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Sample records for increases blood pressure

  1. Goat Meat Does Not Cause Increased Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Sunagawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan/salt group (GY was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01 than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01. The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01 after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal

  2. Wearing an abdominal belt increases diastolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafacz, W; McGill, S M

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wearing an abdominal belt on blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and heart rate during a variety of tasks. The belt was typical of the elastic type with suspenders and Velcro tabs for cinching the belt snug. The tasks performed included sitting at rest, sitting with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees, standing with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees (with and without holding an 11-kg weight), a trunk axial rotation task, and squat lifting. Blood pressure was monitored noninvasively with a FINAPRES blood pressure monitor. Twenty healthy men performed each task with and without the abdominal belt. Although no significant increases in mean systolic blood pressure or heart rate were found, there was a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure in all conditions. All people considering wearing an abdominal belt should also consider the risks and liability associated with the additional cardiovascular load, particularly heart attack and stroke.

  3. Goat meat does not cause increased blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Ayako; Matsumura, Yuka; Nagamine, Itsuki; Uechi, Shuntoku

    2014-01-01

    While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (pgoat meat does not cause increased blood pressure, rather the large amount of salt used in the preparation of goat meat dishes is responsible for the increase in blood pressure.

  4. Sleep deprivation increases blood pressure in healthy normotensive elderly and attenuates the blood pressure response to orthostatic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Lanfranchi, Paola A; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-03-01

    To determine how aging affects the impact of sleep deprivation on blood pressure at rest and under orthostatic challenge. Subjects underwent a night of sleep and 24.5 h of sleep deprivation in a crossover counterbalanced design. Sleep laboratory. Sixteen healthy normotensive men and women: 8 young adults (mean 24 years [SD 3.1], range 20-28 years) and 8 elderly adults (mean 64.1 years [SD 3.4], range 60-69 years). Sleep deprivation. Brachial cuff arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured in semi-recumbent and upright positions. These measurements were compared across homeostatic sleep pressure conditions and age groups. Sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in elderly but not young adults. Moreover, sleep deprivation attenuated the systolic blood pressure orthostatic response in both age groups. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation alters the regulatory mechanisms of blood pressure and might increase the risk of hypertension in healthy normotensive elderly.

  5. Alanine increases blood pressure during hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlay, L. A.; Maher, T. J.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of L-alanine administration on blood pressure (BP) during haemorrhagic shock was investigated using anesthetized rats whose left carotid arteries were cannulated for BP measurement, blood removal, and drug administration. It was found that L-alanine, in doses of 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, increased the systolic BP of hypotensive rats by 38 to 80 percent (while 100 mg/kg pyruvate increased BP by only 9.4 mmhg, not significantly different from saline). The results suggest that L-alanine might influence cardiovascular function.

  6. Autologous Transfusion of Stored Red Blood Cells Increases Pulmonary Artery Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinciroli, Riccardo; Stowell, Christopher P.; Wang, Lin; Yu, Binglan; Fernandez, Bernadette O.; Feelisch, Martin; Mietto, Cristina; Hod, Eldad A.; Chipman, Daniel; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Zapol, Warren M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Transfusion of erythrocytes stored for prolonged periods is associated with increased mortality. Erythrocytes undergo hemolysis during storage and after transfusion. Plasma hemoglobin scavenges endogenous nitric oxide leading to systemic and pulmonary vasoconstriction. Objectives: We hypothesized that transfusion of autologous blood stored for 40 days would increase the pulmonary artery pressure in volunteers with endothelial dysfunction (impaired endothelial production of nitric oxide). We also tested whether breathing nitric oxide before and during transfusion could prevent the increase of pulmonary artery pressure. Methods: Fourteen obese adults with endothelial dysfunction were enrolled in a randomized crossover study of transfusing autologous, leukoreduced blood stored for either 3 or 40 days. Volunteers were transfused with 3-day blood, 40-day blood, and 40-day blood while breathing 80 ppm nitric oxide. Measurements and Main Results: The age of volunteers was 41 ± 4 years (mean ± SEM), and their body mass index was 33.4 ± 1.3 kg/m2. Plasma hemoglobin concentrations increased after transfusion with 40-day and 40-day plus nitric oxide blood but not after transfusing 3-day blood. Mean pulmonary artery pressure, estimated by transthoracic echocardiography, increased after transfusing 40-day blood (18 ± 2 to 23 ± 2 mm Hg; P transfusing 3-day blood (17 ± 2 to 18 ± 2 mm Hg; P = 0.5). Breathing nitric oxide decreased pulmonary artery pressure in volunteers transfused with 40-day blood (17 ± 2 to 12 ± 1 mm Hg; P Transfusion of autologous leukoreduced blood stored for 40 days was associated with increased plasma hemoglobin levels and increased pulmonary artery pressure. Breathing nitric oxide prevents the increase of pulmonary artery pressure produced by transfusing stored blood. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01529502). PMID:25162920

  7. Silencing of Atp2b1 increases blood pressure through vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-Bin; Lim, Ji Eun; Ji, Su-Min; Lee, Hyeon-Ju; Park, So-Yon; Hong, Kyung-Won; Lim, Mihwa; McCarthy, Mark I; Lee, Young-Ho; Oh, Bermseok

    2013-08-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified 30 genetic loci that regulate blood pressure, increasing our understanding of the cause of hypertension. However, it has been difficult to define the causative genes at these loci due to a lack of functional analyses. In this study, we aimed to validate the candidate gene ATP2B1 in 12q21, variants near which have the strongest association with blood pressure in Asians and Europeans. ATP2B1 functions as a calcium pump to fine-tune calcium concentrations - necessary for repolarization following muscular contractions. We silenced Atp2b1 using an siRNA complex, injected into mouse tail veins. In treated mice, blood pressure rose and the mesenteric arteries increased in wall : lumen ratio. Moreover, the arteries showed enhanced myogenic responses to pressure, and contractile responses to phenylephrine increased compared with the control, suggesting that blood pressure is regulated by ATP2B1 through the contraction and dilation of the vessel, likely by controlling calcium concentrations in the resting state. These results support that ATP2B1 is the causative gene in the blood pressure-associated 12q21 locus and demonstrate that ATP2B1 expression in the vessel influences blood pressure.

  8. Novel Approach for Ensuring Increased Validity in Home Blood Pressure Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    This paper proposes a novel technique to increase the validity of home blood pressure monitoring by using various sensor technologies as part of an intelligent environment platform in the home of the user. A range of recommendations exists on how to obtain a valid blood pressure but with the devi......This paper proposes a novel technique to increase the validity of home blood pressure monitoring by using various sensor technologies as part of an intelligent environment platform in the home of the user. A range of recommendations exists on how to obtain a valid blood pressure...

  9. Increased postdialysis systolic blood pressure is associated with extracellular overhydration in hemodialysis outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongnuch, Arkom; Campbell, Neil; Stern, Edward; El-Kateb, Sally; Fuentes, Laura; Davenport, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    Recently, intradialytic hypertension was reported to be associated with increased mortality for hemodialysis patients. To determine whether volume status plays a role in dialysis-associated hypertension, we prospectively audited 531 patients that had volume assessments measured by multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance during their midweek dialysis session. Mean pre- and postdialysis weights were 73.2 vs 71.7 kg, and systolic blood pressures (SBPs) 140.5 vs. 130.3 mm Hg, respectively. Patients were divided into groups based on a fall in SBP of 20 mm Hg or more (32%), an increased SBP of 10 mm Hg or more (18%), and a stable group (50%). There were no differences in patient demographics, dialysis prescriptions, predialysis weight, total body (TBW), and extracellular (ECW) and intracellular water (ICW). However, the change in weight was significantly less in the increased blood pressure group (1.01 kg vs. stable 1.65, and 1.7 hypotensive). The ratio of ECW to TBW was significantly higher in the increased blood pressure group, particularly post dialysis (39.1 vs. stable 38.7% and fall in blood pressure group 38.7%). ECW overhydration was significantly greater in the increased blood pressure group post dialysis (0.7 (0.17 to 1.1) vs. stable 0.39 (-0.2 to 0.95) and fall in blood pressure group 0.38 (-0.19 to 0.86) liter). We found that patients who had increased blood pressure post dialysis had greater hydration status, particularly ECW. Thus, patients who increase their blood pressure post dialysis should have review of target weight, consideration of lowering the post-dialysis weight, and may benefit from increasing dialysis session time or frequency.

  10. Cerebral blood volume changes in cats with acute increased intracranial pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Takashi; Kano, Mitsumasa; Ikeda, Takuya.

    1984-01-01

    We measured the changes in cerebral blood volume in cats with increased intracranial pressure with a high-speed CT scanner, employing contrast effects by the iodine agent. In acute increased intracranial pressure caused by raising the extradural pressure by 20 mmHg, cerebral blood volume showed a significant decrease by 32% in comparison with that at normal intracranial pressure. There was also a tendency that a decline of iodine was delayed with time at increased intracranial pressure than that at normal pressure. This was supposed to be a delay of cerebral circulation due to venous congestion. This experimental model and measuring method provide the changes in CBV in the same individual without any tedious procedure, and therefore this is a reliable method with respect to precision. (author)

  11. Blood in the gastric lumen increases splanchnic blood flow and portal pressure in portal-hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Groszmann, R J

    1996-10-01

    In portal-hypertensive humans, portal blood flow and pressure increase after a meal. These hemodynamic changes may increase variceal rupture risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether blood in the stomach lumen increases splanchnic flow and portal pressure (PP) in portal-hypertensive rats. superior mesenteric artery flow and PP were measured in conscious, unrestrained, fasted partial portal vein-ligated rats with chronically implanted Doppler flow probes or portal vein catheters before and after gavage with heparinized, warmed blood from donor rats, air, standard meal, or empty tube. Percentage of changes in flow and pressure from baseline were significantly greater after gavage with blood (an increase of 22.6% +/- 3.5% and an increase of 16.4% +/- 3.1%, respectively) than empty tube (an increase of 3.4% +/- 0.6% and a decrease of 5.4% +/- 3.5%, respectively) (P empty tube (P calories probably contributes to these hemodynamic changes. In patients with variceal hemorrhage, blood in the stomach may increase the risk of persistent variceal bleeding or rebleeding.

  12. Increased nocturnal blood pressure in enuretic children with polyuria.

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    Kruse, Anne; Mahler, Birgitte; Rittig, Soren; Djurhuus, Jens Christian

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the association between nocturnal blood pressure and urine production in children with enuresis. A total of 39 consecutive children with a mean age of 9.8 years (range 6.2 to 14.9) with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis completed a bladder diary, including 2 weeks of basic documentation and 2 with desmopressin titration from 120 to 240 microg sublingually. Arterial blood pressure was measured every 30 minutes during 24 hours and during 4 additional nights using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. Furthermore, 10 healthy children were recruited into the study who completed a bladder diary for 5 days while measuring arterial blood pressures with documentation of all intake and voided volumes. Patients with nocturnal polyuria had significantly higher nocturnal mean arterial pressure than patients without polyuria and controls (p polyuria than in children without polyuria. There was a significant positive correlation between average nocturnal mean arterial pressure and nocturnal urine volume in the whole study. The association between nocturnal blood pressure and urine volume, and the role of blood pressure should be investigated in a larger group of children with enuresis who have nocturnal polyuria.

