WorldWideScience

Sample records for increases neurotransmitter release

  1. Analysis of drug effects on neurotransmitter release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowell, P.; Garner, A.

    1986-01-01

    The release of neurotransmitter is routinely studied in a superfusion system in which serial samples are collected and the effects of drugs or other treatments on the amount of material in the superfusate is determined. With frequent sampling interval, this procedure provides a mechanism for dynamically characterizing the release process itself. Using automated data collection in conjunction with polyexponential computer analysis, the equation which describes the release process in each experiment is determined. Analysis of the data during the nontreated phase of the experiment allows an internal control to be used for accurately assessing any changes in neurotransmitter release which may occur during a subsequent treatment phase. The use of internal controls greatly improves the signal to noise ratio and allows determinations of very low concentrations of drugs on small amounts of tissue to be made. In this presentation, the effects of 10 μM nicotine on 3 H-dopamine release in rat nucleus accumbens is described. The time course, potency and efficacy of the drug treatment is characterized using this system. Determinations of the exponential order of the release as well as the rate constants allow one to study the mechanism of the release process. A description of 3 H-dopamine release in normal as well as Ca ++ -free medium is presented

  2. Imaging neurotransmitter release by drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Diana; Narendran, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracers that are specific for brain dopamine receptors can be used to indirectly image the change in the levels of neurotransmitters within the brain. Most of the studies in addiction have focused on dopamine, since the dopamine neurons that project to the striatum have been shown to play a critical role in mediating addictive behavior. These imaging studies have shown that increased extracellular dopamine produced by psychostimulants can be measured with PET and SPECT. However, there are some technical issues associated with imaging changes in dopamine, and these are reviewed in this chapter. Among these are the loss of sensitivity, the time course of dopamine pulse relative to PET and SPECT imaging, and the question of affinity state of the receptor. In addition, animal studies have shown that most drugs of abuse increase extracellular dopamine in the striatum, yet not all produce a change in neurotransmitter that can be measured. As a result, imaging with a psychostimulant has become the preferred method for imaging presynaptic dopamine transmission, and this method has been used in studies of addiction. The results of these studies suggest that cocaine and alcohol addiction are associated with a loss of dopamine transmission, and a number of studies show that this loss correlates with severity of disease.

  3. A Glutamate Homeostat Controls the Presynaptic Inhibition of Neurotransmitter Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiling Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We have interrogated the synaptic dialog that enables the bi-directional, homeostatic control of presynaptic efficacy at the glutamatergic Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ. We find that homeostatic depression and potentiation use disparate genetic, induction, and expression mechanisms. Specifically, homeostatic potentiation is achieved through reduced CaMKII activity postsynaptically and increased abundance of active zone material presynaptically at one of the two neuronal subtypes innervating the NMJ, while homeostatic depression occurs without alterations in CaMKII activity and is expressed at both neuronal subtypes. Furthermore, homeostatic depression is only induced through excess presynaptic glutamate release and operates with disregard to the postsynaptic response. We propose that two independent homeostats modulate presynaptic efficacy at the Drosophila NMJ: one is an intercellular signaling system that potentiates synaptic strength following diminished postsynaptic excitability, while the other adaptively modulates presynaptic glutamate release through an autocrine mechanism without feedback from the postsynaptic compartment. : Homeostatic mechanisms stabilize synaptic strength, but the signaling systems remain enigmatic. Li et al. suggest the existence of a homeostat operating at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction that responds to excess glutamate through an autocrine mechanism to adaptively inhibit presynaptic neurotransmitter release. This system parallels forms of plasticity at central synapses. Keywords: homeostatic synaptic plasticity, glutamate homeostasis, synaptic depression, Drosophila neuromuscular junction

  4. Tunable Molecular Logic Gates Designed for Imaging Released Neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockow, Jessica L; Hettie, Kenneth S; Secor, Kristen E; Barman, Dipti N; Glass, Timothy E

    2015-08-03

    Tunable dual-analyte fluorescent molecular logic gates (ExoSensors) were designed for the purpose of imaging select vesicular primary-amine neurotransmitters that are released from secretory vesicles upon exocytosis. ExoSensors are based on the coumarin-3-aldehyde scaffold and rely on both neurotransmitter binding and the change in environmental pH associated with exocytosis to afford a unique turn-on fluorescence output. A pH-functionality was directly integrated into the fluorophore π-system of the scaffold, thereby allowing for an enhanced fluorescence output upon the release of labeled neurotransmitters. By altering the pH-sensitive unit with various electron-donating and -withdrawing sulfonamide substituents, we identified a correlation between the pKa of the pH-sensitive group and the fluorescence output from the activated fluorophore. In doing so, we achieved a twelvefold fluorescence enhancement upon evaluating the ExoSensors under conditions that mimic exocytosis. ExoSensors are aptly suited to serve as molecular imaging tools that allow for the direct visualization of only the neurotransmitters that are released from secretory vesicles upon exocytosis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Mechanical Regulation in Cell Division and in Neurotransmitter Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Sathish

    During their lifecycle, cells must produce forces which play important roles in several subcellular processes. Force-producing components are organized into macromolecular assemblies of proteins that are often dynamic, and are constructed or disassembled in response to various signals. The forces themselves may directly be involved in subcellular mechanics, or they may influence mechanosensing proteins either within or outside these structures. These proteins play different roles: they may ensure the stability of the force-producing structure, or they may send signals to a coupled process. The generation and sensing of subcellular forces is an active research topic, and this thesis focusses on the roles of these forces in two key areas: cell division and neurotransmitter release. The first part of the thesis deals with the effect of force on cell wall growth regulation during division in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a cigar-shaped, unicellular organism. During cytokinesis, the last stage of cell division in which the cell physically divides into two, a tense cytokinetic ring anchored to the cellular membrane assembles and constricts, accompanied by the inward centripetal growth of new cell wall, called septum, in the wake of the inward-moving membrane. The contour of the septum hole maintains its circularity as it reduces in size--an indication of regulated growth. To characterize the cell wall growth process, we performed image analysis on contours of the leading edge of the septum obtained via fluorescence microscopy in the labs of our collaborators. We quantified the deviations from circularity using the edge roughness. The roughness was spatially correlated, suggestive of regulated growth. We hypothesized that the cell wall growers are mechanosensitive and respond to the force exerted by the ring. A mathematical model based on this hypothesis then showed that this leads to corrections of roughness in a curvature-dependent fashion. Thus, one of

  6. Tyrosine 402 Phosphorylation of Pyk2 Is Involved in Ionomycin-Induced Neurotransmitter Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Yun; Mou, Zheng; Chu, Shifeng; Chen, Xiaoyu; He, Wenbin; Guo, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Yuhe; Takahashi, Masami; Chen, Naihong

    2014-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases, which are highly expressed in the central nervous system, are implicated in many neural processes. However, the relationship between protein tyrosine kinases and neurotransmitter release remains unknown. In this study, we found that ionomycin, a Ca2+ ionophore, concurrently induced asynchronous neurotransmitter release and phosphorylation of a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), in clonal rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and cerebellar granule cells, whereas introduction of Pyk2 siRNA dramatically suppressed ionomycin-induced neurotransmitter release. Further study indicated that Tyr-402 (Y402) in Pyk2, instead of other tyrosine sites, underwent rapid phosphorylation after ionomycin induction in 1 min to 2 min. We demonstrated that the mutant of Pyk2 Y402 could abolish ionomycin-induced dopamine (DA) release by transfecting cells with recombinant Pyk2 and its mutants (Y402F, Y579F, Y580F, and Y881F). In addition, Src inhibition could prolong phosphorylation of Pyk2 Y402 and increase DA release. These findings suggested that Pyk2 was involved in ionomycin-induced neurotransmitter release through phosphorylation of Y402. PMID:24718602

  7. The 'sniffer-patch' technique for detection of neurotransmitter release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, T G

    1997-05-01

    A wide variety of techniques have been employed for the detection and measurement of neurotransmitter release from biological preparations. Whilst many of these methods offer impressive levels of sensitivity, few are able to combine sensitivity with the necessary temporal and spatial resolution required to study quantal release from single cells. One detection method that is seeing a revival of interest and has the potential to fill this niche is the so-called 'sniffer-patch' technique. In this article, specific examples of the practical aspects of using this technique are discussed along with the procedures involved in calibrating these biosensors to extend their applications to provide quantitative, in addition to simple qualitative, measurements of quantal transmitter release.

  8. Pyrethroid insecticides evoke neurotransmitter release from rabbit striatal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eells, J.T.; Dubocovich, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate ([R,S]-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl[R,S]-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3- methylbutyrate) on neurotransmitter release in rabbit brain slices were investigated. Fenvalerate evoked a calcium-dependent release of [ 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]acetylcholine from rabbit striatal slices that was concentration-dependent and specific for the toxic stereoisomer of the insecticide. The release of [ 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]acetylcholine by fenvalerate was modulated by D2 dopamine receptor activation and antagonized completely by the sodium channel blocker, tetrodotoxin. These findings are consistent with an action of fenvalerate on the voltage-dependent sodium channels of the presynaptic membrane resulting in membrane depolarization, and the release of dopamine and acetylcholine by a calcium-dependent exocytotic process. In contrast to results obtained in striatal slices, fenvalerate did not elicit the release of [ 3 H]norepinephrine or [ 3 H]acetylcholine from rabbit hippocampal slices indicative of regional differences in sensitivity to type II pyrethroid actions

  9. The dependence of neuronal encoding efficiency on Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Faramarz; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Synapses act as information filters by different molecular mechanisms including retrograde messenger that affect neuronal spiking activity. One of the well-known effects of retrograde messenger in presynaptic neurons is a change of the probability of neurotransmitter release. Hebbian learning describe a strengthening of a synapse between a presynaptic input onto a postsynaptic neuron when both pre- and postsynaptic neurons are coactive. In this work, a theory of homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release by retrograde messenger and Hebbian plasticity in neuronal encoding is presented. Encoding efficiency was measured for different synaptic conditions. In order to gain high encoding efficiency, the spiking pattern of a neuron should be dependent on the intensity of the input and show low levels of noise. In this work, we represent spiking trains as zeros and ones (corresponding to non-spike or spike in a time bin, respectively) as words with length equal to three. Then the frequency of each word (here eight words) is measured using spiking trains. These frequencies are used to measure neuronal efficiency in different conditions and for different parameter values. Results show that neurons that have synapses acting as band-pass filters show the highest efficiency to encode their input when both Hebbian mechanism and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release exist in synapses. Specifically, the integration of homeostatic regulation of feedback inhibition with Hebbian mechanism and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release in the synapses leads to even higher efficiency when high stimulus intensity is presented to the neurons. However, neurons with synapses acting as high-pass filters show no remarkable increase in encoding efficiency for all simulated synaptic plasticity mechanisms. This study demonstrates the importance of cooperation of Hebbian mechanism with regulation of neurotransmitter release induced by rapid diffused retrograde

  10. Parallel expression of synaptophysin and evoked neurotransmitter release during development of cultured neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Treiman, M; Hansen, Gert Helge

    1991-01-01

    Primary cultures of GABAergic cerebral cortex neurons and glutamatergic cerebellar granule cells were used to study the expression of synaptophysin, a synaptic vesicle marker protein, along with the ability of each cell type to release neurotransmitter upon stimulation. The synaptophysin expression...... by quantitative immunoblotting and light microscope immunocytochemistry, respectively. In both cell types, a close parallelism was found between the temporal pattern of development in synaptophysin expression and neurotransmitter release. This temporal pattern differed between the two types of neurons....... The cerebral cortex neurons showed a biphasic time course of increase in synaptophysin content, paralleled by a biphasic pattern of development in their ability to release [3H]GABA in response to depolarization by glutamate or elevated K+ concentrations. In contrast, a monophasic, approximately linear increase...

  11. Ca(2+) influx and neurotransmitter release at ribbon synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soyoun; von Gersdorff, Henrique

    2012-01-01

    Ca(2+) influx through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels triggers the release of neurotransmitters at presynaptic terminals. Some sensory receptor cells in the peripheral auditory and visual systems have specialized synapses that express an electron-dense organelle called a synaptic ribbon. Like conventional synapses, ribbon synapses exhibit SNARE-mediated exocytosis, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and short-term plasticity. However, unlike non-ribbon synapses, voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channel opening at ribbon synapses triggers a form of multiquantal release that can be highly synchronous. Furthermore, ribbon synapses appear to be specialized for fast and high throughput exocytosis controlled by graded membrane potential changes. Here we will discuss some of the basic aspects of synaptic transmission at different types of ribbon synapses, and we will emphasize recent evidence that auditory and retinal ribbon synapses have marked differences. This will lead us to suggest that ribbon synapses are specialized for particular operating ranges and frequencies of stimulation. We propose that different types of ribbon synapses transfer diverse rates of sensory information by expressing a particular repertoire of critical components, and by placing them at precise and strategic locations, so that a continuous supply of primed vesicles and Ca(2+) influx leads to fast, accurate, and ongoing exocytosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The dependence of neuronal encoding efficiency on Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz eFaghihi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Synapses act as information filters by different molecular mechanisms including retrograde messenger that affect neuronal spiking activity. One of the well-known effects of retrograde messenger in presynaptic neurons is a change of the probability of neurotransmitter release. Hebbian learning describe a strengthening of a synapse between a presynaptic input onto a postsynaptic neuron when both pre- and postsynaptic neurons are coactive. In this work, a theory of homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release by retrograde messenger and Hebbian plasticity in neuronal encoding is presented. Encoding efficiency was measured for different synaptic conditions. In order to gain high encoding efficiency, the spiking pattern of a neuron should be dependent on the intensity of the input and show low levels of noise. In this work, we represent spiking trains as zeros and ones (corresponding to non-spike or spike in a time bin, respectively as words with length equal to three. Then the frequency of each word (here eight words is measured using spiking trains. These frequencies are used to measure neuronal efficiency in different conditions and for different parameter values. Results show that neurons that have synapses acting as band-pass filters show the highest efficiency to encode their input when both Hebbian mechanism and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release exist in synapses. Specifically, the integration of homeostatic regulation of feedback inhibition with Hebbian mechanism and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release in the synapses leads to even higher efficiency when high stimulus intensity is presented to the neurons. However, neurons with synapses acting as high-pass filters show no remarkable increase in encoding efficiency for all simulated synaptic plasticity mechanisms.

  13. In vitro labelled neurotransmitters release for the study of neuro toxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camillo, Maria A.P.; Rogero, Jose R.; Troncone, Lanfranco R.P.

    1995-01-01

    There is an increasing concern in the replacement of in vivo by in vitro methods in Pharmacology. Looking for a method which involves the most of the physiological aspects related to neural functions, a super fusion system designed to evaluate in vitro neurotransmitter release from brain striatal tissue is here described. The method is based on the basal and stimulated release of pre-loaded tritium-labelled neurotransmitters. This procedure bears an active uptake/release function which is fairly changed by membrane polarisation state, ion channel activation and enzymatic activity, as well as other still unknown steps involved in neurotransmission. Calcium dependency of dopamine and acetylcholine release induced by high potassium depolarization or glutamate (Glu) stimulation was demonstrated employing calcium-free (+EGTA) super fusion or lanthanum/cadmium addition. Glutamate stimulation involved NMDA receptors since magnesium or MK801 blocks stimulated release. Uptake of DA and Ach was evidenced by using bupropione or hemicolinium-3. presynaptic inhibition of Ach release was evidenced by physostigmine-induced inhibitions of acetylcholinesterase. (author). 3 refs., 6 figs

  14. Estimation of in-vivo neurotransmitter release by brain microdialysis: the issue of validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Chiara, G.; Tanda, G.; Carboni, E.

    1996-11-01

    Although microdialysis is commonly understood as a method of sampling low molecular weight compounds in the extracellular compartment of tissues, this definition appears insufficient to specifically describe brain microdialysis of neurotransmitters. In fact, transmitter overflow from the brain into dialysates is critically dependent upon the composition of the perfusing Ringer. Therefore, the dialysing Ringer not only recovers the transmitter from the extracellular brain fluid but is a main determinant of its in-vivo release. Two types of brain microdialysis are distinguished: quantitative micro-dialysis and conventional microdialysis. Quantitative microdialysis provides an estimate of neurotransmitter concentrations in the extracellular fluid in contact with the probe. However, this information might poorly reflect the kinetics of neurotransmitter release in vivo. Conventional microdialysis involves perfusion at a constant rate with a transmitter-free Ringer, resulting in the formation of a steep neurotransmitter concentration gradient extending from the Ringer into the extracellular fluid. This artificial gradient might be critical for the ability of conventional microdialysis to detect and resolve phasic changes in neurotransmitter release taking place in the implanted area. On the basis of these characteristics, conventional microdialysis of neurotransmitters can be conceptualized as a model of the in-vivo release of neurotransmitters in the brain. As such, the criteria of face-validity, construct-validity and predictive-validity should be applied to select the most appropriate experimental conditions for estimating neurotransmitter release in specific brain areas in relation to behaviour.

  15. PRRT2 Is a Key Component of the Ca2+-Dependent Neurotransmitter Release Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Pierluigi; Castroflorio, Enrico; Rossi, Pia; Fadda, Manuela; Sterlini, Bruno; Cervigni, Romina Ines; Prestigio, Cosimo; Giovedì, Silvia; Onofri, Franco; Mura, Elisa; Guarnieri, Fabrizia C.; Marte, Antonella; Orlando, Marta; Zara, Federico; Fassio, Anna; Valtorta, Flavia; Baldelli, Pietro; Corradi, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Summary Heterozygous mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders, including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia, and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression, suggesting that loss of PRRT2 function may contribute to pathogenesis. We show that PRRT2 is enriched in presynaptic terminals and that its silencing decreases the number of synapses and increases the number of docked synaptic vesicles at rest. PRRT2-silenced neurons exhibit a severe impairment of synchronous release, attributable to a sharp decrease in release probability and Ca2+ sensitivity and associated with a marked increase of the asynchronous/synchronous release ratio. PRRT2 interacts with the synaptic proteins SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin 1/2. The results indicate that PRRT2 is intimately connected with the Ca2+-sensing machinery and that it plays an important role in the final steps of neurotransmitter release. PMID:27052163

  16. PRRT2 Is a Key Component of the Ca2+-Dependent Neurotransmitter Release Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Valente

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heterozygous mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2 underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders, including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia, and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression, suggesting that loss of PRRT2 function may contribute to pathogenesis. We show that PRRT2 is enriched in presynaptic terminals and that its silencing decreases the number of synapses and increases the number of docked synaptic vesicles at rest. PRRT2-silenced neurons exhibit a severe impairment of synchronous release, attributable to a sharp decrease in release probability and Ca2+ sensitivity and associated with a marked increase of the asynchronous/synchronous release ratio. PRRT2 interacts with the synaptic proteins SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin 1/2. The results indicate that PRRT2 is intimately connected with the Ca2+-sensing machinery and that it plays an important role in the final steps of neurotransmitter release.

  17. Outside-out "sniffer-patch" clamp technique for in situ measures of neurotransmitter release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Chrétien, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism underlying neurotransmitter release is a critical research domain for the understanding of neuronal network function; however, few techniques are available for the direct detection and measurement of neurotransmitter release. To date, the sniffer-patch clamp technique is mainly used to investigate these mechanisms from individual cultured cells. In this study, we propose to adapt the sniffer-patch clamp technique to in situ detection of neurosecretion. Using outside-out patches from donor cells as specific biosensors plunged in acute cerebral slices, this technique allows for proper detection and quantification of neurotransmitter release at the level of the neuronal network.

  18. Mimicking Neurotransmitter Release in Chemical Synapses via Hysteresis Engineering in MoS2 Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Andrew J; Razavieh, Ali; Nasr, Joseph R; Schulman, Daniel S; Eichfeld, Chad M; Das, Saptarshi

    2017-03-28

    Neurotransmitter release in chemical synapses is fundamental to diverse brain functions such as motor action, learning, cognition, emotion, perception, and consciousness. Moreover, improper functioning or abnormal release of neurotransmitter is associated with numerous neurological disorders such as epilepsy, sclerosis, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. We have utilized hysteresis engineering in a back-gated MoS 2 field effect transistor (FET) in order to mimic such neurotransmitter release dynamics in chemical synapses. All three essential features, i.e., quantal, stochastic, and excitatory or inhibitory nature of neurotransmitter release, were accurately captured in our experimental demonstration. We also mimicked an important phenomenon called long-term potentiation (LTP), which forms the basis of human memory. Finally, we demonstrated how to engineer the LTP time by operating the MoS 2 FET in different regimes. Our findings could provide a critical component toward the design of next-generation smart and intelligent human-like machines and human-machine interfaces.

  19. Protein kinase A mediates adenosine A2a receptor modulation of neurotransmitter release via synapsin I phosphorylation in cultured cells from medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Joao Paulo Pontes; Almeida, Marina Gomes; Castilho-Martins, Emerson Augusto; Costa, Maisa Aparecida; Fior-Chadi, Debora Rejane

    2014-08-01

    Synaptic transmission is an essential process for neuron physiology. Such process is enabled in part due to modulation of neurotransmitter release. Adenosine is a synaptic modulator of neurotransmitter release in the Central Nervous System, including neurons of medulla oblongata, where several nuclei are involved with neurovegetative reflexes. Adenosine modulates different neurotransmitter systems in medulla oblongata, specially glutamate and noradrenaline in the nucleus tractussolitarii, which are involved in hypotensive responses. However, the intracellular mechanisms involved in this modulation remain unknown. The adenosine A2a receptor modulates neurotransmitter release by activating two cAMP protein effectors, the protein kinase A and the exchange protein activated by cAMP. Therefore, an in vitro approach (cultured cells) was carried out to evaluate modulation of neurotransmission by adenosine A2a receptor and the signaling intracellular pathway involved. Results show that the adenosine A2a receptor agonist, CGS 21680, increases neurotransmitter release, in particular, glutamate and noradrenaline and such response is mediated by protein kinase A activation, which in turn increased synapsin I phosphorylation. This suggests a mechanism of A2aR modulation of neurotransmitter release in cultured cells from medulla oblongata of Wistar rats and suggest that protein kinase A mediates this modulation of neurotransmitter release via synapsin I phosphorylation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  20. HDAC6 Is a Bruchpilot Deacetylase that Facilitates Neurotransmitter Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Miskiewicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Presynaptic densities are specialized structures involved in synaptic vesicle tethering and neurotransmission; however, the mechanisms regulating their function remain understudied. In Drosophila, Bruchpilot is a major constituent of the presynaptic density that tethers vesicles. Here, we show that HDAC6 is necessary and sufficient for deacetylation of Bruchpilot. HDAC6 expression is also controlled by TDP-43, an RNA-binding protein deregulated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Animals expressing TDP-43 harboring pathogenic mutations show increased HDAC6 expression, decreased Bruchpilot acetylation, larger vesicle-tethering sites, and increased neurotransmission, defects similar to those seen upon expression of HDAC6 and opposite to hdac6 null mutants. Consequently, reduced levels of HDAC6 or increased levels of ELP3, a Bruchpilot acetyltransferase, rescue the presynaptic density defects in TDP-43-expressing flies as well as the decreased adult locomotion. Our work identifies HDAC6 as a Bruchpilot deacetylase and indicates that regulating acetylation of a presynaptic release-site protein is critical for maintaining normal neurotransmission.

  1. Glycine receptors support excitatory neurotransmitter release in developing mouse visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Portia A; Burette, Alain C; Weinberg, Richard J; Philpot, Benjamin D

    2012-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are found in most areas of the brain, and their dysfunction can cause severe neurological disorders. While traditionally thought of as inhibitory receptors, presynaptic-acting GlyRs (preGlyRs) can also facilitate glutamate release under certain circumstances, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. In the current study, we sought to better understand the role of GlyRs in the facilitation of excitatory neurotransmitter release in mouse visual cortex. Using whole-cell recordings, we found that preGlyRs facilitate glutamate release in developing, but not adult, visual cortex. The glycinergic enhancement of neurotransmitter release in early development depends on the high intracellular to extracellular Cl− gradient maintained by the Na+–K+–2Cl− cotransporter and requires Ca2+ entry through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. The glycine transporter 1, localized to glial cells, regulates extracellular glycine concentration and the activation of these preGlyRs. Our findings demonstrate a developmentally regulated mechanism for controlling excitatory neurotransmitter release in the neocortex. PMID:22988142

  2. Planar Diamond-Based Multiarrays to Monitor Neurotransmitter Release and Action Potential Firing: New Perspectives in Cellular Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabelli, Valentina; Marcantoni, Andrea; Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Bernardi, Ettore; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Olivero, Paolo; Carbone, Emilio

    2017-02-15

    High biocompatibility, outstanding electrochemical responsiveness, inertness, and transparency make diamond-based multiarrays (DBMs) first-rate biosensors for in vitro detection of electrochemical and electrical signals from excitable cells together, with potential for in vivo applications as neural interfaces and prostheses. Here, we will review the electrochemical and physical properties of various DBMs and how these devices have been employed for recording released neurotransmitter molecules and all-or-none action potentials from living cells. Specifically, we will overview how DBMs can resolve localized exocytotic events from subcellular compartments using high-density microelectrode arrays (MEAs), or monitoring oxidizable neurotransmitter release from populations of cells in culture and tissue slices using low-density MEAs. Interfacing DBMs with excitable cells is currently leading to the promising opportunity of recording electrical signals as well as creating neuronal interfaces through the same device. Given the recent increasingly growing development of newly available DBMs of various geometries to monitor electrical activity and neurotransmitter release in a variety of excitable and neuronal tissues, the discussion will be limited to planar DBMs.

  3. LKB1 Regulates Mitochondria-Dependent Presynaptic Calcium Clearance and Neurotransmitter Release Properties at Excitatory Synapses along Cortical Axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seok-Kyu; Sando, Richard; Lewis, Tommy L; Hirabayashi, Yusuke; Maximov, Anton; Polleux, Franck

    2016-07-01

    Individual synapses vary significantly in their neurotransmitter release properties, which underlie complex information processing in neural circuits. Presynaptic Ca2+ homeostasis plays a critical role in specifying neurotransmitter release properties, but the mechanisms regulating synapse-specific Ca2+ homeostasis in the mammalian brain are still poorly understood. Using electrophysiology and genetically encoded Ca2+ sensors targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or to presynaptic boutons of cortical pyramidal neurons, we demonstrate that the presence or absence of mitochondria at presynaptic boutons dictates neurotransmitter release properties through Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter (MCU)-dependent Ca2+ clearance. We demonstrate that the serine/threonine kinase LKB1 regulates MCU expression, mitochondria-dependent Ca2+ clearance, and thereby, presynaptic release properties. Re-establishment of MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake at glutamatergic synapses rescues the altered neurotransmitter release properties characterizing LKB1-null cortical axons. Our results provide novel insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms whereby mitochondria control neurotransmitter release properties in a bouton-specific way through presynaptic Ca2+ clearance.

  4. Fife, a Drosophila Piccolo-RIM Homolog, Promotes Active Zone Organization and Neurotransmitter Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Joseph J.; Gratz, Scott J.; Slind, Jessica K.; Geske, Richard R.; Cummings, Alexander M.; Galindo, Samantha E.; Donohue, Laura K.; O'Connor-Giles, Kate M.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal communication depends on the precisely orchestrated release of neurotransmitter at specialized sites called active zones (AZs). A small number of scaffolding and cytoskeletal proteins comprising the cytomatrix of the active zone (CAZ) are thought to organize the architecture and functional properties of AZs. The majority of CAZ proteins are evolutionarily conserved, underscoring the fundamental similarities in neurotransmission at all synapses. However, core CAZ proteins Piccolo and Bassoon have long been believed exclusive to vertebrates, raising intriguing questions about the conservation of the molecular mechanisms that regulate presynaptic properties. Here, we present the identification of a piccolo-rim-related gene in invertebrates, together with molecular phylogenetic analyses that indicate the encoded proteins may represent Piccolo orthologs. In accordance, we find that the Drosophila homolog, Fife, is neuronal and localizes to presynaptic AZs. To investigate the in vivo function of Fife, we generated a deletion of the fife locus. We find that evoked neurotransmitter release is substantially decreased in fife mutants and loss of fife results in motor deficits. Through morphological analysis of fife synapses, we identify underlying AZ abnormalities including pervasive presynaptic membrane detachments and reduced synaptic vesicle clustering. Our data demonstrate the conservation of a Piccolo-related protein in invertebrates and identify critical roles for Fife in regulating AZ structure and function. These findings suggest the CAZ is more conserved than previously thought, and open the door to a more complete understanding of how CAZ proteins regulate presynaptic structure and function through genetic studies in simpler model systems. PMID:23197698

  5. Depolarization by K+ and glutamate activates different neurotransmitter release mechanisms in GABAergic neurons: vesicular versus non-vesicular release of GABA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, Gert Helge; Schousboe, A

    1993-01-01

    differences in the mode of action of the two depolarizing stimuli were reflected in the properties of the increase in [Ca++]i elicited by 55 mM K+ and 100 microM glutamate, respectively. The K(+)-induced increase in [Ca++]i was reduced by both verapamil and Ca(++)-free media whereas the corresponding...... neurotransmitter glutamate (100 microM). Both depolarizing stimuli exerted prompt increases in the release of preloaded [3H]GABA as well as in [Ca++]i. However, the basic properties of transmitter release and the increase in [Ca++]i under a variety of conditions were different during stimulation with K...... was also reduced by organic (verapamil) and inorganic (Co++) Ca++ channel blockers but was insensitive to the GABA transport inhibitor SKF 89976A. In contrast, the second phase was less sensitive to nocodazole and Ca++ channel antagonists but could be inhibited by SKF 89976A. The glutamate-induced [3H...

  6. Modulation of neurotransmitter release in the region of the caudate nucleus by diet and neurotoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurstjens, N P

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis the effects of dietary manipulation, ethanol and neurotoxins on the basal and electrically evoked release of dopamine and acetylcholine from the caudate nucleus of mature animals are presented together with an evaluation of the presynaptic acetylcholine and dopamine receptors controlling acetylcholine and dopamine release. A standardised superfusion technique was used to monitor the effect of apomorphine, in the presence of (R-S)- sulpiride or haloperidol, on the electrically induced release of (/sup 3/ H)-acetylcholine in slices of rat corpus striatum. The effect of ethanol and dietary manipulation on the basal and electrically evoke release of (/sup 3/H)-acetylfholine from rat striatal slices, in the presence of specific agonists and antagonists was evaluated. From this study it is possible to deduce that diet and neurotoxins exerted a measurable effect on the mechanisms controlling release of neurotransmitters in the region of the caudate nucleus. These changes were determined in mature animals previously considered to have cerebral activity, which was not subject to dietary fluctuaations. No changes in the activity of the presynaptic dopamine receptor of the acetylcholine nerve terminals of the striatal slice could be measured.

  7. Can nanofluidic chemical release enable fast, high resolution neurotransmitter-based neurostimulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D Jones

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial chemical stimulation could provide improvements over electrical neurostimulation. Physiological neurotransmission between neurons relies on the nanoscale release and propagation of specific chemical signals to spatially-localized receptors. Current knowledge of nanoscale fluid dynamics and nanofluidic technology allows us to envision artificial mechanisms to achieve fast, high resolution neurotransmitter release. Substantial technological development is required to reach this goal. Nanofluidic technology — rather than microfluidic — will be necessary; this should come as no surprise given the nanofluidic nature of neurotransmission.This perspective reviews the state of the art of high resolution electrical neuroprostheses and their anticipated limitations. Chemical release rates from nanopores are compared to rates achieved at synapses and with iontophoresis. A review of microfluidic technology justifies the analysis that microfluidic control of chemical release would be insufficient. Novel nanofluidic mechanisms are discussed, and we propose that hydrophobic gating may allow control of chemical release suitable for mimicking neurotransmission. The limited understanding of hydrophobic gating in artificial nanopores and the challenges of fabrication and large-scale integration of nanofluidic components are emphasized. Development of suitable nanofluidic technology will require dedicated, long-term efforts over many years.

  8. Perivascular neurotransmitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Simona D; Haanes, Kristian A; Warfvinge, Karin

    2018-01-01

    In order to understand the nature of the relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and primary headaches, we have conducted a literature review with particular emphasis on the role of perivascular neurotransmitters. Primary headaches are in general considered complex polygenic disorders...... (located outside the blood-brain barrier) are variably activated and sensitized which gives rise to vasoactive neurotransmitter release. Sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory nerves to the cerebral vasculature are activated. During migraine attacks, altered CBF has been observed in brain regions...... such as the somatosensory cortex, brainstem and thalamus. In regulation of CBF, the individual roles of neurotransmitters are partly known, but much needs to be unraveled with respect to headache disorders....

  9. Evaluation of common variants in 16 genes involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release in ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Mora, Cristina; Cormand, Bru; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Hervás, Amaia; Bosch, Rosa; Palomar, Glòria; Nogueira, Mariana; Gómez-Barros, Núria; Richarte, Vanesa; Corrales, Montse; Garcia-Martinez, Iris; Corominas, Roser; Guijarro, Silvina; Bigorra, Aitana; Bayés, Mònica; Casas, Miguel; Ribasés, Marta

    2013-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by inappropriate difficulties to sustain attention, control impulses and modulate activity level. Although ADHD is one of the most prevalent childhood psychiatric disorders, it also persists into adulthood in around 30-50% of the cases. Based on the effect of psychostimulants used in the pharmacological treatment of ADHD, dysfunctions in neuroplasticity mechanisms and synapses have been postulated to be involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD. With this background, we evaluated, both in childhood and adulthood ADHD, the role of several genes involved in the control of neurotransmitter release through synaptic vesicle docking, fusion and recycling processes by means of a population-based association study. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms across 16 genes in a clinical sample of 950 ADHD patients (506 adults and 444 children) and 905 controls. Single and multiple-marker analyses identified several significant associations after correcting for multiple testing with a false discovery rate (FDR) of 15%: (i) the SYT2 gene was strongly associated with both adulthood and childhood ADHD (p=0.001, OR=1.49 (1.18-1.89) and p=0.007, OR=1.37 (1.09-1.72), respectively) and (ii) STX1A was found associated with ADHD only in adults (p=0.0041; OR=1.28 (1.08-1.51)). These data provide preliminary evidence for the involvement of genes that participate in the control of neurotransmitter release in the genetic predisposition to ADHD through a gene-system association study. Further follow-up studies in larger cohorts and deep-sequencing of the associated genomic regions are required to identify sequence variants directly involved in ADHD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  10. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sanchez, Brian C. [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources and School of Civil Engineering, 195 Marsteller St., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Szabo, Nancy J.; Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sepulveda, Maria S., E-mail: mssepulv@purdue.edu [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources and School of Civil Engineering, 195 Marsteller St., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2009-10-19

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens ({mu}g/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl{sub 2}) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 {mu}g/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 {mu}g/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 {mu}g/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 {mu}g/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants.

  11. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Sanchez, Brian C.; Szabo, Nancy J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2009-01-01

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens (μg/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl 2 ) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 μg/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 μg/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 μg/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 μg/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants.

  12. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Sanchez, Brian C; Szabo, Nancy J; Denslow, Nancy D; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2009-10-19

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens (microg/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl(2)) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 microg/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 microg/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 microg/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 microg/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants.

  13. SNT-1 functions as the Ca2+ sensor for tonic and evoked neurotransmitter release in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Liu, Haowen; Wang, Wei; Chandra, Mintu; Collins, Brett M; Hu, Zhitao

    2018-05-14

    Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) binds Ca 2+ through its tandem C2 domains (C2A and C2B) and triggers Ca 2+ -dependent neurotransmitter release. Here we show that snt-1 , the homolog of mammalian Syt1, functions as the Ca 2+ sensor for both tonic and evoked neurotransmitter release at the C. elegans neuromuscular junction. Mutations that disrupt Ca 2+ binding in double C2 domains of SNT-1 significantly impaired tonic release, whereas disrupting Ca 2+ binding in a single C2 domain had no effect, indicating that the Ca 2+ binding of the two C2 domains is functionally redundant for tonic release. Stimulus-evoked release was significantly reduced in snt-1 mutants, with prolonged release latency as well as faster rise and decay kinetics. Unlike tonic release, evoked release was triggered by Ca 2+ binding solely to the C2B domain. Moreover, we showed that SNT-1 plays an essential role in the priming process in different subpopulations of synaptic vesicles with tight or loose coupling to Ca 2+ entry. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We showed that SNT-1 in C. elegans regulates evoked neurotransmitter release through Ca 2+ binding to its C2B domain, a similar way to Syt1 in the mouse CNS and the fly NMJ. However, the largely decreased tonic release in snt-1 mutants argues SNT-1 has a clamping function. Indeed, Ca 2+ -binding mutations in the C2 domains in SNT-1 significantly reduced the frequency of the miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC), indicating that SNT-1 also acts as a Ca 2+ sensor for tonic release. Therefore, revealing the differential mechanisms between invertebrates and vertebrates will provide significant insights into our understanding how synaptic vesicle fusion is regulated. Copyright © 2018 the authors.

  14. Development of paradigm for the study of amino acid neurotransmitter release in human autopsy brain samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, K.-W.; Dodd, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: This study attempted to establish a release protocol to characterize both the vesicular and cytoplasmic components of amino acid transmitter release in human synaptosomes. Experiments with rat synaptosomes showed that, with depolarizing concentrations of K + ions, vesicular release could be successfully differentiated from cytoplasmic release for preloaded L-[ 3 H ]glutamate and [ 14 C ]GABA. However, human tissue studies did not give clear-cut results. Experiments were carried out to optimize the release paradigm as well as to improve the vesicular uptake of labeled transmitters. A 'pulse- chase' protocol, with an unlabelled D-aspartate chase, was performed in human tissue samples in order to enhance the L-[ 3 H ] glutamate release signal derived from exocytosis by removing the cytoplasmic pool of L-[ 3 H ] glutamate first. However, the results showed that total release was not enhanced effectively in comparison with the non-pulse-chase protocol. In brief, the pulse-chase protocol did not build up the vesicular pool of L-[ 3 H ]glutamate, though the cytoplasmic L- [ 3 H ] glutamate pool was effectively depressed by D-aspartate. Further studies applied 4- aminopyridine (4-AP) to trigger release, to circumvent the problem of the reversal of plasma membrane transporters caused by raised K + ion concentrations. The results showed that the application of 4-AP elicited the release of amino acid transmitters from rat synaptosomes, but failed to produce successful release signals in the human tissue experiments. Our findings suggest that the vesicular compartment may be impaired by freezing and affected by post-mortem delay (PMD). Rat studies showed that the freezing step had a major effect on Ca 2+-dependent release, as less L- [3 H ]glutamate and [ 14 C ]GABA were released from the frozen rat tissue preparations. Moreover, there was an indication of a decline in L-[ 3 H ]glutamate release with increasing PMD. Copyright (2001) Australian Neuroscience Society

  15. Stress-Induced Synaptic Dysfunction and Neurotransmitter Release in Alzheimer's Disease: Can Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators be Potential Therapeutic Targets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Saurabh Kumar; Jha, Niraj Kumar; Kumar, Dhiraj; Sharma, Renu; Shrivastava, Abhishek; Ambasta, Rashmi K; Kumar, Pravir

    2017-01-01

    The communication between neurons at synaptic junctions is an intriguing process that monitors the transmission of various electro-chemical signals in the central nervous system. Albeit any aberration in the mechanisms associated with transmission of these signals leads to loss of synaptic contacts in both the neocortex and hippocampus thereby causing insidious cognitive decline and memory dysfunction. Compelling evidence suggests that soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau serve as toxins in the dysfunction of synaptic plasticity and aberrant neurotransmitter (NT) release at synapses consequently causing a cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Further, an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission systems induced by impaired redox signaling and altered mitochondrial integrity is also amenable for such abnormalities. Defective NT release at the synaptic junction causes several detrimental effects associated with altered activity of synaptic proteins, transcription factors, Ca2+ homeostasis, and other molecules critical for neuronal plasticity. These detrimental effects further disrupt the normal homeostasis of neuronal cells and thereby causing synaptic loss. Moreover, the precise mechanistic role played by impaired NTs and neuromodulators (NMs) and altered redox signaling in synaptic dysfunction remains mysterious, and their possible interlink still needs to be investigated. Therefore, this review elucidates the intricate role played by both defective NTs/NMs and altered redox signaling in synaptopathy. Further, the involvement of numerous pharmacological approaches to compensate neurotransmission imbalance has also been discussed, which may be considered as a potential therapeutic approach in synaptopathy associated with AD.

  16. Amyloid-β acts as a regulator of neurotransmitter release disrupting the interaction between synaptophysin and VAMP2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Russell

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly evident that deficits in the cortex and hippocampus at early stages of dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD are associated with synaptic damage caused by oligomers of the toxic amyloid-β peptide (Aβ42. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms behind these deficits are not fully understood. Here we provide evidence of a mechanism by which Aβ42 affects synaptic transmission regulating neurotransmitter release.We first showed that application of 50 nM Aβ42 in cultured neurones is followed by its internalisation and translocation to synaptic contacts. Interestingly, our results demonstrate that with time, Aβ42 can be detected at the presynaptic terminals where it interacts with Synaptophysin. Furthermore, data from dissociated hippocampal neurons as well as biochemical data provide evidence that Aβ42 disrupts the complex formed between Synaptophysin and VAMP2 increasing the amount of primed vesicles and exocytosis. Finally, electrophysiology recordings in brain slices confirmed that Aβ42 affects baseline transmission.Our observations provide a necessary and timely insight into cellular mechanisms that underlie the initial pathological events that lead to synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Our results demonstrate a new mechanism by which Aβ42 affects synaptic activity.

  17. Euglycemia Restoration by Central Leptin in Type 1 Diabetes Requires STAT3 Signaling but Not Fast-Acting Neurotransmitter Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Chang, Jeffrey T; Myers, Martin G; Xu, Yong; Tong, Qingchun

    2016-04-01

    Central leptin action is sufficient to restore euglycemia in insulinopenic type 1 diabetes (T1D); however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. To examine the role of intracellular signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathways, we used LepRs/s mice with disrupted leptin-phosphorylated STAT3 signaling to test the effect of central leptin on euglycemia restoration. These mice developed streptozocin-induced T1D, which was surprisingly not associated with hyperglucagonemia, a typical manifestation in T1D. Further, leptin action on euglycemia restoration was abrogated in these mice, which was associated with refractory hypercorticosteronemia. To examine the role of fast-acting neurotransmitters glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), two major neurotransmitters in the brain, from leptin receptor (LepR) neurons, we used mice with disrupted release of glutamate, GABA, or both from LepR neurons. Surprisingly, all mice responded normally to leptin-mediated euglycemia restoration, which was associated with expected correction from hyperglucagonemia and hyperphagia. In contrast, mice with loss of glutamate and GABA appeared to develop an additive obesity effect over those with loss of single neurotransmitter release. Thus, our study reveals that STAT3 signaling, but not fast-acting neurotransmitter release, is required for leptin action on euglycemia restoration and that hyperglucagonemia is not required for T1D. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  18. Loss of nitric oxide-mediated inhibition of purine neurotransmitter release in the colon in the absence of interstitial cells of Cajal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnin, Leonie; Lees, Andrea; Manzoor, Sheerien; Sasse, Kent C; Sanders, Kenton M; Mutafova-Yambolieva, Violeta N

    2017-11-01

    Regulation of colonic motility depends on the integrity of enteric inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by nitric oxide (NO), purine neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides. Intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-IM) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α-positive (PDGFRα + ) cells are involved in generating responses to NO and purine neurotransmitters, respectively. Previous studies have suggested a decreased nitrergic and increased purinergic neurotransmission in Kit W /Kit W-v ( W/W v ) mice that display lesions in ICC-IM along the gastrointestinal tract. However, contributions of NO to these phenotypes have not been evaluated. We used small-chamber superfusion assays and HPLC to measure the spontaneous and electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked release of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + )/ADP-ribose, uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A), adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), and metabolites from the tunica muscularis of human, monkey, and murine colons and circular muscle of monkey colon, and we tested drugs that modulate NO levels or blocked NO receptors. NO inhibited EFS-evoked release of purines in the colon via presynaptic neuromodulation. Colons from W/W v , Nos1 -/- , and Prkg1 -/- mice displayed augmented neural release of purines that was likely due to altered nitrergic neuromodulation. Colons from W/W v mice demonstrated decreased nitrergic and increased purinergic relaxations in response to nerve stimulation. W/W v mouse colons demonstrated reduced Nos1 expression and reduced NO release. Our results suggest that enhanced purinergic neurotransmission may compensate for the loss of nitrergic neurotransmission in muscles with partial loss of ICC. The interactions between nitrergic and purinergic neurotransmission in the colon provide novel insight into the role of neurotransmitters and effector cells in the neural regulation of gastrointestinal motility. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study investigating the role of nitric

  19. Nicotine stimulates pancreatic cancer xenografts by systemic increase in stress neurotransmitters and suppression of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wadei, Hussein A N; Plummer, Howard K; Schuller, Hildegard M

    2009-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality in Western countries. We have shown previously that four representative human PDAC cell lines were regulated by beta-adrenoreceptors via cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent signaling. In the current study, we have tested the hypothesis that nicotine stimulates the growth of PDAC xenografts in nude mice by increasing the systemic levels of the stress neurotransmitters adrenaline and noradrenaline, which are the physiological agonists for beta-adrenoreceptors and that inhibition by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) of the adenylyl cyclase-dependent pathway downstream of adrenoreceptors blocks this effect. The size of xenografts from PDAC cell line Panc-1 was determined 30 days after inoculation of the cancer cells. Stress neurotransmitters in serum as well as cAMP in the cellular fraction of blood and in tumor tissue were assessed by immunoassays. Levels of GABA, its synthesizing enzymes GAD65 and GAD67 and beta-adrenergic signaling proteins in the tumor tissue were determined by western blotting. Nicotine significantly increased the systemic levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline and cAMP while increasing xenograft size and protein levels of cAMP, cyclic AMP response element-binding protein and p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in the tumor tissue. Nicotine additionally reduced the protein levels of both GAD isozymes and GABA in tumor tissue. Treatment with GABA abolished these responses to nicotine and blocked the development of xenografts in mice not exposed to nicotine. These findings suggest that the development and progression of PDAC is subject to significant modulation by stimulatory stress neurotransmitters and inhibitory GABA and that treatment with GABA may be useful for marker-guided cancer intervention of PDAC.

  20. Regulators of G-protein signaling 4: modulation of 5-HT1A-mediated neurotransmitter release in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Chad E; Ghavami, Afshin; Lin, Qian; Sung, Amy; Rhodes, Kenneth J; Dawson, Lee A; Schechter, Lee E; Young, Kathleen H

    2004-10-01

    Regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) play a key role in the signal transduction of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Specifically, RGS proteins function as GTPase accelerating proteins (GAPs) to dampen or "negatively regulate" GPCR-mediated signaling. Our group recently showed that RGS4 effectively GAPs Galpha(i)-mediated signaling in CHO cells expressing the serotonin-1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor. However, whether a similar relationship exists in vivo has yet to be identified. In present studies, a replication-deficient herpes simplex virus (HSV) was used to elevate RGS4 mRNA in the rat dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN) while extracellular levels of 5-HT in the striatum were monitored by in vivo microdialysis. Initial experiments conducted with noninfected rats showed that acute administration of 8-OH-DPAT (0.01-0.3 mg/kg, subcutaneous [s.c.]) dose dependently decreased striatal levels of 5-HT, an effect postulated to result from activation of somatodendritic 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors in the DRN. In control rats receiving a single intra-DRN infusion of HSV-LacZ, 8-OH-DPAT (0.03 mg/kg, s.c.) decreased 5-HT levels to an extent similar to that observed in noninfected animals. Conversely, rats infected with HSV-RGS4 in the DRN showed a blunted neurochemical response to 8-OH-DPAT (0.03 mg/kg, s.c.); however, increasing the dose to 0.3 mg/kg reversed this effect. Together, these findings represent the first in vivo evidence demonstrating that RGS4 functions to GAP Galpha(i)-coupled receptors and suggest that drug discovery efforts targeting RGS proteins may represent a novel mechanism to manipulate 5-HT(1A)-mediated neurotransmitter release.

  1. The Nitric Oxide Donor SNAP-Induced Amino Acid Neurotransmitter Release in Cortical Neurons. Effects of Blockers of Voltage-Dependent Sodium and Calcium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, José Joaquín; Arce, Carmen; Naddaf, Ahmad; Bellver-Landete, Victor; Oset-Gasque, Maria Jesús; González, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Background The discovery that nitric oxide (NO) functions as a signalling molecule in the nervous system has radically changed the concept of neuronal communication. NO induces the release of amino acid neurotransmitters but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Findings The aim of this work was to study the effect of NO on amino acid neurotransmitter release (Asp, Glu, Gly and GABA) in cortical neurons as well as the mechanism underlying the release of these neurotransmitters. Cortical neurons were stimulated with SNAP, a NO donor, and the release of different amino acid neurotransmitters was measured by HPLC. The involvement of voltage dependent Na+ and Ca2+ channels as well as cGMP in its mechanism of action was evaluated. Conclusions Our results indicate that NO induces release of aspartate, glutamate, glycine and GABA in cortical neurons and that this release is inhibited by ODQ, an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase. Thus, the NO effect on amino acid neurotransmission could be mediated by cGMP formation in cortical neurons. Our data also demonstrate that the Na+ and Ca2+ voltage- dependent calcium channels are involved in the NO effects on cortical neurons. PMID:24598811

  2. The nitric oxide donor SNAP-induced amino acid neurotransmitter release in cortical neurons. Effects of blockers of voltage-dependent sodium and calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, José Joaquín; Arce, Carmen; Naddaf, Ahmad; Bellver-Landete, Victor; Oset-Gasque, Maria Jesús; González, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    The discovery that nitric oxide (NO) functions as a signalling molecule in the nervous system has radically changed the concept of neuronal communication. NO induces the release of amino acid neurotransmitters but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The aim of this work was to study the effect of NO on amino acid neurotransmitter release (Asp, Glu, Gly and GABA) in cortical neurons as well as the mechanism underlying the release of these neurotransmitters. Cortical neurons were stimulated with SNAP, a NO donor, and the release of different amino acid neurotransmitters was measured by HPLC. The involvement of voltage dependent Na+ and Ca2+ channels as well as cGMP in its mechanism of action was evaluated. Our results indicate that NO induces release of aspartate, glutamate, glycine and GABA in cortical neurons and that this release is inhibited by ODQ, an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase. Thus, the NO effect on amino acid neurotransmission could be mediated by cGMP formation in cortical neurons. Our data also demonstrate that the Na+ and Ca2+ voltage- dependent calcium channels are involved in the NO effects on cortical neurons.

  3. The nitric oxide donor SNAP-induced amino acid neurotransmitter release in cortical neurons. Effects of blockers of voltage-dependent sodium and calcium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Joaquín Merino

    Full Text Available The discovery that nitric oxide (NO functions as a signalling molecule in the nervous system has radically changed the concept of neuronal communication. NO induces the release of amino acid neurotransmitters but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated.The aim of this work was to study the effect of NO on amino acid neurotransmitter release (Asp, Glu, Gly and GABA in cortical neurons as well as the mechanism underlying the release of these neurotransmitters. Cortical neurons were stimulated with SNAP, a NO donor, and the release of different amino acid neurotransmitters was measured by HPLC. The involvement of voltage dependent Na+ and Ca2+ channels as well as cGMP in its mechanism of action was evaluated.Our results indicate that NO induces release of aspartate, glutamate, glycine and GABA in cortical neurons and that this release is inhibited by ODQ, an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase. Thus, the NO effect on amino acid neurotransmission could be mediated by cGMP formation in cortical neurons. Our data also demonstrate that the Na+ and Ca2+ voltage- dependent calcium channels are involved in the NO effects on cortical neurons.

  4. Application of cross-species PET imaging to assess neurotransmitter release in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnema, Sjoerd J; Scheinin, Mika; Shahid, Mohammed; Lehto, Jussi; Borroni, Edilio; Bang-Andersen, Benny; Sallinen, Jukka; Wong, Erik; Farde, Lars; Halldin, Christer; Grimwood, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This review attempts to summarize the current status in relation to the use of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in the assessment of synaptic concentrations of endogenous mediators in the living brain. Although PET radioligands are now available for more than 40 CNS targets, at the initiation of the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) "Novel Methods leading to New Medications in Depression and Schizophrenia" (NEWMEDS) in 2009, PET radioligands sensitive to an endogenous neurotransmitter were only validated for dopamine. NEWMEDS work-package 5, "Cross-species and neurochemical imaging (PET) methods for drug discovery", commenced with a focus on developing methods enabling assessment of changes in extracellular concentrations of serotonin and noradrenaline in the brain. Sharing the workload across institutions, we utilized in vitro techniques with cells and tissues, in vivo receptor binding and microdialysis techniques in rodents, and in vivo PET imaging in non-human primates and humans. Here, we discuss these efforts and review other recently published reports on the use of radioligands to assess changes in endogenous levels of dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, acetylcholine, and opioid peptides. The emphasis is on assessment of the availability of appropriate translational tools (PET radioligands, pharmacological challenge agents) and on studies in non-human primates and human subjects, as well as current challenges and future directions. PET imaging directed at investigating changes in endogenous neurochemicals, including the work done in NEWMEDS, have highlighted an opportunity to further extend the capability and application of this technology in drug development.

  5. Administration of caffeine inhibited adenosine receptor agonist-induced decreases in motor performance, thermoregulation, and brain neurotransmitter release in exercising rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of an adenosine receptor agonist on caffeine-induced changes in thermoregulation, neurotransmitter release in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus, and endurance exercise performance in rats. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either saline alone (SAL), 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine and saline (CAF), a non-selective adenosine receptor agonist (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine [NECA]: 0.5 mg kg(-1)) and saline (NECA), or the combination of caffeine and NECA (CAF+NECA). Rats ran until fatigue on the treadmill with a 5% grade at a speed of 18 m min(-1) at 23 °C. Compared to the SAL group, the run time to fatigue (RTTF) was significantly increased by 52% following caffeine administration and significantly decreased by 65% following NECA injection (SAL: 91 ± 14.1 min; CAF: 137 ± 25.8 min; NECA: 31 ± 13.7 min; CAF+NECA: 85 ± 11.8 min; pcaffeine injection inhibited the NECA-induced decreases in the RTTF, Tcore, heat production, heat loss, and extracellular DA release. Neither caffeine nor NECA affected extracellular noradrenaline or serotonin release. These results support the findings of previous studies showing improved endurance performance and overrides in body limitations after caffeine administration, and imply that the ergogenic effects of caffeine may be associated with the adenosine receptor blockade-induced increases in brain DA release. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Single cell amperometry reveals curcuminoids modulate the release of neurotransmitters during exocytosis from PC12 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianchan; Mohammadi, Amir Saeid; Ewing, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    We used single cell amperometry to examine whether curcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), substances that are suggested to affect learning and memory, can modulate monoamine release from PC12 cells. Our results indicate both curcumin and BDMC need long-term treatment (72 h in this study) to influence exocytosis effectively. By analyzing the parameters calculated from single exocytosis events, it can be concluded that curcumin and BDMC affect exocytosis through different mechanisms. Curcumin accelerates the event dynamics with no significant change of the monoamine amount released from single exocytotic events, whereas BDMC attenuates the amount from single exocytotic event with no significant change of the event dynamics. This comparison of the effect of curcumin and BDMC on exocytosis at the single cell level brings insight into their different mechanisms, which might lead to different biological actions. The effect of curcumin and BDMC on the opening and closing of the exocytotic fusion pore were also investigated. These results might be helpful for understanding the improvement of learning and memory and the anti-depression properties of curcuminoids. PMID:28579928

  7. Autoreceptor Modulation of Peptide/Neurotransmitter Co-release from PDF Neurons Determines Allocation of Circadian Activity in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Charles; Cao, Guan; Tanenhaus, Anne K.; McCarthy, Ellena v.; Jung, Misun; Schleyer, William; Shang, Yuhua; Rosbash, Michael; Yin, Jerry C.P.; Nitabach, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster flies concentrate behavioral activity around dawn and dusk. This organization of daily activity is controlled by central circadian clock neurons, including the lateral ventral pacemaker neurons (LNvs) that secrete the neuropeptide PDF (Pigment Dispersing Factor). Previous studies have demonstrated the requirement for PDF signaling to PDF receptor (PDFR)-expressing dorsal clock neurons in organizing circadian activity. While LNvs also express functional PDFR, the role of these autoreceptors has remained enigmatic. Here we show that (1) PDFR activation in LNvs shifts the balance of circadian activity from evening to morning, similar to behavioral responses to summer-like environmental conditions and (2) this shift is mediated by stimulation of the Ga,s-cAMP pathway and a consequent change in PDF/neurotransmitter co-release from the LNvs. These results suggest a novel mechanism for environmental control of the allocation of circadian activity and provide new general insight into the role of neuropeptide autoreceptors in behavioral control circuits. PMID:22938867

  8. Experience-Dependent Regulation of Presynaptic NMDARs Enhances Neurotransmitter Release at Neocortical Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban-Ciecko, Joanna; Wen, Jing A.; Parekh, Puja K.; Barth, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory experience can selectively alter excitatory synaptic strength at neocortical synapses. The rapid increase in synaptic strength induced by selective whisker stimulation (single-row experience/SRE, where all but one row of whiskers has been removed from the mouse face) is due, at least in part, to the trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs)…

  9. Protein Markers of Neurotransmitter Synthesis and Release in Postmortem Schizophrenia Substantia Nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Kirsten E; McCollum, Lesley A; Roberts, Rosalinda C

    2017-01-01

    The substantia nigra (SN) provides the largest dopaminergic input to the brain, projects to the striatum (the primary locus of action for antipsychotic medication), and receives GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs. This study used western blot analysis to compare protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and vesicular glutamate transporters (vGLUT1 and vGLUT2) in postmortem human SN in schizophrenia subjects (n=13) and matched controls (n=12). As a preliminary analysis, the schizophrenia group was subdivided by (1) treatment status: off medication (n=4) or on medication (n=9); or (2) treatment response: treatment resistant (n=5) or treatment responsive (n=4). The combined schizophrenia group had higher TH and GAD67 protein levels than controls (an increase of 69.6%, P=0.01 and 19.5%, P=0.004, respectively). When subdivided by medication status, these increases were found in the on-medication subjects (TH 88.3%, P=0.008; GAD67 40.6%, P=0.003). In contrast, unmedicated schizophrenia subjects had higher vGLUT2 levels than controls (an increase of 28.7%, P=0.041), but vGLUT2 levels were similar between medicated schizophrenia subjects and controls. Treatment-resistant subjects had significantly higher TH and GAD67 levels than controls (an increase of 121.0%, P=0.0003 and 58.7%, P=0.004, respectively). These data suggest increases in dopamine and GABA transmission in the SN in schizophrenia, with a potential relation to treatment and response.

  10. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...

  11. The transcription factor ERG increases expression of neurotransmitter receptors on prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissick, Haydn T.; On, Seung T.; Dunn, Laura K.; Sanda, Martin G.; Asara, John M.; Pellegrini, Kathryn L.; Noel, Jonathan K.; Arredouani, Mohamed S.

    2015-01-01

    The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion occurs in about half of prostate cancer (PCa) cases and results in overexpression of the transcription factor ERG. Overexpression of ERG has many effects on cellular function. However, how these changes enhance cell growth and promote tumor development is unclear. To investigate the role of ERG, LNCaP and PC3 cells were transfected with ERG and gene expression and metabolic profile were analyzed. Our data show that expression of ERG induces overexpression of many nicotinicacetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In addition, metabolic profiling by LC-MS/MS revealed elevated production of several neurotransmitters in cells expressing ERG. Consistently, treatment of ERG-expressing cells with nicotine induced elevated calcium influx, GSK3β (Ser9) phosphorylation and cell proliferation. Finally, we show that PCa patientswho are smokers have larger tumors if their tumors are TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion positive. Collectively, our data suggest that ERG sensitizes prostate tumor cells to neurotransmitter receptor agonists like nicotine. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1612-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  12. Fast methods for analysis of neurotransmitters from single cell and monitoring their releases in central nervous system by capillary electrophoresis, fluorescence microscopy and luminescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ziqiang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-12-10

    Fast methods for separation and detection of important neurotransmitters and the releases in central nervous system (CNS) were developed. Enzyme based immunoassay combined with capillary electrophoresis was used to analyze the contents of amino acid neurotransmitters from single neuron cells. The release of amino acid neurotransmitters from neuron cultures was monitored by laser induced fluorescence imaging method. The release and signal transduction of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in CNS was studied with sensitive luminescence imaging method. A new dual-enzyme on-column reaction method combined with capillary electrophoresis has been developed for determining the glutamate content in single cells. Detection was based on monitoring the laser-induced fluorescence of the reaction product NADH, and the measured fluorescence intensity was related to the concentration of glutamate in each cell. The detection limit of glutamate is down to 10-8 M level, which is 1 order of magnitude lower than the previously reported detection limit based on similar detection methods. The mass detection limit of a few attomoles is far superior to that of any other reports. Selectivity for glutamate is excellent over most of amino acids. The glutamate content in single human erythrocyte and baby rat brain neurons were determined with this method and results agreed well with literature values.

  13. Glutamate acts as a neurotransmitter for gastrin releasing peptide-sensitive and insensitive itch-related synaptic transmission in mammalian spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Jennifer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Itch sensation is one of the major sensory experiences of human and animals. Recent studies have proposed that gastrin releasing peptide (GRP is a key neurotransmitter for itch in spinal cord. However, no direct evidence is available to indicate that GRP actually mediate responses between primary afferent fibers and dorsal horn neurons. Here we performed integrative neurobiological experiments to test this question. We found that a small population of rat dorsal horn neurons responded to GRP application with increases in calcium signaling. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that a part of superficial dorsal horn neurons responded to GRP application with the increase of action potential firing in adult rats and mice, and these dorsal horn neurons received exclusively primary afferent C-fiber inputs. On the other hands, few Aδ inputs receiving cells were found to be GRP positive. Finally, we found that evoked sensory responses between primary afferent C fibers and GRP positive superficial dorsal horn neurons are mediated by glutamate but not GRP. CNQX, a blocker of AMPA and kainate (KA receptors, completely inhibited evoked EPSCs, including in those Fos-GFP positive dorsal horn cells activated by itching. Our findings provide the direct evidence that glutamate is the principal excitatory transmitter between C fibers and GRP positive dorsal horn neurons. Our results will help to understand the neuronal mechanism of itch and aid future treatment for patients with pruritic disease.

  14. Electrochemical Analysis of Neurotransmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Elizabeth S.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2015-07-01

    Chemical signaling through the release of neurotransmitters into the extracellular space is the primary means of communication between neurons. More than four decades ago, Ralph Adams and his colleagues realized the utility of electrochemical methods for the study of easily oxidizable neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin and their metabolites. Today, electrochemical techniques are frequently coupled to microelectrodes to enable spatially resolved recordings of rapid neurotransmitter dynamics in a variety of biological preparations spanning from single cells to the intact brain of behaving animals. In this review, we provide a basic overview of the principles underlying constant-potential amperometry and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, the most commonly employed electrochemical techniques, and the general application of these methods to the study of neurotransmission. We thereafter discuss several recent developments in sensor design and experimental methodology that are challenging the current limitations defining the application of electrochemical methods to neurotransmitter measurements.

  15. Neurotransmitter receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, M.; Hierholzer, J.; Nikolai-Beyer, K.

    1993-01-01

    The importance of neuroreceptor imaging in vivo using single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) has increased enormously. The principal neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, GABA/benzodiazepine, acetylcholine, and serotonin, are presented with reference to anatomical, biochemical, and physiological features. The main radioligands for SPECT and PET are introduced, and methodological characteristics of both PET and SPECT presented. Finally, the results of neurotransmitter receptor imaging obtained so far will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. Plasma membrane ordering agent pluronic F-68 (PF-68) reduces neurotransmitter uptake and release and produces learning and memory deficits in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, M. S.; Prendergast, M. A.; Terry, A. V. Jr

    1999-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that aged-related changes in the fluidity and lipid composition of the plasma membrane contribute to cellular dysfunction in humans and other mammalian species. In the CNS, reductions in neuronal plasma membrane order (PMO) (i.e., increased plasma membrane fluidity) have been attributed to age as well as the presence of the beta-amyloid peptide-25-35, known to play an important role in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These PMO increases may influence neurotransmitter synthesis, receptor binding, and second messenger systems as well as signal transduction pathways. The effects of neuronal PMO on learning and memory processes have not been adequately investigated, however. Based on the hypothesis that an increase in PMO may alter a number of aspects of synaptic transmission, we investigated several neurochemical and behavioral effects of the membrane ordering agent, PF-68. In cell culture, PF-68 (nmoles/mg SDS extractable protein) reduced [3H]norepinephrine (NE) uptake into differentiated PC-12 cells as well as reduced nicotine stimulated [3H]NE release. The compound (800-2400 microg/kg, i.p., resulting in nmoles/mg SDS extractable protein in the brain) decreased step-through latencies and increased the frequencies of crossing into the unsafe side of the chamber in inhibitory avoidance training. In the Morris water maze, PF-68 increased the latencies and swim distances required to locate a hidden platform and reduced the time spent and distance swam in the previous target quadrant during transfer (probe) trials. PF-68 did not impair performance of a well-learned working memory task, the rat delayed stimulus discrimination task (DSDT), however. Studies with 14C-labeled PF-68 indicated that significant (pmoles/mg wet tissue) levels of the compound entered the brain from peripheral (i.p.) injection. No PF-68 related changes were observed in swim speeds or in visual acuity tests in water maze experiments, rotorod

  17. Nanosensors for neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Elena; Kruss, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Neurotransmitters are an important class of messenger molecules. They govern chemical communication between cells for example in the brain. The spatiotemporal propagation of these chemical signals is a crucial part of communication between cells. Thus, the spatial aspect of neurotransmitter release is equally important as the mere time-resolved measurement of these substances. In conclusion, without tools that provide the necessary spatiotemporal resolution, chemical signaling via neurotransmitters cannot be studied in greater detail. In this review article we provide a critical overview about sensors/probes that are able to monitor neurotransmitters. Our focus are sensing concepts that provide or could in the future provide the spatiotemporal resolution that is necessary to 'image' dynamic changes of neurotransmitter concentrations around cells. These requirements set the bar for the type of sensors we discuss. The sensor must be small enough (if possible on the nanoscale) to provide the envisioned spatial resolution and it should allow parallel (spatial) detection. In this article we discuss both optical and electrochemical concepts that meet these criteria. We cover techniques that are based on fluorescent building blocks such as nanomaterials, proteins and organic dyes. Additionally, we review electrochemical array techniques and assess limitations and possible future directions.

