEA (formerly the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity) have focused upon various marine organisms including fish, bivalves and crustaceans. The present intercalibration exercise was designed in order to satisfy the increased demand for certified reference materials of various origins and the wide range of parameters that should be studied. Additionally, different instrumental techniques, both nuclear and non-nuclear, were compared, and evaluated. By statistically examining the data from this study, the material can be certified for future use as a reference material. The present report presents the entire experimental data set ana a statistical evaluation of the results for each parameter. It should enable individual participants to assess their performance and make appropriate modifications to their laboratory's analytical procedures where necessary. Additionally, a graphical evaluation is made of the data for parameters where a consensus value could not easily be achieved in order to examine the source of any systematic errors. The exercise was designed to satisfy the requirements of participants in IAEA's Analytical Quality Assurance Service as well as laboratories involved in UNEP's Regional Seas Programme and similar activities conducted within the auspices of GIPME (Global Investigations of Pollution in the Marine Environment)

  13. A new generation of tools for search, recovery and quality evaluation of World Wide Web medical resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguillo, I

    2000-01-01

    Although the Internet is already a valuable information resource in medicine, there are important challenges to be faced before physicians and general users will have extensive access to this information. As a result of a research effort to compile a health-related Internet directory, new tools and strategies have been developed to solve key problems derived from the explosive growth of medical information on the Net and the great concern over the quality of such critical information. The current Internet search engines lack some important capabilities. We suggest using second generation tools (client-side based) able to deal with large quantities of data and to increase the usability of the records recovered. We tested the capabilities of these programs to solve health-related information problems, recognising six groups according to the kind of topics addressed: Z39.50 clients, downloaders, multisearchers, tracing agents, indexers and mappers. The evaluation of the quality of health information available on the Internet could require a large amount of human effort. A possible solution may be to use quantitative indicators based on the hypertext visibility of the Web sites. The cybermetric measures are valid for quality evaluation if they are derived from indirect peer review by experts with Web pages citing the site. The hypertext links acting as citations need to be extracted from a controlled sample of quality super-sites.

  14. World wide web-based cytological analysis of atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade intraepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washiya, Kiyotada; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Kumagai, Yukie; Himeji, Yukari; Kobayashi, Takako; Iwai, Muneo; Watanabe, Jun

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that the low level of consistency of diagnosis of atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASC-H) in uterine cervical cancer screening using the Bethesda System, indicating the necessity of a large-scale survey. We presented cases cytologically judged as ASC-H on our website and invited our members to give their opinions regarding the diagnosis by voting online. The Web voting results were analyzed and ASC-H was cytologically investigated. Virtual slides of atypical cells in cytology preparations of 53 cases were prepared and presented on a website. ASC-H cases were divided into 42 cases sampled by brush scraping and 11 cases sampled by cotton swab scraping. Fifty-three cases cytologically judged as ASC-H were classified into benign and CIN2/3, and their patterns of arrangement of atypical cells and 8 cytological parameters were morphologically investigated. The frequency of ASC-H diagnosis in the Web votes was low: 29.2% for brush-scraped and 26.2% for cotton swab-scraped cases. Three-dimensionality, coarse chromatin and irregular nuclei were significantly different between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and benign cases. Web-based surveys showed the difference of cytological findings between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and benign cases. To increase interobserver consistency, it may be useful to share information online, which avoids geographical and temporal limitations. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Online catalog of world-wide test sites for the post-launch characterization and calibration of optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, G.; Christopherson, J.B.; Stensaas, G.L.; Teillet, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    In an era when the number of Earth-observing satellites is rapidly growing and measurements from these sensors are used to answer increasingly urgent global issues, it is imperative that scientists and decision-makers can rely on the accuracy of Earth-observing data products. The characterization and calibration of these sensors are vital to achieve an integrated Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for coordinated and sustained observations of Earth. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as a supporting member of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and GEOSS, is working with partners around the world to establish an online catalog of prime candidate test sites for the post-launch characterization and calibration of space-based optical imaging sensors. The online catalog provides easy public Web site access to this vital information for the global community. This paper describes the catalog, the test sites, and the methodologies to use the test sites. It also provides information regarding access to the online catalog and plans for further development of the catalog in cooperation with calibration specialists from agencies and organizations around the world. Through greater access to and understanding of these vital test sites and their use, the validity and utility of information gained from Earth remote sensing will continue to improve. Copyright IAF/IAA. All rights reserved.

  16. Beyond cyborg metapathography in Michael Chorost’s Rebuilt to World Wide Mind: Introducing “morphos” as a rhetorical concept in cyborgography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Thayer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay introduces the rhetorical concept of “morphos”, a dimension of ethos, in the context of cyborg self-transformation and cyborg storytelling. Focusing on the cyborg storytelling of Michael Chorost, a cochlear implant user and futurist, this essay applies "morphos" to develop an argument about the changing capabilities and changing stories of living cyborg authors. Using rhetorical concepts to illuminate his self-transformation and narrative constructions, this essay analyzes Chorost’s two books: Rebuilt: How Becoming Part Computer Made Me More Human; and, World Wide Mind: The Coming Integration of Humanity, Machines, and the Internet. Chorost’s first book, Rebuilt, is an autobiographical account of his journey from deafness to cochlear implant hearing and his quest for community. He completes his journey of self-transformation using Haraway’s Cyborg Manifesto and Caidin’s Cyborg as narrative tools. Rebuilt can be defined as a cyborg metapathography, identifying rhetorical features of Chorost’s cyborg storytelling. Chorost’s second book, World Wide Mind, is both autobiographical and theoretical. This rhetorical shift in the context of his changing physical, perceptual, and cognitive capabilities, and his changing ethos, is significant because it opens the way for a new hybrid language combining the spoken/written and digital code.

  17. Assessing the quality of infertility resources on the World Wide Web: tools to guide clients through the maze of fact and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Kyoko; Bernstein, Judith; Fidler, Anne T

    2002-01-01

    The Internet has become a major source of health information for women, but information placed on the World Wide Web does not routinely undergo a peer review process before dissemination. In this study, we present an analysis of 197 infertility-related Web sites for quality and accountability, using JAMA's minimal core standards for responsible print. Only 2% of the web sites analyzed met all four recommended standards, and 50.8% failed to report any of the four. Commercial web sites were more likely to fail to meet minimum standards (71.2%) than those with educational (46.8%) or supportive (29.8%) elements. Web sites with educational and informational components were most common (70.6%), followed by commercial sites (52.8%) and sites that offered a forum for infertility support and activism (28.9%). Internet resources available to infertile patients are at best variable. The current state of infertility-related materials on the World Wide Web offers unprecedented opportunities to improve services to a growing number of e-health users. Because of variations in quality of site content, women's health clinicians must assume responsibility for a new role as information monitor. This study provides assessment tools clinicians can apply and share with clients.

  18. Rendimiento de los sistemas de recuperación en la world wide web: revisión metodológica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olvera Lobo, María Dolores

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to establish a methodology for the evaluation of information retrieval with search engines in the World Wide Web. The method, which is explained in detail, adapts traditional techniques for evaluating web peculiarities and makes use of precision and recall scores, based on the relevance of the first 20 results retrieved. This method has been successfully applied to the evaluation of ten different search engines.

    Este estudio pretende contribuir a establecer una metodología para la evaluación de la recuperación de información de las herramientas de búsqueda en el entorno de la World Wide Web. Se detalla el método diseñado (y aplicado con éxito, para evaluar los resultados de las búsquedas, adaptando las técnicas tradicionales de evaluación a las particularidades de la Web y empleando las medidas de la precisión y exhaustividad, basadas en la relevancia, para los 20 primeros resultados recuperados.

  19. Production and world-wide distribution of radioisotopes and allied products from NTP at Pelindaba, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louw, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Technology Products (NTP) a business division of the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation Ltd. (NECSA) is today a leading supplier of a range or radioisotope and supporting products to markets throughout the world. To achieve this status in the face of large technological, logistical and business barriers to entry has required the development of integrated and effective processes from a diverse and unconsolidated range of expertise and other resources. The various facilities and competencies established at NECSA over a period of 40 years had as their objective the accomplishment of strictly non-commercial strategic imperatives. Major emphasis was placed at Pelindaba on development of the capability to beneficiate the country's resources of uranium which are extracted as a by-product of gold mining. Fuel enrichment processes (using a method unique to NECSA) and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities were developed and commissioned during the period 1975 - 1990 and substantial quantities of enriched and depleted uranium material was produced. A small amount of locally produced, highly enriched fuel has been used to power the 20 MW SARARI -1 Research Reactor at Pelindaba which has been in operation since 1965. Major political and economic changes affecting South Africa gave rise, in the late 1980s, to the necessity for a fundamental strategic reorientation of NECSA. Over a period of time the fuel enrichment and fabrication programmes were terminated and ever greater emphasis was placed on development of businesses from established, diverse facilities and competencies with the objective of promoting increased financial independence and long term viability for the organisation. It was at this time that NTP the business responsible for production and marketing of radiation-based products at NECSA, was established. The various developments which facilitated the capacity of NTP to accede to its current position as a significant and growing provider of

  20. Kinesiology taping and the world wide web: a quality and content analysis of internet-based information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Bryan G; Cardone, Dennis A

    2014-10-01

    Due to limited regulation of websites, the quality and content of online health-related information has been questioned as prior studies have shown that websites often misrepresent orthopaedic conditions and treatments. Kinesio tape has gained popularity among athletes and the general public despite limited evidence supporting its efficacy. The primary objective of this study was to assess the quality and content of Internet-based information on Kinesio taping. An Internet search using the terms "Kinesio tape" and "kinesiology tape" was performed using the Google search engine. Websites returned within the first two pages of results, as well as hyperlinks embedded within these sites, were included in the study. These sites were subsequently classified by type. The quality of the website was determined by the Health On the Net (HON) score, an objective metric based upon recommendations from the United Nations for the ethical representation of health information. A content analysis was performed by noting specific misleading versus balanced features in each website. A total of 31 unique websites were identified. The majority of the websites (71%) were commercial. Out of a total possible 16 points, the mean HON score among the websites was 8.9 points (SD 2.2 points). The number of misleading features was significantly higher than the balanced features (p < 0.001). Fifty-eight percent of sites used anecdotal testimonials to promote the product. Only small percentages of websites discussed complications, alternatives, or provided accurate medical outcomes. Overall, commercial sites had a greater number of misleading features compared to non-commercial sites (p = 0.01). Websites discussing Kinesio tape are predominantly of poor quality and present misleading, imbalanced information. It is of ever-increasing importance that healthcare providers work to ensure that reliable, balanced, and accurate information be available to Internet users. IV.

  1. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes with ascending social class in urban South Indians is explained by obesity: The Chennai urban rural epidemiology study (CURES-116).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skar, Mette; Villumsen, Anne Berg; Christensen, Dirk Lund; Petersen, Joergen Holm; Deepa, Mohan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the factors responsible for differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in subjects of different social class in an urban South Indian population. Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study of 1989 individuals, aged ≥20 years. Entered in the analyses were information obtained by self-report on (1) household income; (2) family history of diabetes; (3) physical activity; (4) smoking status; (5) alcohol consumption. Biochemical, clinical and anthropometrical measurements were performed and included in the analyses. Social class was classified based on income as low (Rs. social class, respectively (P social class (Intermediate class: Odds ratio [OR], 1.7 [confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.3]; High class: OR, 2.0 [CI-1.4-2.9]). The multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the effect of social class on the risk of diabetes remained significant (P = 0.016) when age, family history of diabetes and blood pressure were included. However, with the inclusion of abdominal obesity in the model, the significant effect of social class disappeared (P = 0.087). An increased prevalence of DM was found in the higher social class in this urban South Indian population, which is explained by obesity.

  2. Does financial development increase energy consumption? The role of industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Lean, Hooi Hooi

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the relationship among energy consumption, financial development, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia from 1971 to 2008. The autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach to cointegration and Granger causality tests is employed for the analysis. The result confirms the existence of long-run relationship among energy consumption, economic growth, financial development, industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia. Long-run bidirectional causalities are found between financial development and energy consumption, financial development and industrialization, and industrialization and energy consumption. Hence, sound and developed financial system that can attract investors, boost the stock market and improve the efficiency of economic activities should be encouraged in the country. Nevertheless, promoting industrialization and urbanization can never be left out from the process of development. We add light to policy makers with the role of financial development, industrialization and urbanization in the process of economic development. - Highlights: ► We find the existence of long-run relationship among variables. ► Financial development is positively related to energy consumption. ► Bidirectional causal relationship between financial development and energy consumption. ► Sound and developed financial system should be encouraged.

  3. Allergic rhinitis in northern vietnam: increased risk of urban living according to a large population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lâm Hoàng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about prevalence and risk factors of allergic rhinitis and chronic nasal symptoms among adults in Vietnam. We aimed to estimate the prevalence, risk factor patterns and co-morbidities of allergic rhinitis and chronic nasal symptoms in one urban and one rural area in northern Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted from August 2007 to January 2008 in urban Hoankiem and rural Bavi in Hanoi among adults aged 21-70 years. Of 7008 randomly selected subjects, 91.7% participated in Bavi and 70.3% in Hoankiem. Results Allergic rhinitis ever or chronic nasal symptoms were reported by 50.2%. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis ever was considerably higher in Hoankiem compared to Bavi, 29.6% vs 10.0% (p Conclusions Allergic rhinitis ever was considerably more common in the urban area. Nasal blocking and runny nose was each reported by about one third of the studied sample with no major urban-rural difference. Further, exposure to air pollution at work was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis ever, nasal blocking and runny nose.

  4. The increasingly urban status of the Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are even books on urban bird-watching (e.g. Milne 2006, which includes .... By 2014, the total numbers of Cattle Egret nests found in Kampala had reached just ... It is possible therefore that sharing nesting trees confers some benefit.

  5. World-wide information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The three international organizations, IAEA, FAO, and UNESCO, which jointly sponsored the Symposium, share an active interest and involvement in information systems development. The extent of their interest was explained by the Director General of the IAEA, Dr. Sigvard Eklund, when he opened the meeting on behalf of the three co-sponsors: UNESCO in conjunction with the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), took initiatives in 1966 which led to the establishment of its UNISIST programme. Its aims are to co-ordinate existing trends towards international co-operation in the collection, storage and dissemination of information and to act as a catalyst. Its ultimate goal is to establish 'a flexible and loosely connected network of information services based on voluntary co-operation'. A particular concern of UNISIST is to ensure co-ordination of the information activities of the United Nations organizations. The Symposium provided an opportunity for the science information community to assess the progress already made in creating links between diverse national, international, intergovernmental and non-governmental information systems and services. Papers were presented describing current developments in the national information systems of a number of countries, with special emphasis on how these developments were furthering harmonization of national information policies and facilitating interconnection with international systems. INIS and AGRIS figured prominently amongst the international systems discussed. In addition, proposals for two new international systems, to be known as DEVSIS and SPINIS, were outlined. The former will deal with development science information; the latter will cover the information on the administrative, scientific and legal aspects of science policy. There was also discussion of international co-operation in information handling within such international organizations as the CMEA, the Commission of the European Communities and OECD

  6. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes with ascending social class in urban South Indians is explained by obesity: The Chennai urban rural epidemiology study (CURES-116

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Skar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the factors responsible for differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM in subjects of different social class in an urban South Indian population. Materials and Methods: Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study of 1989 individuals, aged ≥20 years. Entered in the analyses were information obtained by self-report on (1 household income; (2 family history of diabetes; (3 physical activity; (4 smoking status; (5 alcohol consumption. Biochemical, clinical and anthropometrical measurements were performed and included in the analyses. Social class was classified based on income as low (Rs. <2000 intermediate (Rs. 2000-5000` and high (Rs. 5000-20000. Results: The prevalence rates of DM were 12.0%, 18.4% and 21.7% in low, intermediate and high social class, respectively (P < 0.001. A significant increase in the risk of diabetes was found with ascending social class (Intermediate class: Odds ratio [OR], 1.7 [confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.3]; High class: OR, 2.0 [CI-1.4-2.9]. The multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the effect of social class on the risk of diabetes remained significant (P = 0.016 when age, family history of diabetes and blood pressure were included. However, with the inclusion of abdominal obesity in the model, the significant effect of social class disappeared (P = 0.087. Conclusion: An increased prevalence of DM was found in the higher social class in this urban South Indian population, which is explained by obesity.

  7. Hybrid and electric low-noise cars cause an increase in traffic accidents involving vulnerable road users in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Stephan; Petri, Maximilian; Haas, Philipp; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Due to resource scarcity, the number of low-noise and electric cars is expected to increase rapidly. The frequent use of these cars will lead to a significant reduction of traffic related noise and pollution. On the other hand, due to the adaption and conditioning of vulnerable road users the number of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and bicyclists is postulated to increase as well. Children, older people with reduced eyesight and the blind are especially reliant on a combination of acoustic and visual warning signals with approaching or accelerating vehicles. This is even more evident in urban areas where the engine sound is the dominating sound up to 30 kph (kilometres per hour). Above this, tyre-road interaction is the main cause of traffic noise. With the missing typical engine sound a new sound design is necessary to prevent traffic accidents in urban areas. Drivers should not be able to switch the sound generator off.

  8. Molecular evidence for the predation of Critically Endangered endemic Aphanius transgrediens from the stomach contents of world wide invasive Gambusia affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Predation and competition among native and invasive species are difficult to study in aquatic environments. Identification of preys from semi-digested body parts sampled from stomach contents of the predator is very challenging. Recent studies were mainly based on use of DNA extracted from stomach content to identify the prey species. This study presents the molecular evidence that reveals the predation of critically endangered Aphanius transgrediens by world-wide invasive Gambusia affinis for a better understanding of the link between the invasion and the extinction of native species in freshwater ecosystems. DNA samples were extracted from semi-digested stomach contents of the invader and short fragments of mitochondrial NADH1 gene were amplified using species-specific primers designed in this study to make identification at species level. Existence of both the prey and the predator species were also confirmed using environmental DNA extracted from water samples.

  9. River chloride trends in snow-affected urban watersheds: increasing concentrations outpace urban growth rate and are common among all seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R; De Cicco, Laura A; Lutz, Michelle A; Hirsch, Robert M

    2015-03-01

    Chloride concentrations in northern U.S. included in this study have increased substantially over time with average concentrations approximately doubling from 1990 to 2011, outpacing the rate of urbanization in the northern U.S. Historical data were examined for 30 monitoring sites on 19 streams that had chloride concentration and flow records of 18 to 49 years. Chloride concentrations in most studied streams increased in all seasons (13 of 19 in all seasons; 16 of 19 during winter); maximum concentrations occurred during winter. Increasing concentrations during non-deicing periods suggest that chloride was stored in hydrologic reservoirs, such as the shallow groundwater system, during the winter and slowly released in baseflow throughout the year. Streamflow dependency was also observed with chloride concentrations increasing as streamflow decreased, a result of dilution during rainfall- and snowmelt-induced high-flow periods. The influence of chloride on aquatic life increased with time; 29% of sites studied exceeded the concentration for the USEPA chronic water quality criteria of 230 mg/L by an average of more than 100 individual days per year during 2006-2011. The rapid rate of chloride concentration increase in these streams is likely due to a combination of possible increased road salt application rates, increased baseline concentrations, and greater snowfall in the Midwestern U.S. during the latter portion of the study period. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Increasing the Accuracy of Mapping Urban Forest Carbon Density by Combining Spatial Modeling and Spectral Unmixing Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Sun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurately mapping urban vegetation carbon density is challenging because of complex landscapes and mixed pixels. In this study, a novel methodology was proposed that combines a linear spectral unmixing analysis (LSUA with a linear stepwise regression (LSR, a logistic model-based stepwise regression (LMSR and k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN, to map the forest carbon density of Shenzhen City of China, using Landsat 8 imagery and sample plot data collected in 2014. The independent variables that contributed to statistically significantly improving the fit of a model to data and reducing the sum of squared errors were first selected from a total of 284 spectral variables derived from the image bands. The vegetation fraction from LSUA was then added as an independent variable. The results obtained using cross-validation showed that: (1 Compared to the methods without the vegetation information, adding the vegetation fraction increased the accuracy of mapping carbon density by 1%–9.3%; (2 As the observed values increased, the LSR and kNN residuals showed overestimates and underestimates for the smaller and larger observations, respectively, while LMSR improved the systematical over and underestimations; (3 LSR resulted in illogically negative and unreasonably large estimates, while KNN produced the greatest values of root mean square error (RMSE. The results indicate that combining the spatial modeling method LMSR and the spectral unmixing analysis LUSA, coupled with Landsat imagery, is most promising for increasing the accuracy of urban forest carbon density maps. In addition, this method has considerable potential for accurate, rapid and nondestructive prediction of urban and peri-urban forest carbon stocks with an acceptable level of error and low cost.

  11. Temperature profile data from XBT casts in a World-wide distribution from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 1982-05-24 to 1996-03-21 (NODC Accession 9600116)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts in a World-wide distribution from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 24 May 1982 to 21 March 1996....

  12. Temperature profile data from XBT casts from a world-wide distribution from the SEA-LAND NAVIGATOR and other platforms from 21 September 2000 to 18 March 2002 (NODC Accession 0000696)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected by deploying XBT casts from the SEA-LAND NAVIGATOR and other platforms over a world-wide distribution from 21 September 2000 to...

  13. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from a world-wide distribution from the EMERALD INDAH and other platforms from 28 November 2000 to 29 May 2001 (NODC Accession 0000465)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT and other data were collected from a world-wide distribution from the EMERALD INDAH and other platforms from 28 November 2000 to 29 May 2001. Data were submitted...

  14. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from SAXON STAR and other platforms in a World wide distribution from 09 March 1983 to 12 November 1986 (NODC Accession 8700035)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT from the SAXON STAR and other platforms in a World wide distribution. Data were collected...

  15. Temperature profile and other data from surface measurements casts from the R/V ATLANTIC in a world-wide survey from 17 March 1900 to 08 March 1998 (NODC Accession 0000241)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected from the R/V ATLANTIC in a world-wide distribution from March 17, 1900 to March 8, 1996. Data were collected by...

  16. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, and phosphate profiles collected by CTD or bottle in the World-wide Oceans from 11/4/1902 to 12/17/1998 (NODC Accession 0000198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, meteorological, and nutrients data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from the HOLLAND and other platforms in a world wide distribution....

  17. Temperature profile and chemical data collected using XBT and CTD casts from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 1991-09-17 to 1995-03-23 (NODC Accession 9500074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and chemical data were collected using XBT and CTD casts in a World-wide distribution from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platforms from 17...

  18. Temperature profile data from surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 1995-02-24 to 1996-06-23 (NODC Accession 9700060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts from several vessels in a world wide distribution from February 24,...

  19. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data from CTD and bottle casts from a world-wide distribution from the ANDROMEDA and other platforms from 01 January 1923 to 31 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000208)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and bottle data were collected from the ANDROMEDA and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1923 to 31 December 1999. Data were...

  20. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts in a World-wide distribution from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platforms from 1989-03-10 to 1990-08-01 (NODC Accession 9000239)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRDIGE and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 10 March 1989...

  1. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data from CTD and bottle casts from a world-wide distribution from the CORNIDE DE SAAVEDRA and other platforms from 01 January 1914 to 12 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, bottle, and other data were collected from the CORNIDE DE SAAVEDRA and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1914 to 31 December 1999....

  2. Temperature profile data from surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 1994-06-29 to 1996-06-08 (NODC Accession 9600120)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts from multiple vessels in a world wide distribution from June 29, 1994 to...

  3. Temperature profile data from XBT casts from a world-wide distribution from the SKOGAFOSS and other vessels as part of NOAA's Volunteer Observing Ships Program from 06 February 2002 to 10 April 2002 (NODC Accession 0000718)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SKOGAFOSS and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 06 February 2002 to 10 April 2002. Data...

  4. Temperature profile data collected using XBT and BT casts in a World-wide distribution from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 1970-09-30 to 1979-08-05 (NODC Accession 8300089)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 30 September 1970 to...

  5. Physical and chemical data collected using bottle casts in a World-wide distribution from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 1911-11-11 to 1990-03-18 (NODC Accession 9600072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical data were collected using bottle casts in a World-wide distribution from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 11 November 1911 to 18...

  6. Temperature profile data collected using XBT and BT casts in a world-wide distribution from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 1982-08-18 to 1982-12-21 (NODC Accession 8300007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in a world-wide distribution from 18 August 1982 to 21...

  7. Temperature profile data from surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 1996-03-01 to 1997-01-03 (NODC Accession 9700036)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts from several vessels in a world wide distribution from March 1, 1996 to...

  8. Air/delta/sea surface temperature, pressure, and other data from MISS GAIL in a world-wide distribution from 21 October 1957 to 18 April 1961 (NODC Accession 0000366)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Air/delta/sea surface temperature, pressure, and other data were collected from the MISS GAIL in a world-wide distribution from October 21, 1957 to April 18, 1961....

  9. Physical, biological, and chemical data from radiometer, profiling reflectance radiometer, and CTD casts in a world-wide distribution as part of the SeaWiFS/SIMBIOS project from 13 September 1981 to 16 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, biological, and chemical data were collected using radiometer, profiling reflectance radiometer, and CTD casts in a world-wide distribution from 13...

  10. Wind direction/velocity and current direction/velocity data from current meter casts in a world wide distribution from 1970-12-06 to 1991-10-01 (NODC Accession 9700218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind direction/velocity and current direction/velocity data were collected using current meter casts in a world wide distribution from December 6, 1970 to October 1,...

  11. Temperature profile data from XBTs collected world wide for the NOAA Shipboard Environmental Data Acquisition System Program (SEAS) project from 2003-06-07 to 2003-07-11 (NODC Accession 0001137)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected using XBT's from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS in a world wide distribution. Data were collected by the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological...

  12. Temperature and nutrients data collected using bottle casts from the SKIF and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 06 July 1962 to 08 January 1990 (NODC Accession 0000856)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in a World-wide distribution from SKIF and other platforms. Data were collected from 06 July 1962 to...

  13. Temperature profile data from surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 1996-08-11 to 1997-07-16 (NODC Accession 9700213)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution by several vessels from August 11, 1996 to...

  14. Temperature profile data from surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 1996-09-30 to 1997-05-27 (NODC Accession 9700161)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts from several vessels in a world wide distribution from September 30,...

  15. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts in a World-wide distribution from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platforms from 1988-02-03 to 1990-03-31 (NODC Accession 9000094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in a World-wide distribution from 03 February 1988 to 31 March 1990....

  16. Physical, chemical, meteorological, and nutrients data from bottle casts from a world-wide distribution from the YERMAK and other platforms from 15 January 1873 to 15 June 1967 (NODC Accession 0000505)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and nutrients data were collected from bottle casts from the YERMAK and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 15 January 1873...

  17. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from a World-Wide distribution from the ALASKA and other platforms from 1943-02-02 to 1964-10-10 (NODC Accession 9200027)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from MBT casts from a a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected from the ALASKA and other platforms from 02 February...

  18. Temperature profile data from surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 1996-09-19 to 1997-03-25 (NODC Accession 9700061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts from several vessels in a world wide distribution from September 19,...

  19. Temperature profile data from XBT casts from a world-wide distribution from the SEA-LAND HAWAII and other platforms as part of NOAA's Volunteer Observing Ships Program from 05 January 2000 to 26 February 2002 (NODC Accession 0000679)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected by using XBT casts from the SEA-LAND HAWAII and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 05 January 2000 to 26...

  20. Projected Effect of Increased Active Travel in German Urban Regions on the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinks, Ralph; Hoyer, Annika; Kuss, Oliver; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background Future transportation policy is likely to reduce emissions in the cities and urban regions by strengthening active travel. Increased walking and cycling are known to have positive effects on health outcomes. This work estimates effects of increased active travel on type 2 diabetes in Germany, where 64% of the population live in urban regions. Methods Based on the effect size of an increased active travel scenario reported from a recent meta-analysis, we project the change in the life time risk, the proportion of prevented cases and the change in diabetes free life time in a German birth cohort (born 1985) compared to business as usual. Results The absolute risk reduction of developing type 2 diabetes before the age of 80 is 6.4% [95% confidence interval: 3.7-9.7%] for men and 4.7% [2.2-7.7%] for women, respectively. Compared to business as usual, the increased active travel scenario prevents 14.0% [8.1-21.2%] of the future cases of diabetes in men and 15.8% [9.3-23.1%] in women. Diabetes free survival increases by 1.7 [1.0-2.7] years in men and 1.4 [0.6-2.3] in women. Conclusions Our projection predicts a substantial impact of increased active travel on the future burden of type 2 diabetes. The most striking effect may be seen in the number of prevented cases. In all urban regions with an increased active travel transport policy, about one out of seven male and one out of six female cases can be prevented. PMID:25849819

  1. Projected effect of increased active travel in German urban regions on the risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Brinks

    Full Text Available Future transportation policy is likely to reduce emissions in the cities and urban regions by strengthening active travel. Increased walking and cycling are known to have positive effects on health outcomes. This work estimates effects of increased active travel on type 2 diabetes in Germany, where 64% of the population live in urban regions.Based on the effect size of an increased active travel scenario reported from a recent meta-analysis, we project the change in the life time risk, the proportion of prevented cases and the change in diabetes free life time in a German birth cohort (born 1985 compared to business as usual.The absolute risk reduction of developing type 2 diabetes before the age of 80 is 6.4% [95% confidence interval: 3.7-9.7%] for men and 4.7% [2.2-7.7%] for women, respectively. Compared to business as usual, the increased active travel scenario prevents 14.0% [8.1-21.2%] of the future cases of diabetes in men and 15.8% [9.3-23.1%] in women. Diabetes free survival increases by 1.7 [1.0-2.7] years in men and 1.4 [0.6-2.3] in women.Our projection predicts a substantial impact of increased active travel on the future burden of type 2 diabetes. The most striking effect may be seen in the number of prevented cases. In all urban regions with an increased active travel transport policy, about one out of seven male and one out of six female cases can be prevented.

  2. The population in China’s earthquake-prone areas has increased by over 32 million along with rapid urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyang; Huang, Qingxu; Dou, Yinyin; Tu, Wei; Liu, Jifu

    2016-07-01

    Accurate assessments of the population exposed to seismic hazard are crucial in seismic risk mapping. Recent rapid urbanization in China has resulted in substantial changes in the size and structure of the population exposed to seismic hazard. Using the latest population census data and seismic maps, this work investigated spatiotemporal changes in the exposure of the population in the most seismically hazardous areas (MSHAs) in China from 1990 to 2010. In the context of rapid urbanization and massive rural-to-urban migration, nearly one-tenth of the Chinese population in 2010 lived in MSHAs. From 1990 to 2010, the MSHA population increased by 32.53 million at a significantly higher rate of change (33.6%) than the national average rate (17.7%). The elderly population in MSHAs increased by 81.4%, which is much higher than the group’s national growth rate of 58.9%. Greater attention should be paid to the demographic changes in earthquake-prone areas in China.

  3. Expanding health insurance to increase health care utilization: will it have different effects in rural vs. urban areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlyana, Erlyana; Damrongplasit, Kannika Kampanya; Melnick, Glenn

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates the importance of medical fee and distance to health care provider on individual's decision to seek care in developing countries. The estimation method used a mixed logit model applied to data from the third wave of the Indonesian family life survey (2000). The key variables of interest include medical fee and distance to different types of health care provider and individual characteristic variables. Urban dweller's decision to choose health care providers are sensitive to the monetary cost of medical care as measured by medical fee but they are not sensitive to distance. For those who reside in rural area, they are sensitive to the non-medical component cost of care as measured by travel distance but they are not sensitive to medical fee. As a result of those findings, policy makers should consider different sets of policy instruments when attempting to expand health service's usage in urban and rural areas of Indonesia. To increase access in urban areas, we recommend expansion of health insurance coverage in order to lower out-of-pocket medical expenditures. As for rural areas, expansion of medical infrastructures to reduce commuting distance and costs will be needed to increase utilization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Global Climate Change, Food Security, and Local Sustainability: Increasing Climate Literacy in Urban Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, R. A.; Low, R.; Gorokhovich, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Three higher education institutions, University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), Brooklyn College, and Lehman College, are working together to share expertise and resources to expand climate change topics offered to undergraduate and graduate students in New York City (NYC). This collaboration combines existing UNL educational learning resources and infrastructure in virtual coursework. It will supply global climate change education and locally-based research experiences to the highly diverse undergraduate students of Brooklyn and Lehman Colleges and to middle and high school teachers in NYC. Through the university partnership, UNL materials are being adapted and augmented to include authentic research experiences for undergraduates and teachers using NASA satellite data, geographic information system (GIS) tools, and/or locally collected microclimate data from urban gardens. Learners download NASA data, apply an Earth system approach, and employ GIS in the analysis of food production landscapes in a dynamically changing climate system. The resulting course will be offered via Blackboard courseware, supported by Web 2.0 technologies designed specifically to support dialogue, data, and web publication sharing between partners, teachers and middle school, high school and undergraduate student researchers. NYC is in the center of the urban farming movement. By exploring water and food topics of direct relevance to students' lives and community, we anticipate that students will be motivated and more empowered to make connections between climate change and potential impacts on the health and happiness of people in their community, in the United States and around the world. Final course will be piloted in 2012.

  5. Diversity of Sarcosaprophagous Calyptratae (Diptera) on Sandy Beaches Exposed to Increasing Levels of Urbanization in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Taciano Moura; Carmo, Rodrigo Felipe Rodrigues; Silva, Leonardo Pereira; Sales, Raissa Guerra; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias

    2017-06-01

    Sandy beaches are among the most impacted ecosystems worldwide, and the effects of urbanization on the biodiversity of these habitats are largely unknown, particularly in Brazil. We investigated the composition and structure of assemblages of sarcosaprophagous insects (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Muscidae) on six sandy beaches exposed to differential levels of human impact in Pernambuco State, Brazil. In total, 20,672 adults of 40 species were collected, of which 70% were Calliphoridae. Sarcophagidae had the highest diversity with 26 species of nine genera. A strong overlap in the composition of the assemblages across the six beaches was observed, with only a few species being restricted to one type of beach. The flesh flies Dexosarcophaga carvalhoi (Lopes), Peckia intermutans (Walker), and Titanogrypa larvicida (Lopes) occurred exclusively in beaches under low anthropogenic impact. Species with strong medical and veterinary importance such as Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) occurred even in beaches under low human presence. The invasive species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Calliphoridae) were dominant in all beaches, which exposes the vulnerability of sandy beaches to exotic species. Our data imply that sarcosaprophagous flies can be used as early biological indicators to suggest urbanization in coastal environments. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Increased level of linkage disequilibrium in rural compared with urban communities: a factor to consider in association-study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitart, Veronique; Carothers, Andrew D; Hayward, Caroline; Teague, Peter; Hastie, Nicholas D; Campbell, Harry; Wright, Alan F

    2005-05-01

    Few studies have investigated genetic differentiation within nonisolate European populations, despite the initiation of large national sample collections such as U.K. Biobank. Here, we used short tandem repeat markers to explore fine-scale genetic structure and to examine the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) within national subpopulations. We studied 955 unrelated individuals of local ancestry from nine Scottish rural regions and the urban center of Edinburgh, as well as 96 unrelated individuals from the general U.K. population. Despite little overall differentiation on the basis of allele frequencies, there were clear differences among subpopulations in the extent of pairwise LD, measured between a subset of X-linked markers, that reflected presumed differences in the depths of the underlying genealogies within these subpopulations. Therefore, there are strategic advantages in studying rural subpopulations, in terms of increased power and reduced cost, that are lost by sampling across regions or within urban populations. Similar rural-urban contrasts are likely to exist in many other populations with stable rural subpopulations, which could influence the design of genetic association studies and national biobank data collections.

  7. Why Are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L; Fisher, Helen L

    2016-11-01

    Urban upbringing is associated with a 2-fold adulthood psychosis risk, and this association replicates for childhood psychotic symptoms. No study has investigated whether specific features of urban neighborhoods increase children's risk for psychotic symptoms, despite these early psychotic phenomena elevating risk for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Analyses were conducted on over 2000 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of UK-born twins. Neighborhood-level characteristics were assessed for each family via: a geodemographic discriminator indexing neighborhood-level deprivation, postal surveys of over 5000 residents living alongside the children, and in-home interviews with the children's mothers. Children were interviewed about psychotic symptoms at age 12. Analyses were adjusted for important family-level confounders including socioeconomic status (SES), psychiatric history, and maternal psychosis. Urban residency at age-5 (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.16-2.77) and age-12 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.15-2.69) were both significantly associated with childhood psychotic symptoms, but not with age-12 anxiety, depression, or antisocial behavior. The association was not attributable to family SES, family psychiatric history, or maternal psychosis, each implicated in childhood mental health. Low social cohesion, together with crime victimization in the neighborhood explained nearly a quarter of the association between urbanicity and childhood psychotic symptoms after considering family-level confounders. Low social cohesion and crime victimization in the neighborhood partly explain why children in cities have an elevated risk of developing psychotic symptoms. Greater understanding of the mechanisms leading from neighborhood-level exposures to psychotic symptoms could help target interventions for emerging childhood psychotic symptoms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University

  8. Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-03 world-wide open proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Trinkl, A.; Makarewicz, M.; Yonezawa, C.; Kim, C.K.; Kis-Benedek, G.; Benesch, T.; Schorn, R.

    2007-05-01

    The results of analytical measurements play a vital role in our daily lives. Analytical data may be the basis upon which economic, legal or environmental management decisions are made, and they are essential in international trade, environmental protection, safe transportation, law enforcement, consumer safety and the preservation of human health. As an incorrect decision can be extremely costly and detrimental, it is essential that such measurements are accurate, reliable, cost effective and defensible. In addition, measurements performed by laboratories located worldwide should yield traceable and comparable results. Proficiency testing is a method for regularly assessing the accuracy of the analytical data produced by the laboratories of particular measurements. The IAEA-CU-2006-03 world-wide proficiency test (PT) on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in water grass and soil is conducted by the Chemistry Unit of the IAEA's Laboratories located in Seibersdorf (Austria), which is actively involved in the production and characterization of matrix reference materials of terrestrial origin, widely used for method validation and organization of proficiency tests and intercomparison studies. The Chemistry Unit is a part of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory. This report describes the sample preparation methodology, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each nuclide and individual evaluation report for each laboratory

  9. Quality of drug information on the World Wide Web and strategies to improve pages with poor information quality. An intervention study on pages about sildenafil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Facklam, Meret; Kostrzewa, Michael; Martin, Peter; Haefeli, Walter E

    2004-01-01

    The generally poor quality of health information on the world wide web (WWW) has caused preventable adverse outcomes. Quality management of information on the internet is therefore critical given its widespread use. In order to develop strategies for the safe use of drugs, we scored general and content quality of pages about sildenafil and performed an intervention to improve their quality. The internet was searched with Yahoo and AltaVista for pages about sildenafil and 303 pages were included. For assessment of content quality a score based on accuracy and completeness of essential drug information was assigned. For assessment of general quality, four criteria were evaluated and their association with high content quality was determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The pages were randomly allocated to either control or intervention group. Evaluation took place before, as well as 7 and 22 weeks after an intervention which consisted of two letters with individualized feedback information on the respective page which were sent electronically to the address mentioned on the page. Providing references to scientific publications or prescribing information was significantly associated with high content quality (odds ratio: 8.2, 95% CI 3.2, 20.5). The intervention had no influence on general or content quality. To prevent adverse outcomes caused by misinformation on the WWW individualized feedback to the address mentioned on the page was ineffective. It is currently probably the most straight-forward approach to inform lay persons about indicators of high information quality, i.e. the provision of references.

  10. Searching for information on the World Wide Web with a search engine: a pilot study on cognitive flexibility in younger and older users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommes, Aurelie; Chevalier, Aline; Rossetti, Marilyne

    2010-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the age-related differences in searching for information on the World Wide Web with a search engine. 11 older adults (6 men, 5 women; M age=59 yr., SD=2.76, range=55-65 yr.) and 12 younger adults (2 men, 10 women; M=23.7 yr., SD=1.07, range=22-25 yr.) had to conduct six searches differing in complexity, and for which a search method was or was not induced. The results showed that the younger and older participants provided with an induced search method were less flexible than the others and produced fewer new keywords. Moreover, older participants took longer than the younger adults, especially in the complex searches. The younger participants were flexible in the first request and spontaneously produced new keywords (spontaneous flexibility), whereas the older participants only produced new keywords when confronted by impasses (reactive flexibility). Aging may influence web searches, especially the nature of keywords used.

  11. WHAT ARE THE CHALLENGES OF INCREASING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF URBAN LIVELIHOODS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Whittingham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstraCT. This article places the challenge of rapid urbanisation throughout the world into a perspective that acknowledges inequalities due to economic history. As well as a brief exploration of the site-specific nature of challenges faced, this article seeks to outline the economic and structural obstacles that act as a backdrop to the lives of the poor. Such a perspective can inform attempts to improve the lot of the poor and help in outlining the moral obligation for the powerful to help the poor and vulnerable face up to the issue of Climate Change.   Key words: Urbanisation, economic disadvantage, planning, sustainable urban management     AbstraK. Tulisan ini menempatkan tantangan dari urbanisasi yang sangat cepat di seluruh dunia ke dalam perspektif yang diketahui tidak sejajar dengan sejarah ekonomi. Seperti halnya dengan eksplorasi sepintas dari situs khusus alam dari tantangan yang dihadapi, tulisan ini mencoba untuk melihat halangan ekonomi dan struktural bagi masyarakat menengah bawah. Perspektif seperti itu  dapat  menjadi sebuah informasi untuk meningkatkan taraf hidup masyarkat miskin dan membantu dalam merumuskan obligasi moral bagi penguasa. Hal ini tentunya dapat membantu masyarakat miskin dalam menghadapi isu-isu perubahan iklim.   Kata Kunci: Urbanisasi, kerugian ekonomi, perencanaan, keberlanjutan manajemen perkotaan

  12. Evidence for higher tropical storm risks in Haiti due to increasing population density in hazard prone urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, Christian D

    2011-01-01

    Since the 18th century, the Republic of Haiti has experienced numerous tropical cyclones. In 2011, the United Nations Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction outlined that the worldwide physical exposure to natural hazards, which includes tropical storms and hurricanes in Haiti, increased by 192 per cent between 1970 and 2010. Now, it can be hypothesized that the increased physical exposure to cyclones that made landfall in Haiti has affected the country's development path. This study shows that tropical storm risks in Haiti increased due to more physical exposure of the population in urban areas rather than a higher cyclone frequency in the proximity of Hispaniola island. In fact, the population density accelerated since the second half of the 20th century in regions where historically more storms made landfall, such as in the departments Ouest, Artibonite, Nord and Nord-Ouest including Haiti's four largest cities: Port-au-Prince, Gonaïves, Cap-Haïtien and Port-de-Paix. Thus, urbanization in and migration into storm hazard prone areas could be considered as one of the major driving forces of Haiti's fragility.

  13. A qualitative study of recruitment barriers, motivators, and community-based strategies for increasing clinical trials participation among rural and urban populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Daniela B; Foster, Caroline; Bergeron, Caroline D; Tanner, Andrea; Kim, Sei-Hill

    2015-01-01

    Participation in clinical trials (CTs) is low among rural communities. Investigators report difficulty recruiting rural individuals for CTs. The study purpose was to identify recruitment barriers, motivators, and strategies to help increase access to and participation in CTs in rural and urban communities. Qualitative focus groups/interviews. Rural and urban counties in one southeastern state. Two hundred twelve African-American and white men and women ages 21+. Nineteen focus groups and nine interviews were conducted. Audio files were transcribed and organized into NVivo10. Recurring themes were examined by geographic location. Although similar barriers, motivators, and strategies were reported by urban and rural groups, perceptions regarding their importance varied. Recruitment barriers mentioned in both rural and urban groups included fear, side effects, limited understanding, limited time, and mistrust. Rural groups were more mindful of time commitment involved. Both rural and urban participants reported financial incentives as the top motivator to CT participation, followed by personal illness (urban groups) and benefits to family (rural groups). Recruitment strategies suggested by rural participants involved working with schools/churches and using word of mouth, whereas partnering with schools, word of mouth, and media were recommended most by urban groups. Perceived recruitment barriers, motivators, and strategies did not differ considerably between rural and urban groups. Major barriers identified by participants should be addressed in future CT recruitment and education efforts. Findings can inform recruitment and communication strategies for reaching both urban and rural communities.

  14. Increasing nutrient use efficiency through improved feeding and manure manegement in urban and peri-urban livestock units of a West African city: A scenario analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diogo, V.; Schlecht, E.; Buerkert, A.; Rufino, M.C.; Wijk, van M.T.

    2013-01-01

    In many African cities urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) plays a major role in creating jobs and contributing to food security. However, many small-scale UPA systems are characterised by excessive nutrient inputs to the livestock unit and poor handling of manure. To assess the impact of

  15. Chapter B. Physical, Chemical, and Biological Responses of Streams to Increasing Watershed Urbanization in the Piedmont Ecoregion of Georgia and Alabama, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, M. Brian; Calhoun, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program?s effort to assess the physical, chemical, and biological responses of streams to urbanization, 30 wadable streams were sampled near Atlanta, Ga., during 2002?2003. Watersheds were selected to minimize natural factors such as geology, altitude, and climate while representing a range of urban development. A multimetric urban intensity index was calculated using watershed land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables that are highly correlated with population density. The index was used to select sites along a gradient from low to high urban intensity. Response variables measured include stream hydrology and water temperature, instream habitat, field properties (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity), nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations, and characterization of algal, invertebrate and fish communities. In addition, semipermeablemembrane devices (SPMDs)?passive samplers that concentrate hydrophobic organic contaminants such as polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)?were used to evaluate water-quality conditions during the 4 weeks prior to biological sampling. Changes in physical, chemical, and biological conditions were evaluated using both nonparametric correlation analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordinations and associated comparisons of dataset similarity matrices. Many of the commonly reported effects of watershed urbanization on streams were observed in this study, such as altered hydrology and increases in some chemical constituent levels. Analysis of water-chemistry data showed that specific conductance, chloride, sulfate, and pesticides increased as urbanization increased. Nutrient concentrations were not directly correlated to increases in development, but were inversely correlated to percent forest in the watershed. Analyses of SPMD-derived data showed that

  16. Urban Games: How to Increase the Motivation, Interaction and Perceived Learning of Students in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Liliana; Coutinho, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technologies are increasingly rooted in society and, therefore, intuitively, teachers begin to take advantage of devices that students carry with them daily in a logic of 1:1 bring your own device (BYOD). In fact, it becomes crucial to use this media to promote/increase new pedagogical activities to motivate and challenge students to…

  17. Decrease in risk of tuberculosis infection despite increase in tuberculosis among young adults in urban Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buu, T. N.; Quy, H. T.; Qui, N. C.; Lan, N. T. N.; Sy, D. N.; Cobelens, F. G. J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the increase in tuberculosis (TB) notification rates among young adults in Vietnam reflects increased transmission in the population at large. METHOD: Trends of case notification rates of new smear-positive TB were calculated from routinely reported data of district TB

  18. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-01-01

    The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most of the urban area

  19. Evolution and world-wide projections of the carbon dioxide emissions; Evolucion y proyecciones mundiales de las emisiones de bioxido de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravia, Marisela; Gay, Carlos [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In the frame of the present preoccupation on the global climatic change and its influence in the human activities, the possible mitigation scenarios of green house effect gases are analyzed (GEG) in the world-wide scope, the contribution of carbon dioxide future emissions as main green house effect gas originating from the burning of fossil fuels; taking into account two large classifications: Developed and developing countries. In accordance with the world-wide evolution in the 1972-1995 period and to diverse adjustments of future emissions a study of the necessary levels of these emissions is made to obtain the stabilization of the greenhouse effect gases in the atmosphere in a level in the vicinity of 550 ppmv. The considered projections are: emissions in accordance with the present tendency, basic scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climatic Change (Panel Intergubernamental de Cambio Climatico) (IPCC-IS92a), mitigation proposals of the Netherlands (NL-1%, NL-2%) and profiles that entail the atmospheric CO{sub 2} stabilization. In addition the reduction in the contribution of future emissions that the developing countries would have to face to obtain the stabilization are compared, emissions that will depend on changes in factors such as population growth, economic, emissions per capita and carbon content of the power fuels, changes that would have to take place in all the countries, or certain key countries, in order to arrive to the necessary atmospheric stabilization of the emissions in accordance with those profiles. [Spanish] En el marco de la preocupacion actual sobre el cambio climatico global y su influencia en las actividades humanas, se analizan los posibles escenarios de mitigacion de gases efecto invernadero (GEI) en el ambito mundial, las cuotas de emisiones futuras de dioxido de carbono como principal gas invernadero proveniente de la quema de combustibles fosiles; tomando en cuenta dos grandes clasificaciones: Paises desarrollados y paises

  20. How do urban households in China respond to increasing block pricing in electricity? Evidence from a fuzzy regression discontinuity approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zibin; Cai, Wenxin; Feng, Xiangzhao

    2017-01-01

    China is the largest electricity consumption country after it has passed the United States in 2011. Residential electricity consumption in China grew by 381.35% (12.85% per annum) between 2000 and 2013. In order to deal with rapid growth in residential electricity consumption, an increasing block pricing policy was introduced for residential electricity consumers in China on July 1st, 2012. Using difference-in-differences models with a fuzzy regression discontinuity design, we estimate a causal effect of price on electricity consumption for urban households during the introduction of increasing block pricing policy in Guangdong province of China. We find that consumers do not respond to a smaller (approximately 8%) increase in marginal price. However, consumers do respond to a larger increase in marginal price. An approximately 40% increase in marginal price induces an approximately 35% decrease in electricity use (284 kW h per month). Our results suggest that although the increasing block pricing could affect the behavior of households with higher electricity use, there is only a limit potential to overall energy conservation. - Highlights: • Estimate electricity consumption changes in response to the IBP in China. • Employ quasi-experimental approach and micro household level data in China. • Households do not respond to a smaller increase in marginal price. • 40% increase in marginal price induces a 35% decrease in electricity use.

  1. Increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in gulls sampled in southcentral Alaska is associated with urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atterby, Clara; Ramey, Andrew M.; Gustafsson Hall, Gabriel; Jarhult, Josef; Borjesson, Stefan; Bonnedahl, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAntibiotic-resistant bacteria pose challenges to healthcare delivery systems globally; however, limited information is available regarding the prevalence and spread of such bacteria in the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in large-bodied gulls (Larus spp.) at urban and remote locations in Southcentral Alaska to gain inference into the association between antibiotic resistance in wildlife and anthropogenically influenced habitats.MethodsEscherichia coli was cultured (n=115 isolates) from fecal samples of gulls (n=160) collected from a remote location, Middleton Island, and a more urban setting on the Kenai Peninsula.ResultsScreening of E. coli from fecal samples collected from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) at Middleton Island revealed 8% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 2% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In contrast, 55% of E. coli isolates derived from fecal samples collected from large-bodied gulls (i.e. glaucous, herring [Larus argentatus], and potentially hybrid gulls) on the Kenai Peninsula were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 22% were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In addition, total of 16% of the gull samples from locations on the Kenai Peninsula harbored extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli isolates (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBL] and plasmid-encoded AmpC [pAmpC]), in contrast to Middleton Island where no ESBL- or pAmpC-producing isolates were detected.ConclusionOur findings indicate that increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance is associated with urban environments in Southcentral Alaska and presumably influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Further investigation is warranted to assess how migratory birds may maintain and spread antimicrobial-resistant bacteria of relevance to human and animal health.

  2. Increase in flood risk resulting from climate change in a developed urban watershed - the role of storm temporal patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Suresh; Wasko, Conrad; Sharma, Ashish

    2018-03-01

    The effects of climate change are causing more frequent extreme rainfall events and an increased risk of flooding in developed areas. Quantifying this increased risk is of critical importance for the protection of life and property as well as for infrastructure planning and design. The updated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Atlas 14 intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) relationships and temporal patterns are widely used in hydrologic and hydraulic modeling for design and planning in the United States. Current literature shows that rising temperatures as a result of climate change will result in an intensification of rainfall. These impacts are not explicitly included in the NOAA temporal patterns, which can have consequences on the design and planning of adaptation and flood mitigation measures. In addition there is a lack of detailed hydraulic modeling when assessing climate change impacts on flooding. The study presented in this paper uses a comprehensive hydrologic and hydraulic model of a fully developed urban/suburban catchment to explore two primary questions related to climate change impacts on flood risk. (1) How do climate change effects on storm temporal patterns and rainfall volumes impact flooding in a developed complex watershed? (2) Is the storm temporal pattern as critical as the total volume of rainfall when evaluating urban flood risk? We use the NOAA Atlas 14 temporal patterns, along with the expected increase in temperature for the RCP8.5 scenario for 2081-2100, to project temporal patterns and rainfall volumes to reflect future climatic change. The model results show that different rainfall patterns cause variability in flood depths during a storm event. The changes in the projected temporal patterns alone increase the risk of flood magnitude up to 35 %, with the cumulative impacts of temperature rise on temporal patterns and the storm volume increasing flood risk from 10 to 170 %. The results also show that regional

  3. Increase in flood risk resulting from climate change in a developed urban watershed – the role of storm temporal patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hettiarachchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change are causing more frequent extreme rainfall events and an increased risk of flooding in developed areas. Quantifying this increased risk is of critical importance for the protection of life and property as well as for infrastructure planning and design. The updated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Atlas 14 intensity–duration–frequency (IDF relationships and temporal patterns are widely used in hydrologic and hydraulic modeling for design and planning in the United States. Current literature shows that rising temperatures as a result of climate change will result in an intensification of rainfall. These impacts are not explicitly included in the NOAA temporal patterns, which can have consequences on the design and planning of adaptation and flood mitigation measures. In addition there is a lack of detailed hydraulic modeling when assessing climate change impacts on flooding. The study presented in this paper uses a comprehensive hydrologic and hydraulic model of a fully developed urban/suburban catchment to explore two primary questions related to climate change impacts on flood risk. (1 How do climate change effects on storm temporal patterns and rainfall volumes impact flooding in a developed complex watershed? (2 Is the storm temporal pattern as critical as the total volume of rainfall when evaluating urban flood risk? We use the NOAA Atlas 14 temporal patterns, along with the expected increase in temperature for the RCP8.5 scenario for 2081–2100, to project temporal patterns and rainfall volumes to reflect future climatic change. The model results show that different rainfall patterns cause variability in flood depths during a storm event. The changes in the projected temporal patterns alone increase the risk of flood magnitude up to 35 %, with the cumulative impacts of temperature rise on temporal patterns and the storm volume increasing flood risk from 10 to 170 %. The results

  4. More surprises in the global greenhouse: Human health impacts from recent toxic marine aerosol formations, due to centennial alterations of world-wide coastal food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J J; Lenes, J M; Weisberg, R H; Zheng, L; Hu, C; Fanning, K A; Snyder, R; Smith, J

    2017-03-15

    Reductions of zooplankton biomasses and grazing pressures were observed during overfishing-induced trophic cascades and concurrent oil spills at global scales. Recent phytoplankton increments followed, once Fe-, P-, and N-nutrient limitations of commensal diazotrophs and dinoflagellates were also eliminated by respective human desertification, deforestation, and eutrophication during climate changes. Si-limitation of diatoms instead ensued during these last anthropogenic perturbations of agricultural effluents and sewage loadings. Consequently, ~15% of total world-wide annual asthma trigger responses, i.e. amounting to ~45 million adjacent humans during 2004, resulted from brevetoxin and palytoxin poisons in aerosol forms of western boundary current origins. They were denoted by greater global harmful algal bloom [HAB] abundances and breathing attacks among sea-side children during prior decadal surveys of asthma prevalence, compiled here in ten paired shelf ecosystems of western and eutrophied boundary currents. Since 1965, such inferred onshore fluxes of aerosolized DOC poisons of HABs may have served as additional wind-borne organic carriers of toxic marine MeHg, phthalate, and DDT/DDE vectors, traced by radio-iodine isotopes to potentially elicit carcinomas. During these exchanges, as much as 40% of mercury poisonings may instead have been effected by inhalation of collateral HAB-carried marine neurotoxic aerosols of MeHg, not just from eating marine fish. Health impacts in some areas were additional asthma and pneumonia episodes, as well as endocrine disruptions among the same adjacent humans, with known large local rates of thyroid cancers, physician-diagnosed pulmonary problems, and ubiquitous high indices of mercury in hair, pesticides in breast milk, and phthalates in urine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential for increased wind-generated electricity utilization using heat pumps in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, Michael; Modi, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Large-scale wind power and increased electric heat pumps were evaluated. • A deterministic model of wind power and electricity demand was developed. • Sub-models for space heating and domestic hot water demand were developed. • Increased use of heat pumps can improve the viability of large-scale wind power. • Larger wind power capacity can meet a target utilization rate with more heat pumps. - Abstract: The U.S. has substantial wind power potential, but given wind’s intermittent availability and misalignment with electricity demand profiles, large-scale deployment of wind turbines could result in high electricity costs due to energy storage requirements or low utilization rates. While fuel switching and heat pumps have been proposed as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy reduction strategies at the building scale, this paper shows that heat pump adoption could have additional system-wide benefits by increasing the utilization of wind-generated electricity. A model was developed to evaluate the effects of coupling large-scale wind power installations in New York State with increased use of electric heat pumps to meet a portion of space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) demands in New York City. The analysis showed significant increases in wind-generated electricity utilization with increased use of heat pumps, allowing for higher installed capacity of wind power. One scenario indicates that 78.5% annual wind-generated electricity utilization can be achieved with 3 GW of installed wind power capacity generated electricity equal to 20% of existing NYC annual electricity demand; if 20% of space heating and DHW demands are provided by heat pumps, the 78.5% utilization rate can be achieved with an increase of total wind power capacity to 5 GW. Therefore, this integrated supply–demand approach could provide additional system-wide emissions reductions

  6. Will urban expansion lead to an increase in future water pollution loads?--a preliminary investigation of the Haihe River Basin in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining

    2014-01-01

    Urban expansion is a major driving force changing regional hydrology and nonpoint source pollution. The Haihe River Basin, the political, economic, and cultural center of northeastern China, has undergone rapid urbanization in recent decades. To investigate the consequences of future urban sprawl on nonpoint source water pollutant emissions in the river basin, the urban sprawl in 2030 was estimated, and the annual runoff and nonpoint source pollution in the Haihe River basin were simulated. The Integrated Model of Non-Point Sources Pollution Processes (IMPULSE) was used to simulate the effects of urban sprawl on nonpoint source pollution emissions. The outcomes indicated that the urban expansion through 2030 increased the nonpoint source total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions by 8.08, 0.14, and 149.57 kg/km(2), respectively. Compared to 2008, the total nonpoint emissions rose by 15.33, 0.57, and 12.39 %, respectively. Twelve percent of the 25 cities in the basin would increase by more than 50 % in nonpoint source TN and COD emissions in 2030. In particular, the nonpoint source TN emissions in Xinxiang, Jiaozuo, and Puyang would rise by 73.31, 67.25, and 58.61 %, and the nonpoint source COD emissions in these cities would rise by 74.02, 51.99, and 53.27 %, respectively. The point source pollution emissions in 2008 and 2030 were also estimated to explore the effects of urban sprawl on total water pollution loads. Urban sprawl through 2030 would bring significant structural changes of total TN, TP, and COD emissions for each city in the area. The results of this study could provide insights into the effects of urbanization in the study area and the methods could help to recognize the role that future urban sprawl plays in the total water pollution loads in the water quality management process.

  7. Groundwater contamination in relation with the increasing urbanization rate in Africa. Case of Cotonou and Porto Novo (Benin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeloui, Diane; Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Huneau, Frédéric; Boukari, Moussa; Alassane, Abdelkarim; Garel, Emilie; Lavastre, Véronique; Bertrand, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    More than one billion people in the world still have no access to sufficient resources in drinking water (United Nation, 2014). In particular, large cities in Africa have to face several problems: 1) population growth associated with the strongest urbanization rate increase (5% per year) of the world leading to a dramatic increase in good-quality water needs, 2) low levels of solid waste management and sanitation services, 3) insufficient or disconnected water supply services, 4) low knowledge of water resources availabilities. The situation in Benin is a relevant illustration of the problems that Africa has to face to. As many other coastal urban areas in Africa (Showers, 2002; Re et al., 2011), Cotonou and Porto Novo cities have seen a rapid increase of their population as these towns constitute a corridor of transit for the imports and the exports in the nearby countries. Hence, they are very attractive for job hunters, and constitute the administrative centers for the whole country. This rapid population growth amplifies the problem of water supply and may generate serious impacts on groundwater resources: depletion due to overexploitation, salinization due to seawater intrusion and pollution linked to human activities. In order to insure a safe water supply in the context of increasing urbanization and population in the coastal area of Cotonou and Porto Novo, the identification of the main sources of pollution is essential for the implementation of long-term water management procedures. Based on two field campaigns carried out in January-2012 (dry season) and August-2012 (rainy season), hydrochemical analysis have been realized on groundwater sampled from boreholes drilled in the CTA (Continental Terminal Aquifer) and wells dug in the QCA (Quaternary Coastal Aquifer) in order to investigate the origin of salinization and the present time extension of the nitrate contamination. Historical data have also been collected from previous studies in order to

  8. Medicaid HMO penetration and its mix: did increased penetration affect physician participation in urban markets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, E Kathleen; Herring, Bradley

    2008-02-01

    To use changes in Medicaid health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration across markets over time to test for effects on the extent of Medicaid participation among physicians and to test for differences in the effects of increased use of commercial versus Medicaid-dominant plans within the market. The nationally representative Community Tracking Study's Physician Survey for three periods (1996-1997, 1998-1999, and 2000-2001) on 29,866 physicians combined with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and InterStudy data. Market-level estimates of Medicaid HMO penetration are used to test for (1) any participation in Medicaid and (2) the degree to which physicians have an "open" (i.e., nonlimited) practice accepting new Medicaid patients. Models account for physician, firm, and local characteristics, Medicaid relative payment levels adjusted for geographic variation in practice costs, and market-level fixed effects. There is a positive effect of increases in commercial Medicaid HMO penetration on the odds of accepting new Medicaid patients among all physicians, and in particular, among office-based physicians. In contrast, there is no effect, positive or negative, from expanding the penetration of Medicaid-dominant HMO plans within the market. Increases in cost-adjusted Medicaid fees, relative to Medicare levels, were associated with increases in the odds of participation and of physicians having an "open" Medicaid practice. Provider characteristics that consistently lower participation among all physicians include being older, board certified, a U.S. graduate and a solo practitioner. The effects of Medicaid HMO penetration on physician participation vary by the type of plan. If states are able to attract and retain commercial plans, participation by office-based physicians is likely to increase in a way that opens existing practices to more new Medicaid patients. Other policy variables that affect participation include the presence of a federally

  9. Urbanization of black South African women may increase risk of low bone mass due to low vitamin D status, low calcium intake and high bone turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Annamarie; Kruger, Marlena C.; Kruger, Iolanthé Marike; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2011-01-01

    Globally, rural to urban migration is accompanied by changes in dietary patterns and lifestyle that have serious health implications, including development of low bone mass. We hypothesized that serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) levels will be lower, bone turnover higher, and nutrition inadequate in urban postmenopausal black women, increasing risk for low bone mass. We aimed to assess the prevalence of risk factors for low bone mass in 1261 black women from rural and urban areas in the Nor...

  10. Increasing Pap smear rates at an urban Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service through translational research and continuous quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, Melanie S; Herceg, Ana; Douglas, Kirsty; Tongs, Julie; Bookallil, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This article describes translational research (TR) and continuous quality improvement (CQI) processes used to identify and address barriers and facilitators to Pap smear screening within an urban Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS). Rapid Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles were conducted, informed by client surveys, a data collection tool, focus groups and internal research. There was a statistically significant increase in Pap smear numbers during PDSA cycles, continuing at 10 months follow up. The use of TR with CQI appears to be an effective and acceptable way to affect Pap smear screening. Community and service collaboration should be at the core of research in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health settings. This model is transferrable to other settings and other health issues.

  11. Increased urinary excretion of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, in urban bus drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, S; Poulsen, H E; Vistisen, K

    1999-01-01

    Oxidative damage to DNA could be involved in the increased risk of cancer associated with exposure to polluted urban air, which contains a number of oxidants. CYP1A2 is induced by and metabolizes polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and aromatic amines and could modify effects of exposure to ambient air...... pollution. Similarly, DNA repair may be influenced by occupational and other exposures as well as modify the effect of DNA damaging agents. As part of a large investigation of the genotoxic burden to diesel exposed workers in transport sectors we studied oxidative DNA damage in 57 non-smoking bus drivers...... from the greater Copenhagen area. The drivers were studied on a workday and on a day off work. Comparisons were made between drivers from the central (n=30) and rural/suburban (n=27) areas of Copenhagen. The rate of oxidative DNA damage was estimated from 24 h urinary excretion of 8-oxo-2...

  12. More surprises in the global greenhouse: Human health impacts from recent toxic marine aerosol formations, due to centennial alterations of world-wide coastal food webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.J.; Lenes, J.M.; Weisberg, R.H.; Zheng, L.; Hu, C.; Fanning, K.A.; Snyder, R.; Smith, J.

    2017-01-01

    Reductions of zooplankton biomasses and grazing pressures were observed during overfishing-induced trophic cascades and concurrent oil spills at global scales. Recent phytoplankton increments followed, once Fe-, P-, and N-nutrient limitations of commensal diazotrophs and dinoflagellates were also eliminated by respective human desertification, deforestation, and eutrophication during climate changes. Si-limitation of diatoms instead ensued during these last anthropogenic perturbations of agricultural effluents and sewage loadings. Consequently, ~ 15% of total world-wide annual asthma trigger responses, i.e. amounting to ~ 45 million adjacent humans during 2004, resulted from brevetoxin and palytoxin poisons in aerosol forms of western boundary current origins. They were denoted by greater global harmful algal bloom [HAB] abundances and breathing attacks among sea-side children during prior decadal surveys of asthma prevalence, compiled here in ten paired shelf ecosystems of western and eutrophied boundary currents. Since 1965, such inferred onshore fluxes of aerosolized DOC poisons of HABs may have served as additional wind-borne organic carriers of toxic marine MeHg, phthalate, and DDT/DDE vectors, traced by radio-iodine isotopes to potentially elicit carcinomas. During these exchanges, as much as 40% of mercury poisonings may instead have been effected by inhalation of collateral HAB-carried marine neurotoxic aerosols of MeHg, not just from eating marine fish. Health impacts in some areas were additional asthma and pneumonia episodes, as well as endocrine disruptions among the same adjacent humans, with known large local rates of thyroid cancers, physician-diagnosed pulmonary problems, and ubiquitous high indices of mercury in hair, pesticides in breast milk, and phthalates in urine. - Highlights: • Oil spills, heavy metals, and overfishing decimated zooplankton grazers • Desert expansions and eutrophication concurrently fueled diazotrophs to set free

  13. Unintended consequences of increasing block tariffs pricing policy in urban water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Momi; Nisan, Udi

    2007-03-01

    We exploit a unique data set to estimate the degree of economies of scale in water consumption, controlling for the standard demand factors. We found a linear Engel curve in water consumption: each additional household member consumes the same water quantity regardless of household size, except for a single-person household. Our evidence suggests that the increasing block tariffs (IBT) structure, which is indifferent to household size, has unintended consequences. Large households, which are also likely to be poor given the negative correlation between income and household size, are charged a higher price for water. The degree of economies of scale found here erodes the effectiveness of IBT price structure as a way to introduce an equity consideration. This implication is important in view of the global trend toward the use of IBT.

  14. Urban streets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönfeld, von Kim Carlotta; Bertolini, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Today's urban streets are usually planned for purposes of mobility: pedestrians, as well as a variety of vehicles such as cars, trucks, and sometimes bicycles, are usually factored into an urban street plan. However, urban streets are also increasingly recognized as public spaces, accommodating

  15. Increasing socioeconomic inequality in childhood undernutrition in urban India: trends between 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2005-06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Kumari, Divya; Singh, Aditya

    2015-10-01

    This article examines the trends and pattern in socioeconomic inequality in stunting, underweight and wasting among children aged inequality in childhood undernutrition in urban India has increased over the study period. The salient findings of this study call for separate programmes targeting the children of lower socioeconomic groups in urban population of India. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  16. Urbanized landscapes favored by fig-eating birds increase invasive but not native juvenile strangler fig abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughlin, Trevor; Wheeler, Jessica H; Jankowski, Jill; Lichstein, Jeremy W

    2012-07-01

    Propagule pressure can determine the success or failure of invasive plant range expansion. Range expansion takes place at large spatial scales, often encompassing many types of land cover, yet the effect of landscape context on propagule pressure remains largely unknown. Many studies have reported a positive correlation between invasive plant abundance and human land use; increased propagule pressure in these landscapes may be responsible for this correlation. We tested the hypothesis that increased rates of seed dispersal by fig-eating birds, which are more common in urban habitats, result in an increase in invasive strangler fig abundance in landscapes dominated by human land use. We quantified abundance of an invasive species (Ficus microcarpa) and a native species (F. aurea) of strangler fig in plots spanning the entire range of human land use in South Florida, USA, from urban parking lots to native forest. We then compared models that predicted juvenile fig abundance based on distance to adult fig seed sources and fig-eating bird habitat quality with models that lacked one or both of these terms. The best model for juvenile invasive fig abundance included both distance to adult and fig-eating bird habitat terms, suggesting that landscape effects on invasive fig abundance are mediated by seed-dispersing birds. In contrast, the best model for juvenile native fig abundance included only presence/absence of adults, suggesting that distance from individual adult trees may have less effect on seed limitation for a native species compared to an invasive species undergoing range expansion. However, models for both species included significant effects of adult seed sources, implying that juvenile abundance is limited by seed arrival. This result was corroborated by a seed addition experiment that indicated that both native and invasive strangler figs were strongly seed limited. Understanding how landscape context affects the mechanisms of plant invasion may lead to

  17. Capturing value increase in urban redevelopment : a study of how the economic value increase in urban redevelopment can be used to finance the necessary public infrastructure and other facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz Gielen, D.

    2010-01-01

    Everyone would agree that urban development, especially when involving the building of residential areas, should be accompanied by sufficient and good public infrastructure and facilities. We all want neighborhoods with the necessary roads, green areas, social facilities, affordable housing and

  18. Increased oxidative burden associated with traffic component of ambient particulate matter at roadside and urban background schools sites in London.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal J Godri

    Full Text Available As the incidence of respiratory and allergic symptoms has been reported to be increased in children attending schools in close proximity to busy roads, it was hypothesised that PM from roadside schools would display enhanced oxidative potential (OP. Two consecutive one-week air quality monitoring campaigns were conducted at seven school sampling sites, reflecting roadside and urban background in London. Chemical characteristics of size fractionated particulate matter (PM samples were related to the capacity to drive biological oxidation reactions in a synthetic respiratory tract lining fluid. Contrary to hypothesised contrasts in particulate OP between school site types, no robust size-fractionated differences in OP were identified due high temporal variability in concentrations of PM components over the one-week sampling campaigns. For OP assessed both by ascorbate (OP(AA m(-3 and glutathione (OP(GSH m(-3 depletion, the highest OP per cubic metre of air was in the largest size fraction, PM(1.9-10.2. However, when expressed per unit mass of particles OP(AA µg(-1 showed no significant dependence upon particle size, while OP(GSH µg(-1 had a tendency to increase with increasing particle size, paralleling increased concentrations of Fe, Ba and Cu. The two OP metrics were not significantly correlated with one another, suggesting that the glutathione and ascorbate depletion assays respond to different components of the particles. Ascorbate depletion per unit mass did not show the same dependence as for GSH and it is possible that other trace metals (Zn, Ni, V or organic components which are enriched in the finer particle fractions, or the greater surface area of smaller particles, counter-balance the redox activity of Fe, Ba and Cu in the coarse particles. Further work with longer-term sampling and a larger suite of analytes is advised in order to better elucidate the determinants of oxidative potential, and to fuller explore the contrasts between

  19. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play......, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces....... Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...

  20. Evaluation of a social marketing campaign to increase awareness of immunizations for urban low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Emmanuel M; Hamilton, Chelsea; Nugent, Melodee; Simpson, Pippa; Willis, Earnestine

    2015-02-01

    To assess community awareness of childhood immunizations and intent to immunize children after a social marketing immunization campaign. We used 2 interviewer-assisted street-intercept surveys to evaluate awareness of childhood immunizations and intent to immunize low-income children. The "Take Control! Immunize" social marketing campaign was developed using a community-based participatory research approach and used billboards, flyers, and various "walking billboard" (eg, backpacks, pens) to deliver immunization messages in the community settings. Over 85% of community members recalled the "Take Control! Immunize" message. Almost half of those who saw the immunization message indicated that the message motivated them to act, including getting their children immunized or calling their physician to inquire about their children's immunizations status. All respondents indicated that immunizations were important for children and that they were likely or very likely to immunize their children. Respondents who reported that "Take Control!" messages motivated them to act in the first intercept survey were significantly more likely than those in the second intercept to report being likely or very likely to immunize their children. Culturally appropriate social marketing immunization messages in targeted urban settings can increase parental awareness and behavioral intention to immunize children.

  1. Formative Research to Design a Promotional Campaign to Increase Drinking Water among Central American Latino Youth in an Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Nicole; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Elkins, Allison; Rivera, Ivonne; Evans, W Douglas; Edberg, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Latinos consume more sugary drinks and less water than other demographic groups. Our objective was to understand beverage choice motivations and test promotional concepts that can encourage Central American Latino urban youth to drink more water. Two rounds of focus group discussions were conducted (n = 10 focus groups, 61 participants, 6-18 years old). Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using inductive and deductive coding approaches. Youth motivations for drinking water were shaped by level of thirst, weather, energy, and perceptions of health benefits. Youth were discouraged from drinking water due to its taste and perceptions of the safety and cleanliness of tap water. Youth beverage preference depended on what their friends were drinking. Availability of water versus other beverages at home and other settings influenced their choice. Promotional materials that included mixed language, informative messages about the benefits of drinking water, and celebrities or athletes who were active, energized, and drinking water were preferred. A promotional campaign to increase water consumption among these Latino youth should include bicultural messages to underscore the power of water to quench true thirst, highlight the health benefits of drinking water, and address the safety of tap water.

  2. Evaluation of a Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Awareness of Immunizations for Urban Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Emmanuel M.; Hamilton, Chelsea; Nugent, Melodee; Simpson, Pippa; Willis, Earnestine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess community awareness of childhood immunizations and intent to immunize children after a social marketing immunization campaign. Methods We used 2 interviewer-assisted street-intercept surveys to evaluate awareness of childhood immunizations and intent to immunize low-income children. The “Take Control! Immunize” social marketing campaign was developed using a community-based participatory research approach and used billboards, flyers, and various “walking billboard” (eg, backpacks, pens) to deliver immunization messages in the community settings. Results Over 85% of community members recalled the “Take Control! Immunize” message. Almost half of those who saw the immunization message indicated that the message motivated them to act, including getting their children immunized or calling their physician to inquire about their children's immunizations status. All respondents indicated that immunizations were important for children and that they were likely or very likely to immunize their children. Respondents who reported that “Take Control!” messages motivated them to act in the first intercept survey were significantly more likely than those in the second intercept to report being likely or very likely to immunize their children. Conclusion Culturally appropriate social marketing immunization messages in targeted urban settings can increase parental awareness and behavioral intention to immunize children. PMID:25845130

  3. Degradation in urban air quality from construction activity and increased traffic arising from a road widening scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Anna; Baker, Timothy; Mudway, Ian S; Purdie, Esme; Dunster, Christina; Fuller, Gary W

    2014-11-01

    Road widening schemes in urban areas are often proposed as a solution to traffic congestion and as a means of stimulating economic growth. There is however clear evidence that new or expanded roads rapidly fill with either displaced or induced traffic, offsetting any short-term gains in eased traffic flows. What has not been addressed in any great detail is the impact of such schemes on air quality, with modelled impact predictions seldom validated by measurements after the expansion of road capacity. In this study we made use of a road widening project in London to investigate the impact on ambient air quality (particulate matter, NOX, NO2) during and after the completion of the road works. PM10 increased during the construction period up to 15 μg m(-3) during working hours compared to concentrations before the road works. A box modelling approach was used to determine a median emission factor of 0.0022 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1), three times larger than that used in the UK emission inventory (0.0007 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1)). Peaks of activity released 0.0130 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1), three and eight times smaller than the peak values used in the European and US inventories. After the completion of the widening there was an increase in all pollutants from the road during rush hour: 2-4 μg m(-3) for PM10; 1 μg m(-3) for PM2.5; 40 and 8 μg m(-3) for NOX and NO2, respectively. NO2 EU Limit Value was breached after the road development illustrating a notable deterioration in residential air quality. Additionally, PM10, but not PM2.5, glutathione dependent oxidative potential increased after the road was widened consistent with an increase in pro-oxidant components in the coarse particle mode, related to vehicle abrasion processes. These increased air pollution indices were associated with an increase in the number of cars, taxis and LGVs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Urbanization of black South African women may increase risk of low bone mass due to low vitamin D status, low calcium intake, and high bone turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Marlena C; Kruger, Iolanthé M; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Kruger, Annamarie

    2011-10-01

    Globally, rural to urban migration is accompanied by changes in dietary patterns and lifestyle that have serious health implications, including development of low bone mass. We hypothesized that serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) levels will be lower, bone turnover higher, and nutrition inadequate in urban postmenopausal black women, increasing risk for low bone mass. We aimed to assess the prevalence of risk factors for low bone mass in 1261 black women from rural and urban areas in the North West Province of South Africa (Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology-South Africa project). Fasting blood samples were taken; and participants were interviewed to complete questionnaires on self-reported diseases, fractures, and dietary intakes. Bone health markers were assessed in a subgroup of 658 women older than 45 years. Specific lifestyle risk factors identified were inactivity, smoking, injectable progestin contraception use, and high alcohol consumption. Dietary risk factors identified were low calcium and high animal protein, phosphorous, and sodium intakes. The 25(OH)D3 and C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) levels were significantly higher in the rural vs the urban women older than 50 years. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels increased with age in both groups. The 25(OH)D levels were inversely correlated with CTX and PTH in rural women. In urban women, PTH and CTX were correlated while dietary calcium was inversely correlated with CTX and PTH with 25(OH)D3. The combination of low dietary calcium (<230 mg/d), marginally insufficient 25(OH)D3 status, and raised PTH may result in increased bone resorption. Further research is required to assess bone health and fracture risk in black African women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbon sequestration and storage by Gainesville's urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is a world-wide issue, and it may seem as if only actions by national governments can work effectively against it. In fact individuals and small communities, too, can make wise choices and impacts. Communities can mitigate climate change through reducing fossil fuel consumption and good management of its urban forest....

  6. Simulation-based design of a steerable acoustic warning device to increase (H)EV detectability while reducing urban noise pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Genechten, B.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the simulation-based design methodology used in the eVADER project for the development of targeted acoustic warning devices for increased detectability of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (HEVs) while, at the same time, reducing urban noise pollution compared to conventional

  7. Accuracy and completeness of patient information in organic World-Wide Web search for Mohs surgery: a prospective cross-sectional multirater study using consensus criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher J; Neuhaus, Isaac M; Sobanko, Joseph F; Veledar, Emir; Alam, Murad

    2013-11-01

    Many patients obtain medical information from the Internet. Inaccurate information affects patient care and perceptions. To assess the accuracy and completeness of information regarding Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) on the Internet. Prospective cross-sectional Internet-based study reviewing 30 consecutive organic results from three U.S. urban areas on "Mohs surgery" using Google. Text was assessed using a consensus-derived rating scale that quantified necessary and additional or supplementary information about MMS, as well as wrong information. Websites were classified according to type of sponsor. Ninety-one percent of sites conveyed basic information about MMS. There was variation in the mean amount of additional information items (range 0-9) according to website type: 8.4, medical societies; 6.7, academic practices; 5.9, web-based medical information resources; 4.7, private practices; and 4.4, other (p web-based sources (mean 5.11, p web-based medical information sources also provide additional information. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Detailed climate-change projections for urban land-use change and green-house gas increases for Belgium with COSMO-CLM coupled to TERRA_URB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; Vanden Broucke, Sam; van Lipzig, Nicole; Demuzere, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Recent research clearly show that climate modelling at high resolution - which resolve the deep convection, the detailed orography and land-use including urbanization - leads to better modelling performance with respect to temperatures, the boundary-layer, clouds and precipitation. The increasing computational power enables the climate research community to address climate-change projections with higher accuracy and much more detail. In the framework of the CORDEX.be project aiming for coherent high-resolution micro-ensemble projections for Belgium employing different GCMs and RCMs, the KU Leuven contributes by means of the downscaling of EC-EARTH global climate model projections (provided by the Royal Meteorological Institute of the Netherlands) to the Belgian domain. The downscaling is obtained with regional climate simulations at 12.5km resolution over Europe (CORDEX-EU domain) and at 2.8km resolution over Belgium (CORDEX.be domain) using COSMO-CLM coupled to urban land-surface parametrization TERRA_URB. This is done for the present-day (1975-2005) and future (2040 → 2070 and 2070 → 2100). In these high-resolution runs, both GHG changes (in accordance to RCP8.5) and urban land-use changes (in accordance to a business-as-usual urban expansion scenario) are taken into account. Based on these simulations, it is shown how climate-change statistics are modified when going from coarse resolution modelling to high-resolution modelling. The climate-change statistics of particular interest are the changes in number of extreme precipitation events and extreme heat waves in cities. Hereby, it is futher investigated for the robustness of the signal change between the course and high-resolution and whether a (statistical) translation is possible. The different simulations also allow to address the relative impact and synergy between the urban expansion and increased GHG on the climate-change statistics. Hereby, it is investigated for which climate-change statistics the

  9. A Comprehensive Partnership Approach Increasing High School Graduation Rates and College Enrollment of Urban Economically Disadvantaged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Yvette; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Described is a 4-year model of a Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Program (GEAR UP) offered to 294 academically and economically disadvantaged students and their parents during in- and out-of-school time activities through partnerships forged with school personnel and community-based agencies. In an urban high school where…

  10. Moroccan Mothers' Involvement in Dialogic Literary Gatherings in a Catalan Urban Primary School: Increasing Educative Interactions and Improving Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Botton, Lena; Girbés, Sandra; Ruiz, Laura; Tellado, Itxaso

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses a case study on Moroccan mothers' involvement in the Dialogic Literary Gathering (DLG) in an urban primary school in Catalonia (Spain). DLG is a dialogic learning environment that improves reading skills and communicative abilities and promotes school-community links. This activity has been identified in previous European…

  11. Survival Rate and Transcriptional Response upon Infection with the Generalist Parasite Beauveria bassiana in a World-Wide Sample of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paparazzo

    Full Text Available The ability to cope with infection by a parasite is one of the major challenges for any host species and is a major driver of evolution. Parasite pressure differs between habitats. It is thought to be higher in tropical regions compared to temporal ones. We infected Drosophila melanogaster from two tropical (Malaysia and Zimbabwe and two temperate populations (the Netherlands and North Carolina with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to examine if adaptation to local parasite pressures led to differences in resistance. Contrary to previous findings we observed increased survival in temperate populations. This, however, is not due to increased resistance to infection per se, but rather the consequence of a higher general vigor of the temperate populations. We also assessed transcriptional response to infection within these flies eight and 24 hours after infection. Only few genes were induced at the earlier time point, most of which are involved in detoxification. In contrast, we identified more than 4,000 genes that changed their expression state after 24 hours. This response was generally conserved over all populations with only few genes being uniquely regulated in the temperate populations. We furthermore found that the American population was transcriptionally highly diverged from all other populations concerning basal levels of gene expression. This was particularly true for stress and immune response genes, which might be the genetic basis for their elevated vigor.

  12. Survival Rate and Transcriptional Response upon Infection with the Generalist Parasite Beauveria bassiana in a World-Wide Sample of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparazzo, Francesco; Tellier, Aurélien; Stephan, Wolfgang; Hutter, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to cope with infection by a parasite is one of the major challenges for any host species and is a major driver of evolution. Parasite pressure differs between habitats. It is thought to be higher in tropical regions compared to temporal ones. We infected Drosophila melanogaster from two tropical (Malaysia and Zimbabwe) and two temperate populations (the Netherlands and North Carolina) with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to examine if adaptation to local parasite pressures led to differences in resistance. Contrary to previous findings we observed increased survival in temperate populations. This, however, is not due to increased resistance to infection per se, but rather the consequence of a higher general vigor of the temperate populations. We also assessed transcriptional response to infection within these flies eight and 24 hours after infection. Only few genes were induced at the earlier time point, most of which are involved in detoxification. In contrast, we identified more than 4,000 genes that changed their expression state after 24 hours. This response was generally conserved over all populations with only few genes being uniquely regulated in the temperate populations. We furthermore found that the American population was transcriptionally highly diverged from all other populations concerning basal levels of gene expression. This was particularly true for stress and immune response genes, which might be the genetic basis for their elevated vigor.

  13. Survival Rate and Transcriptional Response upon Infection with the Generalist Parasite Beauveria bassiana in a World-Wide Sample of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparazzo, Francesco; Tellier, Aurélien; Stephan, Wolfgang; Hutter, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to cope with infection by a parasite is one of the major challenges for any host species and is a major driver of evolution. Parasite pressure differs between habitats. It is thought to be higher in tropical regions compared to temporal ones. We infected Drosophila melanogaster from two tropical (Malaysia and Zimbabwe) and two temperate populations (the Netherlands and North Carolina) with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to examine if adaptation to local parasite pressures led to differences in resistance. Contrary to previous findings we observed increased survival in temperate populations. This, however, is not due to increased resistance to infection per se, but rather the consequence of a higher general vigor of the temperate populations. We also assessed transcriptional response to infection within these flies eight and 24 hours after infection. Only few genes were induced at the earlier time point, most of which are involved in detoxification. In contrast, we identified more than 4,000 genes that changed their expression state after 24 hours. This response was generally conserved over all populations with only few genes being uniquely regulated in the temperate populations. We furthermore found that the American population was transcriptionally highly diverged from all other populations concerning basal levels of gene expression. This was particularly true for stress and immune response genes, which might be the genetic basis for their elevated vigor. PMID:26154519

  14. Carbon isotopic record from Upper Devonian carbonates at Dongcun in Guilin, southern China, supporting the world-wide pattern of carbon isotope excursions during Frasnian-Famennian transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Two positive δ13C excursions are presented in records from the Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) marine carbonate sediments in Europe, America, Africa, and Australia, having been considered as a worldwide pattern, and attributed to enhanced organic carbon burial during the F-F biological mass extinction. However, this worldwide pattern has not been revealed from the well-deposited Late Devonian sequences in southern China. In this paper, a detailed investigation has been made on the Late Devonian section at Dongcun, Guilin, southern China to constrain perturbations in δ13C of carbonates in the F-F deposited sequence. The result from this section also indicates two positive δ13C excursions during the F-F transition. The first excursion with an amplitude of 1.5‰ occurred at the bottom of linguiformis Zone, later than the early excursion existing in the Late rhenana Zone of the Late Devonian profiles in other continents, especially, in central Europe. This difference has been expected to be a result as conodont Palmatolepis linguiformis occurred earlier in southern China than other sites. The second excursion with an amplitude of 2.1‰ is located at the F-F boundary, same as the records from other continents. This result strongly supports the view that two carbon isotope positive excursions during the F-F transition are common in carbonate sediments, resulting from worldwide increases of organic carbon burial intensity.

  15. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its role in world-wide security of nuclear fuels and facilities and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.

    1976-01-01

    This article outlines the wide range of the Agency's concerns in both promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and ensuring that it is safely used with minimal risk of damage to man and his environment. This latter aspect includes measures against diversion to military purposes, theft or sabotage. There is a marked tendency to leave the promotion of nuclear energy to industry and commerce, and for many regional and national nuclear energy authorities to become increasingly absorbed in its safety and regulatory aspects--the ultimate aim being the establishment of a world nuclear law. This trend will certainly also be reflected in the Agency's program and will gain strength as time goes on. However, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sharply differentiated from national authorities in the industrial countries and from most regional nuclear energy authorities by the fact that its program must continue to reflect the needs of the developing nations which constitute a majority of its Member States. These nations--most of which are ''energy hungry''--need the Agency's help to benefit from the peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology

  16. Longitudinal evaluation of a World Wide Web-based antimicrobial stewardship program: assessing factors associated with approval patterns and trends over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Vidya; Lehmann, Christoph U; Diener-West, Marie; Agwu, Allison L

    2014-02-01

    The Johns Hopkins Children's Medical and Surgery Center developed a Web-based Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) in 2005. The present study aimed to assess longitudinal antimicrobial request and approval patterns for this ASP. We analyzed a total of 16,229 antimicrobial requests for 3,542 patients between June 1, 2005, and June 30, 2009. Antimicrobial approval was the outcome of interest. We assessed gaming by studying trends in automatically approved requests. Nonparametric tests for trend were performed to detect changes in approval patterns. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with approval. The vast majority (91.3%) of antimicrobial requests were approved, with an increase of 6.1% over time (P Web-based ASP allows management of a large number of antimicrobial requests, without apparent gaming. Observed differences in approval patterns based on patient, requestor, and antimicrobial factors may inform the development of ASPs and evaluation of provider education and training. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. World-wide and regional intercomparison for the determination of organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons in mussel sample IAEA-142. Report no. 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villeneuve, J.P.; Horvat, M.; Cattini, C.

    1996-03-01

    The accurate and precise determination of organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons in marine environmental samples is an important aspect of marine pollution assessments in coastal and ocean environments. Intercomparison exercises represent an essential element of method testing and are used as a basic tool for evaluating data quality on a global and regional level. The Marine Environmental Studies Laboratory (MESL) of IAEA-MEL has conducted intercomparison exercises on trace organic compounds for over nineteen years as part of its contribution to IAEA's analytical quality control service and UNEP's regional seas programme, and occasionally in association with the intergovernmental oceanographic commission (of UNESCO) GIPME programme. These exercises are organized on a continuous basis, at least once per year. Result of previous exercises have revealed serious problems for many regional laboratories to obtain comparable data. As a consequence of this situation, it was decided to seek increased support for quality assurance programmes. Staff of MESL, with funding from UNEP, the World Bank and regional trust funds, embarked on a campaign to train analysts in modern measurement techniques, supply appropriate and reliable reference methods and materials and, where possible, to improve analytical instruments in Member State laboratories. This report describes results of the IAEA/UNEP intercomparison run 142 for the chemical analysis of organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons in a homogenised mussel sample

  18. World-wide and regional intercomparison for the determination of organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment sample IAEA-357. Report no. 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villeneuve, J.P.; Mee, L.D.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes the results of IAEA/UNEP intercomparison run 357 for the chemical analysis of organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediments. The Marine Environmental Studies Laboratory (MESL) of IAEA-MEL has conducted intercomparison exercises on trace organic compounds for over ten years as part of its contribution to IAEA's analytical quality control service and UNEP's regional seas programme and occasionally in association with the intergovernmental oceanographic Commission (of UNESCO) GIPME programme. Results of previous exercises have revealed serious problems for many regional laboratories to obtain comparable data. This, in turn, has raised serious concerns on the validity of region-wide or global marine pollution assessments. Even more worrisome was the apparent lack of improvement in data quality from exercise to exercise. As a consequence of the above situation, it was decided to seek increased support for quality assurance programmes. Staff of MESL, with funding from UNEP, the World bank and regional trust funds, embarked on a campaign to train analysts in modern measurement techniques, supply appropriate and reliable reference methods and materials and, where possible, to improve analytical instruments in member states laboratories. This work continues at present and recent training programmes have been conducted in the Wider Caribbean, East Africa, The Gulf and the Mediterranean

  19. Fifteen-year trend in information on the World Wide Web for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: evolving, but opportunities for improvement remain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Ortiz, Jose Dionisio; de Jesus Valdivia-Nuno, Jose; Ramirez-Gomez, Andrea; Garagarza-Mariscal, Heber; Gallegos-Rios, Carlos; Flores-Hernandez, Gabriel; Hernandez-Sanchez, Luis; Brambila-Barba, Victor; Castaneda-Sanchez, Jose Juan; Barajas-Ochoa, Zalathiel; Suarez-Rico, Angel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Jorge Manuel; Ramos-Remus, Cesar

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis information on the Internet over a 15-year period and the positioning of Web sites posted by universities, hospitals, and medical associations. We replicated the methods of a 2001 study assessing rheumatoid arthritis information on the Internet using WebCrawler. All Web sites and pages were critically assessed for relevance, scope, authorship, type of publication, and financial objectives. Differences between studies were considered significant if 95 % confidence intervals did not overlap. Additionally, we added a Google search with assessments of the quality of content of web pages and of the Web sites posted by medical institutions. There were significant differences between the present study's WebCrawler search and the 2001-referent study. There were increases in information sites (82 vs 36 %) and rheumatoid arthritis-specific discussion pages (59 vs 8 %), and decreases in advertisements (2 vs 48 %) and alternative therapies (27 vs 45 %). The quality of content of web pages is still dispersed; just 37 % were rated as good. Among the first 300 hits, 30 (10 %) were posted by medical institutions, 17 of them in the USA. Regarding readability, 7 % of these 30 web pages required 6 years, 27 % required 7-9 years, 27 % required 10-12 years, and 40 % required 12 or more years of schooling. The Internet has evolved in the last 15 years. Medical institutions are also better positioned. However, there are still areas for improvement, such as the quality of the content, leadership of medical institutions, and readability of information.

  20. World-wide and regional intercomparison for the determination of trace elements in polluted marine sediment IAEA-356. Report no.56

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, M; Mee, L D; Oregioni, B [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory, Monaco (Monaco)

    1994-09-01

    The accurate and precise determination of trace elements in marine sediment samples is an important aspect of geochemical marine pollution studies and for assessing the levels and pathways of marine pollutants. Past intercomparison exercise conducted by the Marine Environment Laboratory of IAEA (formerly the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity) has focused upon the near shore sediment (1) and deep sea marine sediment (2) where trace levels of elements was rather low. The present intercomparison exercise on sediment taken from a polluted coastal lagoon was designed in order to fulfill the increased demand for certified reference materials of various origin and the number of parameters that should be studied. Additionally, different instrumental techniques, both nuclear and non-nuclear, were compared, and evaluated. By statistically examining the data from this study, the material can be certified for future use as a reference material. The current exercise was designed not only to test the intercomparability of different instrumental techniques, but also to evaluate the effectiveness of different procedures for sample digestion. Participants were invited to perform 'total' analyses involving, except in the case of neutron activation analysis, a simple partial extraction with 1M hydrochloric acid (2 hours, room temperature). This partial dissolution had a twofold purpose: (i) to differentiate between instrumental (plus contamination during work-up) errors and those resulting from method-specific (matrix) effects; and (ii) to evaluate a simple screening test for the more labile ('easily leached') fraction of trace elements of particular interest to environmental chemists. The present report presents the entire experimental data set and a statistical evaluation of the results for each parameter.