  13. Kidney Mass Reduction Leads to l-Arginine Metabolism-Dependent Blood Pressure Increase in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Samyuktha Muralidharan; Seebeck, Petra; Fingerhut, Ralph; Huang, Ji; Ming, Xiu-Fen; Yang, Zhihong; Verrey, François

    2018-02-25

    Uninephrectomy (UNX) is performed for various reasons, including kidney cancer or donation. Kidneys being the main site of l-arginine production in the body, we tested whether UNX mediated kidney mass reduction impacts l-arginine metabolism and thereby nitric oxide production and blood pressure regulation in mice. In a first series of experiments, we observed a significant increase in arterial blood pressure 8 days post-UNX in female and not in male mice. Further experimental series were performed in female mice, and the blood pressure increase was confirmed by telemetry. l-citrulline, that is used in the kidney to produce l-arginine, was elevated post-UNX as was also asymmetric dimethylarginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase that competes with l-arginine and is a marker for renal failure. Interestingly, the UNX-induced blood pressure increase was prevented by supplementation of the diet with 5% of the l-arginine precursor, l-citrulline. Because l-arginine is metabolized in the kidney and other peripheral tissues by arginase-2, we tested whether the lack of this metabolic pathway also compensates for decreased l-arginine production in the kidney and/or for local nitric oxide synthase inhibition and consecutive blood pressure increase. Indeed, upon uninephrectomy, arginase-2 knockout mice (Arg-2 -/- ) neither displayed an increase in asymmetric dimethylarginine and l-citrulline plasma levels nor a significant increase in blood pressure. UNX leads to a small increase in blood pressure that is prevented by l-citrulline supplementation or arginase deficiency, 2 measures that appear to compensate for the impact of kidney mass reduction on l-arginine metabolism. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. Post-Weaning Protein Malnutrition Increases Blood Pressure and Induces Endothelial Dysfunctions in Rats

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    Siman, Fabiana D. M.; Silveira, Edna A.; Meira, Eduardo F.; da Costa, Carlos P.; Vassallo, Dalton V.; Padilha, Alessandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition during critical periods in early life may increase the subsequent risk of hypertension and metabolic diseases in adulthood, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of post-weaning protein malnutrition on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in aortic rings (conductance artery) and isolated-perfused tail arteries (resistance artery) from control (fed with Labina®) and post-weaning protein malnutrition rats (offspring that received a diet with low protein content for three months). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. In the aortic rings, reactivity to phenylephrine (10−10–3.10−4 M) was similar in both groups. Endothelium removal or L-NAME (10−4 M) incubation increased the response to phenylephrine, but the L-NAME effect was greater in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. The protein expression of the endothelial nitric oxide isoform increased in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. Incubation with apocynin (0.3 mM) reduced the response to phenylephrine in both groups, but this effect was higher in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, suggesting an increase of superoxide anion release. In the tail artery of the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, the vascular reactivity to phenylephrine (0.001–300 µg) and the relaxation to acetylcholine (10−10–10−3 M) were increased. Post-weaning protein malnutrition increases blood pressure and induces vascular dysfunction. Although the vascular reactivity in the aortic rings did not change, an increase in superoxide anion and nitric oxide was observed in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. However, in the resistance arteries, the increased vascular reactivity may be a potential mechanism underlying the increased blood pressure observed in this model. PMID:22529948

  15. [The effect of work-related stress on the occurrence of increased blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaj, A; Cybulski, J; Kułakowski, P; Makowska, E; Rezler, J; Lange, J; Gorzkowska, J; Abramowski, S

    In 546 officials the arterial blood pressure was measured twice at the beginning and at the end of a working day, filling also an inquiry form. As hypertension systolic BP over 160 mm Hg (21.3 kPa) or more, and diastolic BP 96 mm Hg (12.7 kPa) or more were accepted. In 90 subjects (16.5%) above normal pressure values were found. Hypertension had been diagnosed previously in 50 subjects in this group (55.5%) but only 13 of them (26%) were treated systematically. Excessive stress of work was complained of by 62.6% of the subjects. Increased blood pressure was found significantly more frequently in the group perceiving excessive stress of work (19.9%) as compared to those not experiencing this stress (10.8%, p less than 0.1). In the group in managerial posts these proportions were 24.8% and 14.4% respectively (p less than 0.1). Blood pressure rise to abnormal levels during the working day occurred also significantly more frequently in the group experiencing it this was noted only in 1.6% of cases (p less than 0.5). The knowledge of own hypertension was very low in this group. These results indicate the necessity of increasing prophylactic measures in the form of greater frequency of control measurements of the blood pressure, better health education, and limitation of stress situations in working environment.

  16. Cilnidipine lowered psychological stress-induced increase in blood pressure in a hypertensive man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji Sadatoshi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some hypertensive patients, psychological stress makes blood pressure difficult to control and causes physical symptoms such as headache or dizziness. We report the case of a hypertensive man whose psychological stress-induced increase in blood pressure was attenuated by cilnidipine. Case Presentation The patient (a 72-year-old man had hypertension and was on antihypertensive therapy. When mentally concentrating, he experienced occipital headaches and dizziness, and despite thorough testing, no abnormality was found. He was subsequently referred to our department. The mirror drawing test (MDT, a psychological stress test, increased blood pressure by about 40 mmHg, and the patient described occipital headache. Plasma noradrenaline level also increased from 212 to 548 pg/ml. We therefore switched the patient from nifedipine, an L-type calcium (Ca channel blocker, to cilnidipine, an L-type/N-type Ca channel blocker with suppressive effects on sympathetic activity. Cilnipidine attenuated MDT-induced an increase in blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline level and prevented the development of headache during testing. Conclusion These findings suggest that cilnidipine is a useful antihypertensive agent for hypertensive patients in whom psychological stress causes marked fluctuations in blood pressure.

  17. Driving environment in Iran increases blood pressure even in healthy taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Navadeh Khodadadi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Nowadays, driving is an unseparated part of our new modern lifestyle; and we are exposed to this environment all the days for several hours whether as drivers or as riders. Many reports indicated that Iran is on the top rank of automobile-related morbidity and mortality among developed and even many developing countries that can be due to dangerous driving habits in Iran. We designed this study to find out if environment of driving have clinically important effects on blood pressure (BP and how strong is the effect. We also examined if there were any predictors for the BP rises in driving time.
    • METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 31 healthy male taxi drivers were included through a multistage proportional sampling method in winter and spring 2007. They were referred to the clinic of hypertension in Shafa Hospital, Kerman. A trained nurse measured the BPs. She also did set up the Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor (ABPM on the drivers’ left arms for BP recording every 30 minutes during the day. Based on the diurnal recorded BPs, the subjects were allocated into normotensive and hypertensive (systolic BP > 135 or diastolic BP > 85mmHg groups. The difference among the clinic BPs and the driving BPs was examined by t-test in Stata version 8, followed by a multivariate analysis for exploring the main predictors for BP rises in driving time.
    • RESULTS: Both mean systolic and mean diastolic BPs were significantly increased from 116.85 (SE 2.28 and 74.44 (SE 2.22 mmHg in clinic to 138.64 (SE 2.77 and 95.70 (SE 2.55 mmHg during driving, respectively (P = 0.0001. Pulse pressure remained constant (P = 0.87. The difference between clinic's and driving time measurements was higher in hypertensive group. Those with higher systolic blood pressures in clinic had more frequent and higher BP rises in driving time (P = 0.02.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Driving

    • High blood pressure - children

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007696.htm High blood pressure - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

    • High blood pressure - infants

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

    • Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived short-term blood pressure variability in primary hyperparathyroidism.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Concistrè, A; Grillo, A; La Torre, G; Carretta, R; Fabris, B; Petramala, L; Marinelli, C; Rebellato, A; Fallo, F; Letizia, C

      2018-04-01

      Primary hyperparathyroidism is associated with a cluster of cardiovascular manifestations, including hypertension, leading to increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of our study was to investigate the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived short-term blood pressure variability in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, in comparison with patients with essential hypertension and normotensive controls. Twenty-five patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (7 normotensive,18 hypertensive) underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring at diagnosis, and fifteen out of them were re-evaluated after parathyroidectomy. Short-term-blood pressure variability was derived from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and calculated as the following: 1) Standard Deviation of 24-h, day-time and night-time-BP; 2) the average of day-time and night-time-Standard Deviation, weighted for the duration of the day and night periods (24-h "weighted" Standard Deviation of BP); 3) average real variability, i.e., the average of the absolute differences between all consecutive BP measurements. Baseline data of normotensive and essential hypertension patients were matched for age, sex, BMI and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring values with normotensive and hypertensive-primary hyperparathyroidism patients, respectively. Normotensive-primary hyperparathyroidism patients showed a 24-h weighted Standard Deviation (P blood pressure higher than that of 12 normotensive controls. 24-h average real variability of systolic BP, as well as serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels, were reduced in operated patients (P blood pressure variability is increased in normotensive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and is reduced by parathyroidectomy, and may potentially represent an additional cardiovascular risk factor in this disease.

  1. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  2. Increased blood pressure can reduce fatigue of thenar muscles paralyzed after spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, JE; Ribot-Ciscar, E; Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, CK

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether increases in blood pressure, and presumably muscle perfusion pressure, improve the endurance of thenar muscles paralyzed chronically by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Resting mean arterial pressure (MAP) was low in all eight subjects (64 +/- 2 mmHg).

  3. Exposure to bisphenol A from drinking canned beverages increases blood pressure: randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sanghyuk; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in plastic bottles and inner coating of beverage cans, and its exposure is almost ubiquitous. BPA has been associated with hypertension and decreased heart rate variability in the previous studies. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased BPA exposure from consumption of canned beverage actually affects blood pressure and heart rate variability. We conducted a randomized crossover trial with noninstitutionalized adults, who were aged ≥60 years and recruited from a local community center. A total of 60 participants visited the study site 3 times, and they were provided the same beverage in 2 glass bottles, 2 cans, or 1 can and 1 glass bottle at a time. The sequence of the beverage was randomized. We then measured urinary BPA concentration, blood pressure, and heart rate variability 2 hours after the consumption of each beverage. The paired t test and mixed model were used to compare the differences. The urinary BPA concentration increased after consuming canned beverages by >1600% compared with that after consuming glass bottled beverages. Systolic blood pressure adjusted for daily variance increased by ≈4.5 mm Hg after consuming 2 canned beverages compared with that after consuming 2 glass bottled beverages, and the difference was statistically significant. The parameters of the heart rate variability did not show statistically significant differences.The present study demonstrated that consuming canned beverage and consequent increase of BPA exposure increase blood pressure acutely. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Psoriasis and high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihbegovic, Eldina Malkic; Hadzigrahic, Nermina; Suljagic, Edin; Kurtalic, Nermina; Sadic, Sena; Zejcirovic, Alema; Mujacic, Almina

    2015-02-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin ailment which can be connected with an increased occurrence of other illnesses, including high blood pressure. A prospective study has been conducted which included 70 patients affected by psoriasis, both genders, older than 18 years. Average age being 47,14 (SD= ±15,41) years, from that there were 36 men or 51,43 and 34 women or 48,57%. Average duration of psoriasis was 15,52 (SD=±12,54) years. Frequency of high blood pressure in those affected by psoriasis was 54,28%. Average age of the patients with psoriasis and high blood pressure was 53,79 year (SD=±14,15) and average duration of psoriasis was 17,19 years (SD=±13,51). Average values of PASI score were 16,65. Increase in values of PASI score and high blood pressure were statistically highly related (r=0,36, p=0,0001). Psoriasis was related to high blood pressure and there was a correlation between the severity of psoriasis and high blood pressure.

  5. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  6. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  7. Inter-arm blood pressure differences in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, L C Y; Kametas, N; Strobl, I; Pachoumi, C; Nicolaides, K H

    2008-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of blood pressure inter-arm difference (IAD) in early pregnancy and to investigate its possible association with maternal characteristics. A cross-sectional observational study. Routine antenatal visit in a university hospital. A total of 5435 pregnant women at 11-14 weeks of gestation. Blood pressure was taken from both arms simultaneously with a validated automated device. The presence of inter-arm blood pressure difference of 10 mmHg or more. The IAD in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 10 mmHg or more in 8.3 and 2.3% of the women, respectively. Systolic IAD was found to be significantly related to systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and diastolic IAD was found to be significantly related to maternal age, diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. The systolic and diastolic IAD were higher in the hypertensive group compared with the normotensive group and absolute IAD increased with increasing blood pressure. About 31.0 and 23.9% of cases of hypertension would have been underreported if the left arm and the right arm were used, respectively, in measuring the blood pressure. There is a blood pressure IAD in a significant proportion of the pregnant population, and its prevalence increases with increasing blood pressure. By measuring blood pressure only on one arm, there is a one in three chance of underreporting hypertension. Therefore, it would be prudent that during the booking visit blood pressure should be taken in both arms and thus provide guidance for subsequent blood pressure measurements during the course of pregnancy.

  8. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  9. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  10. Associations of long-term fine particulate matter exposure with prevalent hypertension and increased blood pressure in older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Trenton; Pun, Vivian C; Manjourides, Justin; Suh, Helen

    2018-07-01

    Hypertension is a highly prevalent cardiovascular risk factor. It is possible that air pollution, also an established cardiovascular risk factor, may contribute to cardiovascular disease through increasing blood pressure. Previous studies evaluating associations between air pollution and blood pressure have had mixed results. We examined the association between long-term (one-year moving average) air pollutant exposures, prevalent hypertension and blood pressure in 4121 older Americans (57+ years) enrolled in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. We estimated exposures to PM 2.5 using spatio-temporal models and used logistic regression accounting for repeated measures to evaluate the association between long-term average PM 2.5 and prevalence odds of hypertension. We additionally used linear regression to evaluate the associations between air pollutants and systolic, diastolic, mean arterial, and pulse pressures. Health effect models were adjusted for a number of demographic, health and socioeconomic covariates. An inter-quartile range (3.91 μg/m 3 ) increase in the one-year moving average of PM 2.5 was associated with increased: Odds of prevalent hypertension (POR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.38), systolic blood pressure (0.93 mm Hg, 95% CI: 0.05, 1.80) and pulse pressure (0.89 mm Hg, 95% CI: 0.21, 1.58). Dose-response relationships were also observed. PM 2.5 was associated with increased odds of prevalent hypertension, and increased systolic pressure and pulse pressure in a cohort of older Americans. These findings add to the growing evidence that air pollution may be an important risk factor for hypertension and perturbations in blood pressure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Contributions of social context to blood pressure: findings from a multilevel analysis of social capital and systolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Fujisawa, Yoshikazu; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Ito, Katsuhisa; Nabika, Toru; Shiwaku, Kuninori

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, few studies have quantified the effect of residential context on blood pressure. Although these studies have emphasized the importance of socioeconomic influences such as education or poverty levels, the association between the features of social structure such as social capital and blood pressure remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether social capital was associated with systolic blood pressure after controlling for individual potential confounders. We analyzed data from the Shimane Study conducted from 2006 to 2008 in rural mountainous regions of Japan. After excluding the missing data and data of participants taking hypertension medication, we conducted a multilevel analysis of the data for 335 individuals nested within 30 postcode sectors. Systolic blood pressure increased with increasing age and body mass index. We also found that a higher systolic blood pressure was observed among smokers and those taking medication for diabetes. Regarding the contextual effects of social capital, systolic blood pressure increased with an increasing proportion of lack of fairness, after adjustment for individual confounders. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the association between social capital and systolic blood pressure by using a multilevel methodological framework. Surprisingly, we found that lack of fairness had a strong effect on systolic blood pressure. However, we could not find any significant associations between other items of social capital and systolic blood pressure. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism by which lack of fairness may have an effect on systolic blood pressure.

  12. YaAn earthquake increases blood pressure among hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanwei; Luo, Xiaoli; Zhang, Wen; Zhou, Liang; Wang, Hongyong; Zeng, Chunyu

    YaAn, a city in Sichuan province, China, was struck by a major earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale on April 20, 2013. This study sought to investigate the impact of YaAn earthquake on the blood pressure (BP) among hospitalized patients in the department of cardiology. We enrolled 52 hospitalized patients who were admitted to our hospital at least three days before the day of earthquake in 2013 (disaster group) as compared with 52 patients during April 20, 2014 (nondisaster group). BP was measured three times per day and the prescription of antihypertensive medicine was recorded. The earthquake induced a 3.3 mm Hg significant increase in the mean postdisaster systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the disaster group as compared with the nondisaster group. SBP at admission was positively associated with the elevated SBP in the logistic regression model (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.016-1.168, p = 0.015), but not other potential influencing factors, including antihypertensive medicine, sex, age, and body weight, excluding β-blockers. Patients with β-blockers prescription at the time of earthquake showed a blunt response to earthquake-induced SBP elevation than those who were taking other antihypertensive drugs (OR = 0.128, 95% CI: 0.019-0.876, p = 0.036). The YaAn earthquake induced significant increase in SBP even at a distance from the epicenter among hospitalized patients. The findings demonstrate that pure psychological components seem to be a cause of the pressor response and β-blockers might be better in controlling disaster-induced hypertension.

  13. Studies Comparing Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Home Blood Pressure on Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Daichi; Abdalla, Marwah; Falzon, Louise; Townsend, Raymond R.; Muntner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is more commonly recommended for assessing out-of-clinic blood pressure than home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM). We conducted a systematic review to examine whether ABPM or HBPM is more strongly associated with cardiovascular disease events and/or mortality. Of 1,007 abstracts published through July 20, 2015, nine articles, reporting results from seven cohorts, were identified. After adjustment for blood pressure on HBPM, blood pressure on ABPM was associated with an increased risk of outcomes in two of four cohorts for systolic blood pressure and two of three cohorts for diastolic blood pressure. After adjustment for blood pressure on ABPM, systolic blood pressure on HBPM was associated with outcomes in zero of three cohorts; an association was present in one of two cohorts for diastolic blood pressure on HBPM. There is a lack of strong empiric evidence supporting ABPM or HBPM over the other approach for predicting cardiovascular events or mortality. PMID:26822864

  14. Comparison of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and office blood pressure measurements in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Rahime

    2018-04-01

    Obesity in adults has been related to hypertension and abnormal nocturnal dipping of blood pressure, which are associated with poor cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Here, we aimed to resolve the relationship between the degree of obesity, the severity of hypertension and dipping status on ambulatory blood pressure in obese children. A total 72 patients with primary obesity aged 7 to 18 years (mean: 13.48 ± 3.25) were selected. Patients were divided into three groups based on body mass index (BMİ) Z-score. Diagnosis and staging of ambulatory hypertension based on 24-h blood pressure measurements, obtained from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Based on our ambulatory blood pressure data, 35 patients (48.6%) had hypertension, 7 (20%) had ambulatory prehypertension, 21 (60%) had hypertension, and 7 patients (20%) had severe ambulatory hypertension. There was a significant relationship between severity of hypertension and the degree of obesity (p lood pressure results and loads were similar between groups. Diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure levels during the night, diastolic blood pressure loads, and heart rate during the day were significantly higher in Group 3 (p lood pressure at night, mean arterial pressure at night, diastolic blood pressure loads and heart rate at day. Increase in BMI Z-score does not a significant impact on daytime blood pressure and nocturnal dipping status.

  15. Relationship between office and home blood pressure with increasing age: The International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDHOCO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntineri, Angeliki; Stergiou, George S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Boggia, José; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Hozawa, Atsushi; Imai, Yutaka; Johansson, Jouni K; Jula, Antti M; Kollias, Anastasios; Luzardo, Leonella; Niiranen, Teemu J; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Tzourio, Christophe; Wei, Fang-Fei; Staessen, Jan A

    2016-08-01

    Home blood pressure (HBP) measurements are known to be lower than conventional office blood pressure (OBP) measurements. However, this difference might not be consistent across the entire age range and has not been adequately investigated. We assessed the relationship between OBP and HBP with increasing age using the International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDHOCO). OBP, HBP and their difference were assessed across different decades of age. A total of 5689 untreated subjects aged 18-97 years, who had at least two OBP and HBP measurements, were included. Systolic OBP and HBP increased across older age categories (from 112 to 142 mm Hg and from 109 to 136 mm Hg, respectively), with OBP being higher than HBP by ∼7 mm Hg in subjects aged >30 years and lesser in younger subjects (P=0.001). Both diastolic OBP and HBP increased until the age of ∼50 years (from 71 to 79 mm Hg and from 66 to 76 mm Hg, respectively), with OBP being consistently higher than HBP and a trend toward a decreased OBP-HBP difference with aging (P<0.001). Determinants of a larger OBP-HBP difference were younger age, sustained hypertension, nonsmoking and negative cardiovascular disease history. These data suggest that in the general adult population, HBP is consistently lower than OBP across all the decades, but their difference might vary between age groups. Further research is needed to confirm these findings in younger and older subjects and in hypertensive individuals.

  16. Oscillometric blood pressure measurements: differences between measured and calculated mean arterial pressure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, H.D.; Hofstra, J.M.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is often used as an index of overall blood pressure. In recent years, the use of automated oscillometric blood pressure measurement devices is increasing. These devices directly measure and display MAP; however, MAP is often calculated from systolic blood pressure (SBP)

  17. Diurnal blood pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayama, Kei; Satoh, Michihiro; Kikuya, Masahiro

    2018-05-23

    The definition of diurnal blood pressure changes varies widely, which can be confusing. Short-term blood pressure variability during a 24-h period and the dipping status of diurnal blood pressure can be captured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and these metrics are reported to have prognostic significance for cardiovascular complications. Morning blood pressure surge also indicates this risk, but its effect may be limited to populations with specific conditions. Meanwhile, the combined use of conventional office blood pressure and out-of-office blood pressure allows us to identify people with white-coat and masked hypertension. Current home devices can measure nocturnal blood pressure during sleep more conveniently than ambulatory monitoring; however, we should pay attention to blood pressure measurement conditions regardless of whether they are in a home, ambulatory, or office setting. The relatively poor reproducibility of diurnal blood pressure changes, including the nocturnal fall of blood pressure, is another underestimated issue to be addressed. Although information on diurnal blood pressure changes is expected to be used more effectively in the future, we should also keep in mind that blood pressure levels have remained central to the primary and secondary prevention of blood pressure-related cardiovascular diseases in clinical practice.

  18. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Clinical Practice: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring offers the ability to collect blood pressure readings several times an hour across a 24-hour period. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring facilitates the identification of white-coat hypertension, the phenomenon whereby certain individuals who are not on antihypertensive medication show elevated blood pressure in a clinical setting but show non-elevated blood pressure averages when assessed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Additionally, readings can be segmented into time windows of particular interest, e.g., mean daytime and nighttime values. During sleep, blood pressure typically decreases, or dips, such that mean sleep blood pressure is lower than mean awake blood pressure. A non-dipping pattern and nocturnal hypertension are strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Approximately 70% of individuals dip ≥10% at night, while 30% have non-dipping patterns, when blood pressure remains similar to daytime average, or occasionally rises above daytime average. The various blood pressure categorizations afforded by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are valuable for clinical management of high blood pressure since they increase accuracy for diagnosis and the prediction of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25107387

  19. DETERMINANTS OF SUBOPTIMAL BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS: 24-HOUR AMBULATORY BLOOD PRES-SURE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Moazenzadeh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    INTRODUCTION: The study was conducted to define the determinants of suboptimal blood pressure (BP control among hypertensive patients under treatment and explore a predictive model for detecting the patients at risk for increased BP.    METHODS: We enrolled 97 patients (40 males, 57 females under treatment for hypertension between June 2006 and May 2007 in Shafa hospital, Kerman, Iran. BP was measured at clinic twice within 5-minute intervals. After setting up ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM, BP was measured at 30-minute intervals during the day and 60-minute intervals during the night. The frequency of increased BP (more than 140/90 mmHg was included in a regression model as dependent variable and all the others such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI, drugs and baseline clinical measurements as the predictors.    RESULTS: Increased BP was detected in 44% (95% CI: 38.79%-49.65% of all measurements during 24-hour monitoring. The frequency of increased BP had a significant relationship with BMI (b=0.35, P=0.001. Clinic's pulse pressure was a significant predicting factor for BP increase (P=0.02.    CONCLUSION: BMI and pulse pressure are the best predictors for being hypertensive during lifetime. Ineffective treatment of hypertension is frequent among the hypertensive patients.      Keywords: Blood pressure control, Pulse pressure, Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM, BMI.

  20. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  1. Increase in body mass index and waist circumference is associated with high blood pressure in children and adolescents in Mexico city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel; Reyes de la Cruz, Lorenzo; Santos, José Ignacio

    2009-04-01

    Currently, obesity has become a worldwide health problem affecting even children and yet little is known about its role as a determinant of high blood pressure in this age group. The aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the relationship between the increment of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in children and teenagers. The study was performed in Mexico City schools. Overweight was established if BMI ranged from >or=85(th) to th) percentiles and obesity if BMI was >or=95(th) percentile. WC was classified in two categories, one ranging between the 75(th) and 89.9(th) percentiles and >90(th) percentile. Blood pressure was measured four times during one visit by the auscultatory method. High blood pressure was defined if the levels were >or=90(th) percentile according to the guidelines of the 2004 North American Task Force. Ages of the study population ranged from 5-8 (n = 474), 9-12 (n = 643) and 13-17 (n = 912) years, respectively. The levels of blood pressure and prevalence of high blood pressure were higher in overweight and obese children and adolescents. In both genders, the prevalence of SBP and DBP increased directly correlated with increments in age, BMI and WC, although prevalence and odd ratios of high blood pressure were higher in individuals with increased WC in comparison to BMI. Increases in WC and BMI are parameters directly associated with high blood pressure in children and adolescents.

  2. Contribution of pH, diprotonated phosphate and potassium for the reflex increase in blood pressure during handgrip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Madsen, P; Nielsen, H B

    1998-01-01

    The relative importance of pH, diprotonated phosphate (H2PO4-) and potassium (K+) for the reflex increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during exercise was evaluated in seven subjects during rhythmic handgrip at 15 and 30% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), followed by post-exercise muscle...... to the exercise levels. Analysis of each variable as a predictor of blood pressure indicated that only the intracellular pH and diprotonated phosphate were linked to the reflex elevation of blood pressure during handgrip....

  3. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest at night and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low ... low blood pressure. Medications that can cause low blood pressure Some medications can cause low blood pressure, including: ...

  4. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  5. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney disease, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome Read less Unhealthy lifestyle habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can increase the risk of high blood pressure. These habits include: Unhealthy eating patterns, such as eating too much sodium ...

  6. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Teens / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  7. Aging increases oxidative stress and renal expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes that are associated with an increased trend in systolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Pedro; Simão, Sónia; Silva, Elisabete; Pinto, Vanda; Amaral, João S; Afonso, Joana; Serrão, Maria Paula; Pinho, Maria João; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effects of aging on oxidative stress markers and expression of major oxidant and antioxidant enzymes associate with impairment of renal function and increases in blood pressure. To explore this, we determined age-associated changes in lipid peroxidation (urinary malondialdehyde), plasma and urinary hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) levels, as well as renal H(2)O(2) production, and the expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes in young (13 weeks) and old (52 weeks) male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Urinary lipid peroxidation levels and H(2)O(2) production by the renal cortex and medulla of old rats were higher than their young counterparts. This was accompanied by overexpression of NADPH oxidase components Nox4 and p22(phox) in the renal cortex of old rats. Similarly, expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms 2 and 3 and catalase were increased in the renal cortex from old rats. Renal function parameters (creatinine clearance and fractional excretion of sodium), diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were not affected by aging, although slight increases in systolic blood pressure were observed during this 52-week period. It is concluded that overexpression of renal Nox4 and p22(phox) and the increases in renal H(2)O(2) levels in aged WKY does not associate with renal functional impairment or marked increases in blood pressure. It is hypothesized that lack of oxidative stress-associated effects in aged WKY rats may result from increases in antioxidant defenses that counteract the damaging effects of H(2)O(2).

  8. Increased level of morning surge in blood pressure in normotensives: A cross-sectional study from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almas, A.; Sultan, F. T.; Kazmi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the mean morning surge (MS) in blood pressure, the frequency of increased morning surge in normotensive subjects, and to compare those with morning surge with those without MS. Study Design: A cross-sectional, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: The Department of Medicine, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from April 2011 to March 2012. Methodology: Adult normotensive healthy volunteers aged 35 to 65 years were inducted. Their ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was measured over a 24-hour period, using digital ambulatory blood pressure monitors. Morning surge was calculated as the average of four readings after waking minus the lowest three nocturnal readings. Increased morning surge was defined as > 11 mm Hg in systolic (SBP) or > 12 mm Hg in diastolic (DBP). Dipping was defined as > 10% dipping in blood pressure. Results: Eighty-two healthy volunteers were recruited. Their mean age was 36.9 ± 1.2 years; 74.4 (61%) were men, and 58.5 (48%) woke up for morning prayers. Mean overall SBP was 113 ± 1.6 mm Hg, overall DBP was 73.9 ± 0.7 mm Hg, and overall heart rate was 75 (10) beats/minute. Mean morning surge was 17.6 ± 1.0 mm Hg in SBP and 16.0 ± 0.8 mm Hg in DBP. The frequency of increased morning surge was 66 (80.5%) in SBP, and 57 (69%) in DBP. On comparison of participants with normal morning surge and increased morning surge in SBP, there was a significant difference in non-dipping status (13.4% in normal vs. 18.3% in increased morning surge, p= 0.001). Conclusion: Mean morning surge in SBP and DBP are relatively higher in this subset population in a tertiary care center in Pakistan. These values are higher than those reported in the literature. (author)

  9. Blood pressure in ICSI-conceived adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belva, F.; Roelants, M.; de Schepper, J.; Roseboom, T. J.; Bonduelle, M.; Devroey, P.; Painter, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Do young adolescents conceived by ICSI display a higher blood pressure than spontaneously conceived (SC) adolescents? In our study, 14-year-old male and female ICSI teenagers were not found to have increased blood pressure at rest. Only limited data are available regarding the cardiovascular risk of

  10. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özanli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was high­er in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in fe­males. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold val­ues for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to com­bine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.

  11. Cadmium body burden and increased blood pressure in middle-aged American Indians: the Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, N; Fry, R C; Balakrishnan, P; Navas-Acien, A; Oliver-Williams, C; Howard, A G; Cole, S A; Haack, K; Lange, E M; Howard, B V; Best, L G; Francesconi, K A; Goessler, W; Umans, J G; Tellez-Plaza, M

    2017-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that has been associated with cardiovascular disease in populations, but the relationship of Cd with hypertension has been inconsistent. We studied the association between urinary Cd concentrations, a measure of total body burden, and blood pressure in American Indians, a US population with above national average Cd burden. Urinary Cd was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and adjusted for urinary creatinine concentration. Among 3714 middle-aged American Indian participants of the Strong Heart Study (mean age 56 years, 41% male, 67% ever-smokers, 23% taking antihypertensive medications), urinary Cd ranged from 0.01 to 78.48 μg g -1 creatinine (geometric mean=0.94 μg g -1 ) and it was correlated with smoking pack-year among ever-smokers (r 2 =0.16, Pyears), and urinary Cd was similarly elevated in light- and never-smokers (geometric means of 0.88 μg g -1 creatinine for both categories). Log-transformed urinary Cd was significantly associated with higher systolic blood pressure in models adjusted for age, sex, geographic area, body mass index, smoking (ever vs never, and cumulative pack-years) and kidney function (mean blood pressure difference by lnCd concentration (β)=1.64, P=0.002). These associations were present among light- and never-smokers (β=2.03, P=0.002, n=2627), although not significant among never-smokers (β=1.22, P=0.18, n=1260). Cd was also associated with diastolic blood pressure among light- and never-smokers (β=0.94, P=0.004). These findings suggest that there is a relationship between Cd body burden and increased blood pressure in American Indians, a population with increased cardiovascular disease risk.

  12. Blood pressure documentation in the emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ana Carolina Queiroz Godoy; Machado, Juliana Pereira; Veiga, Eugenia Velludo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the frequency of blood pressure documentation performed by nursing professionals in an emergency department. Methods This is a cross-sectional, observational, descriptive, and analytical study, which included medical records of adult patients admitted to the observation ward of an emergency department, between March and May 2014. Data were obtained through a collection instrument divided into three parts: patient identification, triage data, and blood pressure documentation. For statistical analysis, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used, with a significance level of α<0.05. Results One hundred fifty-seven records and 430 blood pressure measurements were analyzed with an average of three measurements per patient. Of these measures, 46.5% were abnormal. The mean time from admission to documentation of the first blood pressure measurement was 2.5 minutes, with 42 minutes between subsequent measures. There is no correlation between the systolic blood pressure values and the mean time interval between blood pressure documentations: 0.173 (p=0.031). Conclusion The present study found no correlation between frequency of blood pressure documentation and blood pressure values. The frequency of blood pressure documentation increased according to the severity of the patient and decreased during the length of stay in the emergency department. PMID:28444085

  13. Nitrate-Rich Vegetables Increase Plasma Nitrate and Nitrite Concentrations and Lower Blood Pressure in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonvik, Kristin L; Nyakayiru, Jean; Pinckaers, Philippe Jm; Senden, Joan Mg; van Loon, Luc Jc; Verdijk, Lex B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary nitrate is receiving increased attention due to its reported ergogenic and cardioprotective properties. The extent to which ingestion of various nitrate-rich vegetables increases postprandial plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lowers blood pressure is currently unknown. We aimed to assess the impact of ingesting different nitrate-rich vegetables on subsequent plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and resting blood pressure in healthy normotensive individuals. With the use of a semirandomized crossover design, 11 men and 7 women [mean ± SEM age: 28 ± 1 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (BMI, in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 1; exercise: 1-10 h/wk] ingested 4 different beverages, each containing 800 mg (∼12.9 mmol) nitrate: sodium nitrate (NaNO3), concentrated beetroot juice, a rocket salad beverage, and a spinach beverage. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and blood pressure were determined before and up to 300 min after beverage ingestion. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations increased after ingestion of all 4 beverages (P nitrate concentrations were similar for all treatments (all values presented as means ± SEMs: NaNO3: 583 ± 29 μmol/L; beetroot juice: 597 ± 23 μmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 584 ± 24 μmol/L; spinach beverage: 584 ± 23 μmol/L). Peak plasma nitrite concentrations were different between treatments (NaNO3: 580 ± 58 nmol/L; beetroot juice: 557 ± 57 nmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 643 ± 63 nmol/L; spinach beverage: 980 ± 160 nmol/L; P = 0.016). When compared with baseline, systolic blood pressure declined 150 min after ingestion of beetroot juice (from 118 ± 2 to 113 ± 2 mm Hg; P nitrate-rich beetroot juice, rocket salad beverage, and spinach beverage effectively increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lowers blood pressure to a greater extent than sodium nitrate. These findings show that nitrate-rich vegetables can be used as dietary nitrate

  14. Caffeine: How Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... naturally increase your blood pressure, such as exercise, weightlifting or hard physical labor. To see if caffeine ... blood pressure and stress indices in healthy individuals. Nutrition Journal. 2016;15:26. Cano-Marquina A, et ...

  15. Office blood pressure or ambulatory blood pressure for the prediction of cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Jeppesen, Jørgen Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To determine the added value of (i) 24-h ambulatory blood pressure relative to office blood pressure and (ii) night-time ambulatory blood pressure relative to daytime ambulatory blood pressure for 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. Methods...... and results: A total of 7927 participants were included from the International Database on Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. We used cause-specific Cox regression to predict 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events....... Discrimination of 10-year outcomes was assessed by time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). No differences in predicted risks were observed when comparing office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure. The median difference in 10-year risks (1st; 3rd quartile) was -0...

  16. Office blood pressure or ambulatory blood pressure for the prediction of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Jeppesen, Jørgen Lykke; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-11-21

    To determine the added value of (i) 24-h ambulatory blood pressure relative to office blood pressure and (ii) night-time ambulatory blood pressure relative to daytime ambulatory blood pressure for 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. A total of 7927 participants were included from the International Database on Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. We used cause-specific Cox regression to predict 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. Discrimination of 10-year outcomes was assessed by time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). No differences in predicted risks were observed when comparing office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure. The median difference in 10-year risks (1st; 3rd quartile) was -0.01% (-0.3%; 0.1%) for cardiovascular mortality and -0.1% (-1.1%; 0.5%) for cardiovascular events. The difference in AUC (95% confidence interval) was 0.65% (0.22-1.08%) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.33% (0.83-1.84%) for cardiovascular events. Comparing daytime and night-time blood pressure, the median difference in 10-year risks was 0.002% (-0.1%; 0.1%) for cardiovascular mortality and -0.01% (-0.5%; 0.2%) for cardiovascular events. The difference in AUC was 0.10% (-0.08 to 0.29%) for cardiovascular mortality and 0.15% (-0.06 to 0.35%) for cardiovascular events. Ten-year predictions obtained from ambulatory blood pressure are similar to predictions from office blood pressure. Night-time blood pressure does not improve 10-year predictions obtained from daytime measurements. For an otherwise healthy population sufficient prognostic accuracy of cardiovascular risks can be achieved with office blood pressure. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan René; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood...... pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. METHODS: For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured blood pressure in adults aged 18 years and older. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends...... from 1975 to 2015 in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of raised blood pressure for 200 countries. We calculated the contributions of changes in prevalence versus population growth and ageing to the increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure. FINDINGS...

  18. Sodium-blood pressure interrelationship in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franx, A; Steegers, E A; de Boo, T; Thien, T; Merkus, J M

    1999-03-01

    In non-pregnant individuals, a strong positive association of sodium intake with blood pressure has been established, but the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in human pregnancy remains obscure up to date. The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to assess the relationship between urinary sodium excretion (as a measure for intake) and blood pressure from the early second trimester onwards throughout pregnancy. The study group consisted of 667 low-risk women with singleton pregnancies, of whom 350 were nulliparous and 317 parous. Blood pressure was measured in a standardised fashion at predetermined intervals from the first antenatal visit prior to 16 weeks gestation until delivery. Urinary sodium excretion was measured in 24-h urine collections on at least four occasions between 16 and 38 weeks gestation. Main outcome measures were the coefficients of correlation between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure during six different gestational epochs. No significant correlations were found between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure. Correlation coefficients were alike for nulliparous and parous women and for different gestational intervals. Prior to 32 weeks gestation, no differences were observed in sodium excretion between women who remained normotensive and those who developed gestational hypertension. These results suggest that changes in sodium intake are not associated with blood pressure changes in low-risk pregnant women. Blood pressure increases as observed in the second half of normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies are unlikely to be caused by changes in renal sodium handling.

  19. Increased blood pressure and aortic stiffness among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon J; Schou, Morten; Madsen, Per L

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among recreational athletes and adverse effects on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness could be substantial. Testosterone decreases natriuretic peptides which are key components in BP-regulation and may impair BP-homeosta......BACKGROUND: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among recreational athletes and adverse effects on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness could be substantial. Testosterone decreases natriuretic peptides which are key components in BP-regulation and may impair BP...

  20. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  1. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  2. A common humoral background of intraocular and arterial blood pressure dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypecki, Janusz; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona; Przybek, Joanna; Ufnal, Marcin

    2018-03-01

    It has been postulated that intraocular pressure, an important glaucoma risk factor, correlates positively with arterial blood pressure (blood pressure). However, results of experimental and clinical studies are often contradictory. It is hypothesized that, in some hypertensive patients, disturbances in intraocular pressure regulation may depend on biological effects of blood borne hormones underlying a particular type of hypertension, rather than on blood pressure level itself. This review compares the effects of hormones on blood pressure and intraocular pressure, in order to identify a hormonal profile of hypertensive patients with an increased risk of intraocular pressure surge. The PUBMED database was searched to identify pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the role of angiotensin II, vasopressin, adrenaline, noradrenaline, prostaglandins, and gaseous transmitters in the regulation of blood pressure and intraocular pressure. Studies included in the review suggest that intraocular and blood pressures often follow a different pattern of response to the same hormone. For example, vasopressin increases blood pressure, but decreases intraocular pressure. In contrast, high level of nitric oxide decreases blood pressure, but increases intraocular pressure. Arterial hypertension is associated with altered levels of blood borne hormones. Contradicting results of studies on the relationship between arterial hypertension and intraocular pressure might be partially explained by diverse effects of hormones on arterial and intraocular pressures. Further studies are needed to evaluate if hormonal profiling may help to identify glaucoma-prone patients.

  3. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golino, Hudson Fernandes; Amaral, Liliany Souza de Brito; Duarte, Stenio Fernando Pimentel; Soares, Telma de Jesus; dos Reis, Luciana Araujo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and waist hip ratio (WHR) using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women) from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42), misclassification (.19), and the higher pseudo R 2 (.43). This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25), misclassification (.16), and the higher pseudo R 2 (.46). This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power. PMID:24669313

  4. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Fernandes Golino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI, waist (WC and hip circumference (HC, and waist hip ratio (WHR using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42, misclassification (.19, and the higher pseudo R2 (.43. This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25, misclassification (.16, and the higher pseudo R2 (.46. This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power.

  5. Predicting increased blood pressure using machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golino, Hudson Fernandes; Amaral, Liliany Souza de Brito; Duarte, Stenio Fernando Pimentel; Gomes, Cristiano Mauro Assis; Soares, Telma de Jesus; Dos Reis, Luciana Araujo; Santos, Joselito

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and waist hip ratio (WHR) using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women) from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42), misclassification (.19), and the higher pseudo R (2) (.43). This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25), misclassification (.16), and the higher pseudo R (2) (.46). This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power.

  6. Influence of short-term blood pressure variability on blood pressure determinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, W. J.; van Goudoever, J.; van Montfrans, G. A.; Wesseling, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of blood pressure variability on Riva Rocci Korotkoff blood pressure determinations, we studied the intra-arterial pressure during Riva Rocci Korotkoff determinations in 25 patients. In 50 measurements with a cuff deflation rate of 2.5 mm Hg/sec, the systolic intra-arterial

  7. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Parents / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... High Blood Pressure) Treated? Print What Is Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)? Blood pressure is the pressure of blood against ...

  8. Neurobehavioral deficits and increased blood pressure in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2010-01-01

    -Binet Copying Recall Test). These associations corresponded to a developmental delay of 1.5-2 years. Prenatal pesticide exposure was also significantly associated with an average increase of 3.6 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in body mass index of 1.1 kg/m2. Inclusion of the pilot data...

  9. Secular trends of blood pressure in A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Kitano, Koei

    1986-01-01

    There has been controversy about whether or not radiation exposure plays a major role in advancing age. To preliminarily study this relationship, a statistical analysis was made on blood pressure measurements in a cohort of A-bomb survivors for Adult Health Study carried out during a 22-year period from 1958 through 1980. Systolic blood pressure increased with advancing age in both men and women between 30 and 80 years. During the years 1974 through 1980, it tended to increase in both men and women aged in their thirties and fourties. Diastolic blood pressure for men increased between the ages of 30 and 60 years, and decreased between the ages of 60 and 80 years. It tended to increase from year to year for men. For women, it decreased prior to the 1970's, and thereafter, tended to increase. The parameters, including systolic and diastolic blood pressures and pulse pressure, were independent of exposure doses in the subgroups according to age or sex. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. [P wave dispersion increased in childhood depending on blood pressure, weight, height, and cardiac structure and function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-González, Elibet; González-Rodríguez, Emilio; Llanes-Camacho, María Del Carmen; Garí-Llanes, Merlin; García-Nóbrega, Yosvany; García-Sáez, Julieta

    2014-01-01

    Increased P wave dispersion are identified as a predictor of atrial fibrillation. There are associations between hypertension, P wave dispersion, constitutional and echocardiographic variables. These relationships have been scarcely studied in pediatrics. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between P wave dispersion, blood pressure, echocardiographic and constitutional variables, and determine the most influential variables on P wave dispersion increases in pediatrics. In the frame of the PROCDEC II project, children from 8 to 11 years old, without known heart conditions were studied. Arterial blood pressure was measured in all the children; a 12-lead surface electrocardiogram and an echocardiogram were done as well. Left ventricular mass index mean values for normotensive (25.91±5.96g/m(2.7)) and hypertensive (30.34±8.48g/m(2.7)) showed significant differences P=.000. When we add prehypertensive and hypertensive there are 50.38% with normal left ventricular mass index and P wave dispersion was increased versus 13.36% of normotensive. Multiple regression demonstrated that the mean blood pressure, duration of A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height have a value of r=0.88 as related to P wave dispersion. P wave dispersion is increased in pre- and hypertensive children compared to normotensive. There are pre- and hypertensive patients with normal left ventricular mass index and increased P wave dispersion. Mean arterial pressure, duration of the A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height are the variables with the highest influence on increased P wave dispersion. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of BM-573 on Endothelial Dependent Relaxation and Increased Blood Pressure at Early Stages of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Romero

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an early event in atherosclerosis and plays a pivotal role in the development, progression and clinical complications of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have shown the beneficial effects of combined inhibition of thromboxane synthase and antagonism of thromboxane receptors by BM-573 on atherosclerosis; however our knowledge about the beneficial effects of BM-573 on endothelial function and increased blood pressure related to early stage of atherosclerosis is limited. In the present study, we investigated the effects of short-term (3 μM, 1 hour and chronic (10 mg/L, 8 weeks treatments with BM-573 on vasodilatory function, nitric oxide (NO bioavailability, oxidative stress and systolic blood pressure in 15 weeks old apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-KO mice. ApoE-KO mice showed a reduced endothelium-derived relaxation. In addition, NO bioavailability was reduced and oxidative stress and blood pressure were increased in ApoE-KO mice versus wild-type mice. BM-573 treatments were able to improve the relaxation profile in ApoE-KO mice. Short-term effects of BM-573 were mainly mediated by an increased phosphorylation of both eNOS and Akt, whereas BM-573 in vivo treatment also reduced oxidative stress and restored NO bioavailability. In addition, chronic administration of BM-573 reduced systolic blood pressure in ApoE-KO mice. In conclusion, pharmacological modulation of TxA2 biosynthesis and biological activities by dual TP antagonism/TxAS inhibition with BM-573, already known to prevent plaque formation, has the potential to correct vasodilatory dysfunction at the early stages of atherosclerosis.

  12. Assessing pharmacy students' ability to accurately measure blood pressure using a blood pressure simulator arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottenberg, Michelle M; Bryant, Ginelle A; Haack, Sally L; North, Andrew M

    2013-06-12

    To compare student accuracy in measuring normal and high blood pressures using a simulator arm. In this prospective, single-blind, study involving third-year pharmacy students, simulator arms were programmed with prespecified normal and high blood pressures. Students measured preset normal and high diastolic and systolic blood pressure using a crossover design. One hundred sixteen students completed both blood pressure measurements. There was a significant difference between the accuracy of high systolic blood pressure (HSBP) measurement and normal systolic blood pressure (NSBP) measurement (mean HSBP difference 8.4 ± 10.9 mmHg vs NSBP 3.6 ± 6.4 mmHg; pdifference between the accuracy of high diastolic blood pressure (HDBP) measurement and normal diastolic blood pressure (NDBP) measurement (mean HDBP difference 6.8 ± 9.6 mmHg vs. mean NDBP difference 4.6 ± 4.5 mmHg; p=0.089). Pharmacy students may need additional instruction and experience with taking high blood pressure measurements to ensure they are able to accurately assess this important vital sign.

  13. Assessing Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Accurately Measure Blood Pressure Using a Blood Pressure Simulator Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Ginelle A.; Haack, Sally L.; North, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare student accuracy in measuring normal and high blood pressures using a simulator arm. Methods. In this prospective, single-blind, study involving third-year pharmacy students, simulator arms were programmed with prespecified normal and high blood pressures. Students measured preset normal and high diastolic and systolic blood pressure using a crossover design. Results. One hundred sixteen students completed both blood pressure measurements. There was a significant difference between the accuracy of high systolic blood pressure (HSBP) measurement and normal systolic blood pressure (NSBP) measurement (mean HSBP difference 8.4 ± 10.9 mmHg vs NSBP 3.6 ± 6.4 mmHg; pdifference between the accuracy of high diastolic blood pressure (HDBP) measurement and normal diastolic blood pressure (NDBP) measurement (mean HDBP difference 6.8 ± 9.6 mmHg vs. mean NDBP difference 4.6 ± 4.5 mmHg; p=0.089). Conclusions. Pharmacy students may need additional instruction and experience with taking high blood pressure measurements to ensure they are able to accurately assess this important vital sign. PMID:23788809

  14. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart ... kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

  15. Cocoa, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Livia; Proietti, Ilenia; Di Agostino, Stefania; Martella, Letizia; Mai, Francesca; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide

    2015-11-18

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to this, cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavanols. Flavanols have been described to exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase, the increased availability of l-arginine, and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect by protecting against oxidative stress alterations and via decreased platelet aggregation, decreased lipid oxidation, and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a decrease of blood pressure and a favorable trend toward a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events. A 3 mmHg systolic blood pressure reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, focusing on putative mechanisms of action and "nutraceutical " viewpoints.

  16. Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental effects on retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure in healthy adults, as well as the possible genetic connection between these two characteristics. METHODS: In 55 monozygotic and 50 dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs......%-80%) for CRAE, 83% (95% CI: 73%-89%) for CRVE, and 61% (95% CI: 44%-73%) for mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). Retinal artery diameter decreased with increasing age and increasing arterial blood pressure. Mean vessel diameters in the population were 165.8 +/- 14.9 microm for CRAE, 246.2 +/- 17.7 microm...... for CRVE, and 0.67 +/- 0.05 microm for AVR. No significant influence on artery or vein diameters was found for gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, or 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test values. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy young adults with normal blood pressure...

  17. At what age group blood pressure discontinue to increase? An assessment using change-point analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalib A. Latiff

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim To study at what age group blood pressure ceases to increase for women and men.Methods Applying change-point technique, we used our existing database - mega base-line cross-sectional Hulu Langat Health Study that was initiated in 2000 - to locate the most appropriate age limit in planning promotive, preventive and controlling strategies against systolic hypertension.Results Systolic hypertension was found to be constantly increasing for both gender right from the early age until the middle age group. However, women achieved the systolic peak 15 years earlier (at 41-45 years old than men (at 56-60 years old. Systolic blood pressure was steadily declined after the peak.Conclusions Hypertension intervention, we recommend age before 40 (women and 55 (men be the most appropriate period to apply various public health intervention, after that, the action must be exclusively curative. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:136-41Keywords: change-point analysis, public health intervention, systolic hypertension

  18. Blood Pressure Medications: Can They Raise My Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications: Can they raise my triglycerides? Can some blood pressure medications cause an increase in triglycerides? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, some blood pressure medications can affect triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Hydrochlorothiazide ...

  19. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    The present study re-examines the 15% MVC concept, i.e. the existence of a circulatory steady-state in low intensity static contractions below 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean arterial blood pressure was studied during static endurance contractions of the elbow flexor and extensor...... 0.7) min for elbow extension]. Mean arterial blood pressure exhibited a continuous and progressive increase during the 10% MVC contractions indicating that the 15% MVC concept would not appear to be valid. The terminal blood pressure value recorded at the point of exhaustion in the 10% MVC elbow...... the circulation to the muscles was arrested just prior to the cessation of the contraction, blood pressure only partly recovered and remained elevated for as long as the occlusion persisted, indicating the level of pressure-raising muscle chemoreflexes. Based on blood pressure recordings obtained during...

  20. Clinical study on influences of enteric coated aspirin on blood pressure and blood pressure variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, A-L; Chen, W-W; Huang, W-J

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the effects of oral administration of enteric coated aspirin (ASA) on blood pressure and blood pressure variability of hypertension patients before sleep. We observed 150 hypertension cases, classified as Grade 1-2, from September 2006 to March 2008. They are divided into a control group with 30 cases, ASA I group with 60 cases and ASA II group with 60 cases randomly. Subjects in the control group had proper diets, were losing weight, exercising and maintaining a healthy mentality and were taking 30 mg Adalat orally once a day. Based on the treatment of control group, patients in ASA I group were administered 0.1 g Bayaspirin (produced by Bayer Company) at drought in the morning. Also, based on the treatment of control group, patients in ASA II group were administered 0.1 g Bayaspirin at draught before sleep. The course of treatment is 3 months and then after the treatment, decreasing blood pressure and blood pressure variability conditions in three groups will be compared. Through the comparison of ASA II group with the control group, they have differences in terms of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), decreasing range of blood pressure and blood pressure variability (p sleep has synergistic effects on decreasing blood pressure of hypertension patients and improving blood pressure variability.

  1. Clinical significance of stress-related increase in blood pressure: current evidence in office and out-of-office settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Masanori

    2018-05-29

    High blood pressure is the most significant risk factor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases worldwide. Blood pressure and its variability are recognized as risk factors. Thus, hypertension control should focus not only on maintaining optimal levels but also on achieving less variability in blood pressure. Psychosocial stress is known to contribute to the development and worsening of hypertension. Stress is perceived by the brain and induces neuroendocrine responses in either a rapid or long-term manner. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation might be further involved in the modulation of blood pressure elevation associated with stress. White-coat hypertension, defined as high clinic blood pressure but normal out-of-office blood pressure, is the most popular stress-related blood pressure response. Careful follow-up is necessary for this type of hypertensive patients because some show organ damage or a worse prognosis. On the other hand, masked hypertension, defined as high out-of-office blood pressure but normal office blood pressure, has received considerable interest as a poor prognostic condition. The cause of masked hypertension is complex, but evidence suggests that chronic stress at the workplace or home could be involved. Chronic psychological stress could be associated with distorted lifestyle and mental distress as well as long-lasting allostatic load, contributing to the maintenance of blood pressure elevation. Stress issues are common in patients in modern society. Considering psychosocial stress as the pathogenesis of blood pressure elevation is useful for achieving an individual-focused approach and 24-h blood pressure control.

  2. Prevalence of inter-arm blood pressure difference among clinical out-patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Balkishan; Ramawat, Pramila

    2016-04-01

    An increased inter-arm blood pressure difference is an easily determined physical finding, may use as an indicator of cardio vascular event and other sever diseases. Authors evaluated 477 patients to determine the prevalence and significance of inter-arm blood pressure difference. 477 routine outdoor patients selected to observe the inter-arm blood pressure difference. Age, height, weight, body mass index, history of disease and blood pressure recorded. The prevalence of ≥10 mmHg systolic inter-arm blood pressure difference was 5.0% was more as compared to 3.8% had diastolic inter-arm blood pressure difference. The prevalence of systolic and diastolic inter-arm difference between 6 to 10 mmHg was 31.4% and 27.9% respectively. Mean systolic inter-arm blood pressure difference was significantly higher among those patients had a multisystem disorder (10.57±0.98 mmHg) and followed by patients with cardiovascular disease (10.22±0.67 mmHg) as compared to healthy patients (2.71±0.96 mmHg). Various diseases highly influenced the increase in blood pressure irrespective of systolic or diastolic was confirmed strongly significant (pdifferent inter arm blood pressure difference levels. This study supports the view of inter-arm blood pressure difference as an alarming stage of increased disease risk that incorporated to investigate potential problems at an early diagnostic stage. A significant mean difference between left and right arm blood pressure recorded for many diseases.

  3. Cardiovascular reactivity to video game predicts subsequent blood pressure increases in young men: The CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovitz, J H; Raczynski, J M; Wallace, D; Chettur, V; Chesney, M A

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between heightened reactivity of blood pressure (BP) during stress and 5-year changes in blood pressure and hypertensive status, using the CARDIA study. A total of 3364 participants (910 white men, 909 white women, 678 black men, and 867 black women), initially 20 to 32 years old and normotensive, were included. Cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stressors (video game and star-tracing tasks for 3 minutes, cold pressor test for 1 minute) was measured in 1987-1988. We then examined reactivity as a predictor of significant BP change (> or = 8 mm Hg, thought to represent a clinically significant increase) over the next 5 years. Logistic regression models were used to control for potential covariates. Significant BP change and the development of hypertension (BP greater than 140/90 or taking medication for hypertension) over the 5-year follow-up were examined in separate analyses. Increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity to the video game was associated with a significant 5-year SBP increase among the entire cohort, independent of resting SBP (p men but not for women. Reactivity to the star-tracing task or the cold pressor test did not predict significant BP change. Among black men only, new hypertensives (N = 36) had greater diastolic blood pressure (DBP) reactivity to the video game (p = .01). Although BP reactivity to all physical and mental stressors used in this study did not consistently predict 5-year change in BP in this young cohort, the results indicate that reactivity to a video game stressor predicts 5-year change in BP and early hypertension among young adult men. These findings are consistent with other studies showing the usefulness of stressors producing a primarily beta-adrenergic response in predicting BP change and hypertension. The results may be limited by the shortened initial rest and recovery periods used in the CARDIA protocol.

  4. [Blood pressure variability: clinical interest or simple curiosity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaroni, Stefano

    2007-03-14

    Blood pressure variability is a physiological phenomenon influenced by many internal and external factors. This variability could be also influenced by pathological conditions such as arterial hypertension. Two forms must be mainly distinguished: the blood pressure variability at long and short-term. The latter could only be studied by continuous recordings. In this article will be analysed the interest of measuring blood pressure variability, its cardiovascular prognosis and the therapeutic tools when it is increased.

  5. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Possibly. It's thought that ... hours a night could be linked to increased blood pressure. People who sleep five hours or less a ...

  6. Blood pressure normalization post-jugular venous balloon angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Zohara; Grewal, Prabhjot; Cen, Steven; DeBarge-Igoe, Frances; Yu, Jinhee; Arata, Michael

    2015-05-01

    This study is the first in a series investigating the relationship between autonomic nervous system dysfunction and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis patients. We screened patients for the combined presence of the narrowing of the internal jugular veins and symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleeping disorders, headache, thermal intolerance, bowel/bladder dysfunction) and determined systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses to balloon angioplasty. The criteria for eligibility for balloon angioplasty intervention included ≥ 50% narrowing in one or both internal jugular veins, as determined by the magnetic resonance venography, and ≥ 3 clinical symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and post-balloon angioplasty. Among patients who were screened, 91% were identified as having internal jugular veins narrowing (with obstructing lesions) combined with the presence of three or more symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Balloon angioplasty reduced the average systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However, blood pressure categorization showed a biphasic response to balloon angioplasty. The procedure increased blood pressure in multiple sclerosis patients who presented with baseline blood pressure within lower limits of normal ranges (systolic ≤ 105 mmHg, diastolic ≤ 70 mmHg) but decreased blood pressure in patients with baseline blood pressure above normal ranges (systolic ≥ 130 mmHg, diastolic ≥ 80 mmHg). In addition, gender differences in baseline blood pressure subcategories were observed. The coexistence of internal jugular veins narrowing and symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction suggests that the two phenomena may be related. Balloon angioplasty corrects blood pressure deviation in multiple sclerosis patients undergoing internal jugular vein dilation. Further studies should investigate the

  7. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts,

  8. Types of Blood Pressure Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Types of Blood Pressure Medications Updated:Nov 6,2017 Prescription blood pressure ... This content was last reviewed October 2017. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  9. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000101.htm Controlling your high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to: Stroke Heart ...

  10. Ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    UAER. Because 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure is a superior predictor of hypertensive target organ involvement, we aimed to investigate blood pressure profile in clinically healthy subjects with elevated UAER. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed with a portable recorder in 27 subjects...... loss of albumin could not be solely related to the higher blood pressure. In conclusion, apparently healthy subjects with elevated UAER had slightly but significantly higher 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels in addition to increased blood pressure loads but normal circadian variation...

  11. Heritability of blood pressure traits and the genetic contribution to blood pressure variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, M.J. van; Schut, A.F.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Deinum, J.; Sayed-Tabatabaei, F.A.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Isaacs, A.; Axenovich, T.I.; Zorkoltseva, I.V.; Zillikens, M.C.; Pols, H.A.; Witteman, J.C.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the heritability of four blood pressure traits and the proportion of variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes. METHODS: All participants are members of an extended pedigree from a Dutch genetically isolated population. Heritability and genetic correlations of

  12. Directly measuring spinal cord blood flow and spinal cord perfusion pressure via the collateral network: correlations with changes in systemic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kise, Yuya; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Inafuku, Hitoshi; Nagano, Takaaki; Hirayasu, Tsuneo; Yamashiro, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    During thoracoabdominal surgery in which segmental arteries are sacrificed over a large area, blood supply routes from collateral networks have received attention as a means of avoiding spinal cord injury. The aim of this study was to investigate spinal cord blood supply through a collateral network by directly measuring spinal cord blood flow and spinal cord perfusion pressure experimentally. In beagle dogs (n = 8), the thoracoabdominal aorta and segmental arteries L1-L7 were exposed, and a temporary bypass was created for distal perfusion. Next, a laser blood flow meter was placed on the spinal dura mater in the L5 region to measure the spinal cord blood flow. The following were measured simultaneously when the direct blood supply from segmental arteries L2-L7 to the spinal cord was stopped: mean systemic blood pressure, spinal cord perfusion pressure (blood pressure within the aortic clamp site), and spinal cord blood flow supplied via the collateral network. These variables were then investigated for evidence of correlations. Positive correlations were observed between mean systemic blood pressure and spinal cord blood flow during interruption of segmental artery flow both with (r = 0.844, P flow with and without distal perfusion (r = 0.803, P network from outside the interrupted segmental arteries, and high systemic blood pressure (∼1.33-fold higher) was needed to obtain the preclamping spinal cord blood flow, whereas 1.68-fold higher systemic blood pressure was needed when distal perfusion was halted. Spinal cord blood flow is positively correlated with mean systemic blood pressure and spinal cord perfusion pressure under spinal cord ischemia caused by clamping a wide range of segmental arteries. In open and endovascular thoracic and thoracoabdominal surgery, elevating mean systemic blood pressure is a simple and effective means of increasing spinal cord blood flow, and measuring spinal cord perfusion pressure seems to be useful for monitoring

  13. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived short-term blood pressure variability is increased in Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebellato, Andrea; Grillo, Andrea; Dassie, Francesca; Sonino, Nicoletta; Maffei, Pietro; Martini, Chiara; Paoletta, Agostino; Fabris, Bruno; Carretta, Renzo; Fallo, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Cushing's syndrome is associated with high cardiovascular morbility and mortality. Blood pressure (BP) variability within a 24-h period is increasingly recognized as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. The aim of our study was to investigate the short-term BP variability indices in Cushing's syndrome. Twenty-five patients with Cushing's syndrome (mean age 49 ± 13 years, 4 males; 21 Cushing's disease and 4 adrenal adenoma patients) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors. Cushing patients were divided into 8 normotensive (NOR-CUSH) and 17 hypertensive (HYP-CUSH) patients and were compared with 20 normotensive (NOR-CTR) and 20 hypertensive (HYP-CTR) age-, sex-, and BMI-matched control subjects. Short-term BP variability was derived from ABPM and calculated as the following: (1) standard deviation (SD) of 24-h, daytime, and nighttime BP; (2) 24-h weighted SD of BP; and (3) average real variability (ARV), i.e., the average of the absolute differences between consecutive BP measurements over 24 h. In comparison with controls, patients with Cushing's syndrome, either normotensive or hypertensive, had higher 24-h and daytime SD of BP, as well as higher 24-h weighted SD and ARV of BP (P = 0.03 to P CUSH or between HYP-CTR and HYP-CUSH subgroups. ABPM-derived short-term BP variability is increased in Cushing's syndrome, independent of BP elevation. It may represent an additional cardiovascular risk factor in this disease. The role of excess cortisol in BP variability has to be further clarified.

  14. Serotonin and Blood Pressure Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Davis, Robert Patrick; Barman, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) was discovered more than 60 years ago as a substance isolated from blood. The neural effects of 5-HT have been well investigated and understood, thanks in part to the pharmacological tools available to dissect the serotonergic system and the development of the frequently prescribed selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. By contrast, our understanding of the role of 5-HT in the control and modification of blood pressure pales in comparison. Here we focus on the role of 5-HT in systemic blood pressure control. This review provides an in-depth study of the function and pharmacology of 5-HT in those tissues that can modify blood pressure (blood, vasculature, heart, adrenal gland, kidney, brain), with a focus on the autonomic nervous system that includes mechanisms of action and pharmacology of 5-HT within each system. We compare the change in blood pressure produced in different species by short- and long-term administration of 5-HT or selective serotonin receptor agonists. To further our understanding of the mechanisms through which 5-HT modifies blood pressure, we also describe the blood pressure effects of commonly used drugs that modify the actions of 5-HT. The pharmacology and physiological actions of 5-HT in modifying blood pressure are important, given its involvement in circulatory shock, orthostatic hypotension, serotonin syndrome and hypertension. PMID:22407614

  15. The insertion-deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene is associated with increased blood pressure in women at the end of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, Evgeny A; Akulova, Ludmila Y; Dobrodomova, Irina S; Dvornyk, Volodymyr Y; Polonikov, Alexey V; Churnosov, Mikhail I

    2015-09-01

    Malfunctioning of the cardiovascular system during pregnancy may be responsible for adverse effects on the 'mother-fetus' system. The cardiovascular system of a pregnant woman develops adaptation to the increased load. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is known to play an important role in the adaptation. The present study was designed to investigate whether the insertion-deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene is associated with the level of arterial blood pressure in women before and during pregnancy. The level of blood pressure was measured in 591 Russian women (Central Russia) before and during (37-40 weeks term) pregnancy. The women were divided into three groups which were hypertensive, hypotensive, and normotensive according to blood pressure level. Genotyping of the ACE I/D polymorphism was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism assay. Women with genotype DD showed the highest blood pressure level both during and at the end of pregnancy (pACE gene is associated with high blood pressure level at the end of pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Altered Potassium Ion Channel Function as a Possible Mechanism of Increased Blood Pressure in Rats Fed Thermally Oxidized Palm Oil Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkanu, Etah E; Owu, Daniel U; Osim, Eme E

    2017-12-27

    Intake of thermally oxidized palm oil leads to cytotoxicity and alteration of the potassium ion channel function. This study investigated the effects of fresh and thermally oxidized palm oil diets on blood pressure and potassium ion channel function in blood pressure regulation. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of eight rats. Control group received normal feed; fresh palm oil (FPO) and thermally oxidized palm oil (TPO) groups were fed a diet mixed with 15% (weight/weight) fresh palm oil and five times heated palm oil, respectively, for 16 weeks. Blood pressure was measured; blood samples, hearts, and aortas were collected for biochemical and histological analyses. Thermally oxidized palm oil significantly elevated basal mean arterial pressure (MAP). Glibenclamide (10 -5 mmol/L) and tetraethylammonium (TEA; 10 -3 mmol/L) significantly raised blood pressure in TPO compared with FPO and control groups. Levcromakalim (10 -6 mmol/L) significantly (p palm oil increases MAP probably due to the attenuation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium (BK Ca ) channels, tissue peroxidation, and altered histological structures of the heart and blood vessels.

  17. The effect of continuous positive airway pressure on blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgiana Dediu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a disease with increasing prevalence nowadays, being associated with multiple cardiovascular diseases, such as arterial hypertension. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP on blood pressure values. Materials and methods. We performed a prospective interventional study on 52 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The patients were divided into 2 groups: Group A (who received both pharmacological and CPAP treatment and Group B (who received only pharmacological treatment, and were followed up at 3 and 6 months. The statistical analysis was made with SPSS and Microsoft Excel. At the same time, using the surrogate marker –RDW, we tried to evaluate the persistence of systemic inflammation, knowing that OSAS is associated with inflammation. Results. The systolic blood pressure values decreased at 6 months in all OSAS patients who have used CPAP, including patients with normal values of blood pressure. At the same time, the lack of OSAS treatment led to increased values of blood pressure by approximately 10 mmHg. We noticed a link between RDW, age and blood pressure values, respectively the increase of RDW and age may result in an increase in blood pressure. Conclusions. The OSAS treatment can decrease the blood pressure values. A higher RDW may be considered a negative prognostic factor for these patients, reflecting the role of systemic inflammation in the appearance of cardiovascular disorders.

  18. Effects of endurance training on blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Véronique A; Fagard, Robert H

    2005-10-01

    Previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials on the effects of chronic dynamic aerobic endurance training on blood pressure reported on resting blood pressure only. Our aim was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis including resting and ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. Inclusion criteria of studies were: random allocation to intervention and control; endurance training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of > or =4 weeks; availability of systolic or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. The meta-analysis involved 72 trials, 105 study groups, and 3936 participants. After weighting for the number of trained participants and using a random-effects model, training induced significant net reductions of resting and daytime ambulatory blood pressure of, respectively, 3.0/2.4 mm Hg (Phypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; Pendurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favorably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors.

  19. Improvement of Diurnal Blood Pressure Variation by Azilsartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Keisuke; Shirai, Kazuyuki; Okuda, Tetsu; Urata, Hidenori

    2018-01-01

    Azilsartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker with a potent antihypertensive effect. In a multicenter, prospective, open-label study, 265 patients with poor blood pressure control despite treatment with other angiotensin II receptor blockers were switched to 20 mg/day of azilsartan (patients on standard dosages) or 40 mg/day of azilsartan (patients on high dosages). Blood pressure was 149/83 mm Hg before switching and was significantly reduced from 1 month after switching until final assessment (132/76 mm Hg, P < 0.001). The pulse rate was 72/min before switching and increased significantly from 3 months after switching until final assessment (74/min, P < 0.005). A significant decrease of home morning systolic and diastolic pressure was observed from 1 and 3 months, respectively. Home morning blood pressure was 143/82 mm Hg before switching and 130/76 mm Hg at final assessment (P < 0.01). The morning-evening difference of systolic blood pressure decreased from 14.6 to 6.6 mm Hg after switching (P = 0.09). The estimated glomerular filtration rate was significantly decreased at 3, 6, and 12 months after switching, and serum uric acid was significantly increased at 12 months. No serious adverse events occurred. Azilsartan significantly reduced the blood pressure and decreased diurnal variation in patients responding poorly to other angiotensin II receptor blockers.

  20. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  1. Differential Influence of Distinct Components of Increased Blood Pressure on Cardiovascular OutcomesR3

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Susan; Gupta, Deepak K.; Claggett, Brian; Sharrett, A. Richey; Shah, Amil M.; Skali, Hicham; Takeuchi, Madoka; Ni, Hanyu; Solomon, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation in blood pressure (BP) increases risk for all cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, the extent to which different indices of BP elevation may be associated to varying degrees with different cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. We studied 13,340 participants (aged 54±6 years, 56% women, 27% black) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who were free of baseline cardiovascular disease. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare the relative contributions of systol...

  2. Melatonin attenuates prenatal dexamethasone-induced blood pressure increase in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Li-Tung

    2014-04-01

    Although antenatal corticosteroid is recommended to accelerate fetal lung maturation, prenatal dexamethasone exposure results in hypertension in the adult offspring. Since melatonin is a potent antioxidant and has been known to regulate blood pressure, we examined the beneficial effects of melatonin therapy in preventing prenatal dexamethasone-induced programmed hypertension. Male offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups (n = 12/group): control, dexamethasone (DEX), control + melatonin, and DEX + melatonin. Pregnant rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) from gestational day 16 to 22. In the melatonin-treatment groups, rats received 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during their entire pregnancy and lactation. Blood pressure was measured by an indirect tail-cuff method. Gene expression and protein levels were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. At 16 weeks of age, the DEX group developed hypertension, which was partly reversed by maternal melatonin therapy. Reduced nephron numbers due to prenatal dexamethasone exposure were prevented by melatonin therapy. Renal superoxide and NO levels were similar in all groups. Prenatal dexamethasone exposure led to increased mRNA expression of renin and prorenin receptor and up-regulated histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1 expression in the kidneys of 4-month-old offspring. Maternal melatonin therapy augmented renal Mas protein levels in DEX + melatonin group, and increased renal mRNA expression of HDAC-1, HDAC-2, and HDAC-8 in control and DEX offspring. Melatonin attenuated prenatal DEX-induced hypertension by restoring nephron numbers, altering RAS components, and modulating HDACs. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Endurance training in mild hypertension - effects on ambulatory blood pressure and neural circulatory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkiewicz; Somers

    1997-10-01

    This review examines the effects of a single bout of exercise and of endurance training on blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Possible autonomic mechanisms that mediate these changes in blood pressure are reviewed briefly. Blood pressure rises during exercise. During the second half hour after exercise blood pressure is lower. This p;ost-exercise reduction in blood pressure is associated with a decrease in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, an increase in baroreflex gain and a reduction in the level of blood pressure (set point) at which baroreflex activation occurs. The post-exercise fall in blood pressure appears to be limited to several hours and is not likely to explain any chronic reduction in blood pressure from endurance training. Endurance training elicits modest (approximately 4-5 mmHg) reductions in blood pressure. Because of the intrinsic variability of blood pressure, the decreases in blood pressure after endurance training is evident, especially when multiple measurements of blood pressure are obtained. Studies using 24 h blood pressure measurements suggest that, although endurance training lowers daytime blood pressure, blood pressure during sleep remains unchanged. The mechanism underlying the reduction in blood pressure in endurance training is not known. Although physical fitness is known to attenuate the sympathetic response to acute exercise, whether resting sympathetic drive is decreased with endurance training remains controversial. The slowing of heart rate that accompanies endurance training is also associated with an increase in variability of heart rate. The slower heart rate, increased variability of heart rate and lower blood pressure after endurance training are accompanied by an increase in baroreflex sensitivity. Even though the antihypertensive effect of endurance training is modest, the favourable effects of physical fitness on other risk factors for cardiovascular disease make exercise training an important approach in

  4. Chronic high-sodium diet increases aortic wall endothelin-1 expression in a blood pressure-independent fashion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Ohkita, Mamoru; Gariepy, Cheryl E

    2006-06-01

    Vascular endothelin (ET)-1 is upregulated in several forms of salt-induced hypertension. It is unclear to what extent these effects are primary or secondary to endothelial damage. We hypothesized that a high-sodium diet (HNa) increases vascular ET-1 production independent of arterial blood pressure changes. We investigated the effect of chronic HNa with and without ET(A) blockade on circulating and aortic ET-1 protein levels as well as aortic expression of ET-1 and ET(A) messenger RNA (mRNA) in inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and congenic ET(B)-deficient rats. Comparing WKY rats fed a low-sodium diet (LNa) with those fed HNa for 3 weeks, aortic wall ET-1 protein is significantly increased in response to HNa (331 +/- 43 pg/g tissue for LNa vs. 557 +/- 34 pg/gm tissue for HNa). HNa also increased aortic wall ET-1 mRNA levels by 40%, as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We then compared rats chronically treated with the ET(A)-selective antagonist, ABT-627, while receiving either LNa or HNa. There were no differences in arterial blood pressure (mean arterial pressure 89 +/- 1 mm Hg for WKY on LNa; 90 +/- 3 for WKY on HNa; 91 +/- 2 for ET(B)-deficient/ABT-627-treated on HNa) or heart rate. However, aortic wall ET-1 protein levels were 4-fold higher in the HNa group. Further, HNa increased aortic wall ET-1 mRNA (approximately 1.5- to 3-fold) and ET(A) mRNA (approximately 2- to 7-fold), independent of activation of ET(B). Therefore, the expression of ET-1 mRNA by the aortic wall is increased in response to chronic high dietary sodium in WKY rats in the absence of changes in arterial blood pressure.

  5. Blood pressure standards for Saudi children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSalloum, Abdullah A.; El Mouzan, Mohammad I.; AlHerbish, Abdullah S.; AlOmar, Ahmad A.; Qurashi, Mansour M.

    2009-01-01

    Blood pressure levels may vary in children because of genetic, ethnic and socioeconomic factors. To date, there have been no large national studies in Saudi Arabia on blood pressure in children. Therefore, we sought to establish representative blood pressure reference centiles for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. We selected a sample of children and adolescents aged from birth to 18 years by multi-stage probability sampling of the Saudi population. The selected sample represented Saudi children from the whole country. Data were collected through a house-to-house survey of all selected households in all 13 regions in the country. Data were analyzed to study the distribution pattern of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and to develop reference values. The 90th percentile of SBP and DBP values for each age were compared with values from a Turkish and an American study. A total of 16 226 Saudi children and adolescents from birth to 18 years were studied. Blood pressure rose steadily with age in both boys and girls. The average annual increase in SBP was 1.66 mm Hg for boys and1.44 mm Hg for girls. The average annual increase in DBP was 0.83 mm Hg for boys and 0.77 mm Hg for girls. DBP rose sharply in boys at the age of 18 years. Values for the 90th percentile of both SBP and DBP varied in Saudi children from their Turkish and American counterparts for all age groups. Blood pressure values in this study differed from those from other studies in developing countries and in the United States, indicating that comparison across studies is difficult and from that every population should use their own normal standards to define measured blood pressure levels in children. (author)

  6. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  7. Effect of cocoa on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter; Stocks, Nigel P

    2017-04-25

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, contributing to about 50% of cardiovascular events worldwide and 37% of cardiovascular-related deaths in Western populations. Epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Flavanols found in cocoa have been shown to increase the formation of endothelial nitric oxide which promotes vasodilation and therefore blood pressure reduction. Here we update previous meta-analyses on the effect of cocoa on blood pressure. To assess the effects on blood pressure of chocolate or cocoa products versus low-flavanol products or placebo in adults with or without hypertension when consumed for two weeks or longer. This is an updated version of the review initially published in 2012. In this updated version, we searched the following electronic databases from inception to November 2016: Cochrane Hypertension Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase. We also searched international trial registries, and the reference lists of review articles and included trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of chocolate or cocoa products on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults for a minimum of two weeks duration. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risks of bias in each trial. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses on the included studies using Review Manager 5. We explored heterogeneity with subgroup analyses by baseline blood pressure, flavanol content of control group, blinding, age and duration. Sensitivity analyses explored the influence of unusual study design. Thirty-five trials (including 40 treatment comparisons) met the inclusion criteria. Of these, we added 17 trials (20 treatment comparisons) to the 18 trials (20 treatment comparisons) in the previous version of this updated review.Trials provided participants with 30 to 1218 mg of flavanols (mean = 670 mg) in 1.4 to 105

  8. Diet, blood pressure, and multicollinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D; McGee, D; Yano, K; Hankin, J

    1985-01-01

    Recent reports of an inverse association between dietary calcium intake and hypertension stimulated this analysis of the relationship of blood pressure to more than 20 dietary factors among a group of 8000 Japanese men in Hawaii. Reported intakes of potassium, calcium, protein, and milk were all inversely associated with blood pressure levels when examined one at a time while controlling for other risk factors. Alcohol intake was directly associated with blood pressure, and was treated as a confounding variable in the analysis. The association of potassium intake with blood pressure was relatively stronger than the associations for other nutrients, but the intake of potassium was so highly correlated with intakes of calcium, milk, and protein that it was not statistically possible to identify the independent association of potassium and blood pressure. Calcium intake was strongly correlated with milk and potassium intakes, and only calcium from dairy sources was associated with blood pressure. These data thus indicate that several dietary factors are inversely related to blood pressure levels independently of other risk factors such as age, body mass, and alcohol intake. The high degree of intercorrelation (multicollinearity) among these dietary factors, however, indicates that the independent role of any specific nutrient cannot be conclusively separated from the possible effects of other nutrients in this type of study.

  9. Deletion of Cyclooxygenase-2 in the mouse increases arterial blood pressure with no impairment in renal NO production in response to chronic high salt intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, Mette; Hansen, Pernille B L; Madsen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that COX-2 activity attenuates the blood pressure increase during high NaCl intake by stimulation of eNOS-mediated NO synthesis in the kidney medulla. COX-2(-/-) (C57BL6) and (+/+) mice were fed a diet with 0.004% (LS) or 4% (HS) NaCl for 18 days. ...... pressure during high salt intake and COX-2 activity is not necessary for increased renal NO formation during elevated NaCl intake....... pressure on salt intake and genotype: COX-2(-/-) exhibited higher blood pressure than COX-2(+/+) both on HS and LS intake. COX-2(+/+) littermates displayed an increase in blood pressure on HS vs. LS (102.3±1.1 mmHg vs. 91.9±0.9 mmHg) day and night. The mice exhibited significant blood pressure increases...... during the awake phase (night) that were larger in COX-2(-/-) on HS diet compared to COX-2(+/+). Water intake, diuresis, Na(+) and osmolyte excretions and NOx and cGMP excretions were significantly and similarly elevated with HS in COX-2(-/-) and COX-2(+/+). In summary, C57BL6 mice exhibit a salt intake...

  10. Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol: Does it affect blood pressure? Does drinking alcohol affect your blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels. Having ...

  11. Dietary phytosterols and phytostanols decrease cholesterol levels but increase blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of salt-loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnayake Walisundera MN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are safety concerns regarding widespread consumption of phytosterol and phytostanol supplemented food products. The aim of this study was to determine, in the absence of excess dietary salt, the individual effects of excess accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on blood pressure in Wistar Kyoto (WKY inbred rats that have a mutation in the Abcg5 gene and thus over absorb phytosterols and phytostanols. Methods Thirty 35-day old male WKY inbred rats (10/group were fed a control diet or a diet containing phytosterols or phytostanols (2.0 g/kg diet for 5 weeks. The sterol composition of the diets, plasma and tissues were analysed by gas chromatography. Blood pressure was measured by the tail cuff method. mRNA levels of several renal blood pressure regulatory genes were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Results Compared to the control diet, the phytosterol diet resulted in 3- to 4-fold increases in the levels of phytosterols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of WKY inbred rats (P 9-fold the levels of phytostanols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of these rats (P P P P P angiotensinogen mRNA levels of these rats. Conclusion These data suggest that excessive accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols in plasma and tissues may contribute to the increased blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of excess dietary salt. Therefore, even though phytosterols and phytostanols lower cholesterol levels, prospective clinical studies testing the net beneficial effects of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on cardiovascular events for subgroups of individuals that have an increased incorporation of these substances are needed.

  12. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other risk factors, like diabetes, you may need treatment. How does high blood pressure affect pregnant women? A few women will get ... HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health ... High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Women and Diabetes Heart ...

  13. Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overvad, Kim

    2018-01-01

    interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure. Methods: We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million......, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probit-transformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence...... participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20-29 years to 70-79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights...

  14. African Americans and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? African Americans in the U.S. have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) than ...

  15. Self-Efficacy and Blood Pressure Self-Care Behaviors in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauric-Klein, Zorica; Peters, Rosalind M; Yarandi, Hossein N

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the effects of an educative, self-regulation intervention on blood pressure self-efficacy, self-care outcomes, and blood pressure control in adults receiving hemodialysis. Simple randomization was done at the hemodialysis unit level. One hundred eighteen participants were randomized to usual care ( n = 59) or intervention group ( n = 59). The intervention group received blood pressure education sessions and 12 weeks of individual counseling on self-regulation of blood pressure, fluid, and salt intake. There was no significant increase in self-efficacy scores within ( F = .55, p = .46) or between groups at 12 weeks ( F = 2.76, p = .10). Although the intervention was not successful, results from the total sample ( N = 118) revealed that self-efficacy was significantly related to a number of self-care outcomes including decreased salt intake, lower interdialytic weight gain, increased adherence to blood pressure medications, and fewer missed hemodialysis appointments. Increased blood pressure self-efficacy was also associated with lower diastolic blood pressure.

  16. Self-monitored blood pressure: a role in clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padfield, Paul L

    2002-02-01

    Electronic self-monitoring of blood pressure is increasing in popularity and most international guidelines on the management of hypertension approve cautious use of the technique in the assessment of potentially hypertensive individuals. A recent editorial in the Archives of Internal Medicine suggested that it was "appropriate to encourage the widespread use of self recorded BP as an important adjunct to the clinical care of the patient with hypertension". Such a statement is based on increasing evidence that self-monitoring of blood pressure gives similar information to daytime ambulatory blood pressure -- a now well-established technology in the management of hypertension. Suggested strategies for the use of self-monitoring of blood pressure include monitoring in individuals whose clinical risk status is low enough that they need not necessarily be given medical therapy simply on the basis of a clinic pressure (i.e. at a 10 year risk of cardiovascular disease below 20%). The threshold for defining 'normotension/hypertension' is now regarded as being broadly similar for ABPM and SBPM and is set at 135/85 mmHg. In a recent meta-analysis of all available studies the average difference between these techniques, using the same patients, is -1.7/1.2 mmHg. There is some evidence that careful use of self-monitoring may improve blood pressure control in patients who are otherwise resistant to care. Self-monitoring of blood pressure has now been shown in at least one major prospective study to predict outcome better than clinic pressures and in that setting it now has equivalence to the use of ABPM. There remain issues regarding the availability of validated devices, the quality of training of patients in their use and the possibility that inaccurate recording might occur, either deliberately or by accident. Self-monitoring of blood pressure may well not give the same readings as carefully measured blood pressure by research nurses but its use is clearly superior to

  17. Does a colour-coded blood pressure diary improve blood pressure control for patients in general practice: The CoCo trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senn Oliver

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insufficient blood pressure control is a frequent problem despite the existence of effective treatment. Insufficient adherence to self-monitoring as well as to therapy is a common reason. Blood pressure self-measurement at home (Home Blood Pressure Measurement, HBPM has positive effects on treatment adherence and is helpful in achieving the target blood pressure. Only a few studies have investigated whether adherence to HBPM can be improved through simple measures resulting also in better blood pressure control. Objective Improvement of self-monitoring and improved blood pressure control by using a new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Outcome Primary outcome: Change in systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure 6 months after using the new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Secondary outcome: Adherence to blood pressure self-measurement (number of measurements/entries. Methods/Design Randomised controlled study. Population: 138 adult patients in primary care with uncontrolled hypertension despite therapy. The control group uses a conventional blood pressure diary; the intervention group uses the new colour-coded blood pressure diary (green, yellow, red according a traffic light system. Expected results/conclusion The visual separation and entries in three colour-coded areas reflecting risk (green: blood pressure in the target range ≤ 140/≤ 90 mmHg, yellow: blood pressure >140/>90 mmHg, red: blood pressure in danger zone > 180 mmHg/>110 mmHg lead to better self-monitoring compared with the conventional (non-colour-coded blood pressure booklet. The colour-coded, visualised information supports improved perception (awareness and interpretation of blood pressure and triggers correct behaviour, in the means of improved adherence to the recommended treatment as well as better communication between patients and doctors resulting in improved blood pressure control. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01013467

  18. Allergic rhinitis and arterial blood pressure: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakallioglu, O; Polat, C; Akyigit, A; Cetiner, H; Duzer, S

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the likelihood of allergic rhinitis and potential co-morbidities, and to assess whether allergic rhinitis is associated with arterial blood pressure and hypertension. In this population-based study, 369 adults with allergic rhinitis and asthma were assessed via a questionnaire and immunoglobulin E levels. There were four groups: control (n = 90), allergic rhinitis (n = 99), asthma (n = 87) and hypertension (n = 93). Arterial blood pressure was measured in all groups. There were no significant differences in systolic or diastolic blood pressure between males and females in any group. Pairwise comparisons revealed no significant differences between: the control and allergic rhinitis groups, the control and asthma groups, or the allergic rhinitis and asthma groups. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure values of males and females were significantly higher in the hypertension group than the allergic rhinitis group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure for seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis patients. Rhinitis was not associated with increased blood pressure. Allergic rhinitis can coincide with asthma and hypertension. The findings do not support the need for blood pressure follow up in allergic rhinitis patients.

  19. Does a colour-coded blood pressure diary improve blood pressure control for patients in general practice: the CoCo trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer-Stey, Claudia; Zoller, Marco; Chmiel Moshinsky, Corinne; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-04-14

    Insufficient blood pressure control is a frequent problem despite the existence of effective treatment. Insufficient adherence to self-monitoring as well as to therapy is a common reason. Blood pressure self-measurement at home (Home Blood Pressure Measurement, HBPM) has positive effects on treatment adherence and is helpful in achieving the target blood pressure. Only a few studies have investigated whether adherence to HBPM can be improved through simple measures resulting also in better blood pressure control. Improvement of self-monitoring and improved blood pressure control by using a new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Change in systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure 6 months after using the new colour-coded blood pressure diary.Secondary outcome: Adherence to blood pressure self-measurement (number of measurements/entries). Randomised controlled study. 138 adult patients in primary care with uncontrolled hypertension despite therapy. The control group uses a conventional blood pressure diary; the intervention group uses the new colour-coded blood pressure diary (green, yellow, red according a traffic light system). EXPECTED RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The visual separation and entries in three colour-coded areas reflecting risk (green: blood pressure in the target range 140/>90 mmHg, red: blood pressure in danger zone > 180 mmHg/>110 mmHg) lead to better self-monitoring compared with the conventional (non-colour-coded) blood pressure booklet. The colour-coded, visualised information supports improved perception (awareness and interpretation) of blood pressure and triggers correct behaviour, in the means of improved adherence to the recommended treatment as well as better communication between patients and doctors resulting in improved blood pressure control. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01013467.

  20. Blood pressure in childhood : epidemiological probes into the aetiology of high blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hofman (Albert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractHigh arterial blood pressure takes a heavy toll in western populations (1 ). Its causes are still largely unknown, but its sequelae, a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, have been referred to as "a modern scourge" (2). High blood pressure of unknown cause, or

  1. Self-reported knowledge and awareness about blood pressure and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Ina; Thomsen, Marie D; Lindholt, Jes S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In general, it is assumed that patient education, by increasing knowledge, