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Sample records for increases hip bmd

  1. Novel anthropomorphic hip phantom corrects systemic interscanner differences in proximal femoral vBMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaretti, S; Saeed, I; Burghardt, A J; Lang, T; Carpenter, R D; Yu, L; Bruesewitz, M; Khosla, S

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) is increasingly used in osteoporosis studies to assess volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone quality and strength. However, QCT is confronted by technical issues in the clinical research setting, such as potentially confounding effects of body size on vBMD measurements and lack of standard approaches to scanner cross-calibration, which affects measurements of vBMD in multicenter settings. In this study, we addressed systematic inter-scanner differences and subject-dependent body size errors using a novel anthropomorphic hip phantom, containing a calibration hip to estimate correction equations, and a contralateral test hip to assess the quality of the correction. We scanned this phantom on four different scanners and we applied phantom-derived corrections to in vivo images of 16 postmenopausal women scanned on two scanners. From the phantom study, we found that vBMD decreased with increasing phantom size in three of four scanners and that inter-scanner variations increased with increasing phantom size. In the in vivo study, we observed that inter-scanner corrections reduced systematic inter-scanner mean vBMD differences but that the inter-scanner precision error was still larger than expected from known intra-scanner precision measurements. In conclusion, inter-scanner corrections and body size influence should be considered when measuring vBMD from QCT images. (paper)

  2. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD...

  3. Loss of Hip BMD in Older Men: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cawthon, Peggy M.; Ewing, Susan K.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Cauley, Jane A.; Cummings, Steven R.; Orwoll, Eric S.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies in older men have not evaluated whether loss of BMD or BMC accelerates nonlinearly with age. This study aimed to describe hip bone loss (both in BMC and BMD) in older men and to test whether BMD loss accelerates with age in an exponential manner in a cohort of 4720 community-dwelling men ≥65 yr of age. Men had two to three measures of femoral neck (FN) BMD (by DXA) over an average follow-up of 4.6 yr. Change in BMD during follow-up was estimated from mixed effects regression ...

  4. Femur ultrasound (FemUS)-first clinical results on hip fracture discrimination and estimation of femoral BMD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkmann, R; Dencks, S; Laugier, P

    2010-01-01

    has been introduced yet. We developed a QUS scanner for measurements at the femur (Femur Ultrasound Scanner, FemUS) and tested its in vivo performance. METHODS: Using the FemUS device, we obtained femoral QUS and DXA on 32 women with recent hip fractures and 30 controls. Fracture discrimination......A quantitative ultrasound (QUS) device for measurements at the proximal femur was developed and tested in vivo (Femur Ultrasound Scanner, FemUS). Hip fracture discrimination was as good as for DXA, and a high correlation with hip BMD was achieved. Our results show promise for enhanced QUS...... and the correlation with femur bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed. RESULTS: Hip fracture discrimination using the FemUS device was at least as good as with hip DXA and calcaneal QUS. Significant correlations with total hip bone mineral density were found with a correlation coefficient R (2) up to 0...

  5. Higher BMC and areal BMD in children and grandchildren of individuals with hip or knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specker, Bonny L; Wey, Howard E; Binkley, Teresa L; Beare, Tianna M; Smith, Eric P; Rauch, Frank

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between aBMD and osteoarthritis (OA) remains unclear. We compared aBMD, BMC and bone size among children and grandchildren of Hutterites with hip or knee replacement (n=23 each) to children and grandchildren of age- and sex-matched controls (178 children and 267 grandchildren). There were no differences in anthropometric measures or activity levels between case and control probands, but femoral neck (FN) and spine (LS) aBMD and Z-scores were greater in cases than controls (0.89 vs. 0.80 g/cm2; 1.15 vs. 1.03 g/cm2; 1.5 vs. 0.8; 2.4 vs. 1.2: all pBMC (34.1 vs. 32.0, 4.58 vs. 4.27, 69.5 vs. 62.4 g) and Z-scores (1.0 vs. 0.4; 0.9 vs. 0.2; 1.3 vs. 0.2) were greater in daughters of cases than controls (hip BMC p=0.06, others p or =2 years post-menarcheal or males> or =18 years): 33 were not classified. Post-menarcheal, but not premenarcheal, granddaughters of cases had greater hip, FN and LS aBMD Z-scores (0.7 vs. -0.1; 0.6 vs. -0.1; 0.8 vs. -0.3); greater hip and spine aBMD (1.03 vs. 0.95, 1.10 vs. 0.98 g/cm2); greater femoral neck and spine BMC (4.77 vs. 4.21, 66.7 vs. 55.4 g); and greater spine bone area (60.7 vs. 56.6 cm2) compared to granddaughters of controls (all, p<0.05), which remained significant when height, weight, and age were included as covariates. Growing grandsons of cases were taller and heavier than control grandsons, and a greater hip aBMD among grandsons of cases (0.88 vs. 0.76 g/cm2) was the only bone difference that remained significant after taking into account body size differences. Grandsons who were not growing had greater spine bone area (1.19 vs. 1.08 cm2) if their grandparent had OA compared to grandsons whose grandparents did not have OA. We speculate that there is a genetic basis for OA that leads to early differences in growth patterns among boys and greater peak bone mass and aBMD among girls. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Standardization of spine and hip BMD measurements in different DXA devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, Aysegul [Gazi University, Department of Radiology, Besevler, Ankara 06510 (Turkey)]. E-mail: aysozd@gazi.edu.tr; Ucar, Murat [Gazi University, Department of Radiology, Besevler, Ankara 06510 (Turkey)

    2007-06-15

    Aim: To compare BMD values of lumbar and hip regions measured in two different DXA scanners in one laboratory, and to investigate the efficiencies of implemented and specifically derived standardization formulas. Materials and methods: PA lumbar (L2-L4) and right femoral neck BMD values were obtained in 100 women (aged 26-75), consecutively in GE-Lunar DPX-NT and Hologic QDR 4500 C DXA scanners. Standardization of BMD values obtained in two different DXA devices was done according to the method developed by International DXA Standardization Committee (IDSC), using the European Spine Phantom (ESP) to obtain the specific constant value. Mean corrected standardized BMD (sBMD) values in two scanners have been compared with each other and with the mean reported sBMD values, respectively. Results: The mean lumbar BMD values were 0.950 {+-} 0.117 g/cm{sup 2} for Hologic and 1.068 {+-} 0.135 g/cm{sup 2} for GE-Lunar (p < 0.05); mean corrected sBMD values were 1.035 {+-} 0.128 g/cm{sup 2} for Hologic and 1.035 {+-} 0.131 g/cm{sup 2} for GE-Lunar (p > 0.05). The mean femoral neck BMD values were 0.798 {+-} 0.114 g/cm{sup 2} for Hologic and 0.895 {+-} 0.111 g/cm{sup 2} for GE-Lunar (p < 0.05); mean corrected sBMD values were 0.869 {+-} 0.124 g/cm{sup 2} for Hologic and 0.867 {+-} 0.108 g/cm{sup 2} for GE-Lunar (p > 0.05). The difference between the mean values of BMD and sBMD, both corrected and reported, were statistically important in each scanner (p < 0.05). The mean values of corrected and reported sBMD were also statistically different in each scanner (p < 0.05; mean standard error in the spine was 1.3 for GE-Lunar and 1.8 for the Hologic device). Conclusion: The originally proposed standardization formulae may not optimally correct for manufacturer, model and device-specific differences. Therefore, use of sBMD is not recommended to compare results of individual patients obtained on scanners of different type and brand. The residual error of reported sBMD, however, is

  7. Femoral neck BMD is a strong predictor of hip fracture susceptibility in elderly men and women because it detects cortical bone instability: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneira, Fernando; Zillikens, M Carola; De Laet, Chris Edh; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Beck, Thomas J; Pols, Huibert Ap

    2007-11-01

    We studied HSA measurements in relation to hip fracture risk in 4,806 individuals (2,740 women). Hip fractures (n = 147) occurred at the same absolute levels of bone instability in both sexes. Cortical instability (propensity of thinner cortices in wide diameters to buckle) explains why hip fracture risk at different BMD levels is the same across sexes. Despite the sexual dimorphism of bone, hip fracture risk is very similar in men and women at the same absolute BMD. We aimed to elucidate the main structural properties of bone that underlie the measured BMD and that ultimately determines the risk of hip fracture in elderly men and women. This study is part of the Rotterdam Study (a large prospective population-based cohort) and included 147 incident hip fracture cases in 4,806 participants with DXA-derived hip structural analysis (mean follow-up, 8.6 yr). Indices compared in relation to fracture included neck width, cortical thickness, section modulus (an index of bending strength), and buckling ratio (an index of cortical bone instability). We used a mathematical model to calculate the hip fracture distribution by femoral neck BMD, BMC, bone area, and hip structure analysis (HSA) parameters (cortical thickness, section modulus narrow neck width, and buckling ratio) and compared it with prospective data from the Rotterdam Study. In the prospective data, hip fracture cases in both sexes had lower BMD, thinner cortices, greater bone width, lower strength, and higher instability at baseline. In fractured individuals, men had an average BMD that was 0.09 g/cm(2) higher than women (p men and women. No significant differences were observed between the areas under the ROC curves of BMD (0.8146 in women and 0.8048 in men) and the buckling ratio (0.8161 in women and 0.7759 in men). The buckling ratio (an index of bone instability) portrays in both sexes the critical balance between cortical thickness and bone width. Our findings suggest that extreme thinning of cortices in

  8. Association between change in BMD and fragility fracture in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Claudie; Langsetmo, Lisa; Joseph, Lawrence; Hanley, David A; Davison, K Shawn; Josse, Robert G; Prior, Jerilynn C; Kreiger, Nancy; Tenenhouse, Alan; Goltzman, David

    2009-02-01

    Our objective was to estimate the relationship between longitudinal change in BMD and fragility fractures. We studied 3635 women and 1417 men 50-85 yr of age in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study who had at least two BMD measurements (lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, and trochanter) within the first 5 yr of the study and fragility fractures (any, main, forearm/wrist, ribs, hip) within the first 7 yr. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationship between baseline BMD, BMD change, and fragility fractures. We found that, among nonusers of antiresorptives, independent of baseline BMD, a decrease of 0.01 g/cm(2)/yr in total hip BMD was associated with an increased risk of fragility fracture with ORs of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01; 1.32) in women and 1.34 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.78) in men. The risk of fragility fractures in subgroups such as fast losers and those with osteopenia was better estimated by models that included BMD change than by models that included baseline BMD but excluded BMD change. Although the association between baseline BMD and fragility fractures was similar in users and nonusers of antiresorptives, the association was stronger in nonusers compared with users. These results show that BMD change in both men and women is an independent risk factor for fragility fractures and also predicts fracture risk in those with osteopenia. The results suggest that BMD change should be included with other variables in a comprehensive fracture prediction model to capture its contribution to osteoporotic fracture risk.

  9. BMD T-score discriminates trochanteric fractures from unfractured controls, whereas geometry discriminates cervical fracture cases from unfractured controls of similar BMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, P; Partanen, J; Jalovaara, P; Jämsä, T

    2010-07-01

    The ability of bone mineral density (BMD) to discriminate cervical and trochanteric hip fractures was studied. Since the majority of fractures occur among people who are not diagnosed as having osteoporosis, we also examined this population to elucidate whether geometrical risk factors can yield additional information on hip fracture risk beside BMD. The study showed that the T-score criterion was able to discriminate fracture patients from controls in the cases of trochanteric fractures, whereas geometrical measures may discriminate cervical fracture cases in patients with T-score >-2.5. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a well-established risk factor for hip fracture. However, majority of fractures occur among people not diagnosed as having osteoporosis. We studied the ability of BMD to discriminate cervical and trochanteric hip fractures. Furthermore, we examined whether geometrical measures can yield additional information on the assessment of hip fracture risk in the fracture cases in subjects with T-score >-2.5. Study group consisted of postmenopausal females with non-pathologic cervical (n = 39) or trochanteric (n = 18) hip fracture (mean age 74.2 years) and 40 age-matched controls. BMD was measured at femoral neck, and femoral neck axis length, femoral neck and shaft cortex thicknesses (FNC and FSC), and femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) were measured from radiographs. BMD T-score threshold of -2.5 was able to discriminate trochanteric fractures from controls (p trochanteric fractures occurred in individuals with T-score fractures. Twenty of these fractures (51.3%) occurred in individuals with BMD in osteoporotic range and 19 (48.7%) in individuals with T-score >-2.5. Within these non-osteoporotic cervical fracture patients (N = 19) and non-osteoporotic controls (N = 35), 83.3% were classified correctly based on a model including NSA and FNC (p trochanteric fractures could be discriminated based on a BMD T-score fracture cases would remain under-diagnosed if

  10. Unipedal standing exercise and hip bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Akinori; Oshige, Toshihisa; Zenke, Yukichi; Yamanaka, Yoshiaki; Nagaishi, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of unipedal standing exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip in postmenopausal women. Japanese postmenopausal women (n = 94) were assigned at random to an exercise or control group (no exercise). The 6-month exercise program consisted of standing on a single foot for 1 min per leg 3 times per day. BMD of the hip was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There was no significant difference in age and baseline hip BMD between the exercise group (n = 49) and control group (n = 45). Exercise did not improve hip BMD compared with the control group. Stepwise regression analysis identified old age as a significant determinant (p = 0.034) of increased hip total BMD at 6 months after exercise. In 31 participants aged >/=70 years, the exercise group (n = 20) showed significant increase in the values of hip BMD at the areas of total (p = 0.008), intertrochanteric (p = 0.023), and Ward's triangle (p = 0.032). The same parameters were decreased in the control group (n = 11). The percent changes in hip BMD of the exercise group were not significantly different from those of the control group either in the participants with low baseline hip total BMD ( or =80% of the young adult mean). In conclusion, unipedal standing exercise for 6 months did not improve hip BMD in Japanese postmenopausal women. Effect of exercise on hip total BMD was age dependent. In participants aged > or =70 years, the exercise significantly increased hip total BMD.

  11. Muscle strength and areal bone mineral density at the hip in women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Julie A; Holloway, Kara L; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Moloney, David J; Kotowicz, Mark A

    2015-05-24

    Muscle strengthening exercises are promoted for building and maintaining a healthy skeleton. We aimed to investigate the relationship between muscle strength and areal bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip in women aged 26-97 years. This cross-sectional study utilises data from 863 women assessed for the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Measures of hip flexor and abductor strength were made using a hand-held dynamometer (Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester). The maximal measure from three trials on each leg was used for analyses. BMD was measured at the hip using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA; Lunar DPX-L). Total lean mass, body fat mass and appendicular lean mass were determined from whole body DXA scans. Linear regression techniques were used with muscle strength as the independent variable and BMD as the dependent variable. Models were adjusted for age and indices of body composition. Measures of age-adjusted hip flexor strength and hip abductor strength were positively associated with total hip BMD. For each standard deviation (SD) increase in hip flexor strength, the increase in mean total hip BMD (SD) was 10.4 % (p = 0.009). A similar pattern was observed for hip abductor strength, with an increase in mean total hip BMD of 22.8 % (p = 0.025). All associations between hip muscle strength and total hip BMD were independent of height, but were nullified after adjusting for appendicular lean mass or total lean mass. There was a positive association observed between muscle strength and BMD at the hip. However, this association was explained by measures of lean mass.

  12. Relationship of homocysteine levels with lumbar spine and femur neck BMD in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtiri, E; Islami, H; Rexhepi, S; Qorraj-Bytyqi, H; Thaçi, K; Thaçi, S; Karakulak, C; Hoxha, R

    2015-01-01

    The focus of several studies in recent years has been the association between increased plasma concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy), reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of bone fractures. Nevertheless, inconsistencies persist in the literature. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between serum Hcy and vitamin B12 status, and bone mineral density, on a group of post-menopausal women. One hundred thirty-nine postmenopausal women were recruited to enter this cross-sectional study. Bone mineral density (BMD) of total hip, femoral neck and lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and serum Hcy, vitamin B12, parathyroid hormone (PTH), total calcium and magnesium levels were determined. In addition, we investigated the relationship of Hcy and vitamin B12 and BMD using a meta-analysis approach. Serum Hcy levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic women when compared to other BMD groups, and were inversely related to lumbar spine BMD and femur neck BMD. Body mass index and serum Hcy levels were shown to be significant predictors of BMD at lumbar spine, femur neck and total hip. The performed meta-analysis showed that serum Hcy levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic subjects compared to normal BMD subjects. This study shows that Hcy status, but not vitamin B12 status, is associated with BMD in this cohort of postmenopausal women. We therefore confirm that high Hcy levels are an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. BMD evaluation in women at post menopause with high Hcy levels may be helpful in advising precautionary measures.

  13. Identification of Hip BMD Loss and Fracture Risk Markers Through Population-Based Serum Proteomics: HIP BMD LOSS & FRACTURE RISK MARKERS BY POPULATION-BASED SERUM PROTEOMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Carrie; Wiedrick, Jack; Shen, Jian; Jacobs, Jon M.; Baker, Erin M.; Baraff, Aaron; Piehowski, Paul D.; Lee, Christine; Baratt, Arie; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Mcweeney, Shannon K.; Lim, Jeong Youn; Bauer, Douglas C.; Lane, Nancy E.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Smith, Richard D.; Lapidus, Jodi; Orwoll, Eric S.

    2017-04-06

    Accelerated bone loss significantly increases the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. The mechanisms underlying bone loss remain incompletely understood, and there are few available biomarkers. We utilized a novel proteomics approach to identify serum peptides and proteins associated with bone loss in 1967 older men who were randomly chosen from the Osteoporotic Fracture in Men Study (MrOS study) (age ≥ 65 yrs). Men had 2-3 measures of femoral neck BMD over an average follow-up of 4.6 years. Change in BMD was estimated and then categorized into three groups: maintained BMD (n=453), expected loss (n=1185) and accelerated loss (n=237). A liquid chromatography–ion mobility separation-mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS) proteomics platform was used to identify and quantify peptides from serum proteins. The whole cohort was randomly divided into discovery (N= 960) and validation (N= 915) sub-cohorts. Linear regression models and a random forest approach were used to discover differentially abundant individual peptides and a proteomic signature that distinguished individuals with accelerated bone loss from those who maintained BMD. Network analyses were performed using the MetaCore knowledgebase. We identified 12 peptides that were associated with BMD loss in both discovery (P< 0.1 FDR) and replication sub-cohorts (P<0.05). Those 12 peptides mapped to the following proteins: ALS, LYVE1, RNAS1, C2, ICOSL, C163A, C7, HEMO, CD14, CERU, CRAC1 and CD59. Meta-analysis of peptidesassociated with bone loss identified 6 additional proteins including GRP78, IGF-2, SHBG, ENPP2, IBP2 and IBP6. We also identified a proteomic signature that was predictive of BMD loss with a discriminative value similar to serum bone marker carboxy-terminal collagen crosslink peptide (CTX). Interestingly, combining the proteomic signature with CTX significantly improved the ability to discriminate men with accelerated loss. In summary, we have identified potential new biomarkers for bone loss that provide

  14. Relationship of homocysteine levels with lumbar spine and femur neck BMD in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Bahtiri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The focus of several studies in recent years has been the association between increased plasma concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy, reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of bone fractures. Nevertheless, inconsistencies persist in the literature. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between serum Hcy and vitamin B12 status, and bone mineral density, on a group of post-menopausal women. Materials and methods: One hundred thirty-nine postmenopausal women were recruited to enter this cross-sectional study. Bone mineral density (BMD of total hip, femoral neck and lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and serum Hcy, vitamin B12, parathyroid hormone (PTH, total calcium and magnesium levels were determined. In addition, we investigated the relationship of Hcy and vitamin B12 and BMD using a meta-analysis approach. Results: Serum Hcy levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic women when compared to other BMD groups, and were inversely related to lumbar spine BMD and femur neck BMD. Body mass index and serum Hcy levels were shown to be significant predictors of BMD at lumbar spine, femur neck and total hip. The performed meta-analysis showed that serum Hcy levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic subjects compared to normal BMD subjects. Conclusion: This study shows that Hcy status, but not vitamin B12 status, is associated with BMD in this cohort of postmenopausal women. We therefore confirm that high Hcy levels are an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. BMD evaluation in women at post menopause with high Hcy levels may be helpful in advising precautionary measures.

  15. Bone mineral density difference between right and left hip during ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, P.; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Jensen, L.T.

    2011-01-01

    be affected by significant left-right difference in hip BMD, especially in the old. The purpose of our study was to ascertain the difference in BMD measurement of the two hips in a population of Caucasian community dwelling women older than 65 years invited for screening. We found that bilateral BMD...... found an increasing difference between the hips with increasing age and this difference was up to 9.1% in the women older than 70 years when evaluating femoral neck, meaning that the diagnosis of osteoporosis in a subset of patients would depend on whether the left or right hip was scanned. When...... measurements were only moderately correlated at the femoral neck and total hip. In a significant number of the screened elderly women, we found that the DXA differences changed the diagnosis of each woman from either normal BMD to osteopenia or visa versa or from osteopenia to osteoporosis or visa versa. We...

  16. Bone Mineral Density difference between Right and Left Hip during Ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, P; Jørgensen, NR; Jensen, LT

    2011-01-01

    be affected by significant left-right difference in hip BMD, especially in the old. The purpose of our study was to ascertain the difference in BMD measurement of the two hips in a population of Caucasian community dwelling women older than 65 years invited for screening. We found that bilateral BMD...... found an increasing difference between the hips with increasing age and this difference was up to 9.1% in the women older than 70 years when evaluating femoral neck, meaning that the diagnosis of osteoporosis in a subset of patients would depend on whether the left or right hip was scanned. When...... measurements were only moderately correlated at the femoral neck and total hip. In a significant number of the screened elderly women, we found that the DXA differences changed the diagnosis of each woman from either normal BMD to osteopenia or visa versa or from osteopenia to osteoporosis or visa versa. We...

  17. Gender disparity in BMD conversion: a comparison between Lunar and Hologic densitometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganda, Kirtan; Nguyen, Tuan V; Pocock, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Female-derived inter-conversion and standardised BMD equations at the lumbar spine and hip have not been validated in men. This study of 110 male subjects scanned on Hologic and Lunar densitometers demonstrates that published equations may not applicable to men at the lumbar spine. Male inter-conversion equations have also been derived. Currently, available equations for inter-manufacturer conversion of bone mineral density (BMD) and calculation of standardised BMD (sBMD) are used in both males and females, despite being derived and validated only in women. Our aim was to test the validity of the published equations in men. One hundred ten men underwent lumbar spine (L2-4), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using Hologic and Lunar scanners. Hologic BMD was converted to Lunar using published equations derived from women for L2-4 and FN. Actual Lunar BMD (A-Lunar) was compared to converted (Lunar equivalent) Hologic BMD values (H-Lunar). sBMD was calculated separately using Hologic (sBMD-H) and Lunar BMD (sBMD-L) at L2-4, FN and TH. Conversion equations in men for Hologic to Lunar BMD were derived using Deming regression analysis. There was a strong linear correlation between Lunar and Hologic BMD at all skeletal sites. A-Lunar BMD was however significantly higher than derived H-Lunar BMD (p Lunar BMD to Hologic BMD, and formulae for lumbar spine sBMD, derived in women may not be applicable to men.

  18. Effects of increasing age, dosage, and duration of PTH treatment on BMD increase--a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Peter; Jorgensen, Niklas Rye; Mosekilde, Leif

    2012-01-01

    were included. By metaregression analysis, we found that the increase in spine BMD (Z-score) after PTH treatment was blunted by increasing age (R (2) = 0.27; 2p = 0.01, slope -0.023 Z-scores per year, 11 studies). By increasing PTH dosage (μg/d), spine BMD increased significantly (2p = 0.......002) with a slope of +0.011 Z-scores/μg/d of teriparatide. Furthermore, the duration of treatment was positively correlated to spine BMD (P ......We studied the effects of increasing age, dosage, and duration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment on changes in bone mineral density (BMD). Randomized placebo controlled trials on PTH treatment in men or women were retrieved from PubMed (1951 to present), Web of Science (1945 to present...

  19. Prevalence of radiographic hip osteoarthritis is increased in high bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, S A; Dieppe, P; Gregson, C L; Hunter, D; Thomas, G E R; Arden, N K; Spector, T D; Hart, D J; Laugharne, M J; Clague, G A; Edwards, M H; Dennison, E M; Cooper, C; Williams, M; Davey Smith, G; Tobias, J H

    2014-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between increased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoarthritis (OA), but whether this represents cause or effect remains unclear. In this study, we used a novel approach to investigate this question, determining whether individuals with High Bone Mass (HBM) have a higher prevalence of radiographic hip OA compared with controls. HBM cases came from the UK-based HBM study: HBM was defined by BMD Z-score. Unaffected relatives of index cases were recruited as family controls. Age-stratified random sampling was used to select further population controls from the Chingford and Hertfordshire cohort studies. Pelvic radiographs were pooled and assessed by a single observer blinded to case-control status. Analyses used logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender and body mass index (BMI). 530 HBM hips in 272 cases (mean age 62.9 years, 74% female) and 1702 control hips in 863 controls (mean age 64.8 years, 84% female) were analysed. The prevalence of radiographic OA, defined as Croft score ≥3, was higher in cases compared with controls (20.0% vs 13.6%), with adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% CI] 1.52 [1.09, 2.11], P = 0.013. Osteophytes (OR 2.12 [1.61, 2.79], P subchondral sclerosis (OR 2.78 [1.49, 5.18], P = 0.001) were more prevalent in cases. However, no difference in the prevalence of joint space narrowing (JSN) was seen (OR 0.97 [0.72, 1.33], P = 0.869). An increased prevalence of radiographic hip OA and osteophytosis was observed in HBM cases compared with controls, in keeping with a positive association between HBM and OA and suggesting that OA in HBM has a hypertrophic phenotype. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship Between BMD and Prevalent Vertebral Fractures in Indian Women Older Than 50 Yr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Yashdeep; Marwaha, Raman K; Kukreja, Subhash; Bhadra, Kuntal; Narang, Archana; Mani, Kalaivani; Mithal, Ambrish; Tandon, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to study the relationship of morphometric vertebral fractures with bone mineral density (BMD) in Indian women older than 50 yr. Four hundred fifteen healthy Indian women older than 50 yr (mean age: 62.8 yr) underwent lateral X-rays of the lumbar and thoracic spine. Genant's semiquantitative method was used to diagnose and classify morphometric vertebral fractures. BMD was measured by DXA at lumbar spine and total hip. Recruited subjects underwent anthropometric, biochemical, and hormonal evaluation. Vertebral fractures were present in 17.1% (95% confidence interval: 13.5, 20.8) subjects. Prevalence of osteoporosis based on BMD was 35.7%. By adding those with prevalent fractures, the number of women requiring therapy for osteoporosis would increase to 46.5%. The BMD measured at femur neck, total hip, and lumbar spine (L1eL4) was not found to be lower in women with vertebral fractures as compared with those without fractures. BMD was not found to be lower in women with vertebral fractures as compared with those without fractures. Significant number of additional subjects with BMD in the normal or osteopenic range become eligible for osteoporosis treatment when presence of vertebral fracture is used as an independent indication for such treatment. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of bone mineral density and hip geometry on the different types of hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yizhong; Lin, Jinkuang; Cai, Siqing; Yan, Lisheng; Pan, Yuancheng; Yao, Xuedong; Zhuang, Huafeng; Wang, Peiwen; Zeng, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of bone mineral density and hip geometry on the fragility fracture of femoral neck and trochanteric region. There were 95 menopausal females of age ≥ 50 years with fragility fracture of hip, including 55 cases of femoral neck fracture and 40 cases of trochanteric fracture. Another 63 non-fractured females with normal bone mineral density (BMD) were chosen as control. BMD, hip axis length, neck-shaft angle and structural parameters including cross surface area, cortical thickness and buckling ratio were detected and compared. Compared with control group, the patients with femoral neck fracture or trochanteric fractures had significantly lower BMD of femoral neck, as well as lower cross surface area and cortical thickness and higher buckling ratio in femoral neck and trochanteric region. There were no significant differences of BMD and structural parameters in the femoral neck fracture group and intertrochanteric fracture group. Hip axis length and neck-shaft angle were not significantly different among three groups. The significant changes of BMD and proximal femur geometry were present in the fragility fracture of femoral neck and trochanteric region. The different types of hip fractures cannot be explained by these changes.

  2. Influence of bone mineral density and hip geometry on the different types of hip fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of bone mineral density and hip geometry on the fragility fracture of femoral neck and trochanteric region. There were 95 menopausal females of age ≥ 50 years with fragility fracture of hip, including 55 cases of femoral neck fracture and 40 cases of trochanteric fracture. Another 63 non-fractured females with normal bone mineral density (BMD were chosen as control. BMD, hip axis length, neck-shaft angle and structural parameters including cross surface area, cortical thickness and buckling ratio were detected and compared. Compared with control group, the patients with femoral neck fracture or trochanteric fractures had significantly lower BMD of femoral neck, as well as lower cross surface area and cortical thickness and higher buckling ratio in femoral neck and trochanteric region. There were no significant differences of BMD and structural parameters in the femoral neck fracture group and intertrochanteric fracture group. Hip axis length and neck-shaft angle were not significantly different among three groups. The significant changes of BMD and proximal femur geometry were present in the fragility fracture of femoral neck and trochanteric region. The different types of hip fractures cannot be explained by these changes.

  3. Strategy for prevention of hip fractures in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jun; Sato, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2012-09-18

    Hypovitaminosis D and K due to malnutrition or sunlight deprivation, increased bone resorption due to immobilization, low bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased risk of falls may contribute to an increased risk of hip fractures in patients with Parkinson's disease. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the efficacy of interventions intended to prevent hip fractures in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease. PubMed was used to search the literature for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding Parkinson's disease and hip fractures. The inclusion criteria were 50 or more subjects per group and a study period of 1 year or longer. Five RCTs were identified and the relative risk and 95% confidence interval were calculated for individual RCTs. Sunlight exposure increased serum hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, improved motor function, decreased bone resorption and increased BMD. Alendronate or risedronate with vitamin D supplementation increased serum 25(OH)D concentration, strongly decreased bone resorption and increased BMD. Menatetrenone (vitamin K(2)) decreased serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin concentration, decreased bone resorption and increased BMD. Sunlight exposure (men and women), menatetrenone (women), alendronate and risedronate with vitamin D supplementation (women) significantly reduced the incidence of hip fractures. The respective RRs (95% confidence intervals) according to the intention-to-treat analysis were 0.27 (0.08, 0.96), 0.13 (0.02, 0.97), 0.29 (0.10, 0.85) and 0.20 (0.06, 0.68). Interventions, including sunlight exposure, menatetrenone and oral bisphosphonates with vitamin D supplementation, have a protective effect against hip fractures elderly patients with Parkinson's disease.

  4. Esomeprazole use is independently associated with significant reduction of BMD: 1-year prospective comparative safety study of four proton pump inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtiri, Elton; Islami, Hilmi; Hoxha, Rexhep; Qorraj-Bytyqi, Hasime; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Hoti, Kreshnik; Thaçi, Kujtim; Thaçi, Shpetim; Karakulak, Çağla

    2016-09-01

    Because of the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), their the use is increasing dramatically. The risk of adverse effects of short-term PPI therapy is low, but there are important safety concerns for potential adverse effects of prolonged PPI therapy. Findings from studies assessing the association between PPI use and bone mineral density (BMD) and/or fracture risk are contradictory. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess potential association of PPI treatment with the 12-month change in BMD of the lumbar spine, femur neck, and total hip. The study was performed in 200 PPI users and 50 PPI nonusers. Lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur neck, and total hip BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the baseline and at 12 months. A total of 209 subjects completed the entire 12 months of the study and were included in the final analysis. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that at 12 months PPI use was associated with statistically significant reductions in femur neck and total hip T scores (Z = -2.764, p = 0.005 and Z = -3.281, p = 0.001, respectively). A multiple linear regression analysis showed that only esomeprazole added significantly to the prediction of total lumbar spine and femur neck T scores (p = 0.048 and p = 0.037, respectively). Compared with the baseline, 12 months of PPI treatment resulted in lower femur neck and total hip BMD T scores. Among the four PPIs studied, esomeprazole was independently associated with significant reduction of BMD, whereas omeprazole had no effects on BMD. Considering the widespread use of PPIs, BMD screening should be considered in the case of prolonged PPI use.

  5. CTXA hip--an extension of classical DXA measurements using quantitative CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Christopher E; Adams, Judith E; Brown, J Keenan; Brett, Alan D

    2014-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) estimates for the proximal femur using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) are currently considered the standard for making a diagnosis of osteoporosis in an individual patient using BMD alone. We have compared BMD results from a commercial Quantitative CT (QCT) BMD analysis system, "CTXA Hip", which provides clinical data for the proximal femur, to results from DXA. We have also used CTXA Hip to determine cortical and trabecular contributions to total BMD. Sixty-nine patients were scanned using 3D QCT and DXA. CTXA Hip BMD measurements for Total Hip and Femoral Neck were compared to DXA results. Twenty-two women were scanned at 0, 1, 2 years and CTXA Hip and DXA results analyzed for long-term reproducibility. Long-term reproducibility calculated as root-mean-square averages of SDs in vivo was 0.012 g/cm2 (CV = 1.8%) for CTXA Total Hip and 0.011 g/cm2 (CV = 2.0%) for CTXA Femoral Neck compared to 0.014 g/cm2 (CV = 2.0%) and 0.016 g/cm2 (CV = 2.7%), respectively, for DXA. The correlation of Total Hip BMD CTXA vs. DXA was R = 0.97 and for Femoral Neck was R = 0.95 (SEE 0.044 g/cm2 in both cases). Cortical bone comprised 62±5% (mean ± SD) of total hipbone mass in osteoporotic women. CTXA Hip provides substantially the same clinical information as conventional DXA and in addition provides estimates of BMD in separate cortical and trabecular bone compartments, which may be useful in evaluation of bone strength.

  6. CTXA hip--an extension of classical DXA measurements using quantitative CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Cann

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD estimates for the proximal femur using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA are currently considered the standard for making a diagnosis of osteoporosis in an individual patient using BMD alone. We have compared BMD results from a commercial Quantitative CT (QCT BMD analysis system, "CTXA Hip", which provides clinical data for the proximal femur, to results from DXA. We have also used CTXA Hip to determine cortical and trabecular contributions to total BMD. Sixty-nine patients were scanned using 3D QCT and DXA. CTXA Hip BMD measurements for Total Hip and Femoral Neck were compared to DXA results. Twenty-two women were scanned at 0, 1, 2 years and CTXA Hip and DXA results analyzed for long-term reproducibility. Long-term reproducibility calculated as root-mean-square averages of SDs in vivo was 0.012 g/cm2 (CV = 1.8% for CTXA Total Hip and 0.011 g/cm2 (CV = 2.0% for CTXA Femoral Neck compared to 0.014 g/cm2 (CV = 2.0% and 0.016 g/cm2 (CV = 2.7%, respectively, for DXA. The correlation of Total Hip BMD CTXA vs. DXA was R = 0.97 and for Femoral Neck was R = 0.95 (SEE 0.044 g/cm2 in both cases. Cortical bone comprised 62±5% (mean ± SD of total hipbone mass in osteoporotic women. CTXA Hip provides substantially the same clinical information as conventional DXA and in addition provides estimates of BMD in separate cortical and trabecular bone compartments, which may be useful in evaluation of bone strength.

  7. Use of DXA-Based Structural Engineering Models of the Proximal Femur to Discriminate Hip Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lang; Peel, Nicola; Clowes, Jackie A; McCloskey, Eugene V; Eastell, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Several DXA-based structural engineering models (SEMs) of the proximal femur have been developed to estimate stress caused by sideway falls. Their usefulness in discriminating hip fracture has not yet been established and we therefore evaluated these models. The hip DXA scans of 51 postmenopausal women with hip fracture (30 femoral neck, 17 trochanteric, and 4 unspecified) and 153 age-, height-, and weight-matched controls were reanalyzed using a special version of Hologic’s software that produced a pixel-by-pixel BMD map. For each map, a curved-beam, a curved composite-beam, and a finite element model were generated to calculate stress within the bone when falling sideways. An index of fracture risk (IFR) was defined over the femoral neck, trochanter, and total hip as the stress divided by the yield stress at each pixel and averaged over the regions of interest. Hip structure analysis (HSA) was also performed using Hologic APEX analysis software. Hip BMD and almost all parameters derived from HSA and SEM were discriminators of hip fracture on their own because their ORs were significantly >1. Because of the high correlation of total hip BMD to HSA and SEM-derived parameters, only the bone width discriminated hip fracture independently from total hip BMD. Judged by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, the trochanteric IFR derived from the finite element model was significant better than total hip BMD alone and similar to the total hip BMD plus bone width in discriminating all hip fracture and femoral neck fracture. No index was better than total hip BMD for discriminating trochanteric fractures. In conclusion, the finite element model has the potential to replace hip BMD in discriminating hip fractures. PMID:18767924

  8. Bone mineral density of the femoral neck in resurfacing hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Brixen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Resurfacing total hip arthroplasty (RTHA) may preserve the femoral neck bone stock postoperatively. Bone mineral density (BMD) may be affected by the hip position, which might bias longitudinal studies. We investigated the dependency of BMD precision on type of ROI and hip position....

  9. Differences in Site-Specific Fracture Risk Among Older Women with Discordant Results for Osteoporosis at Hip and Spine: the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Howard A.; Harrison, Stephanie L.; Taylor, Brent C.; Cummings, Steven R.; Schousboe, John T.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Stone, Katie L.; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the fracture pattern in older women whose bone mineral density (BMD) T-score criteria for osteoporosis at hip and spine disagree, hip and spine BMD were measured in Study of Osteoporotic Fractures participants using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Hip osteoporosis was defined as T-score ≤-2.5 at femoral neck or total hip, and spine osteoporosis as T-score ≤-2.5 at lumbar spine. Incident clinical fractures were self-reported and centrally adjudicated. Incident radiographic spine fractures were defined morphometrically. Compared to women with osteoporosis at neither hip nor spine, those osteoporotic only at hip had a 3.0-fold age and weight-adjusted increased risk for hip fracture (95%CI 2.4-3.6), and smaller increases in risk of nonhip nonspine (HR=1.6), clinical spine (OR=2.2), and radiographic spine fractures (OR=1.5). Women osteoporotic only at spine had a 2.8-fold increased odds of radiographic spine fracture (95%CI 2.1-3.8), and smaller increases in risk of clinical spine (OR=1.4), nonhip nonspine (HR=1.6), and hip fractures (HR=1.2). Discordant BMD results predict different fracture patterns. DXA fracture risk estimation in these patients should be site-specific. Women osteoporotic only at spine would not have been identified from hip BMD measurement alone, and may have a sufficiently high fracture risk to warrant preventive treatment. PMID:18296090

  10. The association between major depressive disorder, use of antidepressants and bone mineral density (BMD) in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauma, P H; Pasco, J A; Berk, M; Stuart, A L; Koivumaa-Honkanen, H; Honkanen, R J; Hodge, J M; Williams, L J

    2015-06-01

    Both depression and use of antidepressants have been negatively associated with bone mineral density (BMD) but mainly in studies among postmenopausal women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate these relationships in men. Between 2006 and 2011, 928 men (aged 24-98 years) from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study completed a comprehensive questionnaire, clinical measurements and had BMD assessments at the forearm, spine, total hip and total body. Major depressive disorder (MDD) was identified using a structured clinical interview (SCID-I/NP). The cross-sectional associations between BMD and both MDD and antidepressant use were analyzed using multivariable linear regression. Of the study population, 84 (9.1%) men had a single MDD episode, 50 (5.4%) had recurrent episodes and 65 (7.0%) were using antidepressants at the time of assessment. Following adjustments, recurrent MDD was associated with lower BMD at the forearm and total body (-6.5%, P=0.033 and -2.5%, P=0.033, respectively compared to men with no history of MDD), while single MDD episodes were associated with higher BMD at the total hip (+3.4%, P=0.030). Antidepressant use was associated with lower BMD only in lower-weight men (depression and use of antidepressants should be taken into account as possible risk factors for osteoporosis in men.

  11. The lumbar spine age-related degenerative disease influences the BMD not the TBS: the Osteolaus cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padlina, I; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, E; Hans, D; Metzger, M; Stoll, D; Aubry-Rozier, B; Lamy, O

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the influence of degenerative disease and fractured vertebra on lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone score (TBS) in 1500 women aged 50-80 years. TBS was not affected by a degenerative disease. While BMD increases after 62.5 years, TBS continues to decline. TBS should play a leading role in lumbar spine evaluation. After menopause, lumbar spine (LS) BMD and TBS values decrease. Degenerative disease (DD) increases with age and affect LS BMD. The aim of this study was to measure changes in LS BMD and TBS in women 50 to 80 years old, taking into account the impact of fractured vertebrae and DD. LS BMD, TBS, and vertebral fracture assessment were evaluated in the OsteoLaus cohort (1500 women, 50-80 years old). The exams were analyzed following ISCD guidelines to identify vertebrae with fractures or DD (Vex). 1443 women were enrolled: mean age 66.7 ± 11.7 years, BMI 25.7 ± 4.4. LS BMD and TBS were weakly correlated (r2 = 0.16). The correlation (Vex excluded) between age and BMD was +0.03, between age and TBS -0.34. According to age group, LS BMD was 1.2 to 3.2% higher before excluding Vex (p < 0.001). TBS had an insignificant change of <1% after excluding Vex. LS BMD (Vex) decreased by 4.6% between 52.5 and 62.5 years, and increased by 2.6% between 62.5 and 77.5 years. TBS (Vex excluded) values decreased steadily with age with an overall loss of 8.99% between 52.5 and 77.5 years. Spine TBS, femoral neck, and total hip BMD gradually decreased with age, reaching one SD between the oldest and youngest group. TBS is not affected by DD. While BMD increases after 62.5 years, TBS continues to decline. For lumbar spine evaluation, in view of its independence from DD, TBS should play a leading role in the diagnosis in complement to BMD.

  12. Relationship between MRI-measured bone marrow adipose tissue and hip and spine bone mineral density in African-American and Caucasian participants: the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Scherzer, Rebecca; Gantz, Madeleine; Chen, Jun; Punyanitya, Mark; Lewis, Cora E; Grunfeld, Carl

    2012-04-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Our previous study of Caucasian women demonstrated that there is an inverse relationship between BMAT and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD). It is unknown whether visceral adipose tissue (VAT), sc adipose tissue (SAT), and skeletal muscle had an effect on the relationship between BMAT and BMD. In the present study we investigated the relationship between pelvic, hip, and lumbar spine BMAT with hip and lumbar spine BMD in the population-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) sample with adjustment for whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-measured VAT, SAT, and skeletal muscle. T1-weighted MRI was acquired for 210 healthy African-American and Caucasian men and women (age 38-52 yr). Hip and lumbar spine BMD were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Pelvic, hip, and lumbar spine BMAT had negative correlations with hip and lumbar spine BMD (r = -0.399 to -0.550, P BMAT and BMD remained strong after adjusting for demographics, weight, skeletal muscle, SAT, VAT, total adipose tissue (TAT), menopausal status, lifestyle factors, and inflammatory markers (standardized regression coefficients = -0. 296 to -0.549, P BMAT (standardized regression coefficients = 0.268-0.614, P BMAT and hip and lumbar spine BMD independent of demographics and body composition. These observations support the growing evidence linking BMAT with low bone density.

  13. Physical exercise associated with improved BMD independently of sex and vitamin D levels in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Rune; Schwarz, Peter; Hovind, Peter Hambak

    2016-01-01

    -scan sites (p trend = 0.0001) and with equal benefit; there was no interaction between exercise and the DXA-scan site (p = 0.09). The male participants did not have a systematically higher BMD than the female participants for all scan sites; only for hips total and femoral neck bilaterally, while......PURPOSE: Young men and women accrue the majority of their bone mass in their teens and twenties, where their bone mass peaks (PBM), yet little is known about the roles of physical exercise, vitamin D levels and bone mineral density (BMD) near PBM. METHODS: To comparatively examine the effect...... of physical exercise and two vitamin D levels (insufficient s-25[OH]D 80 nmol/L) on the BMD measured at the femoral neck, total hip (bilaterally) and the lumbar spine (L2-L4) in male and female participants approaching PBM. RESULTS: The insufficient s-25[OH]D group, median...

  14. Milk and yogurt consumption are linked with higher bone mineral density but not with hip fracture: the Framingham Offspring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Shivani; Tucker, Katherine L; Kiel, Douglas P; Quach, Lien; Casey, Virginia A; Hannan, Marian T

    2013-01-01

    Dairy foods are a complex source of essential nutrients. In this study, fluid dairy intake, specifically milk, and yogurt intakes were associated with hip but not spine bone mineral density (BMD), while cream may adversely influence BMD, suggesting that not all dairy products are equally beneficial for the skeleton. This study seeks to examine associations of milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, most dairy (total dairy without cream), and fluid dairy (milk + yogurt) with BMD at femoral neck (FN), trochanter (TR), and spine, and with incident hip fracture over 12-year follow-up in the Framingham Offspring Study. Three thousand two hundred twelve participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (1991–1995 or 1995–1998) and were followed for hip fracture until 2007 [corrected]. Two thousand five hundred and six participants had DXA BMD (1996-2001). Linear regression was used to estimate adjusted mean BMD while Cox-proportional hazards regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for hip fracture risk. Final models simultaneously included dairy foods adjusting for each other. Mean baseline age was 55 (±1.6) years, range 26-85. Most dairy intake was positively associated with hip and spine BMD. Intake of fluid dairy and milk was related with hip but not spine BMD. Yogurt intake was associated with TR-BMD alone. Cheese and cream intakes were not associated with BMD. In final models, yogurt intake remained positively associated with TR-BMD, while cream tended to be negatively associated with FN-BMD. Yogurt intake showed a weak protective trend for hip fracture [HR(95%CI), ≤4 serv/week, 0.46 (0.21-1.03) vs. >4 serv/week, 0.43 (0.06-3.27)]. No other dairy groups showed a significant association (HRs range, 0.53-1.47) with limited power (n, fractures = 43). Milk and yogurt intakes were associated with hip but not spine BMD, while cream may adversely influence BMD. Thus, not all dairy products are equally beneficial for the skeleton. Suggestive fracture

  15. PTHR1 polymorphisms influence BMD variation through effects on the growing skeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilariño-Güell, Carles; Miles, Lisa J; Duncan, Emma L

    2007-01-01

    . A cohort of 634 families, including 1,236 men (39%) and 1,926 women (61%) ascertained with probands with low BMD (Z... most informative SNPs (minor allele frequency >5%) and the tetranucleotide repeat. In our osteoporosis families, association was noted between lumbar spine BMD and alleles of a known functional tetranucleotide repeat (U4) in the PTHR1 promoter region (P = 0.042) and between two and three marker...... haplotypes of PTHR1 polymorphisms with lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip BMD (P = 0.021-0.047). This association was restricted to the youngest tertile of the population (age 16-39 years, P = 0.013-0.048). A similar association was found for the ALSPAC cohort: two marker haplotypes of SNPs A48609T...

  16. Bone mineral density in patients with destructive arthrosis of the hip joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kunihiko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Enomoto, Hiroshi; Osaki, Makoto; Chiba, Ko; Yamaguchi, Kazumasa

    2014-05-01

    Recent reports have shown the existence of subchondral insufficiency fracture in rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip joint (RDA), and the findings suggest that osteopenia is related to the pathogenesis of the rapid progression of this disease. Therefore, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) in RDA patients. We measured BMD of the lumbar spine, radius, and calcaneus using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 19 patients with RDA and 75 with osteoarthritis of the hip (OA) and compared BMD at different skeletal sites between RDA and OA patients. No significant differences were observed in BMD of the lumbar spine, ultradistal radius, mid-radius, and calcaneous between the RDA and OA groups. Our data suggest that RDA is not accompanied by generalized osteoporosis. Factors other than generalized bone status, for example, BMD around the affected hip joint before destruction, need to be analyzed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of RDA.

  17. Rural versus nonrural differences in BMC, volumetric BMD, and bone size: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa; Fahrenwald, Nancy

    2004-12-01

    Despite reports of lower fracture risk among rural versus urban populations, few studies have investigated rural versus urban differences in bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). Population differences in cross-sectional bone geometry and understanding lifestyle factors responsible for these differences may reveal insights into the reason for differences in fracture risk. We hypothesized that if lifestyle differences in bone mass, size, and geometry are a result of muscle strength, activity, or dietary differences, Hutterite and rural populations should have greater bone mass compared to nonrural populations. The study population consisted of 1189 individuals: 504 rural Hutterites (188 men), 349 rural individuals (>75% life farming, 184 men), and 336 nonrural individuals (never lived on farm, 134 men) aged 20 to 66 years. BMC, bone area, and areal BMD (aBMD) of the total body (TB), hip, femoral neck (FN), and spine by DXA; volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone geometry at the 4% and 20% radius; polar stress strain index (pSSI), a measure of bone strength, at the 20% pQCT site; and strength, 7-day activity recall, and 24-h diet recall were collected and compared among groups. Hutterite women and men had greater grip strength compared to rural and nonrural populations (both, P BMC and areal size than the nonrural population, while Hutterites had greater BMC and areal size than rural population at some (TB, FN for females only), but not all (proximal hip), sites. Cortical vBMD was inversely associated with periosteal circumference at the 20% radius in women (r=-0.25, P BMC, aBMD, vBMD, or bone size.

  18. Frequency of Osteoporosis and Osteopenia According To Bone Mineral Density of Proximal Femur Subregions in Normal and Osteopenic Postmenopausal Women With Respect to Total Hip Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Ersöz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study 29 normal (mean age: 65.6 ± 5.1 years and 33 osteopenic (mean age: 67.6 ± 4.9 years postmenopausal women according to total bone mineral density (BMD of the hip were evaluated for BMD values of subregions of proximal femur. The percentages for osteoporosis and osteopenia with respect to subregions were 13.8% and 58.6% for femoral neck and 20.7% and 41.4% for Ward’s triangle in normal group. In trochanteric and intertrochanteric measurements there were no T scores below –2.5 but 17.2% of the subjects were osteopenic with regard to trochanteric and 6.9% were osteopenic due to intertrochanteric BMD values. The percentages for osteoporosis and osteopenia with respect to subregion measurements were 57.6% and 42.4% for femoral neck, 60.6% and 36.4% for Ward’s triangle, 3% and 78.8% for trochanteric, 9.1% and 87.9% for intertrochanteric regions in osteopenic group according to total hip values. Knowing that hip fracture risk is increasing 2-3 fold for 1 standart deviation decrease from the young adult mean value for all subregions and knowing the relation between cervical hip fractures and BMD values of Ward’s triangle and femoral neck and the relation between intertrochanteric fractures and trochanteric BMD values, it is recommended to evaluate the BMD values of subregions of the hip besides the total hip values in daily practice.

  19. Dietary patterns and longitudinal change in hip bone mineral density among older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, T S; Harrison, S; Judd, S; Orwoll, E S; Marshall, L M; Shannon, J; Langsetmo, L; Lane, N E; Shikany, J M

    2018-05-01

    Studying dietary patterns is often more informative than individual nutrients or foods. We found that a Prudent dietary pattern (rich in vegetables and fish) was associated with reduced loss of total hip BMD in older men. A Prudent dietary pattern may be a potential lifestyle strategy for minimizing bone loss. This study aimed to identify baseline dietary patterns using factor analysis in a cohort of older men and to evaluate whether the dietary patterns were associated with bone mineral density change (%ΔBMD) at the total hip and femoral neck over time. Participants (n = 4379; mean age 72.9 ± 5.5 years) were from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) prospective cohort study and had dietary data collected at baseline (March 2000-April 2002) and BMD measured at baseline and Visit 2 (March 2005-May 2006). Dietary intake was assessed with a brief Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); %ΔBMD was calculated from baseline to Visit 2. We used generalized linear regression to estimate least square (LS) means of %ΔBMD in quartiles of the dietary pattern scores adjusted for potential confounding factors. Two major dietary patterns were derived: Prudent (abundant in vegetables, salad, and non-fried fish) and Western (rich in hamburger, fries, processed meats, cheese, and sweets/desserts). There was an inverse association between adherence to the Prudent pattern and total hipBMD (p-trend = 0.028 after adjusting for age and clinical site; p-trend = 0.033 after further adjustment for smoking, calcium supplement use, diabetes, hypertension, and total energy intake). No other consistent associations between dietary patterns and %ΔBMD were observed. Greater adherence to a Prudent dietary pattern may attenuate total hip BMD loss (%ΔBMD) in older men.

  20. Influence of lean and fat mass on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dytfeld, Joanna; Ignaszak-Szczepaniak, Magdalena; Gowin, Ewelina; Michalak, Michał; Horst-Sikorska, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Despite known positive association between body mass and bone mineral density (BMD), relative contribution of fat and lean tissue to BMD remains under debate. We aimed at investigating the effect of selected anthropometric parameters, including fat content and lean body mass (LBM) on BMD in postmenopausal, osteoporotic women with body mass index (BMI) > 20 kg/m(2). The study involved 92 never-treated women (mean age 69.5 ± 7.3). L1-L4 and femoral neck (FN) BMD were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Absolute (kg) and relative (%) fat and LBM were assessed by means of electric bioimpedance method. We showed both FN and L1-L4 BMD were positively correlated with body mass, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and LBM (kg). Fat content correlated with FN BMD (r = 0.36, p obese. Obese women displayed the highest BMD. Both L1-L4 and FN BMD were higher in women with WC > 80 cm. In postmenopausal osteoporotic women with BMI > 20 kg/m(2) both fat and lean tissue might contribute to BMD. Positive association between body mass and BMD does not make obesity and osteoporosis mutually exclusive. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Causal relationship between the AHSG gene and BMD through fetuin-A and BMI: multiple mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritara, C; Thakkinstian, A; Ongphiphadhanakul, B; Chailurkit, L; Chanprasertyothin, S; Ratanachaiwong, W; Vathesatogkit, P; Sritara, P

    2014-05-01

    Using mediation analysis, a causal relationship between the AHSG gene and bone mineral density (BMD) through fetuin-A and body mass index (BMI) mediators was suggested. Fetuin-A, a multifunctional protein of hepatic origin, is associated with bone mineral density. It is unclear if this association is causal. This study aimed at clarification of this issue. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,741 healthy workers from the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) cohort. The alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (AHSG) rs2248690 gene was genotyped. Three mediation models were constructed using seemingly unrelated regression analysis. First, the ln[fetuin-A] group was regressed on the AHSG gene. Second, the BMI group was regressed on the AHSG gene and the ln[fetuin-A] group. Finally, the BMD model was constructed by fitting BMD on two mediators (ln[fetuin-A] and BMI) and the independent AHSG variable. All three analyses were adjusted for confounders. The prevalence of the minor T allele for the AHSG locus was 15.2%. The AHSG locus was highly related to serum fetuin-A levels (P Multiple mediation analyses showed that AHSG was significantly associated with BMD through the ln[fetuin-A] and BMI pathway, with beta coefficients of 0.0060 (95% CI 0.0038, 0.0083) and 0.0030 (95% CI 0.0020, 0.0045) at the total hip and lumbar spine, respectively. About 27.3 and 26.0% of total genetic effects on hip and spine BMD, respectively, were explained by the mediation effects of fetuin-A and BMI. Our study suggested evidence of a causal relationship between the AHSG gene and BMD through fetuin-A and BMI mediators.

  2. PLCL1 rs7595412 variation is not associated with hip bone size variation in postmenopausal Danish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsdal Morten A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone size (BS variation is under strong genetic control and plays an important role in determining bone strength and fracture risk. Recently, a genome-wide association study identified polymorphisms associated with hip BS variation in the PLCL1 (phospholipase c-like 1 locus. Carriers of the major A allele of the most significant polymorphism, rs7595412, have around 17% larger hip BS than non-carriers. We therefore hypothesized that this polymorphism may also influence postmenopausal complications. Methods The effects of rs7595412 on hip BS, bone mineral density (BMD, vertebral fractures, serum Crosslaps and osteocalcin levels were analyzed in 1,191 postmenopausal Danish women. Results This polymorphism had no influence on hip and spine BS as well as on femur and spine BMD. Women carrying at least one copy of the A allele had lower levels of serum osteocalcin as compared with those homozygous for the G allele (p = 0.03 whereas no effect on serum Crosslaps was detected. Furthermore, women homozygous for the A allele were more affected by vertebral fractures than those carrying at least one copy of the G allele (p = 0.04. Conclusions In postmenopausal women, our results suggest that the PLCL1 rs7595412 polymorphism has no obvious effect on hip BS or BMD but may be nominally associated with increased proportion of vertebral fracture and increased levels of osteocalcin.

  3. Prevalence of osteoporosis and predictors of low BMD in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients in Rome: features of a population at high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avino, Alessandro; Lassandro, Annapia; Lamonica, Silvia; Piccoli, Benedetta; Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Mondi, Annalisa; Gagliardini, Roberta; Borghetti, Alberto; Fanti, Iuri; Pallavicini, Federico; Cauda, Roberto; Di Giambenedetto, Simona

    2014-01-01

    Ageing of HIV-infected patients led to an increasing rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The cause is multifactorial, including virus activity, drug toxicity and host factors. The aim of our analysis is to quantify this issue according to our department experience and to evaluate predictors of low BMD. HIV-1-infected patients, on stable HAART, were consecutively enrolled in this cross-sectional study and underwent DEXA. We analyzed the prevalence and evaluated predictors of low BMD in our population. We collected data from 208 patients, 148 of whom were male, with 49 years median age (IQR 24.1-68.3). About 39% of patients were heterosexuals, 33.7 MSM and 12.5% were IDU, 40.4% were smokers. Caucasians were 93.3%, and 13.9% were co-infected with HCV virus. Around 6.7% of patients were on their first HAART regimen and all of them started TDF. Their median time of HAART exposure was 1.17 years (IQR 0.8-1.6). Conversely, median time of HAART exposure of multi-experienced patients was 8.5 years (IQR 3.1-12.0). We stratified DEXA results for patients on first-line regimen versus multi-experienced one. We found that 42.9% of patients on first-line HAART had low BMD of lumbar spine and 7.1% had osteoporosis. Regarding the multi-experienced group of patients, lumbar spine osteopenia was observed in 36.6% of patients and 15.5% of them had osteoporosis. Median age of patients with low BMD of lumbar spine was 45.6 (IQR 24.1-68.3) for patients on first-line regimen and 49.8 years for multi-experienced (IQR 44.2-54.0) regimen. We found similar data for BMD of hip, but no patients in the first group had hip osteoporosis. We also analyzed predictors of low BMD in our population. MSM patients showed a 3.4-fold higher risk to have osteoporosis of lumbar spine (OR 3.41, CI 1,105-9,269, p=0.03). As expected, we found that non-Caucasian patients had 13.5-fold higher risk to have osteoporosis of the hip (OR 13.52, CI 1.5-122.7, p=0.02). Exposure to HAART was also evaluated, but no

  4. Recurrent Hip Fracture Prevention With Osteoporosis Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahla

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Osteoporosis is a major public health threat,and hip fracture is a serious consequence of osteoporosis.Apatient with an osteoporosis-related hip fracture has an increased risk for a second hip fracture.The effect of osteoporosis management on the risk of recurrent hip fracture was evaluated in this study.Methods:58 hip fracture patients older than 50yr and BMD < 2.5 were discharged from hospital with Ca-Vitamin D- Alendronate prescriptions, and followed up for 4 years to determine the rate of recurrent hip fractures. Rate of second hip fractures was compared with 58 hip fractures in the control group (without osteoporosis treatment which were also followed for 4 years. Results:72% of patients continued treatment for 2 years. There were no second hip fractures in the critical first 12 months in the treated group.Overall second hip fractures in osteoporosis treated and control groups were 3.4% and 8.6%(p<0.03, respectively.Conclusion:Management of hip fractures in the elderly should include bone mineral density determination and osteoporosis treatment to prevent further fractures.

  5. Quantitative ultrasound parameters as well as bone mineral density are better predictors of trochanteric than cervical hip fractures in elderly women. Results from the EPIDOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, A M; Hans, D; Duboeuf, F; Dargent-Molina, P; Hajri, T; Bréart, G; Meunier, P J

    2005-12-01

    Hip fractures can be separated into cervical and trochanteric fractures. Trochanteric fractures have been associated with up to twice the short-term mortality of cervical fractures in the elderly. There is also evidence suggesting that the mechanisms are different. Evidence from the literature remains limited on the predictive power of bone mineral density (BMD) and quantitative ultrasounds (QUS) for both types of hip fractures. 5703 elderly women aged 75 years or more, who were recruited from the voting lists in the EPIDOS study, and had baseline calcaneal ultrasounds (QUS) and DXA measurements at the hip and the whole body, were analyzed in this paper. Among those, 192 hip fractures occurred during an average follow-up of 4 years, 108 cervical and 84 trochanteric fractures. Femoral neck, trochanteric and whole body BMD were able to predict trochanteric hip fracture (RR's and 95% CI were, respectively, 3.2 (2.4-4.2); 4.8 (3.5-6.6); and 2.8 (2.2-3.6)) more accurately than cervical fractures (respectively, 2.1 (1.7-2.7); 2.3 (1.8-3.0); 1.2 (1.0-1.6)). All ultrasound parameters, SOS, BUA, and stiffness index (SI) were significant predictors of trochanteric (RR's respectively 3.0 (2.2-4.1), 2.5(2.0-3.1), and 3.5(2.6-4.7)) but not cervical fractures. After adjustment for femoral neck or trochanteric BMD ultrasound parameters were still significant predictors of trochanteric fracture, and stiffness tended to be a better predictor of trochanteric fractures than either BUA or SOS with a relative risk of 2.25 (1.6-3.1). A significant decrease of all bone measurements, BMD and QUS, was highly predictive of trochanteric fractures, whereas a decrease of femoral neck and trochanteric BMD were only associated with a slight increase in cervical fracture risk and a low total body BMD or QUS parameters were not significant predictors of cervical fractures. In women who sustained a hip fracture, the decrease of BMD and QUS values increases the risk of trochanteric fracture as

  6. Additive effects of nutritional supplementation, together with bisphosphonates, on bone mineral density after hip fracture: a 12-month randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flodin L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lena Flodin,1,2 Maria Sääf,3 Tommy Cederholm,4 Amer N Al-Ani,2,5 Paul W Ackermann,5,6 Eva Samnegård,7 Nils Dalen,7 Margareta Hedström2,51Department of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Science, Intervention, and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 5Department of Orthopedics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 6Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 7Department of Clinical Science, Division of Orthopedics, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: After a hip fracture, a catabolic state develops, with increased bone loss during the first year. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of postoperative treatment with calcium, vitamin D, and bisphosphonates (alone or together with nutritional supplementation on total hip and total body bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: Seventy-nine patients (56 women, with a mean age of 79 years (range, 61–96 years and with a recent hip fracture, who were ambulatory before fracture and without severe cognitive impairment, were included. Patients were randomized to treatment with bisphosphonates (risedronate 35 mg weekly for 12 months (B; n=28, treatment with bisphosphonates along with nutritional supplementation (40 g protein, 600 kcal daily for the first 6 months (BN; n=26, or to controls (C; n=25. All participants received calcium (1,000 mg and vitamin D3 (800 IU daily. Total hip and total body BMD were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Marker of bone resorption C-terminal telopeptide of collagen I and 25-hydroxy vitamin D were analyzed in serum

  7. Study of Hip Fracture Risk using Tree Structured Survival Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Y

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In dieser Studie wird das Hüftfraktur-Risiko bei postmenopausalen Frauen untersucht, indem die Frauen in verschiedene Subgruppen hinsichtlich dieses Risikos klassifiziert werden. Frauen in einer gemeinsamen Subgruppe haben ein ähnliches Risiko, hingegen in verschiedenen Subgruppen ein unterschiedliches Hüftfraktur-Risiko. Die Subgruppen wurden mittels der Tree Structured Survival Analysis (TSSA aus den Daten von 7.665 Frauen der SOF (Study of Osteoporosis Fracture ermittelt. Bei allen Studienteilnehmerinnen wurde die Knochenmineraldichte (BMD von Unterarm, Oberschenkelhals, Hüfte und Wirbelsäule gemessen. Die Zeit von der BMD-Messung bis zur Hüftfraktur wurde als Endpunkt notiert. Eine Stichprobe von 75% der Teilnehmerinnen wurde verwendet, um die prognostischen Subgruppen zu bilden (Trainings-Datensatz, während die anderen 25% als Bestätigung der Ergebnisse diente (Validierungs-Datensatz. Aufgrund des Trainings-Datensatzes konnten mittels TSSA 4 Subgruppen identifiziert werden, deren Hüftfraktur-Risiko bei einem Follow-up von im Mittel 6,5 Jahren bei 19%, 9%, 4% und 1% lag. Die Einteilung in die Subgruppen erfolgte aufgrund der Bewertung der BMD des Ward'schen Dreiecks sowie des Oberschenkelhalses und nach dem Alter. Diese Ergebnisse konnten mittels des Validierungs-Datensatzes reproduziert werden, was die Sinnhaftigkeit der Klassifizierungregeln in einem klinischen Setting bestätigte. Mittels TSSA war eine sinnvolle, aussagekräftige und reproduzierbare Identifikation von prognostischen Subgruppen, die auf dem Alter und den BMD-Werten beruhen, möglich. In this paper we studied the risk of hip fracture for post-menopausal women by classifying women into different subgroups based on their risk of hip fracture. The subgroups were generated such that all the women in a particular subgroup had relatively similar risk while women belonging to two different subgroups had rather different risks of hip fracture. We used the Tree Structured

  8. Periacetabular Bone Mineral Density Changes After Resurfacing Hip Arthroplasty Versus Conventional Total Hip Arthroplasty. A Randomized Controlled DEXA Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, J.M.H.; Pakvis, D.F.; Hendrickx, B.W.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; van Susante, J.L.C.

    2013-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was performed to evaluate acetabular bone mineral density (BMD) changes after hip resurfacing (RHA) versus an established conventional total hip arthroplasty (THA). A total of 71 patients were allocated randomly to receive either an RHA press-fit cobalt–chromium cup (n

  9. Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with less optimal hip structural geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nicole C; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Beck, Thomas J; Sherrill, Duane L; Mohler, M Jane; Bassford, Tamsen; Cauley, Jane A; Lacroix, Andrea Z; Lewis, Cora E; Chen, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to assess the longitudinal changes in bone strength in women reporting rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n=78) compared with nonarthritic control participants (n=4779) of the Women's Health Initiative bone mineral density (WHI-BMD) subcohort. Hip structural analysis program was applied to archived dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans (baseline, years 3, 6, and 9) to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) and hip structural geometry parameters in 3 femoral regions: narrow neck (NN), intertrochanteric (IT), and shaft (S). The association between RA and hip structural geometry was tested using linear regression and random coefficient models. Compared with the nonarthritic control, the RA group had a lower BMD (p=0.061) and significantly lower outer diameter (p=0.017), cross-sectional area (p=0.004), and section modulus (p=0.035) at the NN region in the longitudinal models. No significant associations were seen at the IT regions or S regions, and the association was not modified by age, ethnicity, glucocorticoid use, or time. Within the WHI-BMD, women with RA group had reduced BMD and structural geometry at baseline, and this reduction was seen at a fixed rate throughout the 9 yr of study. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reliability of using DXA around RTHAs. Bone Mineral Density of the femoral neck in resurfacing hip arthroplasty. Precision biased by region of interest and rotation of the hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole

    2009-01-01

      Introduction:  Resurfacing Total Hip Arthroplasty (RTHA) may preserve the femoral neck bone-stock post-operatively. Bone Mineral Density (BMD), could theoretically be affected by the hip-position, and bias longitudinal studies. We aimed to investigate BMD precision dependency on type of ROI...... the hip was rotated in increments of 15° and 30°, the mean CVs rose to 7.2%, 7.3% and 11.8%.  Rotation affected the precision most in the model that divided the neck in 6 sub regions, predominantly in the lateral and distal regions. For larger-region models, some rotation could be allowed without...

  11. Evaluation of the magnitude of hip joint deformation in subjects with avascular necrosis of the hip joint during walking with and without Scottish Rite orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Mohammadi, Ali; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein; McGarry, Anthony

    2017-02-01

    The femoral head in subjects with leg calve perthes disease (LCPD) is generally considerably deformed. It is debatable whether this deformation is due to an increase in applied loads, a decrease in bone mineral density or a change in containment of articular surfaces. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of these factors on deformation of the femoral head. Two subjects with LCPD participated in this study. Subject motion and the forces applied on the affected leg were recorded using a motion analysis system (Qualsis TM ) and a Kistler force plate. OpenSim software was used to determine joint contact force of the hip joint whilst walking with and without a Scottish Rite orthosis. 3D Models of hip joints of both subjects were produced by Mimics software. The deformation of femoral bone was determined by Abaqus. Mean values of the force applied on the leg increased while walking with the orthosis. There was no difference between bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral bone of normal and LCPD sides (p-value>0.05) and no difference between hip joint contact force of normal and LCPD sides. Hip joint containment appeared to decrease follow the use of the orthosis. It can be concluded that the deformation of femoral head in LCPD may not be due to change in BMD or applied load. Although the Scottish Rite orthosis is used mostly to increase hip joint containment, it appears to reduce hip joint contact area. It is recommended that a similar study is conducted using a higher number of subjects. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. All rights reserved.

  12. Reference indices of hip structural analysis in Ukrainian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Grygorieva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nowadays, a comprehensive assessment of osteoporosis and the risk of osteoporotic fractures involves the combine use of bone mineral density (BMD, 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures (Fracture Risk Assessment Tool, Trabecular Bone Score, and parameters of hip structural ana­lysis. In recent years, reference data on the three above-mentioned methods have been developed for the Ukrainian population, but there are no data on the latest methodology. The objective of the study was to assess the age characteristics of hip structural analysis parameters in Ukrainian women and to offer their reference values for use in clinical practice. Materials and methods. Using the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry method, we examined 690 healthy women aged 20–89 years wi­thout osteoporosis and other clinically significant diseases and conditions affecting the bone metabolism, without other accompanying pathology of hip joint. Results. The results of the study showed a significant effect of age on femoral strength index (FSI, cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI, cross-sectional area (CSA, distance from center of femoral head to center of femoral neck (d1, distance from center of femoral head to inter-trochanteric line (d2, mean femoral neck dia­meter (d3, distance from center of mass of femoral neck to superior neck margin (y, shaft angle (a and hip axis length (HAL indices, but not on parameters of neck/shaft angle (q. A significant decrease of FSI with age was established on the background on increase of CSMI, CSA and HAL parameters. Indices of height and body weight were reliably related with parameters of CSMI, CSA and HAL. FSI was significantly related to the body weight, but not to the height. In addition, it reliably correlated with BMD measured at femoral neck and lesser at total hip and lumbar spine. The HAL did not significant correlate with any of the measured BMD, which confirms its independent role in prediction of

  13. Lactase persistence, milk intake, hip fracture and bone mineral density: a study of 97 811 Danish individuals and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholdt, H K M; Larsen, M K; Varbo, A; Nordestgaard, B G; Ellervik, C

    2018-03-14

    Whether a causal relationship exists between milk intake and reduced risk of fractures is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that genetically determined milk intake reduces the risk of fractures and increases bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated the association between milk intake, LCT-13910 C/T (rs4988235), which is associated with lactase persistence (TT/TC) in Northern Europeans, and hip fractures in three Danish prospective studies (N = 97 811, age ≥20 years). We added meta-analyses of LCT-13910 and fractures and BMD from five published Northern European population studies. In the Danish studies, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for hip fracture per one glass per week higher milk intake was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99-1.01). The per T-allele milk intake was 0.58 (0.49-0.68) glasses per week, but HR was 1.01 (0.94-1.09) for hip fracture. In meta-analyses of Danish studies with published Northern European population studies, the random effects odds ratio for any fracture was 0.86 (0.61-1.21; I 2 = 73%) for TT vs. CC and 0.90 (0.68-1.21; I 2 = 63%) for TC vs. CC. The standardized mean difference in femoral neck BMD was 0.10 (0.02-0.18; I 2 = 0%) g cm -2 for TT vs. CC and 0.06 (-0.04 to 0.17; I 2 = 17%) g cm -2 for TC vs. CC. There were no differences in lumbar spine or total hip BMD comparing TT or TC with CC. Genetically lifelong lactase persistence with high milk intake was not associated with hip fracture in Danish population-based cohorts. A meta-analysis combining Danish studies with published Northern European population studies also showed that lactase persistence was not associated with fracture risk. Genetic lactase persistence was associated with a higher femoral neck BMD, but not lumbar spine or total hip BMD. © 2018 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  14. Prevention of hip fractures by exposure to sunlight and pharmacotherapy in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jun; Sato, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    Hypovitaminosis D and K due to malnutrition or sunlight deprivation, compensatory hyperparathyroidism, increased bone resorption, low bone mineral density (BMD), and an increased risk of falls may contribute to an increased risk of hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the efficacy of interventions against hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease. With respect to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding Alzheimer's disease and hip fractures, the literature was searched with PubMed. Three RCTs were identified, and the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for individual RCTs. Exposure to sunlight with calcium supplementation, menatetrenone (vitamin K2) plus calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and risedronate plus calcium and vitamin D supplementation improved hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism, contributing to a reduction in bone resorption. Risedronate itself strongly decreased bone resorption. Menatetrenone also decreased the serum level of undercarboxylated osteocalcin. The three interventions increased metacarpal BMD and reduced the incidence of hip fractures. The respective RRs (95% CI) were 0.22 (0.049-0.999), 0.13 (0.031-0.554), and 0.26 (0.100- 0.690). The present study clarified the efficacy of three interventions, including exposure to sunlight, menatetrenone, and risedronate with calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation against hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin measured with a specific immunoassay predicts hip fracture in elderly women: the EPIDOS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnaud, P; Garnero, P; Meunier, P J; Bréart, G; Kamihagi, K; Delmas, P D

    1997-03-01

    Increased levels of circulating undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), measured indirectly with the hydroxyapatite (HAP) binding assay, have been shown to predict hip fracture risk in a small group of elderly institutionalized women. The aim of this study was to confirm these findings in a prospective cohort study (EPIDOS prospective study) of 7598 healthy, independently living women over 75 yr of age. One hundred and four women who sustained a hip fracture during a 22-month follow-up period were age matched with 255 controls who did not fracture. Baseline samples were collected before hip fracture for measurement of total OC and ucOC, assessed either with the HAP binding assay or directly with a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This direct ELISA uses human recombinant noncarboxylated OC as a standard and two monoclonal antibodies, one of which was raised against the 14-30 Glu synthetic peptide. We found that the intra- and interassay variations are less than 11%, and this assay exhibits a 5% cross-reactivity with purified human bone OC, used as a source of carboxylated OC. ucOC levels measured with this ELISA correlated well with the HAP binding assay in the population of 359 elderly women (r = 0.82; P < 0.0001). We estimated the risk of hip fracture for women with levels of ucOC in the highest quartile of values for the 255 controls. We found that increased levels of ucOC measured by ELISA were associated with increased hip fracture risk with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.0), and the ELISA had a greater sensitivity than the HAP assay. In contrast, total OC was not associated with hip fracture risk. After adjustment for femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) and mobility status assessed by gait speed, ucOC still predicted hip fracture with an OR of 1.8 (1.0-3.0). Women with both femoral neck BMD in the lowest quartile and ucOC in the highest quartile were at higher risk of hip fracture, with an OR of 5.5 (2.7-11.2), than

  16. Relationships between self-reported lifetime physical activity, estimates of current physical fitness, and aBMD in adult premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Kathleen G; Walkley, Jeff W; Rich, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is common, and physical activity is important in its prevention and treatment. Of the categories of historical physical activity (PA) examined, we found that weight-bearing and very hard physical activity had the strongest relationships with areal bone mineral density (aBMD) throughout growth and into adulthood, while for measures of strength, only grip strength proved to be an independent predictor of aBMD. To examine relationships between aBMD (total body, lumbar spine, proximal femur, tibial shaft, distal radius) and estimates of historical PA, current strength, and cardiovascular fitness in adult premenopausal women. One hundred fifty-two adult premenopausal women (40 ± 9.6 years) undertook aBMD (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) and completed surveys to estimate historical physical activity representative of three decades (Kriska et al. [1]), while subsets underwent functional tests of isokinetic strength (hamstrings and quadriceps), grip strength (hand dynamometer), and maximum oxygen uptake (MaxV02; cycle ergometer). Historical PA was characterized by demand (metabolic equivalents, PA > 3 METS; PA > 7 METS) and type (weight-bearing; high impact). Significant positive independent predictors varied by decade and site, with weight-bearing exercise and PA > 3 METS significant for the tibial shaft (10-19 decade) and only PA > 7 METS significant for the final two decades (20-29 and 30-39 years; total body and total hip). A significant negative correlation between high impact activity and tibial shaft aBMD appeared for the final decade. For strength measures, only grip strength was an independent predictor (total body, total hip), while MaxV02 provided a significant independent prediction for the tibial shaft. Past PA > 7 METS was positively associated with aBMD, and such activity should probably constitute a relatively high proportion of all weekly PA to positively affect aBMD. The findings warrant more detailed investigations in a prospective

  17. BMD improvements after operation for primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolighed, Lars; Vestergaard, Peter; Heickendorff, Lene

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aims to quantify bone mineral density (BMD) changes following surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and to assess their relationship with clinical and biochemical variables. METHODS: A historic cohort of 236 PHPT patients with DXA scans pre- and 1-year...... postoperatively, clinical data, and biochemical data was analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age was 60 years (range 19-86) and 81 % of the patients were women. A significant postoperative 2.6 % (95 % CI, 2.1; 3.1) increase in lumbar spine BMD was seen. The increase in BMD was positively associated with preoperative...

  18. A Biomechanical Approach to Assessing Hip Fracture Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Bone loss in microgravity is well documented, but it is difficult to quantify how declines in bone mineral density (BMD) contribute to an astronaut's overall risk of fracture upon return. This study uses a biomechanical approach to assessing hip fracture risk, or Factor of Risk (Phi), which is defined as the ratio of applied load to bone strength. All long-duration NASA astronauts from Expeditions 1-18 were included in this study (n=25), while crewmembers who flew twice (n=2) were treated as separate subjects. Bone strength was estimated based on an empirical relationship between areal BMD at the hip, as measured by DXA, and failure load, as determined by mechanical testing of cadaver femora. Fall load during a sideways fall was calculated from a previously developed biomechanical model, which takes into account body weight, height, gender, and soft tissue thickness overlying the lateral aspect of the hip that serves to attenuate the impact force. While no statistical analyses have been performed yet, preliminary results show that males in this population have a higher FOR than females, with a post- flight Phi of 0.87 and 0.36, respectively. FOR increases 5.1% from preflight to postflight, while only one subject crossed the fracture "threshold" of Phi = 1, for a total of 2 subjects with a postflight Phi > 1. These results suggest that men may be at greater risk for hip fracture due largely in part to their relatively thin soft tissue padding as compared to women, since soft tissue thickness has the highest correlation (R(exp 2)= .53) with FOR of all subject-specific parameters. Future work will investigate changes in FOR during recovery to see if baseline risk levels are restored upon return to 1-g activity. While dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most commonly used clinical measure of bone health, it fails to provide compartment-specific information that is useful in assessing changes to bone quality as a result of microgravity exposure. Peripheral

  19. Drinking water fluoridation: bone mineral density and hip fracture incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, R; Wapniarz, M; Hofmann, B; Pieper, B; Haubitz, I; Allolio, B

    1998-03-01

    The role of drinking water fluoride content for prevention of osteoporosis remains controversial. Therefore, we analyzed the influence of drinking water fluoridation on the incidence of osteoporotic hip fractures and bone mineral density (BMD) in two different communities in eastern Germany: in Chemnitz, drinking water was fluoridated (1 mg/L) over a period of 30 years; in Halle, the water was not fluoridated. BMD was measured in healthy hospital employees aged 20-60 years (Halle: 214 women, 98 men; Chemnitz: 201 women, 43 men, respectively) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hip fractures in patients > or = 35 years admitted to the local hospitals in the years 1987-1989 were collected from the clinic registers. There was no difference in age, anthropometric, hormonal, or lifestyle variables between the two groups. Mean fluoride exposure in Chemnitz was 25.2 +/- 7.3 years. No correlation was found between fluoride exposure and age-adjusted BMD. We found no significant difference in spinal or femoral BMD between subjects living in Halle and Chemnitz [lumbar spine: 0.997 +/- 0.129 (g/cm2) vs. 1.045 + 0.171 (g/cm2), p = 0.08, for men; 1.055 +/- 0.112 (g/cm2) vs. 1.046 +/- 0.117 (g/cm2), p = 0.47, for women]. The fracture incidence showed an exponential increase with aging in men and women with an incidence about 3.5 times higher for women. In Chemnitz, we calculated an age-adjusted annual incidence of 142.2 per 100,000 for women and 72.5 per 100,000 for men, respectively. In Halle, the incidences were 178.5 per 100,000 for women and 89.2 per 100,000 for men. There was a lower hip fracture incidence after the age of 85 in women in Chemnitz (1391 per 100,000 in Chemnitz vs. 1957 per 100,000) in Halle, p = 0.006). Using the age-adjusted incidences, significantly fewer hip fractures occurred in Chemnitz in both men and women. In conclusion, our study suggests that optimal drinking water fluoridation (1 mg/L), which is advocated for prevention of dental caries, does

  20. Risk estimates for hip fracture from clinical and densitometric variables and impact of database selection in Lebanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badra, Mohammad; Mehio-Sibai, Abla; Zeki Al-Hazzouri, Adina; Abou Naja, Hala; Baliki, Ghassan; Salamoun, Mariana; Afeiche, Nadim; Baddoura, Omar; Bulos, Suhayl; Haidar, Rachid; Lakkis, Suhayl; Musharrafieh, Ramzi; Nsouli, Afif; Taha, Assaad; Tayim, Ahmad; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada

    2009-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture incidence vary greatly worldwide. The data, if any, on clinical and densitometric characteristics of patients with hip fractures from the Middle East are scarce. The objective of the study was to define risk estimates from clinical and densitometric variables and the impact of database selection on such estimates. Clinical and densitometric information were obtained in 60 hip fracture patients and 90 controls. Hip fracture subjects were 74 yr (9.4) old, were significantly taller, lighter, and more likely to be taking anxiolytics and sleeping pills than controls. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database selection resulted in a higher sensitivity and almost equal specificity in identifying patients with a hip fracture compared with the Lebanese database. The odds ratio (OR) and its confidence interval (CI) for hip fracture per standard deviation (SD) decrease in total hip BMD was 2.1 (1.45-3.05) with the NHANES database, and 2.11 (1.36-2.37) when adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI). Risk estimates were higher in male compared with female subjects. In Lebanese subjects, BMD- and BMI-derived hip fracture risk estimates are comparable to western standards. The study validates the universal use of the NHANES database, and the applicability of BMD- and BMI-derived risk fracture estimates in the World Health Organization (WHO) global fracture risk model, to the Lebanese.

  1. A prospective randomised study of periprosthetic femoral bone remodeling using four different bearings in hybrid total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerahn, Bo; Borgwardt, Lotte; Ribel-Madsen, Søren

    2011-01-01

    in all Gruen zones with the largest declines in group D. BMD changes in Gruen zones 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7 correlated with height, and body weight. Advanced age was associated with an increase in bone loss in Gruen zones 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7. A large stem size was associated with a decline in BMD in Gruen zones......Abstract: We performed a study to assess whether different bearing materials have an impact on femoral bone remodeling within the first four years after a hybrid total hip arthroplasty. 205 of 300 patients were available for 4 years follow-up after being randomly allocated to four prosthetic...... 1, 6, and 7.Bone remodeling after total hip arthroplasty may depend on the composition of bearing materials, but age, height, weight, and stem size are also related to changes in BMD....

  2. Plasma dimethylglycine, nicotine exposure and risk of low bone mineral density and hip fracture: the Hordaland Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øyen, J; Svingen, G F T; Gjesdal, C G; Tell, G S; Ueland, P M; Lysne, V; Apalset, E M; Meyer, K; Vollset, S E; Nygård, O K

    2015-05-01

    In the large community-based Hordaland Health Study, low plasma dimethylglycine was associated with low bone mineral density in both middle-aged and elderly subjects and to an increased risk of subsequent hip fracture among the elderly. These associations seemed to be particularly strong among subjects exposed to nicotine. Dimethylglycine (DMG) is a product of the choline oxidation pathway and formed from betaine during the folate-independent remethylation of homocysteine (Hcy) to methionine. Elevated plasma DMG levels are associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and inflammation, which in turn are related to osteoporosis. High plasma total Hcy and low plasma choline are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and hip fractures, but the role of plasma DMG in bone health is unknown. We studied the associations of plasma DMG with BMD among 5315 participants (46-49 and 71-74 years old) and with hip fracture among 3310 participants (71-74 years old) enrolled in the Hordaland Health Study. In age and sex-adjusted logistic regression models, subjects in the lowest versus highest DMG tertile were more likely to have low BMD (odds ratio [OR] 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-1.99). The association was stronger in participants exposed compared to those unexposed to nicotine (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.73-3.07 and OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.16-1.75, respectively, p interaction = 0.008). In the older cohort, Cox regression analyses adjusted for sex showed that low plasma DMG was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture (hazard ratio [HR] 1.70, 95% CI 1.28-2.26). A trend toward an even higher risk was found among women exposed to nicotine (HR 3.41, 95% CI 1.40-8.28). Low plasma DMG was associated with low BMD and increased risk of hip fractures. A potential effect modification by nicotine exposure merits particular attention.

  3. Is cortical bone hip? What determines cortical bone properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Sol

    2007-07-01

    Increased bone turnover may produce a disturbance in bone structure which may result in fracture. In cortical bone, both reduction in turnover and increase in hip bone mineral density (BMD) may be necessary to decrease hip fracture risk and may require relatively greater proportionate changes than for trabecular bone. It should also be noted that increased porosity produces disproportionate reduction in bone strength, and studies have shown that increased cortical porosity and decreased cortical thickness are associated with hip fracture. Continued studies for determining the causes of bone strength and deterioration show distinct promise. Osteocyte viability has been observed to be an indicator of bone strength, with viability as the result of maintaining physiological levels of loading and osteocyte apoptosis as the result of a decrease in loading. Osteocyte apoptosis and decrease are major factors in the bone loss and fracture associated with aging. Both the osteocyte and periosteal cell layer are assuming greater importance in the process of maintaining skeletal integrity as our knowledge of these cells expand, as well being a target for pharmacological agents to reduce fracture especially in cortical bone. The bisphosphonate alendronate has been seen to have a positive effect on cortical bone by allowing customary periosteal growth, while reducing the rate of endocortical bone remodeling and slowing bone loss from the endocortical surface. Risedronate treatment effects were attributed to decrease in bone resorption and thus a decrease in fracture risk. Ibandronate has been seen to increase BMD as the spine and femur as well as a reduced incidence of new vertebral fractures and non vertebral on subset post hoc analysis. And treatment with the anabolic agent PTH(1-34) documented modeling and remodelling of quiescent and active bone surfaces. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) plays a key role in bone destruction, and the human monoclonal

  4. The Relationship Between Fractures and DXA Measures of BMD in the Distal Femur of Children and Adolescents With Cerebral Palsy or Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Richard C; Berglund, Lisa M; May, Ryan; Zemel, Babette S; Grossberg, Richard I; Johnson, Julie; Plotkin, Horacio; Stevenson, Richard D; Szalay, Elizabeth; Wong, Brenda; Kecskemethy, Heidi H; Harcke, H Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Children with limited or no ability to ambulate frequently sustain fragility fractures. Joint contractures, scoliosis, hip dysplasia, and metallic implants often prevent reliable measures of bone mineral density (BMD) in the proximal femur and lumbar spine, where BMD is commonly measured. Further, the relevance of lumbar spine BMD to fracture risk in this population is questionable. In an effort to obtain bone density measures that are both technically feasible and clinically relevant, a technique was developed involving dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures of the distal femur projected in the lateral plane. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that these new measures of BMD correlate with fractures in children with limited or no ability to ambulate. The relationship between distal femur BMD Z-scores and fracture history was assessed in a cross-sectional study of 619 children aged 6 to 18 years with muscular dystrophy or moderate to severe cerebral palsy compiled from eight centers. There was a strong correlation between fracture history and BMD Z-scores in the distal femur; 35% to 42% of those with BMD Z-scores less than −5 had fractured compared with 13% to 15% of those with BMD Z-scores greater than −1. Risk ratios were 1.06 to 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.04–1.22), meaning a 6% to 15% increased risk of fracture with each 1.0 decrease in BMD Z-score. In clinical practice, DXA measure of BMD in the distal femur is the technique of choice for the assessment of children with impaired mobility. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research PMID:19821773

  5. Microarchitecture Parameters Describe Bone Structure and Its Strength Better Than BMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Topoliński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Hypothesis. Some papers have shown that bone mineral density (BMD may not be accurate in predicting fracture risk. Recently microarchitecture parameters have been reported to give information on bone characteristics. The aim of this study was to find out if the values of volume, fractal dimension, and bone mineral density are correlated with bone strength. Methods. Forty-two human bone samples harvested during total hip replacement surgery were cut to cylindrical samples. The geometrical mesh of layers of bone mass obtained from microCT investigation and the volumes of each layer and fractal dimension were calculated. The finite element method was applied to calculate the compression force F causing ε=0.8% strain. Results. There were stronger correlations for microarchitecture parameters with strength than those for bone mineral density. The values of determination coefficient R2 for mean volume and force were 0.88 and 0.90 for mean fractal dimension and force, while for BMD and force the value was 0.53. The samples with bigger mean bone volume of layers and bigger mean fractal dimension of layers (more complex structure presented higher strength. Conclusion. The volumetric and fractal dimension parameters better describe bone structure and strength than BMD.

  6. High prevalence of simultaneous rib and vertebral fractures in patients with hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bong-Gun; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Kim, Dam; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Hunchul; Kim, Yeesuk

    2017-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the prevalence and location of simultaneous fracture using bone scans in patients with hip fracture and to determine the risk factors associated with simultaneous fracture. One hundred eighty two patients with hip fracture were reviewed for this study. Clinical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebra and femoral neck were investigated. To identify acute simultaneous fracture, a bone scan was performed at 15.4±4.1days after hip fracture. The prevalence and location of simultaneous fracture were evaluated, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors. Simultaneous fracture was observed in 102 of 182 patients, a prevalence of 56.0%. Rib fracture was the most common type of simultaneous fracture followed by rib with vertebral fracture. The BMD of the lumbar vertebra was significantly lower in patients with simultaneous fracture (p=0.044) and was identified as an independent risk factor (odds ratio: OR 0.05, 95% confidence interval: CI 0.01-0.57). The prevalence of simultaneous fracture was relatively high among patients with hip fracture, and BMD was significantly lower in patients with simultaneous fracture than in patients without it. Surgeons should be aware of the possibility of simultaneous fracture in patients with hip fracture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 2p, 4p, and 13q influence bone mineral density of the forearm and hip in Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Candace M; Schneider, Jennifer L; Cole, Shelley A; Hixson, James E; Samollow, Paul B; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Perez, Reina; Dyer, Thomas D; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Bauer, Richard L; Mitchell, Braxton D

    2003-12-01

    We performed a genome scan using BMD data of the forearm and hip on 664 individuals in 29 Mexican-American families. We obtained evidence for QTL on chromosome 4p, affecting forearm BMD overall, and on chromosomes 2p and 13q, affecting hip BMD in men. The San Antonio Family Osteoporosis Study (SAFOS) was designed to identify genes and environmental factors that influence bone mineral density (BMD) using data from large Mexican-American families. We performed a genome-wide linkage analysis using 416 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers spaced approximately 9.5 cM apart to locate and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect BMD of the forearm and hip. Multipoint variance components linkage analyses were done using data on all 664 subjects, as well as two subgroups of 259 men and 261 premenopausal women, from 29 families for which genotypic and phenotypic data were available. We obtained significant evidence for a QTL affecting forearm (radius midpoint) BMD in men and women combined on chromosome 4p near D4S2639 (maximum LOD = 4.33, genomic p = 0.006) and suggestive evidence for a QTL on chromosome 12q near locus D12S2070 (maximum conditional LOD = 2.35). We found suggestive evidence for a QTL influencing trochanter BMD on chromosome 6 (maximum LOD = 2.27), but no evidence for QTL affecting the femoral neck in men and women combined. In men, we obtained evidence for QTL affecting neck and trochanter BMD on chromosomes 2p near D2S1780 (maximum LOD = 3.98, genomic p = 0.013) and 13q near D13S788 (maximum LOD = 3.46, genomic p = 0.039), respectively. We found no evidence for QTL affecting forearm or hip BMD in premenopausal women. These results provide strong evidence that a QTL on chromosome 4p affects radius BMD in Mexican-American men and women, as well as evidence that QTL on chromosomes 2p and 13q affect hip BMD in men. Our results are consistent with some reports in humans and mice. J Bone Miner Res 2003;18:2245-2252

  8. Lumbar disc degeneration was not related to spine and hip bone mineral densities in Chinese: facet joint osteoarthritis may confound the association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jianjiang; Lu, Xuan; Yang, Ge; Han, Yongmei; Tong, Xiang; Wang, Yue

    2017-12-01

    A sample of 512 Chinese was studied and we observed that greater disc degeneration on MRI was associated with greater spine DXA BMD. Yet, this association may be confounded by facet joint osteoarthritis. BMD may not be a risk factor for lumbar disc degeneration in Chinese. Evidence suggested that lumbar vertebral bone and intervertebral disc interact with each other in multiple ways. The current paper aims to determine the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and lumbar disc degeneration using a sample of Chinese. We studied 165 patients with back disorders and 347 general subjects from China. All subjects had lumbar spine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and dual- energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) spine BMD studies, and a subset of general subjects had additional hip BMD measurements. On T2-weighted MR images, Pfirrmann score was used to evaluate the degree of lumbar disc degeneration and facet joint osteoarthritis was assessed as none, slight-moderate, and severe. Regression analyses were used to examine the associations between lumbar and hip BMD and disc degeneration, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), lumbar region, and facet joint osteoarthritis. Greater facet joint osteoarthritis was associated with greater spine BMD (P osteoarthritis entered the regression model, however, greater spine BMD was associated with greater facet joint osteoarthritis (P  0.05). No statistical association was observed between spine BMD and lumbar disc degeneration in patients with back disorders (P > 0.05), and between hip BMD and disc degeneration in general subjects (P > 0.05). BMD may not be a risk factor for lumbar disc degeneration in Chinese. Facet joint osteoarthritis inflates DXA spine BMD measurements and therefore, may confound the association between spine BMD and disc degeneration.

  9. Is BMD testing appropriate for all menopausal women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleerekoper, Michael; Nelson, Dorothy A

    2005-01-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force has provided an evidence-based guideline indicating that bone mineral density (BMD) testing is appropriate for all women aged 65 or older. This does not preclude BMD testing in younger postmenopausal women but places the onus on the treating physician to justify the procedure to the patient and often the patient's insurance carrier. There are very few circumstances in which BMD testing is appropriate for healthy premenopausal women, but BMD testing in younger postmenopausal women is often appropriate: when there is a family history of osteoporosis with fracture, a personal history of fracture as an adult, and a medical, surgical or therapeutic history that might be associated with accelerated bone loss or increased risk of fracture. Medical conditions include intestinal diseases associated with malabsorption, such as non-tropical sprue, or primary hyperparathyroidism. Women who have neurologic conditions that increase the risk of falling should also be tested. There are data to suggest that patients with hemoglobinopathy are at increased risk for osteoporosis. Surgical conditions include the increasingly performed surgery for obesity and other surgery resulting in bowel resection (e.g., for inflammatory bowel disease). The major medication-related concern is corticosteroid therapy, but chronic or over-treatment with thyroxine, and chronic heparin therapy, should also be considered risk factors for osteoporosis. When performing a BMD test for the first time, it is essential to remember that 50% of women at menopause will have a negative T-score, but this does not imply that the patient has indeed lost any bone from her peak bone mass.

  10. Anthropometric adjustments are helpful in the interpretation of BMD and BMC Z-scores of pediatric patients with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangartner, T N; Short, D F; Eldar-Geva, T; Hirsch, H J; Tiomkin, M; Zimran, A; Gross-Tsur, V

    2016-12-01

    Anthropometric adjustments of bone measurements are necessary in Prader-Willi syndrome patients to correctly assess the bone status of these patients. This enables physicians to get a more accurate diagnosis of normal versus abnormal bone, allow for early and effective intervention, and achieve better therapeutic results. Bone mineral density (BMD) is decreased in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Because of largely abnormal body height and weight, traditional BMD Z-scores may not provide accurate information in this patient group. The goal of the study was to assess a cohort of individuals with PWS and characterize the development of low bone density based on two adjustment models applied to a dataset of BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. Fifty-four individuals, aged 5-20 years with genetically confirmed PWS, underwent DXA scans of spine and hip. Thirty-one of them also underwent total body scans. Standard Z-scores were calculated for BMD and BMC of spine and total hip based on race, sex, and age for all patients, as well as of whole body and whole-body less head for those patients with total-body scans. Additional Z-scores were generated based on anthropometric adjustments using weight, height, and percentage body fat and a second model using only weight and height in addition to race, sex, and age. As many PWS patients have abnormal anthropometrics, addition of explanatory variables weight, height, and fat resulted in different bone classifications for many patients. Thus, 25-70 % of overweight patients, previously diagnosed as normal, were subsequently diagnosed as below normal, and 40-60 % of patients with below-normal body height changed from below normal to normal depending on bone parameter. This is the first study to include anthropometric adjustments into the interpretation of BMD and BMC in children and adolescents with PWS. This enables physicians to get a more accurate diagnosis of

  11. Sunlight exposure is important for preventing hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, J; Takeda, T; Matsumoto, H

    2012-04-01

    Hypovitaminosis D as a result of malnutrition or sunlight deprivation, increased bone resorption, low bone mineral density (BMD), or an increased risk of falls may contribute to an increased risk of hip fractures in patients with neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of sunlight exposure for reducing the risk of hip fractures in patients with such neurological diseases. The English literature was searched using PubMed, and randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of sunlight exposure for reducing the risk of hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke were identified. The relative risk and the 95% confidence interval were calculated for individual randomized controlled trials, and a pooled data analysis (meta-analysis) was performed. Three randomized controlled trials were identified. Sunlight exposure improved hypovitaminosis D and increased the BMD. The relative risk (95% confidence interval) of hip fractures was 0.22 (0.05, 1.01) for Alzheimer's disease, 0.27 (0.08, 0.96) for Parkinson's disease, and 0.17 (0.02, 1.36) for stroke. The relative risk (95% confidence interval) calculated for the pooled data analysis was 0.23 (0.10, 0.56) (P = 0.0012), suggesting a significant risk reduction rate of 77%. The present meta-analysis added additional evidence indicating the efficacy of sunlight exposure for reducing the risk of hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Effect of Teriparatide or Risedronate in Elderly Patients With a Recent Pertrochanteric Hip Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malouf-Sierra, Jorge; Tarantino, Umberto; Garcia-Hernandez, Pedro A.

    2017-01-01

    -dummy treatment plus calcium and vitamin D, followed by 52-week open-label treatment with the same assigned active drug. Primary endpoint was change from baseline in lumbar spine (LS) BMD at 78 weeks. Secondary and exploratory endpoints were change in BMD at the proximal femur, function, hip pain (Charnley score...

  13. Discrimination of hip fractures by quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges and the calcaneus and dual X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damilakis, John; Papadokostakis, George; Perisinakis, Kostas; Maris, Thomas; Dimitriou, P.; Hadjipavlou, Alexander; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the ability of different techniques used for the assessment of bone status to discriminate between postmenopausal women with and without hip fracture. Fifty-one postmenopausal women (mean age 64.5±6.5) who had sustained a low energy hip fracture and 51 age-matched controls (mean age 64.6±6.0) were studied. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) assessment was carried out using the Ubis 3000 device capable of measuring broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound at the calcaneus (SOS C ) and the Sunlight Omnisense device capable of estimating speed of sound at the phalanges (SOS P ). Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Correlations between QUS variables ranged from r=0.35 to 0.72 and between QUS variables and BMD from r=0.30 to 0.36. BMD was the best discriminator of hip fractures (odds ratio = 3.61, area under curve = 0.824). All QUS variables were significant discriminators of hip fractures with odds ratios ranging from 1.88 to 2.63 and areas under the ROC curves ranging from 0.663 to 0.740. Among the QUS variables, the SOS P showed the best odds ratio and area under curve. Comparison between the areas under the ROC curve did not show any significant difference between SOS P , BUA and BMD. On the contrary, the difference between SOS C and BMD was significant (P P , although the difference did not reach statistical significance

  14. Low bone mineral density is associated with reduced hip joint space width in women: results from the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Jensen, Trine W; Bach-Mortensen, Pernille

    2007-01-01

    inconclusive. The present cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between reduced bone mineral density (BMD), as a surrogate parameter of endogenous estrogen status assessed by digital x-ray radiogrammetry, and reduced minimum hip joint space width (JSW). DESIGN: Standardized hand radiographs...... of the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study cohort of 3,913 adults (1,470 male/2,443 female) with a mean age of 60 years (range, 18-92) were analyzed using X-Posure digital software, version 2.0 (Sectra-Pronosco). The system is operator independent. From 1,200 individual measurements per radiograph, mean BMD...... was calculated. Minimum hip JSW was assessed on standardized pelvic radiographs. RESULTS: Digital x-ray radiogrammetry BMD decreased in both men and women after the age of 45 years, progressively more so in women. Although minimum hip JSW in men remained relatively unaltered throughout life, a marked decline...

  15. Hip fracture discrimination by the Achilles Insight QUS imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damilakis, John; Papadokostakis, George; Perisinakis, Kostas; Maris, Thomas G.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of osteoporosis as a major health problem is well recognized. Its major clinical manifestation is low energy fractures. Considerable effort has been directed towards search of noninvasive methods for assessing osteoporotic fracture risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) variables measured by a new heel QUS imaging device to discriminate between postmenopausal women with and without hip fracture. The subjects included 30 postmenopausal female patients with hip fracture and 30 age-matched healthy women. Measurements were acquired using the Achilles Insight QUS imaging device. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were carried out using the Lunar Prodigy DXA scanner. Achilles Insight provides images of the heel bone and measures broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) values in a circular region of interest. A third QUS variable, the stiffness index (SI) was also determined. The short-term precision for healthy subjects was 2.05%, 0.17% and 1.91% for BUA, SOS and SI, respectively. Corresponding values for patients with fractures were 1.80%, 0.16% and 2.04%. All QUS variables measured using the Achilles Insight were significant discriminators of hip fractures (area under ROC curve = 0.77, 0.74 and 0.77 for BUA, SOS and SI, respectively). BMD measurements of the hip had the greatest discriminatory ability (area under ROC curve = 0.88). Statistically significant differences were found between the area under the ROC curve of BMD and the corresponding curves of the QUS variables (P < 0.05 for each of the three comparisons). QUS variables measured by Achilles Insight can be expected to be useful as indicators of the risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women

  16. Correlation of fracture index with BMD T score in postmenopausal females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, U.J.; Osman, S.S.; Moazam, S.; Shah, S.I.A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To find the correlation between fracture index and BMD T-score so that fracture index can be used as a predictive tool for fracture risk estimation in post menopausal females. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 396 women age 50 years and above. BMD T-score measurements using ultrasound and fracture index calculation based on the risk factor assessment were performed. Results: The study results showed that when fracture index increases BMD T-score decreased to osteoporotic range and correlation coefficient is -0.162. Conclusion: When fracture index increases, BMD T-score decreases therefore we can use fracture index as an assessment tool for predicting fracture risk in postmenopausal females. (author)

  17. Association between low lean mass and low bone mineral density in 653 women with hip fracture: does the definition of low lean mass matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Monaco, Marco; Castiglioni, Carlotta; Di Monaco, Roberto; Tappero, Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Loss of both muscle and bone mass results in fragility fractures with increased risk of disability, poor quality of life, and death. Our aim was to assess the association between low appendicular lean mass (aLM) defined according to different criteria and low bone mineral density (BMD) in hip-fracture women. Six hundred fifty-three women admitted to our rehabilitation hospital underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry 19.1 ± 4.1 (mean ± SD) days after hip-fracture occurrence. Low aLM was identified according to either Baumgartner's definition (aLM/height 2 less than two standard deviations below the mean of the young reference group) or FNIH criteria: aLM definition, the association between low aLM/height 2 and low BMD was significant: χ 2 (1, n = 653) = 8.52 (p = 0.004), but it was erased by adjustments for age and fat mass. Using the FNIH definition the association between low aLM and low BMD was significant: χ 2 (1, n = 653) = 42.5 (p definition based on aLM/BMI ratio the association between low aLM/BMI ratio and low BMD was nonsignificant: χ 2 (1, n = 653) = 0.003 (p = 0.957). The association between low aLM and low BMD in women with hip fracture dramatically depends on the adopted definition of low aLM. FNIH threshold for aLM (<15.02 kg) emerges as a useful tool to capture women with damage of the muscle-bone unit.

  18. Increasing incidence of hip fracture in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtriratanachai, Prasit; Luevitoonvechkij, Sirichai; Songpatanasilp, Thawee; Sribunditkul, Siripoj; Leerapun, Taninnit; Phadungkiat, Sompant; Rojanasthien, Sattaya

    2013-01-01

    Hip fracture is a major health problem in Thailand. This study attempted to examine the incidence, related factors, and trends of hip fracture in Chiang Mai, Thailand. All hip fracture data among patients aged 50 yr or older were collected from hospitals in Chiang Mai, Thailand from August 1, 2006 to July 3, 2007. Data from the 1997 Chiang Mai hip fracture study were used for comparison. In the study period, 690 hip fractures were reported: 203 males and 487 females (male to female ratio was 1 to 2.4), with a mean age of 76.7 yr. The estimated cumulative incidence was 181.0 per 100,000, and the adjusted incidence was 253.3 (males: 135.9; females: 367.9). A simple fall was the most common mechanism (79%) of fracture, and 80% of the hip fractures occurred in patients aged 70 yr or older. The highest incidence of hip fracture was observed in patients older than 85 yr (1239). At 6 mo postfracture, most patients (61%) used a walking aid. Compared with the 1997 data, hip fracture incidence had increased by an average of 2% per yr, and the incidence of hip fracture had increased significantly from August 1, 2006 to July 31, 2007, especially in patients older than 75 yr. In patients older than 84 yr, the incidence increased by a factor of 2. Urgent strategies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, and hence hip fracture, are needed. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Celiac disease is associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased FRAX scores in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamycheva, E; Goto, T; Camargo, C A

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the association between celiac disease (CD) and bone mass density (BMD) and risk of osteoporotic fractures in the general US population. In children and men ≥18 years, CD was associated with reduced BMD, and in men ≥40 years, CD was associated with increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune condition, characterized by inflammation of the small intestine. CD has an increasing prevalence, and if unrecognized or untreated, CD can lead to complications from malabsorption and micronutrient deficiencies. We aimed to study whether CD is an independent predictor of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and FRAX scores in the general US population. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2010 and 2013-2014. CD was defined by positive tissue transglutaminase IgA antibody test. Multivariable models of BMD and FRAX scores were adjusted for BMI, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D and calcium supplements, milk intake, serum calcium, and smoking status, when available. In children, aged 8-17 years, CD was associated with decreased Z-scores, by 0.85 for hip and 0.46 for spine (both P hip and with 0.11 g/cm 2 decrease in BMD in spine (P = 0.08 and P hip fracture and by 2.43 % (P = 0.05) for major osteoporotic fracture. CD did not predict FRAX scores in women aged ≥40 years. CD is independently associated with reduced BMD in children and adults aged ≥18 years and is an independent risk factor of osteoporotic fractures in men aged ≥40 years.

  20. Reliability of using DXA around RTHAs. Bone Mineral Density of the femoral neck in resurfacing hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Brixen, Kim

    2010-01-01

      Background and purpose: Resurfacing Total Hip Arthroplasty (RTHA) may preserve the femoral neck bone-stock post-operatively. Bone Mineral Density (BMD), could theoretically be affected by the hip-position, and bias longitudinal studies. We aimed to investigate BMD precision dependency on type...... was rotated in increments of 15° and 30°, the mean CVs rose to 7.2%, 7.3% and 11.8%.  Rotation affected the precision most in the model that divided the neck in 6 sub regions, predominantly in the lateral and distal regions. For larger-region models, some rotation could be allowed without compromising...

  1. The role of hip and chest radiographs in osteoporotic evaluation among south Indian women population: a comparative scenario with DXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D Ashok; Anburajan, M

    2014-05-01

    Osteoporosis is recognized as a worldwide skeletal disorder problem. In India, the older as well as postmenopausal women population suffering from osteoporotic fractures has been a common issue. Bone mineral density measurements gauged by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are used in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. (1) To evaluate osteoporosis in south Indian women by radiogrammetric method in a comparative perspective with DXA. (2) To assess the capability of KJH; Anburajan's Empirical formula in the prediction of total hip bone mineral density (T.BMD) with estimated Hologic T.BMD. In this cross-sectional design, 56 south Indian women were evaluated. These women were randomly selected from a health camp. The patients with secondary bone diseases were excluded. The standard protocol was followed in acquiring BMD of the right proximal femur by DPX Prodigy (DXA Scanner, GE-Lunar Corp., USA). The measured Lunar Total hip BMD was converted into estimated Hologic Total hip BMD. In addition, the studied population underwent chest and hip radiographic measurements. Combined cortical thickness of clavicle has been used in KJH; Anburajan's Empirical formula to predict T.BMD and compared with estimated Hologic T.BMD by DXA. The correlation coefficients exhibited high significance. The combined cortical thickness of clavicle and femur shaft of total studied population was strongly correlated with DXA femur T.BMD measurements (r = 0.87, P < 0.01 and r = 0.45, P < 0.01) and it is also having strong correlation with low bone mass group (r = 0.87, P < 0.01 and r = 0.67, P < 0.01) KJH; Anburajan's Empirical formula shows significant correlation with estimated Hologic T.BMD (r = 0.88, P < 0.01) in total studied population. The empirical formula was identified as better tool for predicting osteoporosis in total population and old-aged population with a sensitivity (88.8 and 95.6 %), specificity (89.6 and 90.9 %), positive predictive value (88.8 and 95.6 %) and negative

  2. A frequent regulatory variant of the estrogen-related receptor alpha gene associated with BMD in French-Canadian premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, Nathalie; Giroux, Sylvie; Loredo-Osti, J Concepción; Elfassihi, Latifa; Dodin, Sylvie; Blanchet, Claudine; Morgan, Kenneth; Giguère, Vincent; Rousseau, François

    2005-06-01

    Genes are important BMD determinants. We studied the association of an ESRRA gene functional variant with BMD in 1335 premenopausal women. The ESRRA genotype was an independent predictor of L2-L4 BMD, with an effect similar to smoking and equivalent to a 10-kg difference in weight. Several genetic polymorphisms have been associated with osteoporosis or osteoporosis fractures, but no functional effect has been shown for most of these gene variants. Because functional studies have implicated estrogen-related receptor alpha (ESRRA) in bone metabolism, we evaluated whether a recently described regulatory variant of the ESRRA gene is associated with lumbar and hip BMD as measured by DXA and with heel bone parameters as measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Heel bone parameters were measured by right calcaneal QUS in 1335 healthy French-Canadian premenopausal women, and one-half of these women also had their BMD evaluated at two sites: femoral neck and lumbar spine (L2-L4) by DXA. All bone measures were tested separately for association with the ESRRA genotype by analysis of covariance. The significance of the ESRRA contribution to the model was also assessed by two different permutation tests. A statistically significant association between ESRRA genotype and lumbar spine BMD was observed: women carrying the long ESRRA genotype had a 3.9% (0.045 g/cm2) higher lumbar spine BMD than those carrying the short ESRRA genotype (p = 0.004), independently of other risk factors measured. This effect of ESRRA genotype is similar to the effect of smoking and equivalent to a 10-kg difference in weight. This association was confirmed by permutation tests (p = 0.004). The same trend was observed for femoral neck BMD (2.6%, p = 0.07). However, no association was observed between ESRRA and QUS heel bone measures. These results support the genetic influence of this ESRRA regulatory variant on BMD.

  3. Gradually increasing ethinyl estradiol for Turner syndrome may produce good final height but not ideal BMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Ariyasu, Daisuke; Izawa, Masako; Igaki-Miyamoto, Junko; Fukuma, Mami; Hatano, Megumi; Yagi, Hiroko; Goto, Masahiro

    2017-02-27

    Estrogen replacement therapy in Turner syndrome should theoretically mimic the physiology of healthy girls. The objective of this study was to describe final height and bone mineral density (BMD) in a group of 17 Turner syndrome patients (group E) who started their ethinyl estradiol therapy with an ultra-low dosage (1-5 ng/kg/day) from 9.8-13.7 years. The subjects in group E had been treated with GH 0.35 mg/kg/week since the average age of 7.4 years. The 30 subjects in group L, one of the historical groups, were given comparable doses of GH, and conjugated estrogen 0.3125 mg/week ∼0.3125 mg/day was initiated at 12.2-18.7 years. The subjects in group S, the other historical group, were 21 patients who experienced breast development and menarche spontaneously. Final height (height gain Turner syndrome. The final height in group L was 148.5 ± 3.0 cm with a SD of 1.30 ± 0.55, which was significantly different from the values for group E. The volumetric BMD of group S (0.290 ± 0.026 g/cm 3 ) was significantly different from that of group L or E (0.262 or 0.262 g/cm 3 as a mean, respectively). This is the first study of patients with Turner syndrome where estrogen was administered initially in an ultra-low dose and then increased gradually. Our estrogen therapy in group E produced good final height but not ideal BMD.

  4. A method for assessment of the shape of the proximal femur and its relationship to osteoporotic hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, J S; Testi, D; Stewart, A; Undrill, P E; Reid, D M; Aspden, R M

    2004-01-01

    The shape of the proximal femur has been demonstrated to be important in the occurrence of fractures of the femoral neck. Unfortunately, multiple geometric measurements frequently used to describe this shape are highly correlated. A new method, active shape modeling (ASM) has been developed to quantify the morphology of the femur. This describes the shape in terms of orthogonal modes of variation that, consequently, are all independent. To test this method, digitized standard pelvic radiographs were obtained from 26 women who had suffered a hip fracture and compared with images from 24 age-matched controls with no fracture. All subjects also had their bone mineral density (BMD) measured at five sites using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. An ASM was developed and principal components analysis used to identify the modes which best described the shape. Discriminant analysis was used to determine which variable, or combination of variables, was best able to discriminate between the groups. ASM alone correctly identified 74% of the individuals and placed them in the appropriate group. Only one of the BMD values (Ward's triangle) achieved a higher value (82%). A combination of Ward's triangle BMD and ASM improved the accuracy to 90%. Geometric variables used in this study were weaker, correctly classifying less than 60% of the study group. Logistic regression showed that after adjustment for age, body mass index, and BMD, the ASM data was still independently associated with hip fracture (odds ratio (OR)=1.83, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 3.11). The odds ratio was calculated relative to a 10% increase in the probability of belonging to the fracture group. Though these initial results were obtained from a limited data set, this study shows that ASM may be a powerful method to help identify individuals at risk of a hip fracture in the future.

  5. Antifracture efficacy and reduction of mortality in relation to timing of the first dose of zoledronic acid after hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Erik Fink; Lyles, Kenneth W; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S

    2009-01-01

    undergone surgical repair of hip fracture. In this analysis, we examined whether timing of the first infusion of zoledronic acid study drug after hip fracture repair influenced the antifracture efficacy and mortality benefit observed in the study. A total of 2127 patients (1065 on active treatment and 1062...... was approximately 6 wk. Posthoc analyses were performed by dividing the study population into 2-wk intervals (calculated from time of first infusion in relation to surgical repair) to examine effects on BMD, fracture, and mortality. Analysis by 2-wk intervals showed a significant total hip BMD response......Annual infusions of zoledronic acid (5 mg) significantly reduced the risk of vertebral, hip, and nonvertebral fractures in a study of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and significantly reduced clinical fractures and all-cause mortality in another study of women and men who had recently...

  6. Study on the changes of serum levels of PINP, ICTP and 25-OH-VitD3 in pre-menopausal women and their relationship with BMD changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinshan; Luo Liangping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum levels of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), pyridinoline cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and 25-OH-VitD 3 in premenopausal women and their relationship with changes of bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: BMD (at L 1 -L 4 and hip region) was examined with dual energy X-ray absorptiometer (DEXA) and serum levels of PINP, ICTP, 25-OH-VitD 3 were determined with RIA in 67 pre-menopausal women. Results: (1) Of the 67 women tested, 19 (28.4%) were found to be with low BMD. The mean BMD values in this group were significantly lower than those in the other 48 women. (2) The serum levels of PINP and ICTP in the 19 women with lower BMD (56.9±18.2 μg/L and 3.78±0.83 μg/L respectively) were much higher than those in the other 48 women (43.8±15.1 μg/L and 3.45±0.98 μg/L respectively, for PINP, P 0.05). The serum 25-OH-VitD 3 levels in the two groups of pre-menopausal women were not significantly different (25.6±7.8 ng/ml vs 27.4±9.2 ng/ml, P>0.05). (3) PINP levels were positively correlated with BMD values (r=0.274∼0.402, P 3 levels were not significantly correlated with BMD levels (r=-0.226∼0.083, P>0.05). PINP levels were weakly positively correlated with 25-OH-VitD 3 levels (r=0.395, P<0.05). Conclusion: There was tendency of increasing rate of bone turnover in pre-menopausal women, which might lead to development of osteoporosis. Early detection with BMD and serum markers of bone resorption (e.q. ICTP) measurement would be highly valuable for implement of prophylactic measures. (authors)

  7. The characteristic of rBMD distribution in lumbar vertebral body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chenguang; Xiao Xiangsheng; Chen Xingrong; Shen Tianzhen; Liu Guanghua; Hong Qingjian; Ji Rongming; Zhou Weiming

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the distribution and variation of rBMD in human lumbar vertebral body. Methods: The BMD and rBMD of 28 samples of lumbar body were measured with QCT. The rBMD was measured in the regions of anterior, anterolateral, posterolateral and central, superior-level, middle-level and inferior-level of the vertebral bodies. The relationship between BMD and rBMD were statistically analysed with multiple regression. Results: The rBMD of the inferior vertebral body was higher than that of the superior and middle portions (P<0.05); the central and posterolateral higher than the anterior and anterolateral (P<0.05). The rBMD of posterioinferior vertebral body was the highest. The multiple regression showed that the standard partial regression coefficient of inferior was larger than the superior and middle; the anterior and central were larger than the other regions of the vertebra. Variations of the BMD of vertebral body were mostly related to the rBMD of anterior and central parts. Conclusion: The distribution of BMD are heterogeneous in vertebral body. The anterior and central part of vertebral body are most sensitive to bone loss in osteoporosis. It is emphasized that the rBMD of anterior and central part of vertebral body should be measured for following the osteoporosis

  8. Decrease in local volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in osteoarthritic joints is associated with the increase in cartilage damage: a pQCT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaddon, Maryam; Chen, Shen Mao; Vanaclocha, Leyre; Hart, Alister; El-Husseiny, Moataz; Henckel, Johann; Liu, Chaozong

    2017-11-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis and a major cause of disability in the adult population. It affects both cartilage and subchondral bone in the joints. There has been some progress in understanding the changes in subchondral bone with progression of osteoarthritis. However, local changes in subchondral bone such as microstructure or volumetric bone mineral density in connection with the defect in cartilage are relatively unexplored. To develop an effective treatment for progression of OA, it is important to understand how the physical environment provided by the subchondral bone affects the overlying cartilage. In this study we examined the volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) distribution in the osteoarthritic joint tissues obtained from total hip replacement surgeries due to osteoarthritis, using peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT). It was found that there is a significant decrease in volumetric bone mineral density, which co-localises with the damage in the overlying cartilage. This was not limited to the subchondral bone immediately adjacent to the cartilage defect but continued in the layers below. Bone resorption and cyst formation in the OA tissues were also detected. We observed that the bone surrounding subchondral bone cysts exhibited much higher volumetric bone mineral density than that of the surrounding bones. PQCT was able to detect significant changes in vBMD between OA and non-OA samples, as well as between areas of different cartilage degeneration, which points to its potential as a technique for detection of early OA.

  9. Bone remodelling of the proximal femur after total hip arthroplasty with 2 different hip implant designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Janus D.; Laursen, Mogens B; Ejaz, Ashir

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The thrust plate prosthesis (TPP) was introduced to preserve bone in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. We assessed the long-term results of hip arthroplasty in patients who received the TPP compared to a traditional intramedullary stem (Bi-Metric). METHODS......: In this prospective observational cohort study, we evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), radiological imaging and clinical outcome using Harris Hip Score (HHS). Twenty patients received the TPP (group A) and 18 patients received the Bi-Metric stem (group B). Baseline......% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4-16; p = 0.003) and 8% (95% CI, 1-15; p = 0.03) at 8 years. Regarding ROI4, group A had a lesser decrease in general compared to group B. The radiological findings did not reveal any subsidence or detectable implant migration. HHS improved from 53 (23-69) to 93 (55...

  10. Diabetes and change in bone mineral density at the hip, calcaneus, spine, and radius in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann V. Schwartz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Older women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM have higher bone mineral density (BMD but also have higher rates of fracture compared to those without DM. Limited evidence suggests that DM may also be associated with more rapid bone loss. To determine if bone loss rates differ by DM status in older women, we analyzed BMD data in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF between 1986 and 1998. SOF participants were women >65 years at baseline who were recruited from four regions in the U.S. DM was ascertained by self-report. BMD was measured with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA at baseline and at least one follow-up visit at the hip (N=6624 and calcaneus (N=6700 and, on a subset of women, at the spine (N=396 and distal radius (N=306. Annualized percent change in BMD was compared by DM status, using random effects models. Of 6,867 women with at least one follow-up DXA scan, 409 had DM at baseline. Mean age was 70.8 (SD 4.7 years. Baseline BMD was higher in women with DM at all measured sites. In models adjusted for age and clinic, women with prevalent DM lost bone more rapidly than those without DM at the femoral neck (-0.96% vs. -0.59% per year, p < 0.001, total hip (-0.98% vs. -0.70% per year, p<0.001, calcaneus (-1.64% vs. -1.40% per year, p=0.005, and spine (-0.33% vs. +0.33% per year, p=0.033, but not at the distal radius (-0.97% vs. -0.90% per year, p=0.91. These findings suggest that despite higher baseline BMD, older women with DM experience more rapid bone loss than those without DM at the hip, spine and calcaneus, but not the radius. Higher rates of bone loss may partially explain higher fracture rates in older women with DM.

  11. A study on the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by life habit and physical condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Geun [Woosuk University Oriental Medical Hospital, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To evaluate the correlation between BMD and life habit such as drinking exercise smoking or physical condition such as age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI). I evaluated the BMD of the femoral neck and L2-L4 spines of 321 persons who took a regular health screening in Woosuk university oriental medical hospital from February to April in 2006 by dual energy bone mineral densitometry. The age of persons ranged from 20 years to 75 years (mean 45.10 {+-} 11.54) and there were 160 males and 161 females. In males, BMD of the femoral head was highest at 2nd decade, BMD of the spine was highest at 4th decade, and BMD of both femoral head and lumbar spine was lowest at 6th decade. In fenales, BMD of both femoral head and lumbar spine was highest at 4th decade and lowest at 6th decade. Among the various physical conditions, only height of persons showed significant correlation with BMD in both males and females, BMD was increased according to increasing height. In males, BMD of persons who had habit such as drinking, exercise or smoking did not show significant change statistically. But in females, drinking group showed high BMD relative to non-drinking group in both femoral head and lumbar spine. BMD was different according to age, sex, height and life habit. Especially aged people showed osteoporotic change progressively. More persistent effort is needed to find out the factors decreasing BMD for prevention of problems by osteoporosis.

  12. A study on the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by life habit and physical condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Geun

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between BMD and life habit such as drinking exercise smoking or physical condition such as age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI). I evaluated the BMD of the femoral neck and L2-L4 spines of 321 persons who took a regular health screening in Woosuk university oriental medical hospital from February to April in 2006 by dual energy bone mineral densitometry. The age of persons ranged from 20 years to 75 years (mean 45.10 ± 11.54) and there were 160 males and 161 females. In males, BMD of the femoral head was highest at 2nd decade, BMD of the spine was highest at 4th decade, and BMD of both femoral head and lumbar spine was lowest at 6th decade. In fenales, BMD of both femoral head and lumbar spine was highest at 4th decade and lowest at 6th decade. Among the various physical conditions, only height of persons showed significant correlation with BMD in both males and females, BMD was increased according to increasing height. In males, BMD of persons who had habit such as drinking, exercise or smoking did not show significant change statistically. But in females, drinking group showed high BMD relative to non-drinking group in both femoral head and lumbar spine. BMD was different according to age, sex, height and life habit. Especially aged people showed osteoporotic change progressively. More persistent effort is needed to find out the factors decreasing BMD for prevention of problems by osteoporosis

  13. Correlation between Parameters of Calcaneal Quantitative Ultrasound and Hip Structural Analysis in Osteoporotic Fracture Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS, which is used in the evaluation of osteoporosis, is believed to be intimately associated with the characteristics of the proximal femur. However, the specific associations of calcaneal QUS with characteristics of the hip sub-regions remain unclear.A cross-sectional assessment of 53 osteoporotic patients was performed for the skeletal status of the heel and hip.We prospectively enrolled 53 female osteoporotic patients with femoral fractures. Calcaneal QUS, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, and hip structural analysis (HSA were performed for each patient. Femoral heads were obtained during the surgery, and principal compressive trabeculae (PCT were extracted by a three-dimensional printing technique-assisted method. Pearson's correlation between QUS measurement with DXA, HSA-derived parameters and Young's modulus were calculated in order to evaluate the specific association of QUS with the parameters for the hip sub-regions, including the femoral neck, trochanteric and Ward's areas, and the femoral shaft, respectively.Significant correlations were found between estimated BMD (Est.BMD and BMD of different sub-regions of proximal femur. However, the correlation coefficient of trochanteric area (r = 0.356, p = 0.009 was higher than that of the neck area (r = 0.297, p = 0.031 and total proximal femur (r = 0.291, p = 0.034. Furthermore, the quantitative ultrasound index (QUI was significantly correlated with the HSA-derived parameters of the trochanteric area (r value: 0.315-0.356, all p<0.05 as well as with the Young's modulus of PCT from the femoral head (r = 0.589, p<0.001.The calcaneal bone had an intimate association with the trochanteric cancellous bone. To a certain extent, the parameters of the calcaneal QUS can reflect the characteristics of the trochanteric area of the proximal hip, although not specifically reflective of those of the femoral neck or shaft.

  14. Reproducibility of central lumbar vertebral BMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, F.; Pocock, N.; Griffiths, M.; Majerovic, Y.; Freund, J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Lumbar vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has generally been calculated from a region of interest which includes the entire vertebral body. Although this region excludes part of the transverse processes, it does include the outer cortical shell of the vertebra. Recent software has been devised to calculate BMD in a central vertebral region of interest which excludes the outer cortical envelope. Theoretically this area may be more sensitive to detecting osteoporosis which affects trabecular bone to a greater extent than cortical bone. Apart from the sensitivity of BMD estimation, the reproducibility of any measurement is important owing to the slow rate of change of bone mass. We have evaluated the reproducibility of this new vertebral region of interest in 23 women who had duplicate lumbar spine DXA scans performed on the same day. The patients were repositioned between each measurement. Central vertebral analysis was performed for L2-L4 and the reproducibility of area, bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD calculated as the coefficient of variation; these values were compared with those from conventional analysis. Thus we have shown that the reproducibility of the central BMD is comparable to the conventional analysis which is essential if this technique is to provide any additional clinical data. The reasons for the decrease in reproducibility of the area and hence BMC requires further investigation

  15. Increased migration of uncemented acetabular cups in female total hip arthroplasty patients with low systemic bone mineral density. A 2-year RSA and 8-year radiographic follow-up study of 34 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnilä, Sami; Moritz, Niko; SvedströM, Erkki; Alm, Jessica J; Aro, Hannu T

    2016-02-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) may jeopardize the initial component stability and delay osseointegration of uncemented acetabular cups in total hip arthroplasty (THA). We measured the migration of uncemented cups in women with low or normal BMD. We used radiostereometric analysis (RSA) to measure the migration of hydroxyapatite-coated titanium alloy cups with alumina-on-alumina bearings in THA of 34 female patients with a median age of 64 (41-78) years. 10 patients had normal BMD and 24 patients had low systemic BMD (T-score ≤ -1) based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Cup migration was followed with RSA for 2 years. Radiographic follow-up was done at a median of 8 (2-10) years. Patients with normal BMD did not show a statistically significant cup migration after the settling period of 3 months, while patients with low BMD had a continuous proximal migration between 3 and 12 months (p = 0.03). These differences in cup migration persisted at 24 months. Based on the perceived risk of cup revision, 14 of the 24 cases were "at risk" (proximal translation of 0.2 to 1.0 mm) in the low-BMD group and 2 of the 10 cases were "at risk" in the normal-BMD group (odds ratio (OR) = 8.0, 95% CI: 1.3-48). The radiographic follow-up showed no radiolucent lines or osteolysis. 2 cups have been revised for fractures of the ceramic bearings, but none for loosening. Low BMD contributed to cup migration beyond the settling period of 3 months, but the migrating cups appeared to osseointegrate eventually.

  16. Evaluation of Cerebral Cortex Function in Clients with Bipolar Mood Disorder I (BMD I Compared With BMD II Using QEEG Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khaleghi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Early diagnosis of type I and type II bipolar mood disorder is very challenging particularly in adolescence. Hence, we aimed to investigate the cerebral cortex function in these patients, using quantitative electroencephalography analysis to obtain significant differences between them.Methods: Thirty- eight adolescents (18 patients with bipolar disorder I and 20 with BMD II participated in this study. We recorded the electroencephalogram signals based on 10-20 international system by 21 electrodes in eyes open and eyes closed condition resting conditions. Forty seconds segments were selected from each recorded signals with minimal noise and artifacts. Periodogram Welch was used to estimate power spectrum density from each segment. Analysis was performed in five frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma, and we assessed power, mean, entropy, variance and skewness of the spectrums, as well as mean of the thresholded spectrum and thresholded spectrogram. We only used focal montage for comparison. Eventually, data were analyzed by independent Mann-Whitney test and independent t test.Results: We observed significant differences in some brain regions and in all frequency bands. There were significant differences in prefrontal lobe, central lobe, left parietal lobe, occipital lobe and temporal lobe between BMD I and BMD II (P < 0.05. In patients with BMD I, spectral entropy was compared to patients with BMD II. The most significant difference was observed in the gamma frequency band. Also, the power and entropy of delta frequency band was larger in the left parietal lobe in the BMD I patients compared to BMD II patients (P < 0.05. In the temporal lobe, significant differences were observed in the spectrum distribution of beta and gamma frequency bands (P < 0.05.Conclusion: The QEEG and entropy measure are simple and available tools to help detect cerebral cortex deficits and distinguish BMD I from BMD II.

  17. Bone mineral density at the hip predicts mortality in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, D P; Khaw, K T

    2001-01-01

    Low bone density as assessed by calcaneal ultrasound has been associated with mortality in elderly men and women. We examined the relationship between bone density measured at the hip and all cause and cardiovascular mortality in elderly men. Men aged 65-76 years from the general community were recruited from general practices in Cambridge between 1991 and 1995. At baseline survey, data collection included health questionnaires, measures of anthropometry and cardiovascular risk factors, as well as bone mineral density (BMD) measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. All men have been followed up for vital status up to December 1999. BMD was significantly inversely related to mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease, with decreasing rates with increasing bone density quartile, and an approximate halving of risk between the bottom and top quartile (p risk (95% CI 0.66-0.91) for all-cause mortality and 0.76 relative risk (95% CI 0.62-0.93) for cardiovascular disease mortality. The association remained significant after adjusting for age, body mass index, cigarette smoking status, serum cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, past history of heart attack, stroke or cancer and other lifestyle factors which included use of alcohol, physical activity and general health status. Low bone density at the hip is thus a strong and independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in older men.

  18. Data Mining Activity for Bone Discipline: Calculating a Factor of Risk for Hip Fracture in Long-Duration Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, R.; Sibonga, J. D.; Bouxsein, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The factor-of-risk (Phi), defined as the ratio of applied load to bone strength, is a biomechanical approach to hip fracture risk assessment that may be used to identify subjects who are at increased risk for fracture. The purpose of this project was to calculate the factor of risk in long duration astronauts after return from a mission on the International Space Station (ISS), which is typically 6 months in duration. The load applied to the hip was calculated for a sideways fall from standing height based on the individual height and weight of the astronauts. The soft tissue thickness overlying the greater trochanter was measured from the DXA whole body scans and used to estimate attenuation of the impact force provided by soft tissues overlying the hip. Femoral strength was estimated from femoral areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which were performed between 5-32 days of landing. All long-duration NASA astronauts from Expedition 1 to 18 were included in this study, where repeat flyers were treated as separate subjects. Male astronauts (n=20) had a significantly higher factor of risk for hip fracture Phi than females (n=5), with preflight values of 0.83+/-0.11 and 0.36+/-0.07, respectively, but there was no significant difference between preflight and postflight Phi (Figure 1). Femoral aBMD measurements were not found to be significantly different between men and women. Three men and no women exceeded the theoretical fracture threshold of Phi=1 immediately postflight, indicating that they would likely suffer a hip fracture if they were to experience a sideways fall with impact to the greater trochanter. These data suggest that male astronauts may be at greater risk for hip fracture than women following spaceflight, primarily due to relatively less soft tissue thickness and subsequently greater impact force.

  19. Bone mineral density measurement over the shoulder region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, A M; Faber, J; Lynnerup, N

    2002-01-01

    values decreased with age (P shoulder BMD levels increased significantly with increased body mass index (BMI) (P positive relationship between the increased hip/shoulder BMD differential with BMI supports the conclusion that the shoulder is subject......The purpose of this study was to (1). establish a method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) over the shoulder region; (2). compare the relationship between shoulder BMD levels with hip BMD and body mass index (BMI); and (3). discuss the relevance of the shoulder scan as an early indicator...... of osteoporosis compared with hip scans, the latter representing a weight-bearing part of the skeleton. We developed a scanning procedure, including a shoulder fixation device, and determined the most appropriate software in order to establish a reference material with the highest possible precision. Duplicate...

  20. The Relationship between Cortisol and Bone Mineral Density in Competitive Male Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L. Mathis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether race day cortisol was related to bone mineral density (BMD in competitive male cyclists. A secondary purpose was to determine additional factors associated with BMD in competitive male cyclists. Methods. Measurements of lumbar spine and hip BMD were performed in 35 male competitors in a state championship cycling time trial event. Salivary cortisol was measured 10 minutes prior to the start of the race and 5 minutes after race finished. Participants reported daily calcium intake, age, years of bike training, races per season, and average weekly minutes spent riding a bike, weight training, and running on a survey. Results. Cortisol level increased significantly from pre- to postcompetition but was not significantly associated with BMD. Increased weekly minutes of weight training was associated with higher BMD of the lumbar spine and the hip. The increased number of years of cycling experience was associated with lower BMD of the femoral neck. Increased daily calcium intake was associated with higher BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Conclusions. Findings indicate that cyclists should participate in weight training and increase calcium intake in order to increase or maintain BMD of the lumbar spine and hip.

  1. Odds ratios for hip- and lower forearm fracture using peripheral bone densitometry; a case-control study of postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, M M A; Jørgensen, H L; Lauritzen, J B

    2002-01-01

    concern when using peripheral densitometry is the poor correlation with the central measurements. The main aim of this study is, therefore, to assess the possibility of expressing ultrasound measurements at the heel and bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the distal forearm as fracture odds ratios...... rather than an absolute measure of bone mass. METHODS: A total of 76 women with lower forearm fracture, 47 women with hip fracture and 231 age-matched women (controls) were included. All had broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) measured at the heel using the DTU-one ultrasound.......8; 5.2) for heel-BUA (T-score cutoff: -2.3), 4.1 (2.3; 7.4) for heel-SOS (-2.1) and 2.2 (1.3; 3.7) for lower forearm BMD (-2.7). The odds ratio for hip fracture was 3.4 (1.5-7.7) for heel-BUA (-2.7), 3.6 (1.6; 8.1) for heel-SOS (-2.6) and 3.2 (1.4; 7.4) for lower forearm BMD (-2.9). CONCLUSION...

  2. The influences of bowel condition with lumbar spine BMD measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon; Lee, Hoo Min; Lee, Jung Min; Kwon, Soon Mu; Cho, Hyung Wook [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Min; Kang, Yeong Han; Kim, Boo Soon; Kim, Jung Soo [Dept. of Diagonostic Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Bone density measurement use of diagnosis of osteoporosis and it is an important indicator for treatment as well as prevention. But errors in degree of precision of BMD can be occurred by status of patient, bone densitometer and radiological technologist. Therefore the author evaluated that how BMD changes according to the condition of the patient. As Lumbar region, which could lead to substantial effects on bone density by diverse factors such as the water, food, intentional bowels. We recognized a change of bone mineral density in accordance with the height of the water tank and in the presence or absence of the gas using the Aluminum Spine Phantom. We also figured out the influence of bone mineral density by increasing the water and food into a target on the volunteers. Measured bone mineral density through Aluminum Spine Phantom had statistically significant difference accordance with increasing the height of water tank(p=0.026). There was no significant difference in BMD according to the existence of the bowl gas(p=0.587). There was no significant difference in a study of six people targeted volunteers in the presence or absence of the food(p=0.812). And also there was no significant difference according to the existence of water(p=0.618). If it is not difficult to recognize the surround of bone in measuring BMD of lumbar bone, it is not the factor which has the great effect on bone mineral density whether the test is after endoscopic examination of large intestine and patient’s fast or not.

  3. The influences of bowel condition with lumbar spine BMD measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Joon; Lee, Hoo Min; Lee, Jung Min; Kwon, Soon Mu; Cho, Hyung Wook; Kim, Yun Min; Kang, Yeong Han; Kim, Boo Soon; Kim, Jung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Bone density measurement use of diagnosis of osteoporosis and it is an important indicator for treatment as well as prevention. But errors in degree of precision of BMD can be occurred by status of patient, bone densitometer and radiological technologist. Therefore the author evaluated that how BMD changes according to the condition of the patient. As Lumbar region, which could lead to substantial effects on bone density by diverse factors such as the water, food, intentional bowels. We recognized a change of bone mineral density in accordance with the height of the water tank and in the presence or absence of the gas using the Aluminum Spine Phantom. We also figured out the influence of bone mineral density by increasing the water and food into a target on the volunteers. Measured bone mineral density through Aluminum Spine Phantom had statistically significant difference accordance with increasing the height of water tank(p=0.026). There was no significant difference in BMD according to the existence of the bowl gas(p=0.587). There was no significant difference in a study of six people targeted volunteers in the presence or absence of the food(p=0.812). And also there was no significant difference according to the existence of water(p=0.618). If it is not difficult to recognize the surround of bone in measuring BMD of lumbar bone, it is not the factor which has the great effect on bone mineral density whether the test is after endoscopic examination of large intestine and patient’s fast or not

  4. [Analysis of correlation between trabecular microstructure and clinical imaging parameters in fracture region of osteoporotic hip].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jing; Zhou, Yong; Min, Li; Zhang, Wenli; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Xuelei; Zou, Chang; Shi, Rui; Tu, Chongqi

    2014-05-01

    To analyze the correlation between the trabecular microstructure and the clinical imaging parameters in the fracture region of osteoporotic hip so as to provide a simple method to evaluate the trabecular microstructure by a non-invasive way. Between June 2012 and January 2013, 16 elderly patients with femoral neck fracture underwent hip arthroplasty were selected as the trial group; 5 young patients with pelvic fracture were selected as the control group. The hip CT examination was done, and cancellous bone volume/marrow cavity volume (CV/MV) was analyzed with Mimics 10.01 software in the control group. The CT scan and bone mineral density (BMD) measurement were performed on normal hips of the trial group, and cuboid specimens were gained from the femoral necks at the place of the tensional trabeculae to evaluate the trabecular microstructure parameters by Micro-CT, including bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), connect density (Conn.D), and structure model index (SMI). The correlation between imaging parameters and microstructure parameters was analyzed. In the trial group, the BMD value was 0.491-0.698 g/cm2 (mean, 0.601 g/cm2); according to World Health Organization (WHO) standard, 10 cases were diagnosed as having osteoporosis, and 6 cases as having osteopenia. The CV/MV of the trial group (0.670 1 +/- 0.102 0) was significantly lower than that of the control group (0.885 0 +/- 0.089 1) (t = -4.567, P = 0.000). In the trial group, CV/MV had correlation with BV/TV, Tb.Th, and SMI (P 0.05). BV/TV had correlation with Tb.Th, Tb.N, Tb.Sp, and SMI (P microstructure parameters (P > 0.05). CV/MV obviously decreases in the osteoporotic hip, and there is a correlation between CV/MV and the microstructure parameters of BV/TV, Tb.Th, and SMI, to some extent, which can reflect the variety of the microstructure of the trabeculae. There is no correlation between BMD of femoral neck and

  5. Testosterone and BMD in elite male lightweight rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A; Kanstrup, I-L; Christiansen, E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if a relationship between BMD and testosterone levels could be identified in elite male lightweight rowers. Thirteen male lightweight national team rowers had their BMD measured in a DEXA scanner. Plasma concentrations of total testosterone (TT)...

  6. Influence of Contrast Media on Bone Mineral Density (BMD) Measurements from Routine Contrast-Enhanced MDCT Datasets using a Phantom-less BMD Measurement Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toelly, Andrea; Bardach, Constanze; Weber, Michael; Gong, Rui; Lai, Yanbo; Wang, Pei; Guo, Yulin; Kirschke, Jan; Baum, Thomas; Gruber, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Aim  To evaluate the differences in phantom-less bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in contrast-enhanced routine MDCT scans at different contrast phases, and to develop an algorithm for calculating a reliable BMD value. Materials and Methods  112 postmenopausal women from the age of 40 to 77 years (mean age: 57.31 years; SD 9.61) who underwent a clinically indicated MDCT scan, consisting of an unenhanced, an arterial, and a venous phase, were included. A retrospective analysis of the BMD values of the Th12 to L4 vertebrae in each phase was performed using a commercially available phantom-less measurement tool. Results  The mean BMD value in the unenhanced MDCT scans was 79.76 mg/cm³ (SD 31.20), in the arterial phase it was 85.09 mg/cm³ (SD 31.61), and in the venous phase it was 86.18 mg/cm³ (SD 31.30). A significant difference (p Influence of Contrast Media on Bone Mineral Density (BMD) Measurements from Routine Contrast-Enhanced MDCT Datasets using a Phantom-less BMD Measurement Tool. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 537 - 543. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. CT evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine in patients after gastrectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masako; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Uetani, Masataka; Eto, Toshifumi; Matsumoto, Teiji; Yamada, Naoyuki.

    1990-01-01

    The late postoperative complications in patients after gastrectomy include anemia and metabolic bone disorders. We studied to determine whether gastric surgery is associated with metabolic bone disease. Vertebral BMD was measured in 55 patients after gastric resection by using DEQCT (dual energy quantitative CT). Forty patients were symptomatic, having bone or joint pain, history of bone fracture, or dental caries. The control group consisted of 161 patients without metabolic bone disorders. Forty percent of the patients with either the symptoms or history of bone fracture or dental caries, and 20% of the patients without the symptoms or the history showed decreased BMD. BMD was significantly lower in males in their 60s and in females in their 50s and 70s than BMD in age-matched control groups. When male subjects were grouped according to the years following the operation (1-5, 6-10, 11-15, 16-20 years), BMD was found to be decreased in 27%, 29%, 40% and 50% of the patients in each group, respectively, and the degree of the decrease tended to be greater with increasing time after surgery. Higher incidence of decreased BMD was found in the patients after total gastrectomy when compared with those after subtotal gastrecotmy. Among the patients with subtotal gastrectomy, the incidence of decreased BMD was higher in patients with Billroth II anastomosis than in those with Billroth I anastomosis. In cases with compression fracture on thoracolumbar radiographs, BMD was significantly lower in comparison with cases with no fracture. It was difficult to differentiate between osteomalacia and osteoporosis only by the thoracolumbar radiographs. While the clinical information such as patients' complaints, histories of fracture and laboratory findings are important to evaluate the bone changes following gastric resection. BMD measurement is most useful in quantitatively determining the degree of bone loss after gastrectomy. (author)

  8. CT evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine in patients after gastrectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Masako; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Uetani, Masataka; Eto, Toshifumi; Matsumoto, Teiji (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Yamada, Naoyuki

    1990-11-01

    The late postoperative complications in patients after gastrectomy include anemia and metabolic bone disorders. We studied to determine whether gastric surgery is associated with metabolic bone disease. Vertebral BMD was measured in 55 patients after gastric resection by using DEQCT (dual energy quantitative CT). Forty patients were symptomatic, having bone or joint pain, history of bone fracture, or dental caries. The control group consisted of 161 patients without metabolic bone disorders. Forty percent of the patients with either the symptoms or history of bone fracture or dental caries, and 20% of the patients without the symptoms or the history showed decreased BMD. BMD was significantly lower in males in their 60s and in females in their 50s and 70s than BMD in age-matched control groups. When male subjects were grouped according to the years following the operation (1-5, 6-10, 11-15, 16-20 years), BMD was found to be decreased in 27%, 29%, 40% and 50% of the patients in each group, respectively, and the degree of the decrease tended to be greater with increasing time after surgery. Higher incidence of decreased BMD was found in the patients after total gastrectomy when compared with those after subtotal gastrecotmy. Among the patients with subtotal gastrectomy, the incidence of decreased BMD was higher in patients with Billroth II anastomosis than in those with Billroth I anastomosis. In cases with compression fracture on thoracolumbar radiographs, BMD was significantly lower in comparison with cases with no fracture. It was difficult to differentiate between osteomalacia and osteoporosis only by the thoracolumbar radiographs. While the clinical information such as patients' complaints, histories of fracture and laboratory findings are important to evaluate the bone changes following gastric resection. BMD measurement is most useful in quantitatively determining the degree of bone loss after gastrectomy. (author).

  9. Machine Learning Principles Can Improve Hip Fracture Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Christian; Eiken, Pia; Vestergaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Apply machine learning principles to predict hip fractures and estimate predictor importance in Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-scanned men and women. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data from two Danish regions between 1996 and 2006 were combined with national Danish patient data.......89 [0.82; 0.95], but with poor calibration in higher probabilities. A ten predictor subset (BMD, biochemical cholesterol and liver function tests, penicillin use and osteoarthritis diagnoses) achieved a test AUC of 0.86 [0.78; 0.94] using an “xgbTree” model. Machine learning can improve hip fracture...... prediction beyond logistic regression using ensemble models. Compiling data from international cohorts of longer follow-up and performing similar machine learning procedures has the potential to further improve discrimination and calibration....

  10. Testosterone and BMD in Elite Male Lightweight Rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A.; Christiansen, E.; Ekdahl, C.

    2008-01-01

    ), free testosterone (IFT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and additional parameters related to bone metabolism were measured. Plasma concentrations of TT, FT and DHT were in the lower part of the normal range, while BMD was close to or above normal. BMD of total body...

  11. Risk factors for cervical and trochanteric hip fractures in elderly women: a population-based 10-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Heikki; Pulkkinen, Pasi; Korpelainen, Juha; Heikkinen, Jorma; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Jämsä, Timo; Korpelainen, Raija

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated the contribution of lifestyle-related factors, calcaneal ultrasound, and radial bone mineral density (BMD) to cervical and trochanteric hip fractures in elderly women in a 10-year population-based cohort study. The study population consisted of 1,681 women (age range 70-73 years). Seventy-two percent (n = 1,222) of them participated in the baseline measurements. Calcaneal ultrasound was assessed with a quantitative ultrasound device. BMD measurements were performed at the distal and ultradistal radius by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Forward stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to find the most predictive variables for hip fracture risk. During the follow-up, 53 of the women had hip fractures, including 32 cervical and 21 trochanteric ones. The fractured women were taller and thinner and had lower calcaneal ultrasound values than those without fractures. High body mass index (BMI) was a protective factor against any hip fractures, while low functional mobility was a risk factor of hip fractures. Specifically, high BMI protected against cervical hip fractures, while low physical activity was a significant predictor of these fractures. Similarly, high BMI protected against trochanteric fractures, whereas low functional mobility and high coffee consumption were significant predictors of trochanteric fractures. Cervical and trochanteric hip fractures seem to have different risk factors. Therefore, fracture type should be taken into account in clinical fracture risk assessment and preventative efforts, including patient counseling. However, the study is not conclusive due to the limited number of observed fractures during follow-up, and the results have to be confirmed in future studies.

  12. Ankylosing Spondylitis Increases Perioperative and Postoperative Complications After Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizzard, Daniel J; Penrose, Colin T; Sheets, Charles Z; Seyler, Thorsten M; Bolognesi, Michael P; Brown, Christopher R

    2017-08-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic autoimmune spondyloarthropathy that primarily affects the axial spine and hips. Progressive disease leads to pronounced spinal kyphosis, positive sagittal balance, and altered biomechanics. The purpose of this study is to determine the complication profile of patients with AS undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). The Medicare sample was searched from 2005 to 2012 yielding 1006 patients with AS who subsequently underwent THA. Risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for 90-day, 2-year, and the final postoperative follow-up for complications including hip dislocation, periprosthetic fracture, wound complication, revision THA, and postoperative infection. Compared to controls, AS patients had an RR of 2.50 (CI, 1.04-5.99) of THA component breakage at 90-days post-operatively and 1.99 (CI, 1.10-3.59) at 2-years. The RR of periprosthetic hip dislocation was elevated at 90 days (1.44; CI, 0.93-2.22) and significantly increased at 2-years (1.67; CI, 1.25-2.23) and overall follow-up (1.49; CI, 1.14-1.93). Similarly, the RR for THA revision was elevated at 90-days (1.46; CI, 0.97-2.18) and significantly increased at 2-years (1.69; CI, 1.33-2.14) and overall follow-up (1.51; CI, 1.23-1.85). Patients with AS are at increased risk for complications after THA. Altered biomechanics from a rigid, kyphotic spine place increased demand on the hip joints. The elevated perioperative and postoperative risks should be discussed preoperatively, and these patients may require increased preoperative medical optimization as well as possible changes in component selection and position to compensate for altered spinopelvic biomechanics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intake of omega-3 fatty acids contributes to bone mineral density at the hip in a younger Japanese female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, T; Ohta, H; Onoe, Y; Tsugawa, N; Shiraki, M

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the relationships between intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and omega-6 fatty acids and bone mineral density in Japanese women aged 19 to 25 years. Intakes of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) were positively associated with peak bone mass at the hip. Lifestyle factors such as physical activity and nutrition intake are known to optimize the peak bone mass (PBM). Recently, intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been reported to contribute to bone metabolism. In this study, the relationships of intakes of n-3 and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids with PBM were evaluated in Japanese female subjects. A total of 275 healthy female subjects (19-25 years) having PBM were enrolled, and lumbar and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolic parameters were measured. Dietary intakes of total energy, total n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total n-6 fatty acids were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Physical activity information was also assessed. The mean ± SD age was 20.6 ± 1.4 years, and BMI was 21.2 ± 2.7 kg/m 2 . BMI and serum bone alkaline phosphatase contributed significantly to lumbar BMD on multiple regression analysis. Intake of n-3 fatty acids and physical activity were also significantly related to total hip BMD. Using EPA or DHA instead of total n-3 fatty acids in the model did not result in a significant result. Adequate total n-3 fatty acid intake may help maximize PBM at the hip.

  14. Single- and dual energy QCT around acetabular cups in total hip arthroplasty using 3-dimensional segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Andersen, Poul Erik; Torfing, Trine

    of segmentation software and to compare bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in single- and dual energy CT (SECT and DECT) Materials and Methods: 24 male patients with total hip arthroplasty (12 cemented and 12 uncemented) were scanned and rescanned using SECT and virtual monochromatic DECT images. 3D- ROIs......Background: Bone density measurements around hip implants are challenged by artifacts and the complex anatomy of the acetabulum. We developed 3D segmentation software and used dual energy CT to reduce artifacts. Purpose / Aim of Study: To test the between-scan agreement and reliability...... the cemented cup the mean BMD for SECT was 523 mg/ccm with a between-scan difference of 14 mg/ccm, p=0.25 and 186 mg/ccm in DECT with a difference of 6 mg/ccm, p=0.15. ICC was >0.95 with more narrow limits of agreement in DECT compared with SECT. Computed tomography dose index (CTDI) was 25% higher with DECT...

  15. Bone mineral density of the proximal femur after hip resurfacing arthroplasty: 1-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anttila Esa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA is considered a bone-preserving procedure and may eliminate proximal femoral stress shielding and osteolysis. However, in addition to implant-related stress-shielding factors, various patient-related factors may also have an effect on bone mineral density (BMD of the proximal femur in patients with HRA. Thus, we studied the effects of stem-neck angle, demographic variables, and physical functioning on the BMD of the proximal femur in a one-year follow-up. Methods Thirty three patients (9 females and 24 males with a mean (SD age of 55 (9 years were included in the study. BMD was measured two days and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and 10 regions of interest (ROI were used. Stem-neck angle was analyzed from anteroposterior radiographs. Results Three months postoperatively, BMD decreased in six out of 10 regions of interest (ROI on the side operated on and in one ROI on the control side (p Conclusions After an early drop, the BMD of the upper femur was restored and even exceeded the preoperative level at one year follow-up. From a clinical standpoint, the changes in BMD in these HRA patients could not be explained by stem-neck angle or patient related factors.

  16. Femoral Geometry in Male Patients with Atraumatic Hip Fracture - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülten Tan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Hip fracture is the most serious complication of osteoporosis and the most disabling type of fracture. In this study, we aimed to compare femoral geometry in hip fractured male patients aged more than 65 years old with age matched controls. Patients and Methods: 20 male patients with a history of nontraumatic hip fracture and 19 age-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Bone mineral density of neck and trochanter of hip were measured by DEXA. In addition to BMD, an experienced radiologist measured proximal femur geometric parameters potentially involved in bone strength. Results: Mean BMDs of trochanteric region were not significantly different between groups, but mean BMDs of neck region were statistically significantly lower in the hip fractured group. Neck shaft angle and femur shaft width were the geometric parameters found to be significantly higher in the hip fractured group. The correlation between femur geometric and the anthropometric measurements was present only in the kontrol group. Conclusion: We concluded that besides femur geometric measurements, correlation between these measurements might be an important factors for the fracture risk. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2007;13:15-8

  17. Muscle strength, power and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with bone mineral density in men aged 31-60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Peter; Jørgensen, Niklas; Nielsen, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic fractures represent a growing economical burden to society, not only because of fractures in women, but also because of an increasing number of fractures in men. AIMS: In this cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate the association of muscular and cardio-respiratory......BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic fractures represent a growing economical burden to society, not only because of fractures in women, but also because of an increasing number of fractures in men. AIMS: In this cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate the association of muscular and cardio......-respiratory fitness with BMD at the spine and hip in men. RESULTS: The association between independent variables maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)), leg power and hand grip strength, and dependent variables BMD at the spine and total hip was explored in a series of linear regression models successively adjusted.......011) with BMD at total hip. CONCLUSIONS: We found that cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with BMD in men. Furthermore, hand grip strength and leg power were associated with increasing BMD at the lumbar spine and total hip in men, respectively. Further prospective studies are needed to further investigate...

  18. Association between polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E, bone mineral density of the lower forearm, quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women with hip or lower forearm fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette Pia; Sand, J C; Madsen, B

    2003-01-01

    surgery and age-matched controls from the population register. The APOE genotypes of 327 women were studied: 73 with lower forearm fractures, 43 with hip fractures and 211 age-matched controls. The participants were not receiving antiosteoporotic treatment. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment...... are contradictory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of APOE, BMD of the lower forearm, quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus and osteoporotic fractures in a population of postmenopausal women with hip or lower forearm fractures admitted to a department of orthopaedic....... In conclusion, this study showed no association between bone mass parameters (BMD, speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA)), hip or lower forearm fracture and APOE genotypes in a population of postmenopausal women and age-matched controls....

  19. Characteristics of bone turnover in the long bone metaphysis fractured patients with normal or low Bone Mineral Density (BMD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wölfl

    Full Text Available The incidence of osteoporotic fractures increases as our population ages. Until now, the exact biochemical processes that occur during the healing of metaphyseal fractures remain unclear. Diagnostic instruments that allow a dynamic insight into the fracture healing process are as yet unavailable. In the present matched pair analysis, we study the time course of the osteoanabolic markers bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1, as well as the osteocatabolic markers crosslinked C-telopeptide of type-I-collagen (β-CTX and serum band 5 tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP5b, during the healing of fractures that have a low level of bone mineral density (BMD compared with fractures that have a normal BMD. Between March 2007 and February 2009, 30 patients aged older than 50 years who suffered a metaphyseal fracture were included in our study. BMDs were verified by dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DXEA scans. The levels of BTMs were examined over an 8-week period. Osteoanabolic BAP levels in those with low levels of BMD were significantly different from the BAP levels in those with normal BMD. BAP levels in the former group increased constantly, whereas the latter group showed an initial strong decrease in BAP followed by slowly rising values. Osteocatabolic β-CTX increased in the bone of the normal BMD group constantly, whereas these levels decreased significantly in the bone of the group with low BMD from the first week. TRAP5b was significantly reduced in the low level BMD group. With this work, we conduct first insights into the molecular biology of the fracture healing process in patients with low levels of BMD that explains the mechanism of its fracture healing. The results may be one reason for the reduced healing qualities in bones with low BMD.

  20. Experimental study of pedicle screw stability on low BMD vertebrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Yang Huilin; Tang Tiansi; Wu Yiwei; Wang Yijin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To conduct biomechanical study of different pedicle screws stability on spinal specimen, discuss the relationship between design parameter of screw, insertion torgue and BMD, establish the theoretical foundation for application of pedicle screw on osteoporotic patients. Methods: Six fixed lumbar cadavers were collected, the effects of design parameter, insertion torque and etc on fixation stability were determined under various BMD by using biomechanical ways. Results: According to in vitro study: (1) There was a significant difference among pullout strength of all screws (P 2 >U 1 >SF 1 >SF 2 >RF. Conclusions: There is a close correlated between type of screw, BMD and stability. The U-type screw displays the best fixation effect on specimen of low BMD. (authors)

  1. Vitamin K3 increased BMD at 1 and 2 months post-surgery and the maximum stress of the middle femur in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, You-jia; Liu, Sheng; Jiang, Ning-yi; Jiang, Sen; Liang, Jiu-gen

    2015-02-01

    The therapeutic effects of vitamin K3 (VK3) on osteoporosis are still unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that VK3 possesses therapeutic effects on osteoporosis; to verify this hypothesis, the ovariectomized rat was used as an osteoporosis model. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley female rats aged 8 to 9 months were randomly assigned to 4 groups: sham surgery, ovariectomy with saline, ovariectomy with low-dose VK3, and ovariectomy with high-dose VK3. Intramuscular injection of VK3 was performed every other day beginning 1 month postoperatively. The therapeutic effects of VK3 on osteoporosis were evaluated by measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), bone biochemical markers, biomechanical properties, and bone morphometric parameters. The overall average BMD in VK3-treated groups increased to a level between those of the ovariectomy group and the sham surgery group. The procollagen I N-terminal peptide level peaked at 2 months after surgery in all groups except in the group that had undergone ovariectomy with low-dose VK3. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b level increased more slowly at 4 months after surgery than at 2 months after surgery in the VK3-treated groups. The ovariectomy with high-dose VK3 group had the highest maximum stress of the middle femur of all groups. With VK3 treatment, the trabecular bone area percentage increased. All morphometric indicators for the middle tibia in the VK3-treated groups reached the levels found in the sham surgery group. In summary, VK3 therapy increased BMD at 1 and 2 months postsurgery and the maximum stress of the middle femur. In addition, VK3 therapy slowed the increase in bone turnover in ovariectomized rats. Furthermore, VK3 can improve morphometric indicators for the middle tibia. Our preliminary study indicates that VK3 has a potential therapeutic effect on osteoporosis and is worthy of further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Derivation of standardised BMD using the European Spine Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloskey, E.V.

    2000-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to compare peak bone mass in a range of populations and to examine the determinants of any differences which may be observed. Bone mineral density (areal BMD) has been measured by densitometers manufactured by two companies, Hologic (Waltham, USA) and Lunar (Madison, USA). Systematic differences exist between tile manufacturers in several stages of the scanning procedure (e.g. edge-detection, calibration) so that the normal ranges produced are specific to each brand. To allow comparison of BMD between manufacturers (and thus between centres) we have therefore undertaken a cross-calibration of the scanners in order to derive a standardised BMD

  3. Increasing risk of prosthetic joint infection after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Håvard; Fenstad, Anne M; Hallan, Geir

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose The risk of revision due to infection after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been reported to be increasing in Norway. We investigated whether this increase is a common feature in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden). Materials and methods The...... explain this increase. We believe that there has been an actual increase in the incidence of prosthetic joint infections after THA.......Background and purpose The risk of revision due to infection after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been reported to be increasing in Norway. We investigated whether this increase is a common feature in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden). Materials and methods...... The study was based on the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) dataset. 432,168 primary THAs from 1995 to 2009 were included (Denmark: 83,853, Finland 78,106, Norway 88,455, and Sweden 181,754). Adjusted survival analyses were performed using Cox regression models with revision due to infection...

  4. Increased fracture risk assessed by fracture risk assessment tool in Greek patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzoudis, Sotirios; Zavos, Christos; Damilakis, John; Neratzoulakis, John; Dimitriadi, Daphne Anna; Roussomoustakaki, Maria; Kouroumalis, Elias A; Koutroubakis, Ioannis E

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization has recently developed the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) based on clinical risk factors and bone mineral density (BMD) for evaluation of the 10-year probability of a hip or a major osteoporotic fracture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the FRAX tool in Greek patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). FRAX scores were applied to 134 IBD patients [68 Crohn's disease (CD); 66 ulcerative colitis (UC)] who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans at the femoral neck and lumbar spine during the period 2007-2012. Calculation of the FRAX scores, with or without BMD, was made through a web-based probability model used to compute individual fracture probabilities according to specific clinical risk factors. The median 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture for IBD patients based on clinical data was 7.1%, and including the BMD was 6.2%. A significant overestimation with the first method was found (P = 0.01). Both scores with and without BMD were significantly higher in CD patients compared with UC patients (P = 0.02 and P = 0.005, respectively). The median 10-year probability of hip fracture based on clinical data was 0.8%, and including the BMD was 0.9%. The score with use of BMD was significantly higher in CD compared with UC patients (P = 0.04). CD patients have significantly higher FRAX scores and possibly fracture risk compared with UC patients. The clinical FRAX score alone seems to overestimate the risk of osteoporotic fracture in Greek IBD patients.

  5. Constitutive melanin density is associated with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D and potentially total body BMD in older Caucasian adults via increased sun tolerance and exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M J W; Jones, G; Aitken, D A

    2018-06-01

    Greater skin pigmentation reduces dose equivalent cutaneous vitamin D3 production, potentially impacting lifetime vitamin D status and fracture risk. We show that melanin density was positively associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D and total body bone mineral density. These relationships were partially explained by greater sun exposure due to more permissive skin phenotype. Higher cutaneous melanin reduces vitamin D3 production. This may impact lifetime vitamin D status and increase fracture risk. This study aimed to describe the relationship between spectrophotometrically determined constitutive melanin density, osteoporotic risk factors and potential intermediaries in a cohort of exclusively older Caucasian adults. One thousand seventy-two community-dwelling adults aged 50-80 years had constitutive melanin density quantified using spectrophotometry. Sun exposure, skin phenotype, non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) prevalence and smoking status were assessed by questionnaire. Bone mineral density (BMD), falls risk, physical activity and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured using DXA, the short form Physiological Profile Assessment, pedometer and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Higher melanin density was independently associated with greater ability to tan (RR = 1.27, p density and sun exposure (RR = 1.05-1.11, p density (β = 1.71-2.05, p = 0.001). The association between melanin density and total body BMD (β = 0.007, p = 0.04) became non-significant after adjustment for 25-hydroxyvitamin D. There was no association between melanin density and physical activity, falls risk or BMD at other sites. Our data support a model of higher constitutive melanin density underpinning a less photosensitive skin phenotype, permitting greater sun exposure with fewer sequelae and yielding higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D and, potentially, total body BMD.

  6. Is use of fall risk-increasing drugs in an elderly population associated with an increased risk of hip fracture, after adjustment for multimorbidity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorell, Kristine; Ranstad, Karin; Midlöv, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk factors for hip fracture are well studied because of the negative impact on patients and the community, with mortality in the first year being almost 30% in the elderly. Age, gender and fall risk-increasing drugs, identified by the National Board of Health and Welfare in Sweden......, are well known risk factors for hip fracture, but how multimorbidity level affects the risk of hip fracture during use of fall risk-increasing drugs is to our knowledge not as well studied. This study explored the relationship between use of fall risk-increasing drugs in combination with multimorbidity...... level and risk of hip fracture in an elderly population. METHODS: Data were from Östergötland County, Sweden, and comprised the total population in the county aged 75 years and older during 2006. The odds ratio (OR) for hip fracture during use of fall risk-increasing drugs was calculated by multivariate...

  7. SSRIs increase risk of blood transfusion in patients admitted for hip surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermien Janneke Schutte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that an increased bleeding tendency can be caused by Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI use. We aimed to investigate the occurrence and risk of blood transfusion in SSRI users compared to non-SSRI users in a cohort of patients admitted for hip-surgery. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent planned or emergency hip surgery from 1996 to 2011 in the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam. Primary outcome measure was risk of blood transfusion. Secondary outcome measures were pre- and postoperative hemoglobin level. Multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: One-hundred and fourteen SSRI users were compared to 1773 non-SSRI users. Risk of blood transfusion during admission was increased for SSRI users in multivariate analyses (OR 1.7 [95% CI 1.1-2.5]. Also, pre-operative hemoglobin levels were lower in SSRI users (7.8 ± 1.0 mmol/L compared to non-SSRI users (8.0 ± 1.0 mmol/L (p  =  0.042, as were postoperative hemoglobin levels (6.2 ± 1.0 mmol/L vs. 6.4 ± 1.0 mmol/L respectively (p  =  0.017. CONCLUSIONS: SSRI users undergoing hip surgery have an increased risk for blood transfusion during admission, potentially explained by a lower hemoglobin level before surgery. SSRI use should be considered as a potential risk indicator for increased blood loss in patients admitted for hip surgery. These results need to be confirmed in a prospective study.

  8. The relationship of depression, anxiety and stress with low bone mineral density in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Hany Burstein; Weller, Aron; Vaisman, Nachum; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the relationships of depression, anxiety and stress with bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesized negative relations between those mood variables and BMD in three assessed areas. The study showed association between depression and decreased BMD. The hypothesis regarding anxiety and stress was partially confirmed. In the last decade, the relationship of osteoporosis to psychological variables has been increasingly studied. The accumulating evidence from these studies supports the conclusion that depression is related to decreased BMD. Nevertheless, several studies found no support for this relationship. Moreover, only a small number of studies examined the association between anxiety or stress and decreased BMD. The goal of the present study was to examine the relationships of depression, anxiety and stress with BMD by means of adequate measuring instruments, while controlling for background factors known to be related to BMD decrease (e.g., body mass index, family history). The study included 135 post-menopausal female participants, who arrived for BMD screening, between the years 2006 and 2009. Several days prior to the examination, participants completed a series of questionnaires assessing depression and anxiety. BMD was measured using DXA, in spine, right and left hip. The study showed negative associations between depression and BMD variables in the three assessed areas. There were negative correlations between anxiety, stress and spine BMD, as well as a tendency towards negative relations in the right and left hip BMD. Concurrent hierarchical regressions showed that the addition of the three psychological variables increased the explained variance by 6–8 %. In addition, depression was found to have a unique significant contribution to the explained variance in right and left hip BMD. The findings provide supporting evidence for the existence of associations between mood variables and decreased BMD. Further

  9. Areal and volumetric Bone Mineral Density and risk of multiple types of fracture in older men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub, Didier; Orwoll, Eric S.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Boudreau, Robert; Greenspan, Susan; Newman, Anne B.; Zmuda, Joseph; Bauer, Douglas; Cummings, Steven; Cauley, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies have examined the association between low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk in older men, none have simultaneously studied the relationship between multiple BMD sites and risk of different types of fractures. Using data from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study, we evaluated the association between areal BMD (aBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) measurements, and different types of fractures during an average of 9.7 years of follow up. Men answered questionnaires about fractures every 4 months (>97% completions). Fractures were confirmed by centralized review of radiographic reports; pathological fractures were excluded. Risk of fractures was assessed at the hip, spine, wrist, shoulder, rib/chest/sternum, ankle/foot/toe, arm, hand/finger, leg, pelvis/coccyx, skull/face and any non-spine fracture. Age and race adjusted Cox proportional-hazards modeling was used to assess the risk of fracture in 3301 older men with both aBMD (at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine) and vBMD (at the trabecular spine and FN, and cortical FN) measurements, with hazard ratios (HRs) expressed per standard deviation (SD) decrease. Lower FN and spine aBMD were associated with an increased risk of fracture at the hip, spine, wrist, shoulder, rib/chest/sternum, arm, and any non-spine fracture (statistically significant HRs per SD decrease ranged from 1.24 - 3.57). Lower trabecular spine and FN vBMD were associated with increased risk of most fractures with statistically significant HRs ranging between 1.27 and 3.69. There was a statistically significant association between FN cortical vBMD and fracture risk at the hip (HR=1.55) and spine sites (HR=1.26), but no association at other fracture sites. In summary, both lower aBMD and vBMD were associated with increased fracture risk. The stronger associations observed for trabecular vBMD than cortical vBMD may reflect the greater

  10. BMD measurements of the spine derived from sagittal reformations of contrast-enhanced MDCT without dedicated software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Thomas, E-mail: thbaum@gmx.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Mueller, Dirk, E-mail: dirk.mueller@roe.med.tum.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Dobritz, Martin, E-mail: dobritz@roe.med.tum.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Rummeny, Ernst J., E-mail: institut@roe.med.tum.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Link, Thomas M., E-mail: thomas.link@radiology.ucsf.edu [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 185 Berry Street, Suite 350, San Francisco, CA 94107 (United States); Bauer, Jan S., E-mail: jsb@roe.med.tum.de [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To assess QCT equivalent BMD of the lumbar spine in sagittal reformations of routine abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT with simple PACS measurement tools and to apply this method to MDCT datasets for differentiating patients with and without osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Materials and methods: Eight postmenopausal women (65 {+-} 5years) underwent standard QCT to assess BMD of L1-L3. Afterwards routine abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT images of these women were obtained and apparent BMD of L1-L3 was measured using the sagittal reformations. The MDCT-to-QCT conversion equation for BMD was calculated with linear regression analysis. The conversion equation was applied to vertebral BMD datasets (L1-L3) of 75 postmenopausal women (66 {+-} 4years). Seventeen of the 75 patients had osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Results: BMD values of contrast-enhanced MDCT were on average 56 mg/ml higher than those of standard QCT. A correlation coefficient of r = 0.94 (p < 0.05) was calculated for the BMD values of MDCT and standard QCT with the conversion equation BMD{sub QCT} = 0.69 x BMD{sub MDCT} - 11 mg/ml. Accordingly converted BMD values of patients with vertebral fractures were significantly lower than those of patients without vertebral fractures (69 mg/ml vs. 85 mg/ml; p < 0.05). Using ROC analysis to differentiate patients with and without vertebral fractures, AUC = 0.72 was obtained for converted BMD values (p < 0.05). Short- and long-term reproducibility errors for BMD measurements in the sagittal reformations amounted 2.09% and 7.70%, respectively. Conclusion: BMD measurements of the spine could be computed in sagittal reformations of routine abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT with minimal technical and time effort. Using the conversion equation, the acquired BMD data could differentiate patients with and without osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

  11. Reassuring Russia On BMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    paranoid about this, but George Bush was right. This was not a threat 6 to them. And this program will not be a threat to them.”16 Rhetoric aside...measures to “ overcome any BMD system and protect Russia’s retaliation potential.” Putin also added, “Whatever you call it, this has some elements of an...transferring part of its responsibility for protecting elements of NATO territory to a state that is not within NATO.”39 To overcome these differences

  12. Effects of obesity and diabetes on rate of bone density loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, W D; Morin, S N; Majumdar, S R; Lix, L M

    2018-01-01

    In this large registry-based study, women with diabetes had marginally greater bone mineral density (BMD) loss at the femoral neck but not at other measurement sites, whereas obesity was not associated with greater BMD loss. Our data do not support the hypothesis that rapid BMD loss explains the increased fracture risk associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity observed in prior studies. Type 2 diabetes and obesity are associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD) which may be less protective against fracture than previously assumed. Inconsistent data suggest that rapid BMD loss may be a contributing factor. We examined the rate of BMD loss in women with diabetes and/or obesity in a population-based BMD registry for Manitoba, Canada. We identified 4960 women aged ≥ 40 years undergoing baseline and follow-up BMD assessments (mean interval 4.3 years) without confounding medication use or large weight fluctuation. We calculated annualized rate of BMD change for the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck in relation to diagnosed diabetes and body mass index (BMI) category. Baseline age-adjusted BMD was greater in women with diabetes and for increasing BMI category (all P obese women but BMI did not significantly affect hip BMD loss.

  13. Using the benchmark dose (BMD) methodology to determine an appropriate reduction of certain ingredients in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jian

    2010-01-01

    As the desire to promote health increases, reductions of certain ingredients, for example, sodium, sugar, and fat in food products, are widely requested. However, the reduction is not risk free in sensory and marketing aspects. Over reduction may change the taste and influence the flavor of a product and lead to a decrease in consumer's overall liking or purchase intent for the product. This article uses the benchmark dose (BMD) methodology to determine an appropriate reduction. Calculations of BMD and one-sided lower confidence limit of BMD are illustrated. The article also discusses how to calculate BMD and BMDL for over dispersed binary data in replicated testing based on a corrected beta-binomial model. USEPA Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS) were used and S-Plus programs were developed. The method discussed in the article is originally used to determine an appropriate reduction of certain ingredients, for example, sodium, sugar, and fat in food products, considering both health reason and sensory or marketing risk.

  14. An analysis of BMD changes with preopertive and postoperative premenopausal breast cancer patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIm, Su Jin; Son, Soon Yong; Choi, Kwan Woo; Lee, Joo Ah; Min, Jung Whan; Kim, Hyun Soo; Ma, Sang Chull; Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Beong Gyu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide basic data of comparing BMD (bone mineral density) value of preoperative breast cancer patient and postoperative breast cancer patient due to bone loss with radiation/chemical therapy. The participants consisted of 254 breast cancer patients with BMD after having surgery and treatment from March 2007 to September 2013. Except for 84 patients with menopause or hysterectomy and we have analysed 171 patients. The BMD value (lumbar spine and femur) of before and after treatment from PACS by dure-energy X-ray absorptiometry was analyzed. First, we found variation of entire BMD and BMD according to treatment type, and analyzed detailed correlation by using marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types as variable. Data was analyzed by using SPSS for Windows Program (version 18.0). BMD was decreased 7.1% in lumbar spine, 3.1% in femur respectively (p<.01). Also there is relatively high decrement (0.067 g/cm 2 ) in group who had just chemotherapy in femur (p<.05). There is decrement depend on marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types but there was no statistical significance. The results show that BMD was decreased after treatment in premenopausal breast cancer patient, patient who had relatively high decrement need to be included high-risk group. As a result, aggressive prevention policy would be necessary

  15. An analysis of BMD changes with preopertive and postoperative premenopausal breast cancer patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Su Jin; Son, Soon Yong; Choi, Kwan Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo Ah [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Catholic University, Incheon St.Mary' s Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Whan; Kim, Hyun Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Ma, Sang Chull [Dept. of Radiologic Science, Shin han University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Beong Gyu [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide basic data of comparing BMD (bone mineral density) value of preoperative breast cancer patient and postoperative breast cancer patient due to bone loss with radiation/chemical therapy. The participants consisted of 254 breast cancer patients with BMD after having surgery and treatment from March 2007 to September 2013. Except for 84 patients with menopause or hysterectomy and we have analysed 171 patients. The BMD value (lumbar spine and femur) of before and after treatment from PACS by dure-energy X-ray absorptiometry was analyzed. First, we found variation of entire BMD and BMD according to treatment type, and analyzed detailed correlation by using marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types as variable. Data was analyzed by using SPSS for Windows Program (version 18.0). BMD was decreased 7.1% in lumbar spine, 3.1% in femur respectively (p<.01). Also there is relatively high decrement (0.067 g/cm{sup 2}) in group who had just chemotherapy in femur (p<.05). There is decrement depend on marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types but there was no statistical significance. The results show that BMD was decreased after treatment in premenopausal breast cancer patient, patient who had relatively high decrement need to be included high-risk group. As a result, aggressive prevention policy would be necessary.

  16. Serum biomarker profile associated with high bone turnover and BMD in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Siegel, Eric R; Achenbach, Sara J; Khosla, Sundeep; Suva, Larry J

    2008-07-01

    Early diagnosis of the onset of osteoporosis is key to the delivery of effective therapy. Biochemical markers of bone turnover provide a means of evaluating skeletal dynamics that complements static measurements of BMD by DXA. Conventional clinical measurements of bone turnover, primarily the estimation of collagen and its breakdown products in the blood or urine, lack both sensitivity and specificity as a reliable diagnostic tool. As a result, improved tests are needed to augment the use of BMD measurements as the principle diagnostic modality. In this study, the serum proteome of 58 postmenopausal women with high or low/normal bone turnover (training set) was analyzed by surface enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and a diagnostic fingerprint was identified using a variety of statistical and machine learning tools. The diagnostic fingerprint was validated in a separate distinct test set, consisting of serum samples from an additional 59 postmenopausal women obtained from the same Mayo cohort, with a gap of 2 yr. Specific protein peaks that discriminate between postmenopausal patients with high or low/normal bone turnover were identified and validated. Multiple supervised learning approaches were able to classify the level of bone turnover in the training set with 80% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In addition, the individual protein peaks were also significantly correlated with BMD measurements in these patients. Four of the major discriminatory peaks in the diagnostic profile were identified as fragments of interalpha-trypsin-inhibitor heavy chain H4 precursor (ITIH4), a plasma kallikrein-sensitive glycoprotein that is a component of the host response system. These data suggest that these serum protein fragments are the serum-borne reflection of the increased osteoclast activity, leading to the increased bone turnover that is associated with decreasing BMD and presumably an increased risk of fracture. In conjunction with the

  17. Lean mass and fat mass predict bone mineral density in middle-aged individuals with noninsulin-requiring type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Kendall F; Dobrosielski, Devon A; Stewart, Kerry J; De Beur, Suzanne M Jan; Sellmeyer, Deborah E

    2011-05-01

    Despite high bone mineral density (BMD), persons with type 2 diabetes are at greater risk of fracture. The relationship between body composition and BMD in noninsulin-requiring diabetes is unclear. The aim was to examine how fat and lean mass independently affect the skeleton in this population. Subjects for this cross-sectional analysis were men (n = 78) and women (n = 56) aged 40-65 years (56 ± 6 years) with uncomplicated, noninsulin-requiring type 2 diabetes. Total body fat and lean mass, total body, hip and lumbar spine BMD were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Magnetic resonance imaging measured total abdominal, visceral and subcutaneous (SQ) fat. Subjects had normal all-site BMD and were obese to overweight (body mass index 29-41 kg/m(2)) with controlled diabetes (HbA1c women 6·6 ± 1·2%, men 6·7 ± 1·6%). Lean mass was positively associated with total body, hip, femoral neck and hip BMD in both sexes. Fat mass, abdominal total and SQ fat were associated with total body and hip BMD in women. In multivariate analyses adjusted for sex, lean mass significantly predicted total, hip and femoral neck BMD in men and women. In unadjusted models, lean mass continued to predict BMD at these sites in men; fat mass also predicted total body, femoral and hip BMD in women. In men and women with uncomplicated, noninsulin-requiring diabetes, lean mass significantly predicted BMD at the total body, hip and femoral neck. Further research is needed to determine whether acquisition or maintenance of lean mass in T2DM can prevent hip fracture in this at-risk population. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. ROL' POLOVYKh GORMONOV V REGULYaTsII KOSTNOGO OBMENA i mineral'noy plotnostikostnoy tkani u muzhchin v pozdnie sroki posle allotransplantatsii trupnoy pochki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A PRONChENKO

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Lumbal spine and hip bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers [bone alkaline phosphatase (bALP, osteocalcin (OC, aminoterminal procollagen I propeptide, bone acid phosphatase (bACP, ß-crosslaps (CTX], sex hormones [testosterone, estradiol (E2, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, free androgen index (FAI, free estrogen index (FEI], parathyroid hormone (PTH, osteoprotegerin (OPG and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1] were determined in 39 men in age 42±10 years (33 with well renal function and 6 - with renal failure (RF 44±26 months following KT receiving triple immunosuppressive therapy (CysA, prednisolone and azathioprine. Increased CTX, bACP, OC and decreased bALP so as BMD were associated in men following KT with low testosterone, SHBG and IGF-1 and high E2, OPG and PTH. There was more degree of bone turnover disturbances, decreased BMD, PTH hypersecretion and low FAI in RF. There were significant positive relationships between serum testosterone and E2, FEI and FAI, bALP and E2, bALP and FEI, femur BMD and FAI, femur BMD and FEI, OPG and E2, IGF-1 and PTH. There were significant inverse correlations between serum CTX and FAI, CTX and FEI, hip (spine BMD and SHBG, hip (spine BMD and PTH so as between PTH and FAI, PTH and FEI. So bone turnover disturbances, hip BMD losses and PTH hypersecretion in men at late time following KT associated with sex hormone deficiency. Predictor of high bone turnover and as vertebral as femur bone losses after KT besides PTH hypersecretion was serum SHBG. Decreased IGF-1 was the reason of bone forming suppression and possibly was following cyclosporine hepatotoxicity. OPG increasing was associated partly with high estradiol and was compensatory to attenuation of bone resorption and bone losses.

  19. Hip Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hip fractures in people of all ages. In older adults, a hip fracture is most often a result of a fall from a standing height. In people with very weak bones, a hip fracture can occur simply by standing on the leg and twisting. Risk factors The rate of hip fractures increases substantially with ...

  20. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  1. Elastic Resistance Effectiveness on Increasing Strength of Shoulders and Hips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picha, Kelsey J; Almaddah, Muataz R; Barker, Jordan; Ciochetty, Tavis; Black, W Scott; Uhl, Tim L

    2017-09-12

    Elastic resistance is a common training method used to gain strength. Currently, progression with elastic resistance is based on the perceived exertion of the exercise or completion of targeted repetitions; exact resistance is typically unknown. This study's objective is to determine if knowledge of load during elastic resistance exercise will increase strength gains during exercises. Participants were randomized into two strength training groups, elastic resistance only and elastic resistance using a load cell (LC) that displays force during exercise. The LC group used a Smart Handle (Patterson Medical Supply, Chicago, IL) to complete all exercises. Each participant completed the same exercises three times weekly for 8 weeks. The LC group was provided with a set load for exercises whereas the elastic resistance only group was not. Participant's strength was tested at baseline and program completion, measuring isometric strength for shoulder abduction (SAb), shoulder external rotation (SER), hip abduction (HAb), and hip extension (HEx). Independent t-tests were used to compare the normalized torques between groups. No significant differences were found between groups. Shoulder strength gains did not differ between groups (SAb p>0.05; SER p>0.05). Hip strength gains did not differ between groups (HAb p>0.05; HEx p>0.05). Both groups increased strength due to individual supervision, constantly evaluating degree of difficulty associated with exercise and providing feedback while using elastic resistance. Using a LC is as effective as supervised training and could provide value in a clinic setting when patients are working unsupervised.

  2. Association between polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E, bone mineral density of the lower forearm, quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women with hip or lower forearm fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette Pia; Sand, J C; Madsen, B

    2003-01-01

    are contradictory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of APOE, BMD of the lower forearm, quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus and osteoporotic fractures in a population of postmenopausal women with hip or lower forearm fractures admitted to a department of orthopaedic...... surgery and age-matched controls from the population register. The APOE genotypes of 327 women were studied: 73 with lower forearm fractures, 43 with hip fractures and 211 age-matched controls. The participants were not receiving antiosteoporotic treatment. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment...... length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to detect the APOE genotypes. Quantitative ultrasound was measured at the calcaneus. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lower forearm was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The distributions of genotype frequencies in this study were: E2/E2: 0.3%; E2/E3...

  3. Osteoporose er hyppig ved Parkinsons sygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezzatian-Ahar, Shabnam; Schwarz, Peter; Pedersen, Stephen Wørlich

    2015-01-01

    patients have higher risk of developing osteoporosis and hip fracture compared to those without PD because of lower bone mineral density (BMD) and lack of vitamin D. Prevention of fracture in PD patients should include fall-risk screening, BMD measurements by DXA scan and screening for risk factors......The risk of developing osteoporosis, as well as Parkinson's disease (PD) is increased with increasing age, resulting in increased risk of fracture, particularly hip fractures. Each one of these two conditions can be debilitating and affect the individual patient's quality of life negatively. PD...

  4. Spine-hip T-score difference predicts major osteoporotic fracture risk independent of FRAX(®): a population-based report from CAMOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, William D; Kovacs, Christopher S; Olszynski, Wojciech P; Towheed, Tanveer; Kaiser, Stephanie M; Prior, Jerilynn C; Josse, Robert G; Jamal, Sophie A; Kreiger, Nancy; Goltzman, David

    2011-01-01

    The WHO fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX(®)) estimates an individual's 10-yr major osteoporotic and hip fracture probabilities. When bone mineral density (BMD) is included in the FRAX calculation, only the femoral neck measurement can be used. Recently, a procedure was reported for adjusting major osteoporotic fracture probability from FRAX with femoral neck BMD based on the difference (offset) between the lumbar spine and the femoral neck T-score values. The objective of the current analysis was to independently evaluate this algorithm in a population-based cohort of 4575 women and 1813 men aged 50 yr and older from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. For women and men combined, there was a 15% (95% confidence interval 7-24%) increase in major osteoporotic fracture risk for each offset T-score after adjusting for FRAX probability calculated with femoral neck BMD. The effect was stronger in women than men, but a significant sex interaction was not detected. Among the full cohort, 5.5% had their risk category reclassified after using the offset adjustment. Sex- and age-dependent offsets (equivalent to an offset based on Z-scores) showed improved risk classification among individuals designated to be at moderate risk with the conventional FRAX probability measurement. In summary, the T-score difference between the lumbar spine and femoral neck is an independent risk factor for major osteoporotic fractures that is independent of the FRAX probability calculated with femoral neck BMD. Copyright © 2011 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Predicting Hip Fracture Type With Cortical Bone Mapping (CBM) in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treece, Graham M; Gee, Andrew H; Tonkin, Carol; Ewing, Susan K; Cawthon, Peggy M; Black, Dennis M; Poole, Kenneth E S

    2015-11-01

    Hip fracture risk is known to be related to material properties of the proximal femur, but fracture prediction studies adding richer quantitative computed tomography (QCT) measures to dual-energy X-ray (DXA)-based methods have shown limited improvement. Fracture types have distinct relationships to predictors, but few studies have subdivided fracture into types, because this necessitates regional measurements and more fracture cases. This work makes use of cortical bone mapping (CBM) to accurately assess, with no prior anatomical presumptions, the distribution of properties related to fracture type. CBM uses QCT data to measure the cortical and trabecular properties, accurate even for thin cortices below the imaging resolution. The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study is a predictive case-cohort study of men over 65 years old: we analyze 99 fracture cases (44 trochanteric and 55 femoral neck) compared to a cohort of 308, randomly selected from 5994. To our knowledge, this is the largest QCT-based predictive hip fracture study to date, and the first to incorporate CBM analysis into fracture prediction. We show that both cortical mass surface density and endocortical trabecular BMD are significantly different in fracture cases versus cohort, in regions appropriate to fracture type. We incorporate these regions into predictive models using Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios, and logistic regression to estimate area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Adding CBM to DXA-based BMD leads to a small but significant (p fracture, with AUC increasing from 0.78 to 0.79, assessed using leave-one-out cross-validation. For specific fracture types, the improvement is more significant (p trochanteric fractures and 0.76 to 0.82 for femoral neck fractures. In contrast, adding DXA-based BMD to a CBM-based predictive model does not result in any significant improvement. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

  6. Physical activity, body mass index and bone mineral density-associations in a prospective population-based cohort of women and men: the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsetmo, L; Hitchcock, C L; Kingwell, E J; Davison, K S; Berger, C; Forsmo, S; Zhou, W; Kreiger, N; Prior, J C

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is an important modifiable risk factor for both bone mineral density (BMD) and body mass index (BMI). However, BMI is itself strongly predictive of BMD. Our aim was to determine the association between PA and BMD, with consideration of BMI as a potential mediating factor. The Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) is a population-based prospective cohort study of Canadian women and men. PA was determined from interviewer-administered questionnaires at baseline and Year 5 and summarized as daily energy expenditure in total metabolic equivalents of the task multiplied by minutes/day (MET*m/d). Height, weight, and total hip and lumbar spine BMD were measured at baseline and Year 5. General linear models assessed relationships between PA and BMD, both cross-sectionally (baseline PA with baseline BMD) and longitudinally (average PA and change in PA with change in BMD). BMI was considered as a mediating factor. Potential confounders included age, center, education, caffeine intake, alcohol exposure, smoking history, history of weight-cycling, age at menarche, past use of oral contraceptives, history of >3 months missed menstruation, menopausal status, and antiresorptive use, as relevant. The study included 2855 men and 6442 women. PA was inversely associated with BMI at baseline, and an increase in PA between baseline and Year 5 was associated with a decrease in BMI, with 0.41 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.60) kg/m(2) loss per 1000 MET*m/d increase (in men) and 0.40 (95% CI: 0.23, 0.57) kg/m(2) loss per 1000 MET*m/d increase (in women). BMI was strongly associated with BMD, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. However, increased PA was associated with a small increase in total hip BMD, 0.004 (95% CI: 0.000-0.008) g/cm(2) per 1000 MET*m/d (in men) and 0.003 (95% CI: 0.000-0.007) g/cm(2) per 1000 MET*m/d (in women). Average PA was associated with an increase in lumbar spine BMD in women, but not in men; it was not associated with change in total

  7. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index and Bone Mineral Density— Associations in a Prospective Population-based Cohort of Women and Men: The Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsetmo, L; Hitchcock, CL; Kingwell, EJ; Davison, KS; Berger, C; Forsmo, S.; Zhou, W; Kreiger, N; Prior, JC

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is an important modifiable risk factor for both bone mineral density (BMD) and body mass index (BMI). However, BMI is itself strongly predictive of BMD. Our aim was to determine the association between PA and BMD, with consideration of BMI as a potential mediating factor. Methods The Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) is a population-based prospective cohort study of Canadian women and men. PA was determined from interviewer-administered questionnaires at baseline and Year 5 and summarized as daily energy expenditure in total metabolic equivalents of the task multiplied by minutes/day (MET*m/d). Height, weight, and total hip and lumbar spine BMD were measured at baseline and Year 5. General linear models assessed relationships between PA and BMD, both cross-sectionally (baseline PA with baseline BMD) and longitudinally (average PA and change in PA with change in BMD). BMI was considered as a mediating factor. Potential confounders included age, center, education, caffeine intake, alcohol exposure, smoking history, history of weight-cycling, age at menarche, past use of oral contraceptives, history of >3 months missed menstruation, menopausal status, and antiresorptive use, as relevant. Results The study included 2855 men and 6442 women. PA was inversely associated with BMI at baseline, and an increase in PA between baseline and Year 5 was associated with a decrease in BMI, with 0.41 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.60) kg/m2 loss per 1000 MET*m/d increase (in men) and 0.40 (95% CI: 0.23, 0.57) kg/m2 loss per 1000 MET*m/d increase (in women). BMI was strongly associated with BMD, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. However, increased PA was associated with a small increase in total hip BMD, 0.004 (95% CI: 0.000–0.008) g/cm2 per 1000 MET*m/d (in men) and 0.003 (95% CI: 0.000–0.007) g/cm2 per 1000 MET*m/d (in women). Average PA was associated with an increase in lumbar spine BMD in women, but not in men; it was not associated

  8. Status report on BMD studies as of 10th October 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloskey, E.V.

    1998-01-01

    In this interim report, I have simply documented the current status of BMD measurements as reported in each of the working papers from the centres involved. Due to the uneven distribution of subjects within each of the age categories, no attempt has been made to make a statement about the age range of maximum bone density in young adults. Instead, I have analysed, where possible, the mean BMD at the spine in the age group 26-40 years. For ease of comparison, 1 have divided the data into that from centres using the different types of densitometer (Hologic and Lunar). In the Hologic data, the lumbar spine results reflect values of L1-L4 and this will mean that lower values would be reported compared to the Lunar results even if both scanners employed the exact same method of analysis, as the Lunar scans only include L2-L4. In addition, however, Lunar values will have a systematic difference of approximately 10% due to machine differences in edge detection algorithms etc. Where possible, values of total femur BMD have been shown in the Hologic tables and data for the femoral neck BMD in the Lunar tables. (author)

  9. Associations of Bone Mineral Density with Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Dietary Patterns in Postmenopausal Chinese Women: A 2-Year Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Chen

    Full Text Available To assess factors associated with bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women in a longitudinal study, and to examine the relative contribution of lean mass, fat mass, dietary patterns, and years since menopause to BMD.Two hundred and eighty-two postmenopausal women were randomly selected from Hongqi Community Health Center, in Harbin City, China. All participants were followed up from 2009 to 2011. Dietary data were collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMD of the left hip, the lumbar spine, and the total body, and the body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and follow-up.Lean mass and fat mass were positively associated with BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body at both baseline and follow-up. The association between fat mass and BMD at the spine at baseline (P = 0.210 and at the spine (P = 0.116 and hip (P = 0.073 in the second year was not statistically significant when height was adjusted. Six dietary patterns were identified but only cereal grains-fruits pattern (P = 0.001 in the spine, P = 0.037 in hip and milk-root vegetables pattern (P = 0.010 in hip were associated with BMD of the spine and hip. The linear mixed model of follow-up data showed that lean mass, years since menopause, and age of menophania were the significant determinants of BMD of all sites. Moreover, lean mass was the best determinant of BMD (VIP = 1.936.Lean mass, years since menopause, age of menophania and dietary patterns are the important determinants of BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body. Lean mass is the best determinant of BMD.

  10. A vast increase in the use of CT scans for investigating occult hip fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Robert; Dickenson, Edward; Westacott, Daniel; Baraza, Njalalle; Srinivasan, Kuntrapka

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis in neck of femur fractures has been shown to improve outcome. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence recommends if an occult hip fracture is suspected then an MRI should be performed and if not available within 24 h a CT should be considered. At our centre, emergency MRI is rarely available and so CT is commonly used. Objectives: Our study aims to analyse the trends in CT use over a five year period for the diagnosis of neck of femur fractures. Methods: Both the number of patients with a hip fracture and those undergoing a CT hip to diagnose an occult injury were identified across two district general hospitals between 2006–2007 and 2010–2011. The time from initial radiograph to CT and initial radiograph to operation were calculated. Results: In 2006–2007, of 547 hip fractures, 20 CT hips were performed and 6 reported as a fractured neck of femur (30%). In 2010–2011, of 499 hip fractures, 239 CT hips were performed and 65 fractures were recognised (27%). The mean time from radiograph until CT scan was 2.0 days in 2007 and 3.2 days in 2011, which was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). For those diagnosed using a CT scan the mean time from admission X-ray to surgery was 1.2 days in 2007 and 3.6 days in 2011. Conclusion: Clinicians are becoming increasingly reliant on CT for the diagnosis of hip fractures with our data suggesting further imaging is one factor that can delay time to diagnosis and theatre

  11. A vast increase in the use of CT scans for investigating occult hip fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Robert, E-mail: Robert.jordan@doctors.org.uk; Dickenson, Edward, E-mail: edwarddickenson@doctors.org.uk; Westacott, Daniel, E-mail: dan_westacott@hotmail.com; Baraza, Njalalle, E-mail: njaleb@Doctors.Org.Uk; Srinivasan, Kuntrapka, E-mail: bijusri@Yahoo.Co.Uk

    2013-08-15

    Background: Early diagnosis in neck of femur fractures has been shown to improve outcome. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence recommends if an occult hip fracture is suspected then an MRI should be performed and if not available within 24 h a CT should be considered. At our centre, emergency MRI is rarely available and so CT is commonly used. Objectives: Our study aims to analyse the trends in CT use over a five year period for the diagnosis of neck of femur fractures. Methods: Both the number of patients with a hip fracture and those undergoing a CT hip to diagnose an occult injury were identified across two district general hospitals between 2006–2007 and 2010–2011. The time from initial radiograph to CT and initial radiograph to operation were calculated. Results: In 2006–2007, of 547 hip fractures, 20 CT hips were performed and 6 reported as a fractured neck of femur (30%). In 2010–2011, of 499 hip fractures, 239 CT hips were performed and 65 fractures were recognised (27%). The mean time from radiograph until CT scan was 2.0 days in 2007 and 3.2 days in 2011, which was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). For those diagnosed using a CT scan the mean time from admission X-ray to surgery was 1.2 days in 2007 and 3.6 days in 2011. Conclusion: Clinicians are becoming increasingly reliant on CT for the diagnosis of hip fractures with our data suggesting further imaging is one factor that can delay time to diagnosis and theatre.

  12. A comparative study of influencing BMD factors in postpartum and general women in their twenties and thirties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Geun; Oh, Chan Ho; Kweon, Dae Cheol

    2007-01-01

    The study is to evaluate the factors that affect to the bone mineral density (BMD) of postpartum women by comparing BMD between postpartum and general women who are ages from 20 to 39, and to identify correlation between various factors weight, height, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin (Hb) and BMD. Study subjects were postpartum (n = 159) and general (n = 180) women. We checked the BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spine by using dual energy X-ray bone densitometry. The mean age was 30.69 ± 3.32 in postpartum care group and 31.22 ± 5.66 in general women group. In postpartum care group, the mean BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spine were -0.187 and -0.076. In general women group, the mean BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spine were -0.029, and -0.169. According to BMI level, each group was divided into two subgroups. One was 23 or more BMI subgroup, and the other was under 23 BMI subgroup. There was a significant difference in BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spine between two subgroups in general women group, but only a significant difference in BMD of lumbar spine is noted between two subgroups of postpartum group. According to Hb level, each group was divided into two subgroups. One was 11 g/dl or more subgroup, and the other was under 11 g/dl subgroup. There was not a statistically significant difference of BMD in all subgroups. BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spine showed a significant correlation with weight, height, BMI in both groups. There was a significant correlation between BMD and Hb level in postpartum care group, but a significant correlation was not noted in general women group. The postpartum women showed a significant correlation between BMD and various factors such as weight, height, BMI just like in general women. There was a significant correlation between BMD and Hb in postpartum women, but not in general women

  13. A comparative study of influencing BMD factors in postpartum and general women in their twenties and thirties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Geun; Oh, Chan Ho [Woosuk University, Wanju (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Dae Cheol [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    The study is to evaluate the factors that affect to the bone mineral density (BMD) of postpartum women by comparing BMD between postpartum and general women who are ages from 20 to 39, and to identify correlation between various factors weight, height, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin (Hb) and BMD. Study subjects were postpartum (n = 159) and general (n = 180) women. We checked the BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spine by using dual energy X-ray bone densitometry. The mean age was 30.69 {+-} 3.32 in postpartum care group and 31.22 {+-} 5.66 in general women group. In postpartum care group, the mean BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spine were -0.187 and -0.076. In general women group, the mean BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spine were -0.029, and -0.169. According to BMI level, each group was divided into two subgroups. One was 23 or more BMI subgroup, and the other was under 23 BMI subgroup. There was a significant difference in BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spine between two subgroups in general women group, but only a significant difference in BMD of lumbar spine is noted between two subgroups of postpartum group. According to Hb level, each group was divided into two subgroups. One was 11 g/dl or more subgroup, and the other was under 11 g/dl subgroup. There was not a statistically significant difference of BMD in all subgroups. BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spine showed a significant correlation with weight, height, BMI in both groups. There was a significant correlation between BMD and Hb level in postpartum care group, but a significant correlation was not noted in general women group. The postpartum women showed a significant correlation between BMD and various factors such as weight, height, BMI just like in general women. There was a significant correlation between BMD and Hb in postpartum women, but not in general women.

  14. Increased body mass index is a predisposition for treatment by total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    -joint degeneration and dysplasia. Sequential body mass index (BMI) measurements from 1976 to 1992, age, exposure to daily lifting and hip dysplasia were entered into logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of hip dysplasia ranged from 5.4% to 12.8% depending on the radiographical index used. Radiological hip OA...... prevalence was 1.0--2.5% in subjects or=60 years of age. While radiological OA was significantly influenced by hip dysplasia in men and hip dysplasia and age in women, the risk of THR being performed was only influenced by BMI assessed in 1976. Hip......We investigated the radiological and epidemiological data of 4,151 subjects followed up from 1976 to 2003 to determine individual risk factors for hip osteoarthritis (OA), hip pain and/or treatment by total hip replacement (THR). Pelvic radiographs recorded in 1992 were assessed for evidence of hip...

  15. Acetabular QCT in Total Hip Arthroplasty - a reliability study using porcine hips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Overgaard, Soren; Torfing, Trine

    and reliability of bone mineral density measurements (BMD) in close proximity of the acetabular cup using SECT and DECT images and 3D segmentation software. Materials and methods 22 acetabular cups (12 cemented, 10 un-cemented) were inserted in porcine hip specimens ex vivo. A femoral stem was attached to each...... difference between the double measurements in SECT was 8 mg/cm3 (p=0.64) and 2 mg/cm3 in DECT (p=0.6). In the cemented concept the differences were 33 mg/cm3 (p=0.054) and 11 mg/cm3 (p=0.014), respectively. ICC was >0.90 regardless of scan mode and cup type. In both cup types the Bland-Altman limits...... of agreement were wider in SECT (uncemented: -95 to 111; cemented: -86 to 153) compared with DECT (uncemented: -28 to 23; cemented: -21 to 44). Conclusion There were no statistically significant reliability differences between SECT and DECT, but results suggest that the agreement of DECT is better than...

  16. Accuracy of DXA scanning of the thoracic spine: cadaveric studies comparing BMC, areal BMD and geometric estimates of volumetric BMD against ash weight and CT measures of bone volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sran, Meena M; Khan, Karim M; Keiver, Kathy; Chew, Jason B; McKay, Heather A; Oxland, Thomas R

    2005-12-01

    Biomechanical studies of the thoracic spine often scan cadaveric segments by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to obtain measures of bone mass. Only one study has reported the accuracy of lateral scans of thoracic vertebral bodies. The accuracy of DXA scans of thoracic spine segments and of anterior-posterior (AP) thoracic scans has not been investigated. We have examined the accuracy of AP and lateral thoracic DXA scans by comparison with ash weight, the gold-standard for measuring bone mineral content (BMC). We have also compared three methods of estimating volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) with a novel standard-ash weight (g)/bone volume (cm3) as measured by computed tomography (CT). Twelve T5-T8 spine segments were scanned with DXA (AP and lateral) and CT. The T6 vertebrae were excised, the posterior elements removed and then the vertebral bodies were ashed in a muffle furnace. We proposed a new method of estimating vBMD and compared it with two previously published methods. BMC values from lateral DXA scans displayed the strongest correlation with ash weight (r=0.99) and were on average 12.8% higher (pBMC (AP or lateral) was more strongly correlated with ash weight than areal bone mineral density (aBMD; AP: r=0.54, or lateral: r=0.71) or estimated vBMD. Estimates of vBMD with either of the three methods were strongly and similarly correlated with volumetric BMD calculated by dividing ash weight by CT-derived volume. These data suggest that readily available DXA scanning is an appropriate surrogate measure for thoracic spine bone mineral and that the lateral scan might be the scan method of choice.

  17. Sarcopenia as an Independent Risk Factor for Decreased BMD in COPD Patients: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V (2008-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Won; Choi, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is a systemic consequence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Past reports have rarely examined any correlation between sarcopenia and BMD. We investigated the relationship cross-sectionally between the presence of sarcopenia and BMD reduction in COPD patients. Methods COPD patients aged 50 or older with qualifying spirometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data were from participants in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V (2008–2011). Results There were 286 (33.3%) subjects in the sarcopenia group and 572 (66.7%) in the non-sarcopenia group. The sarcopenia group had lower T-scores than the non-sarcopenia group (femur: -0.73±0.88 vs. -0.18±0.97, p sarcopenia group and 45.6% and 13.3% in the non-sarcopenia group (both p sarcopenia associated with increased the risk of osteopenia, osteoporosis, and a low BMD (OR = 3.227, 95% CI = 2.125–4.899, p sarcopenia was associated with increased the risk for decreased BMD in COPD. PMID:27749901

  18. Validation of FRAX and the impact of self-reported falls among elderly in a general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, M.; Meyer, H. E.; Skurtveit, S.

    2017-01-01

    for the youngest and oldest men. Self-reported fall was an independent risk factor for fracture in women. Introduction: The primary aim was to validate FRAX without BMD for hip fracture prediction in a Norwegian population of men and women 50–90 years. Secondary, to study whether information of falls could improve......Summary: Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) without bone mineral density (BMD) for hip fracture prediction was validated in a Norwegian population 50–90 years. Fracture risk increased with higher FRAX score, and the observed number of hip fractures agreed well with the predicted number, except...

  19. MUSCLE-BONE INTERACTIONS ACROSS AGE IN MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Palmer

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship of muscular strength and lean tissue with age-related patterns in bone mineral density (BMD in men 20-81 years of age. Subjects were assigned to one of three age groups, Young Men (YM, (n = 25, 20-39 yrs, Middle-aged Men (MM (n = 24, 40-59 yrs, and Older Men (OM (n = 23, 60-81 yrs. Isotonic and isokinetic strength was assessed for the quadriceps and hamstrings muscle groups. DXA (Lunar DPX-IQ was used to measure spine, hip, and total body BMD and body composition. OM had significantly lower (p < 0.05 total lean body mass (LBM than MM and lower leg lean mass (LM than YM and MM. OM had significantly lower (p < 0.01 BMD than YM and MM at the femoral neck and total hip sites and a higher proportion of OM were osteopenic and osteoporotic at the total hip site. Isotonic and isokinetic strength for both muscle groups was positively related (p < 0.05 with the hip BMD sites (r = 0.38-.67. Leg LM also was positively related to hip BMD (r = 0.37-.58. Multiple Regression analyses determined that age and lean mass (LBM or leg LM were significant predictors (p < 0.05 of femoral neck, and total hip BMD, while lean mass (LBM or leg LM was a significant predictor (p < 0.05 of BMD at the spine and trochanter sites. Isotonic and isokinetic leg strength variables were significant predictors (p < 0.05 of the total body, total hip and trochanter BMD. In conclusion, leg strength, leg LM, and total LBM were significant predictors of BMD in men, independent of age. These findings emphasize the importance of maintaining lean body mass for the bone health of aging men

  20. Increased body mass index is a predisposition for treatment by total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the radiological and epidemiological data of 4,151 subjects followed up from 1976 to 2003 to determine individual risk factors for hip osteoarthritis (OA), hip pain and/or treatment by total hip replacement (THR). Pelvic radiographs recorded in 1992 were assessed for evidence of hip......-joint degeneration and dysplasia. Sequential body mass index (BMI) measurements from 1976 to 1992, age, exposure to daily lifting and hip dysplasia were entered into logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of hip dysplasia ranged from 5.4% to 12.8% depending on the radiographical index used. Radiological hip OA...

  1. Segmental acetabular rim defects, bone loss, oversizing, and press fit cup in total hip arthroplasty evaluated with a probabilistic finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirouche, Farid; Solitro, Giovanni F; Walia, Amit; Gonzalez, Mark; Bobko, Aimee

    2017-08-01

    Management of segmental rim defects and bone mineral density (BMD) loss in the elderly prior to total hip replacement is unclear within classification systems for acetabular bone loss. In this study, our objectives were (1) to understand how a reduction in BMD in the elderly affects the oversizing of a press-fit cup for primary fixation and (2) to evaluate whether the location of the segmental defect affected cup fixation. A finite element (FE) model was used to simulate and evaluate cup insertion and fixation in the context of segmental rim defects. We focused on the distribution of patients over age 70 and used BMD (estimated from CT) as a proxy for aging's implications on THR and used probabilistic FE analysis to understand how BMD loss affects oversizing of a press-fit cup. A cup oversized by 1.10 ± 0.28 mm provides sufficient fixation and lower stresses at the cup-bone interface for elderly patients. Defects in the anterior column and posterior column both required the same mean insertion force for cup seating of 84% (taken as an average of 2 anterior column and 2 posterior column defects) compared to the control configuration, which was 5% greater than the insertion force for a superior rim defect and 12% greater than the insertion force for an inferior rim defect. A defect along the superior or inferior rim had a minimal effect on cup fixation, while a defect in the columns created cup instability and increased stress at the defect location.

  2. Prevalence and Possible Risk Factors of Low Bone Mineral Density in Untreated Female Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ning Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation. Different studies have shown decreased bone mineral density (BMD in patients with SLE. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and possible risk factors of low BMD in untreated female patients with SLE in Chinese population. A total of 119 untreated female patients with SLE were included. BMD was measured at lumbar spine and at total hip by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The associations between decreased BMD and demographic variables, clinical variables, and bone metabolism variables were analyzed. These SLE patients had the following characteristics: mean age was 32.6±11.9 years, mean disease duration was 22.1±34.5 months, and mean SLEDAI was 11.4±5.4. Osteopenia was present in 31.1% of the patients and osteoporosis in 8.5%. A significant negative association between low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c and BMD at the lumbar spine (correlation coefficient = −0.242; P=0.023 and total hip (correlation coefficient = −0.259; P=0.019 was shown. These results seem to indicate that increased LDL-c may be an important risk factor for low BMD at lumbar spine and total hip in untreated female SLE patients.

  3. Transient Increased Calcium and Calcitriol Requirements After Discontinuation of Human Synthetic Parathyroid Hormone 1-34 (hPTH 1-34) Replacement Therapy in Hypoparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafni, Rachel I; Guthrie, Lori C; Kelly, Marilyn H; Brillante, Beth A; Christie, C Michele; Reynolds, James C; Yovetich, Nancy A; James, Robert; Collins, Michael T

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic human PTH 1-34 (hPTH 1-34) replacement therapy in hypoparathyroidism maintains eucalcemia and converts quiescent bone to high-turnover bone. However, the skeletal and metabolic effects of drug discontinuation have not been reported. Nine subjects with hypoparathyroidism received subcutaneous injections of hPTH 1-34 two to three times daily for 19.8 to 61.3 months and then transitioned back to calcium and calcitriol. Biochemistries and bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were assessed at baseline, while on treatment, and at follow-up 3 to 12 months after drug discontinuation. Two subjects developed hypocalcemia when hPTH 1-34 was abruptly discontinued. Thus, to avoid hypocalcemia, subjects were slowly weaned from hPTH 1-34 over several weeks. When hPTH 1-34 was stopped, subjects were requiring two to three times pretreatment doses of calcitriol and calcium to maintain blood calcium levels. Doses were gradually reduced over many weeks until calcium levels were stable on doses similar to baseline. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), N-telopeptide (NTX), and osteocalcin (OC) increased significantly with hPTH 1-34; at follow-up, BSAP and NTX had returned to baseline while OC was still slightly elevated. During treatment, BMD was unchanged at the hip and lateral spine but declined at the anterior-posterior (AP) spine, radius, and total body. During weaning, BMD increased, with the hip and lateral spine exceeding pre-hPTH 1-34 values and the whole body returning to baseline. AP spine was increased non-significantly compared to baseline at follow-up. hPTH 1-34 must be gradually weaned in hypoparathyroid patients with high doses of oral medications given to avoid hypocalcemia. The transient increased requirements accompanied by increased BMD after long-term hPTH 1-34 therapy suggest a reversal of the expanded remodeling space favoring bone formation as the skeleton returns to a low-turnover state, reminiscent of the hungry

  4. Combined Effects of Spaceflight and Age in Astronauts as Assessed by Areal Bone Mineral Density [BMD] and Trabecular Bone Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Spector, Elizabeth R.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Evans, H. J.; King, L.; Watts, N. B.; Hans, D.; Smith, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    BMD appeared stable or trending upward. For females (n=8) LD observations were too few to discern a trend. Notably, models describing trends in TBS appeared to be more sensitive to the effects of age than the models for BMD. We conclude that TBS may provide an additional index for the lumbar spine to monitor the combined changes due to spaceflight and due to aging. This increased knowledge may enhance the ability to identify an intervention trigger for premature vertebral fractures in astronauts.

  5. Decreased fracture rate, pharmacogenetics and BMD response in 79 Swedish children with osteogenesis imperfecta types I, III and IV treated with Pamidronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, K; Kindmark, A; Rubin, C-J; Malmgren, B; Grigelioniene, G; Söderhäll, S; Ljunggren, Ö; Åström, E

    2016-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited heterogeneous bone fragility disorder, usually caused by collagen I mutations. It is well established that bisphosphonate treatment increases lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD), as well as improves vertebral geometry in severe OI; however, fracture reduction has been difficult to prove, pharmacogenetic studies are scarce, and it is not known at which age, or severity of disease, treatment should be initiated. COL1A1 and COL1A2 were analyzed in 79 children with OI (type I n=33, type III n=25 and type IV n=21) treated with Pamidronate. Data on LS BMD, height, and radiologically confirmed non-vertebral and vertebral fractures were collected prior to, and at several time points during treatment. An increase in LS BMD Z-score was observed for all types of OI, and a negative correlation to Δ LS BMD was observed for both age and LS BMD Z-score at treatment initiation. Supine height Z-scores were not affected by Pamidronate treatment, The fracture rate was reduced for all OI types at all time points during treatment (overall p4yrs Pamidronate. Twice as many boys as girls with OI type I were treated with Pamidronate, and the fracture rate the year prior treatment was 2.2 times higher for boys (p=0.0236). Greater Δ LS BMD, but smaller Δ fracture numbers were observed on Pamidronate for helical glycine mutations in COL1A1 vs. COL1A2. Vertebral compression fractures did not progress in any individual during treatment; however, they did not improve in 9%, and these individuals were all >11years of age at treatment initiation (p<0.0001). Pamidronate treatment in children with all types of OI increased LS BMD, decreased fracture rate, and improved vertebral compression fractures. Fracture reduction was prompt and maintained during treatment, irrespective of age at treatment initiation and collagen I mutation type. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Barreiro, María de Los Angeles; Rivera-Márquez, José Alberto; Trujillo-Arriaga, Héctor Miguel; Tamayo Y Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Barreira-Mercado, Eduardo; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2013-01-01

    The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN) at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD) and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN) on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM). The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35-55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI) was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG), women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1), women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2), women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG) for reference in BMD. After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1%) and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5%) groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal). The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels.

  7. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Barreiro, María de los Angeles; Rivera-Márquez, José Alberto; Trujillo-Arriaga, Héctor Miguel; Tamayo y Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Barreira-Mercado, Eduardo; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2013-01-01

    Background The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN) at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD) and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. Objective To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN) on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM). Methods The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35–55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI) was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG), women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1), women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2), women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG) for reference in BMD. Results After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1%) and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5%) groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal). Conclusion The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels. PMID:23704856

  8. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Aguilera-Barreiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. Objective: To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM. Methods: The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35–55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG, women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1, women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2, women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG for reference in BMD. Results: After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1% and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5% groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal. Conclusion: The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels.

  9. Baseline Vitamin D Status is Predictive of Longitudinal Change in Tibial BMD in Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    With its lack of effective treatment and high prevalence, the public health impact of OA is substantial. Peri-articular bone in OA can be evaluated with the medial:lateral tibial BMD ratio (M:L BMD) obtained from dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Higher M:L BMD is associated with medial OA features...

  10. Evaluation of Concordance between Hip and Spine T Scores in the Diagnosis of Osteoporosis in Men Over Age of Fifty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Özdemir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the concordance in diagnosis of osteoporosis based on the World Health Organization (WHO classification of bone mineral density (BMD measurements of hip and spine in men aged ≥50 years. Materials and Methods: The BMD measurements, which were measured via dual x-ray energy absorptiometry (DXA, of 10.049 patients admitted to our hospital between January 1, 2012 and August 1, 2013 were retrospectively reviewed and 649 men aged ≥50 years were included in the study. It was defined as minor discordance when the difference between two sites was no more than one WHO diagnostic class. Major discordance was present when one site is osteoporotic and the other is normal. Results: The mean age of the participants was 68.7±9.1 (50-93 years. The mean values of lumbar spine and total hip BMD values were 1.1681±0.231 (0.629-2.267 g/cm2 and 0.933±0.152 (0.414-1.444 g/cm2, respectively. According to L1-L4 vertebra T score, 54.4% of the individuals were classified as normal, 33% were osteopenic, and 12.6% were osteoporotic. Whereas, according to total femur T score 41.7% of participants were normal, 47.5% had osteopenia, and 10.8% had osteoporosis. Concordance of T scores, minor discordance, and major discordance were seen in 59.6%, 37.6%, and 2.8% of the patients, respectively. Conclusion: In this study, it was shown that in 4 of every 10 male patients aged ≥50 years tested by DXA, T score discordance between spine and total hip measurement sites is present. This ratio is similar to the results of previous studies investigating the prevalence of this phenomenon in larger samples including both postmenopausal women and men. Clinicians should keep in their mind that T score discordance is a prevalent finding and can be related to various physiological and pathological patient factors as well as the performance or analysis of DXA itself.

  11. The relationship between proton pump inhibitor use and longitudinal change in bone mineral density: a population-based study [corrected] from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targownik, Laura E; Leslie, William D; Davison, K Shawn; Goltzman, David; Jamal, Sophie A; Kreiger, Nancy; Josse, Robert G; Kaiser, Stephanie M; Kovacs, Christopher S; Prior, Jerilynn C; Zhou, Wei

    2012-09-01

    Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use has been identified as a risk factor for hip and vertebral fractures. Evidence supporting a relationship between PPI use and osteoporosis remains scant. Demonstrating that PPIs are associated with accelerated bone mineral density (BMD) loss would provide supportive evidence for a mechanism through which PPIs could increase fracture risk. We used the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study data set, which enrolled a population-based sample of Canadians who underwent BMD testing of the femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine (L1-L4) at baseline, and then again at 5 and 10 years. Participants also reported drug use and exposure to risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture. Multivariate linear regression was used to determine the independent association of PPI exposure and baseline BMD, and on change in BMD at 5 and 10 years. In all, 8,340 subjects were included in the baseline analysis, with 4,512 (55%) undergoing year 10 BMD testing. After adjusting for potential confounders, PPI use was associated with significantly lower baseline BMD at the femoral neck and total hip. PPI use was not associated with a significant acceleration in covariate-adjusted BMD loss at any measurement site after 5 and 10 years of follow-up. PPI users had lower BMD at baseline than PPI non-users, but PPI use over 10 years did not appear to be associated with accelerated BMD loss. The reasons for discordant findings between PPI use at baseline and during follow-up require further study.

  12. Bone Parameters in Anorexia Nervosa and Athletic Amenorrhea: Comparison of Two Hypothalamic Amenorrhea States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandemir, Nurgun; Slattery, Meghan; Ackerman, Kathryn E; Tulsiani, Shreya; Bose, Amita; Singhal, Vibha; Baskaran, Charumathi; Ebrahimi, Seda; Goldstein, Mark; Eddy, Kamryn; Klibanski, Anne; Misra, Madhusmita

    2018-04-05

    We have reported low bone mineral density (BMD), impaired bone structure, and increased fracture risk in anorexia nervosa (AN) and normal-weight, oligo-amenorrheic athletes (OA). However, data directly comparing compartment-specific bone parameters in AN, OA and controls are lacking. 426 females 14-21.9 years old were included; 231 AN, 94 OA and 101 normal-weight eumenorrheic controls. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to assess areal BMD (aBMD) of the whole body less head (WBLH), spine, and hip. High resolution peripheral quantitative CT was used to assess volumetric BMD (vBMD), bone geometry and structure at the non-weight bearing distal radius and weight-bearing distal tibia. AN had lower WBLH and hip aBMD Z-scores than OA and controls (p<0.0001). AN and OA had lower spine aBMD Z-scores than controls (p<0.01). At the radius, total and cortical vBMD, percent cortical area and thickness were lower in AN and OA vs. controls (p≤0.04); trabecular vBMD was lower in AN than controls. At the tibia, AN had lower measures for most parameters vs. OA and controls (p<0.05); OA had lower cortical vBMD than controls (p=0.002). AN and OA had higher fracture rates vs. controls. Stress fracture prevalence was highest in OA (p<0.0001); non-stress fracture prevalence was highest in AN (p<0.05). AN is deleterious to bone at all sites and both bone compartments. A high stress fracture rate in OA, who have comparable WBLH and hip aBMD measures to controls, indicates that BMD in these women may need to be even higher to avoid fractures.

  13. Bone mineral density in young adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Raizada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is equipoise regarding the status of bone mineral density (BMD in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, where patients need to be on long-term low-dose steroids. Objective: We aimed to evaluate BMD at the hip, spine and forearm in women with CAH and compare it to healthy young adult women of the same age range. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen adult women with CAH with age ranging from 18 to 40 years (mean ± standard deviation = 27.5 ± 6.2 years underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry along with laboratory evaluation. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, forearm along with T-scores were measured. Serum total calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25 hydroxy Vitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were assayed. History of any fractures in the past was taken. Fifteen healthy women in the same age range were taken as controls for comparison. Results: The BMD at hip (0.85 ± 0.02 g/cm2 in CAH was significantly lower as compared with controls (0.92 ± 0.03 g/cm2, P = 0.029. BMD at lumbar spine was also reduced (0.96 ± 0.02 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03, P = 0.057. The BMD at forearm was not significantly different between CAH and controls. The mean Vitamin D was 9.8 ng/ml (deficient range. There was no history of fractures in CAH. Conclusion: Young adult CAH women had lower BMD at spine and hip than healthy young adult women of the same age range. The forearm BMD was not different from controls. No change in fracture frequency was present. Patients with CAH being treated with steroids are at increased risk of osteopenia, and their bone health needs to be monitored.

  14. Phantom-less QCT BMD system as screening tool for osteoporosis without additional radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Dirk K., E-mail: dirk.mueller@philips.com [Philips GmbH, Healthcare Division, Luebeckertordamm 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany); Kutscherenko, Alex; Bartel, Hans [Kaiserswerther Diakonie, Florence-Nightingale Hospital, Kreuzbergstrasse 79, 40489 Duesseldorf (Germany); Vlassenbroek, Alain [Philips Healthcare, Bruxelles, Rue des Deux Gares 80, 1070 Bruxelles (Belgium); Ourednicek, Petr [Philips Czech Republic, Safrankova 1, 15500 Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Erckenbrecht, Joachim [Kaiserswerther Diakonie, Florence-Nightingale Hospital, Kreuzbergstrasse 79, 40489 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Phantom-less bone mineral density (PLBMD) systems are easily integrated into the CT workflow for non-dedicated Quantitative CT (QCT) BMD measurements in thoracic and abdominal scans. This in vivo retrospective study aims to determine accuracy and precision of the PLBMD option located on the Extended Brilliance Workspace (Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH, US) from both cross-sectional and longitudinal image data. Materials and methods: The cross-sectional comparison with phantom-based QCT BMD was performed for 82 patients (61 female, 21 male) with a mean age of (63.0 {+-} 11.8 SD) years on 197 vertebrae. This was followed by an interobserver variability analysis on 71 vertebrae. The longitudinal PLBMD study was carried out on 45 vertebrae from 10 patients (5 female, 5 male) with a mean age of (64.4 {+-} 11.5 SD) years. They were re-scanned with standardized scan and contrast-injection protocols within a mean and median of (33 {+-} 41 SD) and 8 days, respectively. All CT scans were acquired on an Mx8000 Quad (Philips) at Florence-Nightingale Hospital, Kaiserswerth, Germany, in a spiral acquisition mode. Results: A negligible BMD bias of -0.9 mg/cm{sup 3} for the PLBMD option was observed with respect to phantom-based QCT BMD. Applying CT number matching of muscle and fat ROIs, the analysis of cross-sectional interobserver and of longitudinal variability yielded precision values of 3.1 mg/cm{sup 3} (CV% = 4.0) and 4.2 mg/cm{sup 3} (CV% = 5.3), respectively. Conclusion: Although the precision is inferior to phantom-based BMD systems, PLBMD is a robust clinical utility for the detection of lowered BMD in a large patient population. This can be achieved without additional radiation exposure from non-contrasted CT scans, to perform an ancillary diagnosis of osteopenia or osteoporosis.

  15. Phantom-less QCT BMD system as screening tool for osteoporosis without additional radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Dirk K.; Kutscherenko, Alex; Bartel, Hans; Vlassenbroek, Alain; Ourednicek, Petr; Erckenbrecht, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Phantom-less bone mineral density (PLBMD) systems are easily integrated into the CT workflow for non-dedicated Quantitative CT (QCT) BMD measurements in thoracic and abdominal scans. This in vivo retrospective study aims to determine accuracy and precision of the PLBMD option located on the Extended Brilliance Workspace (Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH, US) from both cross-sectional and longitudinal image data. Materials and methods: The cross-sectional comparison with phantom-based QCT BMD was performed for 82 patients (61 female, 21 male) with a mean age of (63.0 ± 11.8 SD) years on 197 vertebrae. This was followed by an interobserver variability analysis on 71 vertebrae. The longitudinal PLBMD study was carried out on 45 vertebrae from 10 patients (5 female, 5 male) with a mean age of (64.4 ± 11.5 SD) years. They were re-scanned with standardized scan and contrast-injection protocols within a mean and median of (33 ± 41 SD) and 8 days, respectively. All CT scans were acquired on an Mx8000 Quad (Philips) at Florence-Nightingale Hospital, Kaiserswerth, Germany, in a spiral acquisition mode. Results: A negligible BMD bias of -0.9 mg/cm 3 for the PLBMD option was observed with respect to phantom-based QCT BMD. Applying CT number matching of muscle and fat ROIs, the analysis of cross-sectional interobserver and of longitudinal variability yielded precision values of 3.1 mg/cm 3 (CV% = 4.0) and 4.2 mg/cm 3 (CV% = 5.3), respectively. Conclusion: Although the precision is inferior to phantom-based BMD systems, PLBMD is a robust clinical utility for the detection of lowered BMD in a large patient population. This can be achieved without additional radiation exposure from non-contrasted CT scans, to perform an ancillary diagnosis of osteopenia or osteoporosis.

  16. Resistance training is accompanied by increases in hip strength and changes in lower extremity biomechanics during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kelli R; Earl, Jennifer E; O'Connor, Kristian M; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2009-01-01

    Movement and muscle activity of the hip have been shown to affect movement of the lower extremity, and been related to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if increased hip strength affects lower extremity mechanics during running. Within subject, repeated measures design. Fifteen healthy women volunteered. Hip abduction and external rotation strength were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. Three-dimensional biomechanical data of the lower extremity were collected during running using a high-speed motion capture system. Measurements were made before, at the mid-point, and after a 6-week strengthening program using closed-chain hip rotation exercises. Joint range of motion (rearfoot eversion, knee abduction, hip adduction, and internal rotation), eversion velocity, eversion angle at heel strike, and peak joint moments (rearfoot inversion, knee abduction, hip abduction, and external rotation) were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (P knee abduction moment (P=0.05) decreased by 57% and 10%, respectively. The hip abductors and external rotators were strengthened, leading to an alteration of lower extremity joint loading which may reduce injury risk. These exercises could be used in the rehabilitation, or prevention, of lower extremity injuries.

  17. Vertebral Fractures and Bone Mineral Density in Patients With Idiopathic Hypoparathyroidism on Long-Term Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Himika; Saha, Soma; Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Sharma, Raju; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Goswami, Ravinder

    2017-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is increased in idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IH). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) deficiency, hypocalcemic seizures, and anticonvulsants could compromise skeletal health in IH. We assessed vertebral fractures (VFs) and related factors in IH and change in BMD during follow-up. VFs were assessed by morphometry. BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometery at the lumbar spine, hip, and forearm. Change in BMD was assessed in a subset after a 10-year follow-up. The endocrine clinic of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Included were 104 patients with IH and 64 healthy controls. Hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, normal kidney function, and low serum PTH levels were used to diagnose IH. VFs were seen in 18.3% of patients with IH and 4.7% of controls (odds ratio, 4.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.28 to 16.04). Use of anticonvulsants and menopause were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with VF. Mean BMD at lumbar spine and hip were higher by 21.4% and 8.6%, respectively, in IH than in controls (P < 0.001), respectively. BMD significantly increased during follow-up at all sites. Change in BMD correlated with maintenance of the serum calcium/phosphorus ratio during follow-up. Despite increased BMD, prevalence of vertebral-fractures is greater in patients with IH, especially in postmenopausal women and those on anticonvulsant therapy. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  18. Association of stressful life events with accelerated bone loss in older men: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Howard A.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Cauley, Jane A.; Taylor, Brent C.; Schousboe, John T.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Introduction Prior studies suggest that stressful life events may increase adverse health outcomes, including falls and possibly fractures. The current study builds on these findings and examines whether stressful life events are associated with increased bone loss. Methods 4388 men aged ≥65 years in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study completed total hip bone mineral density (BMD) measures at baseline and visit 2, approximately 4.6 years later, and self-reported stressful life events data mid-way between baseline and visit 2, and at visit 2. We used linear regression to model the association of stressful life events with concurrent annualized total hip BMD loss, and log binomial regression or Poisson regression to model risk of concurrent accelerated BMD loss (>1 SD more than mean annualized change). Results 75.3% of men reported ≥1 type of stressful life event, including 43.3% with ≥2 types of stressful life events. Mean annualized BMD loss was −0.36% (SD 0.88) and 13.9% of men were categorized with accelerated BMD loss (about 5.7% or more total loss). Rate of annualized BMD loss increased with the number of types of stressful life events after adjustment for age (pstressful life events (RR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.04–1.16]) per increase of 1 type of stressful life event). Fracture risk was not significantly different between stressful life event-accelerated bone loss subgroups (p=0.08). Conclusions In these older men, stressful life events were associated with a small, dose-related increase in risk of concurrent accelerated hip bone loss. Low frequency of fractures limited assessment of whether rapid bone loss mediates any association of stressful life events with incident fractures. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and to investigate the mechanism that may underlie this association. PMID:25169421

  19. Epistatic effects contribute to variation in BMD in Fischer 344 x Lewis F2 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Daniel L; Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    To further delineate the factors underlying the complex genetic architecture of BMD in the rat model, a genome screen for epistatic interactions was conducted. Several significant interactions were identified, involving both previously identified and novel QTLs. The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including BMD, has been shown to be caused largely by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We have previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 595 female F(2) progeny of Fischer 344 and Lewis rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, or interaction between genetic loci, that contribute to fracture risk. Microsatellite marker data from a 20-cM genome screen was analyzed along with weight-adjusted BMD (DXA and pQCT) phenotypic data using the R/qtl software package. Genotype and phenotype data were permuted to determine a genome-wide significance threshold for the epistasis or interaction LOD score corresponding to an alpha level of 0.01. Novel loci on chromosomes 12 and 15 showed a strong epistatic effect on total BMD at the femoral midshaft by pQCT (LOD = 5.4). A previously reported QTL on chromosome 7 was found to interact with a novel locus on chromosome 20 to affect whole lumbar BMD by pQCT (LOD = 6.2). These results provide new information regarding the mode of action of previously identified rat QTLs, as well as identifying novel loci that act in combination with known QTLs or with other novel loci to contribute to the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture.

  20. Study on Oneself Developed to Apparatus Position of Measurement of BMD in the Distal Radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Man Seok; Song, Jae Yong; Lee, Hyun Kuk; Yu, Se Jong; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference of bone mineral density according to distal radius rotation and to develop the supporting tool to measure rotation angles. CT scanning and the measurement of BMD by DXA of the appropriate position of the forearm were performed on 20 males. Twenty healthy volunteers without any history of operations, anomalies, or trauma were enrolled. The CT scan was used to evaluate the cross sectional structure and the rotation angle on the horizontal plane of the distal radius. The rotational angle was measured by the m-view program on the PACS monitor. The DXA was used in 20 dried radii of cadaveric specimens in pronation and supination with five and ten degrees, respectively, including a neutral position (zero degrees) to evaluate the changes of BMD according to the rotation. The mean rotation angle of the distal radius on CT was 7.4 degrees of supination in 16 cases (80%), 3.3 degrees of pronation in three cases (15%), and zero degree of neutral in one case (9%), respectively. The total average rotation angle in 20 people was 5.4 degrees of supination. In the cadaveric study, the BMD of the distal radius was different according to the rotational angles. The lowest BMD was obtained at 3.3 degrees of supination. In the case of the measurement of BMD in the distal radius with a neutral position, the rotational angle of the distal radius is close to supination. Pronation is needed for the constant measurement of BMD in the distal radius with the rotation angle measuring at the lowest BMD and about five degrees of pronation of the distal radius is recommended.

  1. Effects of genes, sex, age, and activity on BMC, bone size, and areal and volumetric BMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havill, Lorena M; Mahaney, Michael C; L Binkley, Teresa; Specker, Bonny L

    2007-05-01

    Quantitative genetic analyses of bone data for 710 inter-related individuals 8-85 yr of age found high heritability estimates for BMC, bone area, and areal and volumetric BMD that varied across bone sites. Activity levels, especially time in moderate plus vigorous activity, had notable effects on bone. In some cases, these effects were age and sex specific. Genetic and environmental factors play a complex role in determining BMC, bone size, and BMD. This study assessed the heritability of bone measures; characterized the effects of age, sex, and physical activity on bone; and tested for age- and sex-specific bone effects of activity. Measures of bone size and areal and volumetric density (aBMD and vBMD, respectively) were obtained by DXA and pQCT on 710 related individuals (466 women) 8-85 yr of age. Measures of activity included percent time in moderate + vigorous activity (%ModVig), stair flights climbed per day, and miles walked per day. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted to model the effects of activity and covariates on bone outcomes. Accounting for effects of age, sex, and activity levels, genes explained 40-62% of the residual variation in BMC and BMD and 27-75% in bone size (all pBMC and cross-sectional area (CSA) at the 4% radius, but this was not observed among women (sex-by-activity interaction, both p BMD (Cort-vBMD) than younger men, with minimal difference between low and high activity levels. Influence of activity was greater in older women: older women with low activity had lower Cort-vBMD than older men, but older women with high activity had higher Cort-vBMD than older men (age-by-sex-by-activity interaction, p=0.04). High heritability estimates for DXA and pQCT measures varied across bone sites. Percent time spent in moderate to vigorous activity had the most notable effect on bone, and in some cases, this effect was age or sex specific.

  2. BMD T-Score Values Expeditions 1-23 (n=30)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This chart shows the T-Values for the Bone Mass Density (BMD) of three areas of the body (i.e., lumbar spine, femoral neck and trochanter) for both pre-spaceflight and post-spaceflight for 30 subjects.

  3. Epistatic Effects Contribute to Variation in BMD in Fischer 344 × Lewis F2 Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Daniel L; Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    To further delineate the factors underlying the complex genetic architecture of BMD in the rat model, a genome screen for epistatic interactions was conducted. Several significant interactions were identified, involving both previously identified and novel QTLs. Introduction The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including BMD, has been shown to be caused largely by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We have previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 595 female F2 progeny of Fischer 344 and Lewis rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, or interaction between genetic loci, that contribute to fracture risk. Materials and Methods Microsatellite marker data from a 20-cM genome screen was analyzed along with weight-adjusted BMD (DXA and pQCT) phenotypic data using the R/qtl software package. Genotype and phenotype data were permuted to determine a genome-wide significance threshold for the epistasis or interaction LOD score corresponding to an α level of 0.01. Results and Conclusions Novel loci on chromosomes 12 and 15 showed a strong epistatic effect on total BMD at the femoral midshaft by pQCT (LOD = 5.4). A previously reported QTL on chromosome 7 was found to interact with a novel locus on chromosome 20 to affect whole lumbar BMD by pQCT (LOD = 6.2). These results provide new information regarding the mode of action of previously identified rat QTLs, as well as identifying novel loci that act in combination with known QTLs or with other novel loci to contribute to the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture. PMID:17907919

  4. Low volumetric BMD is linked to upper-limb fracture in pubertal girls and persists into adulthood: a seven-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sulin; Xu, Leiting; Nicholson, Patrick H F; Tylavsky, Frances; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Wang, Qingju; Suominen, Harri; Kujala, Urho M; Kröger, Heikki; Alen, Markku

    2009-09-01

    The aetiology of increased incidence of fracture during puberty is unclear. This study aimed to determine whether low volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in the distal radius is associated with upper-limb fractures in growing girls, and whether any such vBMD deficit persists into adulthood. Fracture history from birth to 20 years was obtained and verified by medical records in 1034 Finnish girls aged 10-13 years. Bone density and geometry at distal radius, biomarkers and lifestyle/behavioural factors were assessed in a subset of 396 girls with a 7.5-year follow-up. We found that fracture incidence peaked during puberty (relative risk 3.1 at age of 8-14 years compared to outside this age window), and 38% of fractures were in the upper-limb. Compared to the non-fracture cohort, girls who sustained upper-limb fracture at ages 8-14 years had lower distal radial vBMD at baseline (258.9+/-37.5 vs. 287.5+/-34.1 mg/cm(3), p=0.001), 1-year (252.0+/-29.3 vs. 282.6+/-33.5 mg/cm(3), p=0.001), 2-year (258.9+/-32.2 vs. 289.9+/-40.1 mg/cm(3), p=0.003), and 7-year follow-ups (early adulthood, 307.6+/-35.9 vs. 343.6+/-40.9 mg/cm(3), p=0.002). There was a consistent trend towards larger bone cross-sectional area in the fracture cohort compared to non-fracture. In a logistic regression model, lower vBMD (p=0.001) was the only significant predictor of upper-limb fracture during the period of 8-14 years. Our results indicate that low BMD is an important factor underlying elevated upper-limb fracture risk during puberty, and that low BMD in pubertal girls with fracture persists into adulthood. Hence low vBMD during childhood is not a transient deficit. Methods to monitor vBMD and to maximise bone mineral accrual and reduce risks of falling in childhood should be developed.

  5. Increased expression of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in osteoarthritis of human knee joint compared to hip joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, John H; Rai, Vikrant; Dilisio, Matthew F; Sekundiak, Todd D; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2017-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease characterized by the destruction of cartilage. The greatest risk factors for the development of OA include age and obesity. Recent studies suggest the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of OA. The two most common locations for OA to occur are in the knee and hip joints. The knee joint experiences more mechanical stress, cartilage degeneration, and inflammation than the hip joint. This could contribute to the increased incidence of OA in the knee joint. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), including high-mobility group box-1, receptor for advanced glycation end products, and alarmins (S100A8 and S100A9), are released in the joint in response to stress-mediated chondrocyte and cartilage damage. This facilitates increased cartilage degradation and inflammation in the joint. Studies have documented the role of DAMPs in the pathogenesis of OA; however, the comparison of DAMPs and its influence on OA has not been discussed. In this study, we compared the DAMPs between OA knee and hip joints and found a significant difference in the levels of DAMPs expressed in the knee joint compared to the hip joint. The increased levels of DAMPs suggest a difference in the underlying pathogenesis of OA in the knee and the hip and highlights DAMPs as potential therapeutic targets for OA in the future.

  6. Bone mineral density of girls with idiopathic scoliosis: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameri E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have suggested higher incidence of osteoporosis in patients with idiopathic scoliosis in comparison with the normal population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of low bone mass among adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis.Methods: In this cross-sectional study performed in shafa Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2011-2012, we recruited fifty-seven 12- to-20-year old girls with idiopathic scoliosis and compared them with 100 age-matched healthy girls. The patients had no other diseases including neuromuscular disorders, congenital vertebral anomalies or a history of spinal surgery. Bone mineral densities (BMD of the hip and spine were evaluated and compared in all 157 participants using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Standard BMD (sBMD was also calculated at the lumbar spine. Results: Analysis of the data revealed that hip BMD was significantly (P=0.004 lower in patients with idiopathic scoliosis versus the controls. Moreover, BMD and sBMD of the Spine were also significantly lower in the patients (respectively, P=0.030 and P=0.030. Curve location had no effect on the values of hip BMD, spine BMD or spine sBMD (respectively, P=0.061 and P=0.274 and P=0.208.Finally, with more severe curves a lower bone mass was detected for sBMD and spine BMD (respectively, P=0.017 and P=0.016, but it was not significant for hip BMD (P=0.069.Conclusion: Adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis had lower bone mass compared with their healthy peers. The lower bone mass was correlated with the severity of the curve but not its location.

  7. Do cadmium, lead, and aluminum in drinking water increase the risk of hip fractures? A NOREPOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Cecilie; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Tell, Grethe S; Flaten, Trond Peder; Hongve, Dag; Omsland, Tone Kristin; Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Aamodt, Geir

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relations between cadmium, lead, and aluminum in municipality drinking water and the incidence of hip fractures in the Norwegian population. A trace metals survey in 566 waterworks was linked geographically to hip fractures from hospitals throughout the country (1994-2000). In all those supplied from these waterworks, 5,438 men and 13,629 women aged 50-85 years suffered a hip fracture. Poisson regression models were fitted, adjusting for age, region of residence, urbanization, and type of water source as well as other possibly bone-related water quality factors. Effect modification by background variables and interactions between water quality factors were examined (correcting for false discovery rate). Men exposed to a relatively high concentration of cadmium (IRR = 1.10; 95 % CI 1.01, 1.20) had an increased risk of fracture. The association between relatively high lead and hip fracture risk was significant in the oldest age group (66-85 years) for both men (IRR = 1.11; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.21) and women (IRR = 1.10; 95 % CI 1.04, 1.16). Effect modification by degree of urbanization on hip fracture risk in men was also found for all three metals: cadmium, lead, and aluminum. In summary, a relatively high concentration of cadmium, lead, and aluminum measured in drinking water increased the risk of hip fractures, but the associations depended on gender, age, and urbanization degree. This study could help in elucidating the complex effects on bone health by risk factors found in the environment.

  8. A comparative study on BMD of lumbar spine and proximal femur in post-menopausal women using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Han Sik; Mo, Eun Hee

    1999-01-01

    Osteoporosis, which causes mainly fracture of the spine, proximal femur and distal radius by minimal trauma, is a major public health problem and its prevalence is steadily increasing in Korea according to the development of public health care. There are reliable methods for diagnosis based on bone densitometry. Early detection and intervention are important for reducing the incidence of fractures. A consensus definition of osteoporosis, based on bone density measurement, has been developed by the World Health Organization(WHO). In this study, bone mineral density(BMD) was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) at the proximal femur and lumbar spine in 132 post-menopausal women. The purpose of this study is to find influential factors on the BMD of the proximal femur and the lumbar spine and to analyze correlation between BMD and the problematic factors. We obtained the following results : 1. Mean BMD score, T-score and Z-score of the proximal femur were 0.81(g/cm 2 ), -2.45(S.D.) and -2.09(S.D.) respectively and in the lumber spine were 0.83(g/cm 2 ), -2.02(S.D.), -2.43(S.D.) respectively. 2. In correlation analysis between BMD and many factors, correlation coefficients were -0.467, 0.212, -0.321 and 0.241 in age, height, duration after menopause respectively. BMI and the residuals were comparatively small. 3. Correlation coefficients to age matched BMD, in height and body weight were 0.222 and 0.241, in age and duration after menopause were -0.268, -0.282. 4. The fracture threshold of proximal femur BMD to the 90th percentile was 0.845(g/cm 2 ). 5. At the result of multiple regression analysis, age, body weight, BMI(kg/m 2 ) and duration after menopause described as significant variables

  9. A comparative study on BMD of lumbar spine and proximal femur in post-menopausal women using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Han Sik [Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Mo, Eun Hee [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    Osteoporosis, which causes mainly fracture of the spine, proximal femur and distal radius by minimal trauma, is a major public health problem and its prevalence is steadily increasing in Korea according to the development of public health care. There are reliable methods for diagnosis based on bone densitometry. Early detection and intervention are important for reducing the incidence of fractures. A consensus definition of osteoporosis, based on bone density measurement, has been developed by the World Health Organization(WHO). In this study, bone mineral density(BMD) was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) at the proximal femur and lumbar spine in 132 post-menopausal women. The purpose of this study is to find influential factors on the BMD of the proximal femur and the lumbar spine and to analyze correlation between BMD and the problematic factors. We obtained the following results : 1. Mean BMD score, T-score and Z-score of the proximal femur were 0.81(g/cm{sup 2}), -2.45(S.D.) and -2.09(S.D.) respectively and in the lumber spine were 0.83(g/cm{sup 2}), -2.02(S.D.), -2.43(S.D.) respectively. 2. In correlation analysis between BMD and many factors, correlation coefficients were -0.467, 0.212, -0.321 and 0.241 in age, height, duration after menopause respectively. BMI and the residuals were comparatively small. 3. Correlation coefficients to age matched BMD, in height and body weight were 0.222 and 0.241, in age and duration after menopause were -0.268, -0.282. 4. The fracture threshold of proximal femur BMD to the 90th percentile was 0.845(g/cm{sup 2}). 5. At the result of multiple regression analysis, age, body weight, BMI(kg/m{sup 2}) and duration after menopause described as significant variables.

  10. Bone Mineral Density of Adolescent Female Tennis Players and Nontennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Ermin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine differences in bone mineral density (BMD among adolescent female tennis players (TPs and nontennis players (NTPs and to assess body composition as a predictor variable of BMD. Nineteen female TPs and 19 female NTPs, ages 14 to 18 years, participated in this study. Lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearms BMD, and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Lumbar spine and total hip BMD measurements for TP were greater than NTP. However, these differences were not statistically significant (=0.37 and 0.12, resp.. TP had significantly greater femoral neck BMD than NTPs (=0.02. This difference might play an important role in preventing osteoporosis and decreasing the risk of fractures at the hip later in life.

  11. Hip morphology predicts posterior hip impingement in a cadaveric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, William Z; Fowers, Cody A; Weinberg, Douglas S; Millis, Michael B; Tu, Leigh-Anne; Liu, Raymond W

    2018-05-01

    Posterior hip impingement is a recently-identified cause of hip pain. The purpose of this study is to characterise posterior femoroacetabular and ischiofemoral impingement and identify its predisposing morphologic traits. Two hundred and six cadaveric hips were randomly selected and taken through controlled motion in two pure axes associated with posterior hip impingement: external rotation (through the mechanical axis) and adduction (coronal plane). The range of motion and location of impingement was noted for each specimen. Morphologic traits including femoral/acetabular version, and true neck-shaft angle (TNSA) were also measured. External rotation impingement occurred between the femoral neck and acetabulum in 83.0% of hips, and between the lesser trochanter and ischial tuberosity in 17.0%. Adduction impingement occurred between the lesser trochanter and ischial tuberosity in 78.6% of hips, and between the femoral neck and acetabulum in 21.4%. Multiple regression revealed that increased femoral/acetabular version predicted earlier external rotation and adduction impingement. Unstandardised betas ranging from -0.39 to -0.64 reflect that each degree of increased femoral/acetabular version individually accounts for a loss of external rotation or adduction of approximately half a degree before impingement ( p < 0.001 for each). Increased TNSA was associated with earlier adduction impingement only (unstandardised beta -0.35, p = 0.005). Relative femoral/acetabular anteversion was associated with earlier posterior hip impingement. Coxa valga was associated with earlier adduction impingement, but protective against external rotation impingement. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring correction during femoral/acetabular osteotomies, as overcorrection of retroversion may predispose to earlier posterior impingement.

  12. Administration of growth hormone in selectively protein-deprived rats decreases BMD and bone strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Patrick; Brennan, Tara C; Mekraldi, Samia; Aubert, Michel L; Rizzoli, René

    2010-06-01

    Isocaloric protein undernutrition is associated with decreased bone mass and decreased bone strength, together with lower IGF-I levels. It remains unclear whether administration of growth hormone (GH) corrects these alterations in bone metabolism. Six-month-old female rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 2.5% or 15% casein for 2 weeks. Bovine growth hormone (bGH, 0.5 or 2.5mg/kg of body weight) or vehicle was then administered as subcutaneous injections, twice daily, to rats on either diet for 4 weeks. At the proximal tibia, analysis of bone mineral density (BMD), maximal load and histomorphometry were performed. In addition, urinary deoxypyridinoline, plasma osteocalcin and IGF-I concentrations were measured. Weight was monitored weekly. bGH caused a dose-dependent increase in plasma IGF-I regardless of the dietary protein content. However, bGH dose-dependently decreased BMD and bone strength in rats fed the low-protein diet. There was no significant effect of bGH on BMD in rats fed the normal protein diet within this short-term treatment period, however bone formation as detected by histomorphometry was improved in this group but not the low-protein group. Osteoclast surface was increased in the low-protein bGH-treated animals only. Changes in bone turnover markers were detectable under both normal and low-protein diets. These results emphasize the major importance of dietary protein intake in the bone response to short-term GH administration, and highlight the need for further investigation into the effects of GH treatment in patients with reduced protein intake. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of hip perfusion at early and reversible stages of aseptic hip necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predic, P.; Dodig, D.; Karner, I.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: A proper early diagnosis of aseptic hip necrosis is very important for further therapy.Since there has always been a question of the amount of perfusion in hips at different stages of aseptic hip necrosis we tried to impartially examine the perfusion in hips at early and reversible stages of aseptic hip necrosis. Material and Methods:Study included 143 patients with aseptic hip necrosis.The 550-740 MBq of Tc-99m-DPD were on bolus injected.All patients were subjected to 3-phase scintigraphy of hips and quantitative calculation of relative perfusion in the artery phase (3T) at early and repeated at reversible stages of aseptic hip necrosis. Results: At the early stage of aseptic hip necrosis the obtained 3T was decreased from 0.94-0.69 (3T=0.80).Scintigrams showed a moderate increase or diffuse accumulation. At the reversible stages we obtained 3T decreased from 0.92-0.71 (3T=0.79) thus evidencing hypoperfusion.Scintigrams showed an diffuse increased accumulation. Conclusion: With the aseptic hip necrosis quantitative analysis of perfusion in the artery phase-3T indicates that the perfusion is decreased at all stages of the process which however shows a significantly falling trend with the progress of the disease

  14. Aged-Related Changes in Body Composition and Association between Body Composition with Bone Mass Density by Body Mass Index in Chinese Han Men over 50-year-old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jiang

    Full Text Available Aging, body composition, and body mass index (BMI are important factors in bone mineral density (BMD. Although several studies have investigated the various parameters and factors that differentially influence BMD, the results have been inconsistent. Thus, the primary goal of the present study was to further characterize the relationships of aging, body composition parameters, and BMI with BMD in Chinese Han males older than 50 years.The present study was a retrospective analysis of the body composition, BMI, and BMD of 358 Chinese male outpatients between 50 and 89 years of age that were recruited from our hospital between 2009 and 2011. Qualified subjects were stratified according to age and BMI as follows: 50-59 (n = 35, 60-69 (n = 123, 70-79 (n = 93, and 80-89 (n = 107 years of age and low weight (BMI: < 20 kg/m2; n = 21, medium weight (20 ≤ BMI < 24 kg/m2; n = 118, overweight (24 ≤ BMI < 28 kg/m2; n = 178, and obese (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2; n = 41. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA was used to assess bone mineral content (BMC, lean mass (LM, fat mass (FM, fat-free mass (FFM, lumbar spine (L1-L4 BMD, femoral neck BMD, and total hip BMD. Additionally, the FM index (FMI; FM/height2, LM index (LMI; LM/height2, FFM index (FFMI; [BMC+LM]/height2, percentage of BMC (%BMC; BMC/[BMC+FM+LM] × 100%, percentage of FM (%FM; FM/[BMC+FM+LM] × 100%, and percentage of LM (%LM; LM/(BMC+FM+LM × 100% were calculated. Osteopenia or osteoporosis was identified using the criteria and T-score of the World Health Organization.Although there were no significant differences in BMI among the age groups, there was a significant decline in height and weight according to age (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0002, respectively. The LMI and FFMI also declined with age (both p < 0.0001 whereas the FMI exhibited a significant increase that peaked in the 80-89-years group (p = 0.0145. Although the absolute values of BMC and LM declined with age (p = 0.0031 and p < 0

  15. The BMD threat: when and how to intercept - Opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouquet, F.

    2007-01-01

    NATO and the US are involved in developing Ballistic missile defense (BMD) capabilities that must provide protection against various threats, which has received global attention. One needs to carefully consider the consequences of employing the defensive missiles. It is assumed that there will be no

  16. Probability and heritability estimates on primary osteoarthritis of the hip leading to total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skousgaard, Søren Glud; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Primary hip osteoarthritis, radiographic as well as symptomatic, is highly associated with increasing age in both genders. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind this, in particular if this increase is caused by genetic factors. This study examined the risk and heritab......INTRODUCTION: Primary hip osteoarthritis, radiographic as well as symptomatic, is highly associated with increasing age in both genders. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind this, in particular if this increase is caused by genetic factors. This study examined the risk...... and heritability of primary osteoarthritis of the hip leading to a total hip arthroplasty, and if this heritability increased with increasing age. METHODS: In a nationwide population-based follow-up study 118,788 twins from the Danish Twin Register and 90,007 individuals from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register...... not have had a total hip arthroplasty at the time of follow-up. RESULTS: There were 94,063 twins eligible for analyses, comprising 835 cases of 36 concordant and 763 discordant twin pairs. The probability increased particularly from 50 years of age. After sex and age adjustment a significant additive...

  17. Hip fractures. Epidemiology, risk factors, falls, energy absorption, hip protectors, and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, J B

    1997-01-01

    have a high risk of hip fracture (annual rate of 5-6%), and the incidence of falls is about 1,500 falls/1,000 persons/year. Most hip fractures are a result of a direct trauma against the hip. The incidence of falls on the hip among nursing home residents is about 290 falls/1,000 persons/year and about......%, corresponding to 9 out of 247 residents saved from sustaining a hip fracture. The review points to the essentials of the development of hip fracture, which constitutes; risk of fall, type of fall, type of impact, energy absorption, and lastly bone strength, which is the ultimate and last permissive factor......The present review summarizes the pathogenic mechanisms leading to hip fracture based on epidemiological, experimental, and controlled studies. The estimated lifetime risk of hip fracture is about 14% in postmenopausal women and 6% in men. The incidence of hip fractures increases exponentially...

  18. Increasing Severity of Malnutrition Is Associated With Poorer 30-Day Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Hip Fracture Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Andrew S; Hustedt, Joshua W; Walker, Robert; Jones, Clifford; Lowe, Jason; Russell, George V

    2018-04-01

    Low serum albumin levels (hypoalbuminemia) have classically been used to identify malnutrition. The effect of increasing severity of malnutrition on postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery has not been well delineated on a large scale. Retrospective. Multicenter. A total of 12,373 patients undergoing hip fracture surgery from 2006 to 2013 National Surgery Quality Improvement Project data were identified. Patient demographic, comorbidity, and preoperative laboratory data and complication, reoperation, and readmission data were collected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the effect of increasing severity of malnutrition on rates of 30-day postoperative complications, readmissions, and reoperations. A total of 12,373 hip fractures met inclusion criteria. A total of 6506 (52.6%) patients had normal albumin levels (albumin ≥3.5 g/dL), 3205 (25.9%) patients were mildly malnourished (albumin 3.1-3.49 g/dL), 2265 (18.3%) were moderately malnourished (albumin 2.4-3.1 g/dL), and 397 (3.2%) patients were severely malnourished (albumin malnutrition was associated with a 2-fold increase in the odds of postoperative complications and mortality when compared with mild malnutrition (P malnutrition was associated with significantly longer lengths of stay and higher odds of experiencing a related readmission (P hip fracture surgery. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  19. BMI levels with MS Bone mineral density levels in adults with multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongming; Qi, Yiying; Du, Shaohua; Chen, Guangnan; Yan, Weiqi

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and osteoporosis (OP) affect a substantial proportion of the population. Accumulating evidence suggests that MS patients are at high risk for OP. We performed a meta-analysis to identify risk factors for lowered bone mineral density (BMD) in MS patients. We searched for articles within the Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases, published up to March 2014, pertaining to associations between MS and BMD. A total of 11 studies was included in the meta-analysis. The analysis indicated that MS patients have reduced lumbar spine, femur neck, and hip BMD compared with healthy controls (lumbar spine, standardized mean difference (SMD) = -0.76, 95% CI: -1.07, -0.45; femur neck, SMD = -0.56, 95% CI: -0.84, -0.29; and hip, SMD = -0.62, 95% CI: -0.96, -0.29). Further subgroup analysis revealed that a disease duration of >7 years, total steroid dose during the disease of >15 g, and an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of > 3, increased the risk of reduced BMD in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, but not in the hip. Meta-regression analysis did not explain the heterogeneity in the clinical characteristics or outcome definitions. Our meta-analysis suggests that MS patients have reduced overall BMD compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, disease duration (>7 years), total steroid dose (>15 g), and EDSS score (>3) are risk factors for reduced BMD in MS patients.

  20. DXA measurements in Rett syndrome reveal small bones with low bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roende, Gitte; Ravn, Kirstine; Fuglsang, Kathrine; Andersen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jytte Bieber; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2011-09-01

    Low bone mass is reported in growth-retarded patients harboring mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene causing Rett syndrome (RTT). We present the first study addressing both bone mineral density (BMD) and bone size in RTT. Our object was to determine whether patients with RTT do have low BMD when correcting for smaller bones by examination with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We compared areal BMD (aBMD(spine) and aBMD(total hip) ) and volumetric bone mineral apparent density (vBMAD(spine) and vBMAD(neck) ) in 61 patients and 122 matched healthy controls. Further, spine and hip aBMD and vBMAD of patients were associated with clinical risk factors of low BMD, low-energy fractures, MECP2 mutation groups, and X chromosome inactivation (XCI). Patients with RTT had reduced bone size on the order of 10% and showed lower values of spine and hip aBMD and vBMAD (p bone mass and small bones are evident in RTT, indicating an apparent low-bone-formation phenotype. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  1. Epidemiology of hip fracture and the development of FRAX in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povoroznyuk, V V; Grygorieva, N V; Kanis, J A; Ev, McCloskey; Johansson, H; Harvey, N C; Korzh, M O; Strafun, S S; Vaida, V M; Klymovytsky, F V; Vlasenko, R O; Forosenko, V S

    2017-12-01

    A country-specific FRAX model has been developed for the Ukraine to replace the Austrian model hitherto used. Comparison of the Austrian and Ukrainian models indicated that the former markedly overestimated fracture probability whilst correctly stratifying risk. FRAX has been used to estimate osteoporotic fracture risk since 2009. Rather than using a surrogate model, the Austrian version of FRAX was adopted for clinical practice. Since then, data have become available on hip fracture incidence in the Ukraine. The incidence of hip fracture was computed from three regional estimates and used to construct a country-specific FRAX model for the Ukraine. The model characteristics were compared with those of the Austrian FRAX model, previously used in Ukraine by using all combinations of six risk factors and eight values of BMD (total number of combinations =512). The relationship between the probabilities of a major fracture derived from the two versions of FRAX indicated a close correlation between the two estimates (r > 0.95). The Ukrainian version, however, gave markedly lower probabilities than the Austrian model at all ages. For a major osteoporotic fracture, the median probability was lower by 25% at age 50 years and the difference increased with age. At the age of 60, 70 and 80 years, the median value was lower by 30, 53 and 65%, respectively. Similar findings were observed for men and for hip fracture. The Ukrainian FRAX model should enhance accuracy of determining fracture probability among the Ukrainian population and help to guide decisions about treatment. The study also indicates that the use of surrogate FRAX models or models from other countries, whilst correctly stratifying risk, may markedly over or underestimate the absolute fracture probability.

  2. Common Genetic Variation in the DKK1 Gene is Associated with Hip Axis Length but not with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Young Adult Men: Results from the Odense Androgen Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piters, Elke; Balemans, Wendy; Nielsen, Torben Leo

    2010-01-01

    LRP5 was recently confirmed as an important susceptibility gene for osteoporosis. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of DKK1 polymorphisms on bone mineral density (BMD), hip geometry, and bone turnover. DKK1 is a secreted protein that binds to LRP5/6 receptors and inhibits canonical Wnt...

  3. Bone density of the radius, spine, and proximal femur in osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazess, R.B.; Barden, H.; Ettinger, M.; Schultz, E.

    1988-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 140 normal young women (aged 20 to 39 years) and in 423 consecutive women over age 40 referred for evaluation of osteoporosis. Lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD was measured using dual-photon absorptiometry ( 153 Gd), whereas the radius shaft measurement used single-photon absorptiometry ( 125 I). There were 324 older women with no fractures, of which 278 aged 60 to 80 years served as age-matched controls. There were 99 women with fractures including 32 with vertebral and 22 with hip fractures. Subsequently, another 25 women with hip fractures had BMD measured in another laboratory; their mean BMD was within 2% of that of the original series. The mean age in both the nonfracture and fracture groups was 70 +/- 5 years. The BMD in the age-matched controls was 20% to 25% below that of normal young women for the radius, spine, and femur, but the Ward's triangle region of the femur showed even greater loss (35%). The mean BMD at all sites in the crush fracture cases was about 10% to 15% below that of age-matched controls. Spinal abnormality was best discriminated by spine and femoral measurements (Z score about 0.9). In women with hip fractures, the BMD was 10% below that of age-matched controls for the radius and the spine, and the BMD for the femoral sites was about 25% to 30% below that of age-matched control (Z score about 1.6). Femoral densities gave the best discrimination of hip fracture cases and even reflected spinal osteopenia. In contrast, neither the spine nor the radius reflected the full extent of femoral osteopenia in hip fracture

  4. Effects of hip joint position and intra-capsular volume on hip joint intra-capsular pressure: a human cadaveric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tse Paul

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in hip intra-capsular pressure has been implicated in various hip pathologies, such as avascular necrosis complicating undisplaced femoral neck fracture. Our study aimed at documenting the relationship between intra-capsular volume and pressure in various hip positions. Methods Fifty-two cadaveric hips were studied. An electronic pressure-monitoring catheter recorded the intra-capsular hip pressure after each instillation of 2 ml of normal saline and in six hip positions. Results In neutral hip position, the control position for investigation, intra-capsular pressure remained unchanged when its content was below 10 ml. Thereafter, it increased exponentially. When the intra-capsular volume was 12 ml, full abduction produced a 2.1-fold increase (p = 0.028 of the intra-capsular hip joint pressure; full external rotation and full internal rotation increased the pressure by at least 4-fold (p Conclusion Intra-capsular pressure increases with its volume, but with a wide variation with different positions. It would be appropriate to recommend that hips with haemarthrosis or effusion should be positioned in 45-degree flexion.

  5. Diet and bone mineral density study in postmenopausal women from the TwinsUK registry shows a negative association with a traditional English dietary pattern and a positive association with wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Skinner, Jane; Guile, Geoffrey R; Cassidy, Aedín; Spector, Tim D; MacGregor, Alex J

    2011-11-01

    The effect of diet on bone mineral density (BMD) remains controversial, mainly because of difficulties in isolating dietary factors from the confounding influences of age, lifestyle, and genetic factors. The aim of this study was to use a novel method to examine the relation between BMD and diet. A co-twin control study design with linear regression modeling was used to test for associations between BMD and habitual intakes of calcium, vitamin D, protein, and alcohol plus 5 previously identified dietary patterns in postmenopausal women from the TwinsUK registry. This approach exploited the unique matching of twins to provide an estimate of an association that was not confounded by age, genetic background, or shared lifestyle. In >2000 postmenopausal women (BMD data on 1019, 1218, and 1232 twin pairs at the hip neck, hip, and spine, respectively), we observed a positive association between alcohol intake (from wine but not from beer or spirits) and spine BMD (P = 0.01) and a negative association with a traditional 20th-century English diet at the hip neck (P = 0.01). Both associations remained borderline significant after adjustment for mean twin-pair intakes (P = 0.04 and P = 0.055, respectively). Other dietary patterns and intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and protein were unrelated to BMD. Our results showed that diet has an independent but subtle effect on BMD; wine intake was positively associated with spine BMD, whereas a traditional (20th-century) English diet had a negative association with hip BMD.

  6. Unconstrained tripolar hip implants: effect on hip stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyen, Olivier; Chen, Qing Shan; Bejui-Hugues, Jacques; Berry, Daniel J; An, Kai-Nan

    2007-02-01

    Tripolar implants were developed to treat unstable total hip arthroplasties. However, there is limited confirmation that they achieve this purpose despite their increasing use. Because they have a larger effective head size, these implants are expected to increase range of motion to impingement and improve stability in situations at risk for impingement compared with conventional implants. We assessed the range of motion to impingement using a tripolar implant mounted to an automated hip simulator using 22.2-mm and 28-mm femoral head sizes. The 22 and 28-mm tripolar implants provided increases of 30.5 degrees in flexion, 15.4 degrees in adduction, and 22.4 degrees in external rotation compared with the conventional 22.2-mm femoral head diameter implant. At the critical position of 90 degrees hip flexion, there was an increase of 45.2 degrees in internal rotation. At 0 degrees and 30 degrees external rotation, extension increases were 18.8 degrees and 7.8 degrees, respectively. Bony impingement was the limiting factor. Tripolar implants increased the arc of motion before impingement in positions at risk for dislocation and are expected to provide greater stability.

  7. Utilization of DXA Bone Mineral Densitometry in Ontario: An Evidence-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Systematic reviews and analyses of administrative data were performed to determine the appropriate use of bone mineral density (BMD) assessments using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and the associated trends in wrist and hip fractures in Ontario. DUAL ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY BONE MINERAL DENSITY ASSESSMENT: Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry bone densitometers measure bone density based on differential absorption of 2 x-ray beams by bone and soft tissues. It is the gold standard for detecting and diagnosing osteoporosis, a systemic disease characterized by low bone density and altered bone structure, resulting in low bone strength and increased risk of fractures. The test is fast (approximately 10 minutes) and accurate (exceeds 90% at the hip), with low radiation (1/3 to 1/5 of that from a chest x-ray). DXA densitometers are licensed as Class 3 medical devices in Canada. The World Health Organization has established criteria for osteoporosis and osteopenia based on DXA BMD measurements: osteoporosis is defined as a BMD that is >2.5 standard deviations below the mean BMD for normal young adults (i.e. T-score related fragility fractures occur most often in the wrist, femur and pelvis. These fractures, particularly those in the hip, are associated with increased mortality, and decreased functional capacity and quality of life. A Canadian study showed that at 1 year after a hip fracture, the mortality rate was 20%. Another 20% required institutional care, 40% were unable to walk independently, and there was lower health-related quality of life due to attributes such as pain, decreased mobility and decreased ability to self-care. The cost of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures in Canada was estimated to be $1.3 billion in 1993. With 2 exceptions, almost all guidelines address only women. None of the guidelines recommend blanket population-based BMD testing. Instead, all guidelines recommend BMD testing in people at risk of osteoporosis, predominantly

  8. In vitro osteogenic capacity of bone marrow MSCs from postmenopausal women reflect the osseointegration of their cementless hip stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Alm

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Age-related dysfunction of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs is suggested as a main cause of altered bone repair with aging. We recently showed that in postmenopausal women undergoing cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA aging, low bone mineral density (BMD and age-related geometric changes of the proximal femur are risk factors for increased early migration and delayed osseointegration of the femoral stems. Extending these analyses, we have here explored how the in vitro osteogenic capacity of bone marrow MSCs from these patients reflects implant osseointegration, representing the patient's in vivo bone healing capacity. A total of 19 postmenopausal women with primary hip osteoarthritis (mean age 65 years, range 50–78 and well-defined bone quality underwent successful preoperative in vitro analysis of osteogenic capacity of iliac crest bone marrow MSCs as well as two-year radiostereometric (RSA follow-up of femoral stem migration after cementless THA. In patients with MSCs of low osteogenic capacity, the magnitude of cumulative stem subsidence after the settling period of three months was greater (p = 0.028 and the time point for translational osseointegration was significantly delayed (p = 0.030 compared to patients with MSCs of high osteogenic capacity. This study suggests that patients with MSCs of low in vitro osteogenic capacity may display increased stem subsidence after the settling period of 3 months and thereby delayed osseointegration. Our study presents a novel approach for studying the biological progress of hip implant osseointegration and to verify the impact of decreased MSCs function, especially in patients with age-related dysfunction of MSCs and bone healing capacity. Keywords: Human mesenchymal stromal cells, Osteogenic differentiation, Radiostereometric analysis, Total hip arthroplasty, Osseointegration

  9. Can lifestyle factors explain why body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio increase with increasing tobacco consumption? The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, C; Toft, U; Jørgensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between smoking, lifestyle, and weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WH ratio) is complex, and not fully understood. METHODS: In total, 6784 subjects (2408 daily smokers) were included in a population-based study (the Inter99 study) in Denmark. Weight...... consumption, but these factors did largely explain the increasing WH ratio. The relationship between BMI and tobacco consumption is complex, and the public needs to be informed that smoking is not a 'diet'.......BACKGROUND: The relationship between smoking, lifestyle, and weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WH ratio) is complex, and not fully understood. METHODS: In total, 6784 subjects (2408 daily smokers) were included in a population-based study (the Inter99 study) in Denmark. Weight...... by sociodemographic factors, rather than lifestyle factors. However, neither sociodemographic nor lifestyle factors could fully explain the increased BMI associated with heavier smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors could not fully explain why BMI increased with increasing daily tobacco...

  10. Sex specific association of physical activity on proximal femur BMD in 9 to 10 year-old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Cardadeiro

    Full Text Available The results of physical activity (PA intervention studies suggest that adaptation to mechanical loading at the femoral neck (FN is weaker in girls than in boys. Less is known about gender differences associated with non-targeted PA levels at the FN or other clinically relevant regions of the proximal femur. Understanding sex-specific relationships between proximal femur sensitivity and mechanical loading during non-targeted PA is critical to planning appropriate public health interventions. We examined sex-specific associations between non-target PA and bone mineral density (BMD of three sub-regions of the proximal femur in pre- and early-pubertal boys and girls. BMD at the FN, trochanter (TR and intertrochanter (IT regions, and lean mass of the whole body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 161 girls (age: 9.7±0.3 yrs and 164 boys (age: 9.7±0.3 yrs. PA was measured using accelerometry. Multiple linear regression analyses (adjusted for body height, total lean mass and pubertal status revealed that vigorous PA explained 3-5% of the variability in BMD at all three sub-regions in boys. In girls, vigorous PA explained 4% of the variability in IT BMD and 6% in TR BMD. PA did not contribute to the variance in FN BMD in girls. An additional 10 minutes per day of vigorous PA would be expected to result in a ∼1% higher FN, TR, and IT BMD in boys (p<0.05 and a ∼2% higher IT and TR BMD in girls. In conclusion, vigorous PA can be expected to contribute positively to bone health outcomes for boys and girls. However, the association of vigorous PA to sub-regions of the proximal femur varies by sex, such that girlś associations are heterogeneous and the lowest at the FN, but stronger at the TR and the IT, when compared to boys.

  11. Low revision rate after total hip arthroplasty in patients with pediatric hip diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engesæter, Lars B; Engesæter, Ingvild Ø; Fenstad, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Background The results of primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) after pediatric hip diseases such as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), or Perthes' disease have been reported to be inferior to the results after primary osteoarthritis of the hip (OA.......9%) were operated due to pediatric hip diseases (3.1% for Denmark, 8.8% for Norway, and 1.9% for Sweden) and 288,435 THAs (77.8%) were operated due to OA. Unadjusted 10-year Kaplan-Meier survival of THAs after pediatric hip diseases (94.7% survival) was inferior to that after OA (96.6% survival......). Consequently, an increased risk of revision for hips with a previous pediatric hip disease was seen (risk ratio (RR) 1.4, 95% CI: 1.3-1.5). However, after adjustment for differences in sex and age of the patients, and in fixation of the prostheses, no difference in survival was found (93.6% after pediatric hip...

  12. The association between body composition, 25(OH)D, and PTH and bone mineral density in black African and Asian Indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jaya A; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A; Crowther, N J

    2014-06-01

    There are few data on the contribution of body composition to bone mineral density (BMD) in non-Caucasian populations. We therefore studied the contribution of body composition, and possible confounding of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH, to BMD at various skeletal sites in black African (BA) and Asian Indian (AI) subjects. This was a cross-sectional study in Johannesburg, South Africa. BMD, body fat, and lean mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal fat distribution by ultrasound in 714 healthy subjects, aged 18-65 years. Whole-body (subtotal), hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine (lumbar) BMD were significantly higher in BA than AI subjects (P < .001 for all). Whole-body lean mass positively associated with BMD at all sites in both ethnic groups (P < .001 for all) and partially explained the higher BMD in BA females compared with AI females. Whole-body fat mass correlated positively with lumbar BMD in BA (P = .001) and inversely with subtotal BMD in AI subjects (P < .0001). Visceral adiposity correlated inversely with subtotal BMD in the BA (P = .037) and with lumbar BMD in the AI group (P = .005). No association was found between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and BMD. PTH was inversely associated with hip BMD in the BA group (P = .01) and with subtotal (P = .002), hip (P = .001), and femoral BMD (P < .0001) in the AI group. Significant differences in whole-body and site-specific BMD between the BA and AI groups were observed, with lean mass the major contributor to BMD at all sites in both groups. The contribution of other components of body composition differed by site and ethnic group.

  13. The changing case-mix of hip fractures in Scotland - evidence from the Scottish Hip Fracture Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Stephen D; Ferguson, K B; Smith, R; Hutchison, J; Holt, G

    2017-11-01

    Until discontinued in 2008, the Scottish Hip Fracture Audit collected and reported on data relating to the quality of care of hip fracture patients in Scotland. In 2013, the audit was recommenced under the umbrella of the MSK Audit group, which audits high volume orthopaedic pathways across Scotland. Our aim is to report on the changes in the demographics of hip fracture patients in Scotland between 2003 and 2013. There was an increase in the proportion of male patients from 2003 to 2013 (22.4% to 29.5%; p < 0.0001). An increased percentage of hip fracture patients were admitted from their own home (63.9% to 73.1%; p < 0.0001). Both these factors have deleterious effects on the outcome, and use of necessary resources, following hip fracture. There was also an increase in the percentage of patients who were American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade 3 (52.9% to 56.4%). Over the last decade, there has been a shift in the demographics of Scotland's hip fracture patients. If hip fracture incidence increases as predicted, this potentially more-challenging case-mix will likely impact on multiple health resources.

  14. Identification of a gene module associated with BMD through the integration of network analysis and genome-wide association data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Charles R

    2010-11-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is influenced by a complex network of gene interactions; therefore, elucidating the relationships between genes and how those genes, in turn, influence BMD is critical for developing a comprehensive understanding of osteoporosis. To investigate the role of transcriptional networks in the regulation of BMD, we performed a weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) using microarray expression data on monocytes from young individuals with low or high BMD. WGCNA groups genes into modules based on patterns of gene coexpression. and our analysis identified 11 gene modules. We observed that the overall expression of one module (referred to as module 9) was significantly higher in the low-BMD group (p = .03). Module 9 was highly enriched for genes belonging to the immune system-related gene ontology (GO) category "response to virus" (p = 7.6 × 10(-11)). Using publically available genome-wide association study data, we independently validated the importance of module 9 by demonstrating that highly connected module 9 hubs were more likely, relative to less highly connected genes, to be genetically associated with BMD. This study highlights the advantages of systems-level analyses to uncover coexpression modules associated with bone mass and suggests that particular monocyte expression patterns may mediate differences in BMD. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  15. Sex Specific Association of Physical Activity on Proximal Femur BMD in 9 to 10 Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardadeiro, Graça; Baptista, Fátima; Ornelas, Rui; Janz, Kathleen F.; Sardinha, Luís B.

    2012-01-01

    The results of physical activity (PA) intervention studies suggest that adaptation to mechanical loading at the femoral neck (FN) is weaker in girls than in boys. Less is known about gender differences associated with non-targeted PA levels at the FN or other clinically relevant regions of the proximal femur. Understanding sex-specific relationships between proximal femur sensitivity and mechanical loading during non-targeted PA is critical to planning appropriate public health interventions. We examined sex-specific associations between non-target PA and bone mineral density (BMD) of three sub-regions of the proximal femur in pre- and early-pubertal boys and girls. BMD at the FN, trochanter (TR) and intertrochanter (IT) regions, and lean mass of the whole body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 161 girls (age: 9.7±0.3 yrs) and 164 boys (age: 9.7±0.3 yrs). PA was measured using accelerometry. Multiple linear regression analyses (adjusted for body height, total lean mass and pubertal status) revealed that vigorous PA explained 3–5% of the variability in BMD at all three sub-regions in boys. In girls, vigorous PA explained 4% of the variability in IT BMD and 6% in TR BMD. PA did not contribute to the variance in FN BMD in girls. An additional 10 minutes per day of vigorous PA would be expected to result in a ∼1% higher FN, TR, and IT BMD in boys (pgirls. In conclusion, vigorous PA can be expected to contribute positively to bone health outcomes for boys and girls. However, the association of vigorous PA to sub-regions of the proximal femur varies by sex, such that girlś associations are heterogeneous and the lowest at the FN, but stronger at the TR and the IT, when compared to boys. PMID:23209801

  16. The influence of artificially increased hip and trunk stiffness on balance control in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grüneberg, C.; Bloem, B.R.; Honegger, F.; Allum, J.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Lightweight corsets were used to produce mid-body stiffening, rendering the hip and trunk joints practically inflexible. To examine the effect of this artificially increased stiffness on balance control, we perturbed the upright stance of young subjects (20-34 years of age) while they wore one of

  17. Cobalt Cardiomyopathy Secondary to Hip Arthroplasty: An Increasingly Prevalent Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russel Tilney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A forty-year-old man experienced worsening heart failure four years following bilateral complicated total hip replacement. His condition was extensively worked up but no underlying pathology was immediately evident. Given the cobalt-chromium alloy component present in the hip arthroplasties, the raised cobalt blood levels, and a fitting clinical picture coupled with radiological findings, the patient underwent right hip revision. Evidence of biotribocorrosion was present on direct visualisation intraoperatively. The patient subsequently experienced symptomatic improvement (NYHA class III to class I and echocardiography showed recovery of ejection fraction. Cobalt exists as a bivalent and trivalent molecule in circulation and produces a cytotoxicity profile similar to nanoparticles, causing neurological, thyroid, and cardiological pathology. Blood levels are not entirely useful as there is no identifiable conversion factor for levels in whole blood, serum, and erythrocytes which seem to act independently of each other. Interestingly cobalt cardiomyopathy is frequently compounded by other possible causes of cardiomyopathy such as alcohol and a link has been postulated. Definitive treatment is revision of the arthroplasty as other treatments are unproven.

  18. Athletic Hip Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Historically, athletic hip injuries have garnered little attention; however, these injuries account for approximately 6% of all sports injuries and their prevalence is increasing. At times, the diagnosis and management of hip injuries can be challenging and elusive for the team physician. Hip injuries are seen in high-level athletes who participate in cutting and pivoting sports that require rapid acceleration and deceleration. Described previously as the "sports hip triad," these injuries consist of adductor strains, osteitis pubis, athletic pubalgia, or core muscle injury, often with underlying range-of-motion limitations secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. These disorders can happen in isolation but frequently occur in combination. To add to the diagnostic challenge, numerous intra-articular disorders and extra-articular soft-tissue restraints about the hip can serve as pain generators, in addition to referred pain from the lumbar spine, bowel, bladder, and reproductive organs. Athletic hip conditions can be debilitating and often require a timely diagnosis to provide appropriate intervention.

  19. Magnesium intake, bone mineral density, and fractures: results from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Tonya S; Larson, Joseph C; Alghothani, Nora; Bout-Tabaku, Sharon; Cauley, Jane A; Chen, Zhao; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Jackson, Rebecca D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Magnesium is a necessary component of bone, but its relation to osteoporotic fractures is unclear. Objective: We examined magnesium intake as a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures and altered bone mineral density (BMD). Design: This prospective cohort study included 73,684 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Total daily magnesium intake was estimated from baseline food-frequency questionnaires plus supplements. Hip fractures were confirmed by a medical record review; other fractures were identified by self-report. A baseline BMD analysis was performed in 4778 participants. Results: Baseline hip BMD was 3% higher (P 422.5 compared with magnesium. In contrast, risk of lower-arm or wrist fractures increased with higher magnesium intake [multivariate-adjusted HRs of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.32) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.42) for quintiles 4 and 5, respectively, compared with quintile 1; P-trend = 0.002]. In addition, women with the highest magnesium intakes were more physically active and at increased risk of falls [HR for quintile 4: 1.11 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.16); HR for quintile 5: 1.15 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.20); P-trend magnesium intake is associated with lower BMD of the hip and whole body, but this result does not translate into increased risk of fractures. A magnesium consumption slightly greater than the Recommended Dietary Allowance is associated with increased lower-arm and wrist fractures that are possibly related to more physical activity and falls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611. PMID:24500155

  20. Peak-bone-mass development in young adults: effects of study program related levels of occupational and leisure time physical activity and exercise. A prospective 5-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, W; Bebenek, M; von Stengel, S; Bauer, J

    2015-02-01

    Young adulthood is characterized by profound life-style changes. This study suggests that reduction of sport or exercise, induced by alteration of the occupational situation, negatively impacts generation/maintenance of peak bone mass. In order to compensate occupational-related reductions of physical activity, workplace exercise programs will be helpful. Only few studies have determined the effect of physical activity or physical exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) in the period of late skeletal maturation, i.e. around peak bone mass. The aim of this article was to determine the long-term effect of different levels of physical activity and exercise directly and indirectly derived by occupation during young adulthood. Sixty-one male and female dental students (DES) and 53 male and female sport students (SPS) 21±2 years old were accompanied over the course (4.8±0.5 years) of their study program. BMD at the lumbar spine (LS), hip, and whole body (WB) were determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Parameters of physical activity increased non-significantly in both groups with no relevant differences between the groups. Indices of exercise, however, increased significantly in the SPS group while a significant decrease was assessed for the DES group. Independent of gender, BMD of the SPS increased significantly (p≤0.007) at all skeletal sites (LS, 2.4±3.9%; hip, 1.6±3.5%; WB, 1.8±2.8%) while BMD of the DES remained unchanged at LS (-0.6±4.4%, p=0.432) and WB (0.5±1.9%, p=0.092) but decreased significantly at the hip (-1.9±4.3%, p=0.010). BMD-changes at LS, hip, and WB differ significantly between SPS and DES (p≤0.017). Results remained unchanged after adjusting for baseline BMD-values that differed (p=0.030 to p=0.082) in favor of the SPS group. Changes of exercise levels directly or indirectly caused by occupational factors during young adulthood significantly affected generation and/or maintenance of peak bone mass. Compensatory exercise is

  1. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone mineral density in normal postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhara Kamineni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted with the objective of assessing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD in postmenopausal women (PMW, to detect osteopenia or osteoporosis in PMW and to establish a correlation between serum 25(OHD levels and bone mineral density (BMD. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 healthy PMW were selected, and a prospective observational study was conducted to correlate the BMD with serum 25(OHD levels. Their laboratory investigations along with serum 25(OHD levels were done. Their BMD was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine and neck of femur; T-scores were derived. Correlation analysis was done to investigate the relationship between serum 25(OHD levels and BMD. Results: The proportion of osteoporosis at the hip was 31.9% in deficient group, 16.1% in insufficient, and 18.2% in sufficient group and at lumbar spine, it was 27.7%, 16.1%, and 22.7%, respectively. Forty-seven percent of PMW had deficient (<20 ng/ml serum 25(OHD levels and 31% had insufficiency. T-score at hip in deficient group was −2.05 ± 0.25, and in an insufficient group, it was −1.79 ± 0.13; T-score at lumbar spine was −1.92 ± 0.12 and −1.79 ± 0.12, respectively, but both were not statistically significant. Osteoporosis was seen in 24%, osteopenia in 55% at hip level and 23% and 59% respectively at lumbar spine. There was no association between serum 25(OHD levels and BMD neither at hip nor at lumbar spine ( P = 0.51 and P = 0.79 respectively. Conclusion: In this study, among our cohort of patients there was no correlation between serum 25(OHD levels and BMD. However, Vitamin D deficiency coexists with low BMD. Vitamin D insufficiency is a common risk factor for osteoporosis associated with increased bone remodeling and low bone mass.

  2. Association of Body Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Women and Men from Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Bahtiri, Elton; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatciu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-08-01

    Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered potentially modifiable determinants of bone mass. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the association between body weight and body mass index (BMI) with total hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD). This cross-sectional study included a population of 100 women and 32 men from Kosovo into three BMI groups. All the study subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. Total hip BMD levels of obese menopausal and premenopausal women and men were significantly higher compared to overweight or normal weight subjects, while lumbar spine BMD levels of only menopausal women and men were higher among obese subjects. Age-adjusted linear regression analysis showed that BMI is a significant independent associate of lumbar spine and total hip BMD in menopausal women and men. Despite positive association between BMI and lumbar spine and total hip BMD in menopausal women, presence of more obese and osteoporotic subjects among menopausal women represent a population at risk for fractures because of poor balance and frequent falls; therefore, both obesity and osteoporosis prevention efforts should begin early on in life.

  3. Combined aerobic and resistance exercise is effective for achieving weight loss and reducing cardiovascular risk factors without deteriorating bone health in obese young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sub Lim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeWeight loss reduces cardiovascular risk factors in the obese. However, weight reduction through diet negatively affects long-term bone health. The aim of study was to determine the ability of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (CE to reduce weight and cardiovascular risk without diminishing bone health.MethodsTwenty-five young adults participated in an 8-week weight loss CE program. Subjects were allocated to an obese group or a control group by body mass index (BMI. Body weight, BMI, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine and total hip were measured before and after the CE trial. Serum levels of metabolic markers, including adipokines and bone markers, were also evaluated.ResultsWeight loss was evident in the obese group after the 8 weeks CE trial. Fat mass was significantly reduced in both groups. Fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, leptin and aminotransferases level were significantly reduced from baseline only in the obese group. High density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in both groups. Hip BMD increased in the obese group. In all study subjects, BMI changes were correlated with HOMA-IR, leptin, and HDL changes. BMI decreases were correlated with lumbar spine BMD increases, lumbar spine BMD increases were positively correlated with osteocalcin changes, and lumbar spine bone mineral content increases were correlated negatively with C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen changes.ConclusionThese findings suggest that CE provides effective weight loss and improves cardiovascular risk factors without diminishing BMD. Furthermore, they indicate that lumbar spine BMD might be maintained by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption.

  4. Studies of osteoporosis in Singapore using isotope related technique. Progress report: June 1997 - June 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, K.

    2000-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the common medical problems facing an aging population. It is projected that the number of hip fractures occurring worldwide will increase from 1.66 million in 1990 to 6.26 million by the year 2050. Many studies have shown a strong relationship between low bone density and increased fracture risk. The World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed a threshold of bone mineral density (BMD) based on peak bone mass, with osteoporosis denoting a value of BMD that is 2.5 standard deviations or more below the peak bone mass. The interpretation of bone mineral densitometry results for a particular individual relies on valid reference data from a representative population sample. Recent studies have suggested that apart from bone density, there are racial differences in hip axis length. A longer hip axis length is associated with an increased risk of fracture. The hip axis length of Asian and black women were reported to be significantly shorter than white women. Japanese women were found to have a shorter hip axis length and a lower hip fracture incidence than American women despite lower bone density values. The main objectives of this study was to a) determine the age of peak bone density in each study group, b) quantify differences in bone density as functions of age and sex. The hip axis length was also measured

  5. Unilateral hip osteoarthritis: can we predict the outcome of the other hip?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vossinakis, I.C.; Georgiades, G.; Hartofilakidis, G.; Kafidas, D.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to define, in unilateral hip osteoarthritis (OA), factors predicting the outcome of the other hip. We examined the anteroposterior radiographs of the pelvis of 95 white patients with unilateral idiopathic (56 patients) or secondary to congenital hip diseases (39 patients) OA. The other hip was free from symptoms (pain or limping) at the initial examination and without radiographic evidence of OA; it was what we call a ''normal'' hip. Two parameters were evaluated: (1) the type of osteoarthritis of the involved hip and (2) the range of four radiographic indices of the contralateral hip: the sourcil inclination (weight-bearing surface), the acetabular angle, the Wiberg's center-edge angle, and the neck-shaft angle. Follow-up radiographs for the hips that remained OA-free were available for 10 to 35 years and for those that developed OA, at the time of initial symptoms, range 2 to 31 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of idiopathic OA in one hip had a statistically significant effect on the development of OA on the other hip (p<0.001). Minor deviations of radiographic indices of the contralateral hip is not a predictive factor for its outcome. When the radiographic indices are examined together with the pathology of the involved hip, only WBS was shown to have a significant effect to the development of OA and its type (p < 0.001). The following conclusions can be drawn from this study: 1. Patient with idiopathic OA of one hip is at increased risk of developing OA in the other hip. 2. The outcome of the other hip cannot be predicted only on the basis of the evaluation of its radiographic indices. 3. Among the different indices, WBS seems to have a strong influence toward the development of OA. (orig.)

  6. Protective effects of fish intake and interactive effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes on hip bone mineral density in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Emily K; Kiel, Douglas P; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Schaefer, Ernst J; Cupples, L Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Background: Polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish may influence bone health. Objective: We aimed to examine associations between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid and fish intakes and hip bone mineral density (BMD) at baseline (1988–1989; n = 854) and changes 4 y later in adults (n = 623) with a mean age of 75 y in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Design: BMD measures were regressed on energy-adjusted quartiles of fatty acid intakes [n−3 (omega-3): α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+ DHA; n−6 (omega-6): linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA); and n−6:n−3 ratio] and on categorized fish intakes, with adjustment for covariates. Effect modification by EPA+DHA intake was tested for n−6 exposures. Results: High intakes (≥3 servings/wk) of fish relative to lower intakes were associated with maintenance of femoral neck BMD (FN-BMD) in men (dark fish + tuna, dark fish, and tuna) and in women (dark fish) (P < 0.05). Significant interactions between AA and EPA+DHA intakes were observed cross-sectionally in women and longitudinally in men. In women with EPA+DHA intakes at or above the median, those with the highest AA intakes had a higher mean baseline FN-BMD than did those with the lowest intakes (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: P = 0.03, P for trend = 0.02). In men with the lowest EPA+DHA intakes (quartile 1), those with the highest intakes of AA (quartile 4) lost more FN-BMD than did men with the lowest intakes of AA (quartile 1; P = 0.04). LA intake tended to be associated with FN-BMD loss in women (P for trend < 0.06). Conclusions: Fish consumption may protect against bone loss. The protective effects of a high AA intake may be dependent on the amount of EPA+DHA intake. PMID:21367955

  7. Reproducibility of DXA measurements of bone mineral density and body composition in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Cheryl M.; Roza, Melissa A.; Webber, Colin E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Barr, Ronald D. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    The technique of X-ray-based dual photon absorptiometry (DXA) is frequently used in children for the detection of changes in bone mass or body composition. Such changes can only be considered real if the uncertainties arising from the measurement technique are exceeded. Our objectives were twofold: (1) to determine the reproducibility of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in children at the spine and the hip and from the whole body, as well as of whole-body measurements of mineral mass, lean body mass and fat mass in children; and (2) to estimate, from the measured precision, the time interval that needs to elapse before a statistically significant change in a DXA variable can be detected. The reproducibility of techniques for the measurement of BMD and body composition using DXA was measured in 15 young children (9 girls and 6 boys) and 17 older children (9 girls and 8 boys). Reproducibility was derived from the standard deviation of three repeated measurements of spine BMD, total hip BMD, whole-body BMD (WBBMD), whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean mass and fat mass. Technique precision was better than 0.01 g cm{sup -2} for spine BMD and for WBBMD. Hip BMD measurements were slightly less precise, particularly in younger children (0.013 g cm{sup -2}). For body composition variables, technique precision was 13 g for WBBMC, 201 g for lean body mass and 172 g for fat mass in younger children. Technique precision for older children was 18 g, 251 g and 189 g for the corresponding variables. Predictions showed that the absence of a normal increase in WBBMC in a small-for-age girl could be established after 12 months. For spine BMD, a significant increase should be observable after 6 months for boys over the age of 11 years. For younger boys, more than 12 months has to elapse before anticipated changes can be detected with confidence. The time intervals required to elapse before decisions can be made concerning the significance of observed differences

  8. Reproducibility of DXA measurements of bone mineral density and body composition in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Cheryl M.; Roza, Melissa A.; Webber, Colin E.; Barr, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    The technique of X-ray-based dual photon absorptiometry (DXA) is frequently used in children for the detection of changes in bone mass or body composition. Such changes can only be considered real if the uncertainties arising from the measurement technique are exceeded. Our objectives were twofold: (1) to determine the reproducibility of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in children at the spine and the hip and from the whole body, as well as of whole-body measurements of mineral mass, lean body mass and fat mass in children; and (2) to estimate, from the measured precision, the time interval that needs to elapse before a statistically significant change in a DXA variable can be detected. The reproducibility of techniques for the measurement of BMD and body composition using DXA was measured in 15 young children (9 girls and 6 boys) and 17 older children (9 girls and 8 boys). Reproducibility was derived from the standard deviation of three repeated measurements of spine BMD, total hip BMD, whole-body BMD (WBBMD), whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean mass and fat mass. Technique precision was better than 0.01 g cm -2 for spine BMD and for WBBMD. Hip BMD measurements were slightly less precise, particularly in younger children (0.013 g cm -2 ). For body composition variables, technique precision was 13 g for WBBMC, 201 g for lean body mass and 172 g for fat mass in younger children. Technique precision for older children was 18 g, 251 g and 189 g for the corresponding variables. Predictions showed that the absence of a normal increase in WBBMC in a small-for-age girl could be established after 12 months. For spine BMD, a significant increase should be observable after 6 months for boys over the age of 11 years. For younger boys, more than 12 months has to elapse before anticipated changes can be detected with confidence. The time intervals required to elapse before decisions can be made concerning the significance of observed differences between

  9. Comparison between the Harris- and Oxford Hip Score to evaluate outcomes one-year after total hip arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, Hanneke; Lindeboom, Robert; Kuipers, Sander E.; Vervest, Ton M. J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Harris Hip Score (HHS) is a surgeon administered measurement for assessing hip function before and after total hip arthroplasties (THA). Patient reported outcome measurements (PROMs) such as the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) are increasingly used. HHS was compaired to the OHS assessing whether the HHS can

  10. Changes in bone mineral density during long-term treatment with adalimumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krieckaert, C.L.M.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Wolbink, G.; Lems, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect of long-term adalimumab treatment on BMD of the lumbar spine, total hip and hands in patients with RA. Methods. In 184 established RA patients treated with adalimumab for at least 1 year, BMD measurements of the total hip and lumbar spine were performed using

  11. Bone mineral density and the subsequent risk of cancer in the NHANES I follow-up cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Richard L; Turyk, Mary; Kim, Jane; Persky, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is a marker of long-term estrogen exposure. BMD measurement has been used in this context to investigate the association of estrogen with breast cancer risk in three cohorts. In order to assess further BMD as a predictor of estrogen related cancer risk, the association of BMD with colorectal and corpus uteri cancer was investigated in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Followup Study (NHEFS) cohort along with breast cancer and prostate cancer. Participants were members of the NHEFS cohort who had BMD measurement in 1974–1975. Age, race, and BMI adjusted rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for incidence of cancers of the corpus uterus, breast, colorectum, prostate, and of osteoporosis and hip fracture related to baseline BMD. Data were available for 6046 individuals. One hundred cases of breast cancer, 94 prostate cancers, 115 colorectal cancers, 29 uterine cancers, 110 cases of hip fracture and 103 cases of osteoporosis were reported between 1974 and 1993. Hip fracture and osteoporosis were both significantly inversely associated with BMD. Uterine cancer was positively associated (p = 0.005, test for linear trend) and colorectal cancer negatively associated (p = 0.03) with BMD. No association was found between elevated BMD and incidence of breast cancer (p = 0.74) or prostate cancer (p = 0.37) in the overall cohort, although a weak association was seen between BMD and subsequent breast cancer incidence when BMD was measured in post-menopausal women (p = 0.04). The findings related to cancers of the uterus and colorectum as well as the weak association of BMD with breast cancer strengthen the use of BMD as a marker of estrogen exposure and cancer risk

  12. Bone mineral density (BMD) and computer tomographic measurements of the equine proximal phalanx in correlation with breaking strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, P; Horváth, C; Ferencz, V; Tóth, B; Váradi, A; Szenci, O; Bodó, G

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that bone mineral density (BMD) is an important fracture risk predictor in human medicine, studies in equine orthopedic research are still lacking. We hypothesized that BMD correlates with bone failure and fatigue fractures of this bone. Thus, the objectives of this study were to measure the structural and mechanical properties of the proximal phalanx with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to correlate the data obtained from DXA and computer tomography (CT) measurements to those obtained by loading pressure examination and to establish representative region of interest (ROI) for in vitro BMD measurements of the equine proximal phalanx for predicting bone failure force. DXA was used to measure the whole bone BMD and additional three ROI sites in 14 equine proximal phalanges. Following evaluation of the bone density, whole bone, cortical width and area in the mid-diaphyseal plane were measured on CT images. Bones were broken using a manually controlled universal bone crusher to measure bone failure force and reevaluated for the site of fractures on follow-up CT images. Compressive load was applied at a constant displacement rate of 2 mm/min until failure, defined as the first clear drop in the load measurement. The lowest BMD was measured at the trabecular region (mean +/- SD: 1.52 +/- 0.12 g/cm2; median: 1.48 g/cm2; range: 1.38-1.83 g/cm2). There was a significant positive linear correlation between trabelcular BMD and the breaking strength (P = 0.023, r = 0.62). The trabecular region of the proximal phalanx appears to be the only significant indicator of failure of strength in vitro. This finding should be reassessed to further reveal the prognostic value of trabecular BMD in an in vivo fracture risk model.

  13. Hip dysplasia and congenital hip dislocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingg, G.; Nebel, G.; von Torklus, D.

    1981-11-01

    In human genetics and orthopedics quite different answers have been given to the question of hereditary transmission and frequency of hip dysplasia in families of children with congenital hip dislocation. We therefore have made roentgenometric measurements of 110 parents of children with congenital hip dislocation. In 25% we found abnormal flat acetabulae, whereas 12% had pathologic deep hips. This may propose a new concept of morphology of congenital hip dysplasia.

  14. Association between Dietary Carotenoid Intake and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Adults Aged 30–75 Years Using Data from the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebereamanuel Meron Regu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Age-related bone loss is a major public health problem. This cross-sectional study examined the association between the dietary intake of carotenoids and bone mineral density (BMD. Data from 8022 subjects (3763 males and 4259 females aged 30–75 years included in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011 were analyzed. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Intake of carotenoids was estimated using 24-h dietary recall. In multiple linear analysis, after adjusting for covariates, lutein + zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin intake was positively associated with total hip BMD in males and premenopausal women respectively, while β-carotene intake was positively correlated with femoral neck, total hip, and whole-body BMD in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women in the highest quintile of daily β-carotene intake, showed a lower risk of osteopenia at the lumbar spine (odds ratio (OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.16–0.79, P for trend = 0.009 than those in the lowest quintile, after adjusting for covariates. Daily β-cryptoxanthin intake was significantly associated with a lower risk of osteopenia at the total hip (OR per 1 mg/day increase: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.59–0.97, and lumbar spine (OR per 1 mg/day increase: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.70–0.89 in postmenopausal women. These results suggest that the dietary intake of β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin may have a positive effect on bone health.

  15. Biochemical Predictors of Low Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Susceptibility in Maltese Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formosa, Melissa M; Xuereb-Anastasi, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis and fractures are complex conditions influenced by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors. The aim of the study was to investigate three biochemical parameters including total serum calcium, total serum alkaline phosphatase (sALP) and albumin in relation to bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck (FN), and with all-type of low-trauma fractures in Maltese postmenopausal women. Levels were also correlated with age and physical activity. A case-control study of 1045 women was performed. Women who suffered a fracture were classified as cases whereas women without a fracture history were included as controls subdivided into normal, osteopenic, or osteoporotic according to their BMD measurements. Blood specimens were collected following good standard practice and testing was performed by spectrophotometry. Calcium and sALP levels were weakly correlated with FN BMD levels (calcium: r = -0.111, p = 0.002; sALP: r = 0.089, p = 0.013). Fracture cases had the lowest serum levels of calcium, sALP and albumin relative to all other control groups, which decreased with increasing age, possibly increasing fracture risk. Biochemical levels were lowest in women who sustained a hip fracture and more than one fracture. Biochemical parameters decreased with reduced physical activity; however, this was most evident for fracture cases. Reduced physical activity was associated with lower BMD levels at the hip, and to a lower extent at the spine. In conclusion, results suggest that levels of serum calcium and albumin could be indicative of fracture risk, whereas calcium levels and to lower extent sALP levels could be indicators of hip BMD.

  16. Associations between bone mineral density and subclinical atherosclerosis: a cross-sectional study of a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong-Ke; Bai, Xiao-Juan; Wu, Bing; Han, Lu-Lu; Wang, Xiao-Nan; Yang, Jun; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2014-02-01

    The significance of associations between bone mineral density (BMD) and atherosclerosis in the Asian population is less clear. The aim of this study was to explore the population-level associations between BMD and subclinical atherosclerosis. This was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted in Shenyang, China. A total of 385 Chinese women and men aged 37-87 years were studied. The BMD was measured at the total hip and lumbar spine using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The ankle-brachial index (ABI), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were measured to assess atherosclerosis. Multiple regression analysis was applied to study the associations. Multicolinearity was examined using the variance inflation factor, condition index, and variance proportions. Factor analysis and principal component regression were used to remove the problem of multicolinearity. The differences of ABI, PWV, and CIMT among the normal BMD, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups were not found. Total hip BMD was correlated with ABI in women after adjustment for age (r = 0.156). Sex-specific regression models included adjustment for age, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, menopausal status (women), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, serum uric acid, estimated glomerular filtration rate, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen. Total hip BMD was associated with ABI in women after adjustment for age (per SD decrease in ABI: -0.130 g/cm(2), P = .022), but the association was borderline significant after full adjustment (P = .045). Total hip BMD and lumbar spine BMD were not associated with ABI, PWV, and CIMT after full adjustment in participants without a fracture history. The risk of osteoporosis was not associated with ABI, PWV, and CIMT. Low BMD is not associated with

  17. Low bone mineral density is not related to failure in femoral neck fracture patients treated with internal fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viberg, Bjarke; Ryg, Jesper; Overgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    the importance of low bone mineral density (BMD). Patients and methods - 140 consecutive patients (105 females, median age 80) treated with IF had a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the hip performed median 80 days after treatment. The patients' radiographs were evaluated for fracture displacement......, implant positioning, and quality of reduction. From a questionnaire completed during admission, 2 variables for comorbidity and walking disability were chosen. Primary outcome was low hip BMD (amount of mineral matter per square centimeter of hip bone) compared to hip failure (resection, arthroplasty...

  18. HPLC/DAD Intercomparison on Phytoplankton Pigments (HIP-1, HIP-2, HIP-3 and HIP-4)

    OpenAIRE

    CANUTI Elisabetta; RAS Josephine; GRUNG Merete; ROTTGERS Rudiger; COSTA GOELA Priscilla; ARTUSO Florinda; CATALDI Dario

    2016-01-01

    From 2009 to 2015, in the context of the MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) validation activities, the JRC Marine Optical Laboratory organised four HPLC Intercomparison exercises for Phytoplankton Pigment measurements (HIP-1, HIP-2, HIP-3 and HIP-4), involving seven European accredited and reference laboratories. The objectives of these intercomparison exercises were: creating a reference community at European level for phytoplankton pigment analysis capable of supporting satel...

  19. Total hip arthroplasty using a short-stem prosthesis: restoration of hip anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenabar, Tomas; Marimuthu, Kanniraj; Hawdon, Gabrielle; Gildone, Alessandro; McMahon, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate hip parameters such as vertical centre of rotation (VCR), horizontal centre of rotation (HCR), femoral offset, and leg length after total hip arthroplasty (THA) using the Nanos short-stem prosthesis. Medical records of 73 men and 74 women aged 25 to 92 (mean, 63) years who underwent THA using the Nanos short-stem prosthesis by a single surgeon were reviewed. Prior to the surgery, the optimal cup and stem size, head length, and level of the neck osteotomy were determined using radiographs. Intra-operatively, the leg length and femoral offset were checked, and the level of neck resection and head length were adjusted. VCR, HCR, femoral offset, and leg length of the operated and contralateral sides were compared. Functional outcomes were assessed using the Harris Hip Score (HHS). Compared with the normal contralateral hips, the operated hips had a mean increase of 0.4 mm in VCR (p=0.032), a mean decrease of 1.4 mm in HCR (p=0.027), a mean increase of 0.6 mm in femoral offset (p=0.043), and a mean increase of 0.36 mm in leg length (p=0.035). For these respective parameters, the difference between the normal contralateral side and the operated side was within 5 mm in 89%, 80%, 71%, and 96% of patients. The HHS improved from a mean of 53 to 91 at one year (pNanos short-stem prosthesis enabled restoration of hip anatomy (VCR, HCR, femoral offset, and leg length).

  20. Relationship between pre-sarcopenia, sarcopenia and bone mineral density in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Fernando Borges; Leite, André Ferreira; de Paula, Ana Patrícia

    2015-02-01

    Analyze the influence of sarcopenia in bone health of elderly men. This cross-sectional study evaluated 198 men aged over 60 years. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD was measured at the femoral neck, total hip, lumbar spine and 33% radius. The diagnosis of abnormal BMD was defined for men who presented densitometric diagnosis of osteopenia or osteoporosis defined by T-score of femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine. The pre-sarcopenia and sarcopenia were defined according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. The group diagnosed with normal BMD, compared to the group of abnormal BMD, have significantly higher body weight, body mass index, grip strength, lean mass, fat mass, and relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass (RASM). However, after multiple linear regression analysis, we found that only the RASM, lean mass, and handgrip strength in the dominant hand influenced the variability of the BMD after adjustment for age and weight. Regression analyzes showed a positive association between greater appendicular lean mass and a smaller number of elderly patients with abnormal BMD diagnostic. The regression analyzes showed that elderly men diagnosed with pre-sarcopenia and sarcopenia had more abnormal BMD than non-sarcopenic elderly men. We concluded that pre-sarcopenia and sarcopenia were associated with abnormal BMD. The lean mass, compared to fat mass, has a greater positive influence on the BMD of elderly men. This result suggests the importance of the increase in lean mass for the bone health of elderly men.

  1. Predictors of low bone mineral density in the elderly: the role of dietary intake, nutritional status and sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coin, A; Perissinotto, E; Enzi, G; Zamboni, M; Inelmen, E M; Frigo, A C; Manzato, E; Busetto, L; Buja, A; Sergi, G

    2008-06-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between sarcopenia, dietary intake, nutritional indices and hip bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly, and to estimate the risk of low BMD due to specific independent predictor thresholds. Body mass index (BMI), serum albumin, energy and protein intake were studied in 352 elderly outpatients (216 women aged 73.5+/-5.3 years and 136 men aged 73.9+/-5.6 years). BMD at different hip sites and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 13% in men and 45% in women, while the prevalence of sarcopenia (50%) and hypoalbuminemia (5%) were similar in both genders. BMI, albumin and ASMM were significantly associated with BMD in both genders: so was protein intake, but only in men. By multiple regression analysis, the variables that retained their independent explanatory role on total hip BMD, were BMI and protein intake in men, and BMI and albumin in women. By logistic regression analysis, men risked having a low BMD with a BMI elderly, particularly in women. Age-related sarcopenia does not seem to be involved in bone mass loss.

  2. Comparison of femoral morphology and bone mineral density between femoral neck fractures and trochanteric fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yuki; Sugano, Nobuhiko; Saito, Masanobu; Yonenobu, Kazuo

    2011-03-01

    Many studies that analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) and skeletal factors of hip fractures were based on uncalibrated radiographs or dual-energy xray absorptiometry (DXA). Spatial accuracy in measuring BMD and morphologic features of the femur with DXA is limited. This study investigated differences in BMD and morphologic features of the femur between two types of hip fractures using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Forty patients with hip fractures with normal contralateral hips were selected for this study between 2003 and 2007 (trochanteric fracture, n=18; femoral neck fracture, n=22). Each patient underwent QCT of the bilateral femora using a calibration phantom. Using images of the intact contralateral femur, BMD measurements were made at the point of minimum femoral-neck cross-sectional area, middle of the intertrochanteric region, and center of the femoral head. QCT images also were used to measure morphologic features of the hip, including hip axis length, femoral neck axis length, neck-shaft angle, neck width, head offset, anteversion of the femoral neck, and cortical index at the femoral isthmus. No significant differences were found in trabecular BMD between groups in those three regions. Patients with trochanteric fractures showed a smaller neck shaft angle and smaller cortical index at the femoral canal isthmus compared with patients with femoral neck fractures. We conclude that severe osteoporosis with thinner cortical bone of the femoral diaphysis is seen more often in patients with trochanteric fracture than in patients with femoral neck fracture. Level IV, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  3. The association between eccentric hip abduction strength and hip and knee angular movements in recreational male runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brund, René B. Korsgaard; Rasmussen, Sten; Nielsen, Rasmus O.

    2018-01-01

    Weak hip abductors may be related with increased hip adduction and knee abduction angular movement, which may be risk factors of lower extremity injuries. As the role of eccentric hip abduction strength (EHAS) on hip adduction angular movement and knee abduction angular movement (KABD) remains...... and Codamotion active marker system. Using multiple linear regression models (n=186 legs), no relationships between EHAS and hip and knee kinematics were found. A possible reason for the lack of relationship between EHAS and hip and knee kinematics may be owing to differences in the running kinematics. Some...

  4. Trabecular bone deficits among Vietnamese immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, L J; Marquez, M A; McCready, L K; Achenbach, S J; Riggs, B L; Amin, S; Khosla, S

    2011-05-01

    Compared to white women, lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in middle-aged Vietnamese immigrants is due to reduced trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), which in turn is associated with greater trabecular separation along with lower estrogen levels. The epidemiology of osteoporosis in Asian populations is still poorly known, but we previously found a deficit in lumbar spine aBMD among postmenopausal Southeast Asian women, compared to white women, that persisted after correction for bone size. This issue was revisited using more sophisticated imaging techniques. Twenty Vietnamese immigrants (age, 44-79 years) were compared to 162 same-aged white women with respect to aBMD at the hip, spine and wrist, vBMD at the hip and spine by quantitative computed tomography and vBMD and bone microstructure at the ultradistal radius by high-resolution pQCT. Bone turnover and sex steroid levels were assessed in a subset (20 Vietnamese and 40 white women). The aBMD was lower at all sites among the Vietnamese women, but femoral neck vBMD did not differ from middle-aged white women. Significant differences in lumbar spine and ultradistal radius vBMD in the Vietnamese immigrants were due to lower trabecular vBMD, which was associated with increased trabecular separation. Bone resorption was elevated and bone formation depressed among the Vietnamese immigrants, although trends were not statistically significant. Serum estradiol was positively associated with trabecular vBMD in the Vietnamese women, but their estrogen levels were dramatically lower compared to white women. Although reported discrepancies in aBMD among Asian women are mainly an artifact of smaller bone size, we identified a specific deficit in the trabecular bone among a sample of Vietnamese immigrants that may be related to low estrogen levels and which needs further study.

  5. Primary total hip replacement versus hip resurfacing - hospital considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, William G; Carter, Christina J; Barone, Marisa; Jinnah, Riyaz

    2011-01-01

    Multiple factors regarding surgical procedures and patient selection affect hospital staffing needs as well as hospital revenues. In order to better understand the potential impact on hospitals that hip arthroplasty device selection (standard total hip arthroplasty vs. resurfacing) creates, a review of all primary hip arthroplasties performed at one institution was designed to identify factors that impacted hospital staffing needs and revenue generation. All primary hip arthroplasties undertaken over three fiscal years (2008 to 2010) were reviewed, utilizing only hospital business office data and medical records data that had been previously extracted prior for billing purposes. Analysis confirmed differing demographics for two hip arthroplasty populations, with the resurfacing patients (compared to the conventional total hip arthroplasty population) consisting of younger patients (mean age, 50 vs. 61 years), who were more often male (75% vs. 45%), were more likely to have osteoarthritis as their primary diagnosis (83 vs. 67%) and were more often covered by managed care or commercial insurance (83 vs. 34%). They also had shorter hospital stays (mean length of stay, 2.3 vs. 4.1 days) and consequently provided a more favorable financial revenue stream to the hospital on a per patient basis. Several trends appeared during the study periods. There was a steady increase in all procedures in all groups except for the resurfacings, which decreased 26% in males and 53% in females between 2009 and 2010. Differences were observed in the demographics of patients presenting for resurfacing, compared to those presenting for conventional total hip arthroplasty. In addition to the revenue stream considerations, institutions undertaking a resurfacing program must commit the resources and planning in order to rehabilitate these patients more expeditiously than is usually required with conventional hip arthroplasty patients.

  6. Ideologia hip-hopowa na przykładzie tekstów hip-hopowych

    OpenAIRE

    Kozłowska, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The article is asort of analysis of hip hop lyrics in the context of their importance for identity formation process of young generation. Rap music, as one of the elements of hip hop culture, is a kind of special innovation for its audience. With rising interest for this musical genre and hip hop culture the discussion on formulating the issues through the prism of rap music’s message has been increasing. The article presents certain aspects of making sense to the reality, w...

  7. Identify fracture-critical regions inside the proximal femur using statistical parametric mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Kornak, John; Harris, Tamara; Keyak, Joyce; Li, Caixia; Lu, Ying; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Lang, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We identified regions inside the proximal femur that are most strongly associated with hip fracture. Bone densitometry based on such fracture-critical regions showed improved power in discriminating fracture patients from controls. Introduction Hip fractures typically occur in lateral falls, with focal mechanical failure of the sub-volumes of tissue in which the applied stress exceeds the strength. In this study, we describe a new methodology to identify proximal femoral tissue elements with highest association with hip fracture. We hypothesize that bone mineral density (BMD) measured in such sub-volumes discriminates hip fracture risk better than BMD in standard anatomic regions such as the femoral neck and trochanter. Materials and Methods We employed inter-subject registration to transform hip QCT images of 37 patients with hip fractures and 38 age-matched controls into a voxel-based statistical atlas. Within voxels, we performed t-tests between the two groups to identify the regions which differed most. We then randomly divided the 75 scans into a training set and a test set. From the training set, we derived a fracture-driven region of interest (ROI) based on association with fracture. In the test set, we measured BMD in this ROI to determine fracture discrimination efficacy using ROC analysis. Additionally, we compared the BMD distribution differences between the 29 patients with neck fractures and the 8 patients with trochanteric fractures. Results By evaluating fracture discrimination power based on ROC analysis, the fracture-driven ROI had an AUC (area under curve) of 0.92, while anatomic ROIs (including the entire proximal femur, the femoral neck, trochanter and their cortical and trabecular compartments) had AUC values between 0.78 and 0.87. We also observed that the neck fracture patients had lower BMD (p=0.014) in a small region near the femoral neck and the femoral head, and patients with trochanteric fractures had lower BMD in trochanteric regions

  8. Is increase in bone mineral content caused by increase in skeletal muscle mass/strength in adult patients with GH-treated GH deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, Oliver; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    to a muscle modulating effect, and if treatment with GH would primarily increase muscle mass and strength with a secondary increase in BMD/BMC, thus supporting the present physiological concept that mass and strength of bones are mainly determined by dynamic loads from the skeletal muscles. METHOD: We...... performed a systematic literature analysis, including 51 clinical trials published between 1996 and 2008, which had studied the development in muscle mass, muscle strength, BMD, and/or BMC in GH-treated adult GHD patients. RESULTS: GH therapy had an anabolic effect on skeletal muscle. The largest increase...... in muscle mass occurred during the first 12 months of therapy. Most trials measuring BMD/BMC reported significant increases from baseline values. The significant increases in BMD/BMC occurred after 12-18 months of treatment, i.e. usually later than the increases in muscle parameters. Only seven trials...

  9. Relationship between Weight, Body Mass Index, and Bone Mineral Density in Men Referred for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Isfahan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Salamat, Amir Hossein; Abedi, Iraj; Janghorbani, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Although several studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD), the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between BMI, weight and BMD in an Iranian men population. Methods. A total of 230 men 50-79 years old were examined. All men underwent a standard BMD scans of hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, and femoral shaft) and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) using a Dual-Energy X-ra...

  10. Hip Resurfacing: An Alternative to Conventional Hip Replacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is hip resurfacing a good alternative to hip replacement? Answers from Mark Spangehl, M.D. Hip resurfacing has lost favor with many surgeons ... women with poor bone quality. Unlike traditional hip replacement, hip resurfacing doesn't completely replace the "ball" ...

  11. Life-Course Genome-wide Association Study Meta-analysis of Total Body BMD and Assessment of Age-Specific Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Kemp, John P.; Trajanoska, Katerina; Luan, Jian'an; Chesi, Alessandra; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Ham, Annelies; Hartwig, Fernando P.; Evans, Daniel S.; Joro, Raimo; Nedeljkovic, Ivana; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Zhu, Kun; Atalay, Mustafa; Liu, Ching-Ti; Nethander, Maria; Broer, Linda; Porleifsson, Gudmar; Mullin, Benjamin H.; Handelman, Samuel K.; Nalls, Mike A.; Jessen, Leon E.; Heppe, Denise H. M.; Richards, J. Brent; Wang, Carol; Chawes, Bo; Schraut, Katharina E.; Amin, Najaf; Wareham, Nick; Karasik, David; van der Velde, Nathalie; Ikram, M. Arfan; Zemel, Babette S.; Zhou, Yanhua; Carlsson, Christian J.; Liu, Yongmei; McGuigan, Fiona E.; Boer, Cindy G.; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Ralston, Stuart H.; Robbins, John A.; Walsh, John P.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Langenberg, Claudia; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Williams, Frances M. K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Akesson, Kristina; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; den Heijer, Martin; van der Eerden, Bram C. J.; van de Peppel, Jeroen; Spector, Timothy D.; Pennell, Craig; Horta, Bernardo L.; Felix, Janine F.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Wilson, Scott G.; de Mutsert, Renée; Bisgaard, Hans; Styrkársdóttir, Unnur; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Orwoll, Eric; Lakka, Timo A.; Scott, Robert; Grant, Struan F. A.; Lorentzon, Mattias; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Wilson, James F.; Stefansson, Kari; Psaty, Bruce M.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ntzani, Evangelia; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Logan, John G.; Williams, Graham R.; Bassett, J. H. Duncan; Croucher, Peter I.; Evangelou, Evangelos; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L.; Tobias, Jonathan H.; Evans, David M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by DXA is used to evaluate bone health. In children, total body (TB) measurements are commonly used; in older individuals, BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) is used to diagnose osteoporosis. To date, genetic variants in more than 60 loci have been

  12. Life-Course Genome-wide Association Study Meta-analysis of Total Body BMD and Assessment of Age-Specific Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Kemp, John P.; Trajanoska, Katerina

    2018-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by DXA is used to evaluate bone health. In children, total body (TB) measurements are commonly used; in older individuals, BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) is used to diagnose osteoporosis. To date, genetic variants in more than 60 loci have b...

  13. Emerging topics on the hip: Ligamentum teres and hip microinstability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerezal, Luis; Arnaiz, Javier; Canga, Ana; Piedra, Tatiana; Altónaga, José R.; Munafo, Ricardo; Pérez-Carro, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Microinstability and ligament teres lesions are emergent topics on the hip pathology. These entities are an increasingly recognized cause of persistent hip pain and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the patient with hip pain. Conventional (non-arthrographic) CT and MR have a very limited role in the evaluation of these entities. CTa and MRa have emerged as the modalities of choice for pre-operative imaging of ligamentum teres injuries and microinstability. To date, pre-operative imaging detection of these pathologies is not widespread but with appropriate imaging and a high index of suspicion, preoperative detection should improve. This article discusses current concepts regarding anatomy, biomechanics, clinical findings, diagnosis and treatment of ligament teres lesions and microinstability.

  14. TREATMENT OF NEUROLOGICAL CONGENITAL HIP LUXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian ICLEANU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hip luxation is a disorder which evolves in time. Teratological hip dislocation is a distinct form of hip luxation, which usually appears with other disorders. These hips are dislocated before birth. In this thesis we will try to elaborate a recovery program, through physical exercises, which will help us realize our treatment objectives: diminishing articular stiffness, increasing articular mobility, increasing muscle strength, recalibration of agonist and antagonist balances and reeducating gait. The specific objectives of the study consist of the particularization of the recovery programs based on age, illness stage (dysplasia or luxation and either surgical or non-surgical intervention. To show the importance of physiotherapy in gait rehabilitation of a child with hip dislocation we started from the hypothesis: using an adequate rehabilitation program after an individualized methodology, optimizes the functional recovery and ensures the gains of hip stability and the formation of an engram of gait as close as it could be to the normal one. We present a case of neurological congenital hip dislocation where the treatment initiated early is showing good results. Results obtained are significantly different and we came to the conclusion that starting an untimely analytical kinetic treatment and globally personalizing it to every patient has better biomechanical results for the hip.

  15. Rapid restoration of bone mass after surgical management of hyperthyroidism: A prospective case control study in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Poongkodi; Maharajan, Chandrasekaran; Mohamed, Kamaludeen N; Rachamadugu, Suresh V

    2016-03-01

    The rate and the extent of bone remineralization at cancellous versus cortical sites after treatment of hyperthyroidism is unclear. Few studies have examined the effect of operative management of hyperthyroidism on recovery of bone mass. To evaluate prospectively the bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone areal size at the spine, hip, and forearm before and after total thyroidectomy. A prospective case control observational study from August 2011 to July 2014 in a single center. This study evaluated 40 overt hyperthyroid patients and 31 age-matched euthyroid controls who were operative candidates. Bone indices were measured at baseline and 6-month postoperatively using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25OHD) were assessed. Baseline BMD of hyperthyroid subjects at the spine, hip, and forearm were less than euthyroid controls (P = .001) with concomitant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase (mean ± SD, 143 ± 72 vs 72 ± 23 IU/L control; P hyperthyroid patients, posttreatment BMD expressed as g/cm(2) were 0.97 ± 0.12 (vs pretreatment 0.91 ± 0.14; P = .001) at the spine, 0.87 ± 0.12 (vs pretreatment 0.80 ± 0.13; P = .001) at the hip, and 0.67 ± 0.09 (vs pretreatment 0.64 ± 0.11; P = .191) at the forearm. The percent change in BMD was greatest at spine (8.3%) followed by the hip (7.6%) and forearm (3.0%). Operative management with total thyroidectomy improved the bone loss associated with hyperthyroidism as early as 6 months postoperatively at the hip and spine despite concomitant vitamin D deficiency. Delayed recovery of bone indices at the forearm, a cortical bone, requires further long-term evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary rose hip exerts antiatherosclerotic effects and increases nitric oxide-mediated dilation in ApoE-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalera, Michele; Axling, Ulrika; Rippe, Catarina; Swärd, Karl; Holm, Cecilia

    2017-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease in which atheromatous plaques develop inside arteries, leading to reduced or obstructed blood flow that in turn may cause stroke and heart attack. Rose hip is the fruit of plants of the genus Rosa, belonging to the Rosaceae family, and it is rich in antioxidants with high amounts of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds. Several studies have shown that fruits, seeds and roots of these plants exert antidiabetic, antiobesity and cholesterol-lowering effects in rodents as well as humans. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which rose hip lowers plasma cholesterol and to evaluate its effects on atherosclerotic plaque formation. ApoE-null mice were fed either an HFD (CTR) or HFD with rose hip supplementation (RH) for 24 weeks. At the end of the study, we found that blood pressure and atherosclerotic plaques, together with oxidized LDL, total cholesterol and fibrinogen levels were markedly reduced in the RH group. Fecal cholesterol content, liver expression of Ldlr and selected reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) genes such as Abca1, Abcg1 and Scarb1 were significantly increased upon RH feeding. In the aorta, the scavenger receptor Cd36 and the proinflammatory Il1β genes were markedly down-regulated compared to the CTR mice. Finally, we found that RH increased nitric oxide-mediated dilation of the caudal artery. Taken together, these results suggest that rose hip is a suitable dietary supplement for preventing atherosclerotic plaques formation by modulating systemic blood pressure and the expression of RCT and inflammatory genes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of ovariectomy on BMD, micro-architecture and biomechanics of cortical and cancellous bones in a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zi-xiang; Lei, Wei; Hu, Yun-yu; Wang, Hai-qiang; Wan, Shi-yong; Ma, Zhen-sheng; Sang, Hong-xun; Fu, Suo-chao; Han, Yi-sheng

    2008-11-01

    Osteoporotic/osteopenia fractures occur most frequently in trabeculae-rich skeletal sites. The purpose of this study was to use a high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and dual energy X-ray absorptionmeter (DEXA) to investigate the changes in micro-architecture and bone mineral density (BMD) in a sheep model resulted from ovariectomy (OVX). Biomechanical tests were performed to evaluate the strength of the trabecular bone. Twenty adult sheeps were randomly divided into three groups: sham group (n=8), group 1 (n=4) and group 2 (n=8). In groups 1 and 2, all sheep were ovariectomized (OVX); in the sham group, the ovaries were located and the oviducts were ligated. In all animals, BMD for lumbar spine was obtained during the surgical procedure. BMD at the spine, femoral neck and femoral condyle was determined 6 months (group 1) and 12 months (group 2) post-OVX. Lumbar spines and femora were obtained and underwent BMD scan, micro-CT analysis. Compressive mechanical properties were determined from biopsies of vertebral bodies and femoral condyles. BMD, micro-architectural parameters and mechanical properties of cancellous bone did not decrease significantly at 6 months post-OVX. Twelve months after OVX, BMD, micro-architectural parameters and mechanical properties decreased significantly. The results of linear regression analyses showed that trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (r=0.945, R2=0.886) and bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (r=0.783, R2=0.586) had strong (R2>0.5) correlation to compression stress. In OVX sheep, changes in the structural parameters of trabecular bone are comparable to the human situation during osteoporosis was induced. The sheep model presented seems to meet the criteria for an osteopenia model for fracture treatment with respect to morphometric and mechanical properties. But the duration of OVX must be longer than 12 months to ensure the animal model can be established successfully.

  18. Changes in Bone Mineral Density and Metabolic Parameters after Pulsatile Gonadorelin Treatment in Young Men with Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Xi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the prevalence of osteoporosis in young men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH and to investigate the changes of BMD and metabolic parameters, a total of 22 young male patients with HH and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. BMD, biochemical, and hormonal parameters were measured in two groups. Osteoporosis was more prevalent in HH patients (45.45% than the control subjects (10.00% (P<0.001. The patients with HH had lower BMD in lumbar spine 2–4, femoral neck, and total hip (P<0.001, for all and higher fasting insulin (P=0.001, HOMA-IR (P=0.002, and SHBG (P<0.001 compared to the controls. After 6 months of pulsatile gonadorelin treatment, BMI (P=0.021 and BMD in lumbar spine 2–4, femoral neck, and total hip (P=0.002, P=0.003, and P=0.003, resp. increased dramatically and total cholesterol (P=0.034, fasting insulin (P=0.025, HOMA-IR (P=0.021, and SHBG (P=0.001 decreased significantly in HH patients. The study shows a higher prevalence of osteoporosis in young men with HH. Long-term pulsatile gonadorelin treatment indicates a positive effect on BMD and metabolic parameters of HH patients.

  19. Avascular Necrosis Is Associated With Increased Transfusions and Readmission Following Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecchio, Francis C; Manalo, John Paul; Demzik, Alysen; Sahota, Shawn; Beal, Matthew; Manning, David

    2017-05-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) may confer an increased risk of complications and readmission following total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, current risk-adjustment models do not account for AVN. A total of 1706 patients who underwent THA for AVN from 2011 to 2013 were selected from the American College of Surgeon's National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database and matched 1:1 to controls using a predetermined propensity score algorithm. Rates of 30-day medical and surgical complications, readmissions, and reoperations were compared between cohorts. Propensity-score logistic regression was used to determine independent associations between AVN and outcomes of interest. Patients with AVN had a higher rate of medical complications than those without AVN (20.3% vs 15.3%, respectively; PAvascular necrosis of the femoral head is an independent risk factor for transfusion up to 72 hours postoperatively and readmission up to 30 days following total hip replacement. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(3):171-176.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Proposing an adaptive mutation to improve XCSF performance to classify ADHD and BMD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadatnezhad, Khadijeh; Boostani, Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    There is extensive overlap of clinical symptoms observed among children with bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thus, diagnosis according to clinical symptoms cannot be very accurate. It is therefore desirable to develop quantitative criteria for automatic discrimination between these disorders. This study is aimed at designing an efficient decision maker to accurately classify ADHD and BMD patients by analyzing their electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In this study, 22 channels of EEGs have been recorded from 21 subjects with ADHD and 22 individuals with BMD. Several informative features, such as fractal dimension, band power and autoregressive coefficients, were extracted from the recorded signals. Considering the multimodal overlapping distribution of the obtained features, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to reduce the input dimension in a more separable space to make it more appropriate for the proposed classifier. A piecewise linear classifier based on the extended classifier system for function approximation (XCSF) was modified by developing an adaptive mutation rate, which was proportional to the genotypic content of best individuals and their fitness in each generation. The proposed operator controlled the trade-off between exploration and exploitation while maintaining the diversity in the classifier's population to avoid premature convergence. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, the extracted features were applied to support vector machine, LDA, nearest neighbor and XCSF classifiers. To evaluate the method, a noisy environment was simulated with different noise amplitudes. It is shown that the results of the proposed technique are more robust as compared to conventional classifiers. Statistical tests demonstrate that the proposed classifier is a promising method for discriminating between ADHD and BMD patients.

  1. Total hip arthroplasty in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma Becic; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Overgaard, Søren

    2005-01-01

    The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs.......The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs....

  2. Hip, Hip, Soret!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Plathe, Florian

    Many years ago, Ludwig did detect the behaviour now called the Soret effect. Sodium sulphate in eighteen-fifty-six did not obediently follow Fick's first law. But if he cooled down one side the salt went left, the water to the right. He was surprised in every way. Hip, hip, Soret!

  3. Cementless Hip Stem Anteversion in the Dysplastic Hip: A Comparison of Tapered Wedge vs Metaphyseal Filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Naofumi; Jinno, Tetsuya; Koga, Daisuke; Hagino, Tetsuo; Okawa, Atsushi; Haro, Hirotaka

    2017-05-01

    Appropriate stem anteversion is important for achieving stability of the prosthetic joint in total hip arthroplasty. Anteversion of a cementless femoral stem is affected by the femoral canal morphology and varies according to stem geometry. We investigated the difference and variation of the increase in anteversion between 2 types of cementless stems, and the correlation between each stem and the preoperative femoral anteversion. We retrospectively compared 2 groups of hips that underwent total hip arthroplasty using a metaphyseal filling stem (78 hips) or a tapered wedge stem (83 hips). All the patients had osteoarthritis due to hip dysplasia. Computed tomography was used to measure preoperative femoral anteversion at 5 levels and postoperative stem anteversion. The increase in anteversion of the tapered wedge stem group (22.7° ± 11.6°) was more than that of the metaphyseal filling stem group (17.2° ± 8.3°; P = .0007). The variation of the increase in the tapered wedge stem group was significantly larger than that in the metaphyseal filling stem group (P = .0016). The metaphyseal filling stem group was more highly and positively correlated with femoral anteversion than the tapered wedge stem group. Femoral anteversion affects stem anteversion differently according to stem geometry. The tapered wedge stems had greater variation of the increase in anteversion than did the metaphyseal filling stems. Based on the results of this study, it is difficult to preoperatively estimate the increase in stem anteversion for tapered wedge stems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Timing of Hip Arthroscopy After Intra-articular Hip Injection Affects Postoperative Infection Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dean; Camp, Christopher L; Ranawat, Anil S; Coleman, Struan H; Kelly, Bryan T; Werner, Brian C

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the association of preoperative intra-articular hip injection with surgical site infection after hip arthroscopy. A large administrative database was used to identify all patients undergoing hip arthroscopy from 2007 to 2015 within a single private insurer and from 2005 to 2012 within Medicare in the United States. Those that received an ipsilateral preoperative intra-articular hip injection were identified. The patients were then divided into the following groups based on the interval between preoperative injection and ipsilateral hip arthroscopy: (1) 12 months) of preoperative hip injection. Patients developing a surgical site infection within 6 months following hip arthroscopy were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, and Current Procedural Terminology codes associated with infection. Groups were compared using a multivariate logistic regression analysis to control for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol usage, and multiple medical comorbidities including diabetes mellitus, hemodialysis use, inflammatory arthritis, and peripheral vascular disease. In total, 19% of privately insured and 6% of Medicare patients received a hip injection within 12 months of hip arthroscopy. The overall infection rate in privately insured and Medicare patients was 1.19% and 1.10%, respectively. Preoperative hip injection within 3 months of surgery was associated with a significantly higher risk of postoperative infection versus controls (2.16%, odds ratio [OR] 6.1, P arthroscopy increased when preoperative intra-articular hip injections were given within 3 months of surgery. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Social inequality and hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, N. C.; Hansen, L.; Judge, A.

    2015-01-01

    Social inequality appears to be increasing in many countries. We explored whether risk of hip fracture was associated with markers of inequality and whether these relationships changed with time, using data from Danish Health Registries. Methods: All patients 60 years or older with a primary hip...... fracture (ICD10: S720, S721, S722 and S729) were identified from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2011. Hip fracture patients were matched 1:1 on age, gender and year of fracture to a non-hip fracture control. An individual's education attainment was defined as basic, secondary or higher, and their income...

  6. The association between physical activity and osteoporotic fractures: a review of the evidence and implications for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyeri, Alireza

    2008-11-01

    Physical activity helps maintain mobility, physical functioning, bone mineral density (BMD), muscle strength, balance and, therefore, may help prevent falls and fractures among the elderly. Meanwhile, it is theoretically possible that physical activity increases risk of fractures as it may increase risk of falls and has only a modest effect on BMD. This review aims to assess the potential causal association between physical activity and osteoporotic fractures from an epidemiological viewpoint. As the medical literature lacks direct evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with fracture end points, a meta-analysis of 13 prospective cohort studies with hip fracture end point is presented. The current evidence base regarding the link between exercise and fracture risk determinants (namely, falls, BMD, and bone quality) are also summarized. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is associated with a hip fracture risk reduction of 45% (95% CI, 31-56%) and 38% (95% CI, 31-44%), respectively, among men and women. Risk of falling is suggested to be generally reduced among physically active people with a potential increased risk in the most active and inactive people. Positive effects of physical activity on BMD and bone quality are of a questionable magnitude for reduction of fracture risk. The complexity of relationship between physical activity and osteoporotic fractures points out to the need for RCTs to be conducted with fractures as the primary end point.

  7. Predictors of Fracture Risk and Bone Mineral Density in Men with Prostate Cancer on Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Neubecker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Decrease of bone mineral density (BMD and fracture risk is increased in men with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. We looked at possible predictors of decreased BMD and increased fracture risk in men with prostate cancer; most of whom were on ADT. In a retrospective study, we analyzed serum, BMD, and clinical risk factors used in the Fracture Risk Assessment (FRAX tool and others in 78 men with prostate cancer with reported height loss. The subjects were divided in two groups: 22 men with and 56 without vertebral fractures. 17 of the 22 men with vertebral fractures on spine X-rays did not know they had a vertebral fracture. Of those 17 men, 9 had not previously qualified for treatment based on preradiograph FRAX score calculated with BMD, and 6 based on FRAX calculated without BMD. Performing spine films increased the predictive ability of FRAX for vertebral fracture. Vertebral fracture was better predicted by FRAX for other osteoporotic fractures than FRAX for hip fractures. The inclusion of BMD in FRAX calculations did not affect the predictive ability of FRAX. The PSA level showed a positive correlation with lumbar spine BMD and accounted for about 9% of spine BMD.

  8. Search for genetic markers determining the efficiency of therapy with bisphosphonates in Russian women with postmenopausal osteoporosis: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Krylov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many clinical observations show that patient’s genetic background is of great importance in determining the efficiency of treatment.Subjects and methods. The instigation included 50 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (OP, who were followed up at the Laboratory of osteoporosis, V.A. Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology. Body mineral density (BMD in the lumbar spine (LI-IV, femoral neck (FN, and total hip was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and 12 months after treatment with bisphosphonates (BP. To estimate BMD changes, the investigators used ΔBMD in percent (Δ, %.Results and discussion. The whole group showed a positive effect of BP therapy during a year, which was most pronounced in the lumbar spine (mean ΔBMD, about 4%, and a small increment in the proximal hip BMD (mean ΔBMD, about 2%. An analysis indicated a statistically significant correlation of MCP1 -2518A>G polymorphism with changes in LI-IV BMD after 12-month BP therapy. Thus, the female patients who were A allele carriers had a twice lower increase in LI-IV BMD due to BP therapy than those without this allele. The genetic variants of the CCR5 gene, which were related to Δ32 deletion, and IL1β -511C/T polymorphism were also associated with changes in FN BMD following 12-month BP therapy. The BMD increase due to BP therapy in the carriers of the CCR5 Δ32 mutation (wt/Δ32 genotype was 3.5-fold than that in the carriers of the wild type gene (wt/wt genotype. Examination of IL1 -511C/T polymorphism demonstrated that the FN BMD increment in the carriers of the CC genotype was significantly higher than in those of the CT genotype (4.2±4.8 and 1.0±3.7%, respectively; р = 0.023. Our investigation revealed no significant relationship between VDR, LEPR, IL10, MHTFR, PPARG, SPP1, and CCR5(G/A gene polymorphisms and 12-month BP therapy-induced BMD changes in the three study skeletal regions. The findings may suggest that genetic testing may be used to

  9. Late total hip arthroplasty dislocation due to yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo Adrados, MD

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Yoga has become a popular form of exercise, recreation, and meditation for adults in the United States. As the popularity of both yoga and the incidence of hip replacements have both coincidentally increased over the last 2 decades, we imagine that the number of total hip replacement patients partaking in the practice of yoga has also increased. There are no clear guidelines available for yoga practice following hip replacement. To date, there have been no published reports of prosthetic hip dislocations during yoga. We present 2 cases of late total hip dislocations during yoga and provide a review of the available orthopaedic literature and our recommendations on patient restrictions and education with respect to practicing yoga after a hip replacement.

  10. The relationship between developmental lumbar spinal stenosis and its BMD value : comparison by single energy quantitative CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Jin; Kim, Kun Il; Song, Keun Sung

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between developmental lumbar spinal stenosis and its BMD value by using the single energy quantitative CT(SEQCT). Eighty normal volunteers(20-60years) were selected as a control group and 28 patients with developmental lumbar spinal stenosis were selected as a disease group. The two groups were divided into a younger (20-39 years) and an older subgroup (40-60 years), and were further divided into male and female subgroups. All the cases showed no evidence of metabolic disease, fracture, herniated nucleus pulposus, degererative spondylosis, infectious disease, tumors or had no history of absolute immobilization of more than two weeks. All underwent lumbar spine CT and SEQCT. we measured bone mineral density(BMD) at the cancellous bone of L1, 2, 3 and obtained the mean and its one standard deviation, and compared the data between each sub-group of the control and the disease group using ANOVA. There was a significant low BMD value in the younger male patient subgroup compared with the control subgroup(p<0.005). Developmental lumbar spinal stenosis in a young male may be a factor of decreasing BMD of the body of the spine

  11. The relationship between developmental lumbar spinal stenosis and its BMD value : comparison by single energy quantitative CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Jin; Kim, Kun Il; Song, Keun Sung [Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between developmental lumbar spinal stenosis and its BMD value by using the single energy quantitative CT(SEQCT). Eighty normal volunteers(20-60years) were selected as a control group and 28 patients with developmental lumbar spinal stenosis were selected as a disease group. The two groups were divided into a younger (20-39 years) and an older subgroup (40-60 years), and were further divided into male and female subgroups. All the cases showed no evidence of metabolic disease, fracture, herniated nucleus pulposus, degererative spondylosis, infectious disease, tumors or had no history of absolute immobilization of more than two weeks. All underwent lumbar spine CT and SEQCT. we measured bone mineral density(BMD) at the cancellous bone of L1, 2, 3 and obtained the mean and its one standard deviation, and compared the data between each sub-group of the control and the disease group using ANOVA. There was a significant low BMD value in the younger male patient subgroup compared with the control subgroup(p<0.005). Developmental lumbar spinal stenosis in a young male may be a factor of decreasing BMD of the body of the spine.

  12. HLA alleles association with changes in bone mineral density in HIV-1-infected adults changing treatment to tenofovir-emtricitabine or abacavir-lamivudine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hila Haskelberg

    Full Text Available There are limited data regarding the influence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA polymorphisms on reduced bone mineral density (BMD. We investigated the relationship between HLA supertypes and BMD in HIV-infected adults changing their existing treatment to tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC or abacavir-lamivudine (ABC-3TC in the STEAL study.Lumbar spine and right hip BMD were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. HLA genotypes at the 2-digit level were classified into class I and II supertypes. Student's t-tests were used to test the association between HLA supertypes and changes in hip and spine BMD over 96 weeks for the whole cohort and stratified by randomised groups. The relationship between HLA supertypes and BMD was also assessed in the subgroup of participants that were naïve to both ABC and TDF at study entry.Class II supertypes were mainly associated with hip BMD change. Overall, compared to participants not carrying HLA-DQ3, participants expressing DQ3 had less bone loss over 96 weeks at both the hip and spine (hip: 0.003 vs. -0.006 g/cm2, 95%CI 0.002 to 0.017, p = 0.016; spine: 0.006 vs. -0.006 g/cm2, 95%CI 0.001 to 0.023, p = 0.041. In participants that were naïve to both ABC and TDF at baseline and randomised to TDF-FTC, DQ3 was significantly associated with less bone loss compared with those not carrying DQ3 (hip: 0.001 vs. -0.032 g/cm2; diff 0.033; 95%CI 0.017 to 0.049; p<0.001; spine: 0.007 vs. -0.023 g/cm2; diff 0.035; 95%CI 0.014 to 0.056; p = 0.001.In this cohort of HIV-infected adults, there was an association between bone status and HLA supertypes, particularly HLA-DQ3.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00192634.

  13. Genetic analysis identifies DDR2 as a novel gene affecting bone mineral density and osteoporotic fractures in Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    Full Text Available DDR2 gene, playing an essential role in regulating osteoblast differentiation and chondrocyte maturation, may influence bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis, but the genetic variations actually leading to the association remain to be elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the genetic variants in DDR2 are associated with BMD and fracture risk. This study was performed in three samples from two ethnicities, including 1,300 Chinese Han subjects, 700 Chinese Han subjects (350 with osteoporotic hip fractures and 350 healthy controls and 2,286 US white subjects. Twenty-eight SNPs in DDR2 were genotyped and tested for associations with hip BMD and fractures. We identified 3 SNPs in DDR2 significantly associated with hip BMD in the Chinese population after multiple testing adjustments, which were rs7521233 (P = 1.06×10-4, β: -0.018 for allele C, rs7553831 (P = 1.30×10-4, β: -0.018 for allele T, and rs6697469 (P = 1.59×10-3, β: -0.015 for allele C, separately. These three SNPs were in high linkage disequilibrium. Haplotype analyses detected two significantly associated haplotypes, including one haplotype in block 2 (P = 9.54×10-4, β: -0.016 where these three SNPs located. SNP rs6697469 was also associated with hip fractures (P = 0.043, OR: 1.42 in the Chinese population. The effect on fracture risk was consistent with its association with lower BMD. However, in the white population, we didn't observe significant associations with hip BMD. eQTL analyses revealed that SNPs associated with BMD also affected DDR2 mRNA expression levels in Chinese. Our findings, together with the prior biological evidence, suggest that DDR2 could be a new candidate for osteoporosis in Chinese population. Our results also reveal an ethnic difference, which highlights the need for further genetic studies in each ethnic group.

  14. Sarcopenia as an Independent Risk Factor for Decreased BMD in COPD Patients: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V (2008-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Won Lee

    Full Text Available A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD is a systemic consequence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Past reports have rarely examined any correlation between sarcopenia and BMD. We investigated the relationship cross-sectionally between the presence of sarcopenia and BMD reduction in COPD patients.COPD patients aged 50 or older with qualifying spirometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data were from participants in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V (2008-2011.There were 286 (33.3% subjects in the sarcopenia group and 572 (66.7% in the non-sarcopenia group. The sarcopenia group had lower T-scores than the non-sarcopenia group (femur: -0.73±0.88 vs. -0.18±0.97, p < 0.001; femur neck: -1.44±0.98 vs. -0.99±1.06, p < 0.001; lumbar: -1.38±1.36 vs. -0.84±1.38, p < 0.001. The prevalences of osteopenia and osteoporosis were 60.8% and 22.0%, respectively, in the sarcopenia group and 45.6% and 13.3% in the non-sarcopenia group (both p < 0.001. After adjusting for multiple variables, the presence of sarcopenia associated with increased the risk of osteopenia, osteoporosis, and a low BMD (OR = 3.227, 95% CI = 2.125-4.899, p < 0.001, OR = 6.952, 95% CI = 3.418-14.139, p < 0.001, and OR = 3.495, 95% CI = 2.315-5.278, p < 0.001, respectively. In a subgroup analysis, similar OR changes were confirmed in the high-body-weight group (n = 493 (OR = 2.248, 95% CI = 1.084-4.665, p = 0.030, OR = 4.621, 95% CI = 1.167-18.291, p = 0.029, and OR = 2.376, 95% CI = 1.158-4.877, p = 0.018, respectively.The presence of sarcopenia was associated with increased the risk for decreased BMD in COPD.

  15. Is increase in bone mineral content caused by increase in skeletal muscle mass/strength in adult patients with GH-treated GH deficiency? A systematic literature analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, O.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.

    2009-01-01

    to a muscle modulating effect, and if treatment with GH would primarily increase muscle mass and strength with a secondary increase in BMD/BMC, thus supporting the present physiological concept that mass and strength of bones are mainly determined by dynamic loads from the skeletal muscles. METHOD: We...... performed a systematic literature analysis, including 51 clinical trials published between 1996 and 2008, which had studied the development in muscle mass, muscle strength, BMD, and/or BMC in GH-treated adult GHD patients. RESULTS: GH therapy had an anabolic effect on skeletal muscle. The largest increase...... in muscle mass occurred during the first 12 months of therapy. Most trials measuring BMD/BMC reported significant increases from baseline values. The significant increases in BMD/BMC occurred after 12-18 months of treatment, i.e. usually later than the increases in muscle parameters. Only seven trials...

  16. Second hip fractures at Chiang Mai University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtriratanachai, Prasit; Chiewchantanakit, Siripong; Vaseenon, Tanawat; Rojanasthien, Sattaya; Leerapun, Taninnit

    2015-02-01

    Hip fractures are a major public health problem. Patients who have suffered a hip fracture have an increased risk of a subsequent hip fracture. This study examines the incidence ofsecondhip fractures and attempts to identify underlying risk factors. To examine the incidence ofsecond hip fractures in osteoporotic patients at Chiang Mai University Hospital and to identify risk factors related to second hip fractures. A retrospective review was conducted of all low-energy mechanism hip fracture patients admitted during 2008 and 2009. Analysis of second hip fractures was conducted using survival analysis and logistic regression analysis. A total of 191 patients were observed for 391.68 person-years (mean 2.05 person-years per patient). Among that group, nine second hip fractures were identified, an overall incidence rate of 0.023 second fractures per person-year. Second hip fractures tended to occur within the first year following an initial hip fracture. There were no significant differences related to either gender or comorbid medical conditions. Logistic regression analysis revealed that increased risk of a second hip fracture was associated with age (highest between 80 to 89 years) and patients who were not treated for osteoporosis following their initial fracture. The incidence of second hip fractures at Chiang Mai University Hospital was 0.023 per person-year Careful follow-up of older patients, especially those over 80, and treatment ofosteoporosis with bisphosphonate plus vitamin D and calcium supplements was correlated with a reduction in the incidence of second hip fractures.

  17. The combination of structural parameters and areal bone mineral density improves relation to proximal femur strength. An in vitro study with high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Beck Nielsen, Jens-Erik; Ahrberg, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    , volumetric BMD (vBMD), and microarchitectural parameters were obtained. In addition, aBMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed at conventional hip regions and maximal compressive strength (MCS) was determined in a side-impact biomechanical test. Twelve cervical and 19 trochanteric...... fractures were confirmed. Geometry, vBMD, microarchitecture, and aBMD correlated significantly with MCS, with Spearman's correlation coefficients up to 0.77, 0.89, 0.90, and 0.85 (P ...

  18. Hip joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hip arthroplasty; Total hip replacement; Hip hemiarthroplasty; Arthritis - hip replacement; Osteoarthritis - hip replacement ... Your hip joint is made up of 2 major parts. One or both parts may be replaced during surgery: ...

  19. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: Incidence and Correlation with Demographic and Clinical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MUNTEAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and determine its correlation with the demographic and clinical characteristics of AS. Patients and Methods: Demographic, clinical and osteodensitometric data were evaluated in a cross-sectional study that included 136 patients with AS. Spine and hip BMD were measured by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Using the modified Schober’s test we assessed spine mobility. We examined the sacroiliac, anteroposterior and lateral dorso-lumbar spine radiographs in order to grade sacroiliitis and assess syndesmophytes. Disease activity was evaluated using C-reactive protein (CRP levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. Demographic data and BMD measurements were compared with those of 167 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results: Patients with AS had a significantly lower BMD at the spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip as compared to age-matched controls (all p<0.01. According to the WHO classification, osteoporosis was present in 20.6% of the AS patients at the lumbar spine and in 14.6% at the femoral neck. There were no significant differences in BMD when comparing men and women with AS, except for trochanter BMD that was lower in female patients. No correlations were found between disease activity markers (ESR, CRP and BMD. Femoral neck BMD was correlated with disease duration, Schober’s test and sacroiliitis grade. Conclusion: Patients with AS have a lower spine and hip BMD as compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Bone loss at the femoral neck is associated with disease duration and more severe AS.

  20. Low Preoperative BMD Is Related to High Migration of Tibia Components in Uncemented TKA-92 Patients in a Combined DEXA and RSA Study With 2-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mikkel R; Winther, Nikkolaj S; Lind, Thomas; Schrøder, Henrik M; Flivik, Gunnar; Petersen, Michael M

    2017-07-01

    The fixation of uncemented tibia components in total knee arthroplasty may rely on the bone quality of the tibia; however, no previous studies have shown convincing objective proof of this. Component migration is relevant as it has been shown to predict aseptic loosening. We performed 2-year follow-up of 92 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty surgery with an uncemented tibia component. Bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm 2 ) of the tibia host bone was measured preoperatively using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The proximal tibia was divided into 2 regions of interest (ROI) in the part of the tibia bone where the components were implanted. Radiostereometric analysis was performed postoperatively and after 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The primary outcome was maximum total point motion (MTPM; mm). Regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relation between preoperative BMD and MTPM. We found low preoperative BMD in ROI1 to be significantly related to high MTPM at all follow-ups: after 3 months (R 2  = 20%, P BMD  = 0.017), 6 months (R 2  = 29%, P BMD  = 0.003), 12 months (R 2  = 33%, P BMD  = 0.001), and 24 months (R 2  = 27%, P BMD  = 0.001). We also found a significant relation for low BMD in ROI2 and high MTPM: 3 months (R 2  = 19%, P BMD  = 0.042), 6 months (R 2  = 28%, P BMD  = 0.04), 12 months (R 2  = 32%, P BMD  = 0.004), and 24 months (R 2  = 24%, P BMD  = 0.005). Low preoperative BMD in the tibia is related to high MTPM. Thus, high migration of uncemented tibia components is to be expected in patients with poor bone quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparison of teriparatide and calcitonin therapy in postmenopausal Asian women with osteoporosis: a 6-month study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, A W C; Pasion, E G; Sofiyan, M; Lau, E M C; Tay, B K; Lam, K S; Wilawan, K; Ongphiphadhanakul, B; Thiebaud, D

    2006-05-01

    The number of hip fractures is expected to double in the next 20 years, with current estimates that Asia will account for 37% of these cases. As bone mineral density (BMD) may be used as a measure of fracture risk, we sought to compare the effects of teriparatide with salmon calcitonin treatment on changes in BMD, biochemical bone markers, and safety in postmenopausal Asian women with osteoporosis. A total of 104 patients (n = 47 teriparatide [20 g/day subcutaneously] and n = 57 calcitonin [100 IU/day subcutaneously]) were enrolled in Hong Kong, Singapore, Philippines, Malaysia, and Thailand. Calcium (> or = 500 mg/day) and vitamin D (200-400 IU/day) supplements were taken throughout the 6-month controlled, randomized study. Teriparatide was associated with a 5.03 +/- 4.77% increase in lumbar spine BMD (p < 0.0001, mean +/- SD change from baseline), whereas changes in lumbar spine BMD for patients on calcitonin were not statistically significant (mean change of 0.36 +/- 4.12%, p = 0.16). Comparison of the two groups indicated that teriparatide treatment improved lumbar spine BMD statistically significantly more than calcitonin (p < 0.0001). No statistically significant changes were observed for total hip or femoral neck BMD. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) increased by 55.9% (median change from baseline, p < 0.0001) in the teriparatide group, and remained stable with calcitonin (5.0% change, p = 0.24); osteocalcin increased by 156.15% (median change from baseline, p < 0.0001) with teriparatide, and decreased with calcitonin (-15.25%, p = 0.03). Similar rates of adverse events were observed, with nausea and dizziness the most commonly reported for both groups (teriparatide versus calcitonin, 13.0% versus 23.2% p = 0.21, 10.9% versus 21.4% p = 0.19, respectively). There were no clinically relevant changes observed in laboratory parameters. Both treatments were similarly tolerated, however teriparatide was associated with greater increases in lumbar

  2. BMD in elite female triathletes is related to isokinetic peak torque without any association to sex hormone concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Melin, Anna; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Female endurance athletes suffering from low energy availability and reproductive hormonal disorders are at risk of low BMD. Muscle forces acting on bone may have a reverse site-specific effect. Therefore we wanted to test how BMD in female elite triathletes was associated to isokinetic peak torque...... (IPT) and reproductive hormone concentrations (RHC). A possible effect of oral contraceptives (OCON's) is taken into consideration....

  3. MTHFR c.677C>T polymorphism as an independent predictor of peak bone mass in Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Nielsen, Torben Leo

    2006-01-01

    in the Odense Androgen Study. BMD at the spine, hip and whole-body was measured using a Hologic QDR-4500 densitometer. Genotype frequencies were compatible with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Spine BMD was significantly associated with genotype, with a decrease in BMD of 0.20 SD for each copy of the T...

  4. MTHFR c.677C>T polymorphism as an indepent predictor of peak bone mass in Danish men - results from the Odense Androgen Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, Henrik L.; Nielsen, Torben L.

    2005-01-01

    in the Odense Androgen Study. BMD at the spine, hip and whole-body was measured using a Hologic QDR-4500 densitometer. Genotype frequencies were compatible with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Spine BMD was significantly associated with genotype, with a decrease in BMD of 0.20 SD for each copy of the T...

  5. The influence of smoking on bone loss and response to nasal estradiol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N.H.; Nielsen, T.F.; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl

    2009-01-01

    mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine had increased less at 2 years in smokers as compared to non-smokers (2.6% vs. 3.9%, p=0.03). Parallel changes were seen in the placebo group (-3.6% vs. -2.4%, p=0.08). In the total hip BMD, there was no difference in the response to estradiol in smokers vs. non-smokers...... (1.4% vs. 1.4%, p=0.89), whereas the change in the hip on the placebo was similar to that seen in the spine (-3.7% vs. -2.6%, p=0.08). Supportive changes were seen in urinary CTX and in serum osteocalcin. Conclusions These results indicate that cigarette smoking may reduce the efficacy of nasal...

  6. Three-year experience with combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol in Japanese patients with severe bone loss and osteoporotic fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwamoto J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto1, Yoshihiro Sato2, Mitsuyoshi Uzawa3, Tsuyoshi Takeda1, Hideo Matsumoto11Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keiyu Orthopaedic Hospital, Gunma, JapanPurpose: Combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol is more useful to increase bone mineral density (BMD than alendronate or alfacalcidol alone. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the 3-year outcome of combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol in patients with severe bone loss (BMD ≤ 50% of the young adult mean and osteoporotic fracture.Methods: Thirty-four patients (six men and 28 postmenopausal women with primary or secondary osteoporosis who had been treated with alendronate and alfacalcidol for more than 3 years were analyzed. The lumbar spine or total hip BMD and bone turnover markers were monitored, and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures was assessed.Results: The urinary level of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and serum level of alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased (-42.5% at 3 months and -18.9% at 3 years, and the lumbar spine BMD, but not the total hip BMD, significantly increased (14.8% at 3 years, compared with the baseline values. However, the incidence of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures was 26.5% and 2.9%, respectively, suggesting a high incidence of vertebral fractures.Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol may be useful to reduce bone turnover and increase the lumbar spine BMD in patients with severe bone loss and osteoporotic fracture. However, its efficacy against vertebral fractures appears not to be sufficient. Thus, anabolic agents such as teriparatide should be taken into consideration as first-line drugs in patients with severe osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoporosis

  7. Bone Density in Peripubertal Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Ann M.; Gates, Amy; Ferrone, Christine; Lee, Hang; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than controls, and also assessed variables that may affect BMD in ASD. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 18 boys with ASD and 19 controls 8-14 years old. Boys with ASD had lower BMD Z-scores at the spine, hip and…

  8. Vitamin D and Calcium Addition during Denosumab Therapy over a Period of Four Years Significantly Improves Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Japanese Osteoporosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Suzuki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether or not vitamin D and calcium supplementation affected bone metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD over a period of four years of denosumab therapy in patients with primary osteoporosis. Patients were divided into a denosumab monotherapy group (22 cases or a denosumab plus vitamin D and calcium supplementation group (combination group, 21 cases. We measured serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP-5b, urinary N-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (NTX, and BMD of the lumbar 1–4 vertebrae (L-BMD and bilateral hips (H-BMD at baseline and at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months of treatment. There were no significant differences in patient background. Serum BAP, TRACP-5b, and urinary NTX were significantly and comparably inhibited in both groups from 12 to 48 months versus baseline values. L-BMD was significantly increased at every time point in both groups, while H-BMD was significantly increased at every time point in the combination group only. There were significant differences between the groups for L-BMD at 24, 36, and 48 months (P < 0.05 and for H-BMD at 12 months (P < 0.05. Compared with denosumab monotherapy, combination therapy of denosumab plus vitamin D and calcium significantly increased H-BMD at 12 months and L-BMD from 24 to 48 months. These findings indicate that continuous vitamin D and calcium supplementation is important, especially for 12 months to improve H-BMD and from 24 to 48 months to improve L-BMD.

  9. Hip joint mobility in dancers: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drężewska, Marlena; Gałuszka, Renata; Sliwiński, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of dancing on hip joint mobility and to assess the relationship between active movements of the hips and injuries among dancers, which may be important in planning rehabilitation in this group. The sample comprised 49 dancers (37 women and 12 men) aged 15 to 32 years. The participants were the professional dancers of the Kielce Dance Theatre and members of two youth jazz dance teams from the Kielce Dance Theatre. The active range of motion of the hips was measured in three planes using a goniometer in order to assess the influence of dance training on hip joint mobility. A questionnaire-based survey was also conducted. The range of flexion, extension and external rotation was significantly greater in the group of long-time dancers (p <0.05). There was a significantly greater range of flexion, abduction and external rotation in previously injured hip joints (p<0.05). 1. Injuries to hip joints in dancers may result in increased ranges of motion, which may lead to disturbances of joint stability. 2. Being a long-time dancer and the female gender were associated with an increased range of hip joint motion.

  10. Bone mineral density after implantation of a femoral neck hip prosthesis--a prospective 5 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steens, Wolfram; Boettner, Friedrich; Bader, Rainer; Skripitz, Ralf; Schneeberger, Alberto

    2015-08-12

    Bone resorption in the proximal femur due to stress shielding has been observed in a number of conventional cementless implants used in total hip arthroplasty. Short femoral-neck implants are claiming less interference with the biomechanics of the proximal femur. The goal of this study was to prospectively investigate the in vivo changes of bone-mineral density as a parameter of bone remodeling around a short, femoral neck prosthesis over the first 5 years following implantation. The secondary goal was to report on its clinical outcome. We are reporting on the changes of bone mineral density of the proximal femur and the clinical outcome up to five years after implantation of a short femoral neck prosthesis. Bone mineral density was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, performed 10 days, three, 12 and 60 months after surgery. 20 patients with a mean age of 47 years (range 17 to 65) were clinically assessed using the Harris Hip Score. The WOMAC was used as a patient-relevant outcome-measure. In contrast to conventional implants DEXA-scans overall revealed a slight increase of bone mineral density in the proximal femur in the 12 months following the implantation. The Harris Hip Score improved from an average preoperative score of 46 to a postoperative score at 12 months of 91 points and 95 points at 60 months, the global WOMAC index from 5.3 preoperatively to 0.8 at 12 months and 0.6 at 60 months postoperatively. At 60 months after implantation of a short femoral neck prosthesis, all regions except one (region of interest #5) showed no significant changes in BMD compared to baseline measurements at 10 days which is less to the changes in bone mineral density seen in conventional implants.

  11. B-vitamin status in relation to bone mineral density in treated celiac disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michelle; Ward, Mary; Dickey, William; Hoey, Leane; Molloy, Anne M; Waldron, Lisa; Varghese, Abraham; McCann, Adrian; Blayney, Jaine K; McNulty, Helene

    2015-08-01

    Patients with celiac disease (CD) are at increased risk of osteoporosis and compromised B-vitamin status. Emerging evidence supports a beneficial role of folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins in bone health in generally healthy adults, but no previous study has investigated this in CD patients. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship of folate, vitamins B12, B6 and B2 (riboflavin), and the related metabolite homocysteine, with bone mineral density (BMD) in CD patients. Of the 400 treated adult CD patients invited to participate, 110 responded and met the eligibility criteria for study participation. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning at the lumbar spine (L1-L4), femoral neck, and total hip sites. Biomarker status of the relevant B-vitamins and homocysteine, and dietary B-vitamin intakes, were measured. The significant predictors of low BMD were increasing age (B = 0.080, p B = 0.072, p = 0.004), whereas no significant relationship with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (B = 0.093, p = 0.928) was observed. Following adjustment for these predictors, serum vitamin B12 (but no other B-vitamin biomarker) was found to be a significant determinant of BMD at the femoral neck (β = 0.416, p = 0.011) and total hip (β = 0.327, p = 0.049) in men only. No significant relationships were found between any of the B-vitamin biomarkers investigated and BMD (at any measured site) in women. These findings add to current evidence suggesting a potential role of vitamin B12 in BMD, particularly in men, and show such a relationship for the first time in CD patients.

  12. Ten-year absolute risk of osteoporotic fractures according to BMD T score at menopause: the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Vestergaard, Peter; Rud, Bo

    2006-01-01

    was 10.9% as opposed to an expected risk of 5.7%. Relative risk gradients were similar to those of the recent meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy women, examined in the first year or two after menopause, 10-year fracture risk was higher at each level of BMD T score than expected from the model...... by Kanis et al. Inclusion of HRT users in the cohorts used may have led to higher BMD values and lower absolute fracture risk in the Kanis model. These longitudinal data can be used directly in estimating absolute fracture risk in untreated north European women from BMD at menopause....

  13. Metacarpal index by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: normative reference values and comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Nielsen, S P

    2001-01-01

    for precise and accurate measurements of MCI (DXR-MCI). We hypothesized that DXR-MCI in contrast to projected areal bone mineral density (BMD) (DXA-BMD) is independent of bone size and studied 384 normal women by measuring DXR-MCI and DXA-BMD of the lumbar spine, hip, and distal radius. A normative MCI...

  14. HIP JOINT AND HIP ENDOPROSTHESIS BIOMECHANICS

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Gryka

    2017-01-01

    This article contains a description of the basic issues related to anatomy, loading of hip joint and its endoprosthesis research methods. The methods of testing and simulating hip joint loads, factors that influence the selection of parameters during the design of prostheses, typical solutions to engineering problems related to this topic are presented. The article concludes with short summary of the finite element method for the design of hip replacements.

  15. Hysterectomy with ovarian conservation: effect on bone mineral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lareon, G.; Baillon, L.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: There are conflicting data on the long-term effects of hysterectomy with ovarian conservation on bone mineral density (BMD). Accordingly, we performed a cross-sectional study on 58 women with premenopausal hysterectomy and ovarian conservation (group 1) and 59 women with natural menopause (group 2). No subjects had disorders or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. Patients underwent bone densitometry of the lumbar spine and hip using a Norland XR-36. By chi-squared and one-way ANOVA, there were no differences in age: 55.4± 11.0 y (1)v 57.6± 9.8 y (2); exercise, alcohol or smoking consumption, family history of osteoporosis, height: 1.61 ± 0.08m (1) v 1.61 ± 0.08m (2); weight 67.7 ± 11.3kg (1) v 68.3 kg ± 12.5 kg (2); body mass index: 30.95 (1 ) v 26.26 (2). Lumbar spine BMD was also similar for the two groups [0.95 ± 0.18g/cm 2 (1) v 0.94± 0.21 g/cm 2 (2)]. However, hysterectomy patients had a significantly lower hip BMD: 0.63 ± 0.16 g/cm 2 v 0.76 ± 0.18 g/cm 2 (p>0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that spine BMD was influenced by age, family history, height and weight (R 2 = 0.37), but not prior hysterectomy. Hip BMD was related to age, hysterectomy, smoking and weight (R 2 = o 45). We conclude that prior hysterectomy with ovarian conservation has an adverse effect on hip but not spine BMD

  16. Hysterectomy with ovarian conservation: effect on bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lareon, G.; Baillon, L. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound

    1997-09-01

    Full text: There are conflicting data on the long-term effects of hysterectomy with ovarian conservation on bone mineral density (BMD). Accordingly, we performed a cross-sectional study on 58 women with premenopausal hysterectomy and ovarian conservation (group 1) and 59 women with natural menopause (group 2). No subjects had disorders or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. Patients underwent bone densitometry of the lumbar spine and hip using a Norland XR-36. By chi-squared and one-way ANOVA, there were no differences in age: 55.4{+-} 11.0 y (1)v 57.6{+-} 9.8 y (2); exercise, alcohol or smoking consumption, family history of osteoporosis, height: 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (1) v 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (2); weight 67.7 {+-} 11.3kg (1) v 68.3 kg {+-} 12.5 kg (2); body mass index: 30.95 (1 ) v 26.26 (2). Lumbar spine BMD was also similar for the two groups [0.95 {+-} 0.18g/cm{sup 2} (1) v 0.94{+-} 0.21 g/cm{sup 2} (2)]. However, hysterectomy patients had a significantly lower hip BMD: 0.63 {+-} 0.16 g/cm{sup 2} v 0.76 {+-} 0.18 g/cm{sup 2} (p>0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that spine BMD was influenced by age, family history, height and weight (R{sup 2} = 0.37), but not prior hysterectomy. Hip BMD was related to age, hysterectomy, smoking and weight (R{sup 2} = o 45). We conclude that prior hysterectomy with ovarian conservation has an adverse effect on hip but not spine BMD.

  17. Improving Bone-Health Monitoring in Astronauts: Recommended Use of Quantitative Computed Tomography [QCT] for Clinical and Operational Decisions by NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Truszkowski, P.

    2010-01-01

    DXA measurement of areal bone mineral density [aBMD,g/cm2] is required by NASA for assessing skeletal integrity in astronauts. Due to the abundance of population-based data that correlate hip and spine BMDs to fragility fractures, BMD is widely applied as a predictor of fractures in the general aging population. In contrast, QCT is primarily a research technology that measures three-dimensional , volumetric BMD (vBMD,mg/cm3) of bone and is therefore capable of differentiating between cortical and trabecular components. Additionally, when combined with Finite Element Modeling [FEM], a computational tool, QCT data can be used to estimate the whole bone strength of the hip [FE strength] for a specific load vector. A recent report demonstrated that aBMD failed to correlate with incurred changes in FE strength (for fall and stance loading) by astronauts over typical 180-day ISS (International Space Station) missions. While there are no current guidelines for using QCT data in clinical practice, QCT increases the understanding of how bone structure and mineral content are affected by spaceflight and recovery on Earth. In order to understand/promote/consider the use of QCT, NASA convened a panel of clinicians specializing in osteoporosis. After reviewing the available, albeit limited, medical and research information from long-duration astronauts (e.g., data from DXA, QCT, FEM, biochemistry analyses, medical records and in-flight exercise performance) the panelists were charged with recommending how current and future research data and analyses could inform clinical and operational decisions. The Panel recommended that clinical bone tests on astronauts should include QCT (hip and lumbar spine) for occupational risk surveillance and for the estimation of whole hip bone strength as derived by FEM. FE strength will provide an improved index that NASA could use to select astronauts of optimal bone health for extended duration missions, for repeat missions or for specific

  18. Effects of Odanacatib on the Radius and Tibia of Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Am; Majumdar, S; Brixen, K

    2014-01-01

    results, odanacatib was superior to placebo with respect to increases in trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) and estimated compressive strength at the spine, and integral and trabecular vBMD and estimated strength at the hip. Here we report the results of HR-pQCT assessment. 214 postmenopausal women (mean.......64% and 2.66%). At the distal radius, odanacatib significantly improved trabecular thickness and BV/TV versus placebo. At a more proximal radial site, odanacatib attenuated the increase in cortical porosity seen with placebo (treatment difference= -7.7%, p = 0.066). At the distal tibia, odanacatib...... significantly improved trabecular number, separation, and BV/TV versus placebo. Safety and tolerability were similar between treatment groups. In conclusion, odanacatib increased cortical and trabecular density, cortical thickness, aspects of trabecular microarchitecture, and estimated strength at the distal...

  19. High physiological prolactin induced by pituitary transplantation decreases BMD and BMC in the femoral metaphysis, but not in the diaphysis of adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongchote, Kanogwun; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Krishnamra, Nateetip

    2008-02-01

    High physiological prolactin (PRL) stimulated intestinal calcium absorption and renal calcium uptake in mammals. Previous histomorphometric study revealed a significant increase in bone turnover in the trabecular part of the PRL-exposed long (cortical) bone; however, whole-bone densitometric analysis was unable to demonstrate such effect. We therefore studied differential changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and contents (BMC) of the femoral diaphysis and metaphysis in adult female rats exposed to high PRL induced by anterior pituitary (AP) transplantation. The estrogen-dependent effects of PRL on the femur were also investigated. We found that chronic exposure to PRL had no effect on BMD or BMC of the femoral diaphysis, which represented the cortical part of the long bone. It is interesting that 7 weeks after an AP transplantation, BMD and BMC of the femoral metaphysis were significantly decreased by 8% and 14%, respectively. Ovariectomy (Ovx) for 2, 5, and 7 weeks also decreased BMD and BMC in the femoral metaphysis, but not in the diaphysis. However, the AP transplantation plus Ovx (AP+Ovx) produced no additive effects. Nevertheless, 2.5 microg/kg 17beta-estradiol (E2) supplementation abolished the osteopenic effects of both Ovx and AP+Ovx on the femur. As for the L5-6 vertebrae, BMD and BMC were not affected by PRL exposure, but were significantly decreased by Ovx and AP+Ovx, and such decreases were completely prevented by E2 supplementation. It could be concluded that high physiological PRL induced a significant osteopenia in the trabecular part, i.e., the metaphysis, of the femora of adult female rats in an estrogen-dependent manner. Since PRL had no detectable effect on the vertebrae, the effects of PRL on bone appeared to be site-specific.

  20. Life Estimation of Hip Joint Prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, C.; Hirani, H.; Chawla, A.

    2015-07-01

    Hip joint is one of the largest weight-bearing structures in the human body. In the event of a failure of the natural hip joint, it is replaced with an artificial hip joint, known as hip joint prosthesis. The design of hip joint prosthesis must be such so as to resist fatigue failure of hip joint stem as well as bone cement, and minimize wear caused by sliding present between its head and socket. In the present paper an attempt is made to consider both fatigue and wear effects simultaneously in estimating functional-life of the hip joint prosthesis. The finite element modeling of hip joint prosthesis using HyperMesh™ (version 9) has been reported. The static analysis (load due to the dead weight of the body) and dynamic analysis (load due to walking cycle) have been described. Fatigue life is estimated by using the S-N curve of individual materials. To account for progressive wear of hip joint prosthesis, Archard's wear law, modifications in socket geometry and dynamic analysis have been used in a sequential manner. Using such sequential programming reduction in peak stress has been observed with increase in wear. Finally life is estimated on the basis of socket wear.

  1. Large Metal Heads and Vitamin E Polyethylene Increase Frictional Torque in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, R Michael; Lovro, Luke R; Wallace, Joseph M; Ziemba-Davis, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Trunnionosis has reemerged in modern total hip arthroplasty for reasons that remain unclear. Bearing frictional torque transmits forces to the modular head-neck interface, which may contribute to taper corrosion. The purpose of this study is to compare frictional torque of modern bearing couples in total hip arthroplasty. Mechanical testing based on in vivo loading conditions was used to measure frictional torque. All bearing couples were lubricated and tested at 1 Hz for more than 2000 cycles. The bearing couples tested included conventional, highly crosslinked (XLPE) and vitamin E polyethylene, CoCr, and ceramic femoral heads and dual-mobility bearings. Statistical analysis was performed using Student t test for single-variable and analysis of variance for multivariant analysis. P ≤ .05 was considered statistically significant. Large CoCr metal heads (≥36 mm) substantially increased frictional torque against XLPE liners (P = .01), a finding not observed in ceramic heads. Vitamin E polyethylene substantially increased frictional torque compared with XLPE in CoCr and ceramic heads (P = .001), whereas a difference between conventional and XLPE was not observed (P = .69) with the numbers available. Dual-mobility bearing with ceramic inner head demonstrated the lowest mean frictional torque of all bearing couples. In this simulated in vivo model, large-diameter CoCr femoral heads and vitamin E polyethylene liners are associated with increased frictional torque compared with smaller metal heads and XLPE, respectively. The increased frictional torque of vitamin E polyethylene and larger-diameter femoral heads should be considered and further studied, along with reported benefits of these modern bearing couples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Traumatic injuries of the hip.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marshall, Nina

    2009-11-01

    Traumatic lesions of the hip in athletes may be clinically challenging because of the overlap in clinical presentation due to differing pathologies and the presence of multiple injuries. Imaging of the hip in the athlete has undergone a recent resurgence of interest and understanding related to the increasing accessibility and use of hip arthroscopy, which expands the treatment options available for intra-articular pathology. MR imaging and MR arthrography have a unique role in diagnosis of these pathologies, guiding the surgeon, arthroscopist, and referring clinician in their management of bony and soft tissue injury.

  3. Is whole body bone mineral density measured by the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry applied to evaluate risk of osteoporosis among Japanese adult females?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yumiko; Koike, George; Numata, Makoto; Taneda, Kiyoshi; Jingu, Sumie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure whole body fat accurately, the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely utilized. Simultaneously, bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body can also be measured. BMD is one of important information to diagnose osteoporosis. However, it is not established to use whole body BMD for this diagnosis. It is recommended that lumbar and/or hip BMD should be used for diagnosing osteoporosis by the guideline for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Although it is possible to measure whole body BMD and lumbar and/or hip BMD separately at the same visit, it is inevitable to expose patients to more X-ray. Therefore, an aim of this study is to elucidate the relationship between whole body BMD and lumbar BMD to find the cut off point of whole body BMD for screening of osteoporosis. Two hundred and thirty six Japanese adult females were ascertained to this study. Whole body BMD and lumbar BMD of each subject were measured with the use of Delphi W (Hologic, USA). One hundred and sixty five subjects were judged as possible osteoporosis (less than 80% of young adult mean (YAM) of lumbar BMD and/or definite fracture of lumbar vertebras). The cut off point of whole body BMD for screening possible osteoporosis was estimated by receiver operated characteristic (ROC) analysis. The cut off point of whole body BMD was 84% of YAM, equivalent to 80% of YAM of lumbar BMD, with the following sensitivity and specificity (0.84 and 0.79, respectively), indicating that whole body BMD could be used for screening osteoporosis. (author)

  4. Increased intake of vegetables, but not fruits, may be associated with reduced risk of hip fracture: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Si yang; Li, Yan; Luo, Hong; Yin, Xin hai; Lin, Du ren; Zhao, Ke; Huang, Guang lei; Song, Ju kun

    2016-01-25

    Association between dietary intake of vegetables and fruits and risk of hip fracture has been reported for many years. However, the findings remain inconclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between intake of vegetables and fruits, and risk of hip fracture. Literature search for relevant studies was performed on PubMed and Embase databases. Five observational studies were included in the meta-analysis. Summary hazard ratio (HR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated from pooled data using the random-effects model irrespective of heterogeneity. Sensitivity and subgroup analysis were performed to explore possible reasons for heterogeneity. The summary HR for hip fracture in relation to high intake vs. low intake of only vegetables, only fruits, and combined intake of fruits and vegetables, was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.61-0.92), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.74-1.04), and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.61-1.03), respectively. Subgroup analyses based on study design, geographical location, number of cases, and gender showed similar results. Increased intake of vegetables, but not fruits, was found to be associated with a lower risk of hip fracture. Large prospective clinical trials with robust methodology are required to confirm our findings.

  5. Bone mineral density changes among HIV-uninfected young adults in a randomised trial of pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir-emtricitabine or placebo in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kasonde

    Full Text Available Tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP has been found to be effective for prevention of HIV infection in several clinical trials. Two studies of TDF PrEP among men who have sex with men showed slight bone mineral density (BMD loss. We investigated the effect of TDF and the interaction of TDF and hormonal contraception on BMD among HIV-uninfected African men and women.We evaluated the effects on BMD of using daily oral TDF-FTC compared to placebo among heterosexual men and women aged 18-29 years enrolled in the Botswana TDF2 PrEP study. Participants had BMD measurements at baseline and thereafter at 6-month intervals with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scans at the hip, spine, and forearm.A total of 220 participants (108 TDF-FTC, 112 placebo had baseline DXA BMD measurements at three anatomic sites. Fifteen (6.8% participants had low baseline BMD (z-score of 3.0% at any anatomic site at any time after baseline were significantly greater for the TDF-FTC treatment group [34/68 (50.0% TDF-FTC vs. 26/79 (32.9% placebo; p = 0.04]. There was a small but significant difference in the mean percent change in BMD from baseline for TDF-FTC versus placebo at all three sites at month 30 [forearm -0.84% (p = 0.01, spine -1.62% (p = 0.0002, hip -1.51% (p = 0.003].Use of TDF-FTC was associated with a small but statistically significant decrease in BMD at the forearm, hip and lumbar spine. A high percentage (6.8% of healthy Batswana young adults had abnormal baseline BMD Further evaluation is needed of the longer-term use of TDF in HIV-uninfected persons.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00448669.

  6. Bone-preserving total hip arthroplasty in avascular necrosis of the hip-a matched-pairs analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merschin, David; Häne, Richard; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Pufe, Thomas; Drescher, Wolf

    2018-07-01

    Short-stem hip arthroplasty has the potential advantage of femoral bone stock preservation, especially in view of the expected revisions in the often relatively young patients. Despite short-stem hip prosthesis are increasingly used for total hip arthroplasty, there are no sufficient mid- and long-term results especially for patients with avascular femoral head osteonecrosis. The present study investigates mid-term functional results as well as the revision rate following implantation of a short-stem prosthesis. In the period 06/2005 until 12/2013, a total of 351 short-stem hip prostheses were implanted. The study included 331 complete data sets. A retrospective analysis was performed using the Oxford Hip Score. All revisions were registered. In a total of 331 prostheses, the Oxford Hip Score was "excellent" in 66.2%, "good" in 12.7%, "fair" in 13.0%, and "poor" in 8.2% with a mean follow-up of 57.4 months (SD ± 29.8; range 24-115). In 26 cases, aseptic osteonecrosis of the hip was the indication (7.9%). The Oxford Hip Score was "excellent" in 66.7%, "good" in 0.0%, "fair" in 20.8%, and "poor" in 12.5%. The cumulated five year survival rate was 96.7%. In mid-term observation, the Metha® short-stem prosthesis shows no disadvantage in functional outcome and in survival time compared to a standard hip stem. Providing a correct indication, the Metha® short stem is a valuable option in total hip arthroplasty for younger patients with avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Evaluation has shown no significant differences between aseptic osteonecrosis and other indications.

  7. Gait symmetry and hip strength in women with developmental dysplasia following hip arthroplasty compared to healthy subjects: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud A Leijendekkers

    Full Text Available Untreated unilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH results in asymmetry of gait and hip strength and may lead to early osteoarthritis, which is commonly treated with a total hip arthroplasty (THA. There is limited knowledge about the obtained symmetry of gait and hip strength after the THA. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to: a identify asymmetries between the operated and non-operated side in kinematics, kinetics and hip strength, b analyze if increased walking speed changed the level of asymmetry in patients c compare these results with those of healthy subjects.Women (18-70 year with unilateral DDH who had undergone unilateral THA were eligible for inclusion. Vicon gait analysis system was used to collect frontal and sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic parameters of the hip joint, pelvis and trunk during walking at comfortable walking speed and increased walking speed. Furthermore, hip abductor and extensor muscle strength was measured.Six patients and eight healthy subjects were included. In the patients, modest asymmetries in lower limb kinematics and kinetics were present during gait, but trunk lateral flexion asymmetry was evident. Patients' trunk lateral flexion also differed compared to healthy subjects. Walking speed did not significantly influence the level of asymmetry. The hip abduction strength asymmetry of 23% was not statistically significant, but the muscle strength of both sides were significantly weaker than those of healthy subjects.In patients with a DDH treated with an IBG THA modest asymmetries in gait kinematics and kinetics were present, with the exception of a substantial asymmetry of the trunk lateral flexion. Increased walking speed did not result in increased asymmetries in gait kinematics and kinetics. Hip muscle strength was symmetrical in patients, but significantly weaker than in healthy subjects. Trunk kinematics should be included as an outcome measure to assess the biomechanical

  8. A common LRP4 haplotype is associated with bone mineral density and hip geometry in men-Data from the Odense Androgen Study (OAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudin, Eveline; Steenackers, Ellen; Freitas, Fenna de

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by an increased susceptibility to fracture. It is a complex disorder resulting from the interaction of several polymorphisms in different genes and environmental factors. Since we recently reported a role for low density lipoprotein-related protein...... (LRP)-4 in monogenic disorders with bone overgrowth, we now wanted to evaluate whether genetic variation in the LRP4 gene has an effect on the susceptibility to osteoporosis in a population based cohort from the Odense Androgen Study. We chose to genotype four common (minor allele frequency (MAF)≥0.......05) and non-synonymous coding polymorphisms located in the extracellular region of the LRP4 protein: rs3816614 (A/g), rs2306029 (G/a), rs2306033 (C/t) and rs6485702 (G/a) (large and small characters indicate major and minor alleles, respectively). Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the hip, the spine...

  9. Spine–hip relations in patients with hip osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Charles; Lazic, Stefan; Dagneaux, Louis; Van Der Straeten, Catherine; Cobb, Justin; Muirhead-Allwood, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Patients with hip osteoarthritis often have an abnormal spine-hip relation (SHR), meaning the presence of a clinically deleterious spine-hip and/or hip-spine syndrome. Definition of the individual SHR is ideally done using the EOS® imaging system or, if not available, with conventional lumbopelvic lateral radiographs. By pre-operatively screening patients with abnormal SHR, it is possible to refine total hip replacement (THR) surgical planning, which may improve outcomes. An important component of the concept of kinematically aligned total hip arthroplasty (KA THA) consists of defining the optimal acetabular cup design and orientation based on the assessment of an individual’s SHR, and use of the transverse acetabular ligament to adjust the cup positioning. The Bordeaux classification might advance the understanding of SHR and hopefully help improve THR outcomes. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2018;3:39-44. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.3.170020 PMID:29657844

  10. Geographical variation in DXA bone mineral density in young European men and women. Results from the Network in Europe on Male Osteoporosis (NEMO) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptoge, S.; Silva, J.A. da; Brixen, K.

    2008-01-01

    We collected population-based young normal hip and spine BMD data from 17 centres across Europe to assess between centre differences and to compare reference values with the US NHANES-III data. There was strong evidence of between country heterogeneity, but not between centres within countries. Hip...... values specific to an American population can be validly used for T-score calculation in Europeans. METHODS: We collected population based BMD data from 1163 men and 329 women aged 19-29 years from 17 centres across Europe to compare mean and SD values with the NHANES-III study USA results. BMD(g/cm2......, the cross-calibrated BMD values were converted using the ESP equations to Hologic QDR 1000 units. RESULTS: In men, the overall mean(SD) BMD values expressed in Hologic-QDR1000 units of measurement, were: femoral neck 0.912(0.132); trochanter 0.793(0.124); and L2-L4 spine 1.027(0.123). The respective...

  11. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis of peri-prosthetic stress shielding in the Birmingham resurfacing hip replacement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harty, J A

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: Numerous reports in the literature refer to the femoral neck fracture rate in hip resurfacing. The aim of this study was to determine the bone mineral density and evidence of stress shielding around the femoral component of the Birmingham resurfacing prosthesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with primary unilateral osteoarthritis had a Birmingham resurfacing prosthesis. DEXA analysis of the proximal femur and femoral neck was performed and compared with the opposite unaffected side. RESULTS: Total periprosthetic bone mineral density was 0.49% greater than the control, but this did not achieve statistical significance. Although the BMD of the femoral neck was slightly increased on the prosthetic side (1.002 g\\/cm2) as opposed to the control side, this difference did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: The Birmingham resurfacing prosthesis does not appear to reduce femoral neck bone mineral density in comparison to the normal femoral neck bone density. We conclude that femoral neck fractures are unlikely to be due to stress shielding related to the prosthesis.

  12. Acetabular Dysplasia and Surgical Approaches Other Than Direct Anterior Increases Risk for Malpositioning of the Acetabular Component in Total Hip Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Kirill; Greene, Meridith E; Huddleston, James I

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent acetabular dysplasia (AD) after periacetabular osteotomy has been hypothesized to increase the risk for malpositioning of the acetabular component. In this study, we investigate whether AD is an independent risk factor for cup malpositioning during primary total hip...... arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: Patient demographics, surgical approach, presence of AD assessed using the lateral center-edge angle, and acetabular cup positioning determined using Martell Hip Analysis Suite were investigated in 836 primary THA patients enrolled in a prospective multicenter study. RESULTS: We...

  13. Automatic assessment of volume asymmetries applied to hip abductor muscles in patients with hip arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemt, Christian; Modat, Marc; Pichat, Jonas; Cardoso, M. J.; Henckel, Joahnn; Hart, Alister; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2015-03-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasties have been utilised over the last 15 years to restore hip function for 1.5 million patients worldwide. Althoug widely used, this hip arthroplasty releases metal wear debris which lead to muscle atrophy. The degree of muscle wastage differs across patients ranging from mild to severe. The longterm outcomes for patients with MoM hip arthroplasty are reduced for increasing degrees of muscle atrophy, highlighting the need to automatically segment pathological muscles. The automated segmentation of pathological soft tissues is challenging as these lack distinct boundaries and morphologically differ across subjects. As a result, there is no method reported in the literature which has been successfully applied to automatically segment pathological muscles. We propose the first automated framework to delineate severely atrophied muscles by applying a novel automated segmentation propagation framework to patients with MoM hip arthroplasty. The proposed algorithm was used to automatically quantify muscle wastage in these patients.

  14. Lower Serum Creatinine Is Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in Subjects without Overt Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Ji Hye; Choi, Soo In; Lim, Jung Soo; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Lee, Mi Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Low skeletal muscle mass is associated with deterioration of bone mineral density. Because serum creatinine can serve as a marker of muscle mass, we evaluated the relationship between serum creatinine and bone mineral density in an older population with normal renal function. Methods Data from a total of 8,648 participants (4,573 men and 4,075 postmenopausal women) aged 45–95 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 ml/min/1.73 m2 were analyzed from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2010). Bone mineral density (BMD) and appendicular muscle mass (ASM) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the cut points of serum creatinine for sarcopenia were below 0.88 mg/dl in men and 0.75 mg/dl in women. Subjects were divided into two groups: low creatinine and upper normal creatinine according to the cut point value of serum creatinine for sarcopenia. Results In partial correlation analysis adjusted for age, serum creatinine was positively associated with both BMD and ASM. Subjects with low serum creatinine were at a higher risk for low BMD (T-score ≤ –1.0) at the femur neck, total hip and lumbar spine in men, and at the total hip and lumbar spine in women after adjustment for confounding factors. Each standard deviation increase in serum creatinine was significantly associated with reduction in the likelihood of low BMD at the total hip and lumbar spine in both sexes (men: odds ratio (OR) = 0.84 [95% CI = 0.74−0.96] at the total hip, OR = 0.8 [95% CI = 0.68−0.96] at the lumbar spine; women: OR = 0.83 [95% CI = 0.73–0.95] at the total hip, OR=0.81 [95% CI = 0.67–0.99] at the lumbar spine). Conclusions Serum creatinine reflected muscle mass, and low serum creatinine was independently associated with low bone mineral density in subjects with normal kidney function. PMID:26207750

  15. 21 CFR 888.3400 - Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metallic resurfacing prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metallic resurfacing... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3400 Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metallic resurfacing prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint femoral (hemi-hip...

  16. 21 CFR 888.3370 - Hip joint (hemi-hip) acetabular metal cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hip joint (hemi-hip) acetabular metal cemented... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3370 Hip joint (hemi-hip) acetabular metal cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint (hemi-hip) acetabular...

  17. “Omics” Signatures in Peripheral Monocytes from Women with Low BMD Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Daswani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO is a result of increased bone resorption compared to formation. Osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption, which are derived from circulating monocytes that undertake a journey from the blood to the bone for the process of osteoclastogenesis. In recent times, the use of high throughput technologies to explore monocytes from women with low versus high bone density has led to the identification of candidate molecules that may be deregulated in PMO. This review provides a list of molecules in monocytes relevant to bone density which have been identified by “omics” studies in the last decade or so. The molecules in monocytes that are deregulated in low BMD condition may contribute to processes such as monocyte survival, migration/chemotaxis, adhesion, transendothelial migration, and differentiation into the osteoclast lineage. Each of these processes may be crucial to the overall route of osteoclastogenesis and an increase in any/all of these processes can lead to increased bone resorption and subsequently low bone density. Whether these molecules are indeed the cause or effect is an arena currently unexplored.

  18. The effects of therapeutic hip exercise with abdominal core activation on recruitment of the hip muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mandy Ky; Chow, Ka Wai; Lai, Alfred Ys; Mak, Noble Kc; Sze, Jason Ch; Tsang, Sharon Mh

    2017-07-21

    lower limb rehabilitation since the increased activation of target hip muscles may enhance the therapeutic effects of hip strengthening exercises.

  19. Hip fracture in hospitalized medical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapatero, Antonio; Barba, Raquel; Canora, Jesús; Losa, Juan E; Plaza, Susana; San Roman, Jesús; Marco, Javier

    2013-01-08

    The aim of the present study is to analyze the incidence of hip fracture as a complication of admissions to internal medicine units in Spain. We analyzed the clinical data of 2,134,363 adults who had been admitted to internal medicine wards. The main outcome was a diagnosis of hip fracture during hospitalization.Outcome measures included rates of in-hospital fractures, length of stay and cost. A total of 1127 (0.057%) admittances were coded with an in-hospital hip fracture. In hospital mortality rate was 27.9% vs 9.4%; p patients with a hip fracture (20.7 days vs 9.8 days; p hip-fracture patients (6927€ per hospitalization vs 3730€ in non fracture patients). Risk factors related to fracture were: increasing age by 10 years increments (OR 2.32 95% CI 2.11-2.56), female gender (OR 1.22 95% CI 1.08-1.37), admission from nursing home (OR 1.65 95% CI 1.27-2.12), dementia (1.55 OR 95% CI1.30-1.84), malnutrition (OR 2.50 95% CI 1.88-3.32), delirium (OR 1.57 95% CI 1.16-2.14), and anemia (OR 1.30 95%CI 1.12-1.49). In-hospital hip fracture notably increased mortality during hospitalization, doubling the mean length of stay and mean cost of admission. These are reasons enough to stress the importance of designing and applying multidisciplinary plans focused on reducing the incidence of hip fractures in hospitalized patients.

  20. Amount of smoking, pulmonary function, and bone mineral density in middle-aged Korean men: KNHANES 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Hong, A Ram; Kim, Jung Hee; Kim, Kyoung Min; Koo, Bo Kyung; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Sang Wan

    2018-01-01

    Smoking induces bone loss; however, data on the relationship between smoking history and bone mineral density (BMD) are lacking. Age and pulmonary function can affect BMD. We investigated the relationships among pack-years (PYs) of smoking, pulmonary function, and BMD in middle-aged Korean men (50-64 years old). This cross-sectional study used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011. All participants underwent BMD measurements using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and pulmonary function tests using standardized spirometry. In total, 388 never-smokers and 1088 ever-smokers were analyzed. The number of PYs of smoking was negatively correlated with total hip BMD (r = -0.088; P = 0.004) after adjusting for age, height, and weight. Ever-smokers were classified into 3 groups according to PYs of smoking. The highest tertile (n = 482) exhibited significantly lower total hip bone mass than the lowest tertile (n = 214) after adjusting for confounding factors (age, height, weight, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ), alcohol consumption, physical activity, and vitamin D levels) that could affect bone metabolism (P = 0.003). In conclusion, smoking for >30 PYs was significantly associated with low hip BMD after adjusting for pulmonary function in middle-aged Korean men. Long-term smoking may be a risk factor for bone loss in middle-aged men independent of age, height, weight, and pulmonary function.

  1. Lower trabecular volumetric BMD at metaphyseal regions of weight-bearing bones is associated with prior fracture in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Tomás, Rita; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the etiology of skeletal fragility during growth is critical for the development of treatments and prevention strategies aimed at reducing the burden of childhood fractures. Thus we evaluated the relationship between prior fracture and bone parameters in young girls. Data from 465 girls aged 8 to 13 years from the Jump-In: Building Better Bones study were analyzed. Bone parameters were assessed at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the nondominant femur and tibia using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to assess femur, tibia, lumbar spine, and total body less head bone mineral content. Binary logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between prior fracture and bone parameters, controlling for maturity, body mass, leg length, ethnicity, and physical activity. Associations between prior fracture and all DXA and pQCT bone parameters at diaphyseal sites were nonsignificant. In contrast, lower trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) at distal metaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia was significantly associated with prior fracture. After adjustment for covariates, every SD decrease in trabecular vBMD at metaphyseal sites of the distal femur and tibia was associated with 1.4 (1.1-1.9) and 1.3 (1.0-1.7) times higher fracture prevalence, respectively. Prior fracture was not associated with metaphyseal bone size (ie, periosteal circumference). In conclusion, fractures in girls are associated with lower trabecular vBMD, but not bone size, at metaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia. Lower trabecular vBMD at metaphyseal sites of long bones may be an early marker of skeletal fragility in girls. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  2. Comparative international studies of osteoporosis using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloskey, E.V.; Dey, A.; Bostock, J.

    2002-01-01

    In Europe, there are great geographic variations in rates of osteoporotic fracture. The MEDOS study, a case-control study of hip fracture in southern Europe, demonstrated rates that in some age groups varied geographically by more than an order of magnitude. Additionally the prevalences of vertebral deforinities vary over a 3-fold range in both sexes. The incidence of hip fracture has also been shown to vary between another populations with apparently lower rates in Hong Kong and South Africa in Europe and North America. The greatest projected increases in hip fracture incidence will occur in China and South East Asia. It seems likely that the spread of fracture risk can at least be accounted for partly by differences in bone density. Bone density in later life is dependent on the maximum bone mass ('peak' bone mass) attained in early adulthood and the subsequent rate of loss. The purpose of this study was to determine whether early adult BMD varied between populations and to explore environmental and nutritional contributions to any detennined differences. The data analysed to-date demonstrate a highly significant difference in young adult bone mass across the centers. These differences are only partly attributable to differences in height and weight. By and large, low femoral neck BMD is accompanied by low spinal BMD. Femoral neck BMD appears constant between the age of 25-45 years, but this will require confirmation by further statistical analysis. The impact of family history, environmental factors and nutrition will be explored in subsequent analyses

  3. Impact of comorbidities on hospitalization costs following hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkel, Lucas E; Fox, Edward J; Black, Kevin P; Davis, Charles; Andersen, Lucille; Hollenbeak, Christopher S

    2012-01-04

    Hip fractures are common in the elderly, and patients with hip fractures frequently have comorbid illnesses. Little is known about the relationship between comorbid illness and hospital costs or length of stay following the treatment of hip fracture in the United States. We hypothesized that specific individual comorbid illnesses and multiple comorbid illnesses would be directly related to the hospitalization costs and the length of stay for older patients following hip fracture. With use of discharge data from the 2007 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 32,440 patients who were fifty-five years or older with an isolated, closed hip fracture were identified. Using generalized linear models, we estimated the impact of comorbidities on hospitalization costs and length of stay, controlling for patient, hospital, and procedure characteristics. Hypertension, deficiency anemias, and fluid and electrolyte disorders were the most common comorbidities. The patients had a mean of three comorbidities. Only 4.9% of patients presented without comorbidities. The average estimated cost in our reference patient was $13,805. The comorbidity with the largest increased hospitalization cost was weight loss or malnutrition, followed by pulmonary circulation disorders. Most other comorbidities significantly increased the cost of hospitalization. Compared with internal fixation of the hip fracture, hip arthroplasty increased hospitalization costs significantly. Comorbidities significantly affect the cost of hospitalization and length of stay following hip fracture in older Americans, even while controlling for other variables.

  4. Utility of immediate postoperative hip MRI in developmental hip dysplasia: closed vs. open reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Siddharth P; More, Snehal R; Shenava, Vinitha; Zhang, Wei; Kan, J Herman

    2018-04-25

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hips is being increasingly used to confirm hip reduction after surgery and spica cast placement for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). To review a single institutional experience with post-spica MRI in children undergoing closed or open hip reduction and describe the utility of MRI in directing the need for re-intervention. Seventy-four patients (52 female, 22 male) who underwent post-spica hip MRI over a 6-year period were retrospectively reviewed. One hundred and seven hips were included. Data reviewed included age at intervention, gender, type of intervention performed, MRI findings, the need for re-intervention and the interval between interventions. Gender was compared between the closed and open reduction groups via the Fisher exact test. Age at the first procedure was compared via the Wilcoxon rank test. Rates of re-intervention after closed and open reduction were calculated and the reasons for re-intervention were reviewed. The mean age at the time of the first intervention was 16.4 months (range: 4 to 63 months). Mean age for the closed reduction group was 10.5 months (range: 4-24 months) and for the open reduction group was 23.7 months (range: 5-63 months), which was significant (P-value open reduction, MRI was useful in deciding re-intervention in only 1 (2%). This patient had prior multiple failed closed and open reductions at an outside institute. Post intervention hip spica MRI is useful in determining the need for re-intervention after closed hip reduction, but its role after open reduction is questionable.

  5. Handball Practice Enhances Bone Mass in Specific Sites Among Prepubescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missawi, Kawther; Zouch, Mohamed; Chakroun, Yosra; Chaari, Hamada; Tabka, Zouhair; Bouajina, Elyès

    2016-01-01

    This investigation's purpose is to focus on the effects of practicing handball for at least 2 yr on bone acquisition among prepubescent boys. One hundred prepubescent boys aged 10.68 ± 0.85 yr were divided into 2 groups: 50 handball players (HP group) and 50 controls (C group). Bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) were evaluated by using dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry on the whole body, lumbar spine (L2-L4), legs, arms, femoral necks, hips and radiuses. Results showed greater values of BMD in both right and left femoral neck and total hip in handball players than in controls. In addition, handball players had higher values of legs and right total hip BMC than controls without any obvious variation of BA measurement in all sites between groups. All results of the paired t-test displayed an obviously marked variation of bone mass parameters between the left and right sides in the trained group without any marked variation among controls. Data showed an increased BMD of the supporting sites between the left and the right leg among handball players. However, "BMC" results exhibited higher values in the right than in the left total hip, and in the right total radius than in the left correspondent site. In addition, differences in the "BA" measurements were observed in the left total hip and in the right arm. Specific bone sites are markedly stimulated by handball training in prepubescent boys. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Studies of osteoporosis in Singapore using isotopic related technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Kamal

    2002-01-01

    Osteoporosis is becoming increasingly common in Asia as the population ages. It has been projected that 50% of all hip fractures in the world will occur in Asia by the next century. Singapore is not exempted from this problem of global aging as figures show that there is a rising incidence of hip fractures in the country. So far, studies on bone density in Singapore have been reported only for the Chinese population. Apart from the bone density, it has been reported that femoral neck geometry, like the hip axis length, contributed independently to the risk of hip fracture. The hip axis length is defined as the length from the lateral bone edge below the greater trochanter through the femoral neck to the medial bone edge of the inner pelvic brim. A longer hip axis length was associated with an increased risk of hip fractures. Several studies have also shown some racial differences in hip axis length. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group found that the mean hip axis length of Asian and black women were significantly shorter than that of white women. In a recent study, women of African origin were found to have smaller bone widths and a shorter hip axis length than Caucasians. The authors estimated that this racial difference could contribute to almost 25% decrease risk of hip fracture among blacks. Likewise, a shorter hip axis length in Japanese women compared to American women may explain the lower incidence of hip fractures among the Japanese population despite lower BMD values. The main objectives of this study were: a) To determine the age of peak bone density in each study group b) To quantify differences in bone density as functions of age and sex c) To determine any differences in bone density and hip axis length among Chinese, Malay and Indian population. This report presents the results of BMD measurement and the data analysis performed

  7. Efficacy of recreational football on bone health, body composition, and physical functioning in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: 32-week follow-up of the FC prostate randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uth, J; Hornstrup, T; Christensen, J F; Christensen, K B; Jørgensen, N R; Schmidt, J F; Brasso, K; Jakobsen, M D; Sundstrup, E; Andersen, L L; Rørth, M; Midtgaard, J; Krustrup, P; Helge, E W

    2016-04-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) impairs musculoskeletal health. We evaluated the efficacy of 32-week football training on bone mineral density (BMD) and physical functioning in men undergoing ADT for PCa. Football training improved the femoral shaft and total hip BMD and physical functioning parameters compared to control. ADT is a mainstay in PCa management. Side effects include decreased bone and muscle strength and increased fracture rates. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of 32 weeks of football training on BMD, bone turnover markers (BTMs), body composition, and physical functioning in men with PCa undergoing ADT. Men receiving ADT >6 months (n = 57) were randomly allocated to a football training group (FTG) (n = 29) practising 2-3 times per week for 45-60 min or to a standard care control group (CON) (n = 28) for 32 weeks. Outcomes were total hip, femoral shaft, femoral neck and lumbar spine (L2-L4) BMD and systemic BTMs (procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide, osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen). Additionally, physical functioning (postural balance, jump height, repeated chair rise, stair climbing) was evaluated. Thirty-two-week follow-up measures were obtained for FTG (n = 21) and for CON (n = 20), respectively. Analysis of mean changes from baseline to 32 weeks showed significant differences between FTG and CON in right (0.015 g/cm(2)) and left (0.017 g/cm(2)) total hip and in right (0.018 g/cm(2)) and left (0.024 g/cm(2)) femoral shaft BMD, jump height (1.7 cm) and stair climbing (-0.21 s) all in favour of FTG (p < 0.05). No other significant between-group differences were observed. Compared to standard care, 32 weeks of football training improved BMD at clinically important femoral sites and parameters of physical functioning in men undergoing ADT for PCa.

  8. Revision hip preservation surgery with hip arthroscopy: clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, Benjamin G; Stake, Christine E; Lindner, Dror; El-Bitar, Youseff; Jackson, Timothy J

    2014-05-01

    To analyze and report the clinical outcomes of a cohort of patients who underwent revision hip preservation with arthroscopy and determine predictors of positive and negative outcomes. During the study period from April 2008 to December 2010, all patients who underwent revision hip preservation with arthroscopy were included. This included patients who had previous open surgery and underwent revision with arthroscopy. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores were obtained preoperatively and at 3-month, 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year follow-up time points. Any revision surgeries and conversions to total hip arthroplasty were noted. A multiple regression analysis was performed to look for positive and negative predictive factors for improvement in PROs after revision hip arthroscopy. Forty-seven hips in 43 patients had completed 2 years' follow-up or needed total hip arthroplasty. The mean length of follow-up was 29 months (range, 24 to 47 months). Of the hips, 31 (66%) had either unaddressed or incompletely treated femoroacetabular impingement. There was a significant improvement in all PRO scores at a mean of 29 months after revision (P arthroscopy can achieve moderately successful outcomes and remains a viable treatment strategy after failed primary hip preservation surgery. Preoperative predictors of success after revision hip arthroscopy include segmental labral defects, unaddressed or incompletely addressed femoroacetabular impingement, heterotopic ossification, and previous open surgery. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2014 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The risk of major and any (non-hip) fragility fracture after hip fracture in the United Kingdom : 2000-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson-Smith, D; Klop, C; Elders, P J M; Welsing, P M J; van Schoor, N; Leufkens, H G M; Harvey, N C; van Staa, T P; de Vries, F

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The risk of a subsequent major or any fracture after a hip fracture and secular trends herein were examined. Within 1 year, 2.7 and 8.4% of patients sustained a major or any (non-hip) fracture, which increased to 14.7 and 32.5% after 5 years. Subsequent fracture rates increased during

  10. Rates of bone loss among women initiating antidepressant medication use in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Susan J; Ruppert, Kristine; Cauley, Jane A; Lian, YinJuan; Bromberger, Joyce T; Finkelstein, Joel S; Greendale, Gail A; Solomon, Daniel H

    2013-11-01

    Concern has been raised that medications that block serotonin reuptake may affect bone metabolism, resulting in bone loss. The aim of the study was to compare annual bone mineral density (BMD) changes among new users of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), new users of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and nonusers of antidepressant medications. We conducted a prospective cohort study at five clinical centers in the United States. The study included 1972 community-dwelling women, aged 42 years and older, enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). The use of antidepressant medications was assessed by interview and verified from medication containers at annual visits. Subjects were categorized as nonusers (no SSRI or TCA use at any examination), SSRI users (initiated SSRI use after the baseline SWAN visit), or TCA users (initiated TCA use after the baseline visit), using a computerized dictionary to categorize type of medication. BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at annual visits. BMD was compared among 311 new users of SSRIs, 71 new users of TCAs, and 1590 nonusers. After adjustment for potential confounders, including age, race, body mass index, menopausal status, and hormone therapy use, mean lumbar spine BMD decreased on average 0.68% per year in nonusers, 0.63% per year in SSRI users (P = .37 for comparison to nonusers), and 0.40% per year in TCA users (P = .16 for comparison to nonusers). At the total hip and femoral neck, there was also no evidence that SSRI or TCA users had an increased rate of bone loss compared with nonusers. Results were similar in subgroups of women stratified by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (women, use of SSRIs and TCAs was not associated with an increased rate of bone loss at the spine, total hip, or femoral neck.

  11. Ileus following total hip or knee arthroplasty is associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Keith R; Lombardi, Adolph V; Mallory, Thomas H; Dodds, Kathleen L; Adams, Joanne B

    2004-10-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease (VTD), deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, causes morbidity and mortality following total hip and total knee arthroplasties, while ileus complicates up to 4.0%. The clinical courses of 2,949 patients undergoing 3,364 consecutive primary and revision total hip and total knee arthroplasties, radical debridements, and reimplantations at one institution over a 2-year period were reviewed to examine the relationship between ileus and VTD. VTD prophylaxis consisted of aspirin and intermittent plantar pulse boots for all patients except those at high risk, who received parenteral chemical prophylaxis and boots. Ileus occurred in 62 patients (2.1%) and symptomatic DVT in 51 (1.7%). With ileus, the incidence of DVT was 8.1%: odds ratio 5.5 (P =.0036). Symptomatic pulmonary embolism occurred in 7 patients (0.24%); with ileus the incidence was 3.2%: odds ratio 19.6 (P =.0082). A significant increase was observed in rates of VTD with ileus. We recommend using parenteral chemical and mechanical prophylaxis in patients with ileus following total hip and total knee arthroplasties.

  12. Effects of Alendronate and Raloxifene on Bone Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Zülfikaroğlu

    2011-04-01

    CONCLUSION: ALN 70 mg once- weekly significantly produced greater increases in spine and greater but not significantly increases in hip BMD and significantly greater reductions in markers of bone turnover than RLX in 1 yr treatment period. Both ALN and RLX treatment groups have similar safety and tolerability profiles.

  13. Functional autonomy, bone mineral density (BMD) and serum osteocalcin levels in older female participants of an aquatic exercise program (AAG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernambuco, Carlos Soares; Borba-Pinheiro, Claudio Joaquim; Vale, Rodrigo Gomes de Souza; Di Masi, Fabrizio; Monteiro, Paola Karynne Pinheiro; Dantas, Estelio H M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an AAG on BMD, osteocalcin and functional autonomy in older women. The sample consisted of eighty-two post-menopausal women with low BMD, randomly divided into two groups: the Aquatic Aerobics Group [AAG; n=42; age: 66.8±4.2years], submitted to two weekly sessions over eight months, and the Control Group (GC; n=42; age: 66.9±3.2years), which did not participate in regular exercise. BMD was measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DXA] of the lumbar and femur, and serum osteocalcin was measured using electrochemiluminescence. A functional autonomy assessment protocol (GDLAM, 2004) was also applied. Statistical analyses used were repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. The results showed a significant improvement in tests following the GDLAM protocol: 10 meters walk (10mw) -p=0.003; rising from a ventral decubitus position (RVDP) - Δ%=0.78, pAAG when compared to the CG. The AAG achieved the best results for BMD; however, no inter or intragroup statistical differences were recorded for total femur -p=0.975 and lumbar L(2)-L(4)p=0.597. For serum osteocalcin, intra and intergroup statistical differences of p=0.042 and p=0.027 were observed in the AAG, respectively. This demonstrates that an eight-month aquatic aerobic exercise program can improve functional autonomy and osteocalcin levels, although training did not improve lumbar and total femur BMD in the older women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In-vivo assessment of femoral bone strength using Finite Element Analysis (FEA based on routine MDCT imaging: a preliminary study on patients with vertebral fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Liebl

    Full Text Available To experimentally validate a non-linear finite element analysis (FEA modeling approach assessing in-vitro fracture risk at the proximal femur and to transfer the method to standard in-vivo multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT data of the hip aiming to predict additional hip fracture risk in subjects with and without osteoporosis associated vertebral fractures using bone mineral density (BMD measurements as gold standard.One fresh-frozen human femur specimen was mechanically tested and fractured simulating stance and clinically relevant fall loading configurations to the hip. After experimental in-vitro validation, the FEA simulation protocol was transferred to standard contrast-enhanced in-vivo MDCT images to calculate individual hip fracture risk each for 4 subjects with and without a history of osteoporotic vertebral fractures matched by age and gender. In addition, FEA based risk factor calculations were compared to manual femoral BMD measurements of all subjects.In-vitro simulations showed good correlation with the experimentally measured strains both in stance (R2 = 0.963 and fall configuration (R2 = 0.976. The simulated maximum stress overestimated the experimental failure load (4743 N by 14.7% (5440 N while the simulated maximum strain overestimated by 4.7% (4968 N. The simulated failed elements coincided precisely with the experimentally determined fracture locations. BMD measurements in subjects with a history of osteoporotic vertebral fractures did not differ significantly from subjects without fragility fractures (femoral head: p = 0.989; femoral neck: p = 0.366, but showed higher FEA based risk factors for additional incident hip fractures (p = 0.028.FEA simulations were successfully validated by elastic and destructive in-vitro experiments. In the subsequent in-vivo analyses, MDCT based FEA based risk factor differences for additional hip fractures were not mirrored by according BMD measurements. Our data suggests, that MDCT

  15. Loading of Hip Measured by Hip Contact Forces at Different Speeds of Walking and Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarmatzis, Georgios; Jonkers, Ilse; Wesseling, Mariska; Van Rossom, Sam; Verschueren, Sabine

    2015-08-01

    Exercise plays a pivotal role in maximizing peak bone mass in adulthood and maintaining it through aging, by imposing mechanical loading on the bone that can trigger bone mineralization and growth. The optimal type and intensity of exercise that best enhances bone strength remains, however, poorly characterized, partly because the exact peak loading of the bone produced by the diverse types of exercises is not known. By means of integrated motion capture as an input to dynamic simulations, contact forces acting on the hip of 20 young healthy adults were calculated during walking and running at different speeds. During walking, hip contact forces (HCFs) have a two-peak profile whereby the first peak increases from 4.22 body weight (BW) to 5.41 BW and the second from 4.37 BW to 5.74 BW, by increasing speed from 3 to 6 km/h. During running, there is only one peak HCF that increases from 7.49 BW to 10.01 BW, by increasing speed from 6 to 12 km/h. Speed related profiles of peak HCFs and ground reaction forces (GRFs) reveal a different progression of the two peaks during walking. Speed has a stronger impact on peak HCFs rather than on peak GRFs during walking and running, suggesting an increasing influence of muscle activity on peak HCF with increased speed. Moreover, results show that the first peak of HCF during walking can be predicted best by hip adduction moment, and the second peak of HCF by hip extension moment. During running, peak HCF can be best predicted by hip adduction moment. The present study contributes hereby to a better understanding of musculoskeletal loading during walking and running in a wide range of speeds, offering valuable information to clinicians and scientists exploring bone loading as a possible nonpharmacological osteogenic stimulus. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  16. Hip instability: a review of hip dysplasia and other contributing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeutler, Matthew J.; Garabekyan, Tigran; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Hip instability has classically been associated with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in newborns and children. However, numerous factors may contribute to hip instability in children, adolescents, and adults. Purpose This review aims to concisely present the literature on hip instability in patients of all ages in order to guide health care professionals in the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of the various disorders which may contribute to an unstable hip. Methods We reviewed the literature on the diagnosis and surgical management of hip dysplasia and other causes of hip instability. Conclusions Multiple intra- and extra-articular variables may contribute to hip instability, including acetabular bony coverage, femoral torsion, femoroacetabular impingement, and soft tissue laxity. Physical examination and advanced imaging studies are essential to accurately diagnose the pathology contributing to a patient’s unstable hip. Conservative management, including activity modification and physical therapy, may be used as a first-line treatment in patients with intra-articular hip pathology. Patients who continue to experience symptoms of pain or instability should proceed with arthroscopic or open surgical treatment aimed at correcting the underlying pathology. Level of evidence V. PMID:28066739

  17. Hip fracture in hospitalized medical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapatero Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study is to analyze the incidence of hip fracture as a complication of admissions to internal medicine units in Spain. Methods We analyzed the clinical data of 2,134,363 adults who had been admitted to internal medicine wards. The main outcome was a diagnosis of hip fracture during hospitalization. Outcome measures included rates of in-hospital fractures, length of stay and cost. Results A total of 1127 (0.057% admittances were coded with an in-hospital hip fracture. In hospital mortality rate was 27.9% vs 9.4%; p  Conclusions In-hospital hip fracture notably increased mortality during hospitalization, doubling the mean length of stay and mean cost of admission. These are reasons enough to stress the importance of designing and applying multidisciplinary plans focused on reducing the incidence of hip fractures in hospitalized patients.

  18. Lower Lean Mass Measured by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is Not Associated with Increased Risk of Hip Fracture in Women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Robert R; Kiel, Douglas P; Berry, Sarah D; Broe, Kerry E; Zhang, Xiaochun; Cupples, L Adrienne; Hannan, Marian T

    2018-01-05

    Although muscle mass influences strength in older adults, it is unclear whether low lean mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an independent risk factor for hip fracture. Our objective was to determine the association between DXA lean mass and incident hip fracture risk among 1978 women aged 50 years and older participating in the Framingham Study Original and Offspring cohorts. Leg and total body lean mass (kg) were assessed from whole-body DXA scans collected in 1992-2001. Hip fracture follow-up extended from DXA assessment to the occurrence of fracture, death, drop-out, or end of follow-up in 2007. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) estimating the relative risk of hip fracture associated with a 1-kg increase in baseline lean mass. Mean age was 66 years (range 50-93). Over a median of 8 years of follow-up, 99 hip fractures occurred. In models adjusted for age, height, study cohort, and percent total body fat, neither leg (HR 1.11; 95% CI 0.94, 1.31) nor total body (HR 1.06; 95% CI 0.99, 1.13) lean mass were associated with hip fracture. After further adjustment for femoral neck bone mineral density, leg lean mass results were similar (HR 1.10; 95% CI 0.93, 1.30). In contrast, 1 kg greater total body lean mass was associated with 9% higher hip fracture risk (HR 1.09; 95% CI 1.02, 1.18). Our findings suggest that in women, lower lean mass measured by DXA is not associated with increased risk of hip fracture.

  19. Relationship between Weight, Body Mass Index, and Bone Mineral Density in Men Referred for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Salamat, Amir Hossein; Abedi, Iraj; Janghorbani, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Although several studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD), the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between BMI, weight and BMD in an Iranian men population. Methods. A total of 230 men 50-79 years old were examined. All men underwent a standard BMD scans of hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, and femoral shaft) and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) using a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan and examination of body size. Participants were categorised in two BMI group: normal weight obese, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2). Results. Compared to men with BMI ≥ 25, the age-adjusted odds ratio of osteopenia was 2.2 (95% CI 0.85, 5.93) and for osteoporosis was 4.4 (1.51, 12.87) for men with BMI osteoporosis. Conclusions. These data indicate that both BMI and weight are associated with BMD of hip and vertebrae and overweight and obesity decreased the risk for osteoporosis. The results of this study highlight the need for osteoporosis prevention strategies in elderly men as well as postmenopausal women.

  20. A trans-ethnic genome-wide association study identifies gender-specific loci influencing pediatric aBMD and BMC at the distal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Alessandra; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Lappe, Joan M; McCormack, Shana E; Gilsanz, Vicente; Oberfield, Sharon E; Hakonarson, Hakon; Shepherd, John A; Kelly, Andrea; Zemel, Babette S; Grant, Struan F A

    2015-09-01

    Childhood fractures are common, with the forearm being the most common site. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 60 loci associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in adults but less is known about genetic influences specific to bone in childhood. To identify novel genetic factors that influence pediatric bone strength at a common site for childhood fractures, we performed a sex-stratified trans-ethnic genome-wide association study of areal BMD (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) Z-scores measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at the one-third distal radius, in a cohort of 1399 children without clinical abnormalities in bone health. We tested signals with P BMC-Z). Signals at the CPED1-WNT16-FAM3C locus have been previously associated with BMD at other skeletal sites in adults and children. Our result at the distal radius underscores the importance of this locus at multiple skeletal sites. The 9p21.3 locus is within a gene desert, with the nearest gene flanking each side being MIR31HG and MTAP, neither of which has been implicated in BMD or BMC previously. These findings suggest that genetic determinants of childhood bone accretion at the radius, a skeletal site that is primarily cortical bone, exist and also differ by sex. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Low Levels of Hemoglobin at Admission Are Associated With Increased 30-Day Mortality in Patients With Hip Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praetorius, Katrine; Madsen, Christian M; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous smaller studies suggest that anemia is a risk factor for mortality in patients with hip fracture. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the correlation between hemoglobin at admission with 30-day mortality following a hip fracture in a large-scale study. PATIENTS...... AND METHODS: From January 1996 to December 2012, all patients with hip fracture (>60 years of age) admitted to Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, were identified from a local hip fracture database. We excluded conservatively treated patients and patients who died preoperatively. RESULTS: Seven thousand four...... hundred twenty-one consecutive patients with hip fracture were identified. Of those 7319 had a hemoglobin measurement on admission and were thus eligible for further analysis. Mean hemoglobin for patients alive at 30 days was 7.6 (standard deviation [SD]: 1.0) and for deceased patients 7.4 (SD: 1.1), P...

  2. Trends in hip fracture-related mortality in Texas, 1990-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orces, Carlos H; Alamgir, Abul H

    2011-07-01

    There are limited data about trends in hip fracture-related mortality. In this study, we examined temporal trends in hip fracture mortality rates among persons aged 50 years or older in Texas between 1990 and 2007. Hip fracture-related mortality was defined as a death on the multiple cause of death record for which hip fracture was listed as a contributing cause. Population estimates for Texas were used as the denominator to calculate mortality rates per 100,000 persons. The joinpoint regression analysis was used to identify points where a statistically significant change occurred in the linear slope of the rates. A total of 14,350 death certificates listed hip fracture as a contributing cause of death. Hip fracture rates decreased predominantly among men by 0.8% (95% CI, -1.5 to -0.1) per year. Conversely, age-adjusted rates among women increased by 0.3% (95% CI, -0.4 to 1.0) per year. By race/ethnicity, hip fracture mortality rates increased annually 2.2% (95% CI, -0.1 to 4.4) among blacks, whereas the rates among whites and Hispanics remained steady. Moreover, the proportion of death records that listed nursing homes and residence as a place of death increased by 2.2% (95% CI, 1.6 to 2.9) and 8.7% (95% CI, 6.3 to 11.0) per year, respectively. Hip fracture mortality rates decreased predominantly among men in Texas during the study period. Increasing hip fracture mortality rates among blacks and nursing home residents merit further research.

  3. Comparing BMD-derived genotoxic potency estimations across variants of the transgenic rodent gene mutation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, John W; Johnson, George E; Battaion, Hannah L; Slob, Wout; White, Paul A

    2017-12-01

    There is growing interest in quantitative analysis of in vivo genetic toxicity dose-response data, and use of point-of-departure (PoD) metrics such as the benchmark dose (BMD) for human health risk assessment (HHRA). Currently, multiple transgenic rodent (TGR) assay variants, employing different rodent strains and reporter transgenes, are used for the assessment of chemically-induced genotoxic effects in vivo. However, regulatory issues arise when different PoD values (e.g., lower BMD confidence intervals or BMDLs) are obtained for the same compound across different TGR assay variants. This study therefore employed the BMD approach to examine the ability of different TGR variants to yield comparable genotoxic potency estimates. Review of over 2000 dose-response datasets identified suitably-matched dose-response data for three compounds (ethyl methanesulfonate or EMS, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea or ENU, and dimethylnitrosamine or DMN) across four commonly-used murine TGR variants (Muta™Mouse lacZ, Muta™Mouse cII, gpt delta and BigBlue® lacI). Dose-response analyses provided no conclusive evidence that TGR variant choice significantly influences the derived genotoxic potency estimate. This conclusion was reliant upon taking into account the importance of comparing BMD confidence intervals as opposed to directly comparing PoD values (e.g., comparing BMDLs). Comparisons with earlier works suggested that with respect to potency determination, tissue choice is potentially more important than choice of TGR assay variant. Scoring multiple tissues selected on the basis of supporting toxicokinetic information is therefore recommended. Finally, we used typical within-group variances to estimate preliminary endpoint-specific benchmark response (BMR) values across several TGR variants/tissues. We discuss why such values are required for routine use of genetic toxicity PoDs for HHRA. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:632-643, 2017. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

  4. Association of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region genotype with lower bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapid, M I; Kung, S; Frye, M A; Biernacka, J M; Geske, J R; Drake, M T; Jankowski, M D; Clarke, B L

    2017-08-22

    The serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) S allele is linked to pathogenesis of depression and slower response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); depression and SSRIs are independently associated with bone loss. We aimed to determine whether 5-HTTLPR was associated with bone loss. This cross-sectional study included psychiatric patients with both 5-HTTLPR analysis and bone mineral density (BMD) assessment (hip and spine Z-scores if age <50 years and T-scores if ⩾50 years). BMD association with 5-HTTLPR was evaluated under models with additive allele effects and dominant S allele effects using linear regression models. Patients were stratified by age (<50 and ⩾50 years) and sex. Of 3016 patients with 5-HTTLPR genotyping, 239 had BMD assessments. Among the younger patients, the S allele was associated with lower Z-scores at the hip (P=0.002, dominant S allele effects; P=0.004, additive allele effects) and spine (P=0.0006, dominant S allele effects; P=0.01, additive allele effects). In sex-stratified analyses, the association of the S allele with lower BMD in the younger patients was also significant in the subset of women (P⩽0.003 for both hip and spine BMD under the additive allele effect model). In the small group of men younger than 50 years, the S allele was marginally associated with higher spine BMD (P=0.05). BMD T-scores were not associated with 5-HTTLPR genotypes in patients 50 years or older. The 5-HTTLPR variants may modify serotonin effects on bone with sex-specific effects.

  5. Hip adductor muscle function in forward skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ryan; Turcotte, Rene; Pearsall, David

    2009-09-01

    Adductor strain injuries are prevalent in ice hockey. It has long been speculated that adductor muscular strains may be caused by repeated eccentric contractions which decelerate the leg during a stride. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of skating speed with muscle activity and lower limb kinematics, with a particular focus on the role of the hip adductors. Seven collegiate ice hockey players consented to participate. Surface electromyography (EMG) and kinematics of the lower extremities were measured at three skating velocities 3.33 m/s (slow), 5.00 m/s (medium) and 6.66 m/s (fast). The adductor magnus muscle exhibited disproportionately larger increases in peak muscle activation and significantly prolonged activation with increased speed. Stride rate and stride length also increased significantly with skating velocity, in contrast, hip, knee and ankle total ranges of motion did not. To accommodate for the increased stride rate with higher skating speeds, the rate of hip abduction increased significantly in concert with activations of adductor magnus indicating a substantial eccentric contraction. In conclusion, these findings highlight the functional importance of the adductor muscle group and hip abduction-adduction in skating performance as well as indirectly support the notion that groin strain injury potential increases with skating speed.

  6. Relationship between Weight, Body Mass Index, and Bone Mineral Density in Men Referred for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salamat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Although several studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI and bone mineral density (BMD, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between BMI, weight and BMD in an Iranian men population. Methods. A total of 230 men 50-79 years old were examined. All men underwent a standard BMD scans of hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, and femoral shaft and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4 using a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA scan and examination of body size. Participants were categorised in two BMI group: normal weight <25.0 kg/m2 and overweight and obese, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Results. Compared to men with BMI ≥ 25, the age-adjusted odds ratio of osteopenia was 2.2 (95% CI 0.85, 5.93 and for osteoporosis was 4.4 (1.51, 12.87 for men with BMI < 25. It was noted that BMI and weight was associated with a high BMD, compatible with a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Conclusions. These data indicate that both BMI and weight are associated with BMD of hip and vertebrae and overweight and obesity decreased the risk for osteoporosis. The results of this study highlight the need for osteoporosis prevention strategies in elderly men as well as postmenopausal women.

  7. Mechanical Evaluation of Polymer Composite Hip Protectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel Diniz Melo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hip fractures often result in serious health implications, particularly in the geriatric population, and have been related to long-term morbidity and death. In most cases, these fractures are caused by impact loads in the area of the greater trochanter, which are produced in a fall. This work is aimed at developing hip protectors using composite materials and evaluating their effectiveness in preventing hip fractures under high impact energy (120 J. The hip protectors were developed with an inner layer of energy absorbing soft material and an outer rigid shell of fiberglass-reinforced polymer composite. According to the experimental results, all tested configurations proved to be effective at reducing the impact load to below the average fracture threshold of proximal femur. Furthermore, an addition of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA to the impacted area of the composite shell proved to be beneficial to increase impact strength of the hip protectors. Thus, composite hip protectors proved to be a viable alternative for a mechanically efficient and cost-effective solution to prevent hip fractures.

  8. Large strengthening effect of a hip-flexor training programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Zebis, Mette

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect on hip-flexion strength of a 6-week hip-flexor training programme using elastic bands as resistance. We hypothesized that the training group, compared to a control group, would increase their hip-flexion strength more. METHODS: Thirty-three healthy subjects (45 ...

  9. Efficacy of Denosumab for Osteoporosis in Two Patients with Adult-Onset Still’s Disease—Denosumab Efficacy in Osteoporotic Still’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Kumaki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder. Glucocorticoids are often used for AOSD, which may induce complicating glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO. An anti-resorption drug, denosumab, has recently been approved for osteoporosis treatment in Japan. However, the drug’s efficacy for GIO in AOSD is largely unknown. This retrospective, consecutive case series investigated two patients with GIO in AOSD to examine the effects of denosumab on bone metabolism. Bone turnover markers, and bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar 1–4 spine (L-BMD and bilateral total hips (H-BMD were followed for six months in a male patient and for twelve months in a female patient. No fractures or severe side effects, such as hypocalcemia, were observed during the observational period. Bone turnover markers were basically suppressed, and L-BMD and H-BMD were increased by denosumab in both patients. Our findings suggest that denosumab is a suitable candidate drug for GIO in AOSD.

  10. Experimentally induced cam impingement in the sheep hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenrock, Klaus A; Fiechter, Ruth; Tannast, Moritz; Mamisch, Tallal C; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2013-04-01

    Sheep hips have a natural non-spherical femoral head similar to a cam-type deformity in human beings. By performing an intertrochanteric varus osteotomy, cam-type femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI) during flexion can be created. We tested the hypotheses that macroscopic lesions of the articular cartilage and an increased Mankin score (MS) can be reproduced by an experimentally induced cam-type FAI in this ovine in vivo model. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the MS increases with longer ambulatory periods. Sixteen sheep underwent unilateral intertrochanteric varus osteotomy of the hip with the non-operated hip as a control. Four sheep were sacrificed after 14, 22, 30, and 38-weeks postoperatively. We evaluated macroscopic chondrolabral alterations, and recorded the MS, based on histochemical staining, for each ambulatory period. A significantly higher prevalence of macroscopic chondrolabral lesions was found in the impingement zone of the operated hips. The MS was significantly higher in the acetabular/femoral cartilage of the operated hips. Furthermore, these scores increased as the length of the ambulatory period increased. Cam-type FAI can be induced in an ovine in vivo model. Localized chondrolabral degeneration of the hip, similar to that seen in humans (Tannast et al., Clin Orthop Relat Res 2008; 466: 273-280; Beck et al., J Bone Joint Surg Br 2005; 87: 1012-1018), can be reproduced. This experimental sheep model can be used to study cam-type FAI. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  11. The Hyperflexible Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alexander E.; Bedi, Asheesh; Tibor, Lisa M.; Zaltz, Ira; Larson, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Dance, gymnastics, figure skating, and competitive cheerleading require a high degree of hip range of motion. Athletes who participate in these sports use their hips in a mechanically complex manner. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the entire PubMed database (through December 2013) and additional searches of the reference lists of pertinent articles. Study Design: Systematic review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: Whether innate or acquired, dancers and gymnasts have some hypermobility that allows their hips to be placed in potentially impinging or unstable positions required for their given activity. Such extremes of motion can result in both intra-articular and extra-articular impingement as well as compensatory osseous and muscular pathology. In addition, dancers and gymnasts are susceptible to impingement-induced instability. Dancers with innate generalized hyperlaxity are at increased risk of injury because of their activities and may require longer recovery times to return to play. Both nonoperative and operative treatments (arthroscopic and open) have an important role in returning flexibility athletes to their preoperative levels of sport and dance. Conclusion: Because of the extreme hip motion required and the compensatory soft tissue laxity in dancers and gymnasts, these athletes may develop instability, impingement, or combinations of both. This frequently occurs in the setting of subtle pathoanatomy or in patients with normal bony anatomy. With appropriate surgical indications and the correct operative technique, the treating surgeon can anticipate high levels of return to play for the gymnast and dancer with hip pain. PMID:26137181

  12. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from a Becker muscular dystrophy patient carrying a deletion of exons 45-55 of the dystrophin gene (CCMi002BMD-A-9 ∆45-55

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife Gowran

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD is a dystrophinopathy caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene on chromosome Xp21. BMD mutations result in truncated semi-functional dystrophin isoforms. Consequently, less severe clinical symptoms become apparent later in life compared to Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Dermal fibroblasts from a BMD patient were electroporated with episomal plasmids containing reprogramming factors to create the induced pluripotent stem cell line: CCMi002BMD-A-9 that showed pluripotent markers, were karyotypically normal and capable of trilineage differentiation. MLPA analyses performed on DNA extracted from CCMi002BMD-A-9 showed an in-frame deletion of exons 45 to 55 (CCMi002BMD-A-9 Δ45-55.

  13. Simultaneous and staged bilateral total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Joergensen, Christoffer Calov; Husted, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral total hip arthroplasty (BTHA) and bilateral simultaneous total hip arthroplasty (BSTHA) are done increasingly. Previous studies evaluating outcomes after bilateral procedures have found different results. The aim of this study was to investigate length of hospital stay (LOS), 30 days...

  14. Hip Hip Hurrah! Hip size inversely related to heart disease and total mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Lissner, L

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade a series of published reports have examined the value of studying the relation between hip circumferences and cardiovascular end points. Specifically, in a series of recent studies the independent effects of hip circumference have been studied after adjustment for general o...... for women than men, but is evident in both genders. In this 'viewpoint', we wish to draw attention to the emerging body of evidence and to encourage researchers to continue collecting measures of lower body size in their surveys....... obesity and/or waist circumference. These studies have been remarkable in terms of their consistency, and in the unexpected finding of an adverse effect of small hip size, after statistically correcting for differences in general and abdominal size. The hazard related to a small hip size may be stronger...

  15. Studies on osteoporosis in Chile using isotope-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, G.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship found between BMD of the lumbar spine with the anthropomorphic parameters (age, sex, body size and bone area) in the normal Chilean population studied, was different from the relationship found between BMD of both hips with the same parameters. To determine peak bone mass it is necessary to increase the number of individuals studied. This is specially true for BMD of the lumbar spine. It seems important for the correct interpretation of BMD studies to determine local values for normals, specially for the analysis of BMD in the lumbar spine, which is related to body and bone size. It is necessary to normalize the data base for anthropomorphic parameters specially in epidemiological studies. Knowledge of these parameters for the normal data base used in the different densitometers is highly desirable. There are some differences between this data base and that provided by Hologic, specially for spine in both sexes. This difference could be explained by size related factors. There is a correlation between osteocalcin levels and BMD in lumbar spine and both femoral necks only in women

  16. Impact of hepatitis C virus infection on bone mineral density in renal transplant recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hung Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The average prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in renal transplant recipients is 10%. Studies of these patients with HCV infection usually focuses on long-term graft survival and patient survival. Studies of the correlation between HCV infection and bone mineral density (BMD in renal transplant patients are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HCV infection is a risk factor for BMD change during a short follow-up period. METHODS: Seventy-six renal transplant recipients underwent 2 separate dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scans during a mean period of 14 months. Fifteen patients were HCV infection. First bone mineral density (BMD at the lumbar spine, hip, and femoral neck was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA between September 2008 and March 2009. After that, 34 patients took alendronate sodium 70 mg per week. Subgroups risk factors analysis was also performed into with or without alendronate. Immunosuppressive agents, bisphosphonates, patient characteristics, and biochemical factors were analyzed to identify associations with BMD. RESULTS: After 14 months, in 76 patients, BMD of the lumbar spine had significantly increased (from 0.9 g/cm² to 0.92 g/cm², p<0.001, whereas BMD of the hip and femoral neck had not. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that HCV infection was negatively associated with BMD change in the lumbar spine ( β: -0.247, 95% CI, -0.035 to -0.002; p = 0.028. Moreover, in subgroup analysis, among 42 patients without alendronate, multiple linear regression analysis showed HCV infection was a risk factor for adverse BMD change of the lumbar spine ( β: -0.371, 95% CI, -0.043 to -0.003; p = 0.023. CONCLUSION: HCV infection in renal transplant recipients was a negative risk factor for BMD change in the lumbar spine. Moreover, alendronate may be able to reverse the negative effect of HCV infection on bone in renal transplant recipients.

  17. Reliability and Validity of the Hip Stability Isometric Test (HipSIT): A New Method to Assess Hip Posterolateral Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; das Neves Rodrigues, Helena Larissa; de Freitas, Bruno Wesley; de Paula Lima, Pedro Olavo

    2017-12-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Background The Hip Stability Isometric Test (HipSIT) evaluates the strength of the hip posterolateral stabilizers in a position that favors greater activation of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius and lower activation of the tensor fascia lata. Objectives To check the validity and reliability of the HipSIT and to evaluate the HipSIT in women with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Methods The HipSIT was evaluated with a handheld dynamometer. During testing, the participants were sidelying, with their legs positioned at 45° of hip flexion and 90° of knee flexion. Participants were instructed to raise the knee of the upper leg while keeping the upper and lower heels in contact. To establish reliability and validity, 49 women were tested with the HipSIT by 2 different evaluators on day 1, and then again 7 days later. The strength of the hip extensors, abductors, and external rotators was also evaluated. Twenty women with unilateral PFP were also evaluated. Results The HipSIT has excellent intrarater and interrater reliability. The standard error of measurement was 0.01 kgf/kg, and the minimal detectable change was 0.036 kgf/kg. The HipSIT showed good validity in isolated hip abduction, external rotation, and extension (Pstrength deficits in women with PFP. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):906-913. Epub 9 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7274.

  18. Association between vitamin K intake from fermented soybeans, natto, and bone mineral density in elderly Japanese men: the Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Y; Iki, M; Tamaki, J; Kouda, K; Yura, A; Kadowaki, E; Sato, Y; Moon, J-S; Tomioka, K; Okamoto, N; Kurumatani, N

    2012-02-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of 1,662 community dwelling elderly Japanese men suggested that habitual natto intake was significantly associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD). When adjustment was made for undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels, this association was insignificant, showing the natto-bone association to be primarily mediated by vitamin K. Low vitamin K intake is associated with an increased risk of hip fracture, but reports have been inconsistent on its effect on BMD. Our first aim was to examine the association between BMD and intake of fermented soybeans, natto, which contain vitamin K1 (20 μg/pack) and K2 (380 μg/pack). Our second aim was to examine the association between undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), a biomarker of vitamin K intake, and BMD to evaluate the role of vitamin K in this association. Of the Japanese men aged ≥65 years who participated in the baseline survey of the Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men study, 1,662 men without diseases or medications known to affect bone metabolism were examined for associations between self-reported natto intake or serum ucOC levels with lumbar spine or hip BMD. The subjects with greater intake of natto showed significantly lower level of serum ucOC. Analysis after adjustment for confounding variables showed an association of greater intake of natto with both significantly higher BMD and lower risk of low BMD (T-score natto was associated with a beneficial effect on bone health in elderly men, and this association is primarily due to vitamin K content of natto, although the lack of information on dietary nutrient intake, including vitamin K1 and K2, prevented us from further examining the association.

  19. An updated hip fracture projection in Asia: The Asian Federation of Osteoporosis Societies study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lung Cheung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hip fracture is a major public health problem. Earlier studies projected that the total number of hip fracture will increase dramatically by 2050, and most of the hip fracture will occur in Asia. To date, only a few studies provided the updated projection, and none of them focused on the hip fracture projection in Asia. Thus, it is essential to provide the most up to date prediction of hip fracture in Asia, and to evaluate the total direct medical cost of hip fracture in Asia. Methods: We provide the updated projection of hip fracture in 9 Asian Federation of Osteoporosis Societies members using the most updated incidence rate and projected population size. Results: We show that the number of hip fracture will increase from 1,124,060 in 2018 to 2,563,488 in 2050, a 2.28-fold increase. This increase is mainly due to the changes on the population demographics, especially in China and India, which have the largest population size. The direct cost of hip fracture will increase from 9.5 billion United State dollar (USD in 2018 to 15 billion USD in 2050, resulting a 1.59-fold increase. A 2%–3% decrease in incidence rate of hip fracture annually is required to keep the total number of hip fracture constant over time. Conclusions: The results show that hip fracture remains a key public health issue in Asia, despite the available of better diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of fracture over the recent years. Healthcare policy in Asia should be aimed to reduce the burden of hip fracture. Keywords: Hip fracture, Asia, Osteoporosis, Incidence

  20. Fragility non-hip fracture patients are at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosch, M; Druml, T; Nicholas, J A; Hoffmann-Weltin, Y; Roth, T; Zegg, M; Blauth, M; Kammerlander, C

    2015-01-01

    Fragility fractures are a growing worldwide health care problem. Hip fractures have been clearly associated with poor outcomes. Fragility fractures of other bones are common reasons for hospital admission and short-term disability, but specific long-term outcome studies of non-hip fragility fractures are rare. The aim of our trial was to evaluate the 1-year outcomes of non-hip fragility fracture patients. This study is a retrospective cohort review of 307 consecutive older inpatient non-hip fracture patients. Patient data for analysis included fracture location, comorbidity prevalence, pre-fracture functional status, osteoporosis treatments and sociodemographic characteristics. The main outcomes evaluated were 1-year mortality and post-fracture functional status. As compared to the expected mortality, the observed 1-year mortality was increased in the study group (17.6 vs. 12.2 %, P = 0.005). After logistic regression, three variables remained as independent risk factors for 1-year mortality among non-hip fracture patients: malnutrition (OR 3.3, CI 1.5-7.1), Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) (OR 1.3, CI 1.1-1.5) and the Parker Mobility Score (PMS) (OR 0.85, CI 0.74-0.98). CCI and PMS were independent risk factors for a high grade of dependency after 1 year. Management of osteoporosis did not significantly improve after hospitalization due to a non-hip fragility fracture. The outcomes of older non-hip fracture patients are comparable to the poor outcomes of older hip fracture patients, and appear to be primarily related to comorbidities, pre-fracture function and nutritional status. The low rate of patients on osteoporosis medications likely reflects the insufficient recognition of the importance of osteoporosis assessment and treatment in non-hip fracture patients. Increased clinical and academic attention to non-hip fracture patients is needed.

  1. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from a Becker muscular dystrophy patient carrying a deletion of exons 45-55 of the dystrophin gene (CCMi002BMD-A-9 ∆45-55).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowran, Aoife; Spaltro, Gabriella; Casalnuovo, Federica; Vigorelli, Vera; Spinelli, Pietro; Castiglioni, Elisa; Rovina, Davide; Paganini, Stefania; Di Segni, Marina; Gervasini, Cristina; Nigro, Patrizia; Pompilio, Giulio

    2018-04-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a dystrophinopathy caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene on chromosome Xp21. BMD mutations result in truncated semi-functional dystrophin isoforms. Consequently, less severe clinical symptoms become apparent later in life compared to Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Dermal fibroblasts from a BMD patient were electroporated with episomal plasmids containing reprogramming factors to create the induced pluripotent stem cell line: CCMi002BMD-A-9 that showed pluripotent markers, were karyotypically normal and capable of trilineage differentiation. MLPA analyses performed on DNA extracted from CCMi002BMD-A-9 showed an in-frame deletion of exons 45 to 55 (CCMi002BMD-A-9 Δ45-55). Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Muscular strength measurements indicate bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Z

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhixiong Zhou,1,2 Lu Zheng,3 Dengyun Wei,4 Ming Ye,3 Xun Li2 1School of Physical Education and Coaching Science, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Graduate School, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Kinesiology and Health Education, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Physical Education, Anhui Normal University, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Background: The literature is inconsistent and inconclusive on the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and muscular strength in postmenopausal women. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between isokinetically and isometrically determined muscle strength and BMD in postmenopausal women of different age groups. Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 293; mean age, 54.22 ± 3.85 years were enrolled in this study. They were grouped by age according to World Health Organization life expectancy: 45–50 years, 51–53 years, 54–56 years, 57–59 years, and 60–64 years. Total BMD, L2–4 BMD, and femoral neck BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray bone densitometry; isokinetic and isometric muscle strength of the right hip and trunk muscles were measured during contractile exercise. Stepwise regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between BMD and strength measures, controlling for subject age and years since menopause. Results: Results of stepwise regression showed that hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 26% total BMD variance among menopausal subjects, 19% L2–4 BMD variance, and 15% femoral neck BMD variance; in postmenopausal women of different age groups, hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 25%–35% total BMD variance. Conclusion: Different optimal strength

  3. TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT IN LEGG-CALVÉ-PERTHES DISEASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froberg, Lonnie; Christensen, Finn; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Poor long-time results in patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCP) are most often due to degenerative hip disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate if patients with LCP have an increased rate of total hip replacement (THR) compared to sex- and age-matched persons....... MATERIAL AND METHODS 167 LCP patients presented to our institution from 1941 to 1962. All patients were treated conservatively by a Thomas splint. Retrospectively medical records and radiographs were retrieved. Data from the Danish Hip Replacement Register and the Registries of the National Board of Health...... to follow-up and 3) patients with previous surgery to pelvis or lower limbs. 135 patients (156 hips) were enrolled in this study and 32 patients (35 hips) were excluded. RESULTS 20 hips out of 156 hips in patients with LCP have had a THR. Mean age at operation for the women was 50 years and 44 years...

  4. Refractory pain following hip arthroscopy: evaluation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    de SA, Darren L; Burnham, Jeremy M; Mauro, Craig S

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT With increased knowledge and understanding of hip pathology, hip arthroscopy is rapidly becoming a popular treatment option for young patients with hip pain. Despite improved clinical and radiographic outcomes with arthroscopic treatment, some patients may have ongoing pain and less than satisfactory outcomes. While the reasons leading to failed hip arthroscopy are multifactorial, patient selection, surgical technique and rehabilitation all play a role. Patients with failed hip arthroscopy should undergo a thorough history and physical examination, as well as indicated imaging. A treatment plan should then be developed based on pertinent findings from the workup and in conjunction with the patient. Depending on the etiology of failed hip arthroscopy, management may be nonsurgical or surgical, which may include revision arthroscopic or open surgery, periacetabular osteotomy or joint arthroplasty. Revision surgery may be appropriate in settings including, but not limited to, incompletely treated femoroacetabular impingement, postoperative adhesions, heterotopic ossification, instability, hip dysplasia or advanced degeneration. PMID:29423245

  5. BMD PREDICTION OF DEATH IS ENCAPSULATED BY THE MORPHOLOGICAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS CALCIFICATION DISTRIBUTION (MACD) INDEX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Nielsen, Mads; Karsdal, Morten

    2009-01-01

    .3±0.3 years and of which CVD, cancer, and all cause deaths were recorded. The spine BMD and aortic calcification markers, AC24 and the recently proposed Morphological Atherosclerosis Calcification Distribution (MACD) index, were quantified from DXA scans and lateral X-rays respectively. The MACD...

  6. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) around the cemented Exeter stem: a prospective study in 18 women with 5 years follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Frank Lindhøj; Nissen, Nis; Jørgensen, Hans R I

    2008-01-01

    THA changes the pattern of strain distribution in the proximal femur. We quantified the changes in BMD for 5 years after insertion of the cemented Exeter stem in women.......THA changes the pattern of strain distribution in the proximal femur. We quantified the changes in BMD for 5 years after insertion of the cemented Exeter stem in women....

  7. Higher incidence of hip fracture in newly diagnosed schizophrenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher incidence of hip fracture in newly diagnosed schizophrenic patients in Taiwan. Hip fracture is a major public health concern due to its poor outcome and serious socioeconomic burden in older people (1). Evidence has shown that many factors are related to increased risk of hip fracture, but psychiatric diseases are ...

  8. The hip abductors at MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, A., E-mail: adrienne.hoffmann@balgrist.ch [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Balgrist, Forchstrasse 340, CH-8008 Zürich (Switzerland); Pfirrmann, C.W.A., E-mail: christian.pfirrmann@balgrist.ch [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Balgrist, Forchstrasse 340, CH-8008 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    Imaging of the hip abductors plays an increasing role for the evaluation of greater trochanteric pain in patients with and without total hip arthroplasty. This review article addresses the anatomy of the hip abductors and their intervening bursae. It highlights different possible imaging appearances such as tendinopathy or partial and full thickness tears of the gluteal tendons. Muscle atrophy or fatty degeneration of the gluteal muscles is an important reason for limping. Inflammatory diseases such as hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease or spondylarthritis have to be considered. Knowledge of these different entities is important to achieve optimal treatment and outcomes.

  9. Cirrhosis patients have increased risk of complications after hip or knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Thomas; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Overgaard, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: The risk of complications in cirrhosis patients after orthopedic surgery is unclear. We examined this risk after total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Patients and methods: Using Danish healthcare registries, we identified all Danish residents who...

  10. Sonography for hip joint effusion in adults with hip pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); A.M. Bohnen (Arthur); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); A. Prins (Ad); J.S. Lameris; A.Z. Ginai (Abida)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of ultrasonic hip joint effusion and its relation with clinical, radiological and laboratory (ESR) findings in adults with hip pain. METHODS: Patients (n = 224) aged 50 years or older with hip pain, referred by the general

  11. Increased Leg Bone Mineral Density and Content During the Initial Years of College Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerpella, John J; Buehring, Bjoern; Hetzel, Scott J; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2018-04-01

    Scerpella, JJ, Buehring, B, Hetzel, SJ, and Heiderscheit, BC. Increased leg bone mineral density and content during the initial years of college sport. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1123-1130, 2018-Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) data are useful parameters for evaluating how training practices promote bone health. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to longitudinally assess sport-specific growth in leg and total body BMD/BMC over the initial 2 years of collegiate training. Eighty-five Division 1 collegiate basketball, hockey, and soccer athletes (50 males and 35 females; age 19.0 [0.8] years) underwent annual DXA scans. Leg and total body BMD/BMC were compared within and across two 1-year intervals (periods 1 and 2) using repeated-measures analysis of variance, adjusting for age, sex, race, and sport. Leg BMD, leg BMC, and total body BMC all increased over period 1 (0.05 g·cm [p = 0.001], 0.07 kg [p = 0.002], and 0.19 kg [p BMC (p BMC (p = 0.005). Leg lean mass increased more during period 2 than period 1 (p = 0.018). Sports participation was the only significant predictor of change in leg BMD. Significant increases in both leg BMD and BMC were demonstrated over both 2-year periods, with greater gains during period 1. These gains highlight the importance of attentive training procedures, capitalizing on attendant physical benefits of increased BMD/BMC. Additional research in young adults, evaluating bone mass acquisition, will optimize performance and decrease risk of bone stress injury among collegiate athletes.

  12. Hip Implant Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Implants and Prosthetics Metal-on-Metal Hip Implants Hip Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Hip implants are medical devices intended to restore mobility ...

  13. Skeletal Adaptations to Different Levels of Eccentric Resistance Following Eight Weeks of Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Kirk L.; Loehr, James A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Maddocks, Mary J.; Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Hagan, R. Donald

    2007-01-01

    Coupled concentric-eccentric resistive exercise maintains bone mineral density (BMD) during bed rest and aging. PURPOSE: We hypothesized that 8 wks of lower body resistive exercise training with higher ratios of eccentric to concentric loading would enhance hip and lumbar BMD. METHODS: Forty untrained male volunteers (34.9+/-7.0 yrs, 80.9+/-9.8 kg, 178.2+/-7.1 cm; mean+/-SD) were matched for leg press (LP) 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM) strength and randomly assigned to one of 5 training groups. Concentric load (% 1-RM) was constant across groups, but each group trained with different levels of eccentric load (0, 33, 66, 100, or 138% of concentric) for all training sessions. Subjects performed a periodized supine LP and heel raise (HR) training program 3 d wk-1 for 8 wks using a modified Agaton Fitness System (Agaton Fitness AB, Boden, Sweden). Hip and lumbar BMD (g/sq cm) was measured in triplicate pre- and post-training using DXA (Hologic Discovery ). Pre- and post-training means were compared using the appropriate ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. Within group pre- to post-training BMD was compared using paired t-tests with a Bonferroni adjustment. RESULTS: There was a main effect of training on L1, L2, L3, L4, total lumbar, and greater trochanter BMD, but there were no differences between groups. CONCLUSION: Eights wks of lower body resistive exercise increased greater trochanter and lumbar BMD. Inability to detect group differences may have been influenced by a potentially osteogenic vibration associated with device operation in the 0, 33, and 66% groups.

  14. Can FES-rowing mediate bone mineral density in SCI: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, R S; McCarthy, I D; Gall, A; Stock, C G; Shippen, J; Andrews, B J

    2014-11-01

    A single case study. To compare proximal tibia trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) of a participant with complete spinal cord injury (SCI), long-termed functional electrical stimulation-rowing (FES-R) trained, with previously reported SCI and non-SCI group norms. To estimate lower limb joint contact forces (JCFs) in the FES-R trained participant. UK University and orthopaedic hospital research centre. Bilateral proximal tibial trabecular BMD of the FES-R trained participant was measured using peripheral quantitative computerised tomography, and the data were compared with SCI and non-SCI groups. An instrumented four-channel FES-R system was used to measure the lower limb JCFs in the FES-R trained participant. Structurally, proximal tibial trabecular BMD was higher in the FES-R trained participant compared with the SCI group, but was less than the non-SCI group. Furthermore, left (184.7 mg cm(-3)) and right (160.7 mg cm(-3)) BMD were well above the threshold associated with non-traumatic fracture. The knee JCFs were above the threshold known to mediate BMD in SCI, but below threshold at the hip and ankle. As pathological fractures predominate in the distal femur and proximal tibia in chronic SCI patients, the fact that the FES-R trained participant's knee JCFs were above those known to partially prevent bone loss, suggests that FES-R training may provide therapeutic benefit. Although the elevated bilateral proximal tibial BMD of the FES-R participant provides circumstantial evidence of osteogenesis, this single case precludes any statement on the clinical significance. Further investigations are required involving larger numbers and additional channels of FES to increase loading at the hip and ankle.

  15. Gluteal tendinopathy and hip osteoarthritis: Different pathologies, different hip biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kim; Hall, Michelle; Hodges, Paul W; Wrigley, Tim V; Vicenzino, Bill; Pua, Yong-Hao; Metcalf, Ben; Grimaldi, Alison; Bennell, Kim L

    2018-03-01

    Gluteal tendinopathy (GT) and hip osteoarthritis (OA) are the most common causes of hip pain and associated disability in older adults. Pain and altered walking biomechanics are common to both conditions. This study aimed to compare three-dimensional walking biomechanics between individuals with unilateral, symptomatic GT and HOA. Sixty individuals with symptomatic unilateral GT confirmed by magnetic-resonance-imaging and 73 individuals with symptomatic unilateral HOA (Kellgren-Lawrence Grade ≥ 2) underwent three-dimensional gait analysis. Maximum and minimum values of the external sagittal hip moment, the first peak, second peak and mid-stance minimum of the hip adduction moment (HAM), sagittal plane hip excursion and hip joint angles, pelvic obliquity and trunk lean, at the three HAM time points during stance phase of walking were compared between groups. Compared to individuals with HOA, those with GT exhibited a greater hip peak extension moment (P < 0.001) and greater HAM throughout the stance phase of walking (P = 0.01-P < 0.001), greater hip adduction (P < 0.001) and internal rotation (P < 0.01-P < 0.001) angles and lower hip flexion angles and excursion (P = 0.02 - P < 0.001). Individuals with HOA exhibited a greater forward trunk lean (P ≤ 0.001) throughout stance, and greater ipsilateral trunk lean in the frontal plane (P < 0.001) than those with GT. Despite presence of pain in both conditions, hip kinematics and kinetics differ between individuals with symptomatic unilateral GT and those with symptomatic unilateral HOA. These condition-specific impairments may be targets for optimization of management of HOA and GT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of factors that affect hip moment impulse during gait: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inai, Takuma; Takabayashi, Tomoya; Edama, Mutsuaki; Kubo, Masayoshi

    2018-03-01

    Decreasing the daily cumulative hip moments in the frontal and sagittal planes may lower the risk of hip osteoarthritis. Therefore, it may be important to evaluate factors that affect hip moment impulse during gait. It is unclear what factors affect hip moment impulse during gait. This systematic review aimed to evaluate different factors that affect hip moment impulse during gait in healthy adults and patients with hip osteoarthritis. Four databases (Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and PEDro) were searched up to August 2017 to identify studies that examined hip moment impulse during gait. Data extracted for analysis included the sample size, age, height, body mass, type of intervention, and main findings. After screening, 10 of the 975 studies identified were included in our analysis. Several factors, including a rocker bottom shoe, FitFlop™ sandals, ankle push-off, posture, stride length, body-weight unloading, a rollator, walking poles, and a knee brace, were reviewed. The main findings were as follows: increasing ankle push-off decreased both the hip flexion and extension moment impulses; body-weight unloading decreased both the hip extension and adduction moment impulses; the FitFlop™ sandal increased the sum of the hip flexion and extension moment impulses; long strides increased the hip extension moment impulse; and the use of a knee brace increased hip flexion moment impulse. Of note, none of the eligible studies included patients with hip osteoarthritis. The hip moment impulses can be modified by person-specific factors (ankle push-off and long strides) and external factors (body-weight unloading and use of the FitFlop™ sandals and a knee brace). Effects on the progression of hip osteoarthritis remain to be evaluated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of the incorporation of rubber tire waste particles on the properties of PP, HIPS and PP/HIPS matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Stieven Montagna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the consumption of plastics has been increasing and as consequence, the waste generated has also increased. Rubber tire (RT waste is another residue which causes significant problems to society. In view of the considerable amounts of RT waste generated, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of the incorporation of RT particles into post-consumer thermoplastic matrices such as polypropylene (PP, high impact polystyrene (HIPS and PP/HIPS blends and the modification of the physical, morphological, rheological and mechanical properties. The particle sizes of the RT used were <500 and 500-1000 μm. The RT content was 10% w/w and the weight ratio for the PP/HIPS blend was 4/1, with processing by injection molding. The results showed that the smaller (500 μm particle size led to a decrease in the melt flow rate (MFR of the PP/RT composites (increased viscosity and an increase for the HIPS/RT composites. On the other hand, the larger particles (1000 μm led to a decrease in the mechanical performance of the PP/RT and HIPS/RT blends when compared with the neat polymers (PP and HIPS post-consumer. The observed decrease in the mechanical properties of these composites was due to weak filler/matrix interactions, which can be visualized in images by scanning electron microscopy (SEM of the fracture surface after tensile testing.

  18. Serum periostin is associated with fracture risk in postmenopausal women: a 7-year prospective analysis of the OFELY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, J C; Sornay-Rendu, E; Bertholon, C; Chapurlat, R; Garnero, P

    2014-07-01

    Periostin (POSTN) is a secreted γ-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein expressed mainly in the periosteum in adult individuals. POSNT deficient mice develop periodontis and osteoporosis with decreased bone strength. The relationship between serum POSTN and bone metabolism and fracture risk in postmenopausal women is unknown. Serum POSTN was measured in 607 postmenopausal women (mean age 66.6 ± 8.4 y) from the Os des Femmes de Lyon cohort at the ninth annual follow-up visit (baseline visit of the current analysis). Nonvertebral and clinical vertebral incident fragility fractures were reported annually during 7 years. Areal bone mineral density (BMD; measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) of the hip and bone markers (intact N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen, osteocalcin, and serum type I collagen C-telopeptide) were also measured. At baseline, serum POSTN did not correlate with age, bone markers, and BMD. After a median of 7 years of follow-up, 75 women sustained an incident clinical vertebral or nonvertebral fragility fracture. The proportion of women who had an incident fracture was significantly higher in women with levels of POSTN in the highest quartile than that of women in the three other quartiles (19.5% vs 10.1%, P = .018) after adjustment for age and prevalent fracture. The highest quartile of POSTN was associated with an increased risk of incident fracture with a relative risk (95% confidence interval) of 1.88 (1.1-3.2) after adjustment for age, prevalent fracture, and hip BMD T-score. Patients with both low hip BMD (T-score women. These data suggest that serum POSTN could be useful to improve fracture risk assessment.

  19. Nontraumatic fracture risk with diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in older white and black adults: the health, aging, and body composition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Cauley, Jane A; Schwartz, Ann V; Nevitt, Michael C; Resnick, Helaine E; Bauer, Douglas C; Tylavsky, Frances A; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Harris, Tamara B; Newman, Anne B

    2005-07-25

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and related complications may increase clinical fracture risk in older adults. Our objectives were to determine if type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired fasting glucose was associated with higher fracture rates in older adults and to evaluate how diabetic individuals with fractures differed from those without fractures. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study participants were well-functioning, community-dwelling men and women aged 70 to 79 years (N = 2979; 42% black), of whom 19% had DM and 6% had impaired fasting glucose at baseline. Incident nontraumatic clinical fractures were verified by radiology reports for a mean +/- SD of 4.5 +/- 1.1 years. Cox proportional hazards regression models determined how DM and impaired fasting glucose affected subsequent risk of fracture. Diabetes mellitus was associated with elevated fracture risk (relative risk, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.51) after adjustment for a hip bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk factors. Impaired fasting glucose was not significantly associated with fractures (relative risk, 1.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-2.67). Diabetic participants with fractures had lower hip BMD (0.818 g/cm(2) vs 0.967 g/cm(2); Pbattery score (5.0 vs 7.0), and falls (37% vs 21%) compared with diabetic participants without fractures (P<.05). These results indicate that older white and black adults with DM are at higher fracture risk compared with nondiabetic adults with a similar BMD since a higher risk of nontraumatic fractures was found after adjustment for hip BMD. Fracture prevention needs to target specific risk factors found in older adults with DM.

  20. Hip Strength Testing of Soccer Players With Long-Standing Hip and Groin Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafn, Bolette S; Tang, Lars; Nielsen, Peter Martin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether self-reported pain during hip strength testing correlates to a large degree with hip muscle strength in soccer players with long-standing unilateral hip and groin pain. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Clinical assessments at Sports Orthopaedic Research...... Center-Copenhagen (SORC-C), Arthroscopic Centre Amager, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four male soccer players with unilateral long-standing hip and groin pain. INTERVENTIONS: The soccer players performed 5 reliable hip muscle strength tests (isometric hip flexion...... strength (Spearman rho = -0.44, P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported pain during testing does not seem to correlate with the majority of hip muscle strength tests used in soccer players with long-standing hip and groin pain....

  1. A combination of low serum concentrations of vitamins K1 and D is associated with increased risk of hip fractures in elderly Norwegians: a NOREPOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnes, T E; Lofthus, C M; Meyer, H E; Søgaard, A J; Tell, G S; Apalset, E M; Gjesdal, C; Grimnes, G; Schei, B; Blomhoff, R; Samuelsen, S O; Holvik, K

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the risk of incident hip fractures according to serum concentrations of vitamin K1 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in elderly Norwegians during long-term follow-up. The results showed that the combination of low concentrations of both vitamin D and K1 provides a significant risk factor for hip fractures. This case-cohort study aims to investigate the associations between serum vitamin K1 and hip fracture and the possible effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) on this association. The source cohort was 21,774 men and women aged 65 to 79 years who attended Norwegian community-based health studies during 1994-2001. Hip fractures were identified through hospital registers during median follow-up of 8.2 years. Vitamins were determined in serum obtained at baseline in all hip fracture cases (n = 1090) and in a randomly selected subcohort (n = 1318). Cox proportional hazards regression with quartiles of serum vitamin K1 as explanatory variable was performed. Analyses were further performed with the following four groups as explanatory variable: I: vitamin K1 ≥ 0.76 and 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l, II: vitamin K1 ≥ 0.76 and 25(OH)D vitamin K1 D ≥ 50 nmol/l, and IV: vitamin K1 D vitamin K1 and the risk of hip fracture. Further, a 50 % higher risk of hip fracture was observed in subjects with both low vitamin K1 and 25(OH)D compared with subjects with high vitamin K1 and 25(OH)D (HR 1.50, 95 % CI 1.18-1.90). The association remained statistically significant after adjusting for body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, and serum α-tocopherol. No increased risk was observed in the groups low in one vitamin only. Combination of low concentrations of vitamin K1 and 25(OH)D is associated with increased risk of hip fractures.

  2. Sonography for hip joint effusion in adults with hip pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M.; Bohnen, A. M.; Verhaar, J. A.; Prins, A.; Ginai-Karamat, A. Z.; Laméris, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    To study the prevalence of ultrasonic hip joint effusion and its relation with clinical, radiological and laboratory (ESR) findings in adults with hip pain. Patients (n = 224) aged 50 years or older with hip pain, referred by the general practitioner for radiological investigation, underwent a

  3. 21 CFR 888.3360 - Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metallic cemented or uncemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metallic cemented or... Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metallic cemented or uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metallic cemented or uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted...

  4. Texture analysis of clinical radiographs using radon transform on a local scale for differentiation between post-menopausal women with and without hip fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Holger F.; Körner, Markus; Baumert, Bernhard; Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Reiser, Maximilian

    2011-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic condition characterized by demineralization and destruction of bone tissue. Fractures associated with the disease are becoming an increasingly relevant issue for public health institutions. Prediction of fracture risk is a major focus research and, over the years, has been approched by various methods. Still, bone mineral density (BMD) obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) remains the clinical gold-standard for diagnosis and follow-up of osteoporosis. However, DXA is restricted to specialized diagnostic centers and there exists considerable overlap in BMD results between populations of individuals with and without fractures. Clinically far more available than DXA is conventional x-ray imaging depicting trabecular bone structure in great detail. In this paper, we demonstrate that bone structure depicted by clinical radiographs can be analysed quantitatively by parameters obtained from the Radon Transform (RT). RT is a global analysis-tool for detection of predefined, parameterized patterns, e.g. straight lines or struts, representing suitable approximations of trabecular bone texture. The proposed algorithm differentiates between patients with and without fractures of the hip by application of various texture-metrics based on the Radon-Transform to standard x-ray images of the proximal femur. We consider three different regions-of-interest in the proximal femur (femoral head, neck, and inter-trochanteric area), and conduct an analysis with respect to correct classification of the fracture status. Performance of the novel approach is compared to DXA. We draw the conclusion that performance of RT is comparable to DXA and may become a useful supplement to densitometry for the prediction of fracture risk.

  5. Hip Replacement Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outreach Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Hip Replacement Surgery Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB ... PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Hip Replacement Surgery Hip replacement surgery removes damaged or ...

  6. Rest-activity circadian rhythms and bone mineral density in elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara S. Rogers

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: The data demonstrate modest associations between overall circadian rhythmicity of rest and activity (measured by pseudo F-statistic, as well as daytime to nighttime activity ratio (measured by alpha statistic, aBMD and ΔaBMD, but adjustment for covariates related to lifestyle, BMI and comorbidities attenuated most of these associations. These results suggest that RAR patterns are not independently associated with aBMD or four-year ΔaBMD at the total hip or femoral neck in older men, but additional research is needed.

  7. Detecting reduced bone mineral density from dental radiographs using statistical shape models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, P.D.; Graham, J.; Farnell, D.J.J.; Harrison, E.J.; Jacobs, R.; Nicopoulou-Karyianni, K.; Lindh, C.; van der Stelt, P.F.; Horner, K.; Devlin, H.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel method of estimating reduced bone mineral density (BMD) from dental panoramic tomograms (DPTs), which show the entire mandible. Careful expert width measurement of the inferior mandibular cortex has been shown to be predictive of BMD in hip and spine osteopenia and osteoporosis.

  8. Support for total hip replacement surgery: Structures modeling, Gait Data Analysis and Report system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Mario Izzo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For the treatment of advanced damages of hip joints, Total Hip Arthroplasty is well proven. Due to the different mechanical properties of the prosthesis material and the bone tissue, a partial unloading of the periprosthetic bone occurs. The bone cement causes reduction in bone density as a result of removal of normal stress from the bone, leading to weakening of the bone in that area and the fracture risk increases. Bone loss is identified as one of the main reasons for loosening of the stem. Otherwise, thanks to the press-fit of the non-cemented stem achieved by surgery, the bone layers immediately adjacent to the stem are preloaded, thus encouraged growing, and the bone getting stronger. The non-cemented stem would be the better choice for every patient, but the question remains if the femur can handle the press- fitting surgery. This studies aim to develop a monitoring techniques based on Gait analysis and bone density changes to assess patient recovery after Total Hip Arthroplasty. Furthermore, to validate computational processes based on 3D modeling and Finite Element Methods for optimizing decision making in the operation process and selecting the suited surgical procedure. A vision could be minimizing risk of periprosthetic fracture during and after surgery. Patients: The sample presents 11 patients receiving cemented implant and 13 for the uncemented. Patients are grouped by type of implant. Three checkpoints were considered: before, after operation and one year later. CT scans, gaitrite and kinepro measurements have been realized. Main outcome measures: Fracture risk probability is higher in bone with low bone mineral density; therefore bones are more fragile in elderly people. BMD is indeed one parameter considered among all the observations. Periprosthetic fracture of the femur is a rare but complex complication of THA, and requires demanding surgery. As such, they result in considerable morbidity and dysfunction. Thus, tests of

  9. Hip arthroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Antônio Berwanger de Amorim Cabrita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hip arthroscopy is a safe method for treating a variety of pathological conditions that were unknown until a decade ago. Femoroacetabular impingement is the commonest of these pathological conditions and the one with the best results when treated early on. The instruments and surgical technique for hip arthroscopy continue to evolve. New indications for hip arthroscopy has been studied as the ligamentum teres injuries, capsular repair in instabilities, dissection of the sciatic nerve and repair of gluteal muscles tears (injuries to the hip rotator cuff, although still with debatable reproducibility. The complication rate is low, and ever-better results with fewer complications should be expected with the progression of the learning curve.

  10. Predictors of incident depression after hip fracture surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Banerjee, S.; Horan, M.; Baldwin, R.; Pendleton, N.; Proctor, R.; Tarrier, N.; Woodward, Y.; Burns, A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Depression after hip fracture surgery is prevalent and associated with increased mortality rates and impaired functional recovery. The incidence of new-onset depressive symptoms in patients initially not depressed after hip fracture surgery and their relationship with functional recovery

  11. Hip Abductor Muscle Volume and Strength Differences Between Women With Chronic Hip Joint Pain and Asymptomatic Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastenbrook, Matthew J; Commean, Paul K; Hillen, Travis J; Salsich, Gretchen B; Meyer, Gretchen A; Mueller, Michael J; Clohisy, John C; Harris-Hayes, Marcie

    2017-12-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis, cross-sectional study. Background Chronic hip joint pain (CHJP) can lead to limitations in activity participation, but the musculoskeletal factors associated with the condition are relatively unknown. Understanding the factors associated with CHJP may help develop rehabilitation strategies to improve quality of life of individuals with long-term hip pain. Objectives To compare measures of hip abductor muscle volume and hip abductor muscle strength between women with CHJP and asymptomatic controls. Methods Thirty women, 15 with CHJP and 15 matched asymptomatic controls (age range, 18-40 years), participated in this study. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine the volume of the primary hip abductor muscles, consisting of the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, a small portion of the gluteus maximus, and the tensor fascia latae, within a defined region of interest. Break tests were performed using a handheld dynamometer to assess hip abductor strength. During the strength test, the participant was positioned in sidelying with the involved hip in 15° of abduction. Independent-samples t tests were used to compare muscle volume and strength values between those with CHJP and asymptomatic controls. Results Compared to asymptomatic controls, women with CHJP demonstrated significantly increased gluteal muscle volume (228 ± 40 cm 3 versus 199 ± 29 cm 3 , P = .032), but decreased hip abductor strength (74.6 ± 16.8 Nm versus 93.6 ± 20.2 Nm, P = .009). There were no significant differences in tensor fascia lata muscle volume between the 2 groups (P = .640). Conclusion Women with CHJP appear to have larger gluteal muscle volume, but decreased hip abductor strength, compared to asymptomatic controls. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):923-930. Epub 9 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7380.

  12. UGT2B17 gene deletion associated with an increase in bone mineral density similar to the effect of hormone replacement in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, S; Bussières, J; Bureau, A; Rousseau, F

    2012-03-01

    UGT2B17 is one of the most important enzymes for androgen metabolism. In addition, the UGT2B17 gene is one of the most commonly deleted regions of the human genome. The deletion was previously found associated with higher femoral bone density in men and women, and we replicated this association in a sample of postmenopausal who never used hormone therapy. Deletion of the UGT2B17 gene was previously shown to be associated with a higher hip bone mineral density (BMD). Using a PCR assay, we tried to replicate the association among a large group of 2,379 women. We examined the effect of the deletion on femoral neck BMD and lumbar spine BMD according to the menopausal status and hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We used a high-throughput PCR assay to identify the gene and the deletion in a population of well-characterized women. Two additional polymorphisms, UGT2B28 deletion and UGT2B15 rs1902023 G > T were also investigated. Only UGT2B17 deletion was associated with LS and FN BMD. Furthermore, the association was seen only among postmenopausal women who had never used hormone replacement as in the first reported association. We confirmed the association between UGT2B17 deletion and a higher LS and FN BMD. In addition, we show that the association is observed among postmenopausal women who never used HRT consistent with the enzymatic function of UGT2B17. The analysis shows that those having one or two UGT2B17 alleles benefit from HRT, which is not the case for null carriers.

  13. Treatment with teriparatide in a patient with pregnancy-associated osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmeyer, Lars; Boekhoff, Jelena; Hadji, Peyman

    2010-10-01

    The decrease of BMD during a physiological pregnancy can in rare cases be intensified and lead to dramatic microarchitectural changes, which causes an increase incidence of fractures, preferably at the spine. This dramatic clinical picture is called pregnancy-associated osteoporosis. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman (gravida IV, para II) with acute back pain right after delivery due to four fractures of the spine. The diagnosis was confirmed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurement result (T-score -4.1 SD (0.598 g/cm(2)) at the lumbar spine (L1-L4), T-score -1.5 SD (0.759 g/cm(2)) at the total hip). Due to the severity of symptoms, a therapy with teriparatide (20 mg daily) was started for a period of 18 months. After end of therapy, the T-score had significantly increased at the lumbar spine as well as at the hip (T-score of -2.1 (0.813 g/cm(2)) and -0.6 (0.864 g/cm(2)), respectively. The relative increase of BMD at the spine and total hip was 36% and 13.8%, respectively. Our report demonstrates the successful use of teriparatide underlined by the increase of bone mineral density and the improvement of clinical symptoms in a case of severe pregnancy-associated osteoporosis for the first time.

  14. [Revision hip arthroplasty by Waldemar Link custom-made total hip prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medenica, Ivica; Luković, Milan; Radoicić, Dragan

    2010-02-01

    The number of patients undergoing hip arthroplasty revision is constantly growing. Especially, complex problem is extensive loss of bone stock and pelvic discontinuity that requires reconstruction. The paper presented a 50-year old patient, who ten years ago underwent a total cement artrhroplasty of the left hip. A year after the primary operation the patient had difficulties in walking without crutches. Problems intensified in the last five years, the patient had severe pain, totally limited movement in the left hip and could not walk at all. Radiographically, we found loose femoral component, massive loss of bone stock of proximal femur, acetabular protrusion and a consequent pelvic discontinuity. Clinically, a completely disfunctional left hip joint was registered (Harris hip score--7.1). We performed total rearthroplasty by a custom-made Waldemar Link total hip prosthesis with acetabular antiprotrusio cage and compensation of bone defects with a graft from the bone bank. A year after the operation, we found clinically an extreme improvement in Harris hip score--87.8. Radiographically, we found stability of implanted components, a complete graft integration and bone bridging across the site of pelvic discontinuity. Pelvic discontinuity and massive loss of proximal femoral bone stock is a challenging and complex entity. Conventional prostheses cannot provide an adequate fixation and stability of the hip. Application of custom-made prosthesis (measured specificaly for a patient) and additional alografting bone defects is a good method in revision surgery after unsuccessful hip arthroplasty with extensive bone defects.

  15. Genetic association study of WNT10B polymorphisms with BMD and adiposity parameters in Danish and Belgian males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Camp, Jasmijn K; Beckers, Sigri; Zegers, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    . The second population, called SIBLOS, includes 922 Belgian men (34 ± 5 years old) and contains siblings selected from over 500 families. Four tagSNPs (rs833840, rs833841, rs10875902 and rs4018511) that capture variation of ten SNPs (MAF > 5 %) in a 15.2 kb region spanning the WNT10B gene and its flanking...... a previously shown negative effect on BMD. No significant associations were observed in the SIBLOS population. In the present study, no association between WNT10B polymorphisms and adiposity parameters was found. However, our results clearly illustrate a role for WNT10B variants in determining human BMD...

  16. Association of neck strength with upper femoral geometry and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hip fracture is a severe health burden in the elderly population. In order to prevent, it is to evaluate the bone strength by establishing the relation between bone mineral density (BMD, neck strength, and geometry. Materials and Methods: The subjects under study were 100 postmenopausal women who visited bone clinic of Bharat Scan Centre. After recording general profile such as age, body mass index (BMI, geometric measures such as hip axis length (HAL, neck shaft angle (NSA, and neck width (NW were measured from digital X-ray. For the same individuals, BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan. From the DXA print out neck strength was calculated using the formula = sectional modulus/HAL. Results: The correlation test was analyzed among BMD, neck strength, anthropometric, and geometric factors using Statistical packages for social services (SPSS software. BMD is inversely related with age and positively correlated with height, weight, and BMI. HAL, NSA, and NW had a weaker association with BMD. Age, BMD, and NSA had a negative relation with neck strength. HAL and NW had a positive relation with neck strength. Conclusion: Noninvasive means of associating neck strength with BMD and geometry will provide improved estimates for fracture risk beyond any other invasive method of assessing bone mineral properties.

  17. Impact of Genomics Platform and Statistical Filtering on Transcriptional Benchmark Doses (BMD and Multiple Approaches for Selection of Chemical Point of Departure (PoD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Francina Webster

    Full Text Available Many regulatory agencies are exploring ways to integrate toxicogenomic data into their chemical risk assessments. The major challenge lies in determining how to distill the complex data produced by high-content, multi-dose gene expression studies into quantitative information. It has been proposed that benchmark dose (BMD values derived from toxicogenomics data be used as point of departure (PoD values in chemical risk assessments. However, there is limited information regarding which genomics platforms are most suitable and how to select appropriate PoD values. In this study, we compared BMD values modeled from RNA sequencing-, microarray-, and qPCR-derived gene expression data from a single study, and explored multiple approaches for selecting a single PoD from these data. The strategies evaluated include several that do not require prior mechanistic knowledge of the compound for selection of the PoD, thus providing approaches for assessing data-poor chemicals. We used RNA extracted from the livers of female mice exposed to non-carcinogenic (0, 2 mg/kg/day, mkd and carcinogenic (4, 8 mkd doses of furan for 21 days. We show that transcriptional BMD values were consistent across technologies and highly predictive of the two-year cancer bioassay-based PoD. We also demonstrate that filtering data based on statistically significant changes in gene expression prior to BMD modeling creates more conservative BMD values. Taken together, this case study on mice exposed to furan demonstrates that high-content toxicogenomics studies produce robust data for BMD modelling that are minimally affected by inter-technology variability and highly predictive of cancer-based PoD doses.

  18. Studies on hip fracture patients : effects of nutrition and rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Flodin, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Hip fracture in the elderly is a serious condition associated with increased mortality. Survivors experience an increase in morbidity and disability that affect their independence and quality of life; the outcome for patients with dementia is particularly poor. Many hip fracture patients have signs of malnutrition already on admission and this patient group has been shown to have a lower body mass index (BMI) than aged-matched controls. A catabolic state develops following hip fracture, chara...

  19. Design of biped hip simulator using SolidWorks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, M. R.; Yahya, A.; Fazli, M. I. M.; Syahrom, A.; Harun, F. K. C.; Nazarudin, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    The increasing number of people who underwent both hip implant surgery based on World Health Organization (WHO) has received massive attention from researchers lately to develop various types of hip simulators in order to test the hip implant. Various number of hip simulator have been developed with different functions and capabilities. This paper presents the design development of biped hip simulator using SolidWorks software by taking into consideration some improvement and modifications. The finite element method is used to test the design whether it is safe to be used or not. The biped hip simulator has been successfully designed and ready to be fabricated as the endurance testing shown a positive results. The von Mises stress induced in the material is an alloy steel which is 2,975,862.3 N/m2 lower than the yield strength. Thus, the design is safe to be used as it obey the safety criterion.

  20. Developmental dysplasia of the hip: impact of sonographic newborn hip screening on the outcome of early treated decentered hip joints-a single center retrospective comparative cohort study based on Graf's method of hip ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschauner, Christian; Fürntrath, Frank; Saba, Yasaman; Berghold, Andrea; Radl, Roman

    2011-12-01

    PURPOSE/BACKGROUND/INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the impact of neonatal sonographic hip screening using Graf's method for the management and outcome of orthopaedic treatment of decentered hip joints with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), using three decades (1978-2007) of clinical information compiled in a medical database. Three representative cohorts of consecutive cases of decentered hip joints were selected according to different search criteria and inclusion and exclusion parameters: (1) cohort 1 (1978-1982; n = 80), without sonographic screening; (2) cohort 2.1 (1994-1996; n = 91), with nationwide established general sonographic screening according to the Graf-method; (3) cohort 2.2 (2003-2005; n = 91), with sonographic screening including referred cases for open reduction from non-screened populations. These three cohorts were compared for the following parameters: age at initial treatment, successful closed reduction, necessary overhead traction, necessary adductor-tenotomy, rate of open reduction, rate of avascular necrosis (AVN) and rate of secondary acetabuloplasty. The age at initial treatment was reduced from 5.5 months in the first cohort to 2 months in the two subsequent two cohorts and the rate of successful closed reduction increased from 88.7 to 98.9 and 95.6%, respectively. There was a statistically significant improvement in six out of seven parameters with sonographic hip screening; only the rate of secondary acetabuloplasty did not improve significantly. Compared to the era before the institution of a sonographic hip screening programme according to the Graf-method in Austria in 1992, ultrasound screening based-treatment of decentered hip joints has become safer, shorter and simpler: "safer" means lower rate of AVN, "shorter" means less treatment time due to earlier onset and "simpler" means that the devices are now less invasive and highly standardized.

  1. Impact of obesity on bone mass throughout adult life: Influence of gender and severity of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïmoun, Laurent; Mura, Thibault; Leprieur, Elodie; Avignon, Antoine; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Sultan, Ariane

    2016-09-01

    Obesity improves areal bone mineral density (aBMD). However, it is unknown whether gender, ageing or the severity of obesity could modulate this effect and whether different bone sites are similarly affected. The aim of this observational study was to model the aBMD variation in obese patients from peak bone period to old age according to gender, bone localisation and severity of obesity. Five hundred and four obese patients (363 women, 72%) with a mean BMI of 38.5 ± 6.0 kg/m2, aged from 18.1 to 81.9 years (mean age 49.6 ± 14.6 years) were recruited. The whole body (WB), hip, lumbar spine (L1–L4) and one-third radius aBMDs were determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Z-scores were significantly increased, above the age- and gender-related mean, both for women and men at WB (respectively 0.79 SD and 0.32 SD), hip (1.09 SD and 1.06 SD), one-third radius (1.70 SD and 0.45 SD) and L1–L4 levels (0.86 SD for women only). The improvement of Z-scores was significantly more marked in women compared to men at all bone sites, hip excepted. Furthermore, differences compared with normal values were significantly accentuated by ageing, without noticeable gender effect. In women, regardless of BMI and bone site, Z-scores were higher than normal values, this difference being most marked at WB, L1–L4 and hip levels for obese patients with a BMI above 40 kg/m2. Lean mass, but not fat mass, was independently associated with aBMD in men and women. This study demonstrated for the first time that obesity induces an improvement of aBMD, which is modulated by bone site location, severity of obesity, age and gender. The accentuation of peak bone mass combined with a reduction of bone loss rate with ageing may explain why obese patients present a lower prevalence of osteoporosis.

  2. Hip biomechanics during stair ascent and descent in people with and without hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michelle; Wrigley, Tim V; Kean, Crystal O; Metcalf, Ben R; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-07-01

    Hip osteoarthritis (OA) is often associated with pain and impaired function. Understanding biomechanical alterations in patients with hip OA during challenging activities such as stair use is important to inform treatments. The aim of this study was to determine whether kinematics and kinetics during stair ambulation differed between people with hip OA and healthy controls. Fifteen participants with symptomatic and radiographic hip OA and 15 asymptomatic healthy controls underwent 3-D motion analysis during stair ascent and descent. Trunk, pelvis, and hip kinematics as well as hip kinetics were evaluated. Analyses were performed unadjusted and adjusted for speed and leg length. In both the unadjusted and adjusted analyses, participants with hip OA ascended stairs with less hip range of motion in all three planes and a lower peak external rotation moment compared to controls. In the unadjusted analysis, hip OA participants descended stairs with greater ipsilateral trunk lean, less sagittal plane range of motion, lower peak extension moment, lower peak external rotation moment, and greater hip adduction moment impulse compared to controls. In the adjusted results, peak internal rotation moment and hip adduction moment impulse were greater in hip OA participants compared to controls. Findings show that individuals with hip OA display limited range of hip joint movement, particularly during stair ascent, and overall indicate the use of strategies (e.g., trunk lean; lower peak external rotation moment; higher adduction moment impulse) that implicate altered hip abductor function. Future research is required to further understand the implications of these findings on hip OA. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1505-1514, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. New-Onset Depression Following Hip Fracture Is Associated With Increased Length of Stay in Hospital and Rehabilitation Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Phillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the coincident effects of new-onset depression post hip fracture on length of hospital stay, readmission rates, and incidence of infections in older adults. Participants were 101 hip fracture patients aged 60+ years; 38 developed depressive symptoms following their fracture. Infection rates, readmissions to hospital and rehabilitation units, and length of hospital stay were assessed over the 6 months post hip fracture from hospital and general practitioner notes. Patients who developed depression by Week 6 post fracture were likely to spend more time in hospital/rehabilitation wards (p = .02 and more likely to be discharged to a rehabilitation unit (p < .05. There were no group differences in readmissions or infection rates. New-onset depression coincident with hip fracture in older adults is associated with longer hospital ward stays and greater need for rehabilitation.

  4. Hip fractures and area level socioeconomic conditions: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapp Kilian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a limited number of studies have analyzed the association between hip fracture incidence and socioeconomic conditions. Most, but not all found an association, and results are in part conflicting. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between hip fractures and socioeconomic conditions in Germany, from 1995 to 2004, on a census tract area level. Methods We used data from the national hospital discharge diagnosis register and data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of 131 census tracts from official statistics. Associations between the hip fracture incidence and socioeconomic conditions were analyzed by multiple Poisson regression models, taking overdispersion into account. Results The risk of hip fracture decreased by 4% with a 7% increase (about one interquartile range of non-German nationals. It decreased by 10% with a 6% increased rate of unemployment, increased by 7% with a 2% increase of the proportion of welfare recipients, and also increased by 3% with an increase of the proportion of single parent families of 1.9%. Conclusion Our results showed weak associations between indicators of socioeconomic conditions at area level and hip fracture risk; the varied by type of indicator. We conclude that hip fracture incidence might be influenced by the socioeconomic context of a region, but further analysis using more specific markers for deprivation on a smaller scale and individual-level data are needed.

  5. Prevention of aromatase inhibitor-induced bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women: The BATMAN Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Anna J; Yee Yap, Saw; White, Karen; Beith, Jane; Abdi, Ehtesham; Broad, Adam; Sewak, Sanjeev; Lee, Chooi; Sambrook, Philip; Pocock, Nicholas; Henry, Margaret J; Yeow, Elaine G; Bell, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Postmenopausal women on aromatase inhibitors (AI) are at risk of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss (AIBL) and fractures. In 2005 Osteoporosis Australia proposed an algorithm for bisphosphonate intervention. Three hundred and three postmenopausal women with early breast cancer (EBC) were enrolled (osteoporotic, n=25; osteopaenic, n=146; normal bone mineral density (BMD), n=126). Weekly alendronate (70 mg) treatment efficacy as triggered by the algorithm in preventing bone loss was evaluated. All patients received anastrozole (1 mg daily), calcium and vitamin D. All osteoporotic patients received alendronate at baseline. Eleven out of the 146 (7.5%) osteopaenic patients commenced alendronate within 18 months of participation and eleven commenced after. One hundred and twenty four out of the 146 (84.9%) osteopaenic patients and all 126 with normal baseline BMD did not trigger the algorithm. At three years, lumbar spine mean BMD increased (15.6%, p<0.01) in the osteoporotic group. BMD in the osteopaenic group with early intervention significantly increased at three years (6.3%, p=0.02). No significant change was seen in the late intervention group. No change was observed in those with osteopaenia without alendronate. There was a significant drop in lumbar spine (-5.4%) and hip (-4.5%) mean BMD, in the normal BMD group, none of whom received alendronate. Fracture data will be presented. In postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive EBC, BMD improved over time when a bisphosphonate is administered with anastrozole in osteoporotic patients using an osteoporosis schedule. Subjects with normal baseline BMD experienced the greatest BMD loss, although none became osteoporotic.

  6. 21 CFR 888.3390 - Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metal/polymer cemented or uncemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metal/polymer... § 888.3390 Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metal/polymer cemented or uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metal/polymer cemented or uncemented prosthesis is a two-part...

  7. 21 CFR 888.3380 - Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) trunnion-bearing metal/polyacetal cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) trunnion-bearing... Devices § 888.3380 Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) trunnion-bearing metal/polyacetal cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) trunnion-bearing metal/polyacetal cemented prosthesis is a two...

  8. Revision hip arthroplasty by Waldemar Link custom-made total hip prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medenica Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The number of patients undergoing hip arthroplasty revision is constantly growing. Especially, complex problem is extensive loss of bone stock and pelvic discontinuity that requires reconstruction. Case report. The paper presented a 50-year old patient, who ten years ago underwent a total cement artrhroplasty of the left hip. A year after the primary operation the patient had difficulties in walking without crutches. Problems intensified in the last five years, the patient had severe pain, totally limited movement in the left hip and could not walk at all. Radiographically, we found loose femoral component, massive loss of bone stock of proximal femur, acetabular protrusion and a consequent pelvic discontinuity. Clinically, a completely disfunctional left hip joint was registered (Harris hip score - 7.1. We performed total rearthroplasty by a custom- made Waldemar Link total hip prosthesis with acetabular antiprotrusio cage and compensation of bone defects with a graft from the bone bank. A year after the operation, we found clinically an extreme improvement in Harris hip score - 87.8. Radiographically, we found stability of implanted components, a complete graft integration and bone bridging across the site of pelvic discontinuity. Conclusion. Pelvic discontinuity and massive loss of proximal femoral bone stock is a challenging and complex entity. Conventional prostheses cannot provide an adequate fixation and stability of the hip. Application of custom-made prosthesis (measured specifically for a patient and additional alografting bone defects is a good method in revision surgery after unsuccessful hip arthroplasty with extensive bone defects.

  9. Hip dysplasia: a significant risk factor for the development of hip osteoarthritis. A cross-sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    joint space width (JSW) /=60 yr of age. Of factors entered into logistic regression analyses, only age (P LT 0.001 for right hips and P LT 0.001 for left hips) and hip dysplasia (P LT 0.001 for right hips and P = 0.004 for left hips) were significantly associated with hip OA prevalence in women. In men......, only hip dysplasia was associated with hip OA prevalence, P LT 0.001 in right hips and P = 0.001 in left hips. CONCLUSIONS: Of the individual risk factors investigated in this study, only age and hip dysplasia were associated with the development of hip osteoarthritis.......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this cross-sectional survey of 2232 women and 1336 men (age range 20-91 yr) was to investigate individual risk factors for hip joint osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Standardized, weight-bearing pelvic radiographs were evaluated. Radiological hip joint OA was defined as minimum...

  10. A pilot test of the Latin active hip hop intervention to increase physical activity among low-income Mexican-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Andrea J

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of the current study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a hip hop dance intervention, Latin Active, among low-income Mexican-American adolescents. Mexican-descent adolescents tend to have disproportionate rates of low physical activity, overweight status, and obesity. A 5-week intervention design with pretest and post-test self-report measures. Charter middle school (grades 6-9) health/science classes in a low-income neighborhood were the setting for the Latin Active intervention. Overall, 81 participants were recruited; 73 (n  =  41, female; n  =  32, male) provided active parental consent to complete pretest/post-test surveys. Intervention . The Latin Active program included 10 interactive 50-minute lessons that were delivered twice a week during science/health classes. The curriculum was created on the basis of Social Cognitive Theory, Critical Hip Hop Pedagogy, and feedback from key stakeholders. The lessons focused on increasing physical activity as well as neighborhood barriers. The self-report pretest (n  =  73) and post-test (n  =  56) surveys included measures for frequency of vigorous physical activity, self-efficacy, and neighborhood barriers. Analysis . Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean differences from pretest to post-test results for intervention outcomes by gender. The Latin Active program (with 77% retention at post-test) significantly increased vigorous physical activity and dance (p hip hop physical activity program, Latin Active demonstrated preliminary efficacy to increase girl's vigorous physical activity and boy's perception of neighborhood barriers to physical activity. Future research will need to use a randomized, controlled design and investigate the effect of the program on measures of body mass index.

  11. Effects of an oral contraceptive (norgestimate/ethinyl estradiol) on bone mineral density in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea and osteopenia: an open-label extension of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Michelle P; Miller, K K; Olson, W H; Grinspoon, S K; Friedman, A J

    2005-09-01

    The effects of long-term triphasic oral contraceptive administration on bone mineral density (BMD) were investigated in premenopausal women with hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) and osteopenia. After completing three 28-day cycles in the double-blind phase of a placebo-controlled trial, women (mean age, 26.7 years) who received norgestimate 180-250 microg/ethinyl estradiol 35 microg (NGM/EE, n = 15) or placebo (n = 12) in the double-blind phase were to receive open-label NGM/EE for 10 additional cycles. For subjects completing > or =10 NGM/EE treatment cycles, mean posteroanterior total lumbar spine BMD (L1-L4) increased from 0.881+/-0.0624 g/cm2 at baseline (last visit prior to NGM/EE) to 0.894+/-0.0654 g/cm2 at final visit (p = .043); no significant changes in hip BMD occurred. Decreases in N-telopeptide, osteocalcin, procollagen type I propeptide and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels indicated effects on bone metabolism. Long-term administration of triphasic NGM/EE to osteopenic women with HA may increase total lumbar spine BMD.

  12. Outcomes of Hip Arthroscopy in Competitive Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perets, Itay; Hartigan, David E; Chaharbakhshi, Edwin O; Ashberg, Lyall; Ortiz-Declet, Victor; Domb, Benjamin G

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the minimum 2-year postoperative clinical outcomes and the rate of return to sports in athletes who underwent capsular plication for the treatment of ligamentous laxity and/or borderline dysplasia during hip arthroscopy for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement and labral pathology. Since 2008, data were prospectively collected on patients who underwent hip arthroscopy for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement and/or labral tears. Inclusion criteria were as follows: athlete at the high school, collegiate, or professional levels preoperatively, underwent capsular plication, and preoperatively recorded patient-reported outcome scores including modified Harris hip score (mHHS), nonarthritic athletic hip score (NAHS), hip outcome score-sports-specific subscale (HOS-SSS), and visual analog scale (VAS). Exclusion criteria were as follows: 1, and previous hip conditions. Sports activity and competitive levels were collected at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Fifty-one hips (49 patients) met the inclusion criteria, and 41 hips (39 patients) had minimum 2-year follow-up (80.4% follow-up). Mean mHHS increased from 67.1 preoperatively to 83.5 (P arthroscopies allowed the patients to return to sports at follow-up. Thirty-four (82.9%) hip arthroscopies allowed the patients to maintain their competitive physical abilities at follow-up. Patient-reported outcomes and VAS in athletes significantly improved at a minimum of 2 years after capsular plication as a part of hip arthroscopy addressing varying pathologies. In addition, most patients returned to sports at similar or higher competitive levels. These results suggest that capsular plication is a favorable treatment option in athletes with ligamentous laxity and/or borderline dysplasia. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Role of Hip Arthroscopy in Investigating and Managing the Painful Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei-Dan, Omer; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Moreira, Brett; McConkey, Mark O; Young, David A

    2016-03-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of hip arthroscopy performed in the peripheral compartment as a diagnostic and therapeutic treatment option for patients with hip pain after hip resurfacing surgery. Indications for hip arthroscopy after hip resurfacing included patients with a symptomatic hip-resurfaced arthroplasties who did not respond to nonoperative treatment. Patients who underwent a hip arthroscopy after a painful hip resurfacing were included with a minimum of 1 year follow-up. Subgroup analysis was performed according to whether an established diagnosis was made before arthroscopic intervention or not. Subjective measures were based on Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores, and results were calculated and analyzed. We included 68 patients (26 male [38%] and 42 female [62%]) who underwent subsequent hip arthroscopy from a population of 978 consecutive hip-resurfaced arthroplasties performed between 1999 and 2010. The average age was 58 (range, 37 to 78 years). The mean follow-up after hip arthroscopy was 3.4 years (range, 12 months to 5.8 years). Patients who had an established diagnosis (n = 41) before hip arthroscopy showed statistical improvement in their WOMAC scores (7 to 2, P arthroscopy showed statistical worsening of the WOMAC (15 to 21, P = .002). Ten (37%) of these 27 patients without a diagnosis failed and needed to be converted to a THR. A significant correlation was found between the collections found on ultrasound (psoas bursa and/or in the hip joint) and the need for synovectomy (P = .01). The overall revision rate to THR after hip resurfacing in our group of patients was 1.3% (n = 13). Female patients were more likely to require postresurfacing hip arthroscopy with 42 (60%) female to only 26 (40%) male patients undergoing this procedure. In our study population, 70% (14/21, P arthroscopy. Hip arthroscopy is a safe surgical treatment option for those patients with a painful hip resurfacing

  14. Hip pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from a chair, walking, climbing stairs, and driving Hamstring strain Iliotibial band syndrome Hip flexor strain Hip ... and cool down afterward. Stretch your quadriceps and hamstrings. Avoid running straight down hills. Walk down instead. ...

  15. Modular femoral component for conversion of previous hip surgery in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Wayne M; Branson, Jill J

    2005-09-01

    The conversion of previous hip surgery to total hip arthroplasty creates a durable construct that is anatomically accurate. Most femoral components with either cemented or cementless design have a fixed tapered proximal shape. The proximal femoral anatomy is changed due to previous hip surgery for fixation of an intertrochanteric hip fracture, proximal femoral osteotomy, or a fibular allograft for avascular necrosis. The modular S-ROM (DePuy Orthopaedics Inc., Warsaw, Ind) hip stem accommodates these issues and independently prepares the proximal and distal portion of the femur. In preparation and implantation, the S-ROM hip stem creates less hoop stresses on potentially fragile stress risers from screws and thin bone. The S-ROM hip stem also prepares a previously distorted anatomy by milling through cortical bone that can occlude the femoral medullar canals and recreate proper femoral anteversion and reduces the risk of intraoperative or postoperative periprosthetic fracture due to the flexible titanium-slotted stem. The S-ROM femoral stem is recommended for challenging total hip reconstructions.

  16. In healthy elderly postmenopausal women variations in BMD and BMC at various skeletal sites are associated with differences in weight and lean body mass rather than by variations in habitual physical activity, strength or VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, I; Kemmler, W; Kladny, B; Vonstengel, S; Kalender, W A; Engelke, K

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was an integrated cross-sectional investigation for answering the question whether differences in bone mineral density in elderly postmenopausal women are associated with differences in habitual physical activity and unspecific exercise levels. Two hundred and ninety nine elderly women (69-/+3 years), without diseases or medication affecting bone metabolism were investigated. The influence of weight, body composition and physical activity on BMD was measured at multiple sites using different techniques (DXA, QCT, and QUS). Physical activity and exercise level were assessed by questionnaire, maximum strength of the legs and aerobic capacity. Variations in physical activity or habitual exercise had no effect on bone. The only significant univariate relation between strength/VO(2)max and BMD/BMC that remained after adjusting for confounding variables was between arm BMD (DXA) and hand-grip strength. The most important variable for explaining BMD was weight and for cortical BMC of the femur (QCT) lean body mass. Weight and lean body mass emerge as predominant predictors of BMD in normal elderly women, whereas the isolated effect of habitual physical activity, unspecific exercise participation, and muscle strength on bone parameters is negligible. Thus, an increase in the amount of habitual physical activity will probably have no beneficial impact on bone.

  17. Hip supporting device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for limiting movements in one or more anatomical joints, such as a device for limiting movement in the human hip joint after hip replacement surgery. This is provided by a device for limiting movement in the human hip joint, said device comprising: at least...

  18. Population-based reference values for bone mineral density in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M; Nielsen, Torben Leo; Wraae, K

    2007-01-01

    -energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) equipment. METHODS: The aim of the present study was 1) to establish population-based reference values for BMD in young men and 2) to study subgroups based on variables with suspected impact on bone metabolism. We included 783 young Caucasian men aged 20 to 30 years...... in the Odense Androgen Study (OAS). RESULTS: Peak BMD was attained within the third decade. Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) was associated with higher BMD. Abuse of anabolic steroids as well as chronic illness was associated with lower BMD. Our population-based reference values for BMD of the total hip (1.078 +/- 0...

  19. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  20. The history of biomechanics in total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Van Houcke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomechanics of the hip joint describes how the complex combination of osseous, ligamentous, and muscular structures transfers the weight of the body from the axial skeleton into the appendicular skeleton of the lower limbs. Throughout history, several biomechanical studies based on theoretical mathematics, in vitro, in vivo as well as in silico models have been successfully performed. The insights gained from these studies have improved our understanding of the development of mechanical hip pathologies such as osteoarthritis, hip fractures, and developmental dysplasia of the hip. The main treatment of end-stage degeneration of the hip is total hip arthroplasty (THA. The increasing number of patients undergoing this surgical procedure, as well as their demand for more than just pain relief and leading an active lifestyle, has challenged surgeons and implant manufacturers to deliver higher function as well as longevity with the prosthesis. The science of biomechanics has played and will continue to play a crucial and integral role in achieving these goals. The aim of this article, therefore, is to present to the readers the key concepts in biomechanics of the hip and their application to THA.

  1. Hip Arthroscopy Surgical Volume Trends and 30-Day Postoperative Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Chalmers, Peter N; Levy, David M; Mather, Richard C; Harris, Joshua D; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Nho, Shane J

    2016-07-01

    To determine hip arthroscopy surgical volume trends from 2006 to 2013 using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database, the incidence of 30-day complications of hip arthroscopy, and patient and surgical risk factors for complications. Patients who underwent hip arthroscopy from 2006 to 2013 were identified in the NSQIP database for the over 400 NSQIP participating hospitals from the United States using Current Procedural Terminology and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Trends in number of hip arthroscopy procedures per year were analyzed. Complications in the 30-day period after hip arthroscopy were identified. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for complications. We identified 1,338 patients who underwent hip arthroscopy, with a mean age of 39.5 ± 13.0 years. Female patients comprised 59.6%. Hip arthroscopy procedures became 25 times more common in 2013 than 2006 (P arthroscopy. Hip arthroscopy is an increasingly common procedure, with a 25-fold increase from 2006 to 2013. There is a low incidence of 30-day postoperative complications (1.3%), most commonly bleeding requiring a transfusion, return to the operating room, and superficial infection. Regional/monitored anesthesia care and steroid use were independent risk factors for minor complications. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Periprosthetic bone remodelling of short-stem total hip arthroplasty: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuang G; Weber, Patrick; Steinbrück, Arnd; Hua, Xingyi; Jansson, Volkmar; Schmidutz, Florian

    2017-11-27

    Short-stem hip arthroplasty (SHA) was designed to preserve bone stock and provide an improved load transfer. To gain more evidence regarding the load transfer, this review analysed the periprosthetic bone remodelling of SHA in comparison to standard hip arthroplasty (THA). PubMed and ScienceDirect were screened to extract dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) studies evaluating the periprosthetic bone remodelling of SHA and two proven THA designs. From the studies included, the postoperative change in periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD) after one year and the trend over two years was determined. Fifteen studies with four SHAs (CFP, Metha, Nanos, Fitmore) and two THAs (CLS and Bicontact) designs were included. All SHA and THA stems revealed an initial decrease at the calcar and major trochanter (Gruen 1 and 7) with the Metha, Nanos and Fitmore showing a smaller and more balanced remodelling compared to THA. The pattern after one year and the trend over two years argue for a methaphyseal anchorage of the Metha and Nanos, whereas the Fitmore and CFP seem to anchor metha-diaphyseal. Clearly different pattern of bone remodelling were observed between all four SHAs. Periprosthetic bone remodelling is also present in SHA, with the main bone reduction observed proximally. However, certain SHA stems show a more balanced remodelling compared to THA, arguing for a favourable load transfer. Also, the femoral length where bone remodelling occurs is clearly shorter in SHA. As distinctively different pattern between the SHA designs were observed, they should not be judged as a single implant group.

  3. Increased fracture rate in women with breast cancer: a review of the hidden risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Body Jean-Jacques

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with breast cancer, particularly individuals diagnosed at a relatively early age, have an increased incidence of fractures. Fractures can have serious clinical consequences including the need for major surgery, increased morbidity and mortality, increased cost of disease management, and reduced quality of life for patients. The primary cause of the increased fracture risk appears to be an accelerated decrease in bone mineral density (BMD resulting from the loss of estrogenic signaling that occurs with most treatments for breast cancer, including aromatase inhibitors. However, factors other than BMD levels alone may influence treatment decisions to reduce fracture risk in this setting. Our purpose is to review current evidence for BMD loss and fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer and discuss pharmacologic means to reduce this risk. Results Fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer may be influenced by the rate of BMD loss and the consequent rapid alterations in bone microarchitecture, in addition to the established fracture risk factors in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The rapid decrease in BMD during adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy for breast cancer may necessitate more aggressive pharmacotherapy than is indicated for healthy postmenopausal women who develop osteoporosis. Over the last few years, clinical trials have established the effectiveness of bisphosphonates and other antiresorptive agents to preserve BMD during adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. In addition, some bisphosphonates (eg, zoledronic acid may also delay disease recurrence in women with hormone-responsive tumors, thereby providing an adjuvant benefit in addition to preserving BMD and potentially preventing fractures. Conclusions It is likely that a combined fracture risk assessment (eg, as in the WHO FRAX algorithm will more accurately identify both women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and women with breast cancer who require

  4. Modern radiological postoperative diagnostics of the hip joint in children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.A.; Thierjung, H.; Kloth, J.K.; Egermann, M.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of bone healing and loosening of endoprosthesis material was long the primary indication for postoperative projection radiography and CT imaging of the hip joint following trauma and endoprosthesis implantation. With the increasing number of joint-preserving surgery, e. g. of surgical hip luxation and hip arthroscopy for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), high-resolution imaging of intra-articular pathologies before and after surgery has become increasingly important. In this review article, diagnostic imaging of the hip joint is presented following common trauma surgery and orthopedic surgery interventions. The imaging modalities of projection radiography, CT and MRI including direct MR-arthrography are discussed with regard to their diagnostic capability in the postoperative assessment of the hip joint. Among others topics, imaging is discussed following hip arthroplasty, following surgical hip luxation and arthroscopic interventions for the treatment of FAI, as well as following core decompression for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Moreover, orthopedic interventions of the hip joint in children and adolescents are presented and the dedicated reporting of postoperative imaging is outlined.

  5. Hip arthroplasty. Part 1: prosthesis terminology and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluot, E.; Davis, E.T.; Revell, M.; Davies, A.M.; James, S.L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Hip arthroplasty is an extremely common orthopaedic procedure and there is a wide array of implants that are in current use in the UK. The follow-up of patients who have undergone insertion of a hip prosthesis is shifting from a consultant-lead hospital service towards primary care. As this change in patient care continues it becomes increasingly important that an accurate description of the radiographic features is communicated to the primary-care practitioner so appropriate specialist input can be triggered. This review focuses on the terminology and classification of hip prostheses. This acts as a precursor for Part 2 of this series, which describes the normal and abnormal radiographic findings following hip prosthesis insertion.

  6. Differences in Knee and Hip Adduction and Hip Muscle Activation in Runners With and Without Iliotibial Band Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert L; Souza, Richard B; Rauh, Mitchell J; Fredericson, Michael; Rosenthal, Michael D

    2018-04-26

    maximus, gluteus medius and tensor fascia latae muscles. Injured runners demonstrated increased knee adduction compared with control runners at 30 minutes (P = .002, control = -1.48°, injured = 3.74°). Tensor fasciae latae muscle activation in injured runners was increased compared with control runners at 3 minutes (P = .017, control = 7% maximal voluntary isometric contraction, injured = 11% maximal voluntary isometric contraction). The results of this study suggest that lateral knee pain in runners localized to the distal iliotibial band is associated with increased knee adduction at 30 minutes. Increased tensor fasciae latae muscle activation at three minutes is noted, but more investigation is needed to better understand the clinical meaning. These findings are consistent with but not conclusive evidence supporting the theory that neuromuscular factors of the hip muscles may contribute to increased knee adduction in runners with iliotibial band syndrome. We advise caution using these findings to support treatments intended to modify tensor fasciae latae activation, given the small differences of 4% in muscle activation. Increased knee adduction in runners at 30 minutes was over 5° and beyond the minimal detectable difference. Additional research is needed to confirm whether the degree of knee adduction changes earlier versus later in a run and whether fatigue is a clinically relevant factor. To be determined. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of silent vertebral fractures detected by vertebral fracture assessment in young Portuguese men with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana Paula; Rui Mascarenhas, Mário; Silva, Carlos Francisco; Távora, Isabel; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; de Oliveira, António Gouveia

    2015-02-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporotic fractures. Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a radiological method of visualization of the spine, which enables patient comfort and reduced radiation exposure. This study was carried out to evaluate BMD and the prevalence of silent vertebral fractures in young men with hyperthyroidism. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a group of Portuguese men aged up to 50 years and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. A group of 48 Portuguese men aged up to 50 years was divided and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. BMD (g/cm(2)) at L1-L4, hip, radius 33%, and whole body as well as the total body masses (kg) were studied by DXA. VFA was used to detect fractures and those were classified by Genant's semiquantitative method. No patient had previously been treated for hyperthyroidism, osteoporosis, or low bone mass. Adequate statistical tests were used. The mean age, height, and total fat mass were similar in both groups (P≥0.05). The total lean body mass and the mean BMD at lumbar spine, hip, and whole body were significantly decreased in the hyperthyroidism group. In this group, there was also a trend for an increased prevalence of reduced BMD/osteoporosis and osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The results obtained using VFA technology (confirmed by X-ray) suggest that the BMD changes in young men with nontreated hyperthyroidism may lead to the development of osteoporosis and vertebral fractures. This supports the pertinence of using VFA in the routine of osteoporosis assessment to detect silent fractures precociously and consider early treatment. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  8. Don't forget the hip! Hip arthritis masquerading as knee pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian F. Dibra, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hip osteoarthritis typically manifests with groin or thigh pain. Other atypical pain patterns, including knee pain, have been described. Except for 2 case reports, there is no literature on this subject. Methods: From our institutional database, between 2011 and 2016, we identified 21 patients who were referred for treatment of knee pain but ultimately diagnosed with hip pathology as the cause of their pain. This group was evaluated for duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis, previous interventions, presence of walking aids, and symptom resolution after treatment of the hip pathology. Results: Fifteen of the 21 patients were referred from musculoskeletal providers (12 from orthopaedic surgeons. Prior to diagnosis of the hip etiology, 16 patients were reduced to major assistive devices including wheelchairs. Twelve of 21 patients had undergone surgical knee interventions, including total knee arthroplasty, with minimal to no relief of their pain. Seventeen of 21 referred patients underwent total hip arthroplasty at our institution. Fourteen patients had complete resolution of knee pain after total hip arthroplasty. Conclusions: Although knee pain referred from hip disease may be considered a basic and common knowledge, it continues to be an overlooked phenomenon. Most of the cases were misdiagnosed by musculoskeletal providers including orthopaedic surgeons and this highlights the need for continued education and awareness of this clinical scenario. Keywords: Hip pain, Knee pain, Referred pain, Delay in diagnosis, Unnecessary surgery

  9. Exercise therapy may postpone total hip replacement surgery in patients with hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svege, Ida; Nordsletten, Lars; Fernandes, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Exercise treatment is recommended for all patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA), but its effect on the long-term need for total hip replacement (THR) is unknown.......Exercise treatment is recommended for all patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA), but its effect on the long-term need for total hip replacement (THR) is unknown....

  10. Hidden blood loss after surgery for hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, N B; Kehlet, H

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the total blood loss associated with surgery for fracture of the hip and to identify risk factors for increased blood loss. We prospectively studied 546 patients with hip fracture. The total blood loss was calculated on the basis of the haemoglobin difference, the number...

  11. Effect of short-term upper-body resistance training on muscular strength, bone metabolic markers, and BMD in premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang MT

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael TC Liang,1 Lorena Quezada,1 WY Jamie Lau,1 Bulent Sokmen,2 Thomas W Spalding11Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA, USA; 2Department of Kinesiology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA, USAAbstract: To examine the effect of a 10-week upper-body resistance training program on bone turnover markers and site-specific bone mineral density (BMD in the wrist and distal half of the ulna and radius in untrained and healthy young premenopausal women.Methods: Twenty-two subjects (aged 22.1 ± 1.8 years were randomly assigned to a resistance training (n = 12 or no training control (n = 10 group. The following outcome variables were measured before and after 10 weeks of resistance training: (1 bone formation biomarker osteocalcin, and bone resorption biomarker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b; (2 BMD in the wrist and distal half of the ulna and radius; (3 isokinetic strength of the elbow and knee extensors and flexors; (4 dynamic strength of the arm extensors and flexors; and (5 maximum number of push-ups.Results: The 10-week upper body resistance training intervention resulted in improved strength performance in push-ups (resistance training versus control: P < 0.05, chest presses (P < 0.05, and pulldowns (P < 0.05. However, there was no improvement in the BMD of the wrist (P > 0.05, BMD of the distal half of the ulna and radius (P > 0.05, and metabolic biomarkers osteocalcin (P > 0.05 and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (P > 0.05, except for the osteocalcin/tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b ratio. Also, no improvement in the resistance training group was observed for isokinetic strength of the knee and elbow flexion/extension.Conclusion: Upper-body muscular strength performance, but not bone metabolic markers and BMD of the wrist, can be improved with a 10-week upper body resistance training program of the nonweight-bearing limbs in

  12. [Efficacy analysis on hip replacement for hip-joint diseases with Parkinson disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi-Cai; Ru, Xuan-Liang; Xia, Yan-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Li; Song, Bai-Shan; Qiao, Song; Yan, Shi-Gui; Wang, Xiang-Hua

    2017-12-25

    To explore clinical efficacy of hip replacement for hip-joint diseases with Parkinson disease. From December 2011 to December 2016, 18 patients with hip-joint diseases with Parkinson disease treated by hip replacement, including 8 males and 10 females aged from 59 to 87 years old with an average of 71 years old. Among them, 3 cases were developmental dysplasia of hip, 3 cases were femoral head necrosis and 12 cases were femoral neck fracture. All patients manifested with obvious pain and limitation of stepping ability. Postoperative complications were observed and Harris score were used to compare hip joint function after operation. The incision were healed well, and pain were alleviated or disappeared, and hip joint function were improved. Eighteen patients were followed up from 1 to 3 years with an average of 2.3 years. At the latest follow up, 14 cases recovered freedom-walk, 2 cases could walk with walking stick, 1 case could walk with walking aid and 1 case was died. Among 18 patients, 2 cases were occurred dislocation, and 1 case were died for cardiac disease at 3 months after operation. Four patients were occurred slight pain. There were significant differences in Harris scores among preoperative (41.7±1.4), 6 months after operation(80.1±5.4) and the final follow-up (83.4±2.1), and 10 cases got excellent result, 4 good, 1 fair and 2 poor. Application of hip replacement for hip-joint diseases with Parkinson disease is a safe and effective clinical therapy, and has advantages of less complications and rapid recovery of hip joint function.

  13. Effects of Curcumin on Bone Loss and Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatefi, Masoud; Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza Hafezi; Rahmani, Asghar; Dastjerdi, Masoud Moghadas; Asadollahi, Khairollah

    2018-06-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common problems of patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). The current study aimed to evaluate the antiosteoporotic effects of curcumin on densitometry parameters and biomarkers of bone turnovers among patients with SCI. The current controlled clinical trial was conducted among 100 patients with SCI referred to an outpatient clinic of rehabilitation in Ilam City, Iran, in 2013-2015. The intervention group received 110/mg/kg/day curcumin for 6 months and the control group received placebo. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in all patients. The level of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide, serum carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, osteocalcin, and bone-specific alkaline phosphates were compared before and after study. BMD indicators of lumbar, femoral neck, and total hip in the control group significantly decreased compared with the beginning of study. However, in the curcumin group, a significant increase was observed in BMD indicators of lumbar, femoral neck, and hip at the end of study compared with the beginning. There was also a significant difference between interventional and control groups for the mean BMD of femoral neck and hip at the end of study (0.718 ± 0.002 g/cm 2 vs. 0.712 ± 0.003 g/cm 2 and 0.742 ± 0.031 g/cm 2 vs. 0.692 ± 0.016 g/cm 2 , respectively). Curcumin, via modulation of densitometry indices and bone resorption markers, showed inhibitory effects on the process of osteoporosis. Treatment with curcumin was significantly associated with a decrease in the osteoporosis progression and bone turnover markers of patients with SCI after 6 months. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. HIPs at Ten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuh, George; O'Donnell, Ken; Schneider, Carol Geary

    2017-01-01

    2017 is the anniversary of the introduction of what are now commonly known as high-impact practices (HIPs). Many of the specific activities pursued under the HIPs acronym have been around in some form for decades, such as study abroad, internships, and student-faculty research. It was about ten years ago that, after conferring HIPs at Ten with…

  15. Short-Term Effects of Kefir-Fermented Milk Consumption on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Osteoporotic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Min-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Tung, Yu-Tang; Kao, Chao-Chih; Hu, Fu-Chang; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2015-01-01

    Milk products are good sources of calcium that may reduce bone resorption and help prevent bone loss as well as promote bone remodeling and increase bone formation. Kefir is a product made by kefir grains that degrade milk proteins into various peptides with health-promoting effects, including antithrombotic, antimicrobial and calcium-absorption enhancing bioactivities. In a controlled, parallel, double-blind intervention study over 6 months, we investigated the effects of kefir-fermented milk (1,600 mg) supplemented with calcium bicarbonate (CaCO3, 1,500 mg) and bone metabolism in 40 osteoporosis patients, and compared them with CaCO3 alone without kefir supplements. Bone turnover markers were measured in fasting blood samples collected before therapy and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) values at the spine, total hip, and hip femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and at 6 months. Among patients treated with kefir-fermented milk, the relationships between baseline turnover and 6 months changes in DXA-determined BMD were significantly improved. The serum β C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX) in those with T-scores > -1 patients significantly decreased after three months treatment. The formation marker serum osteocalcin (OC) turned from negative to positive after 6 months, representing the effect of kefir treatment. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) increased significantly after treatment with kefir, but decreased significantly in the control group. PTH may promote bone remodeling after treatment with kefir for 6 months. In this pilot study, we concluded that kefir-fermented milk therapy was associated with short-term changes in turnover and greater 6-month increases in hip BMD among osteoporotic patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02361372.

  16. Short-Term Effects of Kefir-Fermented Milk Consumption on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Osteoporotic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yu Tu

    Full Text Available Milk products are good sources of calcium that may reduce bone resorption and help prevent bone loss as well as promote bone remodeling and increase bone formation. Kefir is a product made by kefir grains that degrade milk proteins into various peptides with health-promoting effects, including antithrombotic, antimicrobial and calcium-absorption enhancing bioactivities. In a controlled, parallel, double-blind intervention study over 6 months, we investigated the effects of kefir-fermented milk (1,600 mg supplemented with calcium bicarbonate (CaCO3, 1,500 mg and bone metabolism in 40 osteoporosis patients, and compared them with CaCO3 alone without kefir supplements. Bone turnover markers were measured in fasting blood samples collected before therapy and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Bone mineral density (BMD values at the spine, total hip, and hip femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA at baseline and at 6 months. Among patients treated with kefir-fermented milk, the relationships between baseline turnover and 6 months changes in DXA-determined BMD were significantly improved. The serum β C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX in those with T-scores > -1 patients significantly decreased after three months treatment. The formation marker serum osteocalcin (OC turned from negative to positive after 6 months, representing the effect of kefir treatment. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH increased significantly after treatment with kefir, but decreased significantly in the control group. PTH may promote bone remodeling after treatment with kefir for 6 months. In this pilot study, we concluded that kefir-fermented milk therapy was associated with short-term changes in turnover and greater 6-month increases in hip BMD among osteoporotic patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02361372.

  17. The relationship between BPAQ-derived physical activity and bone density of middle-aged and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolam, K A; Beck, B R; Adlard, K N; Skinner, T L; Cormie, P; Galvão, D A; Spry, N; Newton, R U; Taaffe, D R

    2014-11-01

    The bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) accounts for activities that affect bone but has not been used in studies with older adults. Relationships exist between the BPAQ-derived physical activity and bone density in healthy middle-aged and older men but not men with prostate cancer. Disease-related treatments detrimental to bone should be considered when administering the BPAQ. The bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) was developed to account for bone-specific loading. In this retrospective study, we examined the relationship between BPAQ-derived physical activity and bone mineral density (BMD) in middle-aged and older men with and without prostate cancer. Two groups, 36 healthy men and 69 men with prostate cancer receiving androgen suppression therapy (AST), completed the BPAQ and had whole body, total hip, femoral (FN) and lumbar spine BMD assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Past (pBPAQ), current (cBPAQ) and total BPAQ (tBPAQ) scores for the healthy men were related to FN BMD (pBPAQ r = 0.36, p = 0.030; cBPAQ r s = 0.35, p = 0.034; tBPAQ r = 0.41, p = 0.014), and pBPAQ and tBPAQ were related to total hip (r s = 0.35, p = 0.035 and r s = 0.36, p = 0.029, respectively) and whole body BMD (r s = 0.44, p = 0.007 and r s = 0.45, p = 0.006, respectively). In men with prostate cancer, the BPAQ was not significantly associated with BMD. In stepwise regression analyses, body mass and tBPAQ predicted 30 % of the variance in total hip BMD (p = 0.003), cBPAQ predicted 14 % of the variance in FN BMD (p = 0.002), and body mass, age and tBPAQ predicted 47% of the variance in whole body BMD (p men. In men with prostate cancer, the BPAQ was not an independent predictor of BMD. Although BPAQ-derived estimates of physical activity are related to bone status in healthy middle-aged and older men, the adverse effect of AST on bone appears to obscure this relationship in men

  18. Hip abduction strength training in the clinical setting: with or without external loading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, T; Petersen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    only the weight of the leg as resistance, whereas training with external loading was performed with a relative load corresponding to 10 repetition maximum. Hip abduction strength was measured pre- and post-intervention. Isometric and eccentric hip abduction strength of the trained leg increased after......The side-lying hip abduction exercise is one of the most commonly used exercises in rehabilitation to increase hip abduction strength, and is often performed without external loading. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 6 weeks of side-lying hip abduction training, with and without...... external loading, on hip abduction strength in healthy subjects. Thirty-one healthy, physically active men and women were included in a randomised controlled trial and allocated to side-lying hip abduction training, with or without external loading. Training without external loading was performed using...

  19. High Insulin Levels in KK-Ay Diabetic Mice Cause Increased Cortical Bone Mass and Impaired Trabecular Micro-Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cen Fu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and complications, including obesity and osteoporosis. Rodents have been widely used to model human T2DM and investigate its effect on the skeleton. We aimed to investigate skeletal alterations in Yellow Kuo Kondo (KK-Ay diabetic mice displaying high insulin and glucose levels. Bone mineral density (BMD, micro-architecture and bone metabolism-related genes were analyzed. The total femoral areal BMD (aBMD, cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD and thickness were significantly increased in KK-Ay mice, while the trabecular vBMD and mineralized bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV, trabecular thickness and number were decreased compared to C57BL mice. The expression of both osteoblast-related genes, such as osteocalcin (OC, bone sialoprotein, Type I Collagen, osteonectin, RUNX2 and OSX, and osteoclast-related genes, such as TRAP and TCIRG, were up-regulated in KK-Ay mice. Correlation analyses showed that serum insulin levels were positively associated with aBMD, cortical vBMD and thickness and negatively associated with trabecular vBMD and micro-architecture. In addition, serum insulin levels were positively related to osteoblast-related and osteoclast-related gene expression. Our data suggest that high insulin levels in KK-Ay diabetic mice may increase cortical bone mass and impair trabecular micro-structure by up-regulating osteoblast-and osteoclast-related gene expression.

  20. Contribution of Myostatin gene polymorphisms to normal variation in lean mass, fat mass and peak BMD in Chinese male offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua YUE; Miao LI; Yu-juan LIU; Song-hua WU; Zhen-lin ZHANG; Jin-wei HE; Hao ZHANG; Chun WANG; Wei-wei HU; Jie-mei GU; Yao-hua KE; Wen-zhen FU; Yun-qiu HU

    2012-01-01

    Myostatin gene is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth.Genetic polymorphisms in Myostatin were found to be associated with the peak bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese women.The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Myostatin played a role in the normal variation in peak BMD,lean mass (LM),and fat mass (FM) of Chinese men.Methods:Four hundred male-offspring nuclear families of Chinese Han ethnic group were recruited.Anthropometric measurements,includingthe peak BMD,body LM and FM were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) studied were tag-SNPs selected by sequencing.Both rs2293284 and +2278G>A were genotyped using TaqMan assay,and rs3791783 was genotyped with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.The associations of the SNPs with anthropometfic variations were analyzed using the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT).Results:Using QTDT to detect within-family associations,neither single SNP nor haplotype was found to be associated with peak BMD at any bone site.However,rs3791783 was found to be significantly associated with fat mass of the trunk (P<0.001).Moreover,for within-family associations,haplotypes AGG,AAA,and TGG were found to be significantly associated with the trunk fat mass (all P<0.001).Conclusion:Our results suggest that genetic variation within Myostatin may play a role in regulating the variation in fat mass in Chinese males.Additionally,the Myostatin gene may be a candidate that determines body fat mass in Chinese men.