  18. Focus On: Neurotransmitter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Puglia, Michael P.; Zucca, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Neurotransmitter systems have been long recognized as important targets of the developmental actions of alcohol (i.e., ethanol). Short- and long-term effects of ethanol on amino acid (e.g., γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate) and biogenic amine (e.g., serotonin and dopamine) neurotransmitters have been demonstrated in animal models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Researchers have detected ethanol effects after exposure during developmental periods equivalent to the first, second, and third trimesters of human pregnancy. Results support the recommendation that pregnant women should abstain from drinking—even small quantities—as effects of ethanol on neurotransmitter systems have been detected at low levels of exposure. Recent studies have elucidated new mechanisms and/or consequences of the actions of ethanol on amino acid and biogenic amine neurotransmitter systems. Alterations in these neurotransmitter systems could, in part, be responsible for many of the conditions associated with FASD, including (1) learning, memory, and attention deficits; (2) motor coordination impairments; (3) abnormal responsiveness to stress; and (4) increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, such as substance abuse and depression, and also neurological disorders, such as epilepsy and sudden infant death syndrome. However, future research is needed to conclusively establish a causal relationship between these conditions and developmental dysfunctions in neurotransmitter systems. PMID:23580048

  19. Exceptionally tight membrane-binding may explain the key role of the synaptotagmin-7 C 2 A domain in asynchronous neurotransmitter release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voleti, Rashmi; Tomchick, Diana R.; Südhof, Thomas C.; Rizo, Josep

    2017-09-18

    Synaptotagmins (Syts) act as Ca2+ sensors in neurotransmitter release by virtue of Ca2+-binding to their two C2 domains, but their mechanisms of action remain unclear. Puzzlingly, Ca2+-binding to the C2B domain appears to dominate Syt1 function in synchronous release, whereas Ca2+-binding to the C2A domain mediates Syt7 function in asynchronous release. Here we show that crystal structures of the Syt7 C2A domain and C2AB region, and analyses of intrinsic Ca2+-binding to the Syt7 C2 domains using isothermal titration calorimetry, did not reveal major differences that could explain functional differentiation between Syt7 and Syt1. However, using liposome titrations under Ca2+ saturating conditions, we show that the Syt7 C2A domain has a very high membrane affinity and dominates phospholipid binding to Syt7 in the presence or absence of L-α-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate (PIP2). For Syt1, the two Ca2+-saturated C2 domains have similar affinities for membranes lacking PIP2, but the C2B domain dominates binding to PIP2-containing membranes. Mutagenesis revealed that the dramatic differences in membrane affinity between the Syt1 and Syt7 C2A domains arise in part from apparently conservative residue substitutions, showing how striking biochemical and functional differences can result from the cumulative effects of subtle residue substitutions. Viewed together, our results suggest that membrane affinity may be a key determinant of the functions of Syt C2 domains in neurotransmitter release.

  20. Short term memory may be the depletion of the readily releasable pool of presynaptic neurotransmitter vesicles of a metastable long term memory trace pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2009-09-01

    The Tagging/Retagging model of short term memory was introduced earlier (Tarnow in Cogn Neurodyn 2(4):347-353, 2008) to explain the linear relationship between response time and correct response probability for word recall and recognition: At the initial stimulus presentation the words displayed tag the corresponding long term memory locations. The tagging process is linear in time and takes about one second to reach a tagging level of 100%. After stimulus presentation the tagging level decays logarithmically with time to 50% after 14 s and to 20% after 220 s. If a probe word is reintroduced the tagging level has to return to 100% for the word to be properly identified, which leads to a delay in response time. This delay is proportional to the tagging loss. The tagging level is directly related to the probability of correct word recall and recognition. Evidence presented suggests that the tagging level is the level of depletion of the Readily Releasable Pool (RRP) of neurotransmitter vesicles at presynaptic terminals. The evidence includes the initial linear relationship between tagging level and time as well as the subsequent logarithmic decay of the tagging level. The activation of a short term memory may thus be the depletion of RRP (exocytosis) and short term memory decay may be the ensuing recycling of the neurotransmitter vesicles (endocytosis). The pattern of depleted presynaptic terminals corresponds to the long term memory trace.

  1. Update on the pharmacology of selective inhibitors of MAO-A and MAO-B: focus on modulation of CNS monoamine neurotransmitter release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finberg, John P M

    2014-08-01

    Inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO) were initially used in medicine following the discovery of their antidepressant action. Subsequently their ability to potentiate the effects of an indirectly-acting sympathomimetic amine such as tyramine was discovered, leading to their limitation in clinical use, except for cases of treatment-resistant depression. More recently, the understanding that: a) potentiation of indirectly-acting sympathomimetic amines is caused by inhibitors of MAO-A but not by inhibitors of MAO-B, and b) that reversible inhibitors of MAO-A cause minimal tyramine potentiation, has led to their re-introduction to clinical use for treatment of depression (reversible MAO-A inhibitors and new dose form MAO-B inhibitor) and treatment of Parkinson's disease (MAO-B inhibitors). The profound neuroprotective properties of propargyl-based inhibitors of MAO-B in preclinical experiments have drawn attention to the possibility of employing these drugs for their neuroprotective effect in neurodegenerative diseases, and have raised the question of the involvement of the MAO-mediated reaction as a source of reactive free radicals. Despite the long-standing history of MAO inhibitors in medicine, the way in which they affect neuronal release of monoamine neurotransmitters is still poorly understood. In recent years, the detailed chemical structure of MAO-B and MAO-A has become available, providing new possibilities for synthesis of mechanism-based inhibitors. This review describes the latest advances in understanding the way in which MAO inhibitors affect the release of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin (5-HT) in the CNS, with an accent on the importance of these effects for the clinical actions of the drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Compact microelectrode array system: tool for in situ monitoring of drug effects on neurotransmitter release from neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Guo, Chunxian; Lim, Layhar; Cheong, Serchoong; Zhang, Qingxin; Tang, Kumcheong; Reboud, Julien

    2008-02-15

    This paper presents a compact microelectrode array (MEA) system, to study potassium ion-induced dopamine release from PC12 neural cells, without relying on a micromanipulator and a microscope. The MEA chip was integrated with a custom-made "test jig", which provides a robust electrical interfacing tool between the microchip and the macroenvironment, together with a potentiostat and a microfluidic syringe pump. This integrated system significantly simplifies the operation procedures, enhances sensing performance, and reduces fabrication costs. The achieved detection limit for dopamine is 3.8 x 10-2 muM (signal/noise, S/N = 3) and the dopamine linear calibration range is up to 7.39 +/- 0.06 muM (mean +/- SE). The effects of the extracelluar matrix collagen coating of the microelectrodes on dopamine sensing behaviors, as well as the influences of K+ and l-3,4-digydroxyphenylalanine concentrations and incubation times on dopamine release, were extensively studied. The results show that our system is well suited for biologists to study chemical release from living cells as well as drug effects on secreting cells. The current system also shows a potential for further improvements toward a multichip array system for drug screening applications.

  3. Neurotransmitter signaling in white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Arthur M; Fern, Robert F; Matute, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    White matter (WM) tracts are bundles of myelinated axons that provide for rapid communication throughout the CNS and integration in grey matter (GM). The main cells in myelinated tracts are oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, with small populations of microglia and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. The prominence of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, which largely exclude neuronal cell bodies, indicates it must have physiological functions other than neuron-to-neuron communication. A surprising aspect is the diversity of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, with evidence for glutamatergic, purinergic (ATP and adenosine), GABAergic, glycinergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling, acting via a wide range of ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Both axons and glia are potential sources of neurotransmitters and may express the respective receptors. The physiological functions of neurotransmitter signaling in WM are subject to debate, but glutamate and ATP-mediated signaling have been shown to evoke Ca(2+) signals in glia and modulate axonal conduction. Experimental findings support a model of neurotransmitters being released from axons during action potential propagation acting on glial receptors to regulate the homeostatic functions of astrocytes and myelination by oligodendrocytes. Astrocytes also release neurotransmitters, which act on axonal receptors to strengthen action potential propagation, maintaining signaling along potentially long axon tracts. The co-existence of multiple neurotransmitters in WM tracts suggests they may have diverse functions that are important for information processing. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter signaling phenomena described in WM most likely apply to myelinated axons of the cerebral cortex and GM areas, where they are doubtless important for higher cognitive function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Neurotransmitters behind pain relief with transcranial magnetic stimulation - positron emission tomography evidence for release of endogenous opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamusuo, S; Hirvonen, J; Lindholm, P; Martikainen, I K; Hagelberg, N; Parkkola, R; Taiminen, T; Hietala, J; Helin, S; Virtanen, A; Pertovaara, A; Jääskeläinen, S K

    2017-10-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at M1/S1 cortex has been shown to alleviate neuropathic pain. To investigate the possible neurobiological correlates of cortical neurostimulation for the pain relief. We studied the effects of M1/S1 rTMS on nociception, brain dopamine D2 and μ-opioid receptors using a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded crossover study design and 3D-positron emission tomography (PET). Ten healthy subjects underwent active and sham rTMS treatments to the right M1/S1 cortex with E-field navigated device. Dopamine D2 and μ-receptor availabilities were assessed with PET radiotracers [ 11 C]raclopride and [ 11 C]carfentanil after each rTMS treatment. Thermal quantitative sensory testing (QST), contact heat evoked potential (CHEP) and blink reflex (BR) recordings were performed between the PET scans. μ-Opioid receptor availability was lower after active than sham rTMS (P ≤ 0.0001) suggested release of endogenous opioids in the right ventral striatum, medial orbitofrontal, prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, and left insula, superior temporal gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precentral gyrus. There were no differences in striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability between active and sham rTMS, consistent with lack of long-lasting measurable dopamine release. Active rTMS potentiated the dopamine-regulated habituation of the BR compared to sham (P = 0.02). Thermal QST and CHEP remained unchanged after active rTMS. rTMS given to M1/S1 activates the endogenous opioid system in a wide brain network associated with processing of pain and other salient stimuli. Direct enhancement of top-down opioid-mediated inhibition may partly explain the clinical analgesic effects of rTMS. Neurobiological correlates of rTMS for the pain relief are unclear. rTMS on M1/S1 with 11 C-carfentanyl-PET activates endogenous opioids. Thermal and heat pain thresholds remain unchanged. rTMS induces top-down opioid-mediated inhibition

  5. The emergence of neurotransmitters as immune modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rafael; Pacheco, Rodrigo; Lluis, Carmen; Ahern, Gerard P; O'Connell, Peta J

    2007-09-01

    Initially, the idea that neurotransmitters could serve as immunomodulators emerged with the discovery that their release and diffusion from nervous tissue could lead to signaling through lymphocyte cell-surface receptors and the modulation of immune function. It is now evident that neurotransmitters can also be released from leukocytes and act as autocrine or paracrine modulators. Here, we review the data indicating that leukocytes synthesize and release 'neurotransmitters' and we also discuss the diverse effects that these compounds exert in a variety of immune cells. The role of neurotransmitters in immune-related diseases is also reviewed succinctly. Current and future developments in understanding the cross-talk between the immune and nervous systems will probably identify new avenues for treating immune-mediated diseases using agonists or antagonists of neurotransmitter receptors.

  6. Neurotransmitter: Sodium Symporters: Caught in the Act!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinauskaite, Lina

    The neurotransmitter: sodium symporters in the neurons. Communication between neurons is mediated by the release of molecules called neurotransmitters (blue dots) from first neuron and sensed by receptors on the surface of the second (purple sphere). The signal is ended by active reuptake...

  7. Low dietary protein is associated with an increase in food intake and a decrease in the in vitro release of radiolabeled glutamate and GABA from the lateral hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, B D; Du, F; Higginbotham, D A

    2003-12-01

    Moderately low-protein diets lead to a rapid increase in food intake and body fat. The increase in feeding is associated with a decrease in the concentration of serum urea nitrogen, suggesting that the low-protein-induced increase in food intake may be related to the decreased metabolism of nitrogen from amino acids. We hypothesized that low dietary protein would be associated with a decrease in the synaptic release of two nitrogen-containing neurotransmitters, GABA and glutamate, whose nitrogen can be derived from amino acids. In this study, we examined the effects of a low-protein diet (10% casein) in Sprague-Dawley rats on the in vitro release of 3H-GABA and 14C-glutamate from the lateral and medial hypothalamus. The low-protein diet increased food intake by about 25% after one day. After four days, the in vitro release of radiolabeled GABA and glutamate was assessed. The calcium-dependent, potassium-stimulated release of radiolabeled GABA and glutamate from the lateral hypothalamus was decreased in rats fed the low-protein diet. The magnitude of neurotransmitter release from the lateral hypothalamus inversely correlated with food intake. No dietary differences in the release of neurotransmitters from the medial hypothalamus were observed. These results support the contention that alterations in nitrogen metabolism are associated with low-protein-induced feeding.

  8. Neurotransmitter system of immune regulation as a marker of immunological disorders in pupils in the conditions of increased entry of strontium with drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.V. Dolgikh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of immunological markers in schoolchildren exposed to strontium is performed. It is shown that under the conditions of increased administration of strontium with drinking water the indication of spontaneous and induced levels of neurotransmitters in vitro allows to detect early functional disorders of the immune system. It was found that the following markers of specific hypersensitivity and mediators of intercellular immune regulation (IgG specific to strontium, cytokines IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, α-TNF, GM-CSF, spontaneous and specifically stimulated, RANKL, OPG( may be proposed for the identification of health risk as early markers of immune disorders in school children living in areas of strontium geochemical provinces.

  9. Radiopharmaceuticals for neurotransmitter imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seung Jun [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Neurotransmitter imaging with radiopharmaceuticals plays major role for understanding of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's disease and depression. Radiopharmaceuticals for neurotransmitter imaging can be divided to dopamine transporter imaging radiopharmaceuticals and serotonin transporter imaging radiopharmaceuticals. Many kinds of new dopamine transporter imaging radiopharmaceuticals has a tropane ring and they showed different biological properties according to the substituted functional group on tropane ring. After the first clinical trials with [{sup 123}I] {beta} -CIT, alkyl chain substituent introduced to tropane ring amine to decrease time for imaging acquisition and to increase selectivity. From these results, [{sup 123}I]PE2I, [18F]FE-CNT, [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT and [{sup 18}F]FP-CIT were developed and they showed high uptake on the dopamine transporter rich regions and fast peak uptake equilibrium time within 4 hours after injection. [{sup 11}C]McN 5652 was developed for serotonin transporter imaging but this compound showed slow kinetics and high background radioactivity. To overcome these problems, new diarylsulfide backbone derivatives such as ADAM, ODAM, AFM, and DASB were developed. In these candidates, [{sup 11}C]AFM and [{sup 11}C]DASB showed high binding affinity to serotonin transporter and fast in vivo kinetics. This paper gives an overview of current status on dopamine and serotonin transporter imaging radiopharmaceuticals and the development of new lead compounds as potential radiopharmaceuticals by medicinal chemistry.

  10. Harmane: an atypical neurotransmitter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Ghazaleh, Haya; Lalies, Maggie D; Nutt, David J; Hudson, Alan L

    2015-03-17

    Harmane is an active component of clonidine displacing substance and a candidate endogenous ligand for imidazoline binding sites. The neurochemistry of tritiated harmane was investigated in the present study examining its uptake and release properties in the rat brain central nervous system (CNS) in vitro. At physiological temperature, [(3)H]harmane was shown to be taken up in rat brain cortex. Further investigations demonstrated that treatment with monoamine uptake blockers (citalopram, nomifensine and nisoxetine) did not alter [(3)H]harmane uptake implicating that the route of [(3)H]harmane transport was distinct from the monoamine uptake systems. Furthermore, imidazoline ligands (rilmenidine, efaroxan, 2-BFI and idazoxan) showed no prominent effect on [(3)H]harmane uptake suggesting the lack of involvement of imidazoline binding sites. Subsequent analyses showed that disruption of the Na(+) gradient using ouabain or choline chloride did not block [(3)H]harmane uptake suggesting a Na(+)-independent transport mechanism. Moreover, higher temperatures (50°C) failed to impede [(3)H]harmane uptake implying a non-physiological transporter. The failure of potassium to evoke the release of preloaded [(3)H]harmane from rat brain cortex indicates that the properties of this putative endogenous ligand for imidazoline binding sites do not resemble that of a conventional neurotransmitter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Calcium-sensing beyond neurotransmitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Han, Weiping

    2009-01-01

    Neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones are released through the regulated exocytosis of SVs (synaptic vesicles) and LDCVs (large dense-core vesicles), a process that is controlled by calcium. Synaptotagmins are a family of type 1 membrane proteins that share a common domain structure. Most....... Also, we discuss potential roles of synaptotagmins in non-traditional endocrine systems....... synaptotagmins are located in brain and endocrine cells, and some of these synaptotagmins bind to phospholipids and calcium at levels that trigger regulated exocytosis of SVs and LDCVs. This led to the proposed synaptotagmin-calcium-sensor paradigm, that is, members of the synaptotagmin family function...... as calcium sensors for the regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones. Here, we provide an overview of the synaptotagmin family, and review the recent mouse genetic studies aimed at understanding the functions of synaptotagmins in neurotransmission and endocrine-hormone secretion...

  12. Turning off neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Solomon H

    2006-04-07

    The historic discovery that the catecholamine neurotransmitters of the sympathetic nervous system, norepinephrine and epinephrine, are inactivated through their reuptake by presynaptic nerve terminals provided new insights into neurotransmitter action and paved the way for the development of modern antidepressant drugs.

  13. A neurotransmitter transporter encoded by the Drosophila inebriated gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehnge, Holly; Huang, Xi; Becker, Marie; Whitley, Penn; Conover, Diana; Stern, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological studies on mutants defective in the Drosophila inebriated (ine) gene demonstrated increased excitability of the motor neuron. In this paper, we describe the cloning and sequence analysis of ine. Mutations in ine were localized on cloned DNA by restriction mapping and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) mapping of ine mutants. DNA from the ine region was then used to isolate an ine cDNA. In situ hybridization of ine transcripts to developing embryos revealed expression of this gene in several cell types, including the posterior hindgut, Malpighian tubules, anal plate, garland cells, and a subset of cells in the central nervous system. The ine cDNA contains an open reading frame of 658 amino acids with a high degree of sequence similarity to members of the Na+/Cl−-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family. Members of this family catalyze the rapid reuptake of neurotransmitters released into the synapse and thereby play key roles in controlling neuronal function. We conclude that ine mutations cause increased excitability of the Drosophila motor neuron by causing the defective reuptake of the substrate neurotransmitter of the ine transporter and thus overstimulation of the motor neuron by this neurotransmitter. From this observation comes a unique opportunity to perform a genetic dissection of the regulation of excitability of the Drosophila motor neuron. PMID:8917579

  14. Porters and neurotransmitter transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, N; Lill, H

    1994-11-01

    Uptake of neurotransmitters involves multiple transporters acting in different brain locations under different physiological conditions. The vesicular transporters are driven by a proton-motive force generated by a V-ATPase and their substrates are taken up via proton/substrate exchange. The plasma membrane transporters are driven by an electrochemical gradient of sodium generated by a Na+/K(+)-ATPase. Two distinct families of transporters were identified in this group. One cotransports sodium with glutamate and other amino acids and requires additionally an outwardly directed potassium gradient. The second cotransports sodium, chloride and a variety of neurotransmitters, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine and monoamines. Genes and cDNA encoding several members of the latter family have been cloned and studied in detail. The structure and function as well as the evolutionary relationships among these neurotransmitter transporters are discussed.

  15. SLC6 Neurotransmitter Transporters: Structure, Function, and Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders S; Andersen, Jacob; Jørgensen, Trine N

    2011-01-01

    The neurotransmitter transporters (NTTs) belonging to the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) gene family (also referred to as the neurotransmitter-sodium-symporter family or Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporters) comprise a group of nine sodium- and chloride-dependent plasma membrane transporters...... for the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), dopamine, and norepinephrine, and the amino acid neurotransmitters GABA and glycine. The SLC6 NTTs are widely expressed in the mammalian brain and play an essential role in regulating neurotransmitter signaling and homeostasis by mediating uptake...... of released neurotransmitters from the extracellular space into neurons and glial cells. The transporters are targets for a wide range of therapeutic drugs used in treatment of psychiatric diseases, including major depression, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and epilepsy...

  16. Nerve growth factor alters microtubule targeting agent-induced neurotransmitter release but not MTA-induced neurite retraction in sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Sherry K; Gracias, Neilia G; Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting side effect of anticancer treatment with the microtubule-targeted agents (MTAs), paclitaxel and epothilone B (EpoB); however, the mechanisms by which the MTAs alter neuronal function and morphology are unknown. We previously demonstrated that paclitaxel alters neuronal sensitivity, in vitro, in the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF). Evidence in the literature suggests that NGF may modulate the neurotoxic effects of paclitaxel. Here, we examine whether NGF modulates changes in neuronal sensitivity and morphology induced by paclitaxel and EpoB. Neuronal sensitivity was assessed using the stimulated release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), whereas morphology of established neurites was evaluated using a high content screening system. Dorsal root ganglion cultures, maintained in the absence or presence of NGF, were treated from day 7 to day 12 in culture with paclitaxel (300nM) or EpoB (30nM). Following treatment, the release of CGRP was stimulated using capsaicin or high extracellular potassium. In the presence of NGF, EpoB mimicked the effects of paclitaxel: capsaicin-stimulated release was attenuated, potassium-stimulated release was slightly enhanced and the total peptide content was unchanged. In the absence of NGF, both paclitaxel and EpoB decreased capsaicin- and potassium-stimulated release and the total peptide content, suggesting that NGF may reverse MTA-induced hyposensitivity. Paclitaxel and EpoB both decreased neurite length and branching, and this attenuation was unaffected by NGF in the growth media. These differential effects of NGF on neuronal sensitivity and morphology suggest that neurite retraction is not a causative factor to alter neuronal sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Porters and neurotransmitter transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, Nathan; Lill, H

    1994-01-01

    Uptake of neurotransmitters involves multiple transporters acting in different brain locations under different physiological conditions. The vesicular transporters are driven by a proton-motive force generated by a V-ATPase and their substrates are taken up via proton/substrate exchange. The plasma

  18. Neurotransmitter alteration in a testosterone propionate-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Nirja K; Nampoothiri, Laxmipriya P

    2017-02-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), one of the leading causes of infertility seen in women, is characterized by anovulation and hyperandrogenism, resulting in ovarian dysfunction. In addition, associations of several metabolic complications like insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia and psychological co-morbidities are well known in PCOS. One of the major factors influencing mood and the emotional state of mind is neurotransmitters. Also, these neurotransmitters are very crucial for GnRH release. Hence, the current study investigates the status of neurotransmitters in PCOS. A PCOS rat model was developed using testosterone. Twenty-one-day-old rats were subcutaneously injected with 10 mg/kg body weight of testosterone propionate (TP) for 35 days. The animals were validated for PCOS characteristics by monitoring estrus cyclicity, serum testosterone and estradiol levels and by histological examination of ovarian sections. Neurotransmitter estimation was carried out using fluorometric and spectrophotometric methods. TP-treated animals demonstrated increased serum testosterone levels with unaltered estradiol content, disturbed estrus cyclicity and many peripheral cysts in the ovary compared to control rats mimicking human PCOS. Norepinephrine (NE), dopamine, serotonin, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and epinephrine levels were significantly low in TP-induced PCOS rats compared to control ones, whereas the activity of acetylcholinesterase in the PCOS brain was markedly elevated. Neurotransmitter alteration could be one of the reasons for disturbed gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release, consequently directing the ovarian dysfunction in PCOS. Also, decrease in neurotransmitters, mainly NE, serotonin and dopamine (DA) attributes to mood disorders like depression and anxiety in PCOS.

  19. Neurotransmitters, more than meets the eye--neurotransmitters and their perspectives in cancer development and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi Jie; Cho, Chi Hin

    2011-09-30

    The neurotransmitter/receptor system has been shown to modulate various aspects of tumor development including cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, migration and metastasis. It has been found that tumor tissues can not only synthesize and release a wide range of neurotransmitters but also produce different biological effects via respective receptors. These tissues are also innervated by nerve fibers but the biological significance is unknown. Nevertheless neurotransmitters can produce either stimulatory or inhibitory effect in normal and tumor tissues. These effects are dependent on the types of tissues and the kinds of neurotransmitter as well as the subtypes of corresponding receptors being involved. These findings clearly extend the conventional role of neurotransmitters in nervous system to the actions in oncogenesis. In this regard, intervention or stimulation of these neuronal pathways in different cancer diseases would have significant clinical implications in cancer treatments. Here, we summarize the influences of various well-characterized neurotransmitters and their receptors on tumor growth and further discuss the respective possible strategies and perspectives for cancer therapy in the future. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Simultaneous determination of the repertoire of classical neurotransmitters released from embryonal carcinoma stem cells using online microdialysis coupled with hydrophilic interaction chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Ya-Bin; Sun, Fan; Teng, Lin; Li, Wen-Bin; An, Shi-Min; Zhang, Chun; Yang, Xin-Jie; Lv, Hao-Yu; Ding, Xu-Ping; Zhu, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An online MD-HILIC–MS/MS method for simultaneously measuring the repertoire of classical transmitters was developed and validated. • Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) was successfully employed to online system. • Stable isotope labeled internal standards and authentic matrix have been applied to guarantee reliable results. • The method features simple procedure (no sample preparation), high recovery (≥73%), high accuracy (89.36% ≤ RE ≤ 116.89%), good reproducibility (2.18% ≤ RSD ≤ 14.56%), and sensitive limits of detection (2 pg for acetylcholine, serotonin, and glutamate, 10 pg for dopamine, norepinephrine, GABA, and glycine). - Abstract: Dynamic, continuous, and simultaneous multi-analysis of transmitters is important for the delineation of the complex interactions between the neuronal and intercellular communications. But the analysis of the whole repertoire of classical transmitters of diverse structure is challenging due to their different physico-chemical properties and to their high polarity feature which leads to poor retention in traditional reversed-phase columns during LC–MS analysis. Here, an online microdialysis coupled with hydrophilic interaction chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (online MD-HILIC–MS/MS) detection method was developed for the simultaneous measurement of the repertoire of classical transmitters (acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, glutamate, GABA, and glycine). Stable isotope labeled internal standards and authentic matrix have been applied to guarantee reliable results. The method was successfully employed to reveal the characteristics of transmitter release from embryonal carcinoma stem cells. The method features simple procedure (no sample preparation), high recovery (≥73%), high accuracy (89.36% ≤ RE ≤ 116.89%), good reproducibility (2.18% ≤ RSD ≤ 14.56%), and sensitive limits of detection (2 pg for acetylcholine, serotonin, and glutamate, 10 pg

  1. Simultaneous determination of the repertoire of classical neurotransmitters released from embryonal carcinoma stem cells using online microdialysis coupled with hydrophilic interaction chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Ya-Bin [Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Translational Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Sun, Fan [Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Teng, Lin [Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Department of Cardiology and Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, The First College of Clinical Medical Sciences, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443000, Hubei (China); Li, Wen-Bin; An, Shi-Min [Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Translational Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhang, Chun; Yang, Xin-Jie; Lv, Hao-Yu; Ding, Xu-Ping [Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhu, Liang, E-mail: zhuliang17@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Translational Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); and others

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • An online MD-HILIC–MS/MS method for simultaneously measuring the repertoire of classical transmitters was developed and validated. • Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) was successfully employed to online system. • Stable isotope labeled internal standards and authentic matrix have been applied to guarantee reliable results. • The method features simple procedure (no sample preparation), high recovery (≥73%), high accuracy (89.36% ≤ RE ≤ 116.89%), good reproducibility (2.18% ≤ RSD ≤ 14.56%), and sensitive limits of detection (2 pg for acetylcholine, serotonin, and glutamate, 10 pg for dopamine, norepinephrine, GABA, and glycine). - Abstract: Dynamic, continuous, and simultaneous multi-analysis of transmitters is important for the delineation of the complex interactions between the neuronal and intercellular communications. But the analysis of the whole repertoire of classical transmitters of diverse structure is challenging due to their different physico-chemical properties and to their high polarity feature which leads to poor retention in traditional reversed-phase columns during LC–MS analysis. Here, an online microdialysis coupled with hydrophilic interaction chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (online MD-HILIC–MS/MS) detection method was developed for the simultaneous measurement of the repertoire of classical transmitters (acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, glutamate, GABA, and glycine). Stable isotope labeled internal standards and authentic matrix have been applied to guarantee reliable results. The method was successfully employed to reveal the characteristics of transmitter release from embryonal carcinoma stem cells. The method features simple procedure (no sample preparation), high recovery (≥73%), high accuracy (89.36% ≤ RE ≤ 116.89%), good reproducibility (2.18% ≤ RSD ≤ 14.56%), and sensitive limits of detection (2 pg for acetylcholine, serotonin, and glutamate, 10 pg

  2. GnRH dysregulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a manifestation of an altered neurotransmitter profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Nirja; Dawalbhakta, Mitali; Nampoothiri, Laxmipriya

    2018-04-11

    GnRH is the master molecule of reproduction that is influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Any alteration in these regulatory loops may result in reproductive-endocrine dysfunction such as the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Although low dopaminergic tone has been associated with PCOS, the role of neurotransmitters in PCOS remains unknown. The present study was therefore aimed at understanding the status of GnRH regulatory neurotransmitters to decipher the neuroendocrine pathology in PCOS. PCOS was induced in rats by oral administration of letrozole (aromatase inhibitor). Following PCOS validation, animals were assessed for gonadotropin levels and their mRNA expression. Neurotrasnmitter status was evaluated by estimating their levels, their metabolism and their receptor expression in hypothalamus, pituitary, hippocampus and frontal cortex of PCOS rat model. We demonstrate that GnRH and LH inhibitory neurotransmitters - serotonin, dopamine, GABA and acetylcholine - are reduced while glutamate, a major stimulator of GnRH and LH release, is increased in the PCOS condition. Concomitant changes were observed for neurotransmitter metabolising enzymes and their receptors as well. Our results reveal that increased GnRH and LH pulsatility in PCOS condition likely result from the cumulative effect of altered GnRH stimulatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in hypothalamic-pituitary centre. This, we hypothesise, is responsible for the depression and anxiety-like mood disorders commonly seen in PCOS women.

  3. Atypical Neurotransmitters and the Neurobiology of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joca, Samia Regiane; Moreira, Fabricio Araujo; Wegener, Gregers

    2015-01-01

    Since the first report that the mechanism of action of antidepressants involves the facilitation of monoaminergic neurotransmission in the brain in the 1960s, the leading hypothesis about the neurobiology of depression has been the so called "monoaminergic hypothesis". However, a growing body of evidence from the last two decades also supports important involvement of non-monoaminergic mechanisms in the neurobiology of depression and antidepressant action. The discovery of nitric oxide (NO) and endocannabinoid signaling in the brain during the 1990s challenged the wellestablished criteria of classical neurotransmission. These transmitters are synthesized and released on demand by the postsynaptic neurons, and may act as a retrograde messenger on the presynaptic terminal, modulating neurotransmitter release. These unconventional signaling mechanisms and the important role as neural messengers have classified NO and endocannabinoids as atypical neurotransmitters. They are able to modulate neural signaling mediated by the main conventional neurotransmitters systems in the brain, including the monoaminergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling systems. This review aims at discussing the fundamental aspects of NO- and endocannabinoid-mediated signaling in the brain, and how they can be related to the neurobiology of depression. Both preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the involvement of these atypical neurotransmitters in the neurobiology of depression, and in the antidepressant effects are presented here. The evidence is discussed on basis of their ability to modulate different neurotransmitter systems in the brain, including monoaminergic and glutamatergic ones. A better comprehension of NO and endocannabinoid signaling mechanisms in the neurobiology depression could provide new avenues for the development of novel non-monoamine based antidepressants.

  4. A Life of Neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Solomon H

    2017-01-06

    Development of scientific creativity is often tied closely to mentorship. In my case, two years with Julius Axelrod, the sum total of my research training, was transformative. My mentoring generations of graduate students and postdoctoral fellows has been as nurturing for me as it has been for them. Work in our lab over fifty years has covered the breadth of neurotransmitters and related substances, focusing on the discovery and characterization of novel messenger molecules. I can't conceptualize a more rewarding professional life.

  5. Relationship of neurotransmitters to the symptoms of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J

    2008-01-01

    A relationship appears to exist between the 3 main monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin) and specific symptoms of major depressive disorder. Specific symptoms are associated with the increase or decrease of specific neurotransmitters, which suggests that specific symptoms of depression could be assigned to specific neurochemical mechanisms, and subsequently specific antidepressant drugs could target symptom-specific neurotransmitters. Research on electroconvulsive therapy has supported a correlation between neurotransmitters and depression symptoms. A 2-dimensional model of neurotransmitter functions is discussed that describes depression as a mixture of 2 separate components--negative affect and the loss of positive affect--that can be considered in relation to the 3 amine neurotransmitters. Owing to the different methods of action of available antidepressant agents and the depression symptoms thought to be associated with dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, current treatments can be targeted toward patients' specific symptoms.

  6. Genetic susceptibility and neurotransmitters in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschou, Peristera; Fernandez, Thomas V; Sharp, Frank; Heiman, Gary A; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2013-01-01

    Family studies have consistently shown that Tourette syndrome (TS) is a familial disorder and twin studies have clearly indicated a genetic contribution in the etiology of TS. Whereas early segregation studies of TS suggested a single-gene autosomal dominant disorder, later studies have pointed to more complex models including additive and multifactorial inheritance and likely interaction with genetic factors. While the exact cellular and molecular base of TS is as yet elusive, neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies have pointed to the involvement of cortico-striato-thalamocortical circuits and abnormalities in dopamine, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and serotonin neurotransmitter systems, with the most consistent evidence being available for involvement of dopamine-related abnormalities, that is, a reduction in tonic extracellular dopamine levels along with hyperresponsive spike-dependent dopamine release, following stimulation. Genetic and gene expression findings are very much supportive of involvement of these neurotransmitter systems. Moreover, intriguingly, genetic work on a two-generation pedigree has opened new research pointing to a role for histamine, a so far rather neglected neurotransmitter, with the potential of the development of new treatment options. Future studies should be aimed at directly linking neurotransmitter-related genetic and gene expression findings to imaging studies (imaging genetics), which enables a better understanding of the pathways and mechanisms through which the dynamic interplay of genes, brain, and environment shapes the TS phenotype. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical features and pharmacotherapy of childhood monoamine neurotransmitter disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, J; Heales, S J R; Kurian, M A

    2014-08-01

    Childhood neurotransmitter disorders are increasingly recognised as an expanding group of inherited neurometabolic syndromes. They are caused by disturbance in synthesis, metabolism, and homeostasis of the monoamine neurotransmitters, including the catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) and serotonin. Disturbances in monoamine neurotransmission will lead to neurological symptoms that often overlap with clinical features of other childhood neurological disorders (such as hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy, cerebral palsy, other movement disorders, and paroxysmal conditions); consequently, neurotransmitter disorders are frequently misdiagnosed. The diagnosis of neurotransmitter disorders is made through detailed clinical assessment, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters, and further supportive diagnostic investigations. Early and accurate diagnosis of neurotransmitter disorders is important, as many are amenable to therapeutic intervention. The principles of treatment for monoamine neurotransmitter disorders are mainly directly derived from understanding these metabolic pathways. In disorders characterized by enzyme deficiency, we aim to increase monoamine substrate availability, boost enzyme co-factor levels, reduce monoamine breakdown, and replace depleted levels of monoamines with pharmacological analogs as clinically indicated. Most monoamine neurotransmitter disorders lead to reduced levels of central dopamine and/or serotonin. Complete amelioration of motor symptoms is achievable in some disorders, such as Segawa's syndrome, and, in other conditions, significant improvement in quality of life can be attained with pharmacotherapy. In this review, we provide an overview of the clinical features and current treatment strategies for childhood monoamine neurotransmitter disorders.

  8. Selective attenuation of norepinephrine release and stress-induced heart rate increase by partial adenosine A1 agonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Bott-Flügel

    Full Text Available The release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE is modulated by presynaptic adenosine receptors. In the present study we investigated the effect of a partial activation of this feedback mechanism. We hypothesized that partial agonism would have differential effects on NE release in isolated hearts as well as on heart rate in vivo depending on the genetic background and baseline sympathetic activity. In isolated perfused hearts of Wistar and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR, NE release was induced by electrical stimulation under control conditions (S1, and with capadenoson 6 · 10(-8 M (30 µg/l, 6 · 10(-7 M (300 µg/l or 2-chloro-N(6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA 10(-6 M (S2. Under control conditions (S1, NE release was significantly higher in SHR hearts compared to Wistar (766+/-87 pmol/g vs. 173+/-18 pmol/g, p<0.01. Capadenoson led to a concentration-dependent decrease of the stimulation-induced NE release in SHR (S2/S1  =  0.90 ± 0.08 with capadenoson 6 · 10(-8 M, 0.54 ± 0.02 with 6 · 10(-7 M, but not in Wistar hearts (S2/S1  =  1.05 ± 0.12 with 6 · 10(-8 M, 1.03 ± 0.09 with 6 · 10(-7 M. CCPA reduced NE release to a similar degree in hearts from both strains. In vivo capadenoson did not alter resting heart rate in Wistar rats or SHR. Restraint stress induced a significantly greater increase of heart rate in SHR than in Wistar rats. Capadenoson blunted this stress-induced tachycardia by 45% in SHR, but not in Wistar rats. Using a [(35S]GTPγS assay we demonstrated that capadenoson is a partial agonist compared to the full agonist CCPA (74+/-2% A(1-receptor stimulation. These results suggest that partial adenosine A(1-agonism dampens stress-induced tachycardia selectively in rats susceptible to strong increases in sympathetic activity, most likely due to a presynaptic attenuation of NE release.

  9. Kaempferia parviflora rhizome extract and Myristica fragrans volatile oil increase the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and impact the proteomic profiles in the rat hippocampus: Mechanistic insights into their neuroprotective effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waluga Plaingam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Potentially useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, Kaempferia parviflora and Myristica fragrans have been shown to possess a wide spectrum of neuropharmacological activities and neuroprotective effects in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we determined whether and how K. parviflora ethanolic extract and M. fragrans volatile oil could influence the levels of neurotransmitters and the whole proteomic profile in the hippocampus of Sprague Dawley (SD rats. The effects of K. parviflora and M. fragrans on protein changes were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-gel, and proteins were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The target proteins were then confirmed by Western blot. The levels of neurotransmitters were evaluated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The results showed that K. parviflora, M. fragrans and fluoxetine (the control drug for this study increased serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine in the rat hippocampus compared to that of the vehicle-treated group. Our proteomic data showed that 37 proteins in the K. parviflora group were up-regulated, while 14 were down-regulated, and 27 proteins in the M. fragrans group were up-regulated, while 16 were down-regulated. In the fluoxetine treatment group, we found 29 proteins up-regulated, whereas 14 proteins were down-regulated. In line with the proteomic data, the levels of GFAP, PDIA3, DPYSL2 and p-DPYSL2 were modified in the SD rat groups treated with K. parviflora, M. fragrans and fluoxetine as confirmed by Western blot. K. parviflora and M. fragrans mediated not only the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters but also the proteomic profiles in the rat hippocampus, thus shedding light on the mechanisms targeting neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Long release latencies are increased by acetylcholine at frog endplate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samigullin, D.; Bukharaeva, E. A.; Nikolsky, E.; Adámek, S.; Vyskočil, František

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2003), s. 475-480 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/02/1333; GA ČR GA202/02/1213 Grant - others:RFBR(RU) 02/04/48901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:MSM 113100003 Keywords : quantal release * acetylcholine * synaptic latency Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2003

  11. Unconventional neurotransmitters, neurodegeneration and neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Leonelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitters are also involved in functions other than conventional signal transfer between nerve cells, such as development, plasticity, neurodegeneration, and neuroprotection. For example, there is a considerable amount of data indicating developmental roles for the glutamatergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABA-ergic, and ATP/adenosine systems. In this review, we discuss the existing literature on these "new" functions of neurotransmitters in relation to some unconventional neurotransmitters, such as the endocannabinoids and nitric oxide. Data indicating both transcriptional and post-transcriptional modulation of endocannabinoid and nitrinergic systems after neural lesions are discussed in relation to the non-conventional roles of these neurotransmitters. Knowledge of the roles of neurotransmitters in brain functions other than information transfer is critical for a more complete understanding of the functional organization of the brain and to provide more opportunities for the development of therapeutical tools aimed at minimizing neuronal death.

  12. Vesicular and Plasma Membrane Transporters for Neurotransmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Randy D.; Edwards, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    The regulated exocytosis that mediates chemical signaling at synapses requires mechanisms to coordinate the immediate response to stimulation with the recycling needed to sustain release. Two general classes of transporter contribute to release, one located on synaptic vesicles that loads them with transmitter, and a second at the plasma membrane that both terminates signaling and serves to recycle transmitter for subsequent rounds of release. Originally identified as the target of psychoactive drugs, these transport systems have important roles in transmitter release, but we are only beginning to understand their contribution to synaptic transmission, plasticity, behavior, and disease. Recent work has started to provide a structural basis for their activity, to characterize their trafficking and potential for regulation. The results indicate that far from the passive target of psychoactive drugs, neurotransmitter transporters undergo regulation that contributes to synaptic plasticity. PMID:22199021

  13. Modulation of multiple memory systems: from neurotransmitters to metabolic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Paul E; Newman, Lori A; Scavuzzo, Claire J; Korol, Donna L

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews evidence showing that neurochemical modulators can regulate the relative participation of the hippocampus and striatum in learning and memory tasks. For example, relative release of acetylcholine increases in the hippocampus and striatum reflects the relative engagement of these brain systems during learning of place and response tasks. Acetylcholine release is regulated in part by available brain glucose levels, which themselves are dynamically modified during learning. Recent findings suggest that glucose acts through astrocytes to deliver lactate to neurons. Brain glycogen is contained in astrocytes and provides a capacity to deliver energy substrates to neurons when needed, a need that can be generated by training on tasks that target hippocampal and striatal processing mechanisms. These results integrate an increase in blood glucose after epinephrine release from the adrenal medulla with provision of brain energy substrates, including lactate released from astrocytes. Together, the availability of peripheral and central energy substrates regulate the processing of learning and memory within and across multiple neural systems. Dysfunctions of the physiological steps that modulate memory--from hormones to neurotransmitters to metabolic substrates--may contribute importantly to some of the cognitive impairments seen during normal aging and during neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Role of perisynaptic parameters in neurotransmitter homeostasis - computational study of a general synapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendyam, Sandeep; Mohan, Ashwin; Kalivas, Peter W.; Nair, Satish S.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular neurotransmitter concentrations vary over a wide range depending on the type of neurotransmitter and location in the brain. Neurotransmitter homeostasis near a synapse is achieved by a balance of several mechanisms including vesicular release from the presynapse, diffusion, uptake by transporters, non-synaptic production, and regulation of release by autoreceptors. These mechanisms are also affected by the glia surrounding the synapse. However, the role of these mechanisms in achieving neurotransmitter homeostasis is not well understood. A biophysical modeling framework was proposed to reverse engineer glial configurations and parameters related to homeostasis for synapses that support a range of neurotransmitter gradients. Model experiments reveal that synapses with extracellular neurotransmitter concentrations in the micromolar range require non-synaptic neurotransmitter sources and tight synaptic isolation by extracellular glial formations. The model was used to identify the role of perisynaptic parameters on neurotransmitter homeostasis, and to propose glial configurations that could support different levels of extracellular neurotransmitter concentrations. Ranking the parameters based on their effect on neurotransmitter homeostasis, non-synaptic sources were found to be the most important followed by transporter concentration and diffusion coefficient. PMID:22460547

  15. Beta-amyloid peptides undergo regulated co-secretion with neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toneff, Thomas; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Mosier, Charles; Abagyan, Armen; Ziegler, Michael; Hook, Vivian

    2013-08-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides are secreted from neurons, resulting in extracellular accumulation of Aβ and neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease. Because neuronal secretion is fundamental for the release of neurotransmitters, this study assessed the hypothesis that Aβ undergoes co-release with neurotransmitters. Model neuronal-like chromaffin cells were investigated, and results illustrate regulated, co-secretion of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) with peptide neurotransmitters (galanin, enkephalin, and NPY) and catecholamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine). Regulated secretion from chromaffin cells was stimulated by KCl depolarization and nicotine. Forskolin, stimulating cAMP, also induced co-secretion of Aβ peptides with peptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters. These data suggested the co-localization of Aβ with neurotransmitters in dense core secretory vesicles (DCSV) that store and secrete such chemical messengers. Indeed, Aβ was demonstrated to be present in DCSV with neuropeptide and catecholamine transmitters. Furthermore, the DCSV organelle contains APP and its processing proteases, β- and γ-secretases, that are necessary for production of Aβ. Thus, Aβ can be generated in neurotransmitter-containing DCSV. Human IMR32 neuroblastoma cells also displayed regulated secretion of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) with the galanin neurotransmitter. These findings illustrate that Aβ peptides are present in neurotransmitter-containing DCSV, and undergo co-secretion with neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters that regulate brain functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Communication networks in the brain: neurons, receptors, neurotransmitters, and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovinger, David M

    2008-01-01

    Nerve cells (i.e., neurons) communicate via a combination of electrical and chemical signals. Within the neuron, electrical signals driven by charged particles allow rapid conduction from one end of the cell to the other. Communication between neurons occurs at tiny gaps called synapses, where specialized parts of the two cells (i.e., the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons) come within nanometers of one another to allow for chemical transmission. The presynaptic neuron releases a chemical (i.e., a neurotransmitter) that is received by the postsynaptic neuron's specialized proteins called neurotransmitter receptors. The neurotransmitter molecules bind to the receptor proteins and alter postsynaptic neuronal function. Two types of neurotransmitter receptors exist-ligand-gated ion channels, which permit rapid ion flow directly across the outer cell membrane, and G-protein-coupled receptors, which set into motion chemical signaling events within the cell. Hundreds of molecules are known to act as neurotransmitters in the brain. Neuronal development and function also are affected by peptides known as neurotrophins and by steroid hormones. This article reviews the chemical nature, neuronal actions, receptor subtypes, and therapeutic roles of several transmitters, neurotrophins, and hormones. It focuses on neurotransmitters with important roles in acute and chronic alcohol effects on the brain, such as those that contribute to intoxication, tolerance, dependence, and neurotoxicity, as well as maintained alcohol drinking and addiction.

  17. Acute intraperitoneal injection of caffeine improves endurance exercise performance in association with increasing brain dopamine release during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyan; Takatsu, Satomi; Wang, Hongli; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes of thermoregulation, neurotransmitters in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus (PO/AH), which is the thermoregulatory center, and endurance exercise performance after the intraperitoneal injection of caffeine in rats. Core body temperature (Tcore), oxygen consumption (VO₂) and tail skin temperature (Ttail) were measured. A microdialysis probe was inserted in the PO/AH, and samples for the measurements of extracellular dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels were collected. During the rest experiment, 1 h after baseline collections in the chamber (23 °C), the rats were intraperitoneally injected with saline, or 3 mg kg(-1) or 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine. The duration of the test was 4 h. During the exercise experiment, baseline collections on the treadmill were obtained for 1 h. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine (CAF) or saline (SAL). Animals ran until fatigue at a speed of 18 m min(-1), at a 5% grade, on the treadmill in a normal environment (23 °C). At rest, 3 mg kg(-1) caffeine did not influence Tcore, Ttail, VO₂, extracellular DA, NA and 5-HT. 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine caused significant increases in Tcore, VO₂, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. In addition, 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine increased the run time to fatigue (SAL: 104.4 ± 30.9 min, CAF: 134.0 ± 31.1 min, pcaffeine and exercise increased Tcore, VO₂, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. NA increased during exercise, while neither caffeine nor exercise changed 5-HT. These results indicate that caffeine has ergogenic and hyperthermic effects, and these effects may be related to changes of DA release in the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased oxidative metabolism and neurotransmitter cycling in the brain of mice lacking the thyroid hormone transporter SLC16A2 (MCT8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Tiago B; Ceballos, Ainhoa; Grijota-Martínez, Carmen; Nuñez, Barbara; Refetoff, Samuel; Cerdán, Sebastian; Morte, Beatriz; Bernal, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Mutations of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) cause a severe X-linked intellectual deficit and neurological impairment. MCT8 is a specific thyroid hormone (T4 and T3) transporter and the patients also present unusual abnormalities in the serum profile of thyroid hormone concentrations due to altered secretion and metabolism of T4 and T3. Given the role of thyroid hormones in brain development, it is thought that the neurological impairment is due to restricted transport of thyroid hormones to the target neurons. In this work we have investigated cerebral metabolism in mice with Mct8 deficiency. Adult male mice were infused for 30 minutes with (1-(13)C) glucose and brain extracts prepared and analyzed by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Genetic inactivation of Mct8 resulted in increased oxidative metabolism as reflected by increased glutamate C4 enrichment, and of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmissions as observed by the increases in glutamine C4 and GABA C2 enrichments, respectively. These changes were distinct to those produced by hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Similar increments in glutamate C4 enrichment and GABAergic neurotransmission were observed in the combined inactivation of Mct8 and D2, indicating that the increased neurotransmission and metabolic activity were not due to increased production of cerebral T3 by the D2-encoded type 2 deiodinase. In conclusion, Mct8 deficiency has important metabolic consequences in the brain that could not be correlated with deficiency or excess of thyroid hormone supply to the brain during adulthood.

  19. Increased oxidative metabolism and neurotransmitter cycling in the brain of mice lacking the thyroid hormone transporter SLC16A2 (MCT8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago B Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Mutations of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8 cause a severe X-linked intellectual deficit and neurological impairment. MCT8 is a specific thyroid hormone (T4 and T3 transporter and the patients also present unusual abnormalities in the serum profile of thyroid hormone concentrations due to altered secretion and metabolism of T4 and T3. Given the role of thyroid hormones in brain development, it is thought that the neurological impairment is due to restricted transport of thyroid hormones to the target neurons. In this work we have investigated cerebral metabolism in mice with Mct8 deficiency. Adult male mice were infused for 30 minutes with (1-(13C glucose and brain extracts prepared and analyzed by (13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Genetic inactivation of Mct8 resulted in increased oxidative metabolism as reflected by increased glutamate C4 enrichment, and of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmissions as observed by the increases in glutamine C4 and GABA C2 enrichments, respectively. These changes were distinct to those produced by hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Similar increments in glutamate C4 enrichment and GABAergic neurotransmission were observed in the combined inactivation of Mct8 and D2, indicating that the increased neurotransmission and metabolic activity were not due to increased production of cerebral T3 by the D2-encoded type 2 deiodinase. In conclusion, Mct8 deficiency has important metabolic consequences in the brain that could not be correlated with deficiency or excess of thyroid hormone supply to the brain during adulthood.

  20. Article Neurotransmitters – A biochemical view | Shalayel | Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neurotransmission at most if not all synapses is chemical and is of great biochemical, physiological and pharmacological importance. Neurons communicate with each other at synapses by a process called synaptic transmission in which the release of small quantities of chemical messengers, called neurotransmitters ...

  1. Quantitative densitometry of neurotransmitter receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, T.C.; Bleisch, W.V.; Biegon, A.; McEwen, B.S.

    1982-01-01

    An autoradiographic procedure is described that allows the quantitative measurement of neurotransmitter receptors by optical density readings. Frozen brain sections are labeled in vitro with [ 3 H]ligands under conditions that maximize specific binding to neurotransmitter receptors. The labeled sections are then placed against the 3 H-sensitive LKB Ultrofilm to produce the autoradiograms. These autoradiograms resemble those produced by [ 14 C]deoxyglucose autoradiography and are suitable for quantitative analysis with a densitometer. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat and zebra finch brain and 5-HT receptors in rat brain were visualized by this method. When the proper combination of ligand concentration and exposure time are used, the method provides quantitative information about the amount and affinity of neurotransmitter receptors in brain sections. This was established by comparisons of densitometric readings with parallel measurements made by scintillation counting of sections. (Auth.)

  2. Crown Release Increases Diameter Growth and Bole Sprouting of Pole-Size Yellow Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann; Ralph M. Jr. Peterson

    1971-01-01

    During the second and third years after release, dominant, codominant, and intermediate pole-size yellow birch grew nearly twice as fast in diameter as unreleased poles. Growth rates were also related to foliage density. Epicormic sprouting was increased by crown release but most sprouting occured in the second log.

  3. Chapter 54: the discovery of neurotransmitters, and applications to neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourkes, Theodore L

    2010-01-01

    The theory of chemical transmission has proved to be a powerful tool in the analysis of many aspects of neurological function, and its implications loom large on the horizon of neurology and psychiatry. Neurotransmitters are released at neuronal endings, diffuse rapidly across the synaptic cleft, and then act upon receptor proteins embedded in the membrane of the post-synaptic neuron or gland. Drugs are evaluated for their ability to stimulate or to block specific receptors, and in that way modify activity of the postsynaptic organ in order to achieve some desirable therapeutic effect. This chapter is concerned with our knowledge of some of the principal neurotransmitters, namely the primary amines: dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin; the quaternary amine: acetylcholine; and the aminoacids: gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamic acid and glycine. The historical background to the discovery of these molecules as physiological neurotransmitters is presented, and their relation to various clinical states is discussed.

  4. Radiation-induced increase in the release of amino acids by isolated, perfused skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenen, M.

    1989-01-01

    Local exposure of the hindquarter of the rat to 15Gy of gamma-radiation resulted, 4-6h after irradiation, in increased release of amino acids by the isolated, perfused hindquarter preparation, 70% of which is skeletal muscle. This increase in release involves not only alanine and glutamine, but also those amino acids not metabolized by muscle and, therefore, released in proportion to their occurrence in muscle proteins. Because metabolic parameters and content of energy-rich phosphate compounds in muscle remain unchanged, it is unlikely that general cellular damage is the underlying cause of the radiation-induced increase in amino acid release. The findings strongly favour the hypothesis that increased availability of amino acids results from enhanced protein break-down in skeletal muscle which has its onset shortly after irradiation. This radiation-induced disturbance in protein metabolism might be one of the pathogenetic factors in the aetiology of radiation myopathy. (author)

  5. Zebrafish neurotransmitter systems as potential pharmacological and toxicological targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, E P; Rosemberg, D B; Seibt, K J; Capiotti, K M; Da Silva, R S; Bonan, C D

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in neurobiology have emphasized the study of brain structure and function and its association with numerous pathological and toxicological events. Neurotransmitters are substances that relay, amplify, and modulate electrical signals between neurons and other cells. Neurotransmitter signaling mediates rapid intercellular communication by interacting with cell surface receptors, activating second messenger systems and regulating the activity of ion channels. Changes in the functional balance of neurotransmitters have been implicated in the failure of central nervous system function. In addition, abnormalities in neurotransmitter production or functioning can be induced by several toxicological compounds, many of which are found in the environment. The zebrafish has been increasingly used as an animal model for biomedical research, primarily due to its genetic tractability and ease of maintenance. These features make this species a versatile tool for pre-clinical drug discovery and toxicological investigations. Here, we present a review regarding the role of different excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems in zebrafish, such as dopaminergic, serotoninergic, cholinergic, purinergic, histaminergic, nitrergic, glutamatergic, glycinergic, and GABAergic systems, and emphasizing their features as pharmacological and toxicological targets. The increase in the global knowledge of neurotransmitter systems in zebrafish and the elucidation of their pharmacological and toxicological aspects may lead to new strategies and appropriate research priorities to offer insights for biomedical and environmental research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cochlear Damage Affects Neurotransmitter Chemistry in the Central Auditory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Albert Godfrey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, the perception of a monotonous sound not actually present in the environment, affects nearly 20% of the population of the United States. Although there has been great progress in tinnitus research over the past 25 years, the neurochemical basis of tinnitus is still poorly understood. We review current research about the effects of various types of cochlear damage on the neurotransmitter chemistry in the central auditory system and document evidence that different changes in this chemistry can underlie similar behaviorally measured tinnitus symptoms. Most available data have been obtained from rodents following cochlear damage produced by cochlear ablation, loud sound, or ototoxic drugs. Effects on neurotransmitter systems have been measured as changes in neurotransmitter level, synthesis, release, uptake, and receptors. In this review, magnitudes of changes are presented for neurotransmitter-related amino acids, acetylcholine, and serotonin. A variety of effects have been found in these studies that may be related to animal model, survival time, type of cochlear damage, or methodology. The overall impression from the evidence presented is that any imbalance of neurotransmitter-related chemistry could disrupt auditory processing in such a way as to produce tinnitus.

  7. Dexamethasone rapidly increases GABA release in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus via retrograde messenger-mediated enhancement of TRPV1 activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V Derbenev

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids influence vagal parasympathetic output to the viscera via mechanisms that include modulation of neural circuitry in the dorsal vagal complex, a principal autonomic regulatory center. Glucocorticoids can modulate synaptic neurotransmitter release elsewhere in the brain by inducing release of retrograde signalling molecules. We tested the hypothesis that the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (DEX modulates GABA release in the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that DEX (1-10 µM rapidly (i.e. within three minutes increased the frequency of tetrodotoxin-resistant, miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs in 67% of DMV neurons recorded in acutely prepared slices. Glutamate-mediated mEPSCs were also enhanced by DEX (10 µM, and blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors reduced the DEX effect on mIPSC frequency. Antagonists of type I or II corticosteroid receptors blocked the effect of DEX on mIPSCs. The effect was mimicked by application of the membrane-impermeant BSA-conjugated DEX, and intracellular blockade of G protein function with GDP βS in the recorded cell prevented the effect of DEX. The enhancement of GABA release was blocked by the TRPV1 antagonists, 5'-iodoresiniferatoxin or capsazepine, but was not altered by the cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonist AM251. The DEX effect was prevented by blocking fatty acid amide hydrolysis or by inhibiting anandamide transport, implicating involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the response. These findings indicate that DEX induces an enhancement of GABA release in the DMV, which is mediated by activation of TRPV1 receptors on afferent terminals. The effect is likely induced by anandamide or other 'endovanilloid', suggesting activation of a local retrograde signal originating from DMV neurons to enhance synaptic inhibition locally in response to glucocorticoids.

  8. Noradrenaline increases the expression and release of Hsp72 by human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, E; Multhoff, G; Ortega, E

    2010-05-01

    The blood concentration of extracellular 72kDa heat shock protein (eHsp72) increases under conditions of stress, including intense exercise. However, the signal(s), source(s), and secretory pathways in its release into the bloodstream have yet to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of noradrenaline (NA) as a stress signal on the expression and release of Hsp72 by circulating neutrophils (as a source), all within a context of the immunophysiological regulation during exercise-induced stress in sedentary and healthy young (21-26years) women. The expression of Hsp72 on the surface of isolated neutrophils was determined by flow cytometry, and its release by cultured isolated neutrophils was determined by ELISA. Incubation with cmHsp70-FITC showed that neutrophils express Hsp72 on their surface under basal conditions. In addition, cultured isolated neutrophils (37 degrees C and 5% CO(2)) also released Hsp72 under basal conditions, with this release increasing from 10min to 24h in the absence of cell damage. NA at 10(-9)-10(-5)M doubled the percentage of neutrophils expressing Hsp72 after 60min and 24h incubation. NA also stimulated (by about 20%) the release of Hsp72 after 10min of incubation. (1) Hsp72 is expressed on the surface of isolated neutrophils under basal conditions, and this expression is augmented by NA. (2) Isolated neutrophils can also release Hsp72 under cultured basal conditions in the absence of cell death, and NA can increase this release. These results may contribute to confirming the hypothesis that NA can act as a "stress signal" for the increased eHsp72 in the context of exercise stress, with a role for neutrophils as a source for the expression and, to a lesser degree, the release of Hsp72 after activation by NA. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Thin film microelectrodes for electrochemical detection of neurotransmitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard

    An important signaling process in the nervous system is the release of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters from neurons. In this thesis alternative thin film electrode materials for applications targeting electrochemical detection of neurotransmitters in chip devices were evaluated...... and conductive polymer microelectrodes made of Pedot:Pss were also fabricated and used successfully to measure transmitter release from cells. The use of different thin film electrodes for low-noise amperometric measurements of single events of transmitter release from neuronal cells was studied....... For this application a very low current noise is needed together with a large temporal resolution. It was shown, that resistive and capacitive properties of thin film electrode materials are determining their usefulness in low-noise amperometric measurements. An analytical expression for the noise was derived...

  10. [Preliminary research on multi-neurotransmitters' change regulation in 120 depression patients' brains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Ming; Qing, Xue-Mei; Pan, Yan-Shu; Xu, Feng-Quan; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, Zhen-Hua

    2014-04-01

    regions are characterized by weak negative correlation. Serotonin and excited neurotransmitters are characterizeed by weak negative correlation (ordinary person group: in the right central region, left parietal region, double front temporal regions, right rear temporal region, the range of [r] is [0.25, 0.50], P neurotransmitters are characterized by weak negative correlation (ordinary person group: in the double frontal regions, left parietal region, left front temporal region, right rear temporal region, the range of [r] is [0.31, 0.46], P neurotransmitters are characterized by weak middle negative correlation (ordinary person group: in left parietal region, right central region, left frontal region, left occipital region, double front temporal regions, the range of [r] is [0.33, 0.68], P neurotransmitters all fall normally (P neurotransmitters decreasing, serotonin increasing acetylcholine decreasing dopamine decreasing neurotransmitters increasing and so on. (3) The percent of acetylcholine falling, or including acetylcholine falling, or including acetylcholine falling and neurotransmitters (beta)-receptor)rising in depression patients group increases. The percent of acetylcholine falling, or including acetylcholine falling in the right temporal region, double central regions increases (P neurotransmitters increaseng, acetylcholine decreasing neurotransmitters increasing depression neurotransmitters decreasing, serotonin increasing acetylcholine decreasing dopamine decreasing neurotransmitters increasing and so on. It's showed in research that depression patients' brain are characterized by multi-neurotransmitters abnormal, the synchronous change of multi-neurotransmitters has some certain regularities, which are not the simple linear relation. It's conformed that the three antagonizing pairs, neurotransmitters-serotonin and dopamine, acetylcholine and norepinephrine, depression eurotransmitters and excited neurotransmitters of ordinary person group and depression

  11. Ebselen increases cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration, stimulates glutamate release and increases GFAP content in rat hippocampal astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Miguel; Pariente, Jose Antonio; Salido, Gines Maria; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of the seleno-organic compound and radical scavenger ebselen on rat hippocampal astrocytes in culture. Throughout our study we carried out determinations of [Ca 2+ ] c in fura-2-loaded cells by single cell imaging, glutamate secretion employing an enzymatic-based assay and GFAP expression, which was monitorized by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. Our results show that ebselen (1-20 μM) dose dependently increases [Ca 2+ ] c , stimulates glutamate release and increases GFAP content, a hallmark of astrocyte reactivity. Ebselen did not alter significantly cell viability as assayed by determination of LDH release into the extracellular medium. Ebselen-evoked glutamate release and increase in GFAP content were Ca 2+ -dependent, because incubation of astrocytes in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ (medium containing 0.5 mM EGTA) and in the presence of the intracellular Ca 2+ chelator BAPTA (10 μM) significantly reduced ebselen-evoked changes in these parameters. The effects of ebselen we have observed may underline various signalling pathways which are important for cell proliferation, differentiation and function. However, aberrations in astroglial physiology could significantly compromise brain function, due to their role as modulators of neuron activity. Therefore, we consider that careful attention should be paid when employing ebselen as a prophylactic agent against brain damage

  12. The gas release programs to increase competition in the European gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastres, Cedric

    2005-01-01

    Regulators have implemented asymmetric regulation measures, such as gas release programs and market share targets, because of European gas supply features and gas market specificities. Empirical experiences show in line with economic theory that these regulation measures favour entry and competition without deterring investments. If we look at impacts on competition, they are mitigated. Some positive effects result from the increase in consumption or in importation and transportation infrastructure developments. But these regulations can also encourage anti-competitive behaviours like collusion, cream-skimming, reverse cherry picking or inefficient entries. Gas release measures establish a link between the incumbent and its competitors. A system of constraints on operators capacities can also appear. Thus, pricing or quantity strategies are more complex. Equilibrium prices are more volatile and very different of competition mark-up. The incumbent, for high gas release quantities and low supplies, can increase its costs to make more profit. This Raising Rivals' Costs strategy often occur if the gas release price is closer to supply costs. This strategy does not impact on consumers surplus but decreases welfare. The regulator can restore incentives to efficiency by setting gas release proportion function of incumbent's supplies. This proportion must be high enough to have a positive impact on the market because of incumbent's incentives to efficiency and greater total quantities sold by the two operators. But, on another way, it must not be too high as it could, thus, increase the probability of Raising Rivals' Costs or favour collusive strategies. (author) [fr

  13. Stimulation of GPR30 increases release of EMMPRIN-containing microvesicles in human uterine epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Lindsey A; Light, Mallory M; Mehrotra, Pavni; Nowak, Romana A

    2012-12-01

    Uterine remodeling is highly dependent on the glycosylated transmembrane protein extracellular matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inducer (EMMPRIN). Previous studies indicate estradiol can increase EMMPRIN expression in uterine cells and promote subsequent induction of MMP production. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) stimulation on EMMPRIN microvesicle release in the human uterine epithelial cell line hTERT-EEC (EECs). We examined EMMPRIN release by human EECs in response to GPR30 stimulation by microvesicle isolation, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry. We employed a pharmacological approach using the GPR30-selective agonist G1 and the antagonist G15 to determine the receptor specificity of this response. We demonstrated GPR30 expression in EECs and release of EMMPRIN in microvesicles in response to stimulation of GPR30. G1, estradiol, and cholera toxin stimulated EMMPRIN release in microvesicles as detected by Western blot and immunocytochemistry, indicating that stimulation of GPR30 can induce EMMPRIN microvesicle release. These data indicate that EMMPRIN release in microvesicles can be mediated by stimulation of GPR30 in human EECs, suggesting that inappropriate stimulation or expression of this receptor may be significant in uterine pathology.

  14. Increased release of histamine in patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, J; Skov, P S; Mosbech, H; Holst, H; Dirksen, A; Johansen, J D

    2007-11-01

    Environmental perfume exposure may cause respiratory symptoms. Individuals with asthma and perfume contact allergy report such symptoms more frequently than others. However, immunologic mechanisms have not been demonstrated and the symptoms are not associated with IgE-mediated allergy. The study aimed to investigate whether basophils from patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume released more histamine in the presence of perfume as compared with healthy volunteers. Histamine release was measured by the glass fibre method. Blood was obtained from healthy volunteers (n=20) and patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume (n=17) attending a dermatological outpatient clinic for patch testing. The effect of an international brand perfume was investigated using the basophil histamine release test with perfume. Furthermore, basophils from a healthy non-atopic donor were incubated with participant's sera and histamine release induced by perfume was measured. In both groups incremental perfume concentrations showed a positive and significant (Pperfume concentration, the basophils released significantly (PPerfume induces a dose-dependent non-IgE-mediated release of histamine from human peripheral blood basophils. Increased basophil reactivity to perfume was found in patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume.

  15. Tuning Selectivity of Fluorescent Carbon Nanotube-Based Neurotransmitter Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Florian A; Herrmann, Niklas; Meyer, Daniel; Kruss, Sebastian

    2017-06-28

    Detection of neurotransmitters is an analytical challenge and essential to understand neuronal networks in the brain and associated diseases. However, most methods do not provide sufficient spatial, temporal, or chemical resolution. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been used as building blocks for sensors/probes that detect catecholamine neurotransmitters, including dopamine. This approach provides a high spatial and temporal resolution, but it is not understood if these sensors are able to distinguish dopamine from similar catecholamine neurotransmitters, such as epinephrine or norepinephrine. In this work, the organic phase (DNA sequence) around SWCNTs was varied to create sensors with different selectivity and sensitivity for catecholamine neurotransmitters. Most DNA-functionalized SWCNTs responded to catecholamine neurotransmitters, but both dissociation constants ( K d ) and limits of detection were highly dependent on functionalization (sequence). K d values span a range of 2.3 nM (SWCNT-(GC) 15 + norepinephrine) to 9.4 μM (SWCNT-(AT) 15 + dopamine) and limits of detection are mostly in the single-digit nM regime. Additionally, sensors of different SWCNT chirality show different fluorescence increases. Moreover, certain sensors (e.g., SWCNT-(GT) 10 ) distinguish between different catecholamines, such as dopamine and norepinephrine at low concentrations (50 nM). These results show that SWCNTs functionalized with certain DNA sequences are able to discriminate between catecholamine neurotransmitters or to detect them in the presence of interfering substances of similar structure. Such sensors will be useful to measure and study neurotransmitter signaling in complex biological settings.

  16. Hypoxia-induced angiogenesis is increased by the controlled release of deferoxiamine from gelatin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takashi; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study is to design biodegradable hydrogels for the controlled release of deferoxiamine (DFO) and evaluate their biological activity. When the DFO was added to human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured in 5.0% O2, the level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor significantly increased compared with that without DFO. The expression of angiogenesis-related genes was accordingly increased by the DFO addition. An aqueous solution of mixed gelatin and DFO was freeze-dried, and dehydrothermally treated at 140°C for 24h to prepare a gelatin hydrogel incorporating DFO. In the release test with phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS) at 37°C, an initial DFO release of 60% was observed, followed by no release. When placed in PBS containing collagenase, the hydrogel was enzymatically degraded with time, and consequently released DFO in a degradation-dependent manner. After the hydrogel incorporating DFO was injected intramuscularly into a mouse model of hind limb ischemia, the number of new blood vessels formed was significantly higher than that with free DFO and DFO-free hydrogel. It is concluded that the DFO-containing hydrogel shows promising for inducing angiogenesis locally. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Macrocyclic Gd(3+) complexes with pendant crown ethers designed for binding zwitterionic neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukhatar, Fatima; Meudal, Hervé; Landon, Céline; Logothetis, Nikos K; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Angelovski, Goran; Tóth, Éva

    2015-07-27

    A series of Gd(3+) complexes exhibiting a relaxometric response to zwitterionic amino acid neurotransmitters was synthesized. The design concept involves ditopic interactions 1) between a positively charged and coordinatively unsaturated Gd(3+) chelate and the carboxylate group of the neurotransmitters and 2) between an azacrown ether appended to the chelate and the amino group of the neurotransmitters. The chelates differ in the nature and length of the linker connecting the cyclen-type macrocycle that binds the Ln(3+) ion and the crown ether. The complexes are monohydrated, but they exhibit high proton relaxivities (up to 7.7 mM(-1)  s(-1) at 60 MHz, 310 K) due to slow molecular tumbling. The formation of ternary complexes with neurotransmitters was monitored by (1) H relaxometric titrations of the Gd(3+) complexes and by luminescence measurements on the Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) analogues at pH 7.4. The remarkable relaxivity decrease (≈80 %) observed on neurotransmitter binding is related to the decrease in the hydration number, as evidenced by luminescence lifetime measurements on the Eu(3+) complexes. These complexes show affinity for amino acid neurotransmitters in the millimolar range, which can be suited to imaging concentrations of synaptically released neurotransmitters. They display good selectivity over non-amino acid neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, serotonin, and noradrenaline) and hydrogenphosphate, but selectivity over hydrogencarbonate was not achieved. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Benzodiazepine receptor and neurotransmitter studies in the brain of suicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manchon, M.; Kopp, N.; Rouzioux, J.J.; Lecestre, D.; Deluermoz, S.; Miachon, S.

    1987-12-14

    The characteristics of benzodiazepine binding sites were studied on frozen sections of hippocampus of 7 suicides and 5 controls subjects, using biochemical and autoradiographic techniques. /sup 3/H flunitrazepam was used as ligand, clonazepam and CL 218,872 as displacing agents. Some neurotransmitters or their derivatives were evaluated quantitatively in parallel in the hippocampal tissue by liquid chromatography. The authors observed mainly an increase in the Ki of CL 218,872 subtype I binding sites in suicides, and an increase in % of type I binding sites. Among neurotransmitters, only norepinephrine differed significantly between controls and suicides. 36 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  19. Benzodiazepine receptor and neurotransmitter studies in the brain of suicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchon, M.; Kopp, N.; Rouzioux, J.J.; Lecestre, D.; Deluermoz, S.; Miachon, S.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of benzodiazepine binding sites were studied on frozen sections of hippocampus of 7 suicides and 5 controls subjects, using biochemical and autoradiographic techniques. 3 H flunitrazepam was used as ligand, clonazepam and CL 218,872 as displacing agents. Some neurotransmitters or their derivatives were evaluated quantitatively in parallel in the hippocampal tissue by liquid chromatography. The authors observed mainly an increase in the Ki of CL 218,872 subtype I binding sites in suicides, and an increase in % of type I binding sites. Among neurotransmitters, only norepinephrine differed significantly between controls and suicides. 36 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  20. Estradiol potentiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone responsiveness in the anterior pituitary is mediated by an increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.; Peegel, H.; Katta, V.

    1985-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism by which 17 beta-estradiol potentiates the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on the anterior pituitary in vitro, cultured pituitary cells from immature female rats were used as the model system. Cultures exposed to estradiol at concentrations ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/L exhibited a significant augmentation of luteinizing hormone release in response to a 4-hour gonadotropin-releasing hormone (10 mumol/L) challenge at a dose of 10(-9) mol/L compared to that of control cultures. The estradiol augmentation of luteinizing hormone release was also dependent on the duration of estradiol exposure. When these cultures were incubated with tritium-labeled L-leucine, an increase in incorporation of radiolabeled amino acid into total proteins greater than that in controls was observed. A parallel stimulatory effect of estradiol on iodine 125-labeled D-Ala6 gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding was observed. Cultures incubated with estradiol at different concentrations and various lengths of time showed a significant increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding capacity and this increase was abrogated by cycloheximide. Analysis of the binding data showed that the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding activity was due to a change in the number of gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding sites rather than a change in the affinity. These results suggest that (1) estradiol treatment increases the number of pituitary receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone, (2) the augmentary effect of estradiol on luteinizing hormone release at the pituitary level might be mediated, at least in part, by the increase in the number of binding sites of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and (3) new protein synthesis may be involved in estradiol-mediated gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor induction

  1. Are vesicular neurotransmitter transporters potential treatment targets for temporal lobe epilepsy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri eVan Liefferinge

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The vesicular neurotransmitter transporters (VNTs are small proteins responsible for packing synaptic vesicles with neurotransmitters thereby determining the amount of neurotransmitter released per vesicle through fusion in both neurons and glial cells. Each transporter subtype was classically seen as a specific neuronal marker of the respective nerve cells containing that particular neurotransmitter or structurally related neurotransmitters. More recently, however, it has become apparent that common neurotransmitters can also act as co-transmitters, adding complexity to neurotransmitter release and suggesting intriguing roles for VNTs therein. We will first describe the current knowledge on vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1/2/3, the vesicular excitatory amino acid transporter (VEAT, the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT, vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT1/2, the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT and the vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA transporter (VGAT in the brain. We will focus on evidence regarding transgenic mice with disruptions in VNTs in different models of seizures and epilepsy. We will also describe the known alterations and reorganizations in the expression levels of these VNTs in rodent models for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE and in human tissue resected for epilepsy surgery. Finally, we will discuss perspectives on opportunities and challenges for VNTs as targets for possible future epilepsy therapies.

  2. [Brain repair after ischemic stroke: role of neurotransmitters in post-ischemic neurogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Mendoza, Eduardo; Bellver-Landete, Víctor; González, María Pilar; Merino, José Joaquín; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo; Oset-Gasque, María Jesús

    2012-11-01

    Brain ischemia and reperfusion produce alterations in the microenvironment of the parenchyma, including ATP depletion, ionic homeostasis alterations, inflammation, release of multiple cytokines and abnormal release of neurotransmitters. As a consequence, the induction of proliferation and migration of neural stem cells towards the peri-infarct region occurs. The success of new neurorestorative treatments for damaged brain implies the need to know, with greater accuracy, the mechanisms in charge of regulating adult neurogenesis, both under physiological and pathological conditions. Recent evidence demonstrates that many neurotransmitters, glutamate in particular, control the subventricular zone, thus being part of the complex signalling network that influences the production of new neurons. Neurotransmitters provide a link between brain activity and subventricular zone neurogenesis. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of the role of neurotransmitters systems, such as glutamate and its transporters, in adult neurogenesis, may provide a valuable tool to be used as a neurorestorative therapy in this pathology.

  3. Social media release increases dissemination of original articles in the clinical pain sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Heidi G; Stanton, Tasha R; Di Pietro, Flavia; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2013-01-01

    A barrier to dissemination of research is that it depends on the end-user searching for or 'pulling' relevant knowledge from the literature base. Social media instead 'pushes' relevant knowledge straight to the end-user, via blogs and sites such as Facebook and Twitter. That social media is very effective at improving dissemination seems well accepted, but, remarkably, there is no evidence to support this claim. We aimed to quantify the impact of social media release on views and downloads of articles in the clinical pain sciences. Sixteen PLOS ONE articles were blogged and released via Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and ResearchBlogging.org on one of two randomly selected dates. The other date served as a control. The primary outcomes were the rate of HTML views and PDF downloads of the article, over a seven-day period. The critical result was an increase in both outcome variables in the week after the blog post and social media release. The mean ± SD rate of HTML views in the week after the social media release was 18±18 per day, whereas the rate during the other three weeks was no more than 6±3 per day. The mean ± SD rate of PDF downloads in the week after the social media release was 4±4 per day, whereas the rate during the other three weeks was less than 1±1 per day (psocial media reach, engagement or virality related to either outcome variable, nor to citation count one year later (p>0.3 for all). We conclude that social media release of a research article in the clinical pain sciences increases the number of people who view or download that article, but conventional social media metrics are unrelated to the effect.

  4. Social media release increases dissemination of original articles in the clinical pain sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi G Allen

    Full Text Available A barrier to dissemination of research is that it depends on the end-user searching for or 'pulling' relevant knowledge from the literature base. Social media instead 'pushes' relevant knowledge straight to the end-user, via blogs and sites such as Facebook and Twitter. That social media is very effective at improving dissemination seems well accepted, but, remarkably, there is no evidence to support this claim. We aimed to quantify the impact of social media release on views and downloads of articles in the clinical pain sciences. Sixteen PLOS ONE articles were blogged and released via Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and ResearchBlogging.org on one of two randomly selected dates. The other date served as a control. The primary outcomes were the rate of HTML views and PDF downloads of the article, over a seven-day period. The critical result was an increase in both outcome variables in the week after the blog post and social media release. The mean ± SD rate of HTML views in the week after the social media release was 18±18 per day, whereas the rate during the other three weeks was no more than 6±3 per day. The mean ± SD rate of PDF downloads in the week after the social media release was 4±4 per day, whereas the rate during the other three weeks was less than 1±1 per day (p0.3 for all. We conclude that social media release of a research article in the clinical pain sciences increases the number of people who view or download that article, but conventional social media metrics are unrelated to the effect.

  5. Pharmacological approaches for Alzheimer's disease: neurotransmitter as drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Atish; Kalra, Jaspreet; Mani, Vasudevan; Ramasamy, Kalavathy; Majeed, Abu Bakar Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common CNS disorder occurring worldwide. There is neither proven effective prevention for AD nor a cure for patients with this disorder. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop safer and more efficacious drugs to help combat the tremendous increase in disease progression. The present review is an attempt at discussing the treatment strategies and drugs under clinical trials governing the modulation of neurotransmitter. Therefore, looking at neurotransmitter abnormalities, there is an urge for developing the pharmacological approaches aimed at correcting those abnormalities and dysfunctioning. In addition, this review also discusses the drugs that are in Phase III trials for the treatment of AD. Despite advances in treatment strategies aimed at correcting neurotransmitter abnormalities, there exists a need for the development of drug therapies focusing on the attempts to remove the pathogenomic protein deposits, thus combating the disease progression.

  6. CB1 receptor antagonism increases hippocampal acetylcholine release: site and mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroot, Aldemar; Köfalvi, Attila; Wade, Mark R; Davis, Richard J; Rodrigues, Ricardo J; Rebola, Nelson; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Nomikos, George G

    2006-10-01

    Evidence indicates that blockade of cannabinoid receptors increases acetylcholine (ACh) release in brain cortical regions. Although it is assumed that this type of effect is mediated through CB1 receptor (CB1R) antagonism, several in vitro functional studies recently have suggested non-CB1R involvement. In addition, neither the precise neuroanatomical site nor the exact mechanisms underlying this effect are known. We thoroughly examined these issues using a combination of systemic and local administration of CB1R antagonists, different methods of in vivo microdialysis, CB1R knockout (KO) mice, tissue measurements of ACh, and immunochemistry. First, we showed that systemic injections of the CB1R antagonists N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboximide hydrochloride (SR-141716A) and N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2, 4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251) dose-dependently increased hippocampal ACh efflux. Likewise, local hippocampal, but not septal, infusions of SR141716A or AM251 increased hippocampal ACh release. It is noteworthy that the stimulatory effects of systemically administered CB1R antagonists on hippocampal ACh release were completely abolished in CB1R KO mice. CB1R KO mice had similar basal but higher stress-enhanced hippocampal ACh levels compared with wild-type controls. It is interesting that dopamine D1 receptor antagonism counteracted the stimulatory effect of CB1R blockade on hippocampal ACh levels. Finally, immunohistochemical methods revealed that a high proportion of CB1R-positive nerve terminals were found in hippocampus and confirmed the colocalization of CB1 receptors with cholinergic and dopaminergic nerve terminals. In conclusion, hippocampal ACh release may specifically be controlled through CB1Rs located on both cholinergic and dopaminergic neuronal projections, and CB1R antagonism increases hippocampal ACh release, probably through both a direct

  7. Suppressed eye growth following diffuser removal from myopic birds is not due to increased dopamine release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, I.; Boelen, M.; Megaw, P.; Miethke, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Myopia can be induced in developing chickens by fitting a diffuser over the eye. If the diffuser is removed, the restoration of normal visual input results in rapid suppression of eye growth, with ultimate restoration of normal vision. We have investigated whether the suppression of eye growth after the removal of a diffuser from a myopic eye results from an increased rate of release of dopamine from the retina. Chickens were maintained on a 12:12 light-dark cycle, and were fitted with a diffuser from day 7 to day 21. After removal of the diffuser, the rate of dopamine release was then followed by measuring the kinetics of accumulation of DOPAC in the vitreous during the light phase. The rate of scleral glycosaminoglycan synthesis (SGS) was followed by measuring the rate of incorporation of 35 S-sulphate into scleral buttons incubated in vitro. At the end of the period of development of form-deprivation myopia,dopamine release rates were very low in the myopic eyes compared to those in the contralateral control eyes. In contrast, SGS rates were higher in the sclera from myopic eyes. After removal of the diffusers, the rate of SGS declined rapidly to below that in the control eyes within 72h. In contrast, dopamine release rates remained low for up to 10 days after removal of the occluders. These results show that there is a correlation between reduced dopamine release and increased SGS during the development of myopia, but that there is not a symmetrical relationship during the suppression of SGS following occluder removal. These results therefore suggest that dopamine is not a crucial signalling molecule in the visually mediated control of eye growth. Copyright (2001) Australian Neuroscience Society

  8. The discovery of chemical neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenstein, Elliot S

    2002-06-01

    Neurotransmitters have become such an intrinsic part of our theories about brain function that many today are unaware of how difficult it was to prove their existence or the protracted dispute over the nature of synaptic transmission. The story is important not only because it is fascinating science history, but also because it exemplifies much of what is best in science and deserving to be emulated. The friendships formed among such major figures in this history as Henry Dale, Otto Loewi, Wilhelm Feldberg, Walter Cannon, and others extended over two world wars, enriching their lives and facilitating their research. Even the dispute-the "war of the sparks and the soups"--between neurophysiologists and pharmacologists over whether synaptic transmission is electrical or chemical played a positive role in stimulating the research needed to provide convincing proof. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  9. Release of intracellular Calcium increase production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in renal distal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Henning F.

    peroxide (H2O2) has traditionally been regarded as toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism. However, recent findings indicate that H2O2 act as a signalling molecule. The aim of the present study was to monitor, in real time, the rates of ROS generation in order to directly determine their production......Release of intracellular Calcium increase production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in renal distal epithelial cells. Henning F. Bjerregaard, Roskilde University, Department of Science, Systems and Models , 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. HFB@ RUC.DK Reactive oxygen species (ROS) like, hydrogen...... to G-protein stimulation of phospholipase C and release of inositol -3 phosphate. Cd (0.4 mM) treatment of A6 cells enhanced the ROS production after one minutes incubation. The production rate was constant for at least 10 to 20 min. Experiments showed that the Cd induced increase in ROS production...

  10. Zn2+ modulation of neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, K.; Gether, U.

    2006-01-01

    of neurotransmitter transporters have been identified based on sequence homology: (1) the neurotransmitter sodium symporter family (NSS), which includes the Na+/C1(-)-dependent transporters for dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin; and (2) the dicarboxylate/amino acid cation symporter family (DAACS), which...

  11. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  12. High dose sapropterin dihydrochloride therapy improves monoamine neurotransmitter turnover in murine phenylketonuria (PKU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Shelley R; Scherer, Tanja; Thöny, Beat; Harding, Cary O

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) deficiencies of the monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric dysfunction in phenylketonuria (PKU). Increased brain phenylalanine concentration likely competitively inhibits the activities of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate limiting steps in dopamine and serotonin synthesis respectively. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a required cofactor for TH and TPH activity. Our hypothesis was that treatment of hyperphenylalaninemic Pah(enu2/enu2) mice, a model of human PKU, with sapropterin dihydrochloride, a synthetic form of BH4, would stimulate TH and TPH activities leading to improved dopamine and serotonin synthesis despite persistently elevated brain phenylalanine. Sapropterin (20, 40, or 100mg/kg body weight in 1% ascorbic acid) was administered daily for 4 days by oral gavage to Pah(enu2/enu2) mice followed by measurement of brain biopterin, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan and monoamine neurotransmitter content. A significant increase in brain biopterin content was detected only in mice that had received the highest sapropterin dose, 100mg/kg. Blood and brain phenylalanine concentrations were unchanged by sapropterin therapy. Sapropterin therapy also did not alter the absolute amounts of dopamine and serotonin in brain but was associated with increased homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine and serotonin metabolites respectively, in both wild type and Pah(enu2/enu2) mice. Oral sapropterin therapy likely does not directly affect central nervous system monoamine synthesis in either wild type or hyperphenylalaninemic mice but may stimulate synaptic neurotransmitter release and subsequent metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Therapeutics of Neurotransmitters in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandimalla, Ramesh; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by the loss of memory, multiple cognitive impairments and changes in the personality and behavior. Several decades of intense research have revealed that multiple cellular changes are involved in disease process, including synaptic damage, mitochondrial abnormalities and inflammatory responses, in addition to formation and accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau. Although tremendous progress has been made in understanding the impact of neurotransmitters in the progression and pathogenesis of AD, we still do not have a drug molecule associated with neurotransmitter(s) that can delay disease process in elderly individuals and/or restore cognitive functions in AD patients. The purpose of our article is to assess the latest developments in neurotransmitters research using cell and mouse models of AD. We also updated the current status of clinical trials using neurotransmitters' agonists/antagonists in AD.

  14. Omega 3 fatty acids increase spontaneous release of cytosolic components from tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenski, L.J.; Sturdevant, L.K.; Ehringer, W.D.; Stillwell, W.

    1991-01-01

    Mice fed menhaden (fish) oil or coconut oil-rich diets were inoculated intraperitoneally with a rapidly growing leukemia, T27A. After one week, the tumor cells were harvested, and 51Cr was used to label intracellular molecules. Spontaneous release of 51Cr was used as a measure of plasma membrane permeability. Compared to cells from mice fed coconut oil (rich in saturated fatty acids), tumor cells from mice fed menhaden oil (rich in long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids) showed an increased level of spontaneous 51Cr release, which was exacerbated by increased temperature and reduced by extracellular protein. At physiological salt concentrations, the released 51Cr was detected in particles of approximately 2700 daltons. Enhanced permeability correlated with the incorporation of dietary (fish oil) omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid into the tumor cells. The results demonstrate that omega 3 fatty acids are incorporated into cellular constituents of tumor cells and change properties associated with the plasma membrane. This result suggests that dietary manipulation may be used to enhance tumor cell permeability and contribute to tumor eradication

  15. Hyperinsulinemia is associated with increased soluble insulin receptors release from hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia eHiriart

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been generally assumed that insulin circulates freely in blood. However it can also interact with plasma proteins. Insulin receptors are located in the membrane of target cells and consist of an alpha and beta subunits with a tyrosine kinase cytoplasmic domain. The ectodomain, called soluble insulin receptor (SIR has been found elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus. We explored if insulin binds to SIRs in circulation under physiological conditions and hypothesize that this SIR may be released by hepatocytes in response to high insulin concentrations. The presence of SIR in rat and human plasmas and the culture medium of hepatocytes was explored using Western blot analysis. A purification protocol was performed to isolated SIR using affinity, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatographies. A modified reverse hemolytic plaque assay was used to measure SIR release from cultured hepatocytes. Incubation with 1 nmol l-1 insulin induces the release of the insulin receptor ectodomains from normal rat hepatocytes. This effect can be partially prevented by blocking protease activity. Furthermore, plasma levels of SIR were higher in a model of metabolic syndrome, where rats are hyperinsulinemic. We also found increased SIR levels in hyperinsulinemic humans. SIR may be an important regulator of the amount of free insulin in circulation. In hyperinsulinemia the amount of this soluble receptor increases, this could lead to higher amounts of insulin bound to this receptor, rather than free insulin, which is the biologically active form of the hormone. This observation could enlighten the mechanisms of insulin resistance.

  16. Neurotransmitters activate T-cells and elicit crucial functions via neurotransmitter receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levite, Mia

    2008-08-01

    Neurotransmitters are traditionally viewed as nerve-secreted molecules that trigger or inhibit neuronal functions. Yet, neurotransmitters bind also their neurotransmitter receptors in T-cells and directly activate or suppress T-cell functions. This review focuses only on the activating effects of neurotransmitters on T-cells, primarily naïve/resting cells, and covers dopamine, glutamate, serotonin, and few neuropeptides: GnRH-I, GnRH-II, substance P, somatostatin, CGRP, and neuropeptide Y. T-cells express many neurotransmitter receptors. These are regulated by TCR-activation, cytokines, or the neurotransmitters themselves, and are upregulated/downregulated in some human diseases. The context - whether the T-cells are naïve/resting or antigen/mitogen/cytokine-activated, the T-cell subset (CD4/CD8/Th1/Th2/Teff/Treg), neurotransmitter dose (low/optimal or high/excess), exact neurotransmitter receptors expressed, and the cytokine milieu - is crucial, and can determine either activation or suppression of T-cells by the same neurotransmitter. T-cells also produce many neurotransmitters. In summary, neurotransmitters activate vital T-cell functions in a direct, potent and specific manner, and may serve for communicating between the brain and the immune system to elicit an effective and orchestrated immune function, and for new therapeutic avenues, to improve T-cell eradication of cancer and infectious organisms.

  17. Increased Aldosterone Release During Head-Up Tilt in Early Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinold, Annemarie; Schneider, Andreas; Kalizki, Tatjana; Raff, Ulrike; Schneider, Markus P; Schmieder, Roland E; Schmidt, Bernhard M W

    2017-05-01

    Hyperaldosteronism is well known cause of secondary hypertension. However, the importance of aldosterone for the much larger group of patients with primary hypertension is less clear. We hypothesized that in young subjects with primary hypertension, the rise of plasma aldosterone levels in response to head-up tilt testing as a stress stimulus is exaggerated. Hemodynamics (blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac index (CI), and total peripheral vascular resistance index (TPRI), all by TaskForce monitor) and hormones (plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin II (Ang II), aldosterone) were measured before and during 30 minutes of head-up tilt in 45 young hypertensive and 45 normotensive subjects. BP, HR, CI, and TPRI all increased in response to head-up tilt, with no difference between groups. There was no difference in baseline PRA, Ang II, and aldosterone between groups. During head-up tilt, PRA, and Ang II levels increased similarly. However, aldosterone levels increased to a greater extent in the hypertensive vs. normotensive subjects (P = 0.0021). Our data suggest that an increased release of aldosterone in response to orthostatic stress is a feature of early primary hypertension. The similar increase in PRA and Ang II suggests a potential role for secretagogues of aldosterone other than Ang II in this response. In addition to its established role in secondary hypertension, dysregulation of aldosterone release might contribute to the development of primary arterial hypertension. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. APP Homodimers Transduce an Amyloid-β-Mediated Increase in Release Probability at Excitatory Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilla Fogel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ, the proteolytic products of the amyloid precursor protein (APP, induces a variety of synaptic dysfunctions ranging from hyperactivity to depression that are thought to cause cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease. While depression of synaptic transmission has been extensively studied, the mechanisms underlying synaptic hyperactivity remain unknown. Here, we show that Aβ40 monomers and dimers augment release probability through local fine-tuning of APP-APP interactions at excitatory hippocampal boutons. Aβ40 binds to the APP, increases the APP homodimer fraction at the plasma membrane, and promotes APP-APP interactions. The APP activation induces structural rearrangements in the APP/Gi/o-protein complex, boosting presynaptic calcium flux and vesicle release. The APP growth-factor-like domain (GFLD mediates APP-APP conformational changes and presynaptic enhancement. Thus, the APP homodimer constitutes a presynaptic receptor that transduces signal from Aβ40 to glutamate release. Excessive APP activation may initiate a positive feedback loop, contributing to hippocampal hyperactivity in Alzheimer’s disease.

  19. Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy Increases Growth Factor Release from Equine Platelet-Rich Plasma In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A. Seabaugh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionExtracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT and platelet-rich plasma (PRP are common treatments for soft tissue injuries in horses. Shockwave triggers cell specific responses to promote healing. Growth factors released from PRP also promote healing. It has been hypothesized that greater growth factor release would amplify the healing process. The combination of ESWT and PRP could promote healing in injured tendons and ligaments in the horse. The objective of this study was to determine if application of shockwaves to PRP samples increases the concentration of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and platelet-derived growth factor ββ (PDGF-ββ released from the platelets in vitro.Materials and methodsPRP was produced from blood drawn from six horses. The PRP from each horse was exposed to the following treatments: (1 positive control (freeze-thaw cycle, (2 untreated negative control, or shockwaves with either (3 a “standard probe” (ESWT-S with a 2 cm focal width and medium energy density or (4 a “power probe” (ESWT-P with a 1 cm focal width and high energy density. After each treatment, the samples were centrifuged, and the supernatant was harvested. The supernatant was then used for growth factor quantification via commercially available ELISA kits for TGF-β1 and PDGF-ββ.ResultsConcentrations of TGF-β1 and PDGF-ββ in PRP that underwent a freeze-thaw cycle were significantly increased compared with all other treatments. Both ESWT-S and ESWT-P resulted in significantly increased TGF-β1 concentrations, 46 and 33%, respectively, when compared with the negative control. Both ESWT-S and ESWT-P resulted in significantly increased PDGF-ββ concentrations, 219 and 190%, respectively, when compared with the negative control.DiscussionThese data indicate that the application of ESWT to PRP increases the expression of growth factors in vitro. This suggests that the combination therapy of local PRP injection followed by ESWT

  20. Acute Stress Suppresses Synaptic Inhibition and Increases Anxiety via Endocannabinoid Release in the Basolateral Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Shi; Itoga, Christy A; Fisher, Marc O; Solomonow, Jonathan; Roltsch, Emily A; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Tasker, Jeffrey G

    2016-08-10

    Stress and glucocorticoids stimulate the rapid mobilization of endocannabinoids in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Cannabinoid receptors in the BLA contribute to anxiogenesis and fear-memory formation. We tested for rapid glucocorticoid-induced endocannabinoid regulation of synaptic inhibition in the rat BLA. Glucocorticoid application to amygdala slices elicited a rapid, nonreversible suppression of spontaneous, but not evoked, GABAergic synaptic currents in BLA principal neurons; the effect was also seen with a membrane-impermeant glucocorticoid, but not with intracellular glucocorticoid application, implicating a membrane-associated glucocorticoid receptor. The glucocorticoid suppression of GABA currents was not blocked by antagonists of nuclear corticosteroid receptors, or by inhibitors of gene transcription or protein synthesis, but was blocked by inhibiting postsynaptic G-protein activity, suggesting a postsynaptic nongenomic steroid signaling mechanism that stimulates the release of a retrograde messenger. The rapid glucocorticoid-induced suppression of inhibition was prevented by blocking CB1 receptors and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) synthesis, and it was mimicked and occluded by CB1 receptor agonists, indicating it was mediated by the retrograde release of the endocannabinoid 2-AG. The rapid glucocorticoid effect in BLA neurons in vitro was occluded by prior in vivo acute stress-induced, or prior in vitro glucocorticoid-induced, release of endocannabinoid. Acute stress also caused an increase in anxiety-like behavior that was attenuated by blocking CB1 receptor activation and inhibiting 2-AG synthesis in the BLA. Together, these findings suggest that acute stress causes a long-lasting suppression of synaptic inhibition in BLA neurons via a membrane glucocorticoid receptor-induced release of 2-AG at GABA synapses, which contributes to stress-induced anxiogenesis. We provide a cellular mechanism in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) for the rapid stress

  1. TRPA1 activation by lidocaine in nerve terminals results in glutamate release increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, L.-H.; Fujita, Tsugumi; Jiang, C.-Y.; Liu Tao; Yue, H.-Y.; Nakatsuka, Terumasa; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of local anesthetics lidocaine and procaine on glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in adult rat spinal cord slices with whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Bath-applied lidocaine (1-5 mM) dose-dependently and reversibly increased the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) in SG neurons. Lidocaine activity was unaffected by the Na + -channel blocker, tetrodotoxin, and the TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, but was inhibited by the TRP antagonist, ruthenium red. In the same neuron, the TRPA1 agonist, allyl isothiocyanate, and lidocaine both increased sEPSC frequency. In contrast, procaine did not produce presynaptic enhancement. These results indicate that lidocaine activates TRPA1 in nerve terminals presynaptic to SG neurons to increase the spontaneous release of L-glutamate.

  2. The building of the neocortex with non-hyperpolarizing neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenzi, Matteo; Bony, Guillaume

    2017-09-01

    The development of the neocortex requires the synergic action of several secreted molecules to achieve the right amount of proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neural cells. Neurons are well known to release neurotransmitters (NTs) in adult and a growing body of evidences describes the presence of NTs already in the embryonic brain, long before the generation of synapses. NTs are classified as inhibitory or excitatory based on the physiological responses of the target neuron. However, this view is challenged by the fact that glycine and GABA NTs are excitatory during development. Many reviews have described the role of nonhyperpolarizing GABA at this stage. Nevertheless, a global consideration of the inhibitory neurotransmitters and their downstream signaling during the embryonic cortical development is still needed. For example, taurine, the most abundant neurotransmitter during development is poorly studied regarding its role during cortical development. In the light of recent discoveries, we will discuss the functions of glycine, GABA, and taurine during embryonic cortical development with an emphasis on their downstream signaling. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1023-1037, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Transient increase in neuronal chloride concentration by neuroactive amino acids released from glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eBertollini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal chloride concentration ([Cl-]i is known to be dynamically modulated and alterations in Cl- homeostasis may occur in the brain at physiological and pathological conditions, being also likely involved in glioma-related seizures. However, the mechanism leading to changes in neuronal [Cl-]i during glioma invasion are still unclear. To characterize the potential effect of glioma released soluble factors on neuronal [Cl-]i, we used genetically encoded CFP/YFP-based ratiometric Cl-Sensor transiently expressed in cultured hippocampal neurons. Exposition of neurons to glioma conditioned medium (GCM caused rapid and transient elevation of [Cl-]i, resulting in the increase of fluorescence ratio, which was strongly reduced by blockers of ionotropic glutamate receptors APV and NBQX. Furthermore, in HEK cells expressing GluR1-AMPA receptors, GCM activated ionic current with efficacy similar to those caused by glutamate, supporting the notion that GCM contains glutamate or glutamatergic agonists, which cause neuronal depolarization, activation of NMDA and AMPA/KA receptors leading to elevation of [Cl-]i. Chromatographic analysis of the GCM showed that it contained several aminoacids, including glutamate, whose release from glioma cells did not occur via the most common glial mechanisms of transport, or in response to hypoosmotic stress. GCM also contained glycine, whose action contrasted the glutamate effect. Indeed, strychnine application significantly increased GCM-induced depolarization and [Cl-]i rise. GCM-evoked [Cl-]i elevation was not inhibited by antagonists of Cl- transporters and significantly reduced in the presence of anion channels blocker NPPB, suggesting that Cl-selective channels are a major route for GCM-induced Cl- influx. Altogether, these data show that glioma released aminoacids may dynamically alter Cl- equilibrium in surrounding neurons, deeply interfering with their inhibitory balance, likely leading to physiological and

  4. Increased norepinephrine release from dog pulmonary artery caused by nitrous oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorie, D.K.; Tyce, G.M.; Sill, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of nitrous oxide on the release and metabolism of norepinephrine (NE) at neuroeffector junctions in dog pulmonary artery were examined. Helical strips of artery were incubated in Krebs-Ringer solution containing L-( 3 H)NE and mounted for superfusion. The arterial strips were studied in the presence of 95% oxygen-5% carbon dioxide, 70% nitrogen-30% oxygen, or 70% nitrous oxide-30% oxygen. During the 60 min of each experiment, five samples of superfusion fluid were collected for analysis and the effluxes of ( 3 H)NE and its radiolabeled metabolites were measured before and during electrical stimulation and during recovery from stimulation. ( 3 H)Norepinephrine was separated from its metabolites in the superfusate and in extracts of artery by column chromatography and quantitated by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Nitrous oxide significantly increased the fractional loss of total radioactivity and the amount of NE in the superfusate both during resting conditions and during stimulation. Nitrous oxide had no effect on the proportions of radioactivity among metabolites of NE in the superfusate or on the profile of NE metabolites remaining in the tissue after experimentation. These findings are consistent with increased NE release as a direct effect of nitrous oxide on nerve endings

  5. Neurobeachin regulates neurotransmitter receptor trafficking to synapses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, R.; Lauks, J.; Jung, S; Cooke, N.E.; de Wit, H.; Brose, N.; Kilimann, M.W.; Verhage, M.; Rhee, J.

    2013-01-01

    The surface density of neurotransmitter receptors at synapses is a key determinant of synaptic efficacy. Synaptic receptor accumulation is regulated by the transport, postsynaptic anchoring, and turnover of receptors, involving multiple trafficking, sorting, motor, and scaffold proteins. We found

  6. Regulation of neurosteroid biosynthesis by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc eDo-Rego

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic pathways leading to the synthesis of bioactive steroids in the brain are now almost completely elucidated in various groups of vertebrates and, during the last decade, the neuronal mechanisms involved in the regulation of neurosteroid production have received increasing attention. This report reviews the current knowledge concerning the effects of neurotransmitters, peptide hormones and neuropeptides on the biosynthesis of neurosteroids. Anatomical studies have been carried out to visualize the neurotransmitter- or neuropeptide-containing fibers contacting steroid-synthesizing neurons as well as the neurotransmitter, peptide hormones or neuropeptide receptors expressed in these neurons. Biochemical experiments have been conducted to investigate the effects of neurotransmitters, peptide hormones or neuropeptides on neurosteroid biosynthesis, and to characterize the type of receptors involved. Thus, it has been found that glutamate, acting through kainate and/or AMPA receptors, rapidly inactivates P450arom, and that melatonin produced by the pineal gland and eye inhibits the biosynthesis of 7-hydroxypregnenolone (7-OH-5P, while prolactin produced by the adenohypophysis enhances the formation of 7-OH-5P. It has also been demonstrated that the biosynthesis of neurosteroids is inhibited by GABA, acting through GABAA receptors, and neuropeptide Y, acting through Y1 receptors. In contrast, it has been shown that the octadecaneuropetide ODN, acting through central-type benzodiazepine receptors, the triakontatetraneuropeptide TTN, acting though peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors, and vasotocine, acting through V1a-like receptors, stimulate the production of neurosteroids. Since neurosteroids are implicated in the control of various neurophysiological and behavioral processes, these data suggest that some of the neurophysiological effects exerted by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides may be mediated via the regulation

  7. Glucose is necessary to maintain neurotransmitter homeostasis during synaptic activity in cultured glutamatergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Sonnewald, Ursula; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2006-10-01

    Glucose is the primary energy substrate for the adult mammalian brain. However, lactate produced within the brain might be able to serve this purpose in neurons. In the present study, the relative significance of glucose and lactate as substrates to maintain neurotransmitter homeostasis was investigated. Cultured cerebellar (primarily glutamatergic) neurons were superfused in medium containing [U-13C]glucose (2.5 mmol/L) and lactate (1 or 5 mmol/L) or glucose (2.5 mmol/L) and [U-13C]lactate (1 mmol/L), and exposed to pulses of N-methyl-D-aspartate (300 micromol/L), leading to synaptic activity including vesicular release. The incorporation of 13C label into intracellular lactate, alanine, succinate, glutamate, and aspartate was determined by mass spectrometry. The metabolism of [U-13C]lactate under non-depolarizing conditions was high compared with that of [U-13C]glucose; however, it decreased significantly during induced depolarization. In contrast, at both concentrations of extracellular lactate, the metabolism of [U-13C]glucose was increased during neuronal depolarization. The role of glucose and lactate as energy substrates during vesicular release as well as transporter-mediated influx and efflux of glutamate was examined using preloaded D-[3H]aspartate as a glutamate tracer and DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate to inhibit glutamate transporters. The results suggest that glucose is essential to prevent depolarization-induced reversal of the transporter (efflux), whereas vesicular release was unaffected by the choice of substrate. In conclusion, the present study shows that glucose is a necessary substrate to maintain neurotransmitter homeostasis during synaptic activity and that synaptic activity does not induce an upregulation of lactate metabolism in glutamatergic neurons.

  8. Glucose is necessary to maintain neurotransmitter homeostasis during synaptic activity in cultured glutamatergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2006-01-01

    Glucose is the primary energy substrate for the adult mammalian brain. However, lactate produced within the brain might be able to serve this purpose in neurons. In the present study, the relative significance of glucose and lactate as substrates to maintain neurotransmitter homeostasis was inves......Glucose is the primary energy substrate for the adult mammalian brain. However, lactate produced within the brain might be able to serve this purpose in neurons. In the present study, the relative significance of glucose and lactate as substrates to maintain neurotransmitter homeostasis...... was investigated. Cultured cerebellar (primarily glutamatergic) neurons were superfused in medium containing [U-13C]glucose (2.5 mmol/L) and lactate (1 or 5 mmol/L) or glucose (2.5 mmol/L) and [U-13C]lactate (1 mmol/L), and exposed to pulses of N-methyl-D-aspartate (300 micromol/L), leading to synaptic activity...... significantly during induced depolarization. In contrast, at both concentrations of extracellular lactate, the metabolism of [U-13C]glucose was increased during neuronal depolarization. The role of glucose and lactate as energy substrates during vesicular release as well as transporter-mediated influx...

  9. The molecular mechanism for overcoming the rate-limiting step in monoamine neurotransmitter transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinning, Steffen; Said, Saida; Malinauskaite, Lina

    The monoamine transporter family consists of dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin transporters (SERT) that mediate the reuptake of the monoamine neurotransmitters after their release during neurotransmission. These transporters play prominent roles in psychiatric disorders and are t......The monoamine transporter family consists of dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin transporters (SERT) that mediate the reuptake of the monoamine neurotransmitters after their release during neurotransmission. These transporters play prominent roles in psychiatric disorders...... membrane. The rate-limiting step in monoamine reuptake is the return of the empty transporter from an inward-facing to an outward-facing conformation without neurotransmitter and sodium bound. The molecular mechanism underlying this important conformational transition has not been described. Crystal...

  10. The dopamine beta-hydroxylase inhibitor nepicastat increases dopamine release and potentiates psychostimulant-induced dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoto, Paola; Flore, Giovanna; Saba, Pierluigi; Bini, Valentina; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-07-01

    The dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor nepicastat has been shown to reproduce disulfiram ability to suppress the reinstatement of cocaine seeking after extinction in rats. To clarify its mechanism of action, we examined the effect of nepicastat, given alone or in association with cocaine or amphetamine, on catecholamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens, two key regions involved in the reinforcing and motivational effects of cocaine and in the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Nepicastat effect on catecholamines was evaluated by microdialysis in freely moving rats. Nepicastat reduced noradrenaline release both in the medial prefrontal cortex and in the nucleus accumbens, and increased dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex but not in the nucleus accumbens. Moreover, nepicastat markedly potentiated cocaine- and amphetamine-induced extracellular dopamine accumulation in the medial prefrontal cortex but not in the nucleus accumbens. Extracellular dopamine accumulation produced by nepicastat alone or by its combination with cocaine or amphetamine was suppressed by the α2 -adrenoceptor agonist clonidine. It is suggested that nepicastat, by suppressing noradrenaline synthesis and release, eliminated the α2 -adrenoceptor mediated inhibitory mechanism that constrains dopamine release and cocaine- and amphetamine-induced dopamine release from noradrenaline or dopamine terminals in the medial prefrontal cortex. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Acute stress increases depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the rat prefrontal/frontal cortex: the dampening action of antidepressants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Musazzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral stress is recognized as a main risk factor for neuropsychiatric diseases. Converging evidence suggested that acute stress is associated with increase of excitatory transmission in certain forebrain areas. Aim of this work was to investigate the mechanism whereby acute stress increases glutamate release, and if therapeutic drugs prevent the effect of stress on glutamate release.Rats were chronically treated with vehicle or drugs employed for therapy of mood/anxiety disorders (fluoxetine, desipramine, venlafaxine, agomelatine and then subjected to unpredictable footshock stress. Acute stress induced marked increase in depolarization-evoked release of glutamate from synaptosomes of prefrontal/frontal cortex in superfusion, and the chronic drug treatments prevented the increase of glutamate release. Stress induced rapid increase in the circulating levels of corticosterone in all rats (both vehicle- and drug-treated, and glutamate release increase was blocked by previous administration of selective antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor (RU 486. On the molecular level, stress induced accumulation of presynaptic SNARE complexes in synaptic membranes (both in vehicle- and drug-treated rats. Patch-clamp recordings of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex revealed that stress increased glutamatergic transmission through both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, and that antidepressants may normalize it by reducing release probability.Acute footshock stress up-regulated depolarization-evoked release of glutamate from synaptosomes of prefrontal/frontal cortex. Stress-induced increase of glutamate release was dependent on stimulation of glucocorticoid receptor by corticosterone. Because all drugs employed did not block either elevation of corticosterone or accumulation of SNARE complexes, the dampening action of the drugs on glutamate release must be downstream of these processes. This novel effect of antidepressants on the response to stress

  12. Neurotransmitter transporters in schistosomes: structure, function and prospects for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paula; Patocka, Nicholas

    2013-12-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters (NTTs) play a fundamental role in the control of neurotransmitter signaling and homeostasis. Sodium symporters of the plasma membrane mediate the cellular uptake of neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft, whereas proton-driven vesicular transporters sequester the neurotransmitter into synaptic vesicles for subsequent release. Together these transporters control how much transmitter is released and how long it remains in the synaptic cleft, thereby regulating the intensity and duration of signaling. NTTs have been the subject of much research in mammals and there is growing interest in their activities among invertebrates as well. In this review we will focus our attention on NTTs of the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. Bloodflukes of the genus Schistosoma are the causative agents of human schistosomiasis, a devastating disease that afflicts over 200 million people worldwide. Schistosomes have a well-developed nervous system and a rich diversity of neurotransmitters, including many of the small-molecule ("classical") neurotransmitters that normally employ NTTs in their mechanism of signaling. Recent advances in schistosome genomics have unveiled numerous NTTs in this parasite, some of which have now been cloned and characterized in vitro. Moreover new genetic and pharmacological evidence suggests that NTTs are required for proper control of neuromuscular signaling and movement of the worm. Among these carriers are proteins that have been successfully targeted for drug discovery in other organisms, in particular sodium symporters for biogenic amine neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine. Our goal in this chapter is to review the current status of research on schistosome NTTs, with emphasis on biogenic amine sodium symporters, and to evaluate their potential for anti-schistosomal drug targeting. Through this discussion we hope to draw attention to this important superfamily of parasite proteins and to identify new

  13. NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND IMMUNITY: 1. DOPAMINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hritcu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine is one of the principal neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNC, and its neuronal pathways are involved in several key functions such as behavior (Hefco et al., 2003a,b, control of movement, endocrine regulation, immune response (Fiserova et al., 2002; Levite et al., 2001, Hritcu et al., 2006a,b,c, and cardiovascular function. Dopamine has at least five G-protein, coupled receptor subtypes, D1-D5, each arising from a different gene (Sibley et al., 1993. Traditionally, these receptors have been classified into D1-like (the D1 and D5 and D2-like (D2, D3 and D4 receptors subtypes, primarily according to their ability to stimulate or inhibit adenylate cyclase, respectively, and to their pharmacological characteristics (Seeman et al., 1993. Receptors for dopamine (particularly of D2 subclass are the primary therapeutic target in a number of neuropathological disorders including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s chorea (Seeman et al., 1987. Neither dopamine by itself, nor dopaminergic agonists by themselves, has been shown to activate T cell function. Nevertheless, lymphocytes are most probably exposed to dopamine since the primary and secondary lymphoid organs of various mammals are markedly innervated, and contain nerve fibers which stain for tyrosine hydroxylase (Weihe et al., 1991, the enzyme responsible for dopamine synthesis. Moreover, cathecolamines and their metabolites are present in single lymphocytes and in extracts of T and B cell clones, and pharmacological inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase reduces catecholamine levels, suggesting catecholamine synthesis by lymphocytes (Bergquist et al., 1994. The existence of putative dopamine receptors of D2, D3, D4 and D5 subtypes on immune cells has been proposed of several authors, primarily on the basis of dopaminergic ligand binding assays and specific mRNA expression as monitored by reverse transcription-PCR. Several experiments evoked the idea of a

  14. Increasing coastal slump activity impacts the release of sediment and organic carbon into the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Ramage

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Retrogressive thaw slumps (RTSs are among the most active thermokarst landforms in the Arctic and deliver a large amount of material to the Arctic Ocean. However, their contribution to the organic carbon (OC budget is unknown. We provide the first estimate of the contribution of RTSs to the nearshore OC budget of the Yukon Coast, Canada, and describe the evolution of coastal RTSs between 1952 and 2011 in this area. We (1 describe the evolution of RTSs between 1952 and 2011; (2 calculate the volume of eroded material and stocks of OC mobilized through slumping, including soil organic carbon (SOC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC; and (3 estimate the OC fluxes mobilized through slumping between 1972 and 2011. We identified RTSs using high-resolution satellite imagery from 2011 and geocoded aerial photographs from 1952 and 1972. To estimate the volume of eroded material, we applied spline interpolation on an airborne lidar dataset acquired in July 2013. We inferred the stocks of mobilized SOC and DOC from existing related literature. Our results show a 73 % increase in the number of RTSs and 14 % areal expansion between 1952 and 2011. In the study area, RTSs displaced at least 16.6×106 m3 of material, 53 % of which was ice, and mobilized 145.9×106 kg of OC. Between 1972 and 2011, 49 RTSs displaced 8.6×103 m3 yr−1 of material, adding 0.6 % to the OC flux released by coastal retreat along the Yukon Coast. Our results show that the contribution of RTSs to the nearshore OC budget is non-negligible and should be included when estimating the quantity of OC released from the Arctic coast to the ocean.

  15. Changes in Neurotransmitter Profiles during Early Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Development and after Pesticide Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufi, Sara; Leonards, Pim; Lamoree, Marja; de Boer, Jacob; Legler, Juliette; Legradi, Jessica

    2016-03-15

    During early development, neurotransmitters are important stimulants for the development of the central nervous system. Although the development of different neuronal cell types during early zebrafish (Danio rerio) development is well-studied, little is known of the levels of neurotransmitters, their precursors and metabolites during development, and how these levels are affected by exposure to environmental contaminants. A method based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry has been applied for the first time to zebrafish embryos and larvae to study five neurotransmitter systems in parallel, including the dopaminergic-andrenergic, glutaminergic-GABAnergic, serotoninergic, histaminergic, and cholinergic systems. Our method enables the quantification of neurotransmitters and their precursors and metabolites in whole zebrafish from the period of zygote to free-swimming larvae 6 days postfertilization (dpf). We observed a developmental stage-dependent pattern with clear differences between the first 2 days of development and the following days. Whereas the neurotransmitter levels steadily increased, the precursors showed a peak at 3 dpf. After exposure to several pesticides, significant differences in concentrations of neurotransmitters and precursors were observed. Our study revealed new insights about neurotransmitter systems during early zebrafish development and showed the usefulness of our approach for environmental neurotoxicity studies.

  16. Dopamine release in ventral striatum during Iowa Gambling Task performance is associated with increased excitement levels in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Møller, Arne; Peterson, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Gambling excitement is believed to be associated with biological measures of pathological gambling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dopamine release would be associated with increased excitement levels in Pathological Gamblers compared with Healthy Controls....

  17. Increasing potassium (K release from K-containing minerals in the presence of insoluble phosphate by bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sarikhani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phosphorus and potassium are major essential macronutrients for biological growth and development. Application of soil microorganisms is one approach to enhance crop growth. Some bacteria are efficient in releasing K and solubilizing P from mineral sources but their behavior was not studied more in presence together. Materials and methods: In this study the ability of seven bacterial strains, including Pseudomonas putida P13, P. putida Tabriz, P. fluorescens Tabriz, P. fluorescens Chao, Pantoea agglomerans P5, Azotobacter sp. and Bacillus megaterium JK3 to release mineral K from muscovite and biotite with application of insoluble (Ca3(PO42 or soluble (Na2HPO4 P-sources was investigated. Nutrient Broth was used to prepare an overnight culture of bacteria to inoculate in Aleksandrov medium, which was used to study the dissolution of silicate minerals. It should be mentioned that Aleksandrov medium was used to determine the amount of released P from tricalcium phosphate (TCP while muscovite was added to the medium as a sole source of potassium. Concentration of P was determined spectrophotometrically by ammonium-vanadate-molybdate method and K was determined by flame photometry. Results: The insoluble P-source led to a significantly increased released K into assay medium (66%, and the net release of K from the biotite was significantly enhanced. Among bacterial strains, the highest mean of released K was observed with P. putida P13 which released more K (27% than the control. The amounts of released K from micas in the presence of insoluble and soluble phosphate by P. putida P13 were 8.25 and 4.87 mg/g, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Application of insoluble phosphate could increase K release from mica minerals. The enhanced releasing of mineral K might be attributed to the release of organic acids from the bacteria, a mechanism which plays a pivotal role in solubilizing phosphate from inorganic source of phosphate.

  18. Calcimimetic R-568 and its enantiomer S-568 increase nitric oxide release in human endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bonomini

    Full Text Available Calcimimetics, such as R-568, are thought to activate G protein-linked Ca(2+-sensing receptor (CaSR by allosterically increasing the affinity of the receptor for Ca(2+ allowing for efficient control of uremic hyperparathyroidism. Several recent studies suggest they possess additional vascular actions. Although it has been postulated that calcimimetics may have a direct effect on CaSR in the blood vessels, further studies are needed to elucidate their vascular CaSR-dependent versus CaSR-independent effects.Focusing on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, we studied the CaSR expression and distribution by Immunofluorescence and Western Blot analysis. CaSR function was evaluated by measuring the potential effect of calcimimetic R-568 and its enantiomer S-568 upon the modulation of intracellular Ca(2+ levels (using a single cell approach and FURA-2AM, in the presence or absence of Calhex-231, a negative modulator of CaSR. To address their potential vascular functions, we also evaluated R- and S-568-stimulated enzymatic release of Nitric Oxide (NO by DAF-2DA, by Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS radiometric assay (both in HUVECs and in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells and by measuring eNOS-ser1177 phosphorylation levels (Immunoblotting. We show that, although the CaSR protein was expressed in HUVECs, it was mainly distributed in cytoplasm while the functional CaSR dimers, usually localized on the plasma membrane, were absent. In addition, regardless of the presence or absence of Calhex-231, both R- and S-568 significantly increased intracellular Ca(2+ levels by mobilization of Ca(2+ from intracellular stores, which in turn augmented NO release by a time- and Ca(2+-dependent increase in eNOS-ser1177 phosphorylation levels.Taken together, these data indicate that in human endothelium there is no stereoselectivity in the responses to calcimimetics and that CaSR is probably not involved in the action of R- and S-568. This suggests an additional

  19. Interleukin-2 stimulates osteoclastic activity: Increased acid production and radioactive calcium release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ries, W.L.; Seeds, M.C.; Key, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) was studied to determine effects on acid production by individual osteoclasts in situ on mouse calvarial bones. This analysis was performed using a microspectrofluorimetric technique to quantify acid production in individual cells. Radioactive calcium release was determined using calvarial bones in a standard tissue culture system. This allowed us to correlate changes in acid production with a measure of bone resorption. IL-2 stimulated acid production and bone resorbing activity. Both effects were inhibited by calcitonin. No stimulation of bone resorption occurred when IL-2-containing test media was incubated with a specific anti-IL-2 antibody and ultrafiltered. Our data demonstrated a correlation between acid production and bone resorbing activity in mouse calvaria exposed to parathyroid hormone (PTH). The data obtained from cultured mouse calvaria exposed to IL-2 demonstrated similar stimulatory effects to those seen during PTH exposure. These data suggest that calvaria exposed to IL-2 in vitro have increased osteoclastic acid production corresponding with increased bone resorption. (author)

  20. Recurrent hypoglycemia increases anxiety and amygdala norepinephrine release during subsequent hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan eMcNay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent hypoglycemia (RH is a common and debilitating side effect of therapy in patients with both type 1 and, increasingly, type 2 diabetes. Previous studies in rats have shown marked effects of RH on subsequent hippocampal behavioral, metabolic, and synaptic processes. In addition to impaired memory, patients experiencing RH report alterations in cognitive processes that include mood and anxiety, suggesting that RH may also affect amygdala function. We tested the impact of RH on amygdala function using an elevated plus-maze test of anxiety together with in vivo amygdala microdialysis for norepinephrine (NEp, a widely used marker of basolateral amygdala cognitive processes. In contrast to findings in the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex, neither RH nor acute hypoglycemia alone significantly affected plus-maze performance or NEp release. However, animals tested when hypoglycemic who had previously experienced RH had elevated amygdala NEp during plus-maze testing, accompanied by increased anxiety (i.e. less time spent in the open arms of the plus-maze. The results show that RH has widespread effects on subsequent brain function, which vary by neural system.

  1. Crop-tree release increases growth of 12-year-old yellow-poplar and black cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay. Smith; H. Clay. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Precommercial thinning was done in a 12-year-old Appalachian hardwood sapling stand in West Virginia. Two crop-tree release techniques were used--crown touching and crown touching plus 5 feet. Results indicated that both treatments significantly increased 5-year d.b.h. growth for released yellow-poplar and black cherry crop trees. Although there was a major increase in...

  2. One Cycle Fuels Another: The Energetics of Neurotransmitter Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silm, Katlin; Edwards, Robert H

    2017-02-08

    In this issue of Neuron, Ashrafi et al. (2017) show that activity induces translocation of the insulin-regulated glucose transporter GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, where it sustains the ATP production required for synaptic vesicle cycling. However, translocation occurs from presynaptic membranes other than synaptic vesicles and involves a distinct molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Do neurotransmitters sampled by brain microdialysis reflect functional release?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, BHC; Timmerman, W

    1999-01-01

    Brain microdialysis is an invasive sampling technique and will always cause damage to nervous tissue. For proper interpretation of the results, possible sources of interference need to be identified. The present review discusses the possible artefacts of the microdialysis technique and evaluates

  4. HDAC6 Is a Bruchpilot Deacetylase that Facilitates Neurotransmitter Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miskiewicz, Katarzyna; Jose, Liya E.; Yeshaw, Wondwossen M.; Valadas, Jorge S.; Swerts, Jef; Munck, Sebastian; Feiguin, Fabian; Dermaut, Bart; Verstreken, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Presynaptic densities are specialized structures involved in synaptic vesicle tethering and neurotransmission; however, the mechanisms regulating their function remain understudied. In Drosophila, Bruchpilot is a major constituent of the presynaptic density that tethers vesicles. Here, we show that

  5. Neurotransmitter properties of the newborn human retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollyfield, J.G.; Frederick, J.M.; Rayborn, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Human retinal tissue from a newborn was examined autoradiographically for the presence of high-affinity uptake and localization of the following putative neurotransmitters: dopamine, glycine, GABA, aspartate, and glutamate. In addition, the dopamine content of this newborn retina was measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. Our study reveals that specific uptake mechanisms for 3 H-glycine, 3 H-dopamine, and 3 H-GABA are present at birth. However, the number and distribution of cells labeled with each of these 3 H-transmitters are not identical to those observed in adult human retinas. Furthermore, the amount of endogenous dopamine in the newborn retina is approximately 1/20 the adult level. Photoreceptor-specific uptake of 3 H-glutamate and 3 H-aspartate are not observed. These findings indicate that, while some neurotransmitter-specific properties are present at birth, significant maturation of neurotransmitter systems occurs postnatally

  6. Measuring endogenous 5-HT release by emission tomography: promises and pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paterson, Louise M; Tyacke, Robin J; Nutt, David J

    2010-01-01

    Molecular in vivo neuroimaging techniques can be used to measure regional changes in endogenous neurotransmitters, evoked by challenges that alter synaptic neurotransmitter concentration. This technique has most successfully been applied to the study of endogenous dopamine release using positron ...

  7. Increased release of fermentable sugars from elephant grass by enzymatic hydrolysis in the presence of surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegol, Daiane; Scholl, Angélica Luisi; Fontana, Roselei Claudete; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro; Camassola, Marli

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Milling is an attractive method to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. • Surfactants improve the efficiency of lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolysis. • Pretreatment with NaOH, smaller particle size and Tween 80® were more efficient. - Abstract: In the search for renewable energy sources, elephant grass is an alternative substrate for ethanol production, but this substrate must be hydrolyzed by cellulases and xylanases to liberate fermentable sugars. During enzymatic hydrolysis, cellulase activity is reduced by the irreversible adsorption of cellulase onto cellulose, decreasing the rate of hydrolysis. Adding surfactants during hydrolysis can improve the process. The effects of Tween® and Triton® surfactants on the enzymatic hydrolysis of elephant grass were evaluated in this context. The data indicate that pretreatment with sodium hydroxide, along with a smaller particle size (0.075–0.152 mm) and the use of Tween 80®, increased the efficiency of releasing reducing sugars from pretreated elephant grass biomass. Thus, it is possible to reduce grinding costs in second-generation ethanol production through the use of surfactants, as they allow efficient hydrolysis of larger biomass particles

  8. A linear model for estimation of neurotransmitter response profiles from dynamic PET data

    OpenAIRE

    Normandin, M.D.; Schiffer, W.K.; Morris, E.D.

    2011-01-01

    The parametric ntPET model (p-ntPET) estimates the kinetics of neurotransmitter release from dynamic PET data with receptor-ligand radiotracers. Here we introduce a linearization (lp-ntPET) that is computationally efficient and can be applied to single-scan data. lp-ntPET employs a non-invasive reference region input function and extends the LSRRM of Alpert et al. (2003) using basis functions to characterize the time course of neurotransmitter activation. In simulation studies, the temporal p...

  9. Brain neurotransmitters in an animal model with postpartum depressive-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Y; Hants, Y; Vorobeiv, L; Staum, M; Abu Ahmad, Wiessam; Mankuta, D; Galun, E; Arbel-Alon, S

    2017-05-30

    Post-Partum Depression (PPD) occurs in 15% of pregnancies and its patho-physiology is not known. We studied female BALB/c ("depressive") and C57BL/6 (control) mice as a model for PPD and assessed their behavior and correlates with brain neurotransmitters (NTs) - norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin and intermediates, during the pre-pregnancy (PREP), pregnancy (PREG) and post-partum (PP) periods. Depressive-like behavior was evaluated by the Open Field (OFT), Tail Suspension (TST) and Forced Swim (FST) tests. Neurotransmitters (NTs) were determined in the striatum (care-giving), hippocampus (cognitive function) and hypothalamus (maternal care & eating behavior). In the BALB/c mice, while their performance in all behavioral tests was significantly reduced during pregnancy and P-P indicative of the development of depressive-like responses, no changes were observed in the C57BL/6 mice. Changes in NTs in BALB/C were as follows: PREP, all NTs in the three brain areas were decreased, although an increase in dopamine release was observed in the hippocampus. PREG: No changes were observed in the NTs except for a decrease in 5-HT in the striatum. P-P: striatum, low 5-HT, NE and dopamine; Hippocampus: low 5-HT, NE and high Dopamine; hypothalamus: all NTs increased, especially NE. Following pregnancy and delivery, the BALB/c mice developed depressive-like behavior associated with a significant decrease in 5-HT, dopamine and NE in the striatum and 5-HT and NE in the hippocampus. Dopamine increased in the latter together with a significant increase in all NTs in the hypothalamus. These findings suggest that the development of PPD may be associated with NT changes. Normalization of these alterations may have a role in the treatment of PPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Expression of neurotransmitters and neurotrophins in neurogenic inflammation of the rat retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Bronzetti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Antidromic stimulation of the rat trigeminal ganglion triggers the release of substance P (SP and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP from sensory nerve terminals of the capsaicin sensitive C-fibers. These pro-inflammatory neuropeptides produce a marked hyperemia in the anterior segment of the eye, accompanied by increased intraocular pressure, breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier and myosis. To assess the effects of neurogenic inflammation on the retina, specifically on the immunostaining of neurotransmitters and neurotrophins, as well as on the expression of neurotrophin receptors in the retina. RT-PCR was also accomplished in control and stimulated animals to confirm the immunohistochemical results. In the electrically stimulated eyes, immunostaining for SP, CGRP, VIP and nNOS demonstrated a marked increase in the RPE/POS (Retinal Pigment Epithelium/Photoreceptor Outer Segments, in the inner and outer granular layers and in the ganglion cells in comparison to the control eyes. CGRP and SP were found increased in stimulated animals and this result has been confirmed by RT- PCR. Changes in neurotrophin immunostaining and in receptor expression were also observed after electric stimulation of trigeminal ganglia. Decrease of BDNF and NT4 in the outer and inner layers and in ganglion cells was particularly marked. In stimulated rat retinas immunostaining and RT-PCR showed a NGF expression increase. Neurotrophin receptors remained substantially unchanged. These studies demonstrated, for the first time, that antidromic stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion and subsequent neurogenic inflammation affect immunostaining of retinal cell neurotransmitter/ neuropeptides and neurotrophins as well as the expression of neurotrophin receptors.

  11. Endogenous opioid peptides as neurotransmitters in the rat hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumaier, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The role of endogenous opioid peptides as neurotransmitters in the rat hippocampus was investigated by using extracellular recording and radioligand binding techniques in the hippocampal slice preparation. Synaptic conductances from endogenously released opioid peptides have been difficult to detect. This problem was approach by designing a novel assay of opioid peptide release, in which release was detected by measuring binding competition between endogenous opioids and added radioligand. Membrane depolarization displaced [ 3 H]-diprenorphine binding in a transient, calcium-dependent, and peptidase-sensitive manner. Autoradiographic localization of the sites of [ 3 H]-diprenorphine binding displacement showed that significant opioid peptide release and receptor occupancy occurred in each major subregion of the hippocampal slices. This assay method can not be used to define optimal electrical stimulation conditions for releasing endogenous opioids. The binding displacement method was extended to the study of the sigma receptor. Depolarization of hippocampal slices was found to reduce the binding of the sigma-selective radioligand [ 3 H]-ditolylguanidine in a transient and calcium-dependent manner with no apparent direct effects on sigma receptor affinity

  12. Dynamic regulation of neurotransmitter specification: Relevance to nervous system homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodinsky, Laura N.; Belgacem, Yesser Hadj; Swapna, Immani; Sequerra, Eduardo Bouth

    2013-01-01

    During nervous system development the neurotransmitter identity changes and coexpression of several neurotransmitters is a rather generalized feature of developing neurons. In the mature nervous system, different physiological and pathological circumstances recreate this phenomenon. The rules of neurotransmitter respecification are multiple. Among them, the goal of assuring balanced excitability appears as an important driving force for the modifications in neurotransmitter phenotype expression. The functional consequences of these dynamic revisions in neurotransmitter identity span a varied range, from fine-tuning the developing neural circuit to modifications in addictive and locomotor behaviors. Current challenges include determining the mechanisms underlying neurotransmitter phenotype respecification and how they intersect with genetic programs of neuronal specialization. PMID:23270605

  13. A Critical Assessment of Research on Neurotransmitters in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mini-forum, "Neurotransmitters and Alzheimer's Disease", is to critically assess the current status of neurotransmitters in Alzheimer's disease. Neurotransmitters are essential neurochemicals that maintain synaptic and cognitive functions in mammals, including humans, by sending signals across pre- to post-synaptic neurons. Authorities in the fields of synapses and neurotransmitters of Alzheimer's disease summarize the current status of basic biology of synapses and neurotransmitters, and also update the current status of clinical trials of neurotransmitters in Alzheimer's disease. This article discusses the prevalence, economic impact, and stages of Alzheimer's dementia in humans.

  14. Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides: New Players in the Control of Islet of Langerhans' Cell Mass and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cairano, Eliana S; Moretti, Stefania; Marciani, Paola; Sacchi, Vellea Franca; Castagna, Michela; Davalli, Alberto; Folli, Franco; Perego, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Islets of Langerhans control whole body glucose homeostasis, as they respond, releasing hormones, to changes in nutrient concentrations in the blood stream. The regulation of hormone secretion has been the focus of attention for a long time because it is related to many metabolic disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Endocrine cells of the islet use a sophisticate system of endocrine, paracrine and autocrine signals to synchronize their activities. These signals provide a fast and accurate control not only for hormone release but also for cell differentiation and survival, key aspects in islet physiology and pathology. Among the different categories of paracrine/autocrine signals, this review highlights the role of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. In a manner similar to neurons, endocrine cells synthesize, accumulate, release neurotransmitters in the islet milieu, and possess receptors able to decode these signals. In this review, we provide a comprehensive description of neurotransmitter/neuropetide signaling pathways present within the islet. Then, we focus on evidence supporting the concept that neurotransmitters/neuropeptides and their receptors are interesting new targets to preserve β-cell function and mass. A greater understanding of how this network of signals works in physiological and pathological conditions would advance our knowledge of islet biology and physiology and uncover potentially new areas of pharmacological intervention. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 756-767, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Interaction of neurotransmitters with a phospholipid bilayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Werge, Mikkel; Elf-Lind, Maria Northved

    2014-01-01

    We have performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations to study the interactions between the neurotransmitters (NTs) γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), glycine (GLY), acetylcholine (ACH) and glutamate (GLU) as well as the amidated/acetylated γ-aminobutyrate (GABAneu) and the osmolyte molecule glycerol...

  16. Increasing kynurenine brain levels reduces ethanol consumption in mice by inhibiting dopamine release in nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Gómez, Pablo; Pérez-Hernández, Mercedes; Gutiérrez-López, María Dolores; Vidal, Rebeca; Abuin-Martínez, Cristina; O'Shea, Esther; Colado, María Isabel

    2018-06-01

    Recent research suggests that ethanol (EtOH) consumption behaviour can be regulated by modifying the kynurenine (KYN) pathway, although the mechanisms involved have not yet been well elucidated. To further explore the implication of the kynurenine pathway in EtOH consumption we inhibited kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) activity with Ro 61-8048 (100 mg/kg, i.p.), which shifts the KYN metabolic pathway towards kynurenic acid (KYNA) production. KMO inhibition decreases voluntary binge EtOH consumption and EtOH preference in mice subjected to "drinking in the dark" (DID) and "two-bottle choice" paradigms, respectively. This effect seems to be a consequence of increased KYN concentration, since systemic KYN administration (100 mg/kg, i.p.) similarly deters binge EtOH consumption in the DID model. Despite KYN and KYNA being well-established ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), administration of AhR antagonists (TMF 5 mg/kg and CH-223191 20 mg/kg, i.p.) and of an agonist (TCDD 50 μg/kg, intragastric) demonstrates that signalling through this receptor is not involved in EtOH consumption behaviour. Ro 61-8048 did not alter plasma acetaldehyde concentration, but prevented EtOH-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell. These results point to a critical involvement of the reward circuitry in the reduction of EtOH consumption induced by KYN and KYNA increments. PNU-120596 (3 mg/kg, i.p.), a positive allosteric modulator of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, partially prevented the Ro 61-8048-induced decrease in EtOH consumption. Overall, our results highlight the usefulness of manipulating the KYN pathway as a pharmacological tool for modifying EtOH consumption and point to a possible modulator of alcohol drinking behaviour. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gene Deletions Resulting in Increased Nitrogen Release by Azotobacter vinelandii: Application of a Novel Nitrogen Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Lauren J.; Ohlert, Janet M.; Knutson, Carolann M.; Plunkett, Mary H.

    2015-01-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii is a widely studied model diazotrophic (nitrogen-fixing) bacterium and also an obligate aerobe, differentiating it from many other diazotrophs that require environments low in oxygen for the function of the nitrogenase. As a free-living bacterium, A. vinelandii has evolved enzymes and transporters to minimize the loss of fixed nitrogen to the surrounding environment. In this study, we pursued efforts to target specific enzymes and further developed screens to identify individual colonies of A. vinelandii producing elevated levels of extracellular nitrogen. Targeted deletions were done to convert urea into a terminal product by disrupting the urease genes that influence the ability of A. vinelandii to recycle the urea nitrogen within the cell. Construction of a nitrogen biosensor strain was done to rapidly screen several thousand colonies disrupted by transposon insertional mutagenesis to identify strains with increased extracellular nitrogen production. Several disruptions were identified in the ammonium transporter gene amtB that resulted in the production of sufficient levels of extracellular nitrogen to support the growth of the biosensor strain. Further studies substituting the biosensor strain with the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana confirmed that levels of nitrogen produced were sufficient to support the growth of this organism when the medium was supplemented with sufficient sucrose to support the growth of the A. vinelandii in coculture. The nature and quantities of nitrogen released by urease and amtB disruptions were further compared to strains reported in previous efforts that altered the nifLA regulatory system to produce elevated levels of ammonium. These results reveal alternative approaches that can be used in various combinations to yield new strains that might have further application in biofertilizer schemes. PMID:25888177

  18. Increased release of histamine in patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, J; Skov, P S; Mosbech, H

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Environmental perfume exposure may cause respiratory symptoms. Individuals with asthma and perfume contact allergy report such symptoms more frequently than others. However, immunologic mechanisms have not been demonstrated and the symptoms are not associated with IgE-mediated allergy....... The study aimed to investigate whether basophils from patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume released more histamine in the presence of perfume as compared with healthy volunteers. METHODS: Histamine release was measured by the glass fibre method. Blood was obtained from healthy volunteers (n......=20) and patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume (n=17) attending a dermatological outpatient clinic for patch testing. The effect of an international brand perfume was investigated using the basophil histamine release test with perfume. Furthermore, basophils from a healthy non...

  19. Depolarization-induced release of amino acids from the vestibular nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Donald A; Sun, Yizhe; Frisch, Christopher; Godfrey, Matthew A; Rubin, Allan M

    2012-04-01

    There is evidence from immunohistochemistry, quantitative microchemistry, and pharmacology for several amino acids as neurotransmitters in the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC), including glutamate, γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), and glycine. However, evidence from measurements of release has been limited. The purpose of this study was to measure depolarization-stimulated calcium-dependent release of amino acids from the VNC in brain slices. Coronal slices containing predominantly the VNC were prepared from rats and perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) in an interface chamber. Fluid was collected from the chamber just downstream from the VNC using a microsiphon. Depolarization was induced by 50 mM potassium in either control calcium and magnesium concentrations or reduced calcium and elevated magnesium. Amino acid concentrations in effluent fluid were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Glutamate release increased fivefold during depolarization in control calcium concentration and twofold in low calcium/high magnesium. These same ratios were 6 and 1.5 for GABA, 2 and 1.3 for glycine, and 2 and 1.5 for aspartate. Differences between release in control and low calcium/high magnesium ACSF were statistically significant for glutamate, GABA, and glycine. Glutamine release decreased during and after depolarization, and taurine release slowly increased. No evidence for calcium-dependent release was found for serine, glutamine, alanine, threonine, arginine, taurine, or tyrosine. Our results support glutamate and GABA as major neurotransmitters in the VNC. They also support glycine as a neurotransmitter and some function for taurine.

  20. Increased seedling establishment via enemy release at the upper elevational range limit of sugar maple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urli, Morgane; Brown, Carissa D; Narváez Perez, Rosela; Chagnon, Pierre-Luc; Vellend, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The enemy release hypothesis is frequently invoked to explain invasion by nonnative species, but studies focusing on the influence of enemies on natural plant range expansion due to climate change remain scarce. We combined multiple approaches to study the influence of plant-enemy interactions on the upper elevational range limit of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) in southeastern Québec, Canada, where a previous study had demonstrated intense seed predation just beyond the range limit. Consistent with the hypothesis of release from natural enemies at the range limit, data from both natural patterns of regeneration and from seed and seedling transplant experiments showed higher seedling densities at the range edge than in the core of the species' distribution. A growth chamber experiment manipulating soil origin and temperature indicated that this so-called "happy edge" was not likely caused by temperature (i.e., the possibility that climate warming has made high elevation temperatures optimal for sugar maple) or by abiotic soil factors that vary along the elevational gradient. Finally, an insect-herbivore-exclusion experiment showed that insect herbivory was a major cause of seedling mortality in the core of sugar maple's distribution, whereas seedlings transplanted at or beyond the range edge experienced minimal herbivory (i.e., enemy release). Insect herbivory did not completely explain the high levels of seedling mortality in the core of the species' distribution, suggesting that seedlings at or beyond the range edge may also experience release from pathogens. In sum, while some effects of enemies are magnified beyond range edges (e.g., seed predation), others are dampened at and beyond the range edge (e.g., insect herbivory), such that understanding the net outcome of different biotic interactions within, at and beyond the edge of distribution is critical to predicting species' responses to global change. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. Slow-release amylase increases in vitro ruminal digestion of maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of slow-release α-amylase in ruminal in vitro digestion of maize and sorghum grains. Digestibility was measured using an in vitro procedure with 40 mL of buffer and 10 mL of ruminal fluid, flushed with CO2 and incubated at 39 °C. The digestibility of sorghum and maize ...

  2. Effect of increased exposure times on amount of residual monomer released from single-step self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunsoy, Mustafa; Botsali, Murat Selim; Tosun, Gonca; Yasar, Ahmet

    2015-10-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased exposure times on the amount of residual Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA and UDMA released from single-step self-etch adhesive systems. Two adhesive systems were used. The adhesives were applied to bovine dentin surface according to the manufacturer's instructions and were polymerized using an LED curing unit for 10, 20 and 40 seconds (n = 5). After polymerization, the specimens were stored in 75% ethanol-water solution (6 mL). Residual monomers (Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA and HEMA) that were eluted from the adhesives (after 10 minutes, 1 hour, 1 day, 7 days and 30 days) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. Among the time periods, the highest amount of released residual monomers from adhesives was observed in the 10th minute. There were statistically significant differences regarding released Bis-GMA, UDMA, HEMA and TEGDMA between the adhesive systems (p<0.05). There were no significant differences among the 10, 20 and 40 second polymerization times according to their effect on residual monomer release from adhesives (p>0.05). Increasing the polymerization time did not have an effect on residual monomer release from single-step self-etch adhesives.

  3. UV-screening chitosan nanocontainers: increasing the photostability of encapsulated materials and controlled release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anumansirikul, Nattaporm; Wittayasuporn, Mayura; Klinubol, Patcharawalai; Tachaprutinun, A; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason P

    2008-01-01

    Methyl ether terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-4-methoxycinnamoylphthaloylchitosan (PCPLC), a UV absorptive polymer, and methyl ether terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-phthaloylchitosan (PPLC) were synthesized, characterized and self-assembled into stable water-dispersible spherical nanoparticles. The encapsulation of a model compound, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), was carried out to give particles with 67% (w/w) EHMC loading. The E to Z photoisomerization of EHMC encapsulated inside both particles was monitored and compared to non-encapsulated EHMC. Minimal E to Z photoisomerization was observed when EHMC was encapsulated in PCPLC particles prepared from a polymer with a maximum degree of 4-methoxycinnamoyl substitution. The results indicated that the grafted UVB absorptive chromophore, 4-methoxycinnamoyl moieties, situated at the shell of PCPLC nanoparticles acted as a UV-filtering barrier, protecting the encapsulated EHMC from the UVB radiation, thus minimizing its photoisomerization. In vitro experiments revealed the pH-dependent controlled release of EHMC from PCPLC and PPLC particles. Ex vivo experiments, using a Franz diffusion cell with baby mouse skin, indicated that neither PPLC nor PCPLC particles could penetrate the skin into the receptor medium after a 24 h topical application. When applied on the baby mouse skin, both EHMC-encapsulated PPLC and EHMC-encapsulated PCPLC showed comparable controlled releases of the EHMC. The released EHMC could transdermally penetrate the baby mouse skin

  4. UV-screening chitosan nanocontainers: increasing the photostability of encapsulated materials and controlled release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumansirikul, Nattaporm; Wittayasuporn, Mayura; Klinubol, Patcharawalai; Tachaprutinun, A.; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason P.

    2008-05-01

    Methyl ether terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-4-methoxycinnamoylphthaloylchitosan (PCPLC), a UV absorptive polymer, and methyl ether terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-phthaloylchitosan (PPLC) were synthesized, characterized and self-assembled into stable water-dispersible spherical nanoparticles. The encapsulation of a model compound, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), was carried out to give particles with 67% (w/w) EHMC loading. The E to Z photoisomerization of EHMC encapsulated inside both particles was monitored and compared to non-encapsulated EHMC. Minimal E to Z photoisomerization was observed when EHMC was encapsulated in PCPLC particles prepared from a polymer with a maximum degree of 4-methoxycinnamoyl substitution. The results indicated that the grafted UVB absorptive chromophore, 4-methoxycinnamoyl moieties, situated at the shell of PCPLC nanoparticles acted as a UV-filtering barrier, protecting the encapsulated EHMC from the UVB radiation, thus minimizing its photoisomerization. In vitro experiments revealed the pH-dependent controlled release of EHMC from PCPLC and PPLC particles. Ex vivo experiments, using a Franz diffusion cell with baby mouse skin, indicated that neither PPLC nor PCPLC particles could penetrate the skin into the receptor medium after a 24 h topical application. When applied on the baby mouse skin, both EHMC-encapsulated PPLC and EHMC-encapsulated PCPLC showed comparable controlled releases of the EHMC. The released EHMC could transdermally penetrate the baby mouse skin.

  5. Micronization increases vitamin E carrying and releasing abilities of insoluble fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pang-Kuei; Chien, Po-Jung; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2008-03-26

    This study was to investigate the effects of micronization on vitamin-carrying capacity and slow-release ability of carambola (starfruit) insoluble fiber (IF) and cellulose using in vitro and in vivomodels. Upon micronization, carambola IF (8.1 microm) underwent structural changes to expose more functional groups in the fiber matrix and to exhibit higher oil-holding capacity ( approximately 20.4-fold). Micronized fibers in forms of fiber-vitamin composites, particularly the micronized carambola IF-vitamin composite, were capable of carrying vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) up to 9.6-fold over their unmicronized forms and releasing nutrient gradually. Animal studies demonstrated that the adminstration of micronized carambola IF-vitamin composite could maintain the plasma vitamin E of rats at relatively higher levels (2.1-3.6-fold of the initial values) for at least 5 h. The results suggested that micronized fibers, particularly the micronized carambola IF, could be exploited as potential nutrient carriers in food applications and also be used to produce slow-release formulations.

  6. Psychotropic and neurotropic drugs and neurotransmitter receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryo

    1986-01-01

    Neurotransmitters are important in nervous and mental diseases because of their part in the pathogenesis of such diseases; at the same time, they play significant roles in the actions of effective therapeutic drugs. Studies of the mechanisms involved in the actions of such drugs not only generate useful methods to elucidate the pathogenesis of nervous and mental disorders but also serve as indispensable means of developing new drugs. In this field, investigations using both animal models of certain diseases and healthy animals are essential. Development of these animal models is urgently required. In this workshop, studies were presented of the mechanisms of action of major neuropsychotropic drugs such as anxiolytics, antidepressants, and antipsychotics, assessed in terms of the parts played by neurotransmitters and receptors. (Auth.)

  7. Drug-induced GABA transporter currents enhance GABA release to induce opioid withdrawal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Elena E; Hacker, Jennifer; Chefer, Vladimir I; Mallet, Christophe; McNally, Gavan P; Chieng, Billy C H; Perroud, Julie; Shippenberg, Toni S; Christie, MacDonald J

    2011-10-30

    Neurotransmitter transporters can affect neuronal excitability indirectly via modulation of neurotransmitter concentrations or directly via transporter currents. A physiological or pathophysiological role for transporter currents has not been described. We found that GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) cation currents directly increased GABAergic neuronal excitability and synaptic GABA release in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) during opioid withdrawal in rodents. In contrast, GAT-1 did not indirectly alter GABA receptor responses via modulation of extracellular GABA concentrations. Notably, we found that GAT-1-induced increases in GABAergic activity contributed to many PAG-mediated signs of opioid withdrawal. Together, these data support the hypothesis that GAT-1 activity directly produces opioid withdrawal signs through direct hyperexcitation of GABAergic PAG neurons and nerve terminals, which presumably enhances GABAergic inhibition of PAG output neurons. These data provide, to the best of our knowledge, the first evidence that dysregulation of a neurotransmitter transporter current is important for the maladaptive plasticity that underlies opiate withdrawal.

  8. Pattern recognition of neurotransmitters using multimode sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Moldoveanu, Iuliana; van Staden, Jacobus Frederick

    2014-05-30

    Pattern recognition is essential in chemical analysis of biological fluids. Reliable and sensitive methods for neurotransmitters analysis are needed. Therefore, we developed for pattern recognition of neurotransmitters: dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine a method based on multimode sensing. Multimode sensing was performed using microsensors based on diamond paste modified with 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrine, hemin and protoporphyrin IX in stochastic and differential pulse voltammetry modes. Optimized working conditions: phosphate buffer solution of pH 3.01 and KCl 0.1mol/L (as electrolyte support), were determined using cyclic voltammetry and used in all measurements. The lowest limits of quantification were: 10(-10)mol/L for dopamine and epinephrine, and 10(-11)mol/L for norepinephrine. The multimode microsensors were selective over ascorbic and uric acids and the method facilitated reliable assay of neurotransmitters in urine samples, and therefore, the pattern recognition showed high reliability (RSDneurotransmitters on biological fluids at a lower determination level than chromatographic methods. The sampling of the biological fluids referees only to the buffering (1:1, v/v) with a phosphate buffer pH 3.01, while for chromatographic methods the sampling is laborious. Accordingly with the statistic evaluation of the results at 99.00% confidence level, both modes can be used for pattern recognition and quantification of neurotransmitters with high reliability. The best multimode microsensor was the one based on diamond paste modified with protoporphyrin IX. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurotransmitters Drive Combinatorial Multistate Postsynaptic Density Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Coba, Marcelo P; Pocklington, Andrew J; Collins, Mark O; Kopanitsa, Maksym V; Uren, Rachel T; Swamy, Sajani; Croning, Mike D R; Choudhary, Jyoti S; Grant, Seth G N

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian postsynaptic density (PSD) comprises a complex collection of approximately 1100 proteins. Despite extensive knowledge of individual proteins, the overall organization of the PSD is poorly understood. Here, we define maps of molecular circuitry within the PSD based on phosphorylation of postsynaptic proteins. Activation of a single neurotransmitter receptor, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), changed the phosphorylation status of 127 proteins. Stimulation of ionotropic an...

  10. Increased Release of Mercury from Dental Amalgam Fillings due to Maternal Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields as a Possible Mechanism for the High Rates of Autism in the Offspring: Introducing a Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi Gh.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO, factors such as growing electricity demand, ever-advancing technologies and changes in social behaviour have led to steadily increasing exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields. Dental amalgam fillings are among the major sources of exposure to elemental mercury vapour in the general population. Although it was previously believed that low levels are mercury (i.g. release of mercury from dental amalgam is not hazardous, now numerous data indicate that even very low doses of mercury cause toxicity. There are some evidence indicating that perinatal exposure to mercury is significantly associated with an increased risk of developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Furthermore, mercury can decrease the levels of neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, noreprenephrine, and acetylcholine in the brain and cause neurological problems. On the other hand, a strong positive correlation between maternal and cord blood mercury levels is found in some studies. We have previously shown that exposure to MRI or microwave radiation emitted by common mobile phones can lead to increased release of mercury from dental amalgam fillings. Moreover, when we investigated the effects of MRI machines with stronger magnetic fields, our previous findings were confirmed. As a strong association between exposure to electromagnetic fields and mercury level has been found in our previous studies, our findings can lead us to this conclusion that maternal exposure to electromagnetic fields in mothers with dental amalgam fillings may cause elevated levels of mercury and trigger the increase in autism rates. Further studies are needed to have a better understanding of the possible role of the increased mercury level after exposure to electromagnetic fields and the rate of autism spectrum disorders in the offspring.

  11. Neurotransmitter modulation of extracellular H+ fluxes from isolated retinal horizontal cells of the skate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Anthony J A; Verzi, Michael P; Birnbaum, Andrea D; Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Hammar, Katherine; Smith, Peter J S; Malchow, Robert Paul

    2004-01-01

    Self-referencing H+-selective microelectrodes were used to measure extracellular H+ fluxes from horizontal cells isolated from the skate retina. A standing H+ flux was detected from quiescent cells, indicating a higher concentration of free hydrogen ions near the extracellular surface of the cell as compared to the surrounding solution. The standing H+ flux was reduced by removal of extracellular sodium or application of 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA), suggesting activity of a Na+–H+ exchanger. Glutamate decreased H+ flux, lowering the concentration of free hydrogen ions around the cell. AMPA/kainate receptor agonists mimicked the response, and the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) eliminated the effects of glutamate and kainate. Metabotropic glutamate agonists were without effect. Glutamate-induced alterations in H+ flux required extracellular calcium, and were abolished when cells were bathed in an alkaline Ringer solution. Increasing intracellular calcium by photolysis of the caged calcium compound NP-EGTA also altered extracellular H+ flux. Immunocytochemical localization of the plasmalemma Ca2+–H+-ATPase (PMCA pump) revealed intense labelling within the outer plexiform layer and on isolated horizontal cells. Our results suggest that glutamate modulation of H+ flux arises from calcium entry into cells with subsequent activation of the plasmalemma Ca2+–H+-ATPase. These neurotransmitter-induced changes in extracellular pH have the potential to play a modulatory role in synaptic processing in the outer retina. However, our findings argue against the hypothesis that hydrogen ions released by horizontal cells normally act as the inhibitory feedback neurotransmitter onto photoreceptor synaptic terminals to create the surround portion of the centre-surround receptive fields of retinal neurones. PMID:15272044

  12. Classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides involved in major depression in a multi-neurotransmitter system: a focus on antidepressant drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Felix-Martin; Coveñas, R

    2013-01-01

    We summarize the alterations of classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides and the corresponding subreceptors involved in major depression. Neuronal circuits in the brainstem, hippocampus and hypothalamus are developed, since they can be used to derive a multimodal pharmacotherapy. In this sense, serotonin hypoactivity could occur through a strong presynaptic inhibition of glutaminergic neurons via the subtype 5 of metabotropic glutaminergic receptors, and noradrenaline hypoactivity could be due to an enhanced presynaptic inhibition of GABAergic neurons via GABAB receptors. In the hippocampus, dopamine hypoactivity leads to a decreased positive effect. In clinical trials, the antidepressant effect of drugs interfering with the mentioned subreceptors, for example the triple reuptake inhibitor amitifadine, is being investigated. Moreover, the alterations of neuropeptides, such as corticotropin-releasing hormone, neuropeptide Y and galanin are pointed out. The additional antidepressant effect of analogs, agonists and antagonists of the mentioned neuropeptides should be examined.

  13. Increasing of MERARG experimental performances: on-line fission gas release measurement by mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontillon, Y.; Capdevila, H.; Clement, S. [CEA, DEN, DEC, SA3C, LAMIR, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance, (France); Guigues, E.; Janulyte, A.; Zerega, Y.; Andre, J. [Aix-Marseille Universite, LISA EA 4672, 13397 MARSEILLE cedex 20, (France)

    2015-07-01

    The MERARG device - implemented at the LECASTAR Hot Laboratory, at the CEA Cadarache - allows characterizing nuclear fuels with respect to the behaviour of fission gases during thermal transients representative of normal or off normal operating nuclear power plant conditions. The fuel is heated in order to extract a part or the total gas inventory it contains. Fission Gas Release (FGR) is actually recorded by mean of both on-line gamma spectrometry station and micro gas chromatography. These two devices monitor the quantity and kinetics of fission gas release rate. They only address {sup 85}Kr radioactive isotope and the elemental quantification of Kr, Xe and He (with a relatively low detection limit in the latter case, typically 5-10 ppm). In order to better estimate the basic mechanisms that promote fission gas release from irradiated nuclear fuels, the CEA fuel study department decided to improve its experimental facility by modifying MERARG to extend the studies of gamma emitter fission gases to all gases (including Helium) with a complete isotopic distribution capability. To match these specifications, a Residual Gas Analyser (RGA) has been chosen as mass spectrometer. This paper presents a review of the main aspects of the qualification/calibration phase of the RGA type analyser. In particular, results recorded over three mass ranges 1-10 u, 80-90 u and 120-140 u in the two classical modes of MERARG, i.e. on-line and off-line measurements are discussed. Results obtained from a standard gas bottle show that the quantitative analysis at a few ppm levels can be achieved for all isotopes of Kr and Xe, as well as masses 2 and 4 u. (authors)

  14. Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, W.K.; Dewey, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a valuable interdisciplinary tool for understanding physiological, biochemical and pharmacological functions at a molecular level in living humans, whether in a healthy or diseased state. The utility of tracing chemical activity through the body transcends the fields of cardiology, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. In this, PET techniques span radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical development to instrumentation, image analysis, anatomy and modeling. PET has made substantial contributions in each of these fields by providing a,venue for mapping dynamic functions of healthy and unhealthy human anatomy. As diverse as the disciplines it bridges, PET has provided insight into an equally significant variety of psychiatric disorders. Using the unique quantitative ability of PET, researchers are now better able to non-invasively characterize normally occurring neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. With the knowledge that these interactions provide the fundamental basis for brain response, many investigators have recently focused their efforts on an examination of the communication between these chemicals in both healthy volunteers and individuals suffering from diseases classically defined as neurotransmitter specific in nature. In addition, PET can measure the biochemical dynamics of acute and sustained drug abuse. Thus, PET studies of neurotransmitter interactions enable investigators to describe a multitude of specific functional interactions in the human brain. This information can then be applied to understanding side effects that occur in response to acute and chronic drug therapy, and to designing new drugs that target multiple systems as opposed to single receptor types. Knowledge derived from PET studies can be applied to drug discovery, research and development (for review, see (Fowler et al., 1999) and (Burns et al., 1999)). Here, we will cover the most substantial contributions of PET to understanding

  15. Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, W.K.; Dewey, S.L.

    2001-04-02

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a valuable interdisciplinary tool for understanding physiological, biochemical and pharmacological functions at a molecular level in living humans, whether in a healthy or diseased state. The utility of tracing chemical activity through the body transcends the fields of cardiology, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. In this, PET techniques span radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical development to instrumentation, image analysis, anatomy and modeling. PET has made substantial contributions in each of these fields by providing a,venue for mapping dynamic functions of healthy and unhealthy human anatomy. As diverse as the disciplines it bridges, PET has provided insight into an equally significant variety of psychiatric disorders. Using the unique quantitative ability of PET, researchers are now better able to non-invasively characterize normally occurring neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. With the knowledge that these interactions provide the fundamental basis for brain response, many investigators have recently focused their efforts on an examination of the communication between these chemicals in both healthy volunteers and individuals suffering from diseases classically defined as neurotransmitter specific in nature. In addition, PET can measure the biochemical dynamics of acute and sustained drug abuse. Thus, PET studies of neurotransmitter interactions enable investigators to describe a multitude of specific functional interactions in the human brain. This information can then be applied to understanding side effects that occur in response to acute and chronic drug therapy, and to designing new drugs that target multiple systems as opposed to single receptor types. Knowledge derived from PET studies can be applied to drug discovery, research and development (for review, see (Fowler et al., 1999) and (Burns et al., 1999)). Here, we will cover the most substantial contributions of PET to understanding

  16. High-level inhibition of mitochondrial complexes III and IV is required to increase glutamate release from the nerve terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilbride Seán M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The activities of mitochondrial complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, EC 1.10.2.2 and complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase EC 1.9.3.1 are reduced by 30-70% in Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease, respectively, and are associated with excitotoxic cell death in these disorders. In this study, we investigated the control that complexes III and complex IV exert on glutamate release from the isolated nerve terminal. Results Inhibition of complex III activity by 60-90% was necessary for a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release to occur from isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes depolarized with 4-aminopyridine or KCl. Similarly, an 85-90% inhibition of complex IV activity was required before a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release from depolarized synaptosomes was observed. Inhibition of complex III and IV activities by ~ 60% and above was required before rates of glutamate efflux from polarized synaptosomes were increased. Conclusions These results suggest that nerve terminal mitochondria possess high reserves of complex III and IV activity and that high inhibition thresholds must be reached before excess glutamate is released from the nerve terminal. The implications of the results in the context of the relationship between electron transport chain enzyme deficiencies and excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative disorders are discussed.

  17. Impact of increasing antarctic glacial freshwater release on regional sea-ice cover in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Nacho; Jourdain, Nicolas C.; Le Sommer, Julien; Goosse, Hugues; Mathiot, Pierre; Durand, Gael

    2018-01-01

    The sensitivity of Antarctic sea-ice to increasing glacial freshwater release into the Southern Ocean is studied in a series of 31-year ocean/sea-ice/iceberg model simulations. Glaciological estimates of ice-shelf melting and iceberg calving are used to better constrain the spatial distribution and magnitude of freshwater forcing around Antarctica. Two scenarios of glacial freshwater forcing have been designed to account for a decadal perturbation in glacial freshwater release to the Southern Ocean. For the first time, this perturbation explicitly takes into consideration the spatial distribution of changes in the volume of Antarctic ice shelves, which is found to be a key component of changes in freshwater release. In addition, glacial freshwater-induced changes in sea ice are compared to typical changes induced by the decadal evolution of atmospheric states. Our results show that, in general, the increase in glacial freshwater release increases Antarctic sea ice extent. But the response is opposite in some regions like the coastal Amundsen Sea, implying that distinct physical mechanisms are involved in the response. We also show that changes in freshwater forcing may induce large changes in sea-ice thickness, explaining about one half of the total change due to the combination of atmospheric and freshwater changes. The regional contrasts in our results suggest a need for improving the representation of freshwater sources and their evolution in climate models.

  18. High-level inhibition of mitochondrial complexes III and IV is required to increase glutamate release from the nerve terminal

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kilbride, Sean M

    2011-07-26

    Abstract Background The activities of mitochondrial complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, EC 1.10.2.2) and complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase EC 1.9.3.1) are reduced by 30-70% in Huntington\\'s disease and Alzheimer\\'s disease, respectively, and are associated with excitotoxic cell death in these disorders. In this study, we investigated the control that complexes III and complex IV exert on glutamate release from the isolated nerve terminal. Results Inhibition of complex III activity by 60-90% was necessary for a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release to occur from isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes) depolarized with 4-aminopyridine or KCl. Similarly, an 85-90% inhibition of complex IV activity was required before a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release from depolarized synaptosomes was observed. Inhibition of complex III and IV activities by ~ 60% and above was required before rates of glutamate efflux from polarized synaptosomes were increased. Conclusions These results suggest that nerve terminal mitochondria possess high reserves of complex III and IV activity and that high inhibition thresholds must be reached before excess glutamate is released from the nerve terminal. The implications of the results in the context of the relationship between electron transport chain enzyme deficiencies and excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative disorders are discussed.

  19. Peptides and neurotransmitters that affect renin secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W. F.; Porter, J. P.; Bahnson, T. D.; Said, S. I.

    1984-01-01

    Substance P inhibits renin secretion. This polypeptide is a transmitter in primary afferent neurons and is released from the peripheral as well as the central portions of these neurons. It is present in afferent nerves from the kidneys. Neuropeptide Y, which is a cotransmitter with norepinephrine and epinephrine, is found in sympathetic neurons that are closely associated with and presumably innervate the juxtagolmerular cells. Its effect on renin secretion is unknown, but it produces renal vasoconstriction and natriuresis. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a cotransmitter with acetylocholine in cholinergic neurons, and this polypeptide stimulates renin secretion. We cannot find any evidence for its occurence in neurons in the kidneys, but various stimuli increase plasma VIP to levels comparable to those produced by doses of exogenous VIP which stimulated renin secretion. Neostigmine increases plasma VIP and plasma renin activity, and the VIP appears to be responsible for the increase in renin secretion, since the increase is not blocked by renal denervation or propranolol. Stimulation of various areas in the brain produces sympathetically mediated increases in plasma renin activity associated with increases in blood pressure. However, there is pharmacological evidence that the renin response can be separated from the blood pressure response. In anaesthetized dogs, drugs that increase central serotonergic discharge increase renin secretion without increasing blood pressure. In rats, activation of sertonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus increases renin secretion by a pathway that projects from this nucleus to the ventral hypothalamus, and from there to the kidneys via the sympathetic nervous system. The serotonin releasing drug parachloramphetamine also increases plasma VIP, but VIP does not appear to be the primary mediator of the renin response. There is preliminary evidence that the serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus are part of the

  20. Temperature dependence of electrical properties of mixture of exogenous neurotransmitters dopamine and epinephrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Mugdha; Patil, Vidya

    2016-05-01

    Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that support the communication between the neurons. In vitro study of exogenous neurotransmitters Dopamine and Epinephrine and their mixture, carried out to learn about their electrical properties being dielectric constant and conductivity amongst others. Dielectric constant and conductivity of the selected neurotransmitters are found to increase with temperature. As a result, the time constant of the system increases with temperature. This change leads to increase in the time taken by the synapse to transport the action potential. The correlation between physical properties of exogenous neurotransmitters and psychological and physiological behaviour of human being may be understood with the help of current study. The response time of Epinephrine is in microseconds whereas response time of Dopamine is in milliseconds. The response time for both the neurotransmitters and their mixture is found to be increasing with temperature indicating the symptoms such as depression, apathy, chronic fatigue and low physical energy with no desire to exercise the body, which are observed during the fever.

  1. Lesion-induced increase in survival and migration of human neural progenitor cells releasing GDNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrstock, Soshana; Ebert, Allison D.; Klein, Sandra; Schmitt, Melanie; Moore, Jeannette M.; Svendsen, Clive N.

    2009-01-01

    The use of human neural progenitor cells (hNPC) has been proposed to provide neuronal replacement or astrocytes delivering growth factors for brain disorders such as Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease. Success in such studies likely requires migration from the site of transplantation and integration into host tissue in the face of ongoing damage. In the current study, hNPC modified to release glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (hNPCGDNF) were transplanted into either intact or lesioned animals. GDNF release itself had no effect on the survival, migration or differentiation of the cells. The most robust migration and survival was found using a direct lesion of striatum (Huntington’s model) with indirect lesions of the dopamine system (Parkinson’s model) or intact animals showing successively less migration and survival. No lesion affected differentiation patterns. We conclude that the type of brain injury dictates migration and integration of hNPC which has important consequences when considering transplantation of these cells as a therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19044202

  2. Increased survival rate by local release of diclofenac in a murine model of recurrent oral carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will OM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Olga Maria Will,1,* Nicolai Purcz,2,* Athena Chalaris,3 Carola Heneweer,4,5 Susann Boretius,1 Larissa Purcz,2 Lila Nikkola,6 Nureddin Ashammakhi,6 Holger Kalthoff,7 Claus-Christian Glüer,1 Jörg Wiltfang,2 Yahya Açil,2 Sanjay Tiwari1 1Section Biomedical Imaging, Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology, MOIN CC, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, 3Institute of Biochemistry, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 4Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, 5Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 6Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland; 7Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Despite aggressive treatment with radiation and combination chemotherapy following tumor resection, the 5-year survival rate for patients with head and neck cancer is at best only 50%. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of localized release of diclofenac from electrospun nanofibers generated from poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide polymer. Diclofenac was chosen since anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit cyclooxygenase have shown great potential in their ability to directly inhibit tumor growth as well as suppress inflammation-mediated tumor growth. A mouse resection model of oral carcinoma was developed by establishing tumor growth in the oral cavity by ultrasound-guided injection of 1 million SCC-9 cells in the floor of the mouth. Following resection, mice were allocated into four groups with the following treatment: 1 no treatment, 2 implanted scaffolds without diclofenac, 3 implanted scaffolds loaded with diclofenac, and 4 diclofenac given orally. Small animal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized for longitudinal

  3. Functional imaging of neurotransmitter systems in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgin, N.

    1998-01-01

    PET and SPECT enable the direct measurement of components of the dopaminergic and other systems in the living human brain and offer unique opportunity for the in vivo quantification on the dopaminergic function in PD and other movement disorders. The need to establish the early and differential diagnosis of PD is increasingly important given the recent evidence that early pharmacologic intervention may slow progression of this progressive degenerative disease. Accordingly, imaging with PET and SPECT using specific neuro markers has been increasingly important to biochemically identify the loss of specific neurotransmitters, their synthesizing enzymes and their receptors in movement disorders. Through the parallel development of new radiotracers, kinetic models and better instruments, PET and SPECT technology is enabling investigation of increasingly more complex aspects of the human brain neurotransmitter systems. This paper summarizes the results of different PET-SPECT studies used to evaluate the various elements of the dopamine system in the human brain with PET and intends to introduce the newly emerging specific tracers and their applications to clinical research in movement disorders

  4. Functional imaging of neurotransmitter systems in movement disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgin, N. [Ankara, Gazi Univ. Medical School (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-09-01

    PET and SPECT enable the direct measurement of components of the dopaminergic and other systems in the living human brain and offer unique opportunity for the in vivo quantification on the dopaminergic function in PD and other movement disorders. The need to establish the early and differential diagnosis of PD is increasingly important given the recent evidence that early pharmacologic intervention may slow progression of this progressive degenerative disease. Accordingly, imaging with PET and SPECT using specific neuro markers has been increasingly important to biochemically identify the loss of specific neurotransmitters, their synthesizing enzymes and their receptors in movement disorders. Through the parallel development of new radiotracers, kinetic models and better instruments, PET and SPECT technology is enabling investigation of increasingly more complex aspects of the human brain neurotransmitter systems. This paper summarizes the results of different PET-SPECT studies used to evaluate the various elements of the dopamine system in the human brain with PET and intends to introduce the newly emerging specific tracers and their applications to clinical research in movement disorders.

  5. Neonatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Excitatory Synaptic Transmission and Attenuates Nicotine-stimulated GABA release in the Adult Rat Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborsky, Joanne C.; Griffith, William H.; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to nicotine has been linked to long-lasting changes in synaptic transmission which may contribute to behavioral abnormalities seen in offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy. Here, we examined the long-lasting effects of developmental nicotine exposure on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and on acute nicotine-induced glutamate and GABA release in the adult hippocampus, a structure important in cognitive and emotional behaviors. We utilized a chronic neonatal nicotine treatment model to administer nicotine (6 mg/kg/day) to rat pups from postnatal day (P) 1–7, a period that falls developmentally into the third human trimester. Using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices, we measured excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents in neonatally control- and nicotine-treated young adult males. Neonatal nicotine exposure significantly increased AMPA receptor-mediated spontaneous and evoked excitatory signaling, with no change in glutamate release probability in adults. Conversely, there was no increase in spontaneous GABAergic neurotransmission in nicotine-males. Chronic neonatal nicotine treatment had no effect on acute nicotine-stimulated glutamate release in adults, but acute nicotine-stimulated GABA release was significantly attenuated. Thus, neonatal nicotine exposure results in a persistent net increase in excitation and a concurrent loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated regulation of presynaptic GABA but not glutamate release, which would exacerbate excitation following endogenous or exogenous nAChR activation. Our data underscore an important role for nAChRs in hippocampal excitatory synapse development, and suggest selective long-term changes at specific presynaptic nAChRs which together could explain some of the behavioral abnormalities associated with maternal smoking. PMID:24950455

  6. Sulfur mustard primes human neutrophils for increased degranulation and stimulates cytokine release via TRPM2/p38 MAPK signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Hwa-Yong [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Chang-Won, E-mail: chyj7983@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Warfare Research, The Armed Forces Medical Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Si-Nae [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Min-Soo [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon-Ja [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Dong-Keun, E-mail: dksong@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2′-bis-chloroethyl-sulfide; SM) has been a military threat since the World War I. The emerging threat of bioterrorism makes SM a major threat not only to military but also to civilian world. SM injury elicits an inflammatory response characterized by infiltration of neutrophils. Although SM was reported to prime neutrophils, the mechanism has not been identified yet. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of SM-induced priming in human neutrophils. SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent fashion. Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 2 inhibitors (clotrimazole, econazole and flufenamic acid) and silencing of TRPM2 by shRNA attenuated SM-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase. SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules in response to activation by fMLP as previously reported. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, inhibited SM-induced priming. Neither PD98057, an ERK inhibitor, nor SP600215, a JNK inhibitor, inhibited SM-induced priming. In addition, SM enhanced phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 and release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. SB203580 inhibited SM-induced NF-kB phosphorylation and cytokine release. These results suggest the involvement of TRPM2/p38 MAPK pathway in SM-induced priming and cytokines release in neutrophils. -- Highlights: ► SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils through TPRM2-mediated calcium influx. ► SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules. ► SM enhanced p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in human neutrophils. ► SM enhanced release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from human neutrophils. ► SB203580 inhibited SM-induced priming, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and cytokine release.

  7. Mapping neurotransmitter networks with PET: an example on serotonin and opioid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Lauri; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli; Hietala, Jarmo

    2014-05-01

    All functions of the human brain are consequences of altered activity of specific neural pathways and neurotransmitter systems. Although the knowledge of "system level" connectivity in the brain is increasing rapidly, we lack "molecular level" information on brain networks and connectivity patterns. We introduce novel voxel-based positron emission tomography (PET) methods for studying internal neurotransmitter network structure and intercorrelations of different neurotransmitter systems in the human brain. We chose serotonin transporter and μ-opioid receptor for this analysis because of their functional interaction at the cellular level and similar regional distribution in the brain. Twenty-one healthy subjects underwent two consecutive PET scans using [(11)C]MADAM, a serotonin transporter tracer, and [(11)C]carfentanil, a μ-opioid receptor tracer. First, voxel-by-voxel "intracorrelations" (hub and seed analyses) were used to study the internal structure of opioid and serotonin systems. Second, voxel-level opioid-serotonin intercorrelations (between neurotransmitters) were computed. Regional μ-opioid receptor binding potentials were uniformly correlated throughout the brain. However, our analyses revealed nonuniformity in the serotonin transporter intracorrelations and identified a highly connected local network (midbrain-striatum-thalamus-amygdala). Regionally specific intercorrelations between the opioid and serotonin tracers were found in anteromedial thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left parietal cortex, i.e., in areas relevant for several neuropsychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders. This methodology enables in vivo mapping of connectivity patterns within and between neurotransmitter systems. Quantification of functional neurotransmitter balances may be a useful approach in etiological studies of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in drug development as a biomarker-based rationale for targeted

  8. Carbon Nanotube-based microelectrodes for enhanced detection of neurotransmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christopher B.

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is one of the common techniques used for rapid measurement of neurotransmitters in vivo. Carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) are typically used for neurotransmitter detection because of sub-second measurement capabilities, ability to measure changes in neurotransmitter concentration during neurotransmission, and the small size electrode diameter, which limits the amount of damage caused to tissue. Cylinder CFMEs, typically 50 -- 100 microm long, are commonly used for in vivo experiments because the electrode sensitivity is directly related to the electrode surface area. However the length of the electrode can limit the spatial resolution of neurotransmitter detection, which can restrict experiments in Drosophila and other small model systems. In addition, the electrode sensitivity toward dopamine and serotonin detection drops significantly for measurements at rates faster than 10 Hz, limiting the temporal resolution of CFMEs. While the use of FSCV at carbon-fiber microelectrodes has led to substantial strides in our understanding of neurotransmission, techniques that expand the capabilities of CFMEs are crucial to fully maximize the potential uses of FSCV. This dissertation introduces new methods to integrate carbon nanotubes (CNT) into microelectrodes and discusses the electrochemical enhancements of these CNT-microelectrodes. The electrodes are specifically designed with simple fabrication procedures so that highly specialized equipment is not necessary, and they utilize commercially available materials so that the electrodes could be easily integrated into existing systems. The electrochemical properties of CNT modified CFMEs are characterized using FSCV and the effect of CNT functionalization on these properties is explored in Chapter 2. For example, CFME modification using carboxylic acid functionalized CNTs yield about a 6-fold increase in dopamine oxidation current, but modification with octadecylamine CNTs results in a

  9. Characterizing Enzymatic Deposition for Microelectrode Neurotransmitter Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosein, W. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yorita, A. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tolosa, V. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-12

    The enzyme immobilization process, one step in creating an enzymatic biosensor, was characterized and analyzed as a function of its physical properties. The neural glutamic biosensor is a flexible device, effectively minimizing trauma to the area of implantation. The Multielectrode Array (MEA) is composed primarily of a proprietary polymer which has been successfully implanted into human subjects in recent years. This polymer allows the device the pliability that other devices normally lack, though this poses some challenges to implantation. The electrodes are made of Platinum (Pt), and can range in number from eight to thirty two electrodes per device. These electrodes are electroplated with a semipermeable polymer layer to improve selectivity of the electrode to the neurotransmitter of interest, in this case glutamate. A signal is created from the interaction of glutamate in the brain with the glutamate oxidase (GluOx) which is immobilized on the surface of the electrode by using crosslinking chemistry in conjunction with glutaraldehyde and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). The glutamate is oxidized by glutamate oxidase, producing α-ketoglutarate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a by-product. The production of H2O2 is crucial for detection of the presence of the glutamate within the enzymatic coating, as it diffuses through the enzyme layer and oxidizes at the surface of the electrode. This oxidation is detectable by measurable change in the current using amperometry. Hence, the MEA allows for in vivo monitoring of neurotransmitter activity in real time. The sensitivity of the sensor to these neurotransmitters is dependent on the thickness of the layer, which is investigated in these experiments in order to optimize the efficacy of the device to detecting the substrate, once implanted.

  10. The 5-HT1A/1B-receptor agonist eltoprazine increases both catecholamine release in the prefrontal cortex and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and decreases motivation for reward and "waiting" impulsivity, but increases "stopping" impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, S Mechiel; Prins, Jolanda; Van den Bergh, Filip S; Oosting, Ronald S; Dupree, Rudy; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Westphal, Koen G C; Olivier, Berend; Denys, Damiaan A; Garland, Alexis; Güntürkün, Onur

    2017-01-05

    The 5-HT 1A/1B -receptor agonist eltoprazine has a behavioral drug signature that resembles that of a variety of psychostimulant drugs, despite the differences in receptor binding profile. These psychostimulants are effective in treating impulsivity disorders, most likely because they increase norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels in the prefrontal cortex. Both amphetamine and methylphenidate, however, also increase dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which has a significant role in motivation, pleasure, and reward. How eltoprazine affects monoamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and the NAc is unknown. It is also unknown whether eltoprazine affects different forms of impulsivity and brain reward mechanisms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigate the effects of eltoprazine in rats in the following sequence: 1) the activity of the monoaminergic systems using in vivo microdialysis, 2) motivation for reward measured using the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure, and finally, 3) "waiting" impulsivity in the delay-aversion task, and the "stopping" impulsivity in the stop-signal task. The microdialysis studies clearly showed that eltoprazine increased DA and NE release in both the mPFC and OFC, but only increased DA concentration in the NAc. In contrast, eltoprazine decreased 5-HT release in the mPFC and NAc (undetectable in the OFC). Remarkably, eltoprazine decreased impulsive choice, but increased impulsive action. Furthermore, brain stimulation was less rewarding following eltoprazine treatment. These results further support the long-standing hypothesis that "waiting" and "stopping" impulsivity are regulated by distinct neural circuits, because 5-HT 1A/1B -receptor activation decreases impulsive choice, but increases impulsive action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Controlled release fertilizer increased phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmill, Andrew D; Cartmill, Donita L; Alarcón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the application of controlled release fertilizer [(CRF) 0, 4,6, or 8 kg m(-3)] on Lolium multiflorum Lam. survival and potential biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (0, 3000, 6000, or 15000 mg kg(-1)) in sandy soil. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, and proline content as well as rhizosphere microbial population (culturable heterotrophic fungal and bacterial populations) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-degradation were determined. Petroleum induced-toxicity resulted in reduced plant growth, photosynthesis, and nutrient status. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll content were enhanced by the application of CRF in contaminated soil. Proline content showed limited use as a physiological indicator of petroleum induced-stress in plants. Bacterial and filamentous fungi populations were stimulated by the petroleum concentrations. Bacterial populations were stimulated by CRF application. At low petroleum contamination, CRF did not enhance TPH-degradation. However, petroleum degradation in the rhizosphere was enhanced by the application of medium rates of CRF, especially when plants were exposed to intermediate and high petroleum contamination. Application of CRF allowed plants to overcome the growth impairment induced by the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils.

  12. Antidepressant Binding Site in a Bacterial Homologue of Neurotransmitter Transporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh,S.; Yamashita, A.; Gouaux, E.

    2007-01-01

    Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds, including diuretics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, many of which have also become indispensable tools in biochemical experiments designed to probe antagonist binding sites and to elucidate transport mechanisms. Steady-state kinetic data have revealed that both competitive and noncompetitive modes of inhibition exist. Antagonist dissociation experiments on the serotonin transporter (SERT) have also unveiled the existence of a low-affinity allosteric site that slows the dissociation of inhibitors from a separate high-affinity site. Despite these strides, atomic-level insights into inhibitor action have remained elusive. Here we screen a panel of molecules for their ability to inhibit LeuT, a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter sodium symporters, and show that the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine noncompetitively inhibits substrate uptake. Cocrystal structures show that clomipramine, along with two other TCAs, binds in an extracellular-facing vestibule about 11 {angstrom} above the substrate and two sodium ions, apparently stabilizing the extracellular gate in a closed conformation. Off-rate assays establish that clomipramine reduces the rate at which leucine dissociates from LeuT and reinforce our contention that this TCA inhibits LeuT by slowing substrate release. Our results represent a molecular view into noncompetitive inhibition of a sodium-coupled transporter and define principles for the

  13. Antidepressant Binding Site in a Bacterial Homologue of Neurotransmitter Transporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Yamashita, A.; Gouaux, E.

    2007-01-01

    Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds, including diuretics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, many of which have also become indispensable tools in biochemical experiments designed to probe antagonist binding sites and to elucidate transport mechanisms. Steady-state kinetic data have revealed that both competitive and noncompetitive modes of inhibition exist. Antagonist dissociation experiments on the serotonin transporter (SERT) have also unveiled the existence of a low-affinity allosteric site that slows the dissociation of inhibitors from a separate high-affinity site. Despite these strides, atomic-level insights into inhibitor action have remained elusive. Here we screen a panel of molecules for their ability to inhibit LeuT, a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter sodium symporters, and show that the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine noncompetitively inhibits substrate uptake. Cocrystal structures show that clomipramine, along with two other TCAs, binds in an extracellular-facing vestibule about 11 (angstrom) above the substrate and two sodium ions, apparently stabilizing the extracellular gate in a closed conformation. Off-rate assays establish that clomipramine reduces the rate at which leucine dissociates from LeuT and reinforce our contention that this TCA inhibits LeuT by slowing substrate release. Our results represent a molecular view into noncompetitive inhibition of a sodium-coupled transporter and define principles for the rational

  14. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Christopher J; Johnson, David M; Winter, Bruce A; Whitlock, Sidney V; Kressin, Kenneth R; Horne, April E; Robinson, Justin C; Bledsoe, Jonathan M; Tye, Susannah J; Chang, Su-Youne; Agnesi, Filippo; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Covey, Daniel; Shon, Young-Min; Bennet, Kevin E; Garris, Paul A; Lee, Kendall H

    2009-01-01

    The Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) measures extracellular neurotransmitter concentration in vivo and displays the data graphically in nearly real time. WINCS implements two electroanalytical methods, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and fixed-potential amperometry (FPA), to measure neurotransmitter concentrations at an electrochemical sensor, typically a carbon-fiber microelectrode. WINCS comprises a battery-powered patient module and a custom software application (WINCSware) running on a nearby personal computer. The patient module impresses upon the electrochemical sensor either a constant potential (for FPA) or a time-varying waveform (for FSCV). A transimpedance amplifier converts the resulting current to a signal that is digitized and transmitted to the base station via a Bluetooth radio link. WINCSware controls the operational parameters for FPA or FSCV, and records the transmitted data stream. Filtered data is displayed in various formats, including a background-subtracted plot of sequential FSCV scans - a representation that enables users to distinguish the signatures of various analytes with considerable specificity. Dopamine, glutamate, adenosine and serotonin were selected as analytes for test trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow-injection measurements and in vivo measurements in rat and pig. Further testing demonstrated basic functionality in a 3-Tesla MRI unit. WINCS was designed in compliance with consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, and it is anticipated that its capability for real-time intraoperative monitoring of neurotransmitter release at an implanted sensor will prove useful for advancing functional neurosurgery.

  15. Gliadin induces an increase in intestinal permeability and zonulin release by binding to the chemokine receptor CXCR3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Karen M; Lu, Ruliang; Brownley, Julie; Lu, Bao; Gerard, Craig; Thomas, Karen; Rallabhandi, Prasad; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Tamiz, Amir; Alkan, Sefik; Netzel-Arnett, Sarah; Antalis, Toni; Vogel, Stefanie N; Fasano, Alessio

    2008-07-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gliadin, a component of the grain protein gluten. Gliadin induces an MyD88-dependent zonulin release that leads to increased intestinal permeability, a postulated early element in the pathogenesis of celiac disease. We aimed to establish the molecular basis of gliadin interaction with intestinal mucosa leading to intestinal barrier impairment. Alpha-gliadin affinity column was loaded with intestinal mucosal membrane lysates to identify the putative gliadin-binding moiety. In vitro experiments with chemokine receptor CXCR3 transfectants were performed to confirm binding of gliadin and/or 26 overlapping 20mer alpha-gliadin synthetic peptides to the receptor. CXCR3 protein and gene expression were studied in intestinal epithelial cell lines and human biopsy specimens. Gliadin-CXCR3 interaction was further analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy, laser capture microscopy, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunoprecipitation/Western blot analysis. Ex vivo experiments were performed using C57BL/6 wild-type and CXCR3(-/-) mouse small intestines to measure intestinal permeability and zonulin release. Affinity column and colocalization experiments showed that gliadin binds to CXCR3 and that at least 2 alpha-gliadin 20mer synthetic peptides are involved in this binding. CXCR3 is expressed in mouse and human intestinal epithelia and lamina propria. Mucosal CXCR3 expression was elevated in active celiac disease but returned to baseline levels following implementation of a gluten-free diet. Gliadin induced physical association between CXCR3 and MyD88 in enterocytes. Gliadin increased zonulin release and intestinal permeability in wild-type but not CXCR3(-/-) mouse small intestine. Gliadin binds to CXCR3 and leads to MyD88-dependent zonulin release and increased intestinal permeability.

  16. Intravenously administered lidocaine in therapeutic doses increases the intraspinal release of acetylcholine in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Höglund, A Urban

    2002-01-01

    The local anesthetic lidocaine suppresses different pain conditions when administered systemically. Part of the antinociceptive effect appears to be mediated via receptor mechanisms. We have previously shown that muscarinic and nicotinic agonists that produce antinociception increase the intraspi...

  17. Amino acid neurotransmitters and new approaches to anticonvulsant drug action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, B

    1984-01-01

    Amino acids provide the most universal and important inhibitory (gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine) and excitatory (glutamate, aspartate, cysteic acid, cysteine sulphinic acid) neurotransmitters in the brain. An anticonvulsant action may be produced (1) by enhancing inhibitory (GABAergic) processes, and (2) by diminishing excitatory transmission. Possible pharmacological mechanisms for enhancing GABA-mediated inhibition include (1) GABA agonist action, (2) GABA prodrugs, (3) drugs facilitating GABA release from terminals, (4) inhibition of GABA-transaminase, (5) allosteric enhancement of the efficacy of GABA at the receptor complex, (6) direction action on the chloride ionophore, and (7) inhibition of GABA reuptake. Examples of these approaches include the use of irreversible GABA-transaminase inhibitors, such as gamma-vinyl GABA, and the development of anticonvulsant beta-carbolines that interact with the "benzodiazepine receptor." Pharmacological mechanisms for diminishing excitatory transmission include (1) enzyme inhibitors that decrease the maximal rate of synthesis of glutamate or aspartate, (2) drugs that decrease the synaptic release of glutamate or aspartate, and (3) drugs that block the post-synaptic action of excitatory amino acids. Compounds that selectively antagonise excitation due to dicarboxylic amino acids have recently been developed. Those that selectively block excitation produced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (and aspartate) have proved to be potent anticonvulsants in many animal models of epilepsy. This provides a novel approach to the design of anticonvulsant drugs.

  18. Obesity augments the age-induced increase in mitochondrial capacity for H(2) O(2) release in Zucker fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Jeppesen, Jacob; Madsen, K

    2012-01-01

    determined and related to citrate synthase activity to determine intrinsic mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial-specific super-oxide dismuthase (MnSOD) protein content was determined in isolated mitochondria and muscle homogenate. Catalase protein content was determined in muscle homogenate. Results: Young...... was associated with increased mitochondrial hydrogenperoxide release. MnSOD tended to be higher in the obese strain in the isolated mitochondria. Regardless of age, catalase protein content was significantly lower in the obese rats. Conclusions: This study shows that the augmented increase in obesity and insulin...

  19. Dopamine release in ventral striatum during Iowa Gambling Task performance is associated with increased excitement levels in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Møller, Arne; Peterson, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Aims Gambling excitement is believed to be associated with biological measures of pathological gambling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dopamine release would be associated with increased excitement levels in Pathological Gamblers compared with Healthy Controls. Design Pathological Gamblers...... and Healthy Controlswere experimentally compared in a non-gambling (baseline) and gambling condition. Measurements We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with the tracer raclopride to measure dopamine D 2/3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum during a non-gambling and gambling condition...... of the Iowa GamblingTask (IGT). After each condition participants rated their excitement level. Setting Laboratory experiment. Participants 18 Pathological Gamblers and 16 Healthy Controls. Findings Pathological Gamblers with dopamine release in the ventral striatum had significantly higher excitement levels...

  20. Temperature-Induced Increase in Methane Release from Peat Bogs: A Mesocosm Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, J.F.; Reichart, G.J.; McNamara, N.P.; Benthien, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs). Higher temperatures and

  1. Temperature-induced increase in methane release from peat bogs: A mesocosm experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winden, J.F. van; Reichart, G.-J.; McNamara, N.P.; Benthien, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs). Higher temperatures and

  2. Endurance training increases exercise-induced prostacyclin release in young, healthy men--relationship with VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Majerczak, Joanna; Duda, Krzysztof; Chłopicki, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 5 weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training on the basal and exercise-induced systemic release of prostacyclin (PGI(2)), as assessed by plasma 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration. Twelve physically active young men with the following characteristics participated in this study (the mean +/- SD): age, 22.7 +/- 2.0 years; body mass, 76.8 +/- 8.9 kg; BMI, 23.48 +/- 2.17 kg x m(-2); and maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)), 46.1 +/- 4.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1). Plasma 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentrations were measured in venous blood samples taken prior to the exercise and at exhaustion (at VO(2 max)) before and after completing the training protocol. On average, the training resulted in a significant increase in VO(2 max) (p = 0.03), power output at VO(2 max) (p = 0.001) and a significant increase (p = 0.05) in the net-exercise-induced increase in plasma 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration (Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) i.e., the difference between the end-exercise and pre-exercise 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentrations). No effect of training on the basal PGI(2) concentration was found. Interestingly, within the study sample (n = 12), two subgroups could be defined with a differential pattern of response with respect to Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentrations. In one subgroup (n = 7), a significant increase in Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration after training was found (p < 0.02) (responders). This enhancement in the exercise-induced PGI(2) release was accompanied by a significant (p < 0.05) increase in VO(2 max) after training. In contrast, in another subgroup (n = 5), there was no observed effect of training on the Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration and the VO(2 max) after training (non-responders). In both of these subgroups, training did not influence the basal PGI(2) concentration. In conclusion, the endurance training resulted in the adaptive augmentation of the systemic release of PGI(2) in response to exercise

  3. Increased plasma ghrelin suppresses insulin release in wethers fed with a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Sato, K; Kato, S; Yonezawa, T; Kobayashi, Y; Ohtani, Y; Ohwada, S; Aso, H; Yamaguchi, T; Roh, S G; Katoh, K

    2014-06-01

    Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide that promotes an increase of food intake and stimulates GH secretion. Ghrelin secretion is regulated by nutritional status and nutrients. Although a high-protein (HP) diet increases plasma ghrelin secretion in mammals, the mechanisms and the roles of the elevated ghrelin concentrations due to a HP diet have not been fully established. To clarify the roles of elevated acylated ghrelin upon intake of a HP diet, we investigated the regulation of ghrelin concentrations in plasma and tissues in wethers fed with either the HP diet or the control (CNT) diet for 14 days, and examined the action of the elevated plasma ghrelin by using a ghrelin-receptor antagonist. The HP diet gradually increased the plasma acylated-ghrelin concentrations, but the CNT diet did not. Although the GH concentrations did not vary significantly across the groups, an injection of ghrelin-receptor antagonist enhanced insulin levels in circulation in the HP diet group. In the fundus region of the stomach, the ghrelin levels did not differ between the HP and CNT diet groups, whereas ghrelin O-acyltransferase mRNA levels were higher in the group fed with HP diet than those of the CNT diet group were. These results indicate that the HP diet elevated the plasma ghrelin levels by increasing its synthesis; this elevation strongly suppresses the appearance of insulin in the circulation of wethers, but it is not involved in GH secretion. Overall, our findings indicate a role of endogenous ghrelin action in secretion of insulin, which acts as a regulator after the consumption of a HP diet. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. Increased release of norepinephrine and dopamine from canine kidney during bilateral carotid occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, T.; Hjemdahl, P.; DiBona, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    The renal overflow of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) to plasma from the innervated kidney was studied at rest and during sympathetic nervous system activation by bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCO) in vagotomized dogs under barbiturate or barbiturate/nitrous oxide anesthesia. BCO elevated arterial pressure and the arterial plasma concentration of NE, DA, and epinephrine (Epi). Renal vascular resistance (renal arterial pressure kept constant) increased by 15 +/- 7% and the net renal venous outflows (renal veno-arterial concentration difference x renal plasma flow) of NE and DA were enhanced. To obtain more correct estimates of the renal contribution to the renal venous catecholamine outflow, they corrected for the renal extraction of arterial catecholamines, assessed as the extractions of [ 3 H]NE, [ 3 H]DA, or endogenous Epi. The [ 3 H]NE corrected renal NE overflow to plasma increased from 144 +/- 40 to 243 +/- 64 pmol-min -1 during BCO, which, when compared with a previous study of the [ 3 H]NE corrected renal NE overflow to plasma evoked by electrical renal nerve stimulation, corresponds to a 40% increase in nerve impulse frequency from ∼ 0.6 Hz. If the renal catecholamine extraction was not taken into account the effect of BCO was underestimated. The renal DA overflow to plasma was about one-fifth of the NE overflow both at rest and during BCO, indicating that there was no preferential activation of noradrenergic or putative dopaminergic nerves by BCO

  5. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters multiple neurotransmitter systems in the neonatal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; Turner, Karly M; Alexander, Suzanne; Eyles, Darryl W; McGrath, John J; Burne, Thomas H J

    2017-11-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. DVD deficiency in rats is associated with altered brain structure and adult behaviours indicating alterations in dopamine and glutamate signalling. Developmental alterations in dopamine neurotransmission have also been observed in DVD-deficient rats but a comprehensive assessment of brain neurochemistry has not been undertaken. Thus, the current study determined the regional concentrations of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin, glutamine, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and associated metabolites, in DVD-deficient neonates. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a vitamin D deficient diet or control diet six weeks prior to mating until birth and housed under UVB-free lighting conditions. Neurotransmitter concentration was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography on post-mortem neonatal brain tissue. Ubiquitous reductions in the levels of glutamine (12-24%) were observed in DVD-deficient neonates compared with control neonates. Similarly, in multiple brain regions DVD-deficient neonates had increased levels of noradrenaline and serine compared with control neonates. In contrast, increased levels of dopamine and decreased levels of serotonin in DVD-deficient neonates were limited to striatal subregions compared with controls. Our results confirm that DVD deficiency leads to changes in multiple neurotransmitter systems in the neonate brain. Importantly, this regionally-based assessment in DVD-deficient neonates identified both widespread neurotransmitter changes (glutamine/noradrenaline) and regionally selective neurotransmitter changes (dopamine/serotonin). Thus, vitamin D may have both general and local actions depending on the neurotransmitter system being investigated. Taken together, these data suggest that DVD deficiency alters neurotransmitter systems relevant to schizophrenia in the developing rat

  6. Lidocaine attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia and release of norepinephrine in the amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Renee N.; Canal, Clint E.; Gold, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    When administered near the time of training, protein synthesis inhibitors such as anisomycin impair later memory. A common interpretation of these findings is that memory consolidation requires new protein synthesis initiated by training. However, recent findings support an alternative interpretation that abnormally large increases in neurotransmitter release after injections of anisomycin may be responsible for producing amnesia. In the present study, a local anesthetic was administered prior to anisomycin injections in an attempt to mitigate neurotransmitter actions and thereby attenuate the resulting amnesia. Rats received lidocaine and anisomycin injections into the amygdala 130 and 120 min, respectively, prior to inhibitory avoidance training. Memory tests 48 hr later revealed that lidocaine attenuated anisomycin-induced amnesia. In other rats, in vivo microdialysis was performed at the site of amygdala infusion of lidocaine and anisomycin. As seen previously, anisomycin injections produced large increases in release of norepinephrine in the amygdala. Lidocaine attenuated the anisomycin-induced increase in release of norepinephrine but did not reverse anisomycin inhibition of protein synthesis, as assessed by c-Fos immunohistochemistry. These findings are consistent with past evidence suggesting that anisomycin causes amnesia by initiating abnormal release of neurotransmitters in response to the inhibition of protein synthesis. PMID:21453778

  7. Measurement of neurotransmitters with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laruelle, M.; Erritzoe, D.; Abi-Dargham, A.; Huang, Y. [Columbia Univ., Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons, Dept. of Psychiatry and Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Over the last decade several groups have provided evidence that PET and SPECT neuro-receptor imaging techniques might be applied to measure fluctuations of dopamine (DA) synaptic concentrations in the living human brain. It is generally believed that changes in the in vivo binding of radioligands following acute changes in transmitter levels are driven by binding competition. These techniques have been very successful in giving dynamic information regarding DA transmission. However, the development of similar techniques to study other neurotransmitter systems has proven difficult. This review paper first summarizes endogenous competition studies performed in animals and humans. The validity of the model underlying the interpretation of these data is critically assessed. Emerging data suggest that simple binding competition might not be the only phenomenon involved in these interactions; receptor trafficking might play an important role. A better understanding of the radioligand properties that determine sensitivity to endogenous molecules might facilitate the selective development of this type of radiotracer. (authors)

  8. Approaches to a markedly increased sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay for thyrotropin-releasing hormone by derivatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, T J; Klootwijk, W [Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Internal Medicine 3 and Clinical Endocrinology

    1981-04-03

    Studies on the specificity of the antisera obtained suggested that the sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay for TRH may be increased substantially by prior conversion of the hormone into dinitrophenylene derivatives. To test this possibility, several TRH-Dnp derivatives were prepared by reaction of TRH with equimolar amounts of 1,5-difluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene yielding N/sup im/-(5-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)TRH. This intermediate was reacted with ammonia, histamine, tyramine or N/sup ..cap alpha../-acetyl-lysine methyl ester (N/sup ..cap alpha../Ac-LysOMe) to yield the respective unsubstituted and N-substituted N/sup im/-(5-amino-2,4-dinitrophenyl)TRH derivatives: TRH-Dnp-NH/sub 2/, TRH-Dnp-histamine, TRH-Dnp-tyramine and TRH-Dnp-N/sup ..cap alpha../Ac-Lys-OMe. N/sup im/-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl)TRH was prepared similarly by reaction of TRH with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. The products were isolated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and were found to be pure by HPLC and thin-layer chromatography using several solvent systems. TRH-Dnp-histamine and TRH-Dnp-tyramine were labelled with /sup 125/I using the chloramine-T method. The labelled products were purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromography on SP-Sephadex and adsorption chromatography on Sephadex LH-20, respectively, and were found by HPLC to be pure.

  9. Synthesis of symmetrical and non-symmetrical bivalent neurotransmitter ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuhr-Hansen, Nicolai; Andersen, Jacob; Thygesen, Mikkel Boas

    2016-01-01

    A novel procedure for synthesis of bivalent neurotransmitter ligands was developed by reacting O-benzyl protected N-nosylated dopamine and serotonin with alkyl- or PEG-linked diols under Fukuyama-Mitsunobu conditions in the presence of DIAD/PPh3 generating three different bivalent neurotransmitte...

  10. Secondary Abnormalities of Neurotransmitters in Infants with Neurological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cazorla, A.; Serrano, M.; Perez-Duenas, B.; Gonzalez, V.; Ormazabal, A.; Pineda, M.; Fernandez-Alvarez, E.; Campistol, J. M. D.; Artuch, R. M. D.

    2007-01-01

    Neurotransmitters are essential in young children for differentiation and neuronal growth of the developing nervous system. We aimed to identify possible factors related to secondary neurotransmitter abnormalities in pediatric patients with neurological disorders. We analyzed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and biogenic amine metabolites in 56 infants…

  11. RESTRAIN OF FEAR: PARTICIPATION OF GABA NEUROTRANSMITTER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina I. Shulgina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In experiences on rats in the conditions of free behavior at development of a conditioned of passive avoidanсe reflex (the first series and a defensive reflex and a conditional inhibition (the second series it is revealed, and elaboration of internal inhibition and Phenibut – a nonspecific agonist of GAMKA and GAMKB receptors cause in experimental animals weakening of freezing arising in a dangerous situation, and a disinhibition of research behavior. Results of experiences in the accounting of data of the literature allow to assume that both factors, and elaboration of internal inhibition, and Phenibut weaken freezing – the phenomenon used in experiments as a biological analog of fear, owing to increase of level of activity of the GABA neurotransmitter system of a brain.

  12. Fasting Increases Human Skeletal Muscle Net Phenylalanine Release and This Is Associated with Decreased mTOR Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Møller, Andreas Buch; Christensen, Britt; Nellemann, Birgitte; Clasen, Berthil Frederik Forrest; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Jessen, Niels; Møller, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Aim Fasting is characterised by profound changes in energy metabolism including progressive loss of body proteins. The underlying mechanisms are however unknown and we therefore determined the effects of a 72-hour-fast on human skeletal muscle protein metabolism and activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a key regulator of cell growth. Methods Eight healthy male volunteers were studied twice: in the postabsorptive state and following 72 hours of fasting. Regional muscle amino acid kinetics was measured in the forearm using amino acid tracers. Signaling to protein synthesis and breakdown were assessed in skeletal muscle biopsies obtained during non-insulin and insulin stimulated conditions on both examination days. Results Fasting significantly increased forearm net phenylalanine release and tended to decrease phenylalanine rate of disappearance. mTOR phosphorylation was decreased by ∼50% following fasting, together with reduced downstream phosphorylation of 4EBP1, ULK1 and rpS6. In addition, the insulin stimulated increase in mTOR and rpS6 phosphorylation was significantly reduced after fasting indicating insulin resistance in this part of the signaling pathway. Autophagy initiation is in part regulated by mTOR through ULK1 and fasting increased expression of the autophagic marker LC3B-II by ∼30%. p62 is degraded during autophagy but was increased by ∼10% during fasting making interpretation of autophagic flux problematic. MAFbx and MURF1 ubiquitin ligases remained unaltered after fasting indicating no change in protesomal protein degradation. Conclusions Our results show that during fasting increased net phenylalanine release in skeletal muscle is associated to reduced mTOR activation and concomitant decreased downstream signaling to cell growth. PMID:25020061

  13. Fasting increases human skeletal muscle net phenylalanine release and this is associated with decreased mTOR signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Holm Vendelbo

    Full Text Available Fasting is characterised by profound changes in energy metabolism including progressive loss of body proteins. The underlying mechanisms are however unknown and we therefore determined the effects of a 72-hour-fast on human skeletal muscle protein metabolism and activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, a key regulator of cell growth.Eight healthy male volunteers were studied twice: in the postabsorptive state and following 72 hours of fasting. Regional muscle amino acid kinetics was measured in the forearm using amino acid tracers. Signaling to protein synthesis and breakdown were assessed in skeletal muscle biopsies obtained during non-insulin and insulin stimulated conditions on both examination days.Fasting significantly increased forearm net phenylalanine release and tended to decrease phenylalanine rate of disappearance. mTOR phosphorylation was decreased by ∼50% following fasting, together with reduced downstream phosphorylation of 4EBP1, ULK1 and rpS6. In addition, the insulin stimulated increase in mTOR and rpS6 phosphorylation was significantly reduced after fasting indicating insulin resistance in this part of the signaling pathway. Autophagy initiation is in part regulated by mTOR through ULK1 and fasting increased expression of the autophagic marker LC3B-II by ∼30%. p62 is degraded during autophagy but was increased by ∼10% during fasting making interpretation of autophagic flux problematic. MAFbx and MURF1 ubiquitin ligases remained unaltered after fasting indicating no change in protesomal protein degradation.Our results show that during fasting increased net phenylalanine release in skeletal muscle is associated to reduced mTOR activation and concomitant decreased downstream signaling to cell growth.

  14. The Volatile Anesthetic Isoflurane Increases Endothelial Adenosine Generation via Microparticle Ecto-5′-Nucleotidase (CD73) Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mihwa; Ham, Ahrom; Kim, Katelyn Yu-Mi; Brown, Kevin M.; Lee, H. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is common in acute and chronic organ injury. Isoflurane is a widely used halogenated volatile anesthetic during the perioperative period and protects against endothelial cell death and inflammation. In this study, we tested whether isoflurane induces endothelial ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) and cytoprotective adenosine generation to protect against endothelial cell injury. Clinically relevant concentrations of isoflurane induced CD73 activity and increased adenosine generation in cultured human umbilical vein or mouse glomerular endothelial cells. Surprisingly, isoflurane-mediated induction of endothelial CD73 activity occurred within 1 hr and without synthesizing new CD73. We determined that isoflurane rapidly increased CD73 containing endothelial microparticles into the cell culture media. Indeed, microparticles isolated from isoflurane-treated endothelial cells had significantly higher CD73 activity as well as increased CD73 protein. In vivo, plasma from mice anesthetized with isoflurane had significantly higher endothelial cell-derived CD144+ CD73+ microparticles and had increased microparticle CD73 activity compared to plasma from pentobarbital-anesthetized mice. Supporting a critical role of CD73 in isoflurane-mediated endothelial protection, a selective CD73 inhibitor (APCP) prevented isoflurane-induced protection against human endothelial cell inflammation and apoptosis. In addition, isoflurane activated endothelial cells Rho kinase evidenced by myosin phosphatase target subunit-1 and myosin light chain phosphorylation. Furthermore, isoflurane-induced release of CD73 containing microparticles was significantly attenuated by a selective Rho kinase inhibitor (Y27632). Taken together, we conclude that the volatile anesthetic isoflurane causes Rho kinase-mediated release of endothelial microparticles containing preformed CD73 and increase adenosine generation to protect against endothelial apoptosis and inflammation. PMID:24945528

  15. Strategies for sensing neurotransmitters with responsive MRI contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelovski, Goran; Tóth, Éva

    2017-01-23

    A great deal of research involving multidisciplinary approaches is currently dedicated to the understanding of brain function. The complexity of physiological processes that underlie neural activity is the greatest hurdle to faster advances. Among imaging techniques, MRI has great potential to enable mapping of neural events with excellent specificity, spatiotemporal resolution and unlimited tissue penetration depth. To this end, molecular imaging approaches using neurotransmitter-sensitive MRI agents have appeared recently to study neuronal activity, along with the first successful in vivo MRI studies. Here, we review the pioneering steps in the development of molecular MRI methods that could allow functional imaging of the brain by sensing the neurotransmitter activity directly. We provide a brief overview of other imaging and analytical methods to detect neurotransmitter activity, and describe the approaches to sense neurotransmitters by means of molecular MRI agents. Based on these initial steps, further progress in probe chemistry and the emergence of innovative imaging methods to directly monitor neurotransmitters can be envisaged.

  16. Modulation of vesicular catecholamine release from rat PC12 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, R.H.S.

    2002-01-01

    Intercellular communication is of vital importance for the nervous system, since the nervous system is the main coordinating system in animals. Nerve cell communication is initiated by the release of chemical messengers, neurotransmitters, from the presynaptic nerve cell. The neurotransmitters, such

  17. Dynamic SERS nanosensor for neurotransmitter sensing near neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Félix; Brulé, Thibault; Bourque, Marie-Josée; Ducrot, Charles; Trudeau, Louis-Éric; Masson, Jean-François

    2017-12-04

    Current electrophysiology and electrochemistry techniques have provided unprecedented understanding of neuronal activity. However, these techniques are suited to a small, albeit important, panel of neurotransmitters such as glutamate, GABA and dopamine, and these constitute only a subset of the broader range of neurotransmitters involved in brain chemistry. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) provides a unique opportunity to detect a broader range of neurotransmitters in close proximity to neurons. Dynamic SERS (D-SERS) nanosensors based on patch-clamp-like nanopipettes decorated with gold nanoraspberries can be located accurately under a microscope using techniques analogous to those used in current electrophysiology or electrochemistry experiments. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that D-SERS can measure in a single experiment ATP, glutamate (glu), acetylcholine (ACh), GABA and dopamine (DA), among other neurotransmitters, with the potential for detecting a greater number of neurotransmitters. The SERS spectra of these neurotransmitters were identified with a barcoding data processing method and time series of the neurotransmitter levels were constructed. The D-SERS nanosensor was then located near cultured mouse dopaminergic neurons. The detection of neurotransmitters was performed in response to a series of K + depolarisations, and allowed the detection of elevated levels of both ATP and dopamine. Control experiments were also performed near glial cells, showing only very low basal detection neurotransmitter events. This paper demonstrates the potential of D-SERS to detect neurotransmitter secretion events near living neurons, but also constitutes a strong proof-of-concept for the broad application of SERS to the detection of secretion events by neurons or other cell types in order to study normal or pathological cell functions.

  18. [Nutrient use efficiency and yield-increasing effect of single basal application of rice specific controlled release fertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiansheng; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Zhang, Fabao; Xie, Chunsheng

    2005-10-01

    A series of pot and field experiments and field demonstrations showed that in comparing with the commonly used specific-fertilizers containing same amounts of nutrients, single basal application of rice-specific controlled release fertilizer could increase the use efficiency of N and P by 12.2% - 22.7% and 7.0% - 35.0%, respectively in pot experiment, and the use efficiency of N by 17.1% in field experiment. In 167 field demonstrations successively conducted for 3 years in various rice production areas of Guangdong Province, single basal application of the fertilizer saved the application rate of N and P by 22.1% and 21.8%, respectively, and increased the yield by 8.2%, compared with normal split fertilization.

  19. REM sleep at its core—Circuits, neurotransmitters and pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ePeever

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available REM sleep is generated and maintained by the interaction of a variety of neurotransmitter systems in the brainstem, forebrain and hypothalamus. Within these circuits lies a core region that is active during REM sleep, known as the subcoeruleus nucleus (SubC or sublaterodorsal nucleus. It is hypothesized that glutamatergic SubC neurons regulate REM sleep and its defining features such as muscle paralysis and cortical activation. REM sleep paralysis is initiated when glutamatergic SubC activate neurons in the ventral medial medulla (VMM, which causes release of GABA and glycine onto skeletal motoneurons. REM sleep timing is controlled by activity of GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG and dorsal paragigantocellular reticular nucleus (DPGi as well as melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH neurons in the hypothalamus and cholinergic cells in the laterodorsal (LDT and pedunculo-pontine tegmentum (PPT in the brainstem. Determining how these circuits interact with the SubC is important because breakdown in their communication is hypothesized to underlie cataplexy/narcolepsy and REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD. This review synthesizes our current understanding of mechanisms generating healthy REM sleep and how dysfunction of these circuits contributes to common REM sleep disorders such as cataplexy/narcolepsy and RBD.

  20. Lidocaine attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia and release of norepinephrine in the amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Sadowski, Renee N.; Canal, Clint E.; Gold, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    When administered near the time of training, protein synthesis inhibitors such as anisomycin impair later memory. A common interpretation of these findings is that memory consolidation requires new protein synthesis initiated by training. However, recent findings support an alternative interpretation that abnormally large increases in neurotransmitter release after injections of anisomycin may be responsible for producing amnesia. In the present study, a local anesthetic was administered prio...

  1. Adrenaline release evokes hyperpnoea and an increase in ventilatory CO2 sensitivity during hypoglycaemia: a role for the carotid body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Emma L; Ray, Clare J; Holmes, Andrew P; Pye, Richard L; Wyatt, Christopher N; Coney, Andrew M; Kumar, Prem

    2016-08-01

    Hypoglycaemia is counteracted by release of hormones and an increase in ventilation and CO2 sensitivity to restore blood glucose levels and prevent a fall in blood pH. The full counter-regulatory response and an appropriate increase in ventilation is dependent on carotid body stimulation. We show that the hypoglycaemia-induced increase in ventilation and CO2 sensitivity is abolished by preventing adrenaline release or blocking its receptors. Physiological levels of adrenaline mimicked the effect of hypoglycaemia on ventilation and CO2 sensitivity. These results suggest that adrenaline, rather than low glucose, is an adequate stimulus for the carotid body-mediated changes in ventilation and CO2 sensitivity during hypoglycaemia to prevent a serious acidosis in poorly controlled diabetes. Hypoglycaemia in vivo induces a counter-regulatory response that involves the release of hormones to restore blood glucose levels. Concomitantly, hypoglycaemia evokes a carotid body-mediated hyperpnoea that maintains arterial CO2 levels and prevents respiratory acidosis in the face of increased metabolism. It is unclear whether the carotid body is directly stimulated by low glucose or by a counter-regulatory hormone such as adrenaline. Minute ventilation was recorded during infusion of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (8-17 mIU kg(-1)  min(-1) ) in Alfaxan-anaesthetised male Wistar rats. Hypoglycaemia significantly augmented minute ventilation (123 ± 4 to 143 ± 7 ml min(-1) ) and CO2 sensitivity (3.3 ± 0.3 to 4.4 ± 0.4 ml min(-1)  mmHg(-1) ). These effects were abolished by either β-adrenoreceptor blockade with propranolol or adrenalectomy. In this hypermetabolic, hypoglycaemic state, propranolol stimulated a rise in P aC O2, suggestive of a ventilation-metabolism mismatch. Infusion of adrenaline (1 μg kg(-1)  min(-1) ) increased minute ventilation (145 ± 4 to 173 ± 5 ml min(-1) ) without altering P aC O2 or pH and enhanced ventilatory CO2 sensitivity (3

  2. Caffeine-mediated release of alpha-radiation-induced G2 arrest increases the yield of chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecke-Huhle, C.; Hieber, L.; Wegner, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Severe and partly irreversible G2 arrest caused by americium-241 alpha-particles in Chinese hamster V79 cells acted as a competing process to the yield of detectable aberrant mitoses at metaphase. With increasing dose of alpha-radiation an increasing fraction of cells was irreversibly arrested in G2 with the consequence of interphase death before the first post-irradiation mitosis. This irreversible G2 arrest (demonstrated by flow cytofluorometry and mitotic indices) could be overcome by adding caffeine 8 hours after irradiation, the time point of maximum G2 arrest (80-90 per cent of all cells). Within 3.5 hours the number of aberrant mitoses increased by this treatment from 54 to 96 per cent and from 65 to 99.9 per cent for doses of 1.75 and 4.38 Gy of alpha-particles, respectively. The aberration frequency per mitotic cell, scored as chromatid and isochromatid breaks, rings, interchanges and dicentrics increased by a factor of about 3 after releasing G2 arrested cells. The frequency distribution of aberrations per cell revealed that, after 4.38 Gy, 58 per cent of the formerly G2-arrested cells had more than five aberrations per cell compared to only 8 per cent without the interaction of caffeine. (author)

  3. Levodopa-induced dyskinesia is associated with increased thyrotropin releasing hormone in the dorsal striatum of hemi-parkinsonian rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippolita Cantuti-Castelvetri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dyskinesias associated with involuntary movements and painful muscle contractions are a common and severe complication of standard levodopa (L-DOPA, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine therapy for Parkinson's disease. Pathologic neuroplasticity leading to hyper-responsive dopamine receptor signaling in the sensorimotor striatum is thought to underlie this currently untreatable condition.Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR was employed to evaluate the molecular changes associated with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease. With this technique, we determined that thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH was greatly increased in the dopamine-depleted striatum of hemi-parkinsonian rats that developed abnormal movements in response to L-DOPA therapy, relative to the levels measured in the contralateral non-dopamine-depleted striatum, and in the striatum of non-dyskinetic control rats. ProTRH immunostaining suggested that TRH peptide levels were almost absent in the dopamine-depleted striatum of control rats that did not develop dyskinesias, but in the dyskinetic rats, proTRH immunostaining was dramatically up-regulated in the striatum, particularly in the sensorimotor striatum. This up-regulation of TRH peptide affected striatal medium spiny neurons of both the direct and indirect pathways, as well as neurons in striosomes.TRH is not known to be a key striatal neuromodulator, but intrastriatal injection of TRH in experimental animals can induce abnormal movements, apparently through increasing dopamine release. Our finding of a dramatic and selective up-regulation of TRH expression in the sensorimotor striatum of dyskinetic rat models suggests a TRH-mediated regulatory mechanism that may underlie the pathologic neuroplasticity driving dopamine hyper-responsivity in Parkinson's disease.

  4. Transcriptomic responses in mouse brain exposed to chronic excess of the neurotransmitter glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Ranu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increases during aging in extracellular levels of glutamate (Glu, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, may be linked to chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the molecular responses of neurons to chronic, moderate increases in Glu levels. Genome-wide gene expression in brain hippocampus was examined in a unique transgenic (Tg mouse model that exhibits moderate Glu hyperactivity throughout the lifespan, the neuronal Glutamate dehydrogenase (Glud1 mouse, and littermate 9 month-old wild type mice. Results Integrated bioinformatic analyses on transcriptomic data were used to identify bio-functions, pathways and gene networks underlying neuronal responses to increased Glu synaptic release. Bio-functions and pathways up-regulated in Tg mice were those associated with oxidative stress, cell injury, inflammation, nervous system development, neuronal growth, and synaptic transmission. Increased gene expression in these functions and pathways indicated apparent compensatory responses offering protection against stress, promoting growth of neuronal processes (neurites and re-establishment of synapses. The transcription of a key gene in the neurite growth network, the kinase Ptk2b, was significantly up-regulated in Tg mice as was the activated (phosphorylated form of the protein. In addition to genes related to neurite growth and synaptic development, those associated with neuronal vesicle trafficking in the Huntington's disease signalling pathway, were also up-regulated. Conclusions This is the first study attempting to define neuronal gene expression patterns in response to chronic, endogenous Glu hyperactivity at brain synapses. The patterns observed were characterized by a combination of responses to stress and stimulation of nerve growth, intracellular transport and recovery.

  5. Challenges and recent advances in mass spectrometric imaging of neurotransmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemperline, Erin; Chen, Bingming; Li, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool that grants the ability to investigate a broad mass range of molecules, from small molecules to large proteins, by creating detailed distribution maps of selected compounds. To date, MSI has demonstrated its versatility in the study of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides of different classes toward investigation of neurobiological functions and diseases. These studies have provided significant insight in neurobiology over the years and current technical advances are facilitating further improvements in this field. neurotransmitters, focusing specifically on the challenges and recent Herein, we advances of MSI of neurotransmitters. PMID:24568355

  6. General principles of neurotransmitter detection. Problems and application to catecholamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taxi, Jacques

    1976-01-01

    The use of radioautography for neurotransmitter studies requires two preliminary conditions (in addition to the availability of tritiated molecules): there must be a selective uptake of the neurotransmitter itself, or of a related substance (precursor or false transmitter); the labelled substance must be preserved in situ by fixation and must not be removed by further treatments. Since the putative neurotransmitters are generally small, hydrosoluble molecules, they can be maintained in situ only if they are bound to structure made insoluble by the fixative. The technical indications are summarized so that the successive stages of experimentation can be considered in an attempt to answer the major questions posed by the experimenter

  7. Quantitative-profiling of neurotransmitter abnormalities in the disease progression of experimental diabetic encephalopathy rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xueyan; Zhu, Qiuxiang; Han, Xiaowen; Chen, Renguo; Liu, Yaowu; Fan, Hongbin; Yin, Xiaoxing

    2015-11-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy (DE) is one of the most prevalent chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), with neither effective prevention nor proven therapeutic regimen. This study aims to uncover the potential dysregulation pattern of the neurotransmitters in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental DE. For that purpose, male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Cognitive performance was detected with the Morris water maze (MWM) test. Serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain tissues were collected to measure the levels of neurotransmitters. Compared with the control rats, the acetylcholine (ACh) levels in serum, CSF, hippocampus, and cortex were all significantly down-regulated as early as 6 weeks in the STZ treatment group. In contrast, the glutamate (Glu) levels were decreased in CSF and the hippocampus, but unaffected in the serum and cortex of STZ-treated rats. As for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), it was down-regulated in serum, but up-regulated in CSF, hippocampus, and the cortex in the STZ-treated group. The mRNA expressions of neurotransmitter-related rate limiting enzymes (including AChE, GAD1, and GAD2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (including IL-1β and TNF-α) were all increased in the DE rats. Our data suggest that DM induces isoform-dependent and tissue-specific neurotransmitter abnormalities, and that neuroinflammation may underlay the nervous system dysfunction observed in the progression of DE.

  8. GABA release in the zona incerta of the sheep in response to the sight and ingestion of food and salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, K M; Hinton, M R; Baldwin, B A

    1991-05-31

    In order to establish which neurotransmitters may influence the activity of zona incerta neurones in the sheep which respond selectively to the sight or ingestion of food, we have measured the release of amino acid and monoamine neurotransmitters from this region using microdialysis sampling. Co-ordinates for the placement of microdialysis probes in regions of the zona incerta where cells respond to the sight or ingestion of food were first established by making single-unit extracellular recordings. When animals were food-deprived results showed that release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was increased in response to the sight and ingestion of food but not of aspartate, glutamate, taurine, noradrenaline, dopamine or serotonin. This release of GABA was absent when the animals were shown non-food objects or saw or ingested salt solutions. When the same animals were physiologically sodium-depleted GABA release was evoked by the sight and ingestion of salt solutions and release following the sight and ingestion of food was significantly reduced. These results provide further evidence that GABA is an important neurotransmitter in neural circuits controlling the regulation of food intake.

  9. Dopamine in the Auditory Brainstem and Midbrain: Co-localization with Amino Acid Neurotransmitters and Gene Expression following Cochlear Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Genene eHolt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA modulates the effects of amino acid neurotransmitters, including GABA and glutamate, in motor, visual, olfactory and reward systems (Hnasko et al., 2010; Stuber et al., 2010; Hnasko and Edwards, 2012. The results suggest that DA may play a similar modulatory role in the auditory pathways. Previous studies have shown that deafness results in decreased GABA release, changes in excitatory neurotransmitter levels, and increased spontaneous neuronal activity within brainstem regions related to auditory function. Modulation of the expression and localization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; the rate limiting enzyme in the production of DA in the IC following cochlear trauma has been previously reported (Tong et al., 2005. In the current study the possibility of co-localization of TH with amino acid neurotransmitters (AANs was examined. Changes in the gene expression of TH were compared with changes in the gene expression of markers for AANs in the cochlear nucleus (CN and IC to determine whether those deafness related changes occur concurrently. The results indicate that bilateral cochlear ablation significantly reduced TH gene expression in the CN after two months while in the IC the reduction in TH was observed at both three days and two months following ablation. Furthermore, in the CN, glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2 and the GABA transporter (GABAtp were also significantly reduced only after two months. However, in the IC, DA receptor 1 (DRDA1, vesicular glutamate transporters 2 and 3 (vGluT2, vGluT3, GABAtp and GAD67 were reduced in expression both at the three day and two month time points. A close relationship between the distribution of TH and several of the AANs was determined in both the CN and the IC. In addition, GlyT2 and vGluT3 each co-localized with TH within IC somata and dendrites. Therefore, the results of the current study suggest that DA is spatially well positioned to influence the effects of AANs on auditory neurons.

  10. Improvement of cellular uptake, in vitro antitumor activity and sustained release profile with increased bioavailability from a nanoemulsion platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Hira; Gorain, Bapi; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Biswas, Easha; Dey, Goutam; Barik, Rajib; Mandal, Mahitosh; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2014-01-02

    Paclitaxel, a potential anticancer agent against solid tumors has been restricted from its oral use due to poor water solubility as well as Pgp efflux property. The present study was aimed to improve the oral bioavailability of paclitaxel through development of (o/w) nanoemulsion consisting of Capryol 90 as internal phase with Tween 20 as emulsifier with water as an external phase. Formulations were selected from the nanoemulsion region of pseudo-ternary phase diagrams, formulated by aqueous titration method. The developed nanoemulsion has been characterized by its thermodynamic stability, morphology, droplet size, zeta potential, viscosity where in vitro release was evaluated through dialysis. Paclitaxel nanoemulsion exhibited thermodynamical stability with low viscosity, nano-sized oil droplets in water with low poly-dispersity index. The shelf life of the paclitaxel nanoemulsion was found to be approximately 2.38 years. Increased permeability through the Caco-2 cell monolayer and decreased efflux is great advantageous for nanoemulsion formulation. The effects of paclitaxel nanoemulsion on breast cancer cell proliferation, morphology and DNA fragmentation were analyzed in vitro which showed significant anti-proliferation and decreased IC50 values in nanoemulsion group which may be due to enhanced uptake of paclitaxel through the oil core. Moreover, the absolute oral bioavailability and sustained release profile of the paclitaxel nanoemulsion evaluated in mouse model was found to improve up to 55.9%. The concentration of paclitaxel in mice plasma was determined by our validated LC-MS/MS method. By reviewing the significant outcome of the present investigation based on stability study, Caco-2 permeability, cell proliferative assay and pharmacokinetic profile it may be concluded that the oral nanoemulsion has got encouraging advantages over the presently available formulations of this injectable chemotherapeutic drug. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  11. Controlled release of 18-β-glycyrrhetic acid by nanodelivery systems increases cytotoxicity on oral carcinoma cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciotti, Ilaria; Chronopoulou, Laura; Palocci, Cleofe; Amalfitano, Adriana; Cantiani, Monica; Cordaro, Massimo; Lajolo, Carlo; Callà, Cinzia; Boninsegna, Alma; Lucchetti, Donatella; Gallenzi, Patrizia; Sgambato, Alessandro; Nocca, Giuseppina; Arcovito, Alessandro

    2018-07-01

    The topical treatment for oral mucosal diseases is often based on products optimized for dermatologic applications; consequently, a lower therapeutic effect may be present. 18-β-glycyrrhetic acid (GA) is extracted from Glycirrhiza glabra. The first aim of this study was to test the cytotoxicity of GA on PE/CA-PJ15 cells. The second aim was to propose and test two different delivery systems, i.e. nanoparticles and fibers, to guarantee a controlled release of GA in vitro. We used chitosan and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid based nanoparticles and polylactic acid fibers. We tested both delivery systems in vitro on PE/CA-PJ15 cells and on normal human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). The morphology of GA-loaded nanoparticles (GA-NPs) and fibers (GA-FBs) was investigated by electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering; GA release kinetics was studied spectrophotometrically. MTT test was used to assess GA cytotoxicity on both cancer and normal cells. Cells were exposed to different concentrations of GA (20–500 μmol l‑1) administered as free GA (GA-f), and to GA-NPs or GA-FBs. ROS production was evaluated using dichlorodihydrofluorescein as a fluorescent probe. Regarding the cytotoxic effect of GA on PE/CA-PJ15 cells, the lowest TC50 value was 200 μmol l‑1 when GA was added as GA-NPs. No cytotoxic effects were observed when GA was administered to HGFs. N-acetyl Cysteine reduced mortality induced by GA-f in PE/CA-PJ15 cells. The specific effect of GA on PE/CA-PJ15 cells is mainly due to the different sensitivity of cancer cells to ROS over-production; GA-NPs and GA-FBs formulations increase, in vitro, this toxic effect on oral cancer cells.

  12. Effects of focal brain cooling on extracellular concentrations of neurotransmitters in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Sadahiro; Inoue, Takao; Imoto, Hirochika; Suehiro, Eiichi; Maruta, Yuichi; Hirayama, Yuya; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2017-04-01

    Brain hypothermia controls epileptic discharge and reduces extracellular concentrations of glutamate (Glu), an excitatory neurotransmitter. We aimed to determine the effects of focal brain cooling (FBC) on levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter. The relationship between Glu or GABA concentrations and the severity of epileptic symptoms was also analyzed. Patients with intractable epilepsy underwent FBC at lesionectomized (n = 11) or hippocampectomized (n = 8) regions at 15°C for 30 min using custom-made cooling devices. Concentrations of Glu (n = 18) and GABA (n = 12) were measured in extracellular fluid obtained through microdialysis using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The reduction rate of neurotransmitter levels and its relationship with electrocorticography (ECoG) signal changes in response to FBC were measured. We found no relationship between the concentrations of Glu or GABA and seizure severity. There was a significant decrease in the concentration of Glu to 66.3% of control levels during the cooling period (p = 0.001). This rate of reduction correlated with ECoG power (r 2 = 0.68). Cortical and hippocampal GABA levels significantly (p = 0.02) and nonsignificantly decreased to 47.7% and 32.4% of control levels, respectively. However, the rate of this reduction did not correlate with ECoG (r 2 = 0.11). Although the decrease in hippocampal GABA levels was not significant due to wide variations in its concentration, the levels of cortical GABA and Glu were decreased following FBC. FBC suppresses epileptic discharge and the release of both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. The reduction in Glu levels further contributes to the reduction in epileptic discharge. However, the reduction in the levels of GABA has no impact on ECoG. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Nucleus accumbens corticotropin-releasing factor increases cue-triggered motivation for sucrose reward: paradoxical positive incentive effects in stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulkin Jay

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF is typically considered to mediate aversive aspects of stress, fear and anxiety. However, CRF release in the brain is also elicited by natural rewards and incentive cues, raising the possibility that some CRF systems in the brain mediate an independent function of positive incentive motivation, such as amplifying incentive salience. Here we asked whether activation of a limbic CRF subsystem magnifies the increase in positive motivation for reward elicited by incentive cues previously associated with that reward, in a way that might exacerbate cue-triggered binge pursuit of food or other incentives? We assessed the impact of CRF microinjections into the medial shell of nucleus accumbens using a pure incentive version of Pavlovian-Instrumental transfer, a measure specifically sensitive to the incentive salience of reward cues (which it separates from influences of aversive stress, stress reduction, frustration and other traditional explanations for stress-increased behavior. Rats were first trained to press one of two levers to obtain sucrose pellets, and then separately conditioned to associate a Pavlovian cue with free sucrose pellets. On test days, rats received microinjections of vehicle, CRF (250 or 500 ng/0.2 μl or amphetamine (20 μg/0.2 μl. Lever pressing was assessed in the presence or absence of the Pavlovian cues during a half-hour test. Results Microinjections of the highest dose of CRF (500 ng or amphetamine (20 μg selectively enhanced the ability of Pavlovian reward cues to trigger phasic peaks of increased instrumental performance for a sucrose reward, each peak lasting a minute or so before decaying after the cue. Lever pressing was not enhanced by CRF microinjections in the baseline absence of the Pavlovian cue or during the presentation without a cue, showing that the CRF enhancement could not be explained as a result of generalized motor arousal, frustration or stress

  14. Nucleus accumbens corticotropin-releasing factor increases cue-triggered motivation for sucrose reward: paradoxical positive incentive effects in stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peciña, Susana; Schulkin, Jay; Berridge, Kent C

    2006-04-13

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is typically considered to mediate aversive aspects of stress, fear and anxiety. However, CRF release in the brain is also elicited by natural rewards and incentive cues, raising the possibility that some CRF systems in the brain mediate an independent function of positive incentive motivation, such as amplifying incentive salience. Here we asked whether activation of a limbic CRF subsystem magnifies the increase in positive motivation for reward elicited by incentive cues previously associated with that reward, in a way that might exacerbate cue-triggered binge pursuit of food or other incentives? We assessed the impact of CRF microinjections into the medial shell of nucleus accumbens using a pure incentive version of Pavlovian-Instrumental transfer, a measure specifically sensitive to the incentive salience of reward cues (which it separates from influences of aversive stress, stress reduction, frustration and other traditional explanations for stress-increased behavior). Rats were first trained to press one of two levers to obtain sucrose pellets, and then separately conditioned to associate a Pavlovian cue with free sucrose pellets. On test days, rats received microinjections of vehicle, CRF (250 or 500 ng/0.2 microl) or amphetamine (20 microg/0.2 microl). Lever pressing was assessed in the presence or absence of the Pavlovian cues during a half-hour test. Microinjections of the highest dose of CRF (500 ng) or amphetamine (20 microg) selectively enhanced the ability of Pavlovian reward cues to trigger phasic peaks of increased instrumental performance for a sucrose reward, each peak lasting a minute or so before decaying after the cue. Lever pressing was not enhanced by CRF microinjections in the baseline absence of the Pavlovian cue or during the presentation without a cue, showing that the CRF enhancement could not be explained as a result of generalized motor arousal, frustration or stress, or by persistent attempts to

  15. Therapeutics of Neurotransmitters in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandimalla, Ramesh; Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by the loss of memory, multiple cognitive impairments and changes in the personality and behavior. Several decades of intense research have revealed that multiple cellular changes are involved in disease process, including synaptic damage, mitochondrial abnormalities and inflammatory responses, in addition to formation and accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau. Although tremendous progress has been made in understanding the impact of neurotransmitters in the progression and pathogenesis of AD, we still do not have a drug molecule associated with neurotransmitter(s) that can delay disease process in elderly individuals and/or restore cognitive functions in AD patients. The purpose of our article is to assess the latest developments in neurotransmitters research using cell and mouse models of AD. We also updated the current status of clinical trials using neurotransmitters’ agonists/antagonists in AD. PMID:28211810

  16. Affinity of four polar neurotransmitters for lipid bilayer membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chunhua; Ye, Fengbin; Valardez, Gustavo F.

    2011-01-01

    . The simulations suggest that this attraction mainly relies on electrostatic interactions of the amino group of the neurotransmitter and the lipid phosphate. We conclude that moderate attraction to lipid membranes occurs for some polar neurotransmitters and hence that one premise for a theory of bilayer-mediated......Weak interactions of neurotransmitters and the lipid matrix in the synaptic membrane have been hypothesized to play a role in synaptic transmission of nerve signals, particularly with respect to receptor desensitization (Cantor, R. S. Biochemistry 2003, 42, 11891). The strength of such interactions......, however, was not measured, and this is an obvious impediment for further evaluation and understanding of a possible role for desensitization. We have used dialysis equilibrium to directly measure the net affinity of selected neurotransmitters for lipid membranes and analyzed this affinity data...

  17. Table S1 Basic characteristics of 32 SNPs of neurotransmitter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    微软用户

    Basic characteristics of 32 SNPs in neurotransmitter-related genes. Gene .... rs45435444, rs80837467 and rs80980072, significant differences (P. *** * ... At the same age and environments, skin lesion scores on the ears (P < 0.001), front (P <.

  18. The competitor release effect applied to carnivore species: how red foxes can increase in numbers when persecuted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano, J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to numerically simulate the population dynamics of a hypothetical community of three species of small to medium–sized carnivores subjected to non–selective control within the context of the competitor release effect (CRE. We applied the CRE to three carnivore species, linking interspecific competition with predator control efforts. We predicted the population response of European badger, the red fox and the pine marten to this wildlife management tool by means of numerical simulations. The theoretical responses differed depending on the intrinsic rate of growth (r, although modulated by the competition coefficients. The red fox, showing the highest r value, can increase its populations despite predator control efforts if control intensity is moderate. Populations of the other two species, however, decreased with control efforts, even reaching extinction. Three additional theoretical predictions were obtained. The conclusions from the simulations were: 1 predator control can play a role in altering the carnivore communities; 2 red fox numbers can increase due to control; and 3 predator control programs should evaluate the potential of unintended effects on ecosystems.

  19. Rab3A Inhibition of Ca2+ -Dependent Dopamine Release From PC12 Cells Involves Interaction With Synaptotagmin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhipan; Tang, Xia; Chen, Jia; Tang, Xiaochao; Wang, Xianchun

    2017-11-01

    Rab3 and synaptotagmin have been suggested to play important roles in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and, however, the molecular mechanism has not been completely clear. Here, we studied the effects of Rab3A and synaptotagmin I (Syt I) on dopamine release using PC12 cells as a model system. Rab3A was demonstrated to have effects on both Ca 2+ -independent and Ca 2+ -dependent dopamine releases from the PC12 cells. Application of Rab3A (up to 2500 nM) gradually decreased the amount of Ca 2+ -dependently released dopamine, indicating that Rab3A is a negative modulator that was further supported by the increase in dopamine release caused by Rab3A knockdown. Syt I knockdown weakened the Ca 2+ -dependent dopamine release, suggesting that Syt I plays a positive regulatory role in the cellular process. Treatment of the Syt I-knocked down PC12 cells with Rab3A further decreased Ca 2+ -dependent dopamine release and, however, the decrease magnitude was significantly reduced compared with that before Syt I knockdown, thus for the first time demonstrating that the inhibitory effect of Rab3A on Ca 2+ -dependent dopamine release involves the interaction with Syt I. This work has shed new light on the molecular mechanism for Rab3 and synaptotamin regulation of neurotransmitter release. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3696-3705, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Daily Dose effect of Valerian root extract on some Neurotransmitter contents in different Brain areas of male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggas, Abeer M

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the daily effect of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L .) root extract on epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) , and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in different brain areas (cerebellum , pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rats .The daily intraperitoneal ( i.p.) injection of 300 mg/kg body wt valerian for 30 days caused a significant increase in epinephrine ( E ) content in pons plus medulla oblongata, cerebral cortex , hypothalamus and in midbrain . Norepinephrine (NE ) content was significantly increased in all brain areas tested except in cerebellum and cerebral cortex . Dopamine (DA) content was significantly increased in all tested brain areas except in cerebral cortex and hippocampus . moreover , there was also a significant increase in serotonin (5-HT ) and 5-hydroxyindol acetic acid (5-HIAA) contents in all tested brain areas . However, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content was significantly decreased in all tested brain areas . After the extract withdrawal, the increase in ( E, NE, DA , 5-HT ) contents and the decrease in GABA content persisted in pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , midbrain and hippocampus , and this might be due to regional differences toward the effect. The increase in E, NE, DA , 5-HT and 5-HIAA contents, at the same time the decrease in GABA content in the different brain areas of albino rats may be due to the presence of both valepotriates and valerenic acid in the extract which mediated the GABA ergic mechanisms including the inhibition of GABA metabolism and the increase in GABA synthesis and release , although agonized the GABAA receptors which led to the inhibit of the neurotransmitter release. Valerian root extract may be useful as a herbal medicine having sedative effect and it is safe. (author)

  1. Effect of canagliflozin and metformin on cortical neurotransmitters in a diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Nadia M S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S; AlAzimi, Sara Abdullah Mubarak

    2016-10-25

    The rapid economic development in the Arabian Gulf has resulted in lifestyle changes that have increased the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, with the greatest increases observed in Kuwait. Dyslipidemia and diabetes are risk factors for disruptions in cortical neurotransmitter homeostasis. This study investigated the effect of the antidiabetic medications canagliflozin (CAN) and metformin (MET) on the levels of cortical neurotransmitters in a diabetic rat model. The rats were assigned to the control (C) group, the diabetic group that did not receive treatment (D) or the diabetic group treated with either CAN (10 mg/kg) or MET (100 mg/kg) for 2 or 4 weeks. Blood and urine glucose levels and cortical acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were assayed, and amino acid and monoamine levels were measured using HPLC. The diabetic group exhibited a significant increase in AChE activity and a decrease in monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitter levels. In the CAN group, AChE was significantly lower than that in the D and D + MET groups after 2 weeks of treatment. In addition, a significant increase in some cortical monoamines and amino acids was observed in the D + MET and D + CAN groups compared with the D group. Histopathological analysis revealed the presence of severe focal hemorrhage, neuronal degeneration, and cerebral blood vessel congestion, with gliosis in the cerebrum of rats in the D group. The CAN-treated group exhibited severe cerebral blood vessel congestion after 2 weeks of treatment and focal gliosis in the cerebrum after 4 weeks of treatment. Focal gliosis in the cerebrum of rats in the MET-treated group was observed after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. We conclude that the effect of CAN and MET on neurotransmitters is potentially mediated by their antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects. In addition, the effects of CAN on neurotransmitters might be associated with its receptor activity, and the effect of MET on neurotransmitters

  2. Spermidine Suppresses Age-Associated Memory Impairment by Preventing Adverse Increase of Presynaptic Active Zone Size and Release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun K Gupta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Memories are assumed to be formed by sets of synapses changing their structural or functional performance. The efficacy of forming new memories declines with advancing age, but the synaptic changes underlying age-induced memory impairment remain poorly understood. Recently, we found spermidine feeding to specifically suppress age-dependent impairments in forming olfactory memories, providing a mean to search for synaptic changes involved in age-dependent memory impairment. Here, we show that a specific synaptic compartment, the presynaptic active zone (AZ, increases the size of its ultrastructural elaboration and releases significantly more synaptic vesicles with advancing age. These age-induced AZ changes, however, were fully suppressed by spermidine feeding. A genetically enforced enlargement of AZ scaffolds (four gene-copies of BRP impaired memory formation in young animals. Thus, in the Drosophila nervous system, aging AZs seem to steer towards the upper limit of their operational range, limiting synaptic plasticity and contributing to impairment of memory formation. Spermidine feeding suppresses age-dependent memory impairment by counteracting these age-dependent changes directly at the synapse.

  3. Increased in vivo release of neuropeptide S in the amygdala of freely moving rats after local depolarisation and emotional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Karl; Rjabokon, Alesja; Pape, Hans-Christian; Singewald, Nicolas

    2011-10-01

    Intracerebral microdialysis in conjunction with a highly sensitive radioimmunoassay was used to study the in vivo release of neuropeptide S (NPS) within the amygdala of freely moving rats. NPS was consistently detected in basolateral amygdala dialysates and the release considerably enhanced in response to local depolarisation as well as exposure to forced swim stress. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time emotional stress-induced release of NPS in the amygdala supporting a functional role of endogenous NPS in stress/anxiety-related phenomena.

  4. [Single and combining effects of Calculus Bovis and zolpidem on inhibitive neurotransmitter of rat striatum corpora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; He, Xinrong; Guo, Mei

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the correlation effects between single or combined administration of Calculus Bovis or zolpidem and changes of inhibitive neurotransmitter in rat striatum corpora. Sampling from rat striatum corpora was carried out through microdialysis. The content of two inhibitive neurotransmitters in rat corpus striatum- glycine (Gly) and gama aminobutyric acid (GABA), was determined by HPLC, which involved pre-column derivation with orthophthaladehyde, reversed-phase gradient elution and fluorescence detection. GABA content of rat striatum corpora in Calculus Bovis group was significantly increased compared with saline group (P Calculus Boris plus zolpidem group were increased largely compared with saline group as well (P Calculus Bovis group was higher than combination group (P Calculus Bovis or zolpidem group was markedly increased compared with saline group or combination group (P Calculus Bovis group, zolpidem group and combination group. The magnitude of increase was lower in combination group than in Calculus Bovis group and Zolpidem group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis promoted encephalon inhibition is more powerful than zolpidem. The increase in two inhibitive neurotransmitters did not show reinforcing effect in combination group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis and zolpidem may compete the same receptors. Therefore, combination of Calculus Bovis containing drugs and zolpidem has no clinical significance. Calculus Bovis shouldn't as an aperture-opening drugs be used for resuscitation therapy.

  5. Drought stress release increased growth rate but did not affect levels of storage carbohydrates in Scots pine trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbeck, Leonie; Gessler, Arthur; Rigling, Andreas; Schaub, Marcus; Li, Mai-He

    2017-04-01

    For trees, energy storage in the form of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) plays an important role for survival and growth, especially during stress events such as drought. It is hypothesized, that tree individuals that experience long-term drought stress use up larger amounts of NSCs than trees that do not experience drought. Consequently, such drought-induced depletion might lead to a decrease in tree vigor and carbon starvation, a mechanism that is subject of intensive debates in recent literature. Hence, if carbon starvation is occurring during drought, drought stress release should again increase NSC concentrations. A long-term (13 years) irrigation experiment is being conducted in the Pfyn forest, the largest Pinus sylvestris dominated forest in Switzerland, located in the dry inner-Alpine Swiss Rhone valley (average precipitation 600 mm/year, with frequent dry spells). Water addition ( 600 mm/year) is executed every year during the growing season between April and October. Tree height, stem diameter and crown transparency are being measured since 2003. In February, July and October 2015, roots, stem sapwood and needles were harvested from 30 irrigated and 30 control trees and 5 different crown transparency classes. Shoot length, needle morphology, soluble sugars, starch concentrations, needle δ13C and δ15N were measured. Shoot and stem growth were higher in irrigated trees than in control trees. Growth decreased with increasing crown transparency in both treatments. Only in July, needle starch levels were higher in irrigated trees than in control trees but there was no treatment effect for wood and root starch concentrations. Tissue starch and sugar levels were negatively correlated with crown transparency, particularly in the roots (preduced NSC is related to reduced tree vigor under drought.

  6. Does chronic nicotine alter neurotransmitter receptors involved in Parkinson's disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, M.A.; Lapin, E.P.; Lajtha, A.; Maker, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    Cigarette smokers are fewer in number among Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients than among groups of persons who do not have PD. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation. One which must be tested is the possibility that some pharmacologic agent present in cigarette smoke may interact with some central nervous system component involved in PD. To this end, they have investigated the effect of chronic nicotine administration on receptors for some of the neurotransmitters that are affected in PD. Rats were injected for six weeks with saline or nicotine 0.8 mg/kg S.C., then killed and brains removed and dissected. The binding of ( 3 H)-ketanserin to serotonin receptors in frontal cortex and of ( 3 H)-domperidone to dopamine receptors in caudate was not affected. However, the binding of ( 3 H)-domperidone in nucleus accumbens was altered: the K/sub d/ increased from 0.16 +/- 0.02 nM to 0.61 +/- 0.07 nM, and the B/sub max/ increased from 507 +/- 47 fmol/mg protein to 910 +/- 43 fmol/mg (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). These values are based on three ligand concentrations. Additional studies are in progress to substantiate the data. It is concluded that chronic nicotine administration may alter dopamine receptors in nucleus accumbens

  7. Increased amphetamine-induced locomotor activity, sensitization, and accumbal dopamine release in M5 muscarinic receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lene S; Miller, Anthony D; Lester, Deranda B

    2010-01-01

    showed that M(5) receptor knockout (M (5) (-/-) ) mice are less sensitive to the reinforcing properties of addictive drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we investigate the role of M(5) receptors in the effects of amphetamine and cocaine on locomotor activity, locomotor sensitization, and dopamine release......-induced hyperactivity and dopamine release as well as amphetamine sensitization are enhanced in mice lacking the M(5) receptor. These results support the concept that the M(5) receptor modulates effects of addictive drugs....

  8. Effects of the Bee Venom Herbal Acupuncture on the Neurotransmitters of the Rat Brain Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Seok Yun

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of bee venom Herbal Acupuncture on neurotransmitters in the rat brain cortex, herbal acupuncture with bee venom group and normal saline group was performed at LI4 bilaterally of the rat. the average optical density of neurotransmitters from the cerebral cortex was analysed 30 minutes after the herbal aqupuncture, by the immunohistochemistry. The results were as follows: 1. The density of NADPH-diaphorase in bee venom group was increased significantly at the motor cortex, visual cortex, auditory cortex, cingulate cortex, retrosplenial cortex and perirhinal cortex compared to the normal saline group. 2. The average optical density of vasoactive intestinal peptide in bee venom group had significant changes at the insular cortex, retrosplenial cortex and perirhinal cortex, compared to the normal saline group. 3. The average optical density of neuropeptide-Y in bee venom group increased significantly at the visual cortex and cingulate cortex, compared to the normal saline group.

  9. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Studies of Neurotransmitters and Their Metabolites in the Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Uutela, Päivi

    2009-01-01

    Neurotransmitters transfer chemically the electrical impulse from one neuron to another in the brain. The concentration of neurotransmitters in many neurological disorders is altered. The measurement of neurotransmitters in the brain is needed to understand how these diseases develop and how they can be treated. Neurotransmitters can be extracted from the brains of freely moving, alert animals by microdialysis technique. The concentration of neurotransmitters and their metabolites in brain mi...

  10. Mechanisms of stress-induced cellular HSP72 release: implications for exercise-induced increases in extracellular HSP72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Graeme I; Febbraio, Mark A

    2005-01-01

    The heat shock proteins are a family of highly conserved proteins with critical roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis and in protecting the cell from stressful conditions. While the critical intracellular roles of heat shock proteins are undisputed, evidence suggests that the cell possess the necessary machinery to actively secrete specific heat shock proteins in response to cellular stress. In this review, we firstly discuss the evidence that physical exercise induces the release of heat shock protein 72 from specific tissues in humans. Importantly, it appears as though this release is the result of an active secretory process, as opposed to non-specific processes such as cell lysis. Next we discuss recent in vitro evidence that has identified a mechanistic basis for the observation that cellular stress induces the release of a specific subset of heat shock proteins. Importantly, while the classical protein secretory pathway does not seem to be involved in the stress-induced release of HSP72, we discuss the evidence that lipid-rafts and exosomes are important mediators of the stress-induced release of HSP72.

  11. Increased dopamine tone during meditation-induced change of consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Troels W; Bertelsen, Camilla; Piccini, Paola

    2002-01-01

    This is the first in vivo demonstration of an association between endogenous neurotransmitter release and conscious experience. Using 11C-raclopride PET we demonstrated increased endogenous dopamine release in the ventral striatum during Yoga Nidra meditation. Yoga Nidra is characterized by a dep......This is the first in vivo demonstration of an association between endogenous neurotransmitter release and conscious experience. Using 11C-raclopride PET we demonstrated increased endogenous dopamine release in the ventral striatum during Yoga Nidra meditation. Yoga Nidra is characterized...... the frontal cortex to striatal neurons, which in turn project back to the frontal cortex via the pallidum and ventral thalamus. The present study was designed to investigate whether endogenous dopamine release increases during loss of executive control in meditation. Participants underwent two 11C......-raclopride PET scans: one while attending to speech with eyes closed, and one during active meditation. The tracer competes with endogenous dopamine for access to dopamine D2 receptors predominantly found in the basal ganglia. During meditation, 11C-raclopride binding in ventral striatum decreased by 7...

  12. Use of neurotransmitter regulators in functional gastrointestinal disorders based on symptom analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing Qing; Chen, Sheng Liang

    2017-04-01

    It has been a great challenge for gastroenterologists to cope with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in clinical practice due to the contemporary increase in stressful events. A growing body of evidence has shown that neuroregulators such as anti-anxiety agents and antidepressants function well on FGIDs, particularly in cases that are refractory to classical gastrointestinal (GI) medications. Among these central-acting agents, small individualized doses of tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are usually recommended as a complement to routine GI management. When these drugs are chosen to treat FGIDs, both their central effects and the modulation of peripheral neurotransmitters should be taken into consideration. In this article we recommend strategies for choosing drugs based on an analysis of psychosomatic GI symptoms. The variety and dosage of the neurotransmitter regulators are also discussed. © 2017 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. `Full fusion' is not ineluctable during vesicular exocytosis of neurotransmitters by endocrine cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinick, Alexander; Svir, Irina; Amatore, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Vesicular exocytosis is an essential and ubiquitous process in neurons and endocrine cells by which neurotransmitters are released in synaptic clefts or extracellular fluids. It involves the fusion of a vesicle loaded with chemical messengers with the cell membrane through a nanometric fusion pore. In endocrine cells, unless it closes after some flickering (`Kiss-and-Run' events), this initial pore is supposed to expand exponentially, leading to a full integration of the vesicle membrane into the cell membrane-a stage called `full fusion'. We report here a compact analytical formulation that allows precise measurements of the fusion pore expansion extent and rate to be extracted from individual amperometric spike time courses. These data definitively establish that, during release of catecholamines, fusion pores enlarge at most to approximately one-fifth of the radius of their parent vesicle, hence ruling out the ineluctability of `full fusion'.

  14. NEUROTRANSMITTER ABNORMALITIES AND RESPONSE TO SUPPLEMENTATION IN SPG11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderver, Adeline; Tonduti, Davide; Auerbach, Sarah; Schmidt, Johanna L.; Parikh, Sumit; Gowans, Gordon C.; Jackson, Kelly E.; Brock, Pamela L.; Patterson, Marc; Nehrebecky, Michelle; Godfrey, Rena; Zein, Wadih M.; Gahl, William; Toro, Camilo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report the detection of secondary neurotransmitter abnormalities in a group of SPG11 patients and describe treatment with L-dopa/carbidopa and sapropterin. Design Case reports Setting National Institutes of Health in the context of the Undiagnosed Disease Program; Children’s National Medical Center in the context of Myelin Disorders Bioregistry Program Patients Four SPG11 patients with a clinical picture of progressive spastic paraparesis complicated by extrapyramidal symptoms and maculopathy Interventions L-dopa/carbidopa and sapropterin Results 3/4 patients presented secondary neurotransmitter abnormalities; 4/4 partially responded to L-dopa as well as sapropterin Conclusions In the SPG11 patient with extrapyramidal symptoms, a trial of L-dopa/carbidopa and sapropterin and/or evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters should be considered. PMID:22749184

  15. Palmitoylation as a Functional Regulator of Neurotransmitter Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. Naumenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of neuronal proteins involved in cellular signaling undergo different posttranslational modifications significantly affecting their functions. One of these modifications is a covalent attachment of a 16-C palmitic acid to one or more cysteine residues (S-palmitoylation within the target protein. Palmitoylation is a reversible modification, and repeated cycles of palmitoylation/depalmitoylation might be critically involved in the regulation of multiple signaling processes. Palmitoylation also represents a common posttranslational modification of the neurotransmitter receptors, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and ligand-gated ion channels (LICs. From the functional point of view, palmitoylation affects a wide span of neurotransmitter receptors activities including their trafficking, sorting, stability, residence lifetime at the cell surface, endocytosis, recycling, and synaptic clustering. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the palmitoylation of neurotransmitter receptors and its role in the regulation of receptors functions as well as in the control of different kinds of physiological and pathological behavior.

  16. [Effect of occupational stress on neurotransmitters in petroleum workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Lian, Yulong; Tao, Ning; Ge, Hua; Liu, Jiwen

    2015-09-01

    To explore the effects of occupational stress on neurotransmitters in petroleum workers. 178 petroleum workers with the length of service ≥ 1 year were recruited to the subjects by the questionnaire of OSI-R. The levels of 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and substance P (SP) in serum were measured. The subjects were classified into 3 groups according to the scores of occupational stress. The levels of 5-HT NE and SP for over 15 working years were higher than those of less than 15 years (P occupational stress degree groups, multiple comparison showed high. occupational stress group was higher than those of low occupational stress group. Multivariate correlation analysis showed that the occupational stress and sleep quality component scores correlated positively with the 5-HT, NE and SP (P Occupational stress in petroleum workers is correlated with serum monoamine and neuropeptides neurotransmitters, and it may affect serum levels of monoamine and neuropeptides neurotransmitters.

  17. [The association between plasma neurotransmitters levels and depression in acute hemorrhagic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huai-wu; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Chun-xue; Shi, Yu-zhi; Qi, Dong; Luo, Ben-yan; Wang, Yong-jun

    2013-08-01

    To explore the relation between plasma neurotransmitters (Glutamic acid, GAA; γ-aminobutyric acid, GABA; 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT; and noradrenaline, NE) and depression in acute hemorrhagic stroke. Objectives were screened from consecutive hospitalized patients with acute stroke. Fasting blood samples were taken on the day next to hospital admission, and neurotransmitters were examined by the liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) was used to diagnose depression at two weeks after onset of stroke. The modified Ranking Scale (mRS) was followed up at 1 year. Pearson test was used to analyse the correlation between serum concentration of neurotransmitters and the Hamilton Depression scale-17-items (HAMD-17) score. Logistic regression was used to analyse the relation of serum concentration of neurotransmitters and depression and outcome of stroke. One hundred and eighty-one patients were included in this study. GABA significantly decreased [6.1(5.0-8.2) µg/L vs 8.1(6.3-14.7) µg/L, P depression in hemorrhagic stroke, and there was no significant difference in GAA, 5-HT, or NE. GABA concentration was negatively correlated with HAMD-17 score (r = -0.131, P depression in acute phase of hemorrhagic stroke was reduced by 5.6% (OR 0.944, 95%CI 0.893-0.997). While concentration of serum GAA rose by 1 µg/L, risk of worse outcome at 1 year was raised by 0.1%, although a statistic level was on marginal status (OR 1.001, 95%CI 1.000-1.002). In patients with depression in the acute phase of hemorrhagic stroke, there was a significant reduction in plasma GABA concentration. GABA may have a protective effect on depression in acute phase of hemorrhagic stroke. Increased concentrations of serum GAA may increase the risk of worse outcomes at 1 year after stroke.

  18. Regulation of nonsmall-cell lung cancer stem cell like cells by neurotransmitters and opioid peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Jheelam; Papu John, Arokya M S; Schuller, Hildegard M

    2015-12-15

    Nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading type of lung cancer and has a poor prognosis. We have shown that chronic stress promoted NSCLC xenografts in mice via stress neurotransmitter-activated cAMP signaling downstream of beta-adrenergic receptors and incidental beta-blocker therapy was reported to improve clinical outcomes in NSCLC patients. These findings suggest that psychological stress promotes NSCLC whereas pharmacologically or psychologically induced decreases in cAMP may inhibit NSCLC. Cancer stem cells are thought to drive the development, progression and resistance to therapy of NSCLC. However, their potential regulation by stress neurotransmitters has not been investigated. In the current study, epinephrine increased the number of cancer stem cell like cells (CSCs) from three NSCLC cell lines in spheroid formation assays while enhancing intracellular cAMP and the stem cell markers sonic hedgehog (SHH), aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH-1) and Gli1, effects reversed by GABA or dynorphin B via Gαi -mediated inhibition of cAMP formation. The growth of NSCLC xenografts in a mouse model of stress reduction was significantly reduced as compared with mice maintained under standard conditions. Stress reduction reduced serum levels of corticosterone, norepinephrine and epinephrine while the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and opioid peptides increased. Stress reduction significantly reduced cAMP, VEGF, p-ERK, p-AKT, p-CREB, p-SRc, SHH, ALDH-1 and Gli1 in xenograft tissues whereas cleaved caspase-3 and p53 were induced. We conclude that stress neurotransmitters activate CSCs in NSCLC via multiple cAMP-mediated pathways and that pharmacologically or psychologically induced decreases in cAMP signaling may improve clinical outcomes in NSCLC patients. © 2015 UICC.

  19. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) release after heparin stimulation is increased in Type 1 diabetic patients with albuminuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, PB; van Oerle, R; Hamulyak, K; Wolffenbuttel, BHR

    Aims To study heparin-stimulated TFPI release in relation to complications in Type 1 diabetic patients. Subjects and methods Nineteen uncomplicated Type 1 diabetic patients (group I) were compared with 18 patients with retinopathy (group II), and nine patients with retinopathy and albuminuria (group

  20. SNA Releases Back to School Nutrition Trends Report: Results Show What Schools Are Doing to Increase Healthy Options for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article talks about the School Nutrition Association's 2008 Back to School Nutrition Trends Report that was released on August 19. According to the report, the trend towards more healthful school meal choices continues this fall with district nutrition programs emphasizing whole grains, fruits, and vegetables while cutting back on trans fats,…

  1. Study on carbon-fixing,oxygen-releasing,temperature-reducing and humidity-increasing effects of evergreen plants in south highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Minmin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system,was used to test the diurnal variations of photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance of evergreen plants in Southern Highway,and to calculate their ability of absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen and to calculate the transpiring water volume and absorbing heat quantity of plants.Results showed that Euonymus fortunei Hand-Mazz,Hedera helix.Aucuba eriobotryaefolia had better carbon-fixing and oxygen-releasing effects,while Photinia serrulata,Trachycarpus fortunei,Radix Ophiopogonis had worse carbon-fixing and oxygen-releasing effects.Radix Ophiopogonis,Photinia glabra,Euonymus fortunei Hand.-Mazz had higher cooling and humidification ability,while Photinia serrulata,Trachycarpus fortunei did not act as well as them.Euonymus fortunei Hand.-Mazz and Hedera helix had higher leaf chlorophyll in per unit mass,values are 12.91、10.34、9.93 mg·g-1.Radix Ophiopogonis、Cinnamomum camphora(Linn. Presl and Trachycarpus fortunei had lower leaf chlorophyll in per unit mass,value is 3.55、2.67、2.06 mg·g-1.Releasing oxygen,fixing carbon,net assimilation and chlorophyll content has good correlation(P<0.05.

  2. Alteration effect of the PGFsub(2α) inhibition on the 3H-norepinephrine release caused by α2 receptor blocking, sodium loading and 4-aminopyridine addition in isolated pulmonary arteries of rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyevacs, Zs.; Toeroek, T.; Hadhazy, P.; Magyar, K.; Feher, L.; Vizi, E.Sz.

    1983-01-01

    The tritium labelled norepinephrine release was measured in isolated pulmonary artery of rabbit. If the 3 H-norepinephrine release was induced by nerves stimulated with electric current, the PGFsub(2α) inhibited the release by 62%. In the presence of Yohimbin the inhibitory effect of FGFsub(2α) was increased to 78.8%. If the Na + pump activity was reduced by potassium-free medium the PGFsub(2α) inhibition remained at 62%. In the presence of 4-aminopyridine the potassium channel was blocked and the PGFsub(2α) inhibition decreased to 32.1%. The endogen prostaglandin may serve as a modulator of the neurotransmitter release. (L.G.)

  3. Autoradiographic localization of drug and neurotransmitter receptors in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhar, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    By combining and adapting various methodologies, it is possible to develop radiohistochemical methods for the light microscopic localization of drug and neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. These methods are valuable complements to other histochemical methods for mapping neurotransmitters; they provide a unique view of neuroanatomy and they can be used to provide valuable new hypotheses about how drugs produce various effects. Interesting 'hot spots' of receptor localizations have been observed in some sensory and limbic areas of the brain. Because most available methods are light microscopic, the development of ultrastructural methods will be a necessary and important extension of this field. (Auth.)

  4. The Effect of Scalp Point Cluster-Needling on Learning and Memory Function and Neurotransmitter Levels in Rats with Vascular Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Junli; Litscher, Gerhard; Li, Haitao; Guo, Wenhai; Liang, Zhang; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Weihua; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yao; Zhao, Bing; Rong, Qi; Sheng, Zemin; Gaischek, Ingrid; Litscher, Daniela; Wang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    We observed the effect of scalp point cluster-needling treatment on learning and memory function and neurotransmitter levels in rats with vascular dementia (VD). Permanent ligation of the bilateral carotid arteries was used to create the VD rat model. A Morris water maze was used to measure the rats' learning and memory function, and the changes in neurotransmitter levels in the rats' hippocampus were analyzed. The results show that scalp point cluster-needling can increase the VD rat model's...

  5. Sniffer patch laser uncaging response (SPLURgE): an assay of regional differences in allosteric receptor modulation and neurotransmitter clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Catherine A; Huguenard, John R

    2013-10-01

    Allosteric modulators exert actions on neurotransmitter receptors by positively or negatively altering the effective response of these receptors to their respective neurotransmitter. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A ionotropic receptors (GABAARs) are major targets for allosteric modulators such as benzodiazepines, neurosteroids, and barbiturates. Analysis of substances that produce similar effects has been hampered by the lack of techniques to assess the localization and function of such agents in brain slices. Here we describe measurement of the sniffer patch laser uncaging response (SPLURgE), which combines the sniffer patch recording configuration with laser photolysis of caged GABA. This methodology enables the detection of allosteric GABAAR modulators endogenously present in discrete areas of the brain slice and allows for the application of exogenous GABA with spatiotemporal control without altering the release and localization of endogenous modulators within the slice. Here we demonstrate the development and use of this technique for the measurement of allosteric modulation in different areas of the thalamus. Application of this technique will be useful in determining whether a lack of modulatory effect on a particular category of neurons or receptors is due to insensitivity to allosteric modulation or a lack of local release of endogenous ligand. We also demonstrate that this technique can be used to investigate GABA diffusion and uptake. This method thus provides a biosensor assay for rapid detection of endogenous GABAAR modulators and has the potential to aid studies of allosteric modulators that exert effects on other classes of neurotransmitter receptors, such as glutamate, acetylcholine, or glycine receptors.

  6. Compartmental modeling alternatives for kinetic analysis of pet neurotransmitter receptor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    With the increased interest in studying neurotransmitter and receptor function in vivo, imaging procedures using positron emission tomography have presented new challenges for kinetic modeling and analysis of data. The in vivo behavior of radiolabeled markers for examining these neurotransmitter systems can be quite complex and, therefore, the implementation of compartmental models for data analysis is similarly complex. Often, the variability in the estimates of model parameters representing neurotransmitter or receptor densities, association and dissociation rates, or rates of incorporation or turnover does not permit reliable interpretation of the data. When less complex analyses are used, these model parameters may be biased and thus also do not yield the information being sought. Examination of trade-offs between uncertainty and bias in the parameters of interest may be used to select a compartmental model configuration with an appropriate level of complexity. Modeling alternatives will be discussed for radioligands with varying kinetic properties, such as those that bind reversibly and rapidly and others that bind nearly irreversibly. Specific problems, such as those occurring when a radioligand is open-quotes flow limitedclose quotes also will be discussed

  7. The Dynamics of Autism Spectrum Disorders: How Neurotoxic Compounds and Neurotransmitters Interact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Van de Bor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years concern has risen about the increasing prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. Accumulating evidence shows that exposure to neurotoxic compounds is related to ASD. Neurotransmitters might play a key role, as research has indicated a connection between neurotoxic compounds, neurotransmitters and ASD. In the current review a literature overview with respect to neurotoxic exposure and the effects on neurotransmitter systems is presented. The aim was to identify mechanisms and related factors which together might result in ASD. The literature reported in the current review supports the hypothesis that exposure to neurotoxic compounds can lead to alterations in the GABAergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic and dopaminergic system which have been related to ASD in previous work. However, in several studies findings were reported that are not supportive of this hypothesis. Other factors also might be related, possibly altering the mechanisms at work, such as time and length of exposure as well as dose of the compound. Future research should focus on identifying the pathway through which these factors interact with exposure to neurotoxic compounds making use of human studies.

  8. Serum Levels of Platelet Released CD40 Ligand Are Increased in Early Onset Occlusive Carotid Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Balla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L has been suggested as a key mediator between inflammation and atherosclerosis, and the CD40-CD40L interaction has a role in atherosclerotic lesion progression. We evaluated if platelet released serum sCD40L and sCD40 levels differ between patients with early onset occlusive carotid artery disease and age-matched controls.

  9. A Critical Assessment of Research on Neurotransmitters in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this mini-forum, “Neurotransmitters and Alzheimer’s Disease”, is to critically assess the current status of neurotransmitters in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurotransmitters are essential neurochemicals that maintain synaptic and cognitive functions in mammals, including humans, by sending signals across pre- to post-synaptic neurons. Authorities in the fields of synapses and neurotransmitters of Alzheimer’s disease summarize the current status of basic biology of synapses and neurotransmitters, and also update the current status of clinical trials of neurotransmitters in Alzheimer’s disease. This article discusses the prevalence, economic impact, and stages of Alzheimer’s dementia in humans. PMID:28409748

  10. The role of laserpuncture exposure on gonad maturation mechanism of catfish (Clarias sp. through Ca2+, PKC and GABA neurotransmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pungky Slamet Wisnu Kusuma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Laser puncture exposure at reproduction acupoint is proven to increase cellular activity like Ca2+ in the skin tissues. The aim of the study is to determine the role of laserpuncture exposure on gonad maturation by evaluating Ca2+ stimulation and PKC activity in skin tissue and the release of GABA from GABAergic neurons of the brain tissue of catfish (Clarias sp.. A total of 36 females and 36 males of 8–9-month old of F1 catfish broodstock Sangkuriang (female and Paiton (male. This study used Completely Randomized Design (CDR experimental method. Expression analysis was conducted using immunohistochemical staining with a streptavidinbiotin method with calcineurin kit, PKC kit, and GABA kit. The results showed that laserpuncture can stimulate calcineurin and PKC expression in skin tissue, and GABA expression in the brain tissue on the condition pre-spawn, spawn, and post-spawn (P < .05. It can be concluded that laserpuncture stimulates gonad maturation through Ca2+, PKC, and GABA neurotransmitter.

  11. Localized infusions of the partial alpha 7 nicotinic receptor agonist SSR180711 evoke rapid and transient increases in prefrontal glutamate release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortz, D M; Mikkelsen, J D; Bruno, J P

    2013-01-01

    The ability of local infusions of the alpha 7 nicotinic acetycholine receptor (α7 nAChR) partial agonist SSR180711 to evoke glutamate release in prefrontal cortex was determined in awake rats using a microelectrode array. Infusions of SSR180711 produced dose-dependent increases in glutamate levels...

  12. Hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) cell number is increased in human illness, but is not reduced in Prader-Willi syndrome or obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldstone, Anthony P.; Unmehopa, Unga A.; Swaab, Dick F.

    2003-01-01

    Acute illness leads to increased GH, but reduced IGF-I secretion, while both are reduced in chronic illness. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic obesity syndrome, with GH deficiency a feature independent of obesity. Reduced GH secretion may result from decreased hypothalamic release of

  13. The Top 5 Neurotransmitters from a Clinical Neurologist's Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    that we routinely prescribe. Most of us can hardly come up with more than a handful of relevant neurochemicals. From our point of view the most important neurotransmitters are, in alphabetical order, acetylcholine (associated with Alzheimer's disease and myasthenia gravis), dopamine (Parkinson's disease...

  14. Inherited disorders of brain neurotransmitters: pathogenesis and diagnostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Krystyna; Kuśmierska, Katarzyna; Demkow, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitters (NTs) play a central role in the efficient communication between neurons necessary for normal functioning of the nervous system. NTs can be divided into two groups: small molecule NTs and larger neuropeptide NTs. Inherited disorders of NTs result from a primary disturbance of NTs metabolism or transport. This group of disorders requires sophisticated diagnostic procedures. In this review we discuss disturbances in the metabolism of tetrahydrobiopterin, biogenic amines, γ-aminobutyric acid, foliate, pyridoxine-dependent enzymes, and also the glycine-dependent encephalopathy. We point to pathologic alterations of proteins involved in synaptic neurotransmission that may cause neurological and psychiatric symptoms. We postulate that synaptic receptors and transporter proteins for neurotransmitters should be investigated in unresolved cases. Patients with inherited neurotransmitters disorders present various clinical presentations such as mental retardation, refractory seizures, pyramidal and extrapyramidal syndromes, impaired locomotor patterns, and progressive encephalopathy. Every patient with suspected inherited neurotransmitter disorder should undergo a structured interview and a careful examination including neurological, biochemical, and imaging.

  15. What is the role of neurotransmitter systems in cortical seizures?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel; Kubová, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, Suppl.3 (2008), S111-S120 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neurotransmitters * cerebral cortex * seizures Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  16. Impact of aspartame consumption on neurotransmitters in rat brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Aspartame (APM), a common artificial sweetener, has been used for diabetic subjects and body weight control for a long time. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the impact of APM consumption on neurotransmitters and oxidative stress in rat's brain. Materials and Methods: Four groups of male ...

  17. Glucagon-related peptide 1 (GLP-1): hormone and neurotransmitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Philip J; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    normal and pathophysiological role of GLP-1 have been published over the last two decades and our understanding of GLP-1 action has widened considerably. In the present review, we have tried to cover our current understanding of GLP-1 actions both as a peripheral hormone and as a central neurotransmitter...

  18. GABA not only a neurotransmitter: osmotic regulation by GABAAR signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana eCesetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In neurons the anionic channel γ-aminobutyric (GABA A receptor (GABAAR plays a central role in mediating both the neurotrophic and neurotransmitter role of GABA. Activation of this receptor by GABA also affects the function of non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (CNS, as GABAARs are expressed in mature macroglia and in almost all progenitor types, including neural stem cells. The relevance of GABA signalling in non-neuronal cells has been comparatively less investigated than in neurons. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that these cells are direct targets of GABA regulation. In non-neuronal cells GABAAR activation leads to influx or efflux of chloride (Cl- depending on the electrochemical gradient. Ion transport is indissolubly associated to water fluxes across the plasma membrane and plays a key role in brain physiology. Therefore, GABAAR could affect osmotic tension in the brain by modulating ion gradients. In addition, since water movements also occur through specialized water channels and transporters, GABAAR signalling could affect the movement of water also by regulating the function of the channels and transporters involved, thereby affecting not only the direction of the water fluxes but also their dynamics. This regulation has consequences at the cellular level as it modulates cell volume and activates multiple intracellular signalling mechanisms important for cell proliferation, maturation and survival. It may also have consequences at the systemic level. For example, it may indirectly control neuronal excitability, by regulating the extracellular space and interstitial concentration of Cl-, and contribute to brain water homeostasis. Therefore, GABAergic osmotic regulation should be taken into account during the treatment of pathologies requiring the administration of GABAAR modulators and for the development of therapies for diseases causing water unbalance in the brain.

  19. Convergent and reciprocal modulation of a leak K+ current and Ih by an inhalational anaesthetic and neurotransmitters in rat brainstem motoneurones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Jay E; Lynch, Carl; Bayliss, Douglas A

    2002-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and volatile anaesthetics have opposing effects on motoneuronal excitability which appear to reflect contrasting modulation of two types of subthreshold currents. Neurotransmitters increase motoneuronal excitability by inhibiting TWIK-related acid-sensitive K+ channels (TASK) and shifting activation of a hyperpolarization-activated cationic current (Ih) to more depolarized potentials; on the other hand, anaesthetics decrease excitability by activating a TASK-like current and inducing a hyperpolarizing shift in Ih activation. Here, we used whole-cell recording from motoneurones in brainstem slices to test if neurotransmitters (serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA)) and an anaesthetic (halothane) indeed compete for modulation of the same ion channels - and we determined which prevails. When applied together under current clamp conditions, 5-HT reversed anaesthetic-induced membrane hyperpolarization and increased motoneuronal excitability. Under voltage clamp conditions, 5-HT and NA overcame most, but not all, of the halothane-induced current. When Ih was blocked with ZD 7288, the neurotransmitters completely inhibited the K+ current activated by halothane; the halothane-sensitive neurotransmitter current reversed at the equilibrium potential for potassium (EK) and displayed properties expected of acid-sensitive, open-rectifier TASK channels. To characterize modulation of Ih in relative isolation, effects of 5-HT and halothane were examined in acidified bath solutions that blocked TASK channels. Under these conditions, 5-HT and halothane each caused their characteristic shift in voltage-dependent gating of Ih. When tested concurrently, however, halothane decreased the neurotransmitter-induced depolarizing shift in Ih activation. Thus, halothane and neurotransmitters converge on TASK and Ih channels with opposite effects; transmitter action prevailed over anaesthetic effects on TASK channels, but not over effects on Ih. These data suggest that

  20. Detection and monitoring of neurotransmitters--a spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia S; Lee, Kendall H; Durrer, William G; Bennet, Kevin E

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that confocal Raman mapping spectroscopy provides rapid, detailed, and accurate neurotransmitter analysis, enabling millisecond time resolution monitoring of biochemical dynamics. As a prototypical demonstration of the power of the method, we present real-time in vitro serotonin, adenosine, and dopamine detection, and dopamine diffusion in an inhomogeneous organic gel, which was used as a substitute for neurologic tissue.  Dopamine, adenosine, and serotonin were used to prepare neurotransmitter solutions in distilled water. The solutions were applied to the surfaces of glass slides, where they interdiffused. Raman mapping was achieved by detecting nonoverlapping spectral signatures characteristic of the neurotransmitters with an alpha 300 WITec confocal Raman system, using 532 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser excitation. Every local Raman spectrum was recorded in milliseconds and complete Raman mapping in a few seconds.  Without damage, dyeing, or preferential sample preparation, confocal Raman mapping provided positive detection of each neurotransmitter, allowing association of the high-resolution spectra with specific microscale image regions. Such information is particularly important for complex, heterogeneous samples, where changes in composition can influence neurotransmission processes. We also report an estimated dopamine diffusion coefficient two orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated by the flow-injection method.  Accurate nondestructive characterization for real-time detection of neurotransmitters in inhomogeneous environments without the requirement of sample labeling is a key issue in neuroscience. Our work demonstrates the capabilities of Raman spectroscopy in biological applications, possibly providing a new tool for elucidating the mechanism and kinetics of deep brain stimulation. © 2012 International Neuromodulation Society.

  1. ATP Release from Chemotherapy-Treated Dying Leukemia Cells Elicits an Immune Suppressive Effect by Increasing Regulatory T Cells and Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecciso, Mariangela; Ocadlikova, Darina; Sangaletti, Sabina; Trabanelli, Sara; De Marchi, Elena; Orioli, Elisa; Pegoraro, Anna; Portararo, Paola; Jandus, Camilla; Bontadini, Andrea; Redavid, Annarita; Salvestrini, Valentina; Romero, Pedro; Colombo, Mario P; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Cavo, Michele; Adinolfi, Elena; Curti, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced immunogenic cell death can favor dendritic cell (DC) cross-priming of tumor-associated antigens for T cell activation thanks to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns, including ATP. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), ATP release, along with its well-known immune stimulatory effect, may also contribute to the generation of an immune suppressive microenvironment. In a cohort of AML patients, undergoing combined daunorubicin and cytarabine chemotherapy, a population of T regulatory cells (Tregs) with suppressive phenotype, expressing the immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), was significantly increased. Moving from these results, initial in vitro data showed that daunorubicin was more effective than cytarabine in modulating DC function toward Tregs induction and such difference was correlated with the higher capacity of daunorubicin to induce ATP release from treated AML cells. DCs cultured with daunorubicin-treated AML cells upregulated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), which induced anti-leukemia Tregs. These data were confirmed in vivo as daunorubicin-treated mice show an increase in extracellular ATP levels with increased number of Tregs, expressing PD-1 and IDO1 + CD39 + DCs. Notably, daunorubicin failed to induce Tregs and tolerogenic DCs in mice lacking the ATP receptor P2X7. Our data indicate that ATP release from chemotherapy-treated dying cells contributes to create an immune suppressive microenvironment in AML.

  2. ATP Release from Chemotherapy-Treated Dying Leukemia Cells Elicits an Immune Suppressive Effect by Increasing Regulatory T Cells and Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Lecciso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced immunogenic cell death can favor dendritic cell (DC cross-priming of tumor-associated antigens for T cell activation thanks to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns, including ATP. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in acute myeloid leukemia (AML, ATP release, along with its well-known immune stimulatory effect, may also contribute to the generation of an immune suppressive microenvironment. In a cohort of AML patients, undergoing combined daunorubicin and cytarabine chemotherapy, a population of T regulatory cells (Tregs with suppressive phenotype, expressing the immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1, was significantly increased. Moving from these results, initial in vitro data showed that daunorubicin was more effective than cytarabine in modulating DC function toward Tregs induction and such difference was correlated with the higher capacity of daunorubicin to induce ATP release from treated AML cells. DCs cultured with daunorubicin-treated AML cells upregulated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1, which induced anti-leukemia Tregs. These data were confirmed in vivo as daunorubicin-treated mice show an increase in extracellular ATP levels with increased number of Tregs, expressing PD-1 and IDO1+CD39+ DCs. Notably, daunorubicin failed to induce Tregs and tolerogenic DCs in mice lacking the ATP receptor P2X7. Our data indicate that ATP release from chemotherapy-treated dying cells contributes to create an immune suppressive microenvironment in AML.

  3. Intrauterine Zn Deficiency Favors Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone-Increasing Effects on Thyrotropin Serum Levels and Induces Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Weaned Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Alcántara-Alonso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who consume a diet deficient in zinc (Zn-deficient develop alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function, i.e., a low metabolic rate and cold insensitivity. Although those disturbances are related to primary hypothyroidism, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficient adults have an increased thyrotropin (TSH concentration, but unchanged thyroid hormone (TH levels and decreased body weight. This does not support the view that the hypothyroidism develops due to a low Zn intake. In addition, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficiency in weaned and adult rats reduces the activity of pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II (PPII in the medial-basal hypothalamus (MBH. PPII is an enzyme that degrades thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH. This hypothalamic peptide stimulates its receptor in adenohypophysis, thereby increasing TSH release. We analyzed whether earlier low TH is responsible for the high TSH levels reported in adults, or if TRH release is enhanced by Zn deficiency at weaning. Dams were fed a 2 ppm Zn-deficient diet in the period from one week prior to gestation and up to three weeks after delivery. We found a high release of hypothalamic TRH, which along with reduced MBH PPII activity, increased TSH levels in Zn-deficient pups independently of changes in TH concentration. We found that primary hypothyroidism did not develop in intrauterine Zn-deficient weaned rats and we confirmed that metal deficiency enhances TSH levels since early-life, favoring subclinical hypothyroidism development which remains into adulthood.

  4. Classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides involved in generalized epilepsy in a multi-neurotransmitter system: How to improve the antiepileptic effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Felix-Martin; Coveñas, Rafael

    2017-06-01

    Here, we describe in generalized epilepsies the alterations of classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides acting at specific subreceptors. In order to consider a network context rather than one based on focal substrates and in order to make the interaction between neurotransmitters and neuropeptides and their specific subreceptors comprehensible, neural networks in the hippocampus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex are described. In this disease, a neurotransmitter imbalance between dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons and between presynaptic GABAergic neurons (hypoactivity) and glutaminergic neurons (hyperactivity) occurs. Consequently, combined GABA A agonists and NMDA antagonists could furthermore stabilize the neural networks in a multimodal pharmacotherapy. The antiepileptic effect and the mechanisms of action of conventional and recently developed antiepileptic drugs are reviewed. The GASH:Sal animal model can contribute to examine the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs. The issues of whether the interaction of classical neurotransmitters with other subreceptors (5-HT 7 , metabotropic 5 glutaminergic, A 2A adenosine, and alpha nicotinic 7 cholinergic receptors) or whether the administration of agonists/antagonists of neuropeptides might improve the therapeutic effect of antiepileptic drugs should be addressed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Genetic and Reflex Epilepsies, Audiogenic Seizures and Strains: From Experimental Models to the Clinic". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chitosan inhibits platelet-mediated clot retraction, increases platelet-derived growth factor release, and increases residence time and bioactivity of platelet-rich plasma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprés-Tremblay, Gabrielle; Chevrier, Anik; Tran-Khanh, Nicolas; Nelea, Monica; Buschmann, Michael D

    2017-11-10

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used to treat different orthopedic conditions, however, the clinical benefits of using PRP remain uncertain. Chitosan (CS)-PRP implants have been shown to improve meniscus, rotator cuff and cartilage repair in pre-clinical models. The purpose of this current study was to investigate in vitro and in vivo mechanisms of action of CS-PRP implants. Freeze-dried formulations containing 1% (w/v) CS (80% degree of deacetylation and number average molar mass 38 kDa), 1% (w/v) trehalose as a lyoprotectant and 42.2 mM calcium chloride as a clot activator were solubilized in PRP. Gravimetric measurements and molecular/cellular imaging studies revealed that clot retraction is inhibited in CS-PRP hybrid clots through physical coating of platelets, blood cells and fibrin strands by chitosan, which interferes with platelet aggregation and platelet-mediated clot retraction. Flow cytometry and ELISA assays revealed that platelets are activated and granules secreted in CS-PRP hybrid clots and that cumulative release of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-AB) and epidermal growth factor is higher from CS-PRP hybrid clots compared to PRP clots in vitro. Finally, CS-PRP implants resided for up to 6 weeks in a subcutaneous implantation model and induced cell recruitment and granulation tissue synthesis, confirming greater residency and bioactivity compared to PRP in vivo.

  6. Bepaling van enkele neurotransmitters, monoaminen, en metabolieten, met behulp van Continuous Flowapparatuur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eigeman L; Schonewille F; Borst M; van der Laan JW

    1986-01-01

    Bij het onderzoek in de psychofarmacologie kan kennis van de effecten van stoffen op de omzettingssnelheid van neurotransmitters een belangrijk aspect zijn. Met de huidige psychofarmaca lijken vooral de klassieke neurotransmitters zoals de monoaminen, noradrenaline, dopamine en serotonine van

  7. Biochemical Alterations Of Amino Acids, Neurotransmitters And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal injury in human and animals models may be complicated by dysfunction to organs distant from the original burn wound. The physiopathological events following thermal injury are not limited to the surface effects of heat but are also related to an acute inflammatory reaction with increased muscle protein breakdown.

  8. Immobilization increases interleukin-6, but not tumour necrosis factor-a, release from the leg during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reihmane, Dace; Hansen, Andreas Vigelsø; Jensen, Martin Gram

    2013-01-01

    have now studied the temporal relationship of leg IL-6 and TNF-a release before and during isolated two-legged exercise after 14 days of one-leg immobilization (IM) while the other leg served as the control (CON) leg. Fifteen healthy male subjects (mean ± SEM age, 23 ± 1 years; body mass index, 23.......6 ± 0.7 kg m; and maximal oxygen uptake, 46.8 ± 1.4 ml kg min) performed 45 min of two-legged dynamic knee-extensor exercise at 19.6 ± 0.8 W. Arterial and femoral venous blood samples from the CON and the IM leg were collected every 15 min during exercise, and leg blood flow was measured with Doppler...

  9. Synaptic function is modulated by LRRK2 and glutamate release is increased in cortical neurons of G2019S LRRK2 knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccano-Kelly, Dayne A; Kuhlmann, Naila; Tatarnikov, Igor; Volta, Mattia; Munsie, Lise N; Chou, Patrick; Cao, Li-Ping; Han, Heather; Tapia, Lucia; Farrer, Matthew J; Milnerwood, Austen J

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase-2 (LRRK2) result in familial Parkinson's disease and the G2019S mutation alone accounts for up to 30% in some ethnicities. Despite this, the function of LRRK2 is largely undetermined although evidence suggests roles in phosphorylation, protein interactions, autophagy and endocytosis. Emerging reports link loss of LRRK2 to altered synaptic transmission, but the effects of the G2019S mutation upon synaptic release in mammalian neurons are unknown. To assess wild type and mutant LRRK2 in established neuronal networks, we conducted immunocytochemical, electrophysiological and biochemical characterization of >3 week old cortical cultures of LRRK2 knock-out, wild-type overexpressing and G2019S knock-in mice. Synaptic release and synapse numbers were grossly normal in LRRK2 knock-out cells, but discretely reduced glutamatergic activity and reduced synaptic protein levels were observed. Conversely, synapse density was modestly but significantly increased in wild-type LRRK2 overexpressing cultures although event frequency was not. In knock-in cultures, glutamate release was markedly elevated, in the absence of any change to synapse density, indicating that physiological levels of G2019S LRRK2 elevate probability of release. Several pre-synaptic regulatory proteins shown by others to interact with LRRK2 were expressed at normal levels in knock-in cultures; however, synapsin 1 phosphorylation was significantly reduced. Thus, perturbations to the pre-synaptic release machinery and elevated synaptic transmission are early neuronal effects of LRRK2 G2019S. Furthermore, the comparison of knock-in and overexpressing cultures suggests that one copy of the G2019S mutation has a more pronounced effect than an ~3-fold increase in LRRK2 protein. Mutant-induced increases in transmission may convey additional stressors to neuronal physiology that may eventually contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.

  10. Dialysis delivery of an adenosine A2A agonist into the pontine reticular formation of C57BL/6J mouse increases pontine acetylcholine release and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Christal G; Baghdoyan, Helen A; Lydic, Ralph

    2006-03-01

    In vivo microdialysis in C57BL/6J (B6) mouse was used to test the hypothesis that activating adenosine A(2A) receptors in the pontine reticular formation (PRF) increases acetylcholine (ACh) release and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Eight concentrations of the adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS 21680; CGS) were delivered to the PRF and ACh in the PRF was quantified. ACh release was significantly increased by dialysis with 3 mum CGS and significantly decreased by dialysis with 10 and 100 microm CGS. Co-administration of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385; 30 nM) blocked the CGS-induced increase in ACh release. In a second series of experiments, CGS (3 microm) was delivered by dialysis to the PRF for 2 h while recording sleep and wakefulness. CGS significantly decreased time in wakefulness (-51% in h 1; -54% in h 2), increased time in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (90% in h 1; 151% in h 2), and increased both time in REM sleep (331% in h 2) and the number of REM sleep episodes (488% in h 2). The enhancement of REM sleep is consistent with the interpretation that adenosine A(2A) receptors in the PRF of the B6 mouse contribute to REM sleep regulation, in part, by increasing ACh release in the PRF. A(2A) receptor activation may promote NREM sleep via GABAergic inhibition of arousal promoting neurons in the PRF.

  11. Stress-induced cognitive dysfunction: hormone-neurotransmitter interactions in the prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Shansky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms and neural circuits that drive emotion and cognition are inextricably linked. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis as a result of stress or other causes of arousal initiates a flood of hormone and neurotransmitter release throughout the brain, affecting the way we think, decide, and behave. This review will focus on factors that influence the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, a brain region that governs higher-level cognitive processes and executive function. The PFC becomes markedly impaired by stress, producing measurable deficits in working memory. These deficits arise from the interaction of multiple neuromodulators, including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, and gonadal hormones; here we will discuss the non- human primate and rodent literature that has furthered our understanding of the circuitry, receptors, and signaling cascades responsible for stress-induced prefrontal dysfunction.

  12. Fetal growth-retardation and brain-sparing by malnutrition are associated to changes in neurotransmitters profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Contreras, C; Valent, D; Vázquez-Gómez, M; Arroyo, L; Isabel, B; Astiz, S; Bassols, A; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2017-04-01

    The present study assesses possible changes in the levels of different neurotransmitters (catecholamines and indoleamines) in fetuses affected by nutrient shortage. Hence, we determined the concentration of catecholamines and indoleamines at the hypothalamus of 56 swine fetuses obtained at both 70 and 90days of pregnancy (n=33 and 23 fetuses, respectively). The degree of fetal development and the fetal sex affected the neurotransmitters profile at both stages. At Day 70, there were found higher mean concentrations of l-DOPA in both female and male fetuses with severe IUGR; male fetuses with severe IUGR also showed higher concentrations of TRP than normal male littermates. At Day 90 of pregnancy, the differences between sexes were more evident. There were no significant effects from either severe IUGR on the neurotransmitter profile in male fetuses. However, in the females, a lower body-weight was related to lower concentrations of l-DOPA and TRP and those female fetuses affected by severe IUGR evidenced lower HVA concentration. In conclusion, the fetal synthesis and use of neurotransmitters increase with time of pregnancy but, in case of IUGR, both catecholamines and indoleamines pathways are affected by sex-related effects. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypoxia Mediated Release of Endothelial Microparticles and Increased Association of S100A12 with Circulating Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca V. Vince

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Microparticles are released from the endothelium under normal homeostatic conditions and have been shown elevated in disease states, most notably those characterised by endothelial dysfunction. The endothelium is sensitive to oxidative stress/status and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 expression is upregulated upon activated endothelium, furthermore the presence of VCAM-1 on microparticles is known. S100A12, a calcium binding protein part of the S100 family, is shown to be present on circulating leukocytes and is thought a sensitive marker to local inflammatory process, which may be driven by oxidative stress. Eight healthy males were subjected to breathing hypoxic air (15% O2, approximately equivalent to 3000 metres altitude for 80 minutes in a temperature controlled laboratory and venous blood samples were processed immediately for VCAM-1 microparticles (VCAM-1 MP and S100A12 association with leukocytes by flow cytometry. A pre-hypoxic blood sample was used for comparison. Both VCAM-1 MP and S100A12 association with neutrophils were significantly elevated post hypoxic breathing later declining to levels observed in the pre-test samples. A similar trend was observed in both cases and a correlation may exist between these two markers in response to hypoxia. These data offer evidence using novel markers of endothelial and circulating blood responses to hypoxia.

  14. Spectroscopic Analysis of Neurotransmitters: A Theoretical and Experimental Raman Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Matthew

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was applied to investigate the feasibility in the detection and monitoring of the dopamine (DA) neurotransmitter adsorbed onto silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) at 10-11 molar, a concentration far below physiological levels. In addition, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were obtained with the Gaussian-09 analytical suite software to generate the theoretical molecular configuration of DA in its neutral, cationic, anionic, and dopaminequinone states for the conversion of computer-simulated Raman spectra. Comparison of theoretical and experimental results show good agreement and imply the presence of dopamine in all of its molecular forms in the experimental setting. The dominant dopamine Raman bands at 750 cm-1 and 795 cm-1 suggest the adsorption of dopaminequinone onto the silver nanoparticle surface. The results of this experiment give good insight into the applicability of using Raman spectroscopy for the biodetection of neurotransmitters.

  15. Radiotracers for per studies of neurotransmitter binding sites: Design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Neurotransmitter binding sites, such as receptors, neuronal uptake systems, and vesicular uptake systems, are important targets for new radiopharmaceutical design. Selection of potential radioligands can be guided by in vitro laboratory data including such characteristics as selectivity and affinity for specific binding sites. However, development of PET radiotracers for use in vivo must include considerations of in vivo pharmacokinetics and metabolism. Introduction of potential radioligands is further narrowed by the demands of the radiochemical synthesis, which must produce radioligands of high chemical and radiochemical purity and of high specific activity. This paper will review examples of previous and current attempts by radiopharmaceutical chemists to meet these demands for new positron emitter-labeled radioligands for PET studies of a wide array of neurotransmitter binding sites

  16. Evidence for cysteine sulfinate as a neurotransmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recasens, M.; Varga, V.; Nanopoulos, D.; Saadoun, F.; Vincendon, G.; Benavides, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Na + -independent binding of L-[ 3 H]cysteine sulfinate and L-[ 3 H]cysteine sulfinate uptake were investigated in rat brain membranes and vesicles. Specific binding of L-[ 3 H]cysteine sulfinate was saturable and occurred by a single high affinity process with a Ksub(b) of 100 nM +- 9 and a capacity (Bsub(max)) of 2.4 +- 0.22 pmol/mg protein. The regional distribution of the binding of L-[ 3 H]cysteine sulfinate in the brain was found to be heterogeneous. The rate of L-[ 3 H]cysteine sulfinate uptake shows a biphasic dependence on the concentration of L-cysteine sulfinate, corresponding to a high affinity (27.2 μM) and a low affinity (398 μM) transport system. The maximum L-[ 3 H]cysteine sulfinate uptake is reached at 2min and the uptake increases as a function of the sodium concentration. Chloride and potassium ions stimulate the uptake. (Auth.)

  17. Pathways of acetylcholine synthesis, transport and release as targets for treatment of adult-onset cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, F; Tayebati, S K

    2008-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter widely diffused in central, peripheral, autonomic and enteric nervous system. This paper has reviewed the main mechanisms of ACh synthesis, storage, and release. Presynaptic choline transport supports ACh production and release, and cholinergic terminals express a unique transporter critical for neurotransmitter release. Neurons cannot synthesize choline, which is ultimately derived from the diet and is delivered through the blood stream. ACh released from cholinergic synapses is hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase into choline and acetyl coenzyme A and almost 50% of choline derived from ACh hydrolysis is recovered by a high-affinity choline transporter. Parallel with the development of cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction, cholinergic precursor loading strategy was tried for treating cognitive impairment occurring in Alzheimer's disease. Controlled clinical studies denied clinical usefulness of choline and lecithin (phosphatidylcholine), whereas for other phospholipids involved in choline biosynthetic pathways such as cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) or alpha-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine (choline alphoscerate) a modest improvement of cognitive dysfunction in adult-onset dementia disorders is documented. These inconsistencies have probably a metabolic explanation. Free choline administration increases brain choline availability but it does not increase ACh synthesis/or release. Cholinergic precursors to serve for ACh biosynthesis should be incorporate and stored into phospholipids in brain. It is probable that appropriate ACh precursors and other correlated molecules (natural or synthesized) could represent a tool for developing therapeutic strategies by revisiting and updating treatments/supplementations coming out from this therapeutic stalemate.

  18. Nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensing of neurological drugs and neurotransmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghavi, Bankim J.; Swami, Nathan S.; Wolfbeis, Otto S.; Hirsch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterial-modified detection systems represent a chief driver towards the adoption of electrochemical methods, since nanomaterials enable functional tunability, ability to self-assemble, and novel electrical, optical and catalytic properties that emerge at this scale. This results in tremendous gains in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and versatility. We review the electrochemical methods and mechanisms that may be applied to the detection of neurological drugs. We focus on understanding how specific nano-sized modifiers may be applied to influence the electron transfer event to result in gains in sensitivity, selectivity and versatility of the detection system. This critical review is structured on the basis of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System, specifically ATC Code N (neurotransmitters). Specific sections are dedicated to the widely used electrodes based on the carbon materials, supporting electrolytes, and on electrochemical detection paradigms for neurological drugs and neurotransmitters within the groups referred to as ATC codes N01 to N07. We finally discuss emerging trends and future challenges such as the development of strategies for simultaneous detection of multiple targets with high spatial and temporal resolutions, the integration of microfluidic strategies for selective and localized analyte pre-concentration, the real-time monitoring of neurotransmitter secretions from active cell cultures under electro- and chemotactic cues, aptamer-based biosensors, and the miniaturization of the sensing system for detection in small sample volumes and for enabling cost savings due to manufacturing scale-up. The Electronic Supporting Material (ESM) includes review articles dealing with the review topic in last 40 years, as well as key properties of the analytes, viz., pK a values, half-life of drugs and their electrochemical mechanisms. The ESM also defines analytical figures of merit of the drugs and neurotransmitters. The

  19. Peripheral Nerve Fibers and Their Neurotransmitters in Osteoarthritis Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grässel, Susanne; Muschter, Dominique

    2017-04-28

    The importance of the nociceptive nervous system for maintaining tissue homeostasis has been known for some time, and it has also been suggested that organogenesis and tissue repair are under neuronal control. Changes in peripheral joint innervation are supposed to be partly responsible for degenerative alterations in joint tissues which contribute to development of osteoarthritis. Various resident cell types of the musculoskeletal system express receptors for sensory and sympathetic neurotransmitters, allowing response to peripheral neuronal stimuli. Among them are mesenchymal stem cells, synovial fibroblasts, bone cells and chondrocytes of different origin, which express distinct subtypes of adrenoceptors (AR), receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Some of these cell types synthesize and secrete neuropeptides such as SP, and they are positive for tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH), the rate limiting enzyme for biosynthesis of catecholamines. Sensory and sympathetic neurotransmitters are involved in the pathology of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which manifests mainly in the joints. In addition, they seem to play a role in pathogenesis of priori degenerative joint disorders such as osteoarthritis (OA). Altogether it is evident that sensory and sympathetic neurotransmitters have crucial trophic effects which are critical for joint tissue and bone homeostasis. They modulate articular cartilage, subchondral bone and synovial tissue properties in physiological and pathophysiological conditions, in addition to their classical neurological features.

  20. Selectivity of phenothiazine cholinesterase inhibitors for neurotransmitter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvesh, Sultan; Macdonald, Ian R; Martin, Earl

    2013-07-01

    Synthetic derivatives of phenothiazine have been used for over a century as well-tolerated drugs against a variety of human ailments from psychosis to cancer. This implies a considerable diversity in the mechanisms of action produced by structural changes to the phenothiazine scaffold. For example, chlorpromazine treatment of psychosis is related to its interaction with dopaminergic receptors. On the other hand, antagonistic action of such drugs on cholinergic receptor systems would be counter-productive for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In a search for phenothiazines that are inhibitors of cholinesterases, especially butyrylcholinesterase, with potential to treat Alzheimer's disease, we wished to ascertain that such molecules could be devoid of neurotransmitter receptor interactions. To that end, a number of our synthetic N-10-carbonyl phenothiazine derivatives, with cholinesterase inhibitory activity, were tested for interaction with a variety of neurotransmitter receptor systems. We demonstrate that phenothiazines can be prepared without significant neurotransmitter receptor interactions while retaining high potency as cholinesterase ligands for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Profiling neurotransmitter receptor expression in the Ambystoma mexicanum brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge Mauricio; Limon, Agenor; Korn, Matthew J; Nakamura, Paul A; Shirkey, Nicole J; Wong, Jamie K; Miledi, Ricardo

    2013-03-22

    Ability to regenerate limbs and central nervous system (CNS) is unique to few vertebrates, most notably the axolotl (Ambystoma sp.). However, despite the fact the neurotransmitter receptors are involved in axonal regeneration, little is known regarding its expression profile. In this project, RT-PCR and qPCR were performed to gain insight into the neurotransmitter receptors present in Ambystoma. Its functional ability was studied by expressing axolotl receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes by either injection of mRNA or by direct microtransplantation of brain membranes. Oocytes injected with axolotl mRNA expressed ionotropic receptors activated by GABA, aspartate+glycine and kainate, as well as metabotropic receptors activated by acetylcholine and glutamate. Interestingly, we did not see responses following the application of serotonin. Membranes from the axolotl brain were efficiently microtransplanted into Xenopus oocytes and two types of native GABA receptors that differed in the temporal course of their responses and affinities to GABA were observed. Results of this study are necessary for further characterization of axolotl neurotransmitter receptors and may be useful for guiding experiments aimed at understanding activity-dependant limb and CNS regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurotransmitter synthesis from CNS glutamine for central control of breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoop, B.; Systrom, D.; Chiang, C.H.; Shih, V.E.; Kazemi, H.

    1986-01-01

    The maximum rate at which CNS glutamine (GLN) derived from glutamate (GLU) can be sequestered for synthesis of neurotransmitter GLU and/or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been determined in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. A total of 57 animals were studied under normal, hypoxic (Pa/sub O2/ greater than or equal to 20 mmHg), or hypercapnic (Pa/sub CO2/ less than or equal to 71 mm Hg) conditions. Thirteen of these were bilaterally vagotomized and carotid body denervated and studied only under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. In 5 animals cerebrospinal fluid GLN transfer rate constant k was measured using 13 N-ammonia tracer. Measured cerebral cortical (CC) and medullary (MED) GLN concentrations c are found to vary with GLU metabolic rate r according to c-C/sub m/r/(r+R), where r, the product of k and corresponding tissue GLU concentration, is assumed equal to the maximum GLN metabolic rate via pathways other than for neurotransmitter synthesis. The constants C/sub m/ and R are the predicted maximum GLN concentration and its maximum rate of sequestration for neurotransmitter synthesis, respectively. For both CNS tissue types in all animals, C/sub m/ = 20.9 +- 7.4 (SD) mmoles/kg wet wt(mM) and R = 6.2 +- 2.3 mM/min. These values are consistent with results obtained in anesthetized rats

  3. The 5-HT1A/1B-receptor agonist eltoprazine increases both catecholamine release in the prefrontal cortex and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and decreases motivation for reward and "waiting" impulsivity, but increases "stopping" impulsivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, S. Mechiel; Prins, Jolanda; van den Bergh, Filip S.; Oosting, Ronald S.; Dupree, Rudy; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A. H.; Westphal, Koen G. C.; Olivier, Berend; Denys, Damiaan A.; Garland, Alexis; Güntürkün, Onur

    2017-01-01

    The 5-HT1A/1B-receptor agonist eltoprazine has a behavioral drug signature that resembles that of a variety of psychostimulant drugs, despite the differences in receptor binding profile. These psychostimulants are effective in treating impulsivity disorders, most likely because they increase

  4. Modulation of electrogenic transport processes in the porcine proximal colon by enteric neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuche, H; Mauksch, A; Gäbel, G

    2012-06-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the involvement of essential pro- and antisecretory neurotransmitters in regulation of secretion in porcine proximal colon. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP), somatostatin (SOM) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were located immunohistochemically in the epithelium and subepithelial layer. Modulation of epithelial secretion was studied in Ussing chambers. Application of carbachol (CA), sodium nitroprussid (SNP), VIP and SP but not of NPY or SOM resulted in a chloride dependent increase in short circuit current (I(sc) ). I(sc) increase induced by CA, VIP or SNP was not altered by preincubation with tetrodotoxin or indomethacin. In contrast, SP-induced I(sc) increase was diminished by preincubation with tetrodotoxin, indomethacin, L-nitro-arginin-methyl-ester, and atropine but not hexamethonium. Simultaneous application of CA and VIP, or CA and SNP increased the I(sc) stronger as expected. Applying SP/CA led to a smaller increase in I(sc) as calculated. It is concluded that mainly prosecretory neurotransmitters are involved in regulation of colonic secretion. Cross-potentiations of acetylcholine and nitric oxide and acetylcholine and VIP suggest activation of different intracellular cascades. Similar intracellular pathways may be stimulated by acetylcholine and SP, thus preventing an additive effect of the transmitters. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. How LeuT shapes our understanding of the mechanisms of sodium-coupled neurotransmitter transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penmatsa, Aravind; Gouaux, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters are ion-coupled symporters that drive the uptake of neurotransmitters from neural synapses. In the past decade, the structure of a bacterial amino acid transporter, leucine transporter (LeuT), has given valuable insights into the understanding of architecture and mechanism of mammalian neurotransmitter transporters. Different conformations of LeuT, including a substrate-free state, inward-open state, and competitive and non-competitive inhibitor-bound states, have revealed a mechanistic framework for the transport and transport inhibition of neurotransmitters. The current review integrates our understanding of the mechanistic and pharmacological properties of eukaryotic neurotransmitter transporters obtained through structural snapshots of LeuT.

  6. Effects of increasing the allowable compressive stress at release on the shear strength of prestressed concrete girders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    In recent years, several research projects have been conducted to study the feasibility of increasing the allowable : compressive stress in concrete at prestress transfer, currently defined as 0.60f'ci in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge : Design Specification...

  7. Fentanyl increases dopamine release in rat nucleus accumbens: involvement of mesolimbic mu- and delta-2-opioid receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, Y.; Koide, S.; Hirose, N.; Takada, K.; Tomiyama, K; Koshikawa, N.; Cools, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of the u-receptor agonist fentanyl on extracellular levels of dopamine in rat nucleus accumbens were studied in awake animals by in vivo brain microdialysis. Fentanyl dosedependently increased the levels of dopamine when given intravenously (ug/kg) or via a microdialysis probe placed

  8. The influence of aripiprazole and olanzapine on neurotransmitters level in frontal cortex of prenatally stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, P; Kus, K; Gołembiowska, K; Noworyta-Sokołowska, K; Woźniak, A; Zaprutko, T; Nowakowska, E

    2016-09-01

    The study aims to verify whether alterations in the level of neurotransmitters have occurred in prenatally stressed rats (animal model of schizophrenia), and whether aripiprazole (ARI) and olanzapine (OLA) modify this level. The effects of ARI (1.5mg/kg) and OLA (0.5mg/kg) were studied by means of microdialysis in freely moving rats (observation time 120min). The level of neurotransmitters (DA, 5-HT, NA) and their metabolites (DOPAC, HVA, 5-HIAA) was analyzed by HPLC with coulochemical detection. Obtained results indicate that after a single administration of ARI and OLA in the prenatally stressed rats the increase of DA, DOPAC, and 5-HT was observed. In turn ARI administration increase the level of HVA and 5-HIAA and also decrease the level of NA. After OLA administration the level of NA and HVA increased and no significant change in 5-HIAA was observed. Alterations observed as a result of ARI and OLA administration may be pivotal in identifying animal models of mental disorders and in the analysis of neuroleptics effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of the alkaloid (-)cathinone on the release of radioactivity from rabbit atria prelabelled with 3H-norepinephrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalix, P.

    1983-01-01

    In certain countries of East Africa and the Arab Peninsula, fresh leaves of the khat shrub are used as a stimulant. The effect of the plant material can be explained by the presence of the phenylalklamine alkaloid (-)cathinone in the leaves, since this substance has been shown to have an amphetamine-like releasing effect on CNS tissue prelabelled with 3 H-dopamine. Characteristically, the chewing of khat is accompanied by sympathomimetic effects, especially at the cardiovascular level. To test whether these might be due to release of neurotransmitter from adrenergic nerve endings, the effect of (-)cathinone on the efflux of radioactivity from isolated rabbit atrium tissue prelabelled with 3 H-norepinephrine was investigated. It was found that, at concentrations below 1 μM, (-)cathinone caused an immediate increase of efflux. The effect was dose-dependent and was potentiated by pretreatment of the rabbits with reserpine. Preincubation of the tissue with desipramine and cocaine prevented the induction of release by (-)cathinone. The results indicate that the alkaloid (-)cathinone has an amphetamine-like releasing effect on noradrenergic nerve endings and they suggest that the cardiovascular symptoms observed during khat consumption are due to release of neurotransmitter from physiologicl storage sites

  10. Expression of the capacity to release [3H]norepinephrine by neural crest cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, G.D.; Sietz, P.D.

    1983-01-01

    Cultures of trunk neural crest cells from quail embryos were tested for their ability to release [ 3 H]norepinephrine [( 3 H]NE) in response to depolarization. After 7 days in vitro, exposure of the cultures to either the alkaloid veratridine or 40 mM K+ results in the evoked release of [ 3 H]NE. The release evoked by veratridine is blocked in the presence of tetrodotoxin. The release evoked by increased K+ is blocked by the calcium antagonist cobalt. Release in response to the nicotinic cholinergic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazine was also observed. The amount of evoked release is highly correlated with the number of histochemically demonstrable catecholamine-containing cells in a given culture. Autoradiography reveals that the radioactivity taken up by these cultures is located in a subpopulation of cells whose morphology resembles that of the histochemically detectable catecholamine-containing cell population. Whereas capacity for the release of [ 3 H] NE is readily detectable after 7 days in vitro, it is detectable only with difficulty after 4 days in vitro. There is a greater than 6-fold increase in uptake capacity over the period of 4 to 7 days in vitro. These results demonstrate that neural crest cultures grown without their normal synaptic inputs or targets can exhibit the capacity for stimulus secretion coupling characteristic of synaptic neurotransmitter release

  11. Water deprivation increases Fos expression in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor neurons induced by right atrial distension in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Mauricio; Rorato, Rodrigo; Castro, Margaret; Machado, Benedito H; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose; Elias, Lucila L K

    2008-11-01

    Atrial mechanoreceptors, sensitive to stretch, contribute in regulating heart rate and intravascular volume. The information from those receptors reaches the nucleus tractus solitarius and then the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), known to have a crucial role in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Neurons in the PVN synthesize CRF, AVP, and oxytocin (OT). Stimulation of atrial mechanoreceptors was performed in awake rats implanted with a balloon at the junction of the superior vena cava and right atrium. Plasma ACTH, AVP, and OT concentrations and Fos, CRF, AVP, and OT immunolabeling in the PVN were determined after balloon inflation in hydrated and water-deprived rats. The distension of the balloon increased the plasma ACTH concentrations, which were higher in water-deprived than in hydrated rats (P neurons in the parvocellular PVN, which was higher in the water-deprived than in the hydrated group (P neurons after distension in hydrated and water-deprived groups, compared with respective controls. In conclusion, parvocellular CRF neurons showed an increase of Fos expression induced by stimulation of right atrial mechanoreceptors, suggesting that CRF participates in the cardiovascular reflex adjustments elicited by volume loading. Activation of CRF neurons in the PVN by cardiovascular reflex is affected by osmotic stimulation.

  12. Pre-Release Consumption of Methyl Eugenol Increases the Mating Competitiveness of Sterile Males of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Large Field Enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Todd E.; Edu, James; McInnis, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique may be implemented to control populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), when environmental concerns preclude widespread use of chemical attractants or toxicants. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the mating competitiveness of sterile B. dorsalis males could be increased via pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol. Males of the oriental fruit fly are strongly attracted to this plant-borne compound, which they ingest and use in the synthesis of the sex pheromone. Previous studies conducted in the laboratory and small field-cages have shown that males given methyl eugenol produce a more attractive pheromone for females and have a higher mating success rate than males denied methyl eugenol. Here, levels of egg sterility were compared following the release of wild-like flies and either methyl eugenol-fed (treated) or methyl eugenol-deprived (control) sterile males in large field enclosures at four over flooding ratios ranging from 5:1 to 60:1 (sterile: wild-like males). Treated sterile males were fed methyl eugenol for 1–4 h (depending on the over flooding ratio tested) 3 d prior to release. Eggs were dissected from introduced fruits (apples), incubated in the laboratory, and scored for hatch rate. The effect of methyl eugenol was most pronounced at lower over flooding ratios. At the 5:1 and 10:1 over flooding ratios, the level of egg sterility observed for treated, sterile males was significantly greater than that observed for control, sterile males. In addition, the incidence of egg sterility reported for treated sterile males at these lower over flooding ratios was similar to that noted for treated or control sterile males at the 30:1 or 60:1 over flooding ratios. This latter result, in particular, suggests that pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol allows for a reduction in the number of sterile flies that are produced and released, thus increasing the cost

  13. The Role of Ion Selectivity of the Fusion Pore on Transmission and the Exocytosis of Neurotransmitters and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacruz, Joannalyn Bongar

    Healthy nervous system function depends on proper transmission. Synaptic transmission occurs by the release of transmitters from vesicles that fuse to the plasma membrane of a pre-synaptic cell. Regulated release of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and hormones occurs by exocytosis, initiated by the formation of the fusion pore. The initial fusion pore has molecular dimensions with a diameter of 1-2 nm and a rapid lifetime on the millisecond time scale. It connects the vesicular lumen and extracellular space, serving as an important step for regulating the release of charged transmitters. Comprehending the molecular structure and biophysical properties of the fusion pore is essential for a mechanistic understanding of vesicle-plasma membrane fusion and transmitter release. Release of charged transmitter molecules such as glutamate, acetylcholine, dopamine, or noradrenaline through a narrow fusion pore requires compensation of change in charge. Transmitter release through the fusion pore is therefore an electrodiffusion process. If the fusion pore is selective for specific ions, then its selectivity will affect the rate of transmitter release via the voltage gradient that develops across the fusion pore. The elucidation of these mechanisms can lead to a better understanding of nervous system cell biology, neural and endocrine signaling, learning, memory, motor control, sensory function and integration, and in particular synaptic transmission. This investigation can advance our understanding of neurological disorders in which noradrenergic and dopaminergic exocytosis is disturbed, leading to neurological consequences of developmental disorders, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases. Ultimately, understanding the role of selectivity in the fusion pore and its effects on exocytosis can contribute to the development of more effective therapies. This study investigates the selectivity of the fusion pore by observing the effects of ion

  14. Sensory Processing and Integration at the Carotid Body Tripartite Synapse: Neurotransmitter Functions and Effects of Chronic Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Leonard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of homeostasis in the respiratory and cardiovascular systems depends on reflexes that are initiated at specialized peripheral chemoreceptors that sense changes in the chemical composition of arterial blood. In mammals, the bilaterally-paired carotid bodies (CBs are the main peripheral chemoreceptor organs that are richly vascularized and are strategically located at the carotid bifurcation. The CBs contribute to the maintenance of O2, CO2/H+, and glucose homeostasis and have attracted much clinical interest because hyperactivity in these organs is associated with several pathophysiological conditions including sleep apnea, obstructive lung disease, heart failure, hypertension, and diabetes. In response to a decrease in O2 availability (hypoxia and elevated CO2/H+ (acid hypercapnia, CB receptor type I (glomus cells depolarize and release neurotransmitters that stimulate apposed chemoafferent nerve fibers. The central projections of those fibers in turn activate cardiorespiratory centers in the brainstem, leading to an increase in ventilation and sympathetic drive that helps restore blood PO2 and protect vital organs, e.g., the brain. Significant progress has been made in understanding how neurochemicals released from type I cells such as ATP, adenosine, dopamine, 5-HT, ACh, and angiotensin II help shape the CB afferent discharge during both normal and pathophysiological conditions. However, type I cells typically occur in clusters and in addition to their sensory innervation are ensheathed by the processes of neighboring glial-like, sustentacular type II cells. This morphological arrangement is reminiscent of a “tripartite synapse” and emerging evidence suggests that paracrine stimulation of type II cells by a variety of CB neurochemicals may trigger the release of “gliotransmitters” such as ATP via pannexin-1 channels. Further, recent data suggest novel mechanisms by which dopamine, acting via D2 receptors (D2R, may inhibit

  15. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System-based amperometric detection of dopamine, adenosine, and glutamate for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnesi, Filippo; Tye, Susannah J; Bledsoe, Jonathan M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Kimble, Christopher J; Sieck, Gary C; Bennet, Kevin E; Garris, Paul A; Blaha, Charles D; Lee, Kendall H

    2009-10-01

    In a companion study, the authors describe the development of a new instrument named the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS), which couples digital telemetry with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine. In the present study, the authors describe the extended capability of the WINCS to use fixed potential amperometry (FPA) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine, as well as glutamate and adenosine. Compared with other electrochemical techniques such as FSCV or high-speed chronoamperometry, FPA offers superior temporal resolution and, in combination with enzyme-linked biosensors, the potential to monitor nonelectroactive analytes in real time. The WINCS design incorporated a transimpedance amplifier with associated analog circuitry for FPA; a microprocessor; a Bluetooth transceiver; and a single, battery-powered, multilayer, printed circuit board. The WINCS was tested with 3 distinct recording electrodes: 1) a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to measure dopamine; 2) a glutamate oxidase enzyme-linked electrode to measure glutamate; and 3) a multiple enzyme-linked electrode (adenosine deaminase, nucleoside phosphorylase, and xanthine oxidase) to measure adenosine. Proof-of-principle analyses included noise assessments and in vitro and in vivo measurements that were compared with similar analyses by using a commercial hardwired electrochemical system (EA161 Picostat, eDAQ; Pty Ltd). In urethane-anesthetized rats, dopamine release was monitored in the striatum following deep brain stimulation (DBS) of ascending dopaminergic fibers in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). In separate rat experiments, DBS-evoked adenosine release was monitored in the ventrolateral thalamus. To test the WINCS in an operating room setting resembling human neurosurgery, cortical glutamate release in response to motor cortex stimulation (MCS) was monitored using a large-mammal animal model, the pig. The

  16. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System–based amperometric detection of dopamine, adenosine, and glutamate for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnesi, Filippo; Tye, Susannah J.; Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Sieck, Gary C.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2009-01-01

    Object In a companion study, the authors describe the development of a new instrument named the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS), which couples digital telemetry with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine. In the present study, the authors describe the extended capability of the WINCS to use fixed potential amperometry (FPA) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine, as well as glutamate and adenosine. Compared with other electrochemical techniques such as FSCV or high-speed chronoamperometry, FPA offers superior temporal resolution and, in combination with enzyme-linked biosensors, the potential to monitor nonelectroactive analytes in real time. Methods The WINCS design incorporated a transimpedance amplifier with associated analog circuitry for FPA; a microprocessor; a Bluetooth transceiver; and a single, battery-powered, multilayer, printed circuit board. The WINCS was tested with 3 distinct recording electrodes: 1) a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to measure dopamine; 2) a glutamate oxidase enzyme-linked electrode to measure glutamate; and 3) a multiple enzyme-linked electrode (adenosine deaminase, nucleoside phosphorylase, and xanthine oxidase) to measure adenosine. Proof-of-principle analyses included noise assessments and in vitro and in vivo measurements that were compared with similar analyses by using a commercial hardwired electrochemical system (EA161 Picostat, eDAQ; Pty Ltd). In urethane-anesthetized rats, dopamine release was monitored in the striatum following deep brain stimulation (DBS) of ascending dopaminergic fibers in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). In separate rat experiments, DBS-evoked adenosine release was monitored in the ventrolateral thalamus. To test the WINCS in an operating room setting resembling human neurosurgery, cortical glutamate release in response to motor cortex stimulation (MCS) was monitored using a large-mammal animal

  17. Neurotransmitter receptors as signaling platforms in anterior pituitary cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, Hana; Stojilkovic, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 463, C (2018), s. 49-64 ISSN 0303-7207 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12695S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : pituitary * ligand-gated receptor channels * G protein -coupled receptors * neurotransmitters * action potentials * calcium signaling * hormone secretion Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 3.754, year: 2016

  18. Three Gaseous Neurotransmitters, Nitric oxide, Carbon Monoxide, and Hydrogen Sulfide, Are Involved in the Neurogenic Relaxation Responses of the Porcine Internal Anal Sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folasire, Oladayo; Mills, Kylie A; Sellers, Donna J; Chess-Williams, Russ

    2016-01-31

    The internal anal sphincter (IAS) plays an important role in maintaining continence and a number of neurotransmitters are known to regulate IAS tone. The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of the neurotransmitters involved in the relaxant and contractile responses of the porcine IAS. Responses of isolated strips of IAS to electrical field stimulation (EFS) were obtained in the absence and presence of inhibitors of neurotransmitter systems. Contractile responses of the sphincter to EFS were unaffected by the muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (1 μM), but were almost completely abolished by the adrenergic neuron blocker guanethidine (10 μM). Contractile responses were also reduced (by 45% at 5 Hz, P 40-50% reduction), zinc protoprophyrin IX (10 μM), an inhibitor of carbon monoxide synthesis (20-40% reduction), and also propargylglycine (30 μM) and aminooxyacetic acid (30 μM), inhibitors of hydrogen sulphide synthesis (15-20% reduction). Stimulation of IAS efferent nerves releases excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters: noradrenaline is the predominant contractile transmitter with a smaller component from ATP, whilst 3 gases mediate relaxation responses to EFS, with the combined contributions being nitric oxide > carbon monoxide > hydrogen sulfide.

  19. Neuronal Depolarization Drives Increased Dopamine Synaptic Vesicle Loading via VGLUT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Jenny I; Dunn, Matthew; Mingote, Susana; Karam, Caline S; Farino, Zachary J; Sonders, Mark S; Choi, Se Joon; Grygoruk, Anna; Zhang, Yuchao; Cela, Carolina; Choi, Ben Jiwon; Flores, Jorge; Freyberg, Robin J; McCabe, Brian D; Mosharov, Eugene V; Krantz, David E; Javitch, Jonathan A; Sulzer, David; Sames, Dalibor; Rayport, Stephen; Freyberg, Zachary

    2017-08-30

    The ability of presynaptic dopamine terminals to tune neurotransmitter release to meet the demands of neuronal activity is critical to neurotransmission. Although vesicle content has been assumed to be static, in vitro data increasingly suggest that cell activity modulates vesicle content. Here, we use a coordinated genetic, pharmacological, and imaging approach in Drosophila to study the presynaptic machinery responsible for these vesicular processes in vivo. We show that cell depolarization increases synaptic vesicle dopamine content prior to release via vesicular hyperacidification. This depolarization-induced hyperacidification is mediated by the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT). Remarkably, both depolarization-induced dopamine vesicle hyperacidification and its dependence on VGLUT2 are seen in ventral midbrain dopamine neurons in the mouse. Together, these data suggest that in response to depolarization, dopamine vesicles utilize a cascade of vesicular transporters to dynamically increase the vesicular pH gradient, thereby increasing dopamine vesicle content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhanced quantal release of excitatory transmitter in anterior cingulate cortex of adult mice with chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ming-Gao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is a forebrain structure that plays important roles in emotion, learning, memory and persistent pain. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission was induced by peripheral inflammation and nerve injury in ACC synapses. However, little information is available on their presynaptic mechanisms, since the source of the enhanced synaptic transmission could include the enhanced probability of neurotransmitter release at existing release sites and/or increases in the number of available vesicles. The present study aims to perform quantal analysis of excitatory synapses in the ACC with chronic pain to examine the source of these increases. The quantal analysis revealed that both probability of transmitter release and number of available vesicles were increased in a mouse model of peripheral inflammation, whereas only probability of transmitter release but not number of available vesicles was enhanced in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. In addition, we compared the miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (mEPSCs in ACC synapses with those in other pain-related brain areas such as the amygdala and spinal cord. Interestingly, the rate and amplitude of mEPSCs in ACC synapses were significantly lower than those in the amygdala and spinal cord. Our studies provide strong evidences that chronic inflammatory pain increases both probability of transmitter release and number of available vesicles, whereas neuropathic pain increases only probability of transmitter release in the ACC synapses.

  1. Detoxification of ammonia in mouse cortical GABAergic cell cultures increases neuronal oxidative metabolism and reveals an emerging role for release of glucose-derived alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, Renata; Bak, Lasse K; Anker, Malene; Melø, Torun M; Sørensen, Michael; Keiding, Susanne; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Ott, Peter; Portela, Luis V; Sonnewald, Ursula; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2011-04-01

    Cerebral hyperammonemia is believed to play a pivotal role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a debilitating condition arising due to acute or chronic liver disease. In the brain, ammonia is thought to be detoxified via the activity of glutamine synthetase, an astrocytic enzyme. Moreover, it has been suggested that cerebral tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism is inhibited and glycolysis enhanced during hyperammonemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the ammonia-detoxifying mechanisms as well as the effects of ammonia on energy-generating metabolic pathways in a mouse neuronal-astrocytic co-culture model of the GABAergic system. We found that 5 mM ammonium chloride affected energy metabolism by increasing the neuronal TCA cycle activity and switching the astrocytic TCA cycle toward synthesis of substrate for glutamine synthesis. Furthermore, ammonia exposure enhanced the synthesis and release of alanine. Collectively, our results demonstrate that (1) formation of glutamine is seminal for detoxification of ammonia; (2) neuronal oxidative metabolism is increased in the presence of ammonia; and (3) synthesis and release of alanine is likely to be important for ammonia detoxification as a supplement to formation of glutamine.

  2. Endophilin mutations block clathrin-mediated endocytosis but not neurotransmitter release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verstreken, Patrik; Kjaerulff, Ole; Lloyd, Thomas E

    2002-01-01

    We have identified mutations in Drosophila endophilin to study its function in vivo. Endophilin is required presynaptically at the neuromuscular junction, and absence of Endophilin dramatically impairs endocytosis in vivo. Mutant larvae that lack Endophilin fail to take up FM1-43 dye in synaptic ...

  3. Kinetics of neurotransmitter release in neuromuscular synapses of newborn and adult rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khuzakhmetova, V.; Samigullin, D.; Nurullin, L.; Vyskočil, František; Nikolsky, E.; Bukharaeva, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, MAY (2014), s. 9-18 ISSN 0736-5748 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ryanodine receptor * synaptic latency Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.580, year: 2014

  4. Neurotransmitter Transporter-Like: a male germline-specific SLC6 transporter required for Drosophila spermiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Chatterjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The SLC6 class of membrane transporters, known primarily as neurotransmitter transporters, is increasingly appreciated for its roles in nutritional uptake of amino acids and other developmentally specific functions. A Drosophila SLC6 gene, Neurotransmitter transporter-like (Ntl, is expressed only in the male germline. Mobilization of a transposon inserted near the 3' end of the Ntl coding region yields male-sterile mutants defining a single complementation group. Germline transformation with Ntl cDNAs under control of male germline-specific control elements restores Ntl/Ntl homozygotes to normal fertility, indicating that Ntl is required only in the germ cells. In mutant males, sperm morphogenesis appears normal, with elongated, individualized and coiled spermiogenic cysts accumulating at the base of the testes. However, no sperm are transferred to the seminal vesicle. The level of polyglycylation of Ntl mutant sperm tubulin appears to be significantly lower than that of wild type controls. Glycine transporters are the most closely related SLC6 transporters to Ntl, suggesting that Ntl functions as a glycine transporter in developing sperm, where augmentation of the cytosolic pool of glycine may be required for the polyglycylation of the massive amounts of tubulin in the fly's giant sperm. The male-sterile phenotype of Ntl mutants may provide a powerful genetic system for studying the function of an SLC6 transporter family in a model organism.

  5. Near-future carbon dioxide levels alter fish behaviour by interfering with neurotransmitter function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Göran E.; Dixson, Danielle L.; Domenici, Paolo; McCormick, Mark I.; Sørensen, Christina; Watson, Sue-Ann; Munday, Philip L.

    2012-03-01

    Predicted future CO2 levels have been found to alter sensory responses and behaviour of marine fishes. Changes include increased boldness and activity, loss of behavioural lateralization, altered auditory preferences and impaired olfactory function. Impaired olfactory function makes larval fish attracted to odours they normally avoid, including ones from predators and unfavourable habitats. These behavioural alterations have significant effects on mortality that may have far-reaching implications for population replenishment, community structure and ecosystem function. However, the underlying mechanism linking high CO2 to these diverse responses has been unknown. Here we show that abnormal olfactory preferences and loss of behavioural lateralization exhibited by two species of larval coral reef fish exposed to high CO2 can be rapidly and effectively reversed by treatment with an antagonist of the GABA-A receptor. GABA-A is a major neurotransmitter receptor in the vertebrate brain. Thus, our results indicate that high CO2 interferes with neurotransmitter function, a hitherto unrecognized threat to marine populations and ecosystems. Given the ubiquity and conserved function of GABA-A receptors, we predict that rising CO2 levels could cause sensory and behavioural impairment in a wide range of marine species, especially those that tightly control their acid-base balance through regulatory changes in HCO3- and Cl- levels.

  6. Availability of neurotransmitter glutamate is diminished when beta-hydroxybutyrate replaces glucose in cultured neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Trine M; Risa, Oystein; Sonnewald, Ursula; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2009-07-01

    Ketone bodies serve as alternative energy substrates for the brain in cases of low glucose availability such as during starvation or in patients treated with a ketogenic diet. The ketone bodies are metabolized via a distinct pathway confined to the mitochondria. We have compared metabolism of [2,4-(13)C]beta-hydroxybutyrate to that of [1,6-(13)C]glucose in cultured glutamatergic neurons and investigated the effect of neuronal activity focusing on the aspartate-glutamate homeostasis, an essential component of the excitatory activity in the brain. The amount of (13)C incorporation and cellular content was lower for glutamate and higher for aspartate in the presence of [2,4-(13)C]beta-hydroxybutyrate as opposed to [1,6-(13)C]glucose. Our results suggest that the change in aspartate-glutamate homeostasis is due to a decreased availability of NADH for cytosolic malate dehydrogenase and thus reduced malate-aspartate shuttle activity in neurons using beta-hydroxybutyrate. In the presence of glucose, the glutamate content decreased significantly upon activation of neurotransmitter release, whereas in the presence of only beta-hydroxybutyrate, no decrease in the glutamate content was observed. Thus, the fraction of the glutamate pool available for transmitter release was diminished when metabolizing beta-hydroxybutyrate, which is in line with the hypothesis of formation of transmitter glutamate via an obligatory involvement of the malate-aspartate shuttle.

  7. Neurotransmitter-Triggered Transfer of Exosomes Mediates Oligodendrocyte–Neuron Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen Ping; Amphornrat, Jesa; Thilemann, Sebastian; Saab, Aiman S.; Kirchhoff, Frank; Möbius, Wiebke; Goebbels, Sandra; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Schneider, Anja; Simons, Mikael; Klugmann, Matthias; Trotter, Jacqueline; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocal interactions between neurons and oligodendrocytes are not only crucial for myelination, but also for long-term survival of axons. Degeneration of axons occurs in several human myelin diseases, however the molecular mechanisms of axon-glia communication maintaining axon integrity are poorly understood. Here, we describe the signal-mediated transfer of exosomes from oligodendrocytes to neurons. These endosome-derived vesicles are secreted by oligodendrocytes and carry specific protein and RNA cargo. We show that activity-dependent release of the neurotransmitter glutamate triggers oligodendroglial exosome secretion mediated by Ca2+ entry through oligodendroglial NMDA and AMPA receptors. In turn, neurons internalize the released exosomes by endocytosis. Injection of oligodendroglia-derived exosomes into the mouse brain results in functional retrieval of exosome cargo in neurons. Supply of cultured neurons with oligodendroglial exosomes improves neuronal viability under conditions of cell stress. These findings indicate that oligodendroglial exosomes participate in a novel mode of bidirectional neuron-glia communication contributing to neuronal integrity. PMID:23874151

  8. Neurotransmitter-triggered transfer of exosomes mediates oligodendrocyte-neuron communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühbeis, Carsten; Fröhlich, Dominik; Kuo, Wen Ping; Amphornrat, Jesa; Thilemann, Sebastian; Saab, Aiman S; Kirchhoff, Frank; Möbius, Wiebke; Goebbels, Sandra; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Schneider, Anja; Simons, Mikael; Klugmann, Matthias; Trotter, Jacqueline; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria

    2013-07-01

    Reciprocal interactions between neurons and oligodendrocytes are not only crucial for myelination, but also for long-term survival of axons. Degeneration of axons occurs in several human myelin diseases, however the molecular mechanisms of axon-glia communication maintaining axon integrity are poorly understood. Here, we describe the signal-mediated transfer of exosomes from oligodendrocytes to neurons. These endosome-derived vesicles are secreted by oligodendrocytes and carry specific protein and RNA cargo. We show that activity-dependent release of the neurotransmitter glutamate triggers oligodendroglial exosome secretion mediated by Ca²⁺ entry through oligodendroglial NMDA and AMPA receptors. In turn, neurons internalize the released exosomes by endocytosis. Injection of oligodendroglia-derived exosomes into the mouse brain results in functional retrieval of exosome cargo in neurons. Supply of cultured neurons with oligodendroglial exosomes improves neuronal viability under conditions of cell stress. These findings indicate that oligodendroglial exosomes participate in a novel mode of bidirectional neuron-glia communication contributing to neuronal integrity.

  9. MRI sensing of neurotransmitters with a crown ether appended Gd(3+) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukhatar, Fatima; Même, Sandra; Même, William; Szeremeta, Frédéric; Logothetis, Nikos K; Angelovski, Goran; Tóth, Éva

    2015-02-18

    Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches that detect biomarkers associated with neural activity would allow more direct observation of brain function than current functional MRI based on blood-oxygen-level-dependent contrast. Our objective was to create a synthetic molecular platform with appropriate recognition moieties for zwitterionic neurotransmitters that generate an MR signal change upon neurotransmitter binding. The gadolinium complex (GdL) we report offers ditopic binding for zwitterionic amino acid neurotransmitters, via interactions (i) between the positively charged and coordinatively unsaturated metal center and the carboxylate function and (ii) between a triazacrown ether and the amine group of the neurotransmitters. GdL discriminates zwitterionic neurotransmitters from monoamines. Neurotransmitter binding leads to a remarkable relaxivity change, related to a decrease in hydration number. GdL was successfully used to monitor neural activity in ex vivo mouse brain slices by MRI.

  10. Detection and Monitoring of Neurotransmitters - a Spectroscopic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia; Lee, Kendall; Durrer, William; Bennet, Kevin

    2012-10-01

    In this work we demonstrate the capability of confocal Raman mapping spectroscopy for simultaneously and locally detecting important compounds in neuroscience such as dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine. The Raman results show shifting of the characteristic vibrations of the compounds, observations consistent with previous spectroscopic studies. Although some vibrations are common in these neurotransmitters, Raman mapping was achieved by detecting non-overlapping characteristic spectral signatures of the compounds, as follows: for dopamine the vibration attributed to C-O stretching, for serotonin the indole ring stretching vibration, and for adenosine the adenine ring vibrations. Without damage, dyeing, or preferential sample preparation, confocal Raman mapping provided positive detection of each neurotransmitter, allowing association of the high-resolution spectra with specific micro-scale image regions. Such information is particularly important for complex, heterogeneous samples, where modification of the chemical or physical composition can influence the neurotransmission processes. We also report an estimated dopamine diffusion coefficient two orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated by the flow-injection method.

  11. "Stiff neonate" with mitochondrial DNA depletion and secondary neurotransmitter defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Margaret M

    2011-12-01

    Mitochondrial disorders comprise a heterogenous group. A neonate who presented with episodes of severe truncal hypertonia and apnea progressed to a hypokinetic rigid syndrome characterized by hypokinesia, tremulousness, profound head lag, absent suck and gag reflexes, brisk deep tendon reflexes, ankle and jaw clonus, and evidence of autonomic dysfunction. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters from age 7 weeks demonstrated low levels of amine metabolites (homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid), tetrahydrobiopterin, and pyridoxal phosphate. Mitochondrial DNA quantitative studies on muscle homogenate demonstrated a mitochondrial DNA depletion disorder. Respiratory chain enzymology demonstrated decreased complex IV activity. Screening for mitochondrial DNA rearrangement disorders and sequencing relevant mitochondrial genes produced negative results. No clinical or biochemical response to treatment with pyridoxal phosphate, tetrahydrobiopterin, or l-dopa occurred. The clinical course was progressive, and the patient died at age 19 months. Mitochondrial disorders causing secondary neurotransmitter diseases are usually severe, but are rarely reported. This diagnosis should be considered in neonates or infants who present with hypertonia, hypokinesia rigidity, and progressive neurodegeneration.

  12. Identification of catecholamine neurotransmitters using fluorescence sensor array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi, Forough [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hormozi-Nezhad, M. Reza, E-mail: hormozi@sharif.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoudi, Morteza, E-mail: mahmoudi@stanford.edu [Department of Nanotechnology and Nanotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 13169-43551 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5101 (United States)

    2016-04-21

    A nano-based sensor array has been developed for identification and discrimination of catecholamine neurotransmitters based on optical properties of their oxidation products under alkaline conditions. To produce distinct fluorescence response patterns for individual catecholamine, quenching of thioglycolic acid functionalized cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots, by oxidation products, were employed along with the variation of fluorescence spectra of oxidation products. The spectral changes were analyzed with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify catecholamine patterns. The proposed sensor could efficiently discriminate the individual catecholamine (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and L-DOPA) and their mixtures in the concentration range of 0.25–30 μmol L{sup −1}. Finally, we found that the sensor had capability to identify the various catecholamines in urine sample. - Highlights: • We have proposed a fluorescence sensor array to detect catecholamine neurotransmitters. • Visual differentiation of catecholamines is provided by fluorescence array fingerprints. • Discrimination of catecholamines from each other, and from their mixture is obtained on a PCA plot. • Proposed sensor array can be used for detection of catecholamines in urine samples.

  13. Nicotinic receptor-associated modulation of stimulatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in NNK-induced adenocarcinoma of the lungs and pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wadei, Hussein A. N.; Schuller, Hildegard M.

    2012-01-01

    Small airway-derived pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PAC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are among the most common human cancers and smoking is a risk factor for both. Emerging research has identified cAMP signaling stimulated by the stress neurotransmitters adrenaline and noradrenaline as important stimulators of several adenocarcinomas, including PAC and PDAC. The nicotine-derived nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a potent mutagen and the most powerful tobacco carcinogen. NNK is also an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Using hamster models of NNK-induced PAC and PDAC, we have tested the hypothesis that in analogy to chronic effects of nicotine in the brain, NNK may modulate the α7- and α4β2nAChRs, causing an increase in stress neurotransmitters and decrease in the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In support of our hypothesis, immunoassays showed a significant increase in serum adrenaline/noradrenaline and increased intracellular cAMP in the cellular fraction of blood of NNK treated hamsters. Western blots were done with cells harvested by laser capture microcopy from control small airway epithelia, alveolar epithelia, pancreatic islet and pancreatic duct epithelia and from NNK-induced PACs and PDACs. The GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and GABA were suppressed in NNK-induced PACs and PDACs whereas protein expression of the α7nAChR, α4nAChR as well as p-CREB and p-ERK1/2 were upregulated. These findings suggest, for the first time, that NNK-induced alterations in regulatory nAChRs may contribute to the development of smoking-associated PAC and PDAC by disturbing the balance between cancer stimulating and inhibiting neurotransmitters. PMID:19274673

  14. Changes in gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene expression after an increase in carbon monoxide concentration in the cavernous sinus of male wild boar and pig crossbread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romerowicz-Misielak, M; Tabecka-Lonczynska, A; Koziol, K; Gilun, P; Stefanczyk-Krzymowska, S; Och, W; Koziorowski, M

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies indicate that there are at least a few regulatory systems involved in photoperiodic synchronisation of reproductive activity, which starts with the retina and ends at the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator. Recently we have shown indicated that the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) released from the eye into the ophthalmic venous blood depends on the intensity of sunlight. The aim of this study was to test whether changes in the concentration of carbon monoxide in the ophthalmic venous blood may modulate reproductive activity, as measured by changes in GnRH and GnRH receptor gene expression. The animal model used was mature male swine crossbred from wild boars and domestic sows (n = 48). We conducted in vivo experiments to determine the effect of increased CO concentrations in the cavernous sinus of the mammalian perihypophyseal vascular complex on gene expression of GnRH and GnRH receptors as well as serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The experiments were performed during long photoperiod days near the summer solstice (second half of June) and short photoperiod days near the winter solstice (second half of December). These crossbred swine demonstrated a seasonally-dependent marked variation in GnRH and GnRH receptor gene expression and systemic LH levels in response to changes in CO concentration in ophthalmic venous blood. These results seem to confirm the hypothesis of humoral phototransduction as a mechanism for some of bright light's effects in animal chronobiology and the effect of CO on GnRH and GnRH receptor gene expression.

  15. Reduced radioiodine uptake at increased iodine intake and {sup 131}I-induced release of ''cold'' iodine stored in the thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, B.; Haase, A.; Richter, E.; Baehre, M. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany); Seyfarth, M. [Inst. of Clinical Chemistry, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany); Wenzel, B.E. [Clinic of Internal Medicine I, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Aim: the extent of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) provides information about iodine supply and release. In the present study we investigated correlations between UIE and radioiodine uptake (RIU) as well as effects of radioiodine therapy on UIE in patients with autonomous goitre. Patients, methods: In 197 consecutive patients with thyroid autonomy, UIE was measured twice during radioiodine test (RITe) and correlated with RIU. In 98 of these patients, thyroglobulin and thyroid volume (V) were determined prior to therapy. Individual changes in urinary iodine excretion ({delta}UIE) and TG ({delta}TG) could be investigated four weeks (4W) and six months (6M) after radioiodine therapy. Additionally, {delta}V was determined 6M after therapy. {delta}UIE, {delta}TG and {delta}V were correlated with target dose and target volume. Results: patients with higher iodine excretion exhibited significantly lower thyroidal radioiodine uptake values. Twofold increased UIE prior to therapy decreased radioiodine uptake by 25%. Compared with pretherapeutic values, UIE and TG were significantly increased four weeks after radioiodine therapy (p < 0.001). Median values of both parameters were found to be doubled. The product of target dose and target volume was not only correlated with a decrease of thyroid volume 6M after therapy, but also with an increase of UIE and TG in the early phase after therapy. Conclusions: it was confirmed that UIE during RITe is a measure for iodine intake and can be used to investigate the competition between stable iodine and radioiodine. The increase of UIE and TG four weeks after therapeutic administration of radioiodine can be explained by disintegrated thyroid follicles. The therapy-induced iodine release may be one important cause for the development of hyperthyroidism in some patients during the first weeks after radioiodine therapy. It may contribute to the known decrease of radioiodine uptake after preapplications of {sup 131}I in various thyroid

  16. Membrane depolarization increases ryanodine sensitivity to Ca2+ release to the cytosol in L6 skeletal muscle cells: Implications for excitation-contraction coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitake, Saumitra; Ochs, Raymond S

    2016-04-01

    The dihydropyridine receptor in the plasma membrane and the ryanodine receptor in the sarcoplasmic reticulum are known to physically interact in the process of excitation-contraction coupling. However, the mechanism for subsequent Ca(2+) release through the ryanodine receptor is unknown. Our lab has previously presented evidence that the dihydropyridine receptor and ryanodine receptor combine as a channel for the entry of Ca(2+) under resting conditions, known as store operated calcium entry. Here, we provide evidence that depolarization during excitation-contraction coupling causes the dihydropyridine receptor to disengage from the ryanodine receptor. The newly freed ryanodine receptor can then transport Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol. Experimentally, this should more greatly expose the ryanodine receptor to exogenous ryanodine. To examine this hypothesis, we titrated L6 skeletal muscle cells with ryanodine in resting and excited (depolarized) states. When L6 muscle cells were depolarized with high potassium or exposed to the dihydropyridine receptor agonist BAYK-8644, known to induce dihydropyridine receptor movement within the membrane, ryanodine sensitivity was enhanced. However, ryanodine sensitivity was unaffected when Ca(2+) was elevated without depolarization by the ryanodine receptor agonist chloromethylcresol, or by increasing Ca(2+) concentration in the media. Ca(2+) entry currents (from the extracellular space) during excitation were strongly inhibited by ryanodine, but Ca(2+) entry currents in the resting state were not. We conclude that excitation releases the ryanodine receptor from occlusion by the dihydropyridine receptor, enabling Ca(2+) release from the ryanodine receptor to the cytosol. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  17. Effect of Puumala hantavirus infection on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell hemostatic function: platelet interactions, increased tissue factor expression and fibrinolysis regulator release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Goeijenbier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Puumala virus (PUUV infection causes over 5000 cases of hemorrhagic fever in Europe annually and can influence the hemostatic balance extensively. Infection might lead to hemorrhage, while a recent study showed an increased risk of myocardial infarction during or shortly after PUUV infection. The mechanism by which this hantavirus influences the coagulation system remains unknown. Therefore we aimed to elucidate mechanisms explaining alterations seen in primary and secondary hemostasis during PUUV infection. By using low passage PUUV isolates to infect primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs we were able to show alterations in the regulation of primary- and secondary hemostasis and in the release of fibrinolysis regulators. Our main finding was an activation of secondary hemostasis due to increased tissue factor expression leading to increased thrombin generation in a functional assay. Furthermore, we showed that during infection platelets adhered to HUVECs and subsequently specifically to PUUV virus particles. Infection of HUVECs with PUUV did not result in increased von Willebrand factor while they produced more plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 compared to controls. The PAI-1 produced in this model formed complexes with vitronectin. This is the first report that reveals a potential mechanism behind the pro-coagulant changes in PUUV patients, which could be the result of increased thrombin generation due to an increased tissue factor expression on endothelial cells during infection. Furthermore, we provide insight into the contribution of endothelial cell responses regarding hemostasis in PUUV pathogenesis.

  18. Development of clinical study and application on dopaminergic neurotransmitters and neuroreceptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rongfu

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, the neurotransmitter mapping has been rapidly developed from a lot of fundamental researches to the studies of clinical applications. At present, the dopaminergic neurotransmitter and receptor imaging in the central neurotransmitter mapping study are the most active area including dopaminergic receptor, dopaminergic neurotransmitter and dopaminergic transporter imaging, etc,. The nuclear medicine functional imaging technique with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography possesses potential advantages in the diagnosis and distinguished diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders and movement disorders, and in the study of recognition function

  19. Studies on neurotransmitter-stimulated phospholipid metabolism with cerebral tissue suspensions: a possible biochemical correlate of synaptogenesis in normal and undernourished rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.V.; Sastry, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    The phenomenon of neurotransmitter-stimulated incorporation of 32 Pi into phosphatidic acid and inositol phosphatides (neurotransmitter effect) in developing brain was studied in vitro as a possible measure of synaptogenesis. While the neurotransmitter effect was not observed with brain homogenates, highly consistent and significant effects were noted with brain tissue suspensions obtained by passing the tissue through nylon bolting cloth. The magnitude of the effect decreased with the increase in mesh number. Maximum stimulations obtained with the 33 mesh adult brain cortex preparations (mean +- S.E.M. of 6 experiments) were 203 +- 8%, 316 +- 17% and 150 +8% with 10 -3 M acetylcholine (ACh) + 10 -3 M eserine; 10 -2 M norepinephrine (NE) and 10 -2 M serotonin (5-HT), respectively. (Auth.)

  20. Simultaneous imaging of multiple neurotransmitters and neuroactive substances in the brain by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza; Strittmatter, Nicole; Nilsson, Anna; Källback, Patrik; Alvarsson, Alexandra; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Vallianatou, Theodosia; Svenningsson, Per; Goodwin, Richard J A; Andren, Per E

    2016-08-01

    With neurological processes involving multiple neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, it is important to have the ability to directly map and quantify multiple signaling molecules simultaneously in a single analysis. By utilizing a molecular-specific approach, namely desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI), we demonstrated that the technique can be used to image multiple neurotransmitters and their metabolites (dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine, serotonin, glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, γ-aminobutyric acid, adenosine) as well as neuroactive drugs (amphetamine, sibutramine, fluvoxamine) and drug metabolites in situ directly in brain tissue sections. The use of both positive and negative ionization modes increased the number of identified molecular targets. Chemical derivatization by charge-tagging the primary amines of molecules significantly increased the sensitivity, enabling the detection of low abundant neurotransmitters and other neuroactive substances previously undetectable by MSI. The sensitivity of the imaging approach of neurochemicals has a great potential in many diverse applications in fields such as neuroscience, pharmacology, drug discovery, neurochemistry, and medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Growth hormone-releasing peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, E; Arvat, E; Muccioli, G; Camanni, F

    1997-05-01

    decreases thereafter. By the sixth decade of life, the activity of GHRPs is reduced but it is still marked and higher than that of GHRH. The GH-releasing activity of GHRPs is synergistic with that of GHRH, is not affected by opioid receptor antagonists, such as naloxone, and is only blunted by inhibitory influences, including neurotransmitters, glucose, free fatty acids, gluco corticoids, recombinant human GH and even exogenous somatostatin, which are known to almost abolish the effect of GHRH. GHRPs maintain their GH-releasing effect in somatotrope hypersecretory states such as in acromegaly, anorexia nervosa and hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, their good GH-releasing activity has been shown in some but not in other somatotrope hyposecretory states. In fact, reduced GH responses after GHRP administration have been reported in idiopathic GH deficiency as well as in idiopathic short stature, in obesity and in hypothyroidism, while in patients with pituitary stalk disconnection or Cushing's syndrome the somatotrope responsiveness to GHRPs is almost absent. In short children an increase in height velocity has also been reported during chronic GHRP treatment. Thus, based on their marked GH-releasing effect even after oral administration, GHRPs offer their own clinical usefulness for treatment of some GH hyposecretory states.

  2. Effects of dietary amino acids, carbohydrates, and choline on neurotransmitter synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of a meal to increase or decrease brain neurotransmitter synthesis has been studied. It is concluded that brain serotonin synthesis is directly controlled by the proportions of carbohydrate to protein in meals and snacks that increase or decrease brain tryptophan levels, thereby changing the substrate saturation of tryptophan hydroxylase and the rate of serotonin synthesis. The ability of serotoninergic neurons to have their output coupled to dietary macronutrients enables them to function as sensors of peripheral metabolism, and to subserve an important role in the control of appetite. The robust and selective responses of catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurons to supplemental tyrosine and choline suggest that these compounds may become useful as a new type of drug for treating deseases or conditions in which adequate quantities of the transmitter would otherwise be unavailable.

  3. Wireless Power Transfer for Autonomous Wearable Neurotransmitter Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong M; Kota, Pavan Kumar; Nguyen, Minh Q; Dubey, Souvik; Rao, Smitha; Mays, Jeffrey; Chiao, J-C

    2015-09-23

    In this paper, we report a power management system for autonomous and real-time monitoring of the neurotransmitter L-glutamate (L-Glu). A low-power, low-noise, and high-gain recording module was designed to acquire signal from an implantable flexible L-Glu sensor fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based processes. The wearable recording module was wirelessly powered through inductive coupling transmitter antennas. Lateral and angular misalignments of the receiver antennas were resolved by using a multi-transmitter antenna configuration. The effective coverage, over which the recording module functioned properly, was improved with the use of in-phase transmitter antennas. Experimental results showed that the recording system was capable of operating continuously at distances of 4 cm, 7 cm and 10 cm. The wireless power management system reduced the weight of the recording module, eliminated human intervention and enabled animal experimentation for extended durations.

  4. Identification of catecholamine neurotransmitters using fluorescence sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Forough; Hormozi-Nezhad, M Reza; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-04-21

    A nano-based sensor array has been developed for identification and discrimination of catecholamine neurotransmitters based on optical properties of their oxidation products under alkaline conditions. To produce distinct fluorescence response patterns for individual catecholamine, quenching of thioglycolic acid functionalized cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots, by oxidation products, were employed along with the variation of fluorescence spectra of oxidation products. The spectral changes were analyzed with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify catecholamine patterns. The proposed sensor could efficiently discriminate the individual catecholamine (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and l-DOPA) and their mixtures in the concentration range of 0.25-30 μmol L(-1). Finally, we found that the sensor had capability to identify the various catecholamines in urine sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Wireless Power Transfer for Autonomous Wearable Neurotransmitter Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuong M. Nguyen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a power management system for autonomous and real-time monitoring of the neurotransmitter L-glutamate (L-Glu. A low-power, low-noise, and high-gain recording module was designed to acquire signal from an implantable flexible L-Glu sensor fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS-based processes. The wearable recording module was wirelessly powered through inductive coupling transmitter antennas. Lateral and angular misalignments of the receiver antennas were resolved by using a multi-transmitter antenna configuration. The effective coverage, over which the recording module functioned properly, was improved with the use of in-phase transmitter antennas. Experimental results showed that the recording system was capable of operating continuously at distances of 4 cm, 7 cm and 10 cm. The wireless power management system reduced the weight of the recording module, eliminated human intervention and enabled animal experimentation for extended durations.

  6. Effects of occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls on urinary metabolites of neurotransmitters: A cross-sectional and longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putschögl, Franziska Maria; Gaum, Petra Maria; Schettgen, Thomas; Kraus, Thomas; Gube, Monika; Lang, Jessica

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are chemicals which were used for industrial purposes and are known to induce various adverse health effects. They are also known to be neurotoxic and numerous targets within the central nervous system have been identified in previous studies. Specifically, the neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) are influenced by PCBs as indicated in studies involving animals. However, limited evidence has been published documenting PCB induced changes in the neurotransmitter system in humans. In the present study, we examined the association between a higher PCB body burden following occupational exposure and possible changes in human neurotransmitter metabolites. Within a medical surveillance programme called HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) that monitors adverse health effects of occupational PCB exposure, urine samples were obtained (n(T1) = 166; n(T2) = 177 and n(T3) = 141). The urinary concentrations of the metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA; for DA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA; for NE) were analyzed. Blood samples were obtained by vena puncture in order to determine the internal exposure to PCBs with human biomonitoring. A cross-sectional analysis indicated a significant negative effect of PCB exposure on HVA and VMA. Longitudinally, an initially higher exposure to higher chlorinated PCBs was followed by constant reduced HVA level over three consecutive years. Exploratory analyses show different long-term effects for different PCBs according to their chlorination degree. A higher exposure with lower chlorinated PCBs leads to an increase of VMA and HVA. Conversely, a higher exposure to all PCBs results in a reduction of HVA. This study, to our knowledge, is the first to document changes in neurotransmitter metabolites after occupational PCB exposure in humans. This finding advances evidence obtained from past research, and identifies one potential pathomechanism in the central dopaminergic system of

  7. Purines released from astrocytes inhibit excitatory synaptic transmission in the ventral horn of the spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Eva Maria Meier; Perrier, Jean-Francois Marie

    2014-01-01

    by different neuromodulators. These substances are usually thought of being released by dedicated neurons. However, in other networks from the central nervous system synaptic transmission is also modulated by transmitters released from astrocytes. The star-shaped glial cell responds to neurotransmitters....... Neurons responded to electrical stimulation by monosynaptic EPSCs (excitatory monosynaptic postsynaptic currents). We used mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the glial fibrillary acidic protein to identify astrocytes. Chelating calcium with BAPTA in a single...... neighboring astrocyte increased the amplitude of synaptic currents. In contrast, when we selectively stimulated astrocytes by activating PAR-1 receptors with the peptide TFLLR, the amplitude of EPSCs evoked by a paired stimulation protocol was reduced. The paired-pulse ratio was increased, suggesting...

  8. Effect of adjuvant acupuncture therapy on serum cytokines and neurotransmitters in patients with post-stroke depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Feng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of adjuvant acupuncture therapy on serum cytokines and neurotransmitters in patients with post-stroke depression. Methods: Patients with poststroke depression who were treated in Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Yuyang District Yulin City between May 2014 and February 2017 were selected as the research subjects and divided into two groups by random number table, control group of patients received neurotrophy, rehabilitation exercise, antidepressant drugs and other symptomatic treatment, and the acupuncture group received auxiliary acupuncture treatment on the basis of symptomatic treatment. The serum levels of nerve cytokines, inflammatory cytokines and neurotransmitters were detected before treatment as well as 2 weeks and 4 weeks after treatment. Results: 2 weeks and 4 weeks after treatment, serum BDNF, NGF, IGF-1, FGF-2, NE, DA and 5-HT levels of both groups of patients were higher than those before treatment while HCY, IL- 1β, IL-2, sIL-2R, TNF-α levels were lower than those before treatment, and serum BDNF, NGF, IGF-1, FGF-2, NE, DA and 5-HT levels of acupuncture group were higher than those of control group while HCY, IL-1β, IL-2, sIL-2R, TNF-α levels were lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Adjuvant acupuncture therapy for post-stroke depression can increase the secretion of nerve cytokines, reduce the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and regulate the function of monoamine neurotransmitters.

  9. GABA and glycine as neurotransmitters: a brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowery, N G; Smart, T G

    2006-01-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) emerged as a potentially important brain chemical just over 50 years ago, but its significance as a neurotransmitter was not fully realized until over 16 years later. We now know that at least 40% of inhibitory synaptic processing in the mammalian brain uses GABA. Establishing its role as a transmitter was a lengthy process and it seems hard to believe with our current knowledge that there was ever any dispute about its role in the mammalian brain. The detailed information that we now have about the receptors for GABA together with the wealth of agents which facilitate or reduce GABA receptor mechanisms make the prospects for further research very exciting. The emergence of glycine as a transmitter seems relatively painless by comparison to GABA. Perhaps this is appropriate for the simplest of transmitter structures! Its discovery within the spinal cord and brainstem approximately 40 years ago was followed only 2 years later by the proposal that it be conferred with 'neurotransmitter' status. It was another 16 years before the receptor was biochemically isolated. Now it is readily accepted as a vital spinal and supraspinal inhibitory transmitter and we know many details regarding its molecular structure and trafficking around neurones. The pharmacology of these receptors has lagged behind that of GABA. There is not the rich variety of allosteric modulators that we have come to readily associate with GABA receptors and which has provided us with a virtual treasure trove of important drugs used in anxiety, insomnia, epilepsy, anaesthesia, and spasticity, all stemming from the actions of the simple neutral amino acid GABA. Nevertheless, the realization that glycine receptors are involved in motor reflexes and nociceptive pathways together with the more recent advent of drugs that exhibit some subtype selectivity make the goal of designing selective therapeutic ligands for the glycine receptor that much closer.

  10. Beneficial effects of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats: Possible neurotransmitters and neuroinflammation modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Swati; Jamwal, Sumit; Deshmukh, Rahul; Kumar, Puneet

    2016-01-15

    Tardive Dyskinesia is a severe side effect of chronic neuroleptic treatment consisting of abnormal involuntary movements, characterized by orofacial dyskinesia. The study was designed to investigate the protective effect of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia possibly by neurochemical and neuroinflammatory modulation in rats. Rats were administered with haloperidol (1mg/kg, i.p for 21 days) to induce orofacial dyskinesia. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) was given daily 1hour before haloperidol treatment for 21 days. Behavioral observations (vacuous chewing movements, tongue protrusions, facial jerking, rotarod activity, grip strength, narrow beam walking) were assessed on 0th, 7th(,) 14th(,) 21st day after haloperidol treatment. On 22nd day, animals were killed and striatum was excised for estimation of biochemical parameters (malondialdehyde, nitrite and endogenous enzyme (GSH), pro-inflammatory cytokines [Tumor necrosis factor, Interleukin 1β, Interleukin 6] and neurotransmitters level (dopamine, serotonin, nor epinephrine, 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), Homovanillic acid, 3,4- dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Haloperidol treatment for 21 days impaired muscle co-ordination, motor activity and grip strength with an increased in orofacial dyskinetic movements. Further free radical generation increases MDA and nitrite levels, decreasing GSH levels in striatum. Neuroinflammatory markers were significantly increased with decrease in neurotransmitters levels. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) treatment along with haloperidol significantly attenuated impairment in behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical and neuroinflammatory markers. Results of the present study attributed the therapeutic potential of lycopene in the treatment (prevented or delayed) of typical antipsychotic induced orofacial dyskinesia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Increased cerebral (R-[11C]PK11195 uptake and glutamate release in a rat model of traumatic brain injury: a longitudinal pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lammertsma Adriaan A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to investigate microglia activation over time following traumatic brain injury (TBI and to relate these findings to glutamate release. Procedures Sequential dynamic (R-[11C]PK11195 PET scans were performed in rats 24 hours before (baseline, and one and ten days after TBI using controlled cortical impact, or a sham procedure. Extracellular fluid (ECF glutamate concentrations were measured using cerebral microdialysis. Brains were processed for histopathology and (immuno-histochemistry. Results Ten days after TBI, (R-[11C]PK11195 binding was significantly increased in TBI rats compared with both baseline values and sham controls (p -1 as compared with the sham procedure (6.4 ± 3.6 μmol·L-1. Significant differences were found between TBI and sham for ED-1, OX-6, GFAP, Perl's, and Fluoro-Jade B. Conclusions Increased cerebral uptake of (R-[11C]PK11195 ten days after TBI points to prolonged and ongoing activation of microglia. This activation followed a significant acute posttraumatic increase in ECF glutamate levels.

  12. Mechanisms of multiple neurotransmitters in the effects of Lycopene on brain injury induced by Hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weichun; Shen, Ziyi; Wen, Sixian; Wang, Wei; Hu, Minyu

    2018-02-07

    mg to 85 mg) added to the diet (PLycopene dose was negatively correlated with the levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C in the serum and brain as well as levels of IL-1, TNF-α, ox-LDL, Glu/GABA, NMDA1R, and Caspase3 (PLycopene exerts anti-injury effects in the brain as-induced by hyperlipidemia. It can inhibit the elevation of serum TC, TG, and LDL-C in rats with hyperlipidemia while indirectly affecting the levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C in the brain, leading to a reduction in ox-LDL, IL-1, and TNF-α in the brain. This inhibits the release of Glu, which weakens nerve toxicity and downregulates pro-apoptotic Caspase3. Lycopene also plays an anti-injury role by promoting the release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA and 5-HT, which enhances the protective effect, and by upregulating the anti-apoptotic bcl-2.

  13. Transition metal ion FRET uncovers K(+) regulation of a neurotransmitter/sodium symporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billesbølle, Christian B; Mortensen, Jonas S; Sohail, Azmat

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter/sodium symporters (NSSs) are responsible for Na(+)-dependent reuptake of neurotransmitters and represent key targets for antidepressants and psychostimulants. LeuT, a prokaryotic NSS protein, constitutes a primary structural model for these transporters. Here we show that K...

  14. EMMPRIN/CD147-encriched membrane vesicles released from malignant human testicular germ cells increase MMP production through tumor-stroma interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milia-Argeiti, Eleni; Mourah, Samia; Vallée, Benoit; Huet, Eric; Karamanos, Nikos K; Theocharis, Achilleas D; Menashi, Suzanne

    2014-08-01

    Elevated levels of EMMPRIN/CD147 in cancer tissues have been correlated with tumor progression but the regulation of its expression is not yet understood. Here, the regulation of EMMPRIN expression was investigated in testicular germ cell tumor (TGCTs) cell lines. EMMPRIN expression in seminoma JKT-1 and embryonal carcinoma NT2/D1 cell lines was determined by Western blot, immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR. Membrane vesicles (MVs) secreted from these cells, treated or not with EMMPRIN siRNA, were isolated by differential centrifugations of their conditioned medium. MMP-2 was analyzed by zymography and qRT-PCR. The more aggressive embryonic carcinoma NT2/D1 cells expressed more EMMPRIN mRNA than the seminoma JKT-1 cells, but surprisingly contained less EMMPRIN protein, as determined by immunoblotting and immunostaining. The protein/mRNA discrepancy was not due to accelerated protein degradation in NT2/D1 cells, but by the secretion of EMMPRIN within MVs, as the vesicles released from NT2/D1 contained considerably more EMMPRIN than those released from JKT-1. EMMPRIN-containing MVs obtained from NT2/D1, but not from EMMPRIN-siRNA treated NT2/D1, increased MMP-2 production in fibroblasts to a greater extent than those from JKT-1 cells. The data presented show that the more aggressive embryonic carcinoma cells synthesize more EMMPRIN than seminoma cells, but which they preferentially target to secreted MVs, unlike seminoma cells which retain EMMPRIN within the cell membrane. This cellular event points to a mechanism by which EMMPRIN expressed by malignant testicular cells can exert its MMP inducing effect on distant cells within the tumor microenvironment to promote tumor invasion. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Proton MR Spectroscopy—Detectable Major Neurotransmitters of the Brain: Biology and Possible Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, N.; Renshaw, P.F.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Neurotransmitters are chemical substances that, by definition, allow communication between neurons and permit most neuronal-glial interactions in the CNS. Approximately 80% of all neurons use glutamate, and almost all interneurons use GABA. A third neurotransmitter, NAAG, modulates glutamatergic neurotransmission. Concentration changes in these molecules due to defective synthetic machinery, receptor expression, or errors in their degradation and metabolism are accepted causes of several neurologic disorders. Knowledge of changes in neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain can add useful information in making a diagnosis, helping to pick the right drug of treatment, and monitoring patient response to drugs in a more objective manner. Recent advances in 1H-MR spectroscopy hold promise in providing a more reliable in vivo detection of these neurotransmitters. In this article, we summarize the essential biology of 3 major neurotransmitters: glutamate, GABA, and NAAG. Finally we illustrate possible applications of 1H-MR spectroscopy in neuroscience research. PMID:22207303

  16. Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three months in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelius, Caroline; Erlandsson, Daniel; Vitija, Egzona; Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few effective and safe drugs are available. We investigated if green-plant membranes, previously shown to reduce subjective hunger and promote satiety signals, could affect body weight when given long-term. 38 women (40-65 years of age, body mass index 25-33 kg/m(2)) were randomized to dietary supplementation with either green-plant membranes (5 g) or placebo, consumed once daily before breakfast for 12 weeks. All individuals were instructed to follow a three-meal paradigm without any snacking between the meals and to increase their physical activity. Body weight change was analysed every third week as was blood glucose and various lipid parameters. On days 1 and 90, following intake of a standardized breakfast, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in plasma were measured, as well as subjective ratings of hunger, satiety and urge for different palatable foods, using visual analogue scales. Subjects receiving green-plant membranes lost significantly more body weight than did those on placebo (p weight loss with green-plant extract was 5.0 ± 2.3 kg compared to 3.5 ± 2.3 kg in the control group. Consumption of green-plant membranes also reduced total and LDL-cholesterol (p meal tests performed on day 1 and day 90 demonstrated an increased postprandial release of GLP-1 and decreased urge for sweet and chocolate on both occasions in individuals supplemented with green-plant membranes compared to control. Waist circumference, body fat and leptin decreased in both groups over the course of the study, however there were no differences between the groups. In conclusion, addition of green-plant membranes as a dietary supplement once daily induces weight loss, improves obesity-related risk-factors, and reduces the urge for palatable food. The mechanism may reside in the observed increased release of GLP-1. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  17. Loud Noise Exposure Produces DNA, Neurotransmitter and Morphological Damage within Specific Brain Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Frenzilli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to loud noise is a major environmental threat to public health. Loud noise exposure, apart from affecting the inner ear, is deleterious for cardiovascular, endocrine and nervous systems and it is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study we investigated DNA, neurotransmitters and immune-histochemical alterations induced by exposure to loud noise in three major brain areas (cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum of Wistar rats. Rats were exposed to loud noise (100 dBA for 12 h. The effects of noise on DNA integrity in all three brain areas were evaluated by using Comet assay. In parallel studies, brain monoamine levels and morphology of nigrostriatal pathways, hippocampus and cerebellum were analyzed at different time intervals (24 h and 7 days after noise exposure. Loud noise produced a sudden increase in DNA damage in all the brain areas under investigation. Monoamine levels detected at 7 days following exposure were differently affected depending on the specific brain area. Namely, striatal but not hippocampal dopamine (DA significantly decreased, whereas hippocampal and cerebellar noradrenaline (NA was significantly reduced. This is in line with pathological findings within striatum and hippocampus consisting of a decrease in striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH combined with increased Bax and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Loud noise exposure lasting 12 h causes immediate DNA, and long-lasting neurotransmitter and immune-histochemical alterations within specific brain areas of the rat. These alterations may suggest an anatomical and functional link to explain the neurobiology of diseases which prevail in human subjects exposed to environmental noise.

  18. Effect of Zuogui Pill () on monoamine neurotransmitters and sex hormones in climacteric rats with panic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Yun

    2017-03-01

    To explore the effects of Chinese medicine prescription Zuogui Pill (, ZGP) on monoamine neurotransmitters and sex hormones in climacteric rats with induced panic attacks. Forty-eight climacteric female rats were randomized into 6 groups with 8 rats in each group: the control group, the model group, the low-, medium- and high-dose ZGP groups and the alprazolam group. Rats in the low-, medium- and high-dose ZGP groups were administered 4.725, 9.45, or 18.9 g/kg ZGP by gastric perfusion, respectively. The alprazolam group was treated by gastric perfusion with 0.036 mg/kg alprazolam. The control and model groups were treated with distilled water. The animals were pretreated once daily for 8 consecutive weeks. The behaviors of rats in the open fifield test and the elevated T-maze (ETM) were observed after induced panic attack, and the levels of brain monoamine neurotransmitters and the plasma levels of sex hormones were measured. Compared with the control group, the mean ETM escape time and the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenalin (NE) of the model group were signifificantly reduced (P<0.05), Compared with the model group, the mean ETM escape time and the 5-HT and NE levels of all the ZGP groups increased signifificantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, no signifificant difference was observed in the levels of sex hormones between the groups. Pretreatment with ZGP in climacteric rats may improve the behavior of panic attack, which may be related to increased 5-HT and NE in the brain.

  19. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in hypothalamic amenorrhea: spectrum, stability, and response to neurotransmitter modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R B; Hall, J E; Martin, K A

    1999-06-01

    To characterize the neuroendocrine patterns of abnormal GnRH secretion in hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), 49 women with primary and secondary HA underwent frequent sampling of LH in a total of 72 baseline studies over 12-24 h. A subset of women participated in more than one study to address 1) the variability of LH pulse patterns over time; and 2) the impact of modulating opioid, dopaminergic, and adrenergic tone on LH secretory patterns. The frequency and amplitude of LH secretion was compared with that seen in the early follicular phase (EFP) of normally cycling women. The spectrum of abnormalities of LH pulses was 8% apulsatile, 27% low frequency/low amplitude, 8% low amplitude/normal frequency, 43% low frequency/normal amplitude, 14% normal frequency/normal amplitude. Of patients studied overnight, 45% demonstrated a pubertal pattern of augmented LH secretion during sleep. Of patients studied repeatedly, 75% demonstrated at least 2 different patterns of LH secretion, and 33% reverted at least once to a normal pattern of secretion. An increase in LH pulse frequency was seen in 12 of 15 subjects in response to naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist). Clonidine (alpha-2 adrenergic agonist) was associated with a decrease in mean LH in 3 of 3 subjects. An increase in LH pulse frequency was seen in 4 of 8 subjects in response to metoclopramide (dopamine receptor antagonist), but the response was not statistically significant. Baseline abnormalities in LH secretion did not appear to influence response to neurotransmitter modulation. 1) HA represents a spectrum of disordered GnRH secretion that can vary over time; 2) LH pulse patterns at baseline do not appear to influence the ability to respond to neurotransmitter modulation; 3) Opioid and adrenergic tone appear to influence the hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator in some individuals with HA.

  20. Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-A1 (CORM-A1) Improves Neurogenesis: Increase of Neuronal Differentiation Yield by Preventing Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ana S; Soares, Nuno L; Vieira, Melissa; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Vieira, Helena L A

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases lead to impairment or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Stem cell based therapies are promising strategies currently under investigation. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous product of heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO) activity. Administration of CO at low concentrations produces several beneficial effects in distinct tissues, namely anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory. Herein the CO role on modulation of neuronal differentiation was assessed. Three different models with increasing complexity were used: human neuroblastoma SH-S5Y5 cell line, human teratocarcinoma NT2 cell line and organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC). Cell lines were differentiated into post-mitotic neurons by treatment with retinoic acid (RA) supplemented with CO-releasing molecule A1 (CORM-A1). CORM-A1 positively modulated neuronal differentiation, since it increased final neuronal production and enhanced the expression of specific neuronal genes: Nestin, Tuj1 and MAP2. Furthermore, during neuronal differentiation process, there was an increase in proliferative cell number (ki67 mRNA expressing cells) and a decrease in cell death (lower propidium iodide (PI) uptake, limitation of caspase-3 activation and higher Bcl-2 expressing cells). CO supplementation did not increase the expression of RA receptors. In the case of SH-S5Y5 model, small amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation emerges as important signaling molecules during CO-promoted neuronal differentiation. CO's improvement of neuronal differentiation yield was validated using OHSC as ex vivo model. CORM-A1 treatment of OHSC promoted higher levels of cells expressing the neuronal marker Tuj1. Still, CORM-A1 increased cell proliferation assessed by ki67 expression and also prevented cell death, which was followed by increased Bcl-2 expression, decreased levels of active caspase-3 and PI uptake. Likewise, ROS signaling emerged as key factors in CO

  1. Imaging of dopamine release induced by pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic stimulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Technological advances in molecular imaging made it possible to image synaptic neurotransmitter concentration in living human brain. The dopaminergic system has been most intensively studied because of its importance in neurological as well as psychiatric disorders. This paper provides a brief overview of recent progress in imaging studies of dopamine release induced by pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic stimulations.

  2. Uric acid is released in the brain during seizure activity and increases severity of seizures in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyrion, Lisa; Raedt, Robrecht; Portelli, Jeanelle; Van Loo, Pieter; Wadman, Wytse J; Glorieux, Griet; Lambrecht, Bart N; Janssens, Sophie; Vonck, Kristl; Boon, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Recent evidence points at an important role of endogenous cell-damage induced pro-inflammatory molecules in the generation of epileptic seizures. Uric acid, under the form of monosodium urate crystals, has shown to have pro-inflammatory properties in the body, but less is known about its role in seizure generation. This study aimed to unravel the contribution of uric acid to seizure generation in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures. We measured extracellular levels of uric acid in the brain and modulated them using complementary pharmacological and genetic tools. Local extracellular uric acid levels increased three to four times during acute limbic seizures and peaked between 50 and 100 min after kainic acid infusion. Manipulating uric acid levels through administration of allopurinol or knock-out of urate oxidase significantly altered the number of generalized seizures, decreasing and increasing them by a twofold respectively. Taken together, our results consistently show that uric acid is released during limbic seizures and suggest that uric acid facilitates seizure generalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbon dioxide in carbonated beverages induces ghrelin release and increased food consumption in male rats: Implications on the onset of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eweis, Dureen Samandar; Abed, Fida; Stiban, Johnny

    The dangerous health risks associated with obesity makes it a very serious public health issue. Numerous studies verified a correlation between the increase in obesity and the parallel increase in soft drink consumption among world populations. The effects of one main component in soft drinks namely the carbon dioxide gas has not been studied thoroughly in any previous research. Male rats were subjected to different categories of drinks and evaluated for over a year. Stomach ex vivo experiments were undertaken to evaluate the amount of ghrelin upon different beverage treatments. Moreover, 20 male students were tested for their ghrelin levels after ingestion of different beverages. Here, we show that rats consuming gaseous beverages over a period of around 1 year gain weight at a faster rate than controls on regular degassed carbonated beverage or tap water. This is due to elevated levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin and thus greater food intake in rats drinking carbonated drinks compared to control rats. Moreover, an increase in liver lipid accumulation of rats treated with gaseous drinks is shown opposed to control rats treated with degassed beverage or tap water. In a parallel study, the levels of ghrelin hormone were increased in 20 healthy human males upon drinking carbonated beverages compared to controls. These results implicate a major role for carbon dioxide gas in soft drinks in inducing weight gain and the onset of obesity via ghrelin release and stimulation of the hunger response in male mammals. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. HSF1 transcriptional activity mediates alcohol induction of Vamp2 expression and GABA release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence P. Varodayan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many central synapses are highly sensitive to alcohol, and it is now accepted that short-term alterations in synaptic function may lead to longer term changes in circuit function. The regulation of postsynaptic receptors by alcohol has been well studied, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol on the presynaptic terminal are relatively unexplored. To identify a pathway by which alcohol regulates neurotransmitter release, we recently investigated the mechanism by which ethanol induces the Vamp2 gene, but not Vamp1, in mouse primary cortical cultures. These two genes encode isoforms of synaptobrevin, a vesicular soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE protein required for synaptic vesicle fusion. We found that alcohol activates the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1 to induce Vamp2 gene expression, while Vamp1 mRNA levels remain unaffected. As the Vamp2 gene encodes a SNARE protein, we then investigated whether ethanol exposure and HSF1 transcriptional activity alter neurotransmitter release using electrophysiology. We found that alcohol increased the frequency of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-mediated miniature IPSCs via HSF1, but had no effect on mEPSCs. Overall, these data indicate that alcohol induces HSF1 transcriptional activity to trigger a specific coordinated adaptation in GABAergic presynaptic terminals. This mechanism could explain some of the changes in synaptic function that occur soon after alcohol exposure, and may underlie some of the more enduring effects of chronic alcohol intake on local circuit function.

  5. The subpopulation of microglia sensitive to neurotransmitters/neurohormones is modulated by stimulation with LPS, interferon-γ, and IL-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, Maria; Szulzewsky, Frank; Matyash, Vitali; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    Recently, neurotransmitters/neurohormones have been identified as factors controlling the function of microglia, the immune competent cells of the central nervous system. In this study, we compared the responsiveness of microglia to neurotransmitters/neurohormones. We freshly isolated microglia from healthy adult C57Bl/6 mice and found that only a small fraction (1-20%) responded to the application of endothelin, histamine, substance P, serotonin, galanin, somatostatin, angiotensin II, vasopressin, neurotensin, dopamine, or nicotine. In cultured microglia from neonatal and adult mice, a similarly small population of cells responded to these neurotransmitters/neurohormones. To induce a proinflammatory phenotype, we applied lipopolysaccaride (LPS) or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) to the cultures for 24 h. Several of the responding populations increased; however, there was no uniform pattern when comparing adult with neonatal microglia or LPS with IFN-γ treatment. IL-4 as an anti-inflammatory substance increased the histamine-, substance P-, and somatostatin-sensitive populations only in microglia from adult, but not in neonatal cells. We also found that the expression of different receptors was not strongly correlated, indicating that there are many different populations of microglia with a distinct set of receptors. Our results demonstrate that microglial cells are a heterogeneous population with respect to their sensitivity to neurotransmitters/neurohormones and that they are more responsive in defined activation states. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and measures of mental and emotional health in HCV patients treated with ledipasvir (LDV) and sofosbuvir (SOF) with or without ribavirin (RBV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabi, Pegah; Elsheikh, Elzafir; Karrar, Azza; Estep, James M; Younossi, Issah; Stepanova, Maria; Gerber, Lynn; Younossi, Zobair M

    2016-11-01

    Mental and emotional health (MEH) impairment is commonly encountered in hepatitis C patients. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown, alterations in neurotransmitter and cytokine levels maybe associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related MEH issues.The aim of the study was to assess association of serum biomarkers with self-reports of MEH in HCV patients before treatment and after achieving sustained virologic response (SVR).The HCV genotype-1-infected patients who achieved SVR at 12 weeks after treatment with ledipasvir (LDV)/sofosbuvir (SOF) ± ribavirin (RBV) were selected. Frozen serum samples from baseline, end of treatment (EOT), and posttreatment week 4 (PTW4) were used to assay 16 cytokines and monoamine neurotransmitters. Validated self-reports were used to assess MEH.Hundred patients were evaluated. Mean age was 53 years (57% male, 86% white). Compared with baseline, emotional well-being and emotional health significantly increased by EOT, and role emotional, emotional well-being, and emotional health significantly increased at PTW4 in the RBV-containing arm (P neurotransmitters and cytokines were found to be independent predictors of MEH scores in multiple regression analysis.Cytokine and neurotransmitter changes are associated with mental and emotional health. Patient-reported outcome scores change during and after treatment.

  7. In Vitro Fertilization Using Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Injections Resulted in Healthy Triplets without Increased Attack Rates in a Hereditary Angioedema Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Tunakan Dalgıç

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder. The management of pregnant patients with C1-INH-HAE is a challenge for the physician. Intravenous plasma-derived nanofiltered C1-INH (pdC1INH is the only recommended option throughout pregnancy, postpartum, and breastfeeding period. In order to increase pregnancy rates, physicians use fertilization therapies increasing endogen levels of estrogens. Therefore, these techniques can provoke an increase in the number and severity of edema attacks in C1-INH-HAE. Our patient is a 32-year-old female, diagnosed with C1-INH-HAE type 1 since 2004. She had been taking danazol 50–200 mg/day for 9 years. Due to her pregnancy plans in 2013, danazol was discontinued. PdC1INH was prescribed regularly for prophylactic purpose. Triplet pregnancy occurred by in vitro fertilization using luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH injections. In our patient, LHRH injections were done four times without causing any severe attack during in vitro fertilization. Angioedema did not worsen during pregnancy and delivery due to the prophylactic use of intravenous pdC1INH in our patient. According to the attack frequency and severity, there was no difference between the three pregnancy trimesters. To our knowledge, this is the first published case of C1-INH-HAE receiving in vitro fertilization therapies without any angioedema attacks during pregnancy and delivery and eventually having healthy triplets with the prophylactic use of intravenous pdC1INH.

  8. Substrates for Neuronal Cotransmission With Neuropeptides and Small Molecule Neurotransmitters in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick R. Nässel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been known for more than 40 years that individual neurons can produce more than one neurotransmitter and that neuropeptides often are colocalized with small molecule neurotransmitters (SMNs. Over the years much progress has been made in understanding the functional consequences of cotransmission in the nervous system of mammals. There are also some excellent invertebrate models that have revealed roles of coexpressed neuropeptides and SMNs in increasing complexity, flexibility, and dynamics in neuronal signaling. However, for the fly Drosophila there are surprisingly few functional studies on cotransmission, although there is ample evidence for colocalization of neuroactive compounds in neurons of the CNS, based both on traditional techniques and novel single cell transcriptome analysis. With the hope to trigger interest in initiating cotransmission studies, this review summarizes what is known about Drosophila neurons and neuronal circuits where different neuropeptides and SMNs are colocalized. Coexistence of neuroactive substances has been recorded in different neuron types such as neuroendocrine cells, interneurons, sensory cells and motor neurons. Some of the circuits highlighted here are well established in the analysis of learning and memory, circadian clock networks regulating rhythmic activity and sleep, as well as neurons and neuroendocrine cells regulating olfaction, nociception, feeding, metabolic homeostasis, diuretic functions, reproduction, and developmental processes. One emerging trait is the broad role of short neuropeptide F in cotransmission and presynaptic facilitation in a number of different neuronal circuits. This review also discusses the functional relevance of coexisting peptides in the intestine. Based on recent single cell transcriptomics data, it is likely that the neuronal systems discussed in this review are just a fraction of the total set of circuits where cotransmission occurs in Drosophila. Thus, a

  9. Substrates for Neuronal Cotransmission With Neuropeptides and Small Molecule Neurotransmitters in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nässel, Dick R.

    2018-01-01

    It has been known for more than 40 years that individual neurons can produce more than one neurotransmitter and that neuropeptides often are colocalized with small molecule neurotransmitters (SMNs). Over the years much progress has been made in understanding the functional consequences of cotransmission in the nervous system of mammals. There are also some excellent invertebrate models that have revealed roles of coexpressed neuropeptides and SMNs in increasing complexity, flexibility, and dynamics in neuronal signaling. However, for the fly Drosophila there are surprisingly few functional studies on cotransmission, although there is ample evidence for colocalization of neuroactive compounds in neurons of the CNS, based both on traditional techniques and novel single cell transcriptome analysis. With the hope to trigger interest in initiating cotransmission studies, this review summarizes what is known about Drosophila neurons and neuronal circuits where different neuropeptides and SMNs are colocalized. Coexistence of neuroactive substances has been recorded in different neuron types such as neuroendocrine cells, interneurons, sensory cells and motor neurons. Some of the circuits highlighted here are well established in the analysis of learning and memory, circadian clock networks regulating rhythmic activity and sleep, as well as neurons and neuroendocrine cells regulating olfaction, nociception, feeding, metabolic homeostasis, diuretic functions, reproduction, and developmental processes. One emerging trait is the broad role of short neuropeptide F in cotransmission and presynaptic facilitation in a number of different neuronal circuits. This review also discusses the functional relevance of coexisting peptides in the intestine. Based on recent single cell transcriptomics data, it is likely that the neuronal systems discussed in this review are just a fraction of the total set of circuits where cotransmission occurs in Drosophila. Thus, a systematic search for

  10. Pursuit of Neurotransmitter Functions: Being Attracted with Fascination of the Synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Shiro

    2017-01-01

    In the beginning of the 1970s, only two chemical substances, acetylcholine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), had been definitely established as neurotransmitters. Under such circumstances, I started my scientific career in Professor Masanori Otsuka's lab searching for the transmitter of primary sensory neurons. Until 1976, lines of evidence had accumulated indicating that the undecapeptide substance P could be released as a transmitter from primary afferent fibers into spinal synapses, although the substance P-mediated synaptic response had yet to be identified. Peripheral synapses could serve as a good model and thus, it was demonstrated in the prevertebral sympathetic ganglia by1985 that substance P released from axon collaterals of primary sensory neurons acts as the transmitter mediating non-cholinergic slow excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). At that time, we also found that autonomic synapses were useful to uncover the transmitter role of the opioid peptide enkephalins, whose functions had been unknown since their discovery in 1975. Accordingly, enkephalins were found to serve a transmitter role in mediating presynaptic inhibition of cholinergic fast and non-cholinergic slow transmission in the prevertebral sympathetic ganglia. In 1990s, we attempted to devise a combined technique of brain slices and patch-clamp recordings. We applied it to study the regulatory mechanisms that operate around cerebellar GABAergic inhibitory synapses, because most of the studies then had centered on excitatory synapses and because inhibitory synapses are crucially involved in brain functions and disorders. Consequently, we discovered novel forms of heterosynaptic interactions, dual actions of a single transmitter, and receptor crosstalk, the details of which are described in this review.

  11. Vinpocetine inhibits glutamate release induced by the convulsive agent 4-aminopyridine more potently than several antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitges, M; Sanchez-Tafolla, B M; Chiu, L M; Aldana, B I; Guarneros, A

    2011-10-01

    4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a convulsing agent that in vivo preferentially releases Glu, the most important excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the brain. Here the ionic dependence of 4-AP-induced Glu release and the effects of several of the most common antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and of the new potential AED, vinpocetine on 4-AP-induced Glu release were characterized in hippocampus isolated nerve endings pre-loaded with labelled Glu ([3H]Glu). 4-AP-induced [3H]Glu release was composed by a tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitive and external Ca2+ dependent fraction and a TTX insensitive fraction that was sensitive to the excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor, TBOA. The AEDs: carbamazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine at the highest dose tested only reduced [3H]Glu release to 4-AP between 50-60%, and topiramate was ineffective. Vinpocetine at a much lower concentration than the above AEDs, abolished [3H]Glu release to 4-AP. We conclude that the decrease in [3H]Glu release linked to the direct blockade of presynaptic Na+ channels, may importantly contribute to the anticonvulsant actions of all the drugs tested here (except topiramate); and that the significantly greater vinpocetine effect in magnitude and potency on [3H]Glu release when excitability is exacerbated like during seizures, may involve the increase additionally exerted by vinpocetine in some K+ channels permeability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nitric oxide-dependent activation of CaMKII increases diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release in cardiac myocytes in response to adrenergic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Jerry; Tang, Lifei; Roof, Steve R; Velmurugan, Sathya; Millard, Ashley; Shonts, Stephen; Wang, Honglan; Santiago, Demetrio; Ahmad, Usama; Perryman, Matthew; Bers, Donald M; Mohler, Peter J; Ziolo, Mark T; Shannon, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous calcium waves in cardiac myocytes are caused by diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum release (SR Ca(2+) leak) through ryanodine receptors. Beta-adrenergic (β-AR) tone is known to increase this leak through the activation of Ca-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) and the subsequent phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor. When β-AR drive is chronic, as observed in heart failure, this CaMKII-dependent effect is exaggerated and becomes potentially arrhythmogenic. Recent evidence has indicated that CaMKII activation can be regulated by cellular oxidizing agents, such as reactive oxygen species. Here, we investigate how the cellular second messenger, nitric oxide, mediates CaMKII activity downstream of the adrenergic signaling cascade and promotes the generation of arrhythmogenic spontaneous Ca(2+) waves in intact cardiomyocytes. Both SCaWs and SR Ca(2+) leak were measured in intact rabbit and mouse ventricular myocytes loaded with the Ca-dependent fluorescent dye, fluo-4. CaMKII activity in vitro and immunoblotting for phosphorylated residues on CaMKII, nitric oxide synthase, and Akt were measured to confirm activity of these enzymes as part of the adrenergic cascade. We demonstrate that stimulation of the β-AR pathway by isoproterenol increased the CaMKII-dependent SR Ca(2+) leak. This increased leak was prevented by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase 1 but not nitric oxide synthase 3. In ventricular myocytes isolated from wild-type mice, isoproterenol stimulation also increased the CaMKII-dependent leak. Critically, in myocytes isolated from nitric oxide synthase 1 knock-out mice this effect is ablated. We show that isoproterenol stimulation leads to an increase in nitric oxide production, and nitric oxide alone is sufficient to activate CaMKII and increase SR Ca(2+) leak. Mechanistically, our data links Akt to nitric oxide synthase 1 activation downstream of β-AR stimulation. Collectively, this evidence supports the hypothesis that CaMKII is

  13. Increased Loading, Efficacy and Sustained Release of Silibinin, a Poorly Soluble Drug Using Hydrophobically-Modified Chitosan Nanoparticles for Enhanced Delivery of Anticancer Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha Yee Kuen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional delivery of anticancer drugs is less effective due to pharmacological drawbacks such as lack of aqueous solubility and poor cellular accumulation. This study reports the increased drug loading, therapeutic delivery, and cellular accumulation of silibinin (SLB, a poorly water-soluble phenolic compound using a hydrophobically-modified chitosan nanoparticle (pCNP system. In this study, chitosan nanoparticles were hydrophobically-modified to confer a palmitoyl group as confirmed by 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS assay. Physicochemical features of the nanoparticles were studied using the TNBS assay, and Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR analyses. The FTIR profile and electron microscopy correlated the successful formation of pCNP and pCNP-SLB as nano-sized particles, while Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS and Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM results exhibited an expansion in size between pCNP and pCNP-SLB to accommodate the drug within its particle core. To evaluate the cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles, a Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT cytotoxicity assay was subsequently performed using the A549 lung cancer cell line. Cytotoxicity assays exhibited an enhanced efficacy of SLB when delivered by CNP and pCNP. Interestingly, controlled release delivery of SLB was achieved using the pCNP-SLB system, conferring higher cytotoxic effects and lower IC50 values in 72-h treatments compared to CNP-SLB, which was attributed to the hydrophobic modification of the CNP system.

  14. Contributions to the field of neurotransmitters by Japanese scientists, and reflections on my own research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Masanori

    2007-03-01

    PART I DESCRIBES IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS MADE BY SOME JAPANESE PIONEERS IN THE FIELD OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS: (their achievements in parentheses) J. Takamine (isolation and crystallization of adrenaline); K. Shimidzu (early hint for acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter); F. Kanematsu (donation of the Kanematsu Memorial Institute in Sydney); T. Hayashi (discovery of the excitatory action of glutamate and the inhibitory action of GABA); and I. Sano (discovery of a high concentration of dopamine in striatum, its reduction in a patient with Parkinson's disease and the treatment with DOPA). In Part II, I present some of my reflections on my research on neurotransmitters. The work of my colleagues and myself has made some significant contributions to the establishment of neurotransmitter roles played by GABA and substance P, the first amino acid and the first peptide neurotransmitters, respectively. By the early 1960s, 3 substances, i.e., acetylcholine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline, had been established as neurotransmitters. Now the number of neurotransmitters is believed to be as many as 50 or even more mainly due to the inclusion of several amino acids and a large number of peptide transmitters.

  15. Dietary Neurotransmitters: A Narrative Review on Current Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Briguglio

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Foods are natural sources of substances that may exert crucial effects on the nervous system in humans. Some of these substances are the neurotransmitters (NTs acetylcholine (ACh, the modified amino acids glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, and the biogenic amines dopamine, serotonin (5-HT, and histamine. In neuropsychiatry, progressive integration of dietary approaches in clinical routine made it necessary to discern the more about some of these dietary NTs. Relevant books and literature from PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for data on food sources of Ach, glutamate, GABA, dopamine, 5-HT, and histamine. Different animal foods, fruits, edible plants, roots, and botanicals were reported to contain NTs. These substances can either be naturally present, as part of essential metabolic processes and ecological interactions, or derive from controlled/uncontrolled food technology processes. Ripening time, methods of preservation and cooking, and microbial activity further contributes to NTs. Moreover, gut microbiota are considerable sources of NTs. However, the significance of dietary NTs intake needs to be further investigated as there are no significant data on their bioavailability, neuronal/non neuronal effects, or clinical implications. Evidence-based interventions studies should be encouraged.

  16. Neurotransmitter regulation of adult neurogenesis: putative therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, V A; Vadodaria, K C; Jha, S

    2007-10-01

    The evidence that new neuron addition takes place in the mammalian brain throughout adult life has dramatically altered our perspective of the potential for plasticity in the adult CNS. Although several recent reports suggest a latent neurogenic capacity in multiple brain regions, the two major neurogenic niches that retain the ability to generate substantial numbers of new neurons in adult life are the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) in the hippocampal formation. The discovery of adult neurogenesis has also unveiled a novel therapeutic target for the repair of damaged neuronal circuits. In this regard, understanding the endogenous mechanisms that regulate adult neurogenesis holds promise both for a deeper understanding of this form of structural plasticity, as well as the identification of pathways that can serve as therapeutic targets to manipulate adult neurogenesis. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the regulation of adult neurogenesis by neurotransmitters and to highlight the relevance of these endogenous regulators as targets to modulate adult neurogenesis in a clinical context.

  17. Development of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Jonathan M; Kimble, Christopher J; Covey, Daniel P; Blaha, Charles D; Agnesi, Filippo; Mohseni, Pedram; Whitlock, Sidney; Johnson, David M; Horne, April; Bennet, Kevin E; Lee, Kendall H; Garris, Paul A

    2009-10-01

    Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that modulation of specific central neuronal systems contributes to the clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and motor cortex stimulation (MCS). Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of targeted regions may therefore advance functional neurosurgery by, among other goals, providing a strategy for investigation of mechanisms, identification of new candidate neurotransmitters, and chemically guided placement of the stimulating electrode. The authors report the development of a device called the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring during functional neurosurgery. This device supports fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) for real-time, spatially and chemically resolved neurotransmitter measurements in the brain. The FSCV study consisted of a triangle wave scanned between -0.4 and 1 V at a rate of 300 V/second and applied at 10 Hz. All voltages were compared with an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The CFM was constructed by aspirating a single carbon fiber (r = 2.5 mum) into a glass capillary and pulling the capillary to a microscopic tip by using a pipette puller. The exposed carbon fiber (that is, the sensing region) extended beyond the glass insulation by approximately 100 microm. The neurotransmitter dopamine was selected as the analyte for most trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow injection and noise analysis, and in vivo measurements in urethane-anesthetized rats by monitoring dopamine release in the striatum following high-frequency electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle. Direct comparisons were made to a conventional hardwired system. The WINCS, designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, consisted of 4 modules: 1) front-end analog circuit for FSCV (that is, current-to-voltage transducer); 2

  18. Plasma adiponectin levels are increased despite insulin resistance in corticotropin-releasing hormone transgenic mice, an animal model of Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinahara, Masayuki; Nishiyama, Mitsuru; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Nakayama, Shuichi; Noguchi, Toru; Kambayashi, Machiko; Okada, Yasushi; Tsuda, Masayuki; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P; Hashimoto, Kozo; Terada, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin (AdN), an adipokine derived from the adipose tissue, has an insulin-sensitizing effect, and plasma AdN is shown to be decreased in obesity and/or insulin resistant state. To clarify whether changes in AdN are also responsible for the development of glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance, we examined AdN concentration in plasma and AdN expression in the adipose tissue, using corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) transgenic mouse (CRH-Tg), an animal model of Cushing syndrome. We found, unexpectedly, that plasma AdN levels in CRHTg were significantly higher than those in wild-type littermates (wild-type: 19.7+/-2.5, CRH-Tg: 32.4+/-3.1 microg/mL, pAdN mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in the adipose tissue of CRH-Tg. Bilateral adrenalectomy in CRH-Tg eliminated both their Cushing's phenotype and their increase in plasma AdN levels (wild-type/sham: 9.4+/-0.5, CRH-Tg/sham: 15.7+/-2.0, CRH-Tg/ADX: 8.5+/-0.4 microg/mL). These results strongly suggest that AdN is not a major factor responsible for the development of insulin resistance in Cushing syndrome. Our data also suggest that glucocorticoid increases plasma AdN levels but decreases AdN expression in adipocytes, the latter being explained possibly by the decrease in AdN metabolism in the Cushing state.

  19. Activation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors from the basolateral or central amygdala increases the tonic immobility response in guinea pigs: an innate fear behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatti, Alberto Ferreira; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade

    2011-11-20

    The tonic immobility (TI) behavior is an innate response associated with extreme threat situations such as a predator attack. Several studies have provided evidence suggesting an important role for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the regulation of the endocrine system, defensive behaviors and behavioral responses to stress. TI has been shown to be positively correlated with the basal plasma levels of corticosterone. CRF receptors and neurons that are immunoreactive to CRF are found in many cerebral regions, especially in the amygdaloid complex. Previous reports have demonstrated the involvement of the basolateral amygdaloid (BLA) and central amygdaloid (CeA) nuclei in the TI response. In this study, we evaluated the CRF system of the BLA and the CeA in the modulation of the TI response in guinea pigs. The activation of CRF receptors in the BLA and in the CeA promoted an increase in the TI response. In contrast, the inhibition of these receptors via alpha-helical-CRF(9-41) decreased the duration of the TI response. Moreover, neither the activation nor inhibition of CRF receptors in the BLA or the CeA altered spontaneous motor activity in the open-field test. These data suggest that the activation of the CRF receptors in the BLA or the CeA probably potentiates fear and anxiety, which may be one of the factors that promote an increase in the TI behavior. Therefore, these data support the role of the CRF system in the control of emotional responses, particularly in the modulation of innate fear. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethylbenzene-induced hearing loss, neurobehavioral function, and neurotransmitter alterations in petrochemical workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Yanrang; Wang, Qian; Yang, Deyi; Zhang, Jingshu; Wang, Fengshan; Gu, Qing

    2013-09-01

    To estimate hearing loss, neurobehavioral function, and neurotransmitter alteration induced by ethylbenzene in petrochemical workers. From two petrochemical plants, 246 and 307 workers exposed to both ethylbenzene and noise were recruited-290 workers exposed to noise only from a power station plant and 327 office personnel as control group, respectively. Hearing and neurobehavioral functions were evaluated. Serum neurotransmitters were also determined. The prevalence of hearing loss was much higher in petrochemical groups than that in power station and control groups (P workers (P hearing loss, neurobehavioral function impairment, and imbalance of neurotransmitters.

  1. Kinetics, Ca2+ dependence, and biophysical properties of integrin-mediated mechanical modulation of transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B. M.; Grinnell, A. D.

    1997-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals is strongly modulated by change in muscle length. Over the physiological range, there is an approximately 10% increase in spontaneous and evoked release per 1% muscle stretch. Because many muscle fibers do not receive suprathreshold synaptic inputs at rest length, this stretch-induced enhancement of release constitutes a strong peripheral amplifier of the spinal stretch reflex. The stretch modulation of release is inhibited by peptides that block integrin binding of natural ligands. The modulation varies linearly with length, with a delay of no more than approximately 1-2 msec and is maintained constant at the new length. Moreover, the stretch modulation persists in a zero Ca2+ Ringer and, hence, is not dependent on Ca2+ influx through stretch activated channels. Eliminating transmembrane Ca2+ gradients and buffering intraterminal Ca2+ to approximately normal resting levels does not eliminate the modulation, suggesting that it is not the result of release of Ca2+ from internal stores. Finally, changes in temperature have no detectable effect on the kinetics of stretch-induced changes in endplate potential (EPP) amplitude or miniature EPP (mEPP) frequency. We conclude, therefore, that stretch does not act via second messenger pathways or a chemical modification of molecules involved in the release pathway. Instead, there is direct mechanical modulation of release. We postulate that tension on integrins in the presynaptic membrane is transduced mechanically into changes in the position or conformation of one or more molecules involved in neurotransmitter release, altering sensitivity to Ca2+ or the equilibrium for a critical reaction leading to vesicle fusion.

  2. The human immunodeficiency virus-1 protein Tat and its discrete fragments evoke selective release of acetylcholine from human and rat cerebrocortical terminals through species-specific mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feligioni, Marco; Raiteri, Luca; Pattarini, Roberto; Grilli, Massimo; Bruzzone, Santina; Cavazzani, Paolo; Raiteri, Maurizio; Pittaluga, Anna

    2003-07-30

    The effect of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 protein Tat was investigated on neurotransmitter release from human and rat cortical nerve endings. Tat failed to affect the release of several neurotransmitters, such as glutamate, GABA, norepinephrine, and others, but it evoked the release of [3H]ACh via increase of cytosolic [Ca2+]. In human nerve terminals, the Tat effect partly depends on Ca2+ entry through voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels, because Cd2+ halved the Tat-evoked release. Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) and mobilization of Ca2+ from IP3-sensitive intraterminal stores are also involved, because the Tat effect was prevented by mGluR antagonists 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride and 7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate ethyl ester and by the IP3 receptor antagonists heparin and xestospongin C. Furthermore, the group I selective mGlu agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine enhanced [3H]ACh release. In rat nerve terminals, the Tat-evoked release neither depends on external Ca2+ ions entry nor on IP3-mediated mechanisms. Tat seems to cause mobilization of Ca2+ from ryanodine-sensitive internal stores because its effect was prevented by both 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose and dantrolene. The Tat-evoked release from human synaptosomes was mimicked by the peptide sequences Tat 32-62, Tat 49-86, and Tat 41-60. In contrast, the Tat 49-86 and Tat 61-80 fragments, but not the Tat 32-62 fragment, were active in rat synaptosomes. In conclusion, Tat elicits Ca2+-dependent [3H]ACh release by species-specific intraterminal mechanisms by binding via discrete amino acid sequences to different receptive sites on human and rat cholinergic terminals.

  3. Exercise-induced increase in glucose transport, GLUT-4, and VAMP-2 in plasma membrane from human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, S; Hargreaves, Mark; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    contractions may induce trafficking of GLUT-4-containing vesicles via a mechanism similar to neurotransmitter release. Our results demonstrate for the first time exercise-induced translocation of GLUT-4 and VAMP-2 to the plasma membrane of human muscle and increased sarcolemmal glucose transport.......A major effect of muscle contractions is an increase in sarcolemmal glucose transport. We have used a recently developed technique to produce sarcolemmal giant vesicles from human muscle biopsy samples obtained before and after exercise. Six men exercised for 10 min at 50% maximal O2 uptake (Vo2max...

  4. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Neurotransmitters Level in the Brain of Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saada, H.N.; Said, U.Z.; Shedid, S.M.; Mahdy, E.M.E.; Elmezayen, H.E.

    2014-01-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids are essential dietary nutrients, and one of their important roles is providing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for growth and function of nervous tissue. Reduced level of DHA in the brain induce dramatic changes in brain function including changes in size of neurons as well as changes in learning and memory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of fish oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids on γ-radiation-induced physiological changes in the brain cerebral hemispheres. Omega-3 fatty acids was supplemented daily by gavages to rats at a dose of 400 mg/ kg body wt for 7 days pre- and 21 days post-exposure to whole body fractionated gamma rays at doses of 2 Gy/week up to a total dose of 8 Gy. The results demonstrated that whole body γ-irradiation induced oxidative stress, de - creased the main polyunsaturated fatty acids; DHA and EPA, and induced neurotransmitters alteration in brain tissues. Oxidative stress was manifested by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Oxidative stress was accompanied by alterations in the level of the neurotransmitters manifested by a significant increase of glutamic and aspartic and a significant decrease of serotonin (5-HT) levels in brain cerebral hemispheres. Rats receiving fish oil 7 days before and 21 days after exposure to γ-radiation showed significant improvement in the levels of EPA and DHA associated with significant amelioration of oxidative stress and neurotransmitters alteration. It is concluded that fish oil protect the brain from radiation-induced physiological changes by protecting brain cellular membranes through counteracting the decrease of omega-3 fatty acids and minimizing oxidative stress

  5. The release of nickel from orthodontic NiTi wires is increased by dynamic mechanical loading but not constrained by surface nitridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitsch, T; Klocke, A; Kahl-Nieke, B; Prymak, O; Epple, M

    2007-09-01

    The influence of dynamic mechanical loading and of surface nitridation on the nickel release from superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wires was investigated under ultrapure conditions. Commercially available superelastic NiTi arch wires (size 0.018 x 0.025'') without surface modification (Neo Sentalloy) and with nitrogen ion implantation surface treatment (Neo Sentalloy Ionguard) were analyzed. Mechanical loading of wire segments with a force similar to the physiological situation was performed with a frequency of 5 Hz in ultrapure water and saline solution, respectively. The release of nickel was monitored by atomic absorption spectroscopy for up to 36 days. The mechanically loaded wires released significantly more nickel ( approximately 45 ng cm(-2) d(-1)) than did nonloaded wires (<1 ng cm(-2) d(-1)). There was no statistically significant effect of the testing solution (water or NaCl) or of the surface nitridation. The total amount of released nickel was small in all cases, but may nevertheless account for the occasional clinical observations of adverse reactions during application of NiTi-based orthodontic appliances. The surface nitridation did not constrain the release of nickel from NiTi under continuous mechanical stress.

  6. Neurotransmitter signaling pathways required for normal development in Xenopus laevis embryos: a pharmacological survey screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kelly G; Levin, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Neurotransmitters are not only involved in brain function but are also important signaling molecules for many diverse cell types. Neurotransmitters are widely conserved, from evolutionarily ancient organisms lacking nervous systems through man. Here, results are reported from a loss- and gain-of-function survey, using pharmacological modulators of several neurotransmitter pathways to examine possible roles for these pathways in normal embryogenesis. Applying reagents targeting the glutamatergic, adrenergic and dopaminergic pathways to embryos of Xenopus laevis from gastrulation to organogenesis stages, we observed and quantified numerous malformations, including craniofacial defects, hyperpigmentation, muscle mispatterning and miscoiling of the gut. These data implicate several key neurotransmitters in new embryonic patterning roles, reveal novel earlier stages for processes involved in eye development, suggest new targets for subsequent molecular-genetic investigation, and highlight the necessity for in-depth toxicology studies of psychoactive compounds to which human embryos might be exposed during pregnancy. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  7. Functional relevance of neurotransmitter receptor heteromers in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Sergi; Ciruela, Francisco; Woods, Amina S; Lluis, Carme; Franco, Rafael

    2007-09-01

    The existence of neurotransmitter receptor heteromers is becoming broadly accepted and their functional significance is being revealed. Heteromerization of neurotransmitter receptors produces functional entities that possess different biochemical characteristics with respect to the individual components of the heteromer. Neurotransmitter receptor heteromers can function as processors of computations that modulate cell signaling. Thus, the quantitative or qualitative aspects of the signaling generated by stimulation of any of the individual receptor units in the heteromer are different from those obtained during coactivation. Furthermore, recent studies demonstrate that some neurotransmitter receptor heteromers can exert an effect as processors of computations that directly modulate both pre- and postsynaptic neurotransmission. This is illustrated by the analysis of striatal receptor heteromers that control striatal glutamatergic neurotransmission.

  8. ISSUES OF THE ACCOUNTING OF A WEAK NEUROTRANSMITTER COMPONENT IN THE PHARMACOTHERAPY OF POSTCOMATOSE STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Zaitsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle in the accounting of a weak neurotransmitter component is considered as one of the most specific and promising ones for the study and practical introduction of therapy for postcomatous states. The paper outlines problems in the accurate determination of the lack and excess of neurotransmitters by up-to-date techniques (biochemical and neurophysiological tests, magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It gives the reasons for clinical doubts and difficulties in the practical use of ideas about the relationship of the clinical picture to one or another disorder of neurotransmitter metabolism and to the feasibilities of its effective correction. It is concluded that the main method for the individualized therapy of postcomatous states is the clinical analysis of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, only upon its completion, the consideration of a weak neurotransmitter component can be taken into account. The main possible and currently preferable ways to correct cholinergic and GABAergic deficiency and redundancy and deficiency in glutamate and dopamine are considered.

  9. Characterization of noradrenaline release in the locus coeruleus of freely moving awake rats by in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pastor, Begoña; Mateo, Yolanda; Gómez-Urquijo, Sonia; Javier Meana, J

    2005-07-01

    The origin and regulation of noradrenaline (NA) in the locus coeruleus (LC) is unknown. The neurochemical features of NA overflow (nerve impulse dependence, neurotransmitter synthesis, vesicle storage, reuptake, alpha2-adrenoceptor-mediated regulation) were characterized in the LC. Brain microdialysis was performed in awake rats. Dialysates were analyzed for NA. NA in the LC decreased via local infusion of Ca2+-free medium (-42+/-5%) or the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxine (TTX) (-47+/-8%) but increased (333+/-40%) via KCl-induced depolarization. The tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) inhibitor alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (250 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and the vesicle depletory drug reserpine (5 mg kg(-1), i.p.) decreased NA. Therefore, extracellular NA in the LC satisfies the criteria for an impulse flow-dependent vesicular exocytosis of neuronal origin. Local perfusion of the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine (0.1-100 microM) decreased NA (E(max)=-79+/-5%) in the LC, whereas the opposite effect (E(max)=268+/-53%) was observed with the alpha2A-adrenoceptor antagonist BRL44408 (0.1-100 microM). This suggests a tonic modulation of NA release through local alpha2A-adrenoceptors. The selective NA reuptake inhibitor desipramine (DMI) (0.1-100 microM) administered into the LC increased NA in the LC (E(max)=223+/-40%) and simultaneously decreased NA in the cingulate cortex, confirming the modulation exerted by NA in the LC on firing activity of noradrenergic cells and on the subsequent NA release in noradrenergic terminals. Synaptic processes underlying NA release in the LC are similar to those in noradrenergic terminal areas. NA in the LC could represent local somatodendritic release, but also the presence of neurotransmitter release from collateral axon terminals.

  10. Contributions to the field of neurotransmitters by Japanese scientists, and reflections on my own research

    OpenAIRE

    Otsuka, Masanori

    2007-01-01

    Part I describes important contributions made by some Japanese pioneers in the field of neurotransmitters: (their achievements in parentheses) J. Takamine (isolation and crystallization of adrenaline); K. Shimidzu (early hint for acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter); F. Kanematsu (donation of the Kanematsu Memorial Institute in Sydney); T. Hayashi (discovery of the excitatory action of glutamate and the inhibitory action of GABA); and I. Sano (discovery of a high concentration of dopamine in ...

  11. Glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter cycling and energy metabolism in rat cerebral cortex during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Golam M I; Patel, Anant B; Mason, Graeme F; Rothman, Douglas L; Behar, Kevin L

    2007-12-01

    The contribution of glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons to oxidative energy metabolism and neurotransmission in the developing brain is not known. Glutamatergic and GABAergic fluxes were assessed in neocortex of postnatal day 10 (P10) and 30 (P30) urethane-anesthetized rats infused intravenously with [1,6-(13)C(2)]glucose for different time intervals (time course) or with [2-(13)C]acetate for 2 to 3 h (steady state). Amino acid levels and (13)C enrichments were determined in tissue extracts ex vivo using (1)H-[(13)C]-NMR spectroscopy. Metabolic fluxes were estimated from the best fits of a three-compartment metabolic model (glutamatergic neurons, GABAergic neurons, and astroglia) to the (13)C-enrichment time courses of amino acids from [1,6-(13)C(2)]glucose, constrained by the ratios of neurotransmitter cycling (V(cyc))-to-tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux (V(TCAn)) calculated from the steady-state [2-(13)C]acetate enrichment data. From P10 to P30 increases in total neuronal (glutamate plus GABA) TCA cycle flux (3 x ; 0.24+/-0.05 versus 0.71+/-0.07 micromol per g per min, Pcycling flux (3.1 to 5 x ; 0.07 to 0.11 (+/-0.03) versus 0.34+/-0.03 micromol per g per min, Pcycling (DeltaV(cyc(tot))) and neuronal TCA cycle flux (DeltaV(TCAn(tot))) between P10 and P30 were 0.23 to 0.27 and 0.47 micromol per g per min, respectively, similar to the approximately 1:2 relationship previously reported for adult cortex. For the individual neurons, increases in V(TCAn) and V(cyc) were similar in magnitude (glutamatergic neurons, 2.7 x versus 2.8 to 4.6 x ; GABAergic neurons, approximately 5 x versus approximately 7 x), although GABAergic flux changes were larger. The findings show that glutamate and GABA neurons undergo large and approximately proportional increases in neurotransmitter cycling and oxidative energy metabolism during this major postnatal growth spurt.

  12. Methanol extract of Nigella sativa seed induces changes in the levels of neurotransmitter amino acids in male rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Tarek; Carretero, María Emilia; Arce, Carmen; Gómez-Serranillos, María Pilar

    2017-12-01

    Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae) (NS) has been used for medicinal and culinary purposes. Different parts of the plant are used to treat many disorders. This study investigates the effects of NS methanol extract on brain neurotransmitter amino acid levels. We measured the changes in aspartate, glutamate, glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid in five brain regions of male Wistar rats after methanol extract treatment. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with saline solution (controls) or NS methanol extract (equivalent of 2.5 g/kg body weight) and sacrificed 1 h later or after administering 1 daily dose for 8 days. The neurotransmitters were measured in the hypothalamus, cortex, striatum, hippocampus and thalamus by HPLC. Results showed significant changes in amino acids compared to basal values. Glutamate increased significantly (16-36%) in the regions analyzed except the striatum. Aspartate in the hypothalamus (50 and 76%) and glycine in hippocampus (32 and 25%), thalamus (66 and 29%) and striatum (75 and 48%) also increased with the two treatment intervals. γ-Aminobutyric acid significantly increased in the hippocampus (38 and 32%) and thalamus (22 and 40%) but decreased in the cortex and hypothalamus although in striatum only after eight days of treatment (24%). Our results suggest that injected methanol extract modifies amino acid levels in the rat brain regions. These results could be of interest since some neurodegenerative diseases are related to amino acid level imbalances in the central nervous system, suggesting the prospect for therapeutic use of NS against these disorders.

  13. Long-term culture of astrocytes attenuates the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kawano

    Full Text Available The astrocyte is a major glial cell type of the brain, and plays key roles in the formation, maturation, stabilization and elimination of synapses. Thus, changes in astrocyte condition and age can influence information processing at synapses. However, whether and how aging astrocytes affect synaptic function and maturation have not yet been thoroughly investigated. Here, we show the effects of prolonged culture on the ability of astrocytes to induce synapse formation and to modify synaptic transmission, using cultured autaptic neurons. By 9 weeks in culture, astrocytes derived from the mouse cerebral cortex demonstrated increases in β-galactosidase activity and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP expression, both of which are characteristic of aging and glial activation in vitro. Autaptic hippocampal neurons plated on these aging astrocytes showed a smaller amount of evoked release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, and a lower frequency of miniature release of glutamate, both of which were attributable to a reduction in the pool of readily releasable synaptic vesicles. Other features of synaptogenesis and synaptic transmission were retained, for example the ability to induce structural synapses, the presynaptic release probability, the fraction of functional presynaptic nerve terminals, and the ability to recruit functional AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors to synapses. Thus the presence of aging astrocytes affects the efficiency of synaptic transmission. Given that the pool of readily releasable vesicles is also small at immature synapses, our results are consistent with astrocytic aging leading to retarded synapse maturation.

  14. Caffeine and Cannabis Effects on Vital Neurotransmitters and Enzymes in the Brain Tissue of Juvenile Experimental Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, J O; Olatunji, S Y; Olanrewaju, A J

    2017-05-01

    . Caffeine produced quite more significant effects relative to cannabis and the combination of both increased the level of G-6-PDH significantly. Results showed that caffeine and cannabis influenced the activities of the enzymes and neurotransmitters in the brain. Both stimulants altered brain chemistry relative to the tested enzymes and neurotransmitters.

  15. [Influence of 1, 2-dichloroethane on open field behavior and levels of neurotransmitters in brain of mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ying; Shi, Lei; Gao, Lan-Yue; Wang, Gao-Yang; Li, Ge-Xin; Lv, Xiu-Qiang; Jin, Ya-Ping

    2011-06-01

    To explore the effects of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) on the behavior and the brain neurotransmitter levels in mice. Thirty mice were randomly divided into four groups, which were control group and groups of low, middle and high exposure (225, 450 and 900 mg/m3) to 1,2-DCE for 10 days (3.5 h a day) by inhalation. After the last exposure, the open field test was performed immediately. After exposure all mice were killed and the brain tissues were taken up rapidly. The levels of aspartate (Asp), glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Levels of Asp and Glu in all exposure groups increased with doses. As compared to the control group, levels of Glu in all exposure groups increased significantly (P open field test showed that effect of low exposure to 1,2-DCE on the behavior was stimulant, but the high exposure to 1,2-DCE inhibited behavior of exploration, excitement and sport. Subacute exposure to 1,2-DCE could result in the change of amino acid neurotransmitter content and ratio in the brain, thereby change the behavior of mice appeared, which might be the mechanism of neurotoxicity caused by 1,2-DCE in part.

  16. Characterization of taurine binding, uptake, and release in the rat hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanretta, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    The neurotransmitter criteria of specific receptors, inactivation, and release were experimentally examined for taurine in the hypothalamus. Specific membrane binding and synaptosomal uptake of taurine both displayed high affinity and low affinity systems. The neurotransmitter criterion of release was studied in superfused synaptosomes. Exposure of synaptosomes which had been preloaded with a concentration of [ 3 H]taurine in the high affinity uptake range (1.5 μM) to either 56 mM K + or 100 μM veratridine evoked a Ca 2+ -independent release. Exposure of synaptosomes which had been preloaded with a concentration of [ 3 H]taurine in the low affinity uptake range (2 mM) to 56 mM K + induced a Ca 2+ -independent release, whereas 100 + M veratridine did not, either in the presence or absence of Ca 2+ . Based on these results, as well as other observations, a model is proposed in which the high affinity uptake system is located on neuronal membranes and the low affinity uptake system is located on glial membranes. The mechanisms of binding, uptake, and release in relation to the cellular location of each are discussed. We conclude that the neurotransmitter criterion of activation by re-uptake is satisfied for taurine in the hypothalamus. However, the failure to demonstrate both a specific taurine receptor site and a Ca 2+ -dependent evoked release, necessitates that we conclude that taurine appears not to function as a hypothalamic neurotransmitter, at least not in the classical sense

  17. Gastric bicarbonate secretion and release of prostaglandin E2 are increased in duodenal ulcer patients, but not in Helicobacter pylori positive healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Mertz-Nielsen; Hillingsø, Jens; Frøkiær, Hanne

    1996-01-01

    Background: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality...... was present also in the stomach of DU patients. Methods: Simultaneous determinations of gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal release of PGE(2) were performed in 16 healthy volunteers (5 Helicobacter pylori-positive) and 8 inactive DU patients (all H. pylori-positivr). Results: In healthy...... be responsible for the abnormally high gastric secretion of bicarbonate in inactive DU patients. Th; defective duodenal secretion of bicarbonate observed in these patients may be a consequence of previous ulceration rather than the mere presence of H. pylori infection....

  18. Xylanase and Protease Increase Solubilization of Non-Starch Polysaccharides and Nutrient Release of Corn- and Wheat Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Brøgger; Dalsgaard, Søren; Arent, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The use of distiller dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as alternative to conventional animal feed for non-ruminants is challenged by the high content of non-starch polysaccharides and varying protein quality. In this study the enzymatic degradation of corn- and wheat DDGS was evaluated, in vitro...... of this xylanase. The current in vitro results indicate a high potential of xylanase in combination with protease to efficiently degrade DDGS and promote nutrient release in diets for non-ruminant animals....

  19. [Research for dependablity of administration of platycodi radix in Tianwang Buxinwan decoction with change of brain inhibitive neurotransmitte in rats by microdialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; He, Xin-rong; Zhou, Wen-bin; Shen, Ran-ran; Feng, Fan

    2008-12-01

    To study the effects of Tianwang Buxinwan decoction on the contents of amino acids neurotransmitters in corpus striatum of rats to implicate the mechanism of Tianwang Buxinwan promoting and Improving sleeping. Contents of two amino acids neurotransmitters in corpus striatum of rats were prepared by microdialysis technology and were determined by HPLC which involved pre-column derivation with orthophthaladehyde, recersed-phase gradient elution and fluorescence detection. In the experimental separation condition, Tianwang Buxinwan seemed do not influence three kinds of contents of amino acids neurotransmiters (glutamic acid, glycin, aspartic acid), but TBW seemed increase the content of gamma-GABA in corpus striatum of rats. The effects of Tianwang Buxinwan to relieve uneasiness may relate with the inhibitory amino acids gamma-GABA. Tianwang Buxinwan may promote increasing the content of gamma-GABA. This discovery may be helpful for the deep study of related mechanism of Tianwang Buxinwan.

  20. Gastric bicarbonate secretion and release of prostaglandin E2 are increased in duodenal ulcer patients but not in Helicobacter pylori-positive healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Frøkiaer, H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality was pres......BACKGROUND: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality...... was present also in the stomach of DU patients. METHODS: Simultaneous determinations of gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal release of PGE2 were performed in 16 healthy volunteers (5 Helicobacter pylori-positive) and 8 inactive DU patients (all H. pylori-positive). RESULTS: In healthy...... for the abnormally high gastric secretion of bicarbonate in inactive DU patients. The defective duodenal secretion of bicarbonate observed in these patients may be a consequence of previous ulceration rather than the mere presence of H. pylori infection....

  1. Neurotransmitter measures in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strac, Dubravka Svob; Muck-Seler, Dorotea; Pivac, Nela

    2015-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive and functional decline, as well as by a variety of neuropsychiatric and psychological symptoms and behavioral dysfunctions. Various studies proposed the role of different neurotransmitter systems not only in AD-related cognitive, but also psychotic symptoms and behavioral and emotional deficits. Due to the close proximity, pathological neurochemical changes in brain occurring in AD are likely to be reflected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of the CSF neurotransmitter correlates of AD in order to get further insights into the potential role of altered neurotransmitters in the pathophysiology of AD and to offer novel AD biomarkers. PubMed and MEDLINE data bases were searched for English-language articles by using "Alzheimer's disease", "CSF" and "neurotransmitter" as primary terms. No time or article type constraints were applied. Moreover, the lists of references were searched manually for additional articles. Changes in various correlates of cholinergic, monoaminergic and amino acid neurotransmitter systems, as well as neuropeptides, have been observed in CSF of AD patients. However, as the results of these studies have been controversial, the importance of CSF neurotransmitter parameters as potential biomarkers in AD remains quite unclear. The observed discrepancies could be bypassed by implementation of new sensitive methods, such as novel proteomics approaches that include protein separation techniques, mass spectroscopy and targeted multiplex panels of specific analytes. Although no individual CSF neurotransmitter correlate was demonstrated as suitable biomarker of AD, a combined profile of several CSF neurochemical parameters might show enhanced sensitivity and specificity and thus contribute to earlier and more accurate diagnosis of AD, crucial for application of effective treatments.

  2. INCREASE IN DOPAMINE RELEASE FROM THE NUCLEUS-ACCUMBENS IN RESPONSE TO FEEDING - A MODEL TO STUDY INTERACTIONS BETWEEN DRUGS AND NATURALLY ACTIVATED DOPAMINERGIC-NEURONS IN THE RAT-BRAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESTERINK, BHC; TEISMAN, A; DEVRIES, JB

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactions between the in vivo release of dopamine and certain drugs, during conditions of increased dopaminergic activity. Dopaminergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens were activated by feeding hungry rats. 48-96 h after implantation of a

  3. Dehydration-induced release of vasopressin involves activation of hypothalamic histaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, A; Knigge, U; Rouleau, A; Garbarg, M; Warberg, J

    1994-08-01

    The hypothalamic neurotransmitter histamine (HA) induces arginine vasopressin (AVP) release when administered centrally. We studied and characterized this effect of HA with respect to receptor involvement. In addition, we studied the possible role of hypothalamic histaminergic neurons in the mediation of a physiological stimulus (dehydration) for AVP secretion. Intracerebroventricular administration of HA, the H1-receptor agonists 2(3-bromophenyl)HA and 2-thiazolylethylamine, or the H2-receptor agonists amthamine or 4-methyl-HA stimulated AVP secretion. The stimulatory action of HA on AVP was inhibited by pretreatment with the H1-receptor antagonist mepyramine or the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine. Twenty-four hours of dehydration elevated the plasma osmolality from 298 +/- 3 to 310 +/- 3 mmol/liter and increased the plasma AVP concentration 4-fold. The hypothalamic content of HA and its metabolite tele-methyl-HA was elevated in response to dehydration, indicating an increased synthesis and release of hypothalamic HA. Dehydration-induced AVP secretion was lowered when neuronal HA synthesis was inhibited by the administration of (S) alpha-fluoromethylhistidine or when the animals were pretreated with the H3-receptor agonist R(alpha)methylhistamine, which inhibits the release and synthesis of HA, the H1-receptor antagonists mepyramine and cetirizine, or the H2-receptor antagonists cimetidine and ranitidine. We conclude that HA, via activation of both H1- and H2-receptors, stimulates AVP release and that HA is a physiological regulator of AVP secretion.

  4. The effects of diurnal intermittent fasting on the wake-promoting neurotransmitter orexin-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeneessier, Aljohara S; Alzoghaibi, Mohammed; BaHammam, Abdulrahman A; Ibrahim, Mahmoud G; Olaish, Awad H; Nashwan, Samar Z; BaHammam, Ahmed S

    2018-01-01

    Food restriction has been demonstrated to increase the alertness in different species and to increase the levels of the wake-promoting neurotransmitter orexin. We hypothesized that diurnal intermittent fasting (DIF) increases orexin-A levels during fasting. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess the effects of DIF, during the month of Ramadan, on orexin, while controlling for lifestyle changes that may accompany Ramadan such as sleep duration, bedtime and wake time, energy expenditure, light exposure, and food. Eight young healthy volunteers (mean age, 25.4 ± 3.5 years) reported to the laboratory on three occasions: (1) 4 weeks before Ramadan while performing DIF for 1 week outside the month of Ramadan (fasting outside Ramadan); (2) 1 week before Ramadan (nonfasting baseline) (BL); and (3) during the 2 nd week of Ramadan while performing DIF (Ramadan). Plasma levels of orexin-A were measured using an enzyme immunoassay five times at 22:00, 02:00, 04:00, 06:00, and 11:00. Caloric intake, light exposure, and sleep schedule were maintained during the participants' stays in the laboratory in the three study periods. Orexin-A levels increased in the daytime during fasting and decreased at night compared to BL. The differences in orexin-A levels between DIF and BL were significant at 06:00, 11:00, 22:00, and 02:00. DIF increases orexin-A levels in the plasma during fasting hours. This finding supports findings from animal studies showing that fasting increases alertness.

  5. Effect of sustained-release isosorbide dinitrate on post-prandial gastric emptying and gastroduodenal motility in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J L; Rasmussen, S L; Linnet, J

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter released by non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic neurons that innervate the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract. We examined whether NO, derived from a sustained-release preparation of isosorbide dinitrate, influenced gastric emptying and...

  6. Evidence for dynamic network regulation of Drosophila photoreceptor function from mutants lacking the neurotransmitter histamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An eDau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic feedback from interneurons to photoreceptors can help to optimize visual information flow by balancing its allocation on retinal pathways under changing light conditions. But little is known about how this critical network operation is regulated dynamically. Here, we investigate this question by comparing signaling properties and performance of wild-type Drosophila R1-R6 photoreceptors to those of the hdcJK910 mutant, which lacks the neurotransmitter histamine and therefore cannot transmit information to interneurons. Recordings show that hdcJK910 photoreceptors sample similar amounts of information from naturalistic stimulation to wild-type photoreceptors, but this information is packaged in smaller responses, especially under bright illumination. Analyses reveal how these altered dynamics primarily resulted from network overload that affected hdcJK910 photoreceptors in two ways. First, the missing inhibitory histamine input to interneurons almost certainly depolarized them irrevocably, which in turn increased their excitatory feedback to hdcJK910 R1-R6s. This tonic excitation depolarized the photoreceptors to artificially high potentials, reducing their operational range. Second, rescuing histamine input to interneurons in hdcJK910 mutant also restored their normal phasic feedback modulation to R1-R6s, causing photoreceptor output to accentuate dynamic intensity differences at bright illumination, similar to the wild-type. These results provide mechanistic explanations of how synaptic feedback connections optimize information packaging in photoreceptor output and novel insight into the operation and design of dynamic network regulation of sensory neurons.

  7. Urinary Neurotransmitters Are Selectively Altered in Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Predict Cognitive Morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; McManus, Corena J. T.; Kellermann, Gottfried H.; Samiei, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cognitive dysfunction, suggesting altered neurotransmitter function. We explored overnight changes in neurotransmitters in the urine of children with and without OSA. Methods: Urine samples were collected from children with OSA and from control subjects before and after sleep studies. A neurocognitive battery assessing general cognitive ability (GCA) was administered to a subset of children with OSA. Samples were subjected to multiple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for 12 neurotransmitters, and adjusted for creatinine concentrations. Results: The study comprised 50 children with OSA and 20 control subjects. Of the children with OSA, 20 had normal GCA score (mean ± SD) (101.2 ± 14.5) and 16 had a reduced GCA score (87.3 ± 13.9; P neurotransmitters enabled prediction of OSA (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.923; P neurotransmitters in urine may not only predict OSA but also the presence of cognitive deficits. Larger cohort studies appear warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:23306904

  8. Recent progress and challenges in nanotechnology for biomedical applications: an insight into the analysis of neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaran, Dhesingh Ravi; Miura, Norio

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers exciting opportunities and unprecedented compatibilities in manipulating chemical and biological materials at the atomic or molecular scale for the development of novel functional materials with enhanced capabilities. It plays a central role in the recent technological advances in biomedical technology, especially in the areas of disease diagnosis, drug design and drug delivery. In this review, we present the recent trend and challenges in the development of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with a special emphasis on the analysis of neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are the chemical messengers which transform information and signals all over the body. They play prime role in functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) and governs most of the metabolic functions including movement, pleasure, pain, mood, emotion, thinking, digestion, sleep, addiction, fear, anxiety and depression. Thus, development of high-performance and user-friendly analytical methods for ultra-sensitive detection of neurotransmitters remain a major challenge in modern biomedical analysis. Nanostructured materials are emerging as a powerful mean for diagnosis of CNS disorders because of their unique optical, size and surface characteristics. This review provides a brief outline on the basic concepts and recent advancements of nanotechnology for biomedical applications, especially in the analysis of neurotransmitters. A brief introduction to the nanomaterials, bionanotechnology and neurotransmitters is also included along with discussions on most of the patents published in these areas.

  9. Enhancement of cell-cell contact by a nonmitogenic lectin increases blastogenic response and IL-2 release by mitogen-stimulated mouse thymocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, J; Marti, J; Dornand, J; Bonnafous, J C; Mani, J C

    1986-03-01

    We have examined the influence of peanut agglutinin (PNA), a lectin which agglutinates but does not stimulate mouse thymocytes, on the responsiveness of these cells to concanavalin A (Con A) or galactose oxidase stimulation. Binding low amounts of PNA on unseparated mouse thymocytes pretreated with neuraminidase highly enhances the mitogenic response and the level of interleukin 2 release in the culture medium upon Con A stimulation. We have shown that PNA present on the cell surface acts as a crosslinking agent which favors intercellular binding between accessory cells (macrophages) and thymocytes, leading through this enhanced cooperation by cell-cell contact to an enhanced blastogenic response.

  10. Insertion of Neurotransmitters into a Lipid Bilayer Membrane and Its Implication on Membrane Stability: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun; Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

    2017-03-17

    The signaling molecules in neurons, called neurotransmitters, play an essential role in the transportation of neural signals, during which the neurotransmitters interact with not only specific receptors, but also cytomembranes, such as synaptic vesicle membranes and postsynaptic membranes. Through extensive molecular dynamics simulations, the atomic-scale insertion dynamics of typical neurotransmitters, including methionine enkephalin (ME), leucine enkephalin (LE), dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh), and aspartic acid (ASP), into lipid bilayers is investigated. The results show that the first three neurotransmitters (ME, LE, and DA) are able to diffuse freely into both 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) membranes, and are guided by the aromatic residues Tyr and Phe. Only a limited number of these neurotransmitters are allowed to penetrate into the membrane, which suggests an intrinsic mechanism by which the membrane is protected from being destroyed by excessive inserted neurotransmitters. After spontaneous insertion, the neurotransmitters disturb the surrounding phospholipids in the membrane, as indicated by the altered distribution of components in lipid leaflets and the disordered lipid tails. In contrast, the last two neurotransmitters (ACh and ASP) cannot enter the membrane, but instead always diffuse freely in solution. These findings provide an understanding at the atomic level of how neurotransmitters interact with the surrounding cytomembrane, as well as their impact on membrane behavior. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Neurotransmitter Specific, Cellular-Resolution Functional Brain Mapping Using Receptor Coated Nanoparticles: Assessment of the Possibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forati, Ebrahim; Sabouni, Abas; Ray, Supriyo; Head, Brian; Schoen, Christian; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Receptor coated resonant nanoparticles and quantum dots are proposed to provide a cellular-level resolution image of neural activities inside the brain. The functionalized nanoparticles and quantum dots in this approach will selectively bind to different neurotransmitters in the extra-synaptic regions of neurons. This allows us to detect neural activities in real time by monitoring the nanoparticles and quantum dots optically. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with two different geometries (sphere and rod) and quantum dots (QDs) with different sizes were studied along with three different neurotransmitters: dopamine, gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glycine. The absorption/emission spectra of GNPs and QDs before and after binding of neurotransmitters and their corresponding receptors are reported. The results using QDs and nanorods with diameter 25nm and aspect rations larger than three were promising for the development of the proposed functional brain mapping approach. PMID:26717196

  12. Multi-metal, Multi-wavelength Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Detection of Neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Amber S; Sharma, Bhavya

    2018-04-05

    The development of a sensor for the rapid and sensitive detection of neurotransmitters could provide a pathway for the diagnosis of neurological diseases, leading to the discovery of more effective treatment methods. We investigate the use of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based sensors for the rapid detection of melatonin, serotonin, glutamate, dopamine, GABA, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Previous studies have demonstrated SERS detection of neurotransmitters; however, there has been no comprehensive study on the effect of the metal used as the SERS substrate or the excitation wavelength used for detection. Here, we present the detection of 7 neurotransmitters using both silver and gold nanoparticles at excitation wavelengths of 532, 633, and 785 nm. Over the range of wavelengths investigated, the SERS enhancement on the silver and gold nanoparticles varies, with an average enhancement factor of 10 5 -10 6 . The maximum SERS enhancement occurs at an excitation wavelength of 785 nm for the gold nanoparticles and at 633 nm for the silver nanoparticles.

  13. Gold ions bio-released from metallic gold particles reduce inflammation and apoptosis and increase the regenerative responses in focal brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Agnete; Kolind, Kristian; Pedersen, Dan Sonne

    2008-01-01

    neural stem cell response. We conclude that bio-liberated gold ions possess pronounced anti-inflammatory and neuron-protective capacities in the brain and suggest that metallic gold has clinical potentials. Intra-cerebral application of metallic gold as a pharmaceutical source of gold ions represents......Traumatic brain injury results in loss of neurons caused as much by the resulting neuroinflammation as by the injury. Gold salts are known to be immunosuppressive, but their use are limited by nephrotoxicity. However, as we have proven that implants of pure metallic gold release gold ions which do...... not spread in the body, but are taken up by cells near the implant, we hypothesize that metallic gold could reduce local neuroinflammation in a safe way. Bio-liberation, or dissolucytosis, of gold ions from metallic gold surfaces requires the presence of disolycytes i.e. macrophages and the process...

  14. The importance of neurotransmitters in the central control of the blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfitscher-Klausmair, A.

    1990-12-01

    In anaesthetized cats, the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and the locus coeruleus (LC) were bilaterally superfused through push-pull cannulae with artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Catecholamines were determined in the superfusate by a radioenzymatic assay, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was determined in the superfusate and homogenate with glutamate by an enzymatic and fluorimetric assay. In the NTS and LC the resting release of catecholamines varied rhythmically. To investigate the function of catecholaminergic neurons and GABAergic neurons of the NTS in cardiovascular control, the influence of experimentally induced blood pressure changes on the rates of release of the endogenous catecholamines dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline in the NTS was observed. The decreased noradrenaline and adrenaline release elicited by increases in blood pressure and the reduced release of dopamine induced by decreases in blood pressure suggest a hypertensive function of noradrenaline and adrenaline and a hypotensive role of dopamine at the level of the rostral and intermediate NTS. Bilateral carotid occlusion led to a very pronounced increase in the release rate of GABA in the rostral NTS. This result demonstrate the hypertensive function of GABA in the NTS. Thus underlining the importance of catecholaminergic and GABAergic neurons of the NTS in central cardiovascular control. The GABA-transaminase inhibitor Vigabatrin was injected wistar Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats. GABA-Transaminase inhibition was accompanied by an increase of GABA concentration in the rat brain. The administration of Vigabatrin had no influence on the blood pressure but on the body wight of the rats. (Author)

  15. A Markov State-based Quantitative Kinetic Model of Sodium Release from the Dopamine Transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Asghar M.; Khelashvili, George; Weinstein, Harel

    2017-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) belongs to the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family of membrane proteins that are responsible for reuptake of neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft to terminate a neuronal signal and enable subsequent neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic neuron. The release of one sodium ion from the crystallographically determined sodium binding site Na2 had been identified as an initial step in the transport cycle which prepares the transporter for substrate translocation by stabilizing an inward-open conformation. We have constructed Markov State Models (MSMs) from extensive molecular dynamics simulations of human DAT (hDAT) to explore the mechanism of this sodium release. Our results quantify the release process triggered by hydration of the Na2 site that occurs concomitantly with a conformational transition from an outward-facing to an inward-facing state of the transporter. The kinetics of the release process are computed from the MSM, and transition path theory is used to identify the most probable sodium release pathways. An intermediate state is discovered on the sodium release pathway, and the results reveal the importance of various modes of interaction of the N-terminus of hDAT in controlling the pathways of release.

  16. Alterations in Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent release of catecholamines in preparations of rat brain produced by ethanol treatment in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.A.; Pagonis, C.; Samuel, D.; Littleton, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Compared to preparations from control animals, superfused striatal slice preparations from brains of rats treated chronically with ethanol released a significantly greater fraction of stored [ 3 H] dopamine on depolarisation in 40 mM K + . Similarly, the electrically-evoked release of [ 3 H]-norepinephrine from cortical slices and of [ 3 H]-dopamine from striatal slices is also increased, although with this mechanism of depolarisation the change is significant only in the case of [ 3 H] norepinephrine release. In contrast to this tendency to enhancement of Ca 2+ -dependent depolarisation-induced release, a reduced fraction of stored [ 3 H]-catecholamines was released from these preparations by the indirect sympathomimetics tyramine and (+)-amphetamine. The catecholamine release induced by these indirect sympathomimetics is largely independent of external Ca 2+ and the results are interpreted as suggesting that chronic alcohol treatment changes the distribution of catecholamine neurotransmitters between storage pools in the nerve terminal which do or do not require Ca 2+ entry for release

  17. Chronic treatment with extended release methylphenidate does not alter dopamine systems or increase vulnerability for cocaine self-administration: a study in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Kathryn E; Pierre, Peter J; Daunais, James; Bennett, Allyson J; Martelle, Susan; Gage, H Donald; Swanson, James M; Nader, Michael A; Porrino, Linda J

    2012-11-01

    Despite the widespread use of stimulant medications for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, few studies have addressed their long-term effects on the developing brain or susceptibility to drug use in adolescence. Here, we determined the effects of chronic methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on brain dopamine (DA) systems, developmental milestones, and later vulnerability to substance abuse in juvenile nonhuman primates. Male rhesus monkeys (approximately 30 months old) were treated daily with either a sustained release formulation of MPH or placebo (N=8 per group). Doses were titrated to achieve initial drug blood serum levels within the therapeutic range in children and adjusted throughout the study to maintain target levels. Growth, including measures of crown-rump length and weight, was assessed before and after 1 year of treatment and after 3-5 months washout. In addition, positron emission tomography scans were performed to quantify binding availability of D2/D3 receptors and dopamine transporters (DATs). Distribution volume ratios were calculated to quantify binding of [¹⁸F]fluoroclebopride (DA D2/D3) and [¹⁸F]-(+)-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-2β-propanoyl-3β-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane (DAT). Chronic MPH did not differentially alter the course of weight gain or other measures of growth, nor did it influence DAT or D2/D3 receptor availability after 1 year of treatment. However, after washout, the D2/D3 receptor availability of MPH-treated animals did not continue to decline at the same rate as control animals. Acquisition of intravenous cocaine self-administration was examined by first substituting saline for food reinforcement and then cocaine doses (0.001-0.1 mg/kg per injection) in ascending order. Each dose was available for at least five consecutive sessions. The lowest dose of cocaine that maintained response rates significantly higher than saline-contingent rates was operationally defined as acquisition of cocaine reinforcement. There

  18. Paecilomyces tenuipes extract prevents depression-like behaviors in chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced rat model via modulation of neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chungang; Wang, Juan; Xu, Shiqi; An, Shengshu; Tang, Siying; He, Jian; Liu, Yang; Lee, Robert J; Wang, Di

    2017-08-01

    The medicinal fungus Paecilomyces tenuipes exhibits a variety of pharmacological effects, including antidepressive effects. The chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)‑induced rat model has served an important role in studies involving antidepressants screening. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antidepressant‑like activity of P. tenuipes N45 aqueous extract (PTNE) in a CUMS‑induced rat model of behavioral despair depression. Following 4 weeks of PTNE treatment, behavioral tests were conducted to investigate the antidepressant‑like activities, and the levels of neurotransmitters and hormones in blood and hypothalamus were measured. The results demonstrated that PTNE treatment significantly increased movement in the forced running test, whereas the immobility time was reduced in the hotplate test and the forced swim test in depression‑model rats. PTNE treatment was able to normalize the levels of hormones and neurotransmitters in serum and hypothalamus of CUMS rats. The data demonstrated that PTNE treatment may be a potential pharmaceutical agent in treatment‑resistant depression, and the effects of PTNE may be partly mediated through normalizing the levels of neurotransmitters.

  19. Simultaneous determination of amino acids and neurotransmitters in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Diego Soares; Crevelin, Eduardo José; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Cecilio Hallak, Jaime Eduardo; de Souza Crippa, José Alexandre; Costa Queiroz, Maria Eugênia

    2015-03-01

    A sensitive, reproducible, and rapid method was developed for the simultaneous determination of underivatized amino acids (aspartate, serine, glycine, alanine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) and neurotransmitters (glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid) in plasma samples using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. The plasma concentrations of amino acids and neurotransmitters obtained from 35 schizophrenic patients in treatment with clozapine (27 patients) and olanzapine (eight patients) were compared with those obtained from 38 healthy volunteers to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. The chromatographic conditions separated ten target compounds within 3 min. This method presented linear ranges that varied from (lower limit of quantification: 9.7-13.3 nmol/mL) to (upper limit of quantification: 19.4-800 nmol/mL), intra- and interassay precision with coefficients of variation lower than 10%, and relative standard error values of the accuracy ranged from -2.1 to 9.9%. The proposed method appropriately determines amino acids and neurotransmitters in plasma from schizophrenic patients. Compared with the control group (healthy volunteers), the plasma levels of methionine in schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine are statistically significantly higher. Moreover, schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine tend to have increased plasma levels of glutamate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Effect of Hippophae leaves on neurotransmitters and hematological parameters in whole body irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vanita; Prasad, Jagdish; Madhu Bala

    2012-01-01

    Till date no approved radio-protective agent is available world over. WR-2721 had severe side effects and was behaviourally toxic even at sub-lethal doses of ionizing radiation. Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is known for its nutraceutical and therapeutic values. Our studies demonstrated that treatment with leaves of H. rhamnoides rendered > 90% whole body radioprotection in 60 Co-g-irradiated (10 Gy) mice population in comparison to 100% death in non-Hippophae treated irradiated (10 Gy) mice population. Our studies also demonstrated that treatment with leaves of H. rhamnoides prevented conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in irradiated (2 Gy) Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study was planned to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of Hippophae leaves on changes in levels of neurotransmitters ((acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and dopamine (DA)) in plasma and brain, haematological parameters in blood/plasma; and brain histology in Sprague-Dawley rats showing CTA after 60 Co-g-irradiation (2 Gy). The results showed that whole body 60 Co-g-irradiation (2 Gy) (i) increased the levels of Ach, Eepinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE); oxidative stress (MDA and NO), and (ii) decreased the levels of DA; WBC counts and RBC counts and antioxidants (GSH), in comparison to untreated control. Treatment with 12 mg/kg b.w. drug concentration, prior to irradiation significantly (p<0.05) (i) decreased the levels of AChE, E and NE, and MDA and NO levels in plasma and brain, and (ii) increased the WBC counts; RBC counts and levels of antioxidants (GSH), in comparison to radiation control group. Histological changes in brain were also recorded. The results demonstrated that Hippophae leaves extract had neuro-protective and reduced oxidative stress in brain of whole body irradiated mice and could be, thereby contributing to behavioural protection. (author)

  1. Characterization of dendritic morphology and neurotransmitter phenotype of thoracic descending propriospinal neurons after complete spinal cord transection and GDNF treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lingxiao; Ruan, Yiwen; Chen, Chen; Frye, Christian Corbin; Xiong, Wenhui; Jin, Xiaoming; Jones, Kathryn; Sengelaub, Dale; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    After spinal cord injury (SCI), poor regeneration of damaged axons of the central nervous system (CNS) causes limited functional recovery. This limited spontaneous functional recovery has been attributed, to a large extent, to the plasticity of propriospinal neurons, especially the descending propriospinal neurons (dPSNs). Compared with the supraspinal counterparts, dPSNs have displayed significantly greater regenerative capacity, which can be further enhanced by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In the present study, we applied a G-mutated rabies virus (G-Rabies) co-expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP) to reveal Golgi-like dendritic morphology of dPSNs. We also investigated the neurotransmitters expressed by dPSNs after labeling with a retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG). dPSNs were examined in animals with sham injuries or complete spinal transections with or without GDNF treatment. Bilateral injections of G-Rabies and FG were made into the 2nd lumbar (L2) spinal cord at 3 days prior to a spinal cord transection performed at the 11th thoracic level (T11). The lesion gap was filled with Gelfoam containing either saline or GDNF in the injury groups. Four days post-injury, the rats were sacrificed for analysis. For those animals receiving G-rabies injection, the GFP signal in the T7–9 spinal cord was visualized via 2-photon microscopy. Dendritic morphology from stack images was traced and analyzed using a Neurolucida software. We found that dPSNs in sham injured animals had a predominantly dorsal-ventral distribution of dendrites. Transection injury resulted in alterations in the dendritic distribution with dorsal-ventral retraction and lateral-medial extension. Treatment with GDNF significantly increased the terminal dendritic length of dPSNs. The density of spine-like structures was increased after injury, and treatment with GDNF enhanced this effect. For the group receiving FG injections, immunohistochemistry for glutamate, choline

  2. Measuring endogenous 5-HT release by emission tomography: promises and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Louise M; Tyacke, Robin J; Nutt, David J; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2010-01-01

    Molecular in vivo neuroimaging techniques can be used to measure regional changes in endogenous neurotransmitters, evoked by challenges that alter synaptic neurotransmitter concentration. This technique has most successfully been applied to the study of endogenous dopamine release using positron emission tomography, but has not yet been adequately extended to other neurotransmitter systems. This review focuses on how the technique has been applied to the study of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system. The principles behind visualising fluctuations in neurotransmitters are introduced, with reference to the dopaminergic system. Studies that aim to image acute, endogenous 5-HT release or depletion at 5-HT receptor targets are summarised, with particular attention to studies in humans. Radiotracers targeting the 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4 receptors and the serotonin reuptake transporter have been explored for their sensitivity to 5-HT fluctuations, but with mixed outcomes; tracers for these targets cannot reliably image endogenous 5-HT in humans. Shortcomings in our basic knowledge of the mechanisms underlying changes in binding potential are addressed, and suggestions are made as to how the selection of targets, radiotracers, challenge paradigms, and experimental design might be optimised to improve our chances of successfully imaging endogenous neurotransmitters in the future. PMID:20664611

  3. Selective Detection of Neurotransmitters by Fluorescence and Chemiluminescence Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziqiang Wang; Edward S. Yeung

    2001-08-06

    In recent years, luminescence imaging has been widely employed in neurochemical analysis. It has a number of advantages for the study of neuronal and other biological cells: (1) a particular molecular species or cellular constituent can be selectively visualized in the presence of a large excess of other species in a heterogeneous environment; (2) low concentration detection limits can be achieved because of the inherent sensitivity associated with fluorescence and chemiluminescence; (3) low excitation intensities can be used so that long-term observation can be realized while the viability of the specimen is preserved; and (4) excellent spatial resolution can be obtained with the light microscope so subcellular compartments can be identified. With good sensitivity, temporal and spatial resolution, the flux of ions and molecules and the distribution and dynamics of intracellular species can be measured in real time with specific luminescence probes, substrates, or with native fluorescence. A noninvasive detection scheme based on glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymatic assay combined with microscopy was developed to measure the glutamate release in cultured cells from the central nervous system (CNS). The enzyme reaction is very specific and sensitive. The detection limit with CCD imaging is down to {micro}M levels of glutamate with reasonable response time. They also found that chemiluminescence associated with the ATP-dependent reaction between luciferase and luciferin can be used to image ATP at levels down to 10 nM in the millisecond time scale. Similar imaging experiments should be feasible in a broad spectrum of biological systems.

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate increases intracellular [Ca2+] in U87 cells mainly by influx of extracellular Ca2+ and partly by release of intracellular stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jung; Yum, Keun Sang; Sung, Jong-Ho; Rhie, Duck-Joo; Kim, Myung-Jun; Min, Do Sik; Hahn, Sang June; Kim, Myung-Suk; Jo, Yang-Hyeok; Yoon, Shin Hee

    2004-02-01

    Green tea has been receiving considerable attention as a possible preventive agent against cancer and cardiovascular disease. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol component of green tea. Using digital calcium imaging and an assay for [3H]-inositol phosphates, we determined whether EGCG increases intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) in non-excitable human astrocytoma U87 cells. EGCG induced concentration-dependent increases in [Ca2+]i. The EGCG-induced [Ca2+]i increases were reduced to 20.9% of control by removal of extracellular Ca2+. The increases were also inhibited markedly by treatment with the non-specific Ca2+ channel inhibitors cobalt (3 mM) for 3 min and lanthanum (1 mM) for 5 min. The increases were not significantly inhibited by treatment for 10 min with the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine (100 nM). Treatment with the inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase thapsigargin (1 micro M) also significantly inhibited the EGCG-induced [Ca2+]i increases. Treatment for 15 min with the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor neomycin (300 micro M) attenuated the increases significantly, while the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein (30 micro M) had no effect. EGCG increased [3H]-inositol phosphates formation via PLC activation. Treatment for 10 min with mefenamic acid (100 micro M) and flufenamic acid (100 micro M), derivatives of diphenylamine-2-carboxylate, blocked the EGCG-induced [Ca2+]i increase in non-treated and thapsigargin-treated cells but indomethacin (100 micro M) did not affect the increases. Collectively, these data suggest that EGCG increases [Ca2+]i in non-excitable U87 cells mainly by eliciting influx of extracellular Ca2+ and partly by mobilizing intracellular Ca2+ stores by PLC activation. The EGCG-induced [Ca2+]i influx is mediated mainly through channels sensitive to diphenylamine-2-carboxylate derivatives.

  5. Direct assessment of substrate binding to the Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporter LeuT by solid state NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlendsson, Simon; Gotfryd, Kamil; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann

    2017-01-01

    The Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporters (NSSs) represent an important class of proteins mediating sodium-dependent uptake of neurotransmitters from the extracellular space. The substrate binding stoichiometry of the bacterial NSS protein, LeuT, and thus the principal transport mechanism, has been...

  6. New mechanisms of the TCM spleen-based treatment of immune thrombocytopenia purpura from the perspective of blood neurotransmitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: The JYS prescription may regulate the expression levels of blood neurotransmitters via the brain-gut axis in patients with “spleen deficiency” ITP and thus activate hemostatic mechanisms to promote hemostasis. β-EP and VIP are key neurotransmitters of the JYS-induced functional regulation.

  7. Increased release of dopamine in the striata of young adults with hearing impairment and its relevance for the social defeat hypothesis of schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevonden, Martin; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim; Heijtel, Dennis; van Os, Jim; Selten, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    An increased risk for psychosis is observed in people with hearing impairment. According to the social defeat hypothesis, the long-term experience of exclusion leads to enhanced baseline activity and/or sensitization of the dopamine system and puts the individual at increased risk for psychosis. To

  8. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) release in the ciliated protozoon Paramecium occurs by neuronal-like exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoino, P; Milanese, M; Candiani, S; Diaspro, A; Fato, M; Usai, C; Bonanno, G

    2010-04-01

    Paramecium primaurelia expresses a significant amount of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). Paramecia possess both glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)-like and vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT)-like proteins, indicating the ability to synthesize GABA from glutamate and to transport GABA into vesicles. Using antibodies raised against mammalian GAD and vGAT, bands with an apparent molecular weight of about 67 kDa and 57 kDa were detected. The presence of these bands indicated a similarity between the proteins in Paramecium and in mammals. VAMP, syntaxin and SNAP, putative proteins of the release machinery that form the so-called SNARE complex, are present in Paramecium. Most VAMP, syntaxin and SNAP fluorescence is localized in spots that vary in size and density and are primarily distributed near the plasma membrane. Antibodies raised against mammal VAMP-3, sintaxin-1 or SNAP-25 revealed protein immunoblot bands having molecular weights consistent with those observed in mammals. Moreover, P. primaurelia spontaneously releases GABA into the environment, and this neurotransmitter release significantly increases after membrane depolarization. The depolarization-induced GABA release was strongly reduced not only in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) but also by pre-incubation with bafilomycin A1 or with botulinum toxin C1 serotype. It can be concluded that GABA occurs in Paramecium, where it is probably stored in vesicles capable of fusion with the cell membrane; accordingly, GABA can be released from Paramecium by stimulus-induced, neuronal-like exocytotic mechanisms.

  9. Neurotransmitters as food supplements: the effects of GABA on brain and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, E.; Kleijn, R.; Colzato, L.S.; Alkemade, A.; Forstmann, B.U.; Nieuwenhuis, S.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human cortex. The food supplement version of GABA is widely available online. Although many consumers claim that they experience benefits from the use of these products, it is unclear whether these supplements confer

  10. Altered neurotransmitter expression profile in the ganglionic bowel in Hirschsprung's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, David; O'Donnell, Anne Marie; Gillick, John; Puri, Prem

    2016-05-01

    Despite having optimal pull-through (PT) surgery for Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR), many patients experience persistent bowel symptoms with no mechanical/histopathological cause. Murine models of HSCR suggest that expression of key neurotransmitters is unbalanced proximal to the aganglionic colonic segment. We aimed to investigate expression of key enteric neurotransmitters in the colon of children with HSCR. Full-length PT specimens were collected fresh from children with HSCR (n=10). Control specimens were collected at colostomy closure from children with anorectal malformation (n=8). The distributions of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and substance P (SP) were evaluated using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Neurotransmitter quantification was with Western blot analysis. ChAT expression was high in aganglionic bowel and transition zone but reduced in ganglionic bowel in HSCR relative to controls. Conversely, nNOS expression was markedly reduced in aganglionic bowel but high in ganglionic bowel in HSCR relative to controls. VIP expression was similar in ganglionic HSCR and control colon. SP expression was similar in all tissue types. Imbalance of key excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the ganglionic bowel in HSCR may explain the basis of bowel dysmotility after an optimal pull-through operation in some patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Simultaneous quantification of seven hippocampal neurotransmitters in depression mice by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fei; Li, Jia; Shi, Hai-Lian; Wang, Ting-ting; Muhtar, Wahaf; Du, Min; Zhang, Bei-bei; Wu, Hui; Yang, Li; Hu, Zhi-bi; Wu, Xiao-jun

    2014-05-30

    There is no method available to simultaneously detect GABA, Glu, Epi, NE, DA, 5-HT and 5-HIAA in mouse hippocampus. A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method has been developed for simultaneously measuring seven neurotransmitters in mouse hippocampus. The analytes were detected in positive mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and the procedure was completed in less than 9min. This method exhibited excellent linearity for all of the analytes with regression coefficients higher than 0.99, and showed good intra- and inter-day precisions (RSDneurotransmitters in a mouse depression model induced by successive methylprednisolone injections. The results indicated that this depression model was closely associated with the decreased level of Epi (p=0.002) and elevated ratio of 5-HIAA/5-HT (p=0.01), which has never been reported elsewhere. Compared with previous methods, current approach is more convenient without any pre-column derivatization of the analytes but enhances detectability with incremental neurotransmitter profile and shortens detection time. This work represents the first accurate simultaneous determination of seven neurotransmitters in the mouse depression model induced by methylprednisolone. The reliable method will benefit the research of neurological diseases with the altered neurotransmitter profile in brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Aging rather than aneuploidy affects monoamine neurotransmitters in brain regions of Down syndrome mouse models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Alain D; Vermeiren, Yannick; Albac, Christelle; Lana-Elola, Eva; Watson-Scales, Sheona; Gibbins, Dorota; Aerts, Tony; Van Dam, Debby; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Potier, Marie-Claude; De Deyn, Peter P

    Altered concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolites have been repeatedly found in people with Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21). Because of the limited availability of human post-mortem tissue, DS mouse models are of great interest to study these changes and the underlying

  13. [Hormones and osteoporosis update. Regulation of bone remodeling by neuropeptides and neurotransmitters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu

    2009-07-01

    From the discovery of the regulation of bone remodelling by leptin, much attention has been focused on neurogenic control of bone remodelling. Various hypothalamic neuropeptides, which are involved in appetite regulation, are now revealed to be important regulators of bone remodelling. More recently, neurotransmitters, such as serotonin or catecholamines, are proven to be bone remodelling regulators.

  14. Artificial neural network and classical least-squares methods for neurotransmitter mixture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, H G; Greek, L S; Gorzalka, B B; Bree, A V; Blades, M W; Turner, R F

    1995-02-01

    Identification of individual components in biological mixtures can be a difficult problem regardless of the analytical method employed. In this work, Raman spectroscopy was chosen as a prototype analytical method due to its inherent versatility and applicability to aqueous media, making it useful for the study of biological samples. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) and the classical least-squares (CLS) method were used to identify and quantify the Raman spectra of the small-molecule neurotransmitters and mixtures of such molecules. The transfer functions used by a network, as well as the architecture of a network, played an important role in the ability of the network to identify the Raman spectra of individual neurotransmitters and the Raman spectra of neurotransmitter mixtures. Specifically, networks using sigmoid and hyperbolic tangent transfer functions generalized better from the mixtures in the training data set to those in the testing data sets than networks using sine functions. Networks with connections that permit the local processing of inputs generally performed better than other networks on all the testing data sets. and better than the CLS method of curve fitting, on novel spectra of some neurotransmitters. The CLS method was found to perform well on noisy, shifted, and difference spectra.

  15. Neuroglobin in the rat brain (II): co-localisation with neurotransmitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Kelsen, Jesper; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    In an accompanying article, we found that neuroglobin (Ngb) was expressed in a few well-defined nuclei in the rat brain. Here, we show by use of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation (ISH) that Ngb co-localise with several specific neurotransmitters. Ngb co-localise consistently with tyr...

  16. Valine but not leucine or isoleucine supports neurotransmitter glutamate synthesis during synaptic activity in cultured cerebellar neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Johansen, Maja L.; Schousboe, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis of neuronal glutamate from a-ketoglutarate for neurotransmission necessitates an amino group nitrogen donor; however, it is not clear which amino acid(s) serves this role. Thus, the ability of the three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine, and valine, to act as amino...... group nitrogen donors for synthesis of vesicular neurotransmitter glutamate was investigated in cultured mouse cerebellar (primarily glutamatergic) neurons. The cultures were superfused in the presence of (15) N-labeled BCAAs, and synaptic activity was induced by pulses of N-methyl-D-aspartate (300 µ......]valine was able to maintain the amount of vesicular glutamate during synaptic activity. This indicates that, among the BCAAs, only valine supports the increased need for synthesis of vesicular glutamate. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  17. Expression of the neurotransmitter-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase in male germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, H; Pelto-Huikko, M; Metsis, M; Söder, O; Brene, S; Skog, S; Hökfelt, T; Ritzén, E M

    1990-09-01

    The gene encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the key enzyme in the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid, is shown to be expressed in the testis of several different species. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a cDNA clone isolated from the human testis confirmed the presence of GAD mRNA in the testis. The major GAD mRNA in the testis was 2.5 kilobases. Smaller amounts of a 3.7-kilobase mRNA with the same size as GAD mRNA in the brain was also detected in the testis. In situ hybridization using a GAD-specific probe revealed GAD mRNA expressing spermatocytes and spermatids located in the middle part of rat seminiferous tubules. Studies on the ontogeny of GAD mRNA expression showed low levels of GAD mRNA in testes of prepubertal rats, with increasing levels as sexual maturation is reached, compatible with GAD mRNA expression in germ cells. In agreement with this, fractionation of cells from the rat seminiferous epithelium followed by Northern (RNA) blot analysis showed the highest levels of GAD mRNA associated with spermatocytes and spermatids. Evidence for the presence of GAD protein in the rat testis was obtained from the demonstration of GAD-like immunoreactivity in seminiferous tubules, predominantly at a position where spermatids and spermatozoa are found. Furthermore, GAD-like immunoreactivity was seen in the midpiece of ejaculated human spermatozoa, the part that is responsible for generating energy for spermatozoan motility.

  18. Anxiolytic action of neuromedin-U and neurotransmitters involved in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegdy, G; Adamik, A

    2013-09-10

    Peptide Neuromedin-U (NmU) is widely distributed in the central nervous system and the peripheral tissues. Its physiological effects include the regulation of blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature, and the inhibition of gastric acid secretion. The action of NmU in rats is mediated by two G-protein-coupled receptors, NmU-1R and NmU-2R. NmU-2R is present mainly in the brain, and NmU-1R mainly in the periphery. Despite the great variety of the physiological action of NmU, little is known about its possible effects in different forms of behavior, such as anxiety. In the present work, NmU-23 (the rodent form of the peptide) was tested for its effect on anxiety in elevated plus maze test in mice. For detection of the possible involvement of neurotransmitters, the mice were pretreated with receptor blockers: haloperidol (a D2, dopamine receptor antagonist), propranolol (a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist), atropine (a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist), phenoxybenzamine (a nonselective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) or nitro-l-arginine (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor). The peptide and nitro-l-arginine were administered into the lateral brain ventricle, while the receptor blockers were applied intraperitoneally. An NmU-23 dose 0.5μg elicited anxiolytic action, whereas this action is faded away when the dose was increased. For further testing therefore 0.5μg i.c.v. was used. Propranolol and atropine fully blocked the NmU-induced anxiolytic action, while haloperidol, phenoxybenzamine and nitro-l-arginine were ineffective. The results suggest that β-adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms are involved in the anxiolytic action of NmU. © 2013.

  19. Selection of protease for increased solubilization of protein-derived thiols during mashing with limited release of free amino acids in beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murmann, Anne Nordmark; Lunde, Christina; Lund, Marianne Nissen

    2016-01-01

    Extraction of protein-derived thiols by protease treatment during mashing for improvement of flavor stability in beer has previously been shown to cause concomitant increase in free amino acid concentrations and thereby increased levels of unwanted Maillard reaction products during aging. The pre......Extraction of protein-derived thiols by protease treatment during mashing for improvement of flavor stability in beer has previously been shown to cause concomitant increase in free amino acid concentrations and thereby increased levels of unwanted Maillard reaction products during aging...... of a protease with a higher temperature optimum dosed at only 3 mg of enzyme/kg of malt, it is possible to increase thiol concentrations in wort by 30% and with only a maximum 10% increase in amino acid concentration compared with a control. Pilot brewing showed that beer brewed with addition of protease...... stability during storage could not be evaluated. Overall, similar brewing and sensory characteristics were obtained compared with a control beer brewed without addition of protease. Foam stability was decreased by protease treatment, and formation of haze was reduced by protease treatment....

  20. Expression Profiles of Neuropeptides, Neurotransmitters, and Their Receptors in Human Keratocytes In Vitro and In Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słoniecka, Marta; Le Roux, Sandrine; Boman, Peter; Byström, Berit; Zhou, Qingjun; Danielson, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Keratocytes, the quiescent cells of the corneal stroma, play a crucial role in corneal wound healing. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters are usually associated with neuronal signaling, but have recently been shown to be produced also by non-neuronal cells and to be involved in many cellular processes. The aim of this study was to assess the endogenous intracellular and secreted levels of the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), and of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh), catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine), and glutamate, as well as the expression profiles of their receptors, in human primary keratocytes in vitro and in keratocytes of human corneal tissue sections in situ. Cultured keratocytes expressed genes encoding for SP and NKA, and for catecholamine and glutamate synthesizing enzymes, as well as genes for neuropeptide, adrenergic and ACh (muscarinic) receptors. Keratocytes in culture produced SP, NKA, catecholamines, ACh, and glutamate, and expressed neurokinin-1 and -2 receptors (NK-1R and NK-2R), dopamine receptor D2, muscarinic ACh receptors, and NDMAR1 glutamate receptor. Human corneal sections expressed SP, NKA, NK-1R, NK-2R, receptor D2, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), M3, M4 and M5 muscarinic ACh receptors, glutamate, and NMDAR1, but not catecholamine synthesizing enzyme or the α1 and β2 adrenoreceptors, nor M1 receptor. In addition, expression profiles assumed significant differences between keratocytes from the peripheral cornea as compared to those from the central cornea, as well as differences between keratocytes cultured under various serum concentrations. In conclusion, human keratocytes express an array of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. The cells furthermore express receptors for neuropeptides/neurotransmitters, which suggests that they are susceptible to stimulation by these substances in the cornea, whether of neuronal or non-neuronal origin. As it has been shown that neuropeptides/neurotransmitters

  1. Deep brain stimulation results in local glutamate and adenosine release: investigation into the role of astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Vivianne L; Chang, Su-Youne; Hitti, Frederick L; Roberts, David W; Leiter, James C; Jovanovic, Svetlana; Lee, Kendall H

    2010-08-01

    Several neurological disorders are treated with deep brain stimulation; however, the mechanism underlying its ability to abolish oscillatory phenomena associated with diseases as diverse as Parkinson's disease and epilepsy remain largely unknown. To investigate the role of specific neurotransmitters in deep brain stimulation and determine the role of non-neuronal cells in its mechanism of action. We used the ferret thalamic slice preparation in vitro, which exhibits spontaneous spindle oscillations, to determine the effect of high-frequency stimulation on neurotransmitter release. We then performed experiments using an in vitro astrocyte culture to investigate the role of glial transmitter release in high-frequency stimulation-mediated abolishment of spindle oscillations. In this series of experiments, we demonstrated that glutamate and adenosine release in ferret slices was able to abolish spontaneous spindle oscillations. The glutamate release was still evoked in the presence of the Na channel blocker tetrodotoxin, but was eliminated with the vesicular H-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin and the calcium chelator 2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester. Furthermore, electrical stimulation of purified primary astrocytic cultures was able to evoke intracellular calcium transients and glutamate release, and bath application of 2-bis (2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester inhibited glutamate release in this setting. Vesicular astrocytic neurotransmitter release may be an important mechanism by which deep brain stimulation is able to achieve clinical benefits.

  2. Pomegranate Alleviates Oxidative Damage and Neurotransmitter Alterations in Rats Brain Exposed to Aluminum Chloride and/or Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, U.Z.; EL-Tahawey, N.A.; Elassal, A.A.; Elsayed, E.M.; Shousha, W.Gh.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum and gamma radiation, both are potent neurotoxins and have been implicated in many human neuro degenerative diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the role of pomegranate in alleviating oxidative damage and alteration of neurotransmitters in the brain of rats exposed to aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ), and/or gamma radiation (IR). The results revealed that rats whole body exposed to γ- rays, (1 Gy/week up to 4 Gy), and/or administered aluminum chloride (35 mg/kg body weight), via gavages for 4 weeks, resulted in brain tissue damage, featuring by significant increase of the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), associated with significant decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as glutathione (GSH) content indicating occurrence of oxidative stress. A significant decrease of serotonin (5-HT) level associated with a significant increase of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), in addition to a significant decrease in dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) contents recorded at the 1st, 7th and 14th day post-irradiation, indicating alterations in the metabolism of brain monoamines. On the other hand, the results exhibited that, supplementation of rats with pomegranate, via gavages, at a dose of 3 ml /kg body weight/ day, for 4 weeks along with AlCl 3 with or without radiation has significantly ameliorated the changes occurred in the mentioned parameters and the values returned close to the normal ones. It could be concluded that pomegranate, by its antioxidant constituents might antagonize brain oxidative damage and minimize the severity of aluminum (Al), and/or radiation-induced neurotransmitters disorders

  3. Effect of Low Level Laser Irradiation at Wavelengths 488 and 515 nm on Glutamate Neurotransmitter in Mitochondria of Visual Brain Cortex in Albino Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omran, M.F.; El-Ahdal, M.A.; El-Kady, M.H.; Yousri, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    The presence of glutamate in the visual cortex and mitochondria could be used as a measure for the argon laser effect having wavelengths 488 and 515 nm, on the mitochondria. A comparative response for the bound and free glutamate was found. Irradiation with different energies 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 J for both wavelengths were accomplished. This study makes us to recommend the advantage of using argon laser having wavelength 515 nm to enhance the blocking of glutamate and hence the reduction of brain toxicity. Most of the energy required for cellular functions comes from mitochondria (Shepherd, 1994). Glutamate, which is present in central nervous system at very high level is essential for brain intermediary metabolism (Frazer et al., 1994; Meldrum et al., 2000 and Blumcke et al., 2000). Glutamate is enriched in synaptic vesicles, the subcellular organelles, which are associated with the storage and release of neurotransmitters. Also, biochemical evidence for glutamate as neurotransmitter in fibers from the visual cortex to the subcortical visual relay nuclei has been indicated (Fose and Fonnum, 1987 and George, 1998)

  4. Neuromodulatory properties of fluorescent carbon dots: effect on exocytotic release, uptake and ambient level of glutamate and GABA in brain nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Nazarova, Anastasia; Dekaliuk, Mariia; Krisanova, Natalia; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Borysov, Arsenii; Sivko, Roman; Demchenko, Alexander P

    2015-02-01

    Carbon dots (C-dots), a recently discovered class of fluorescent nano-sized particles with pure carbon core, have great bioanalytical potential. Neuroactive properties of fluorescent C-dots obtained from β-alanine by microwave heating were assessed based on the analysis of their effects on the key characteristics of GABA- and glutamatergic neurotransmission in isolated rat brain nerve terminals. It was found that C-dots (40-800 μg/ml) in dose-dependent manner: (1) decreased exocytotic release of [(3)H]GABA and L-[(14)C]glutamate; (2) reduced acidification of synaptic vesicles; (3) attenuated the initial velocity of Na(+)-dependent transporter-mediated uptake of [(3)H]GABA and L-[(14)C]glutamate; (4) increased the ambient level of the neurotransmitters, nevertheless (5) did not change significantly the potential of the plasma membrane of nerve terminals. Almost complete suppression of exocytotic release of the neurotransmitters was caused by C-dots at a concentration of 800 μg/ml. Fluorescent and neuromodulatory features combined in C-dots create base for their potential usage for labeling and visualization of key processes in nerve terminals, and also in theranostics. In addition, natural presence of carbon-containing nanoparticles in the human food chain and in the air may provoke the development of neurologic consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The importance of neurotransmitters in the central control of the blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfitscher-Klausmair, A.

    1990-12-01

    In anaesthetized cats, the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and the locus coeruleus (LC) were bilaterally superfused through push-pull cannulae with artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Catecholamines were determined in the superfusate by a radioenzymatic assay, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was determined in the superfusate and homogenitate with glutamate by an enzymatic and fluorimetric assay. In the NTS and LC the resting release of catecholamines varied rhythmically. To investigate the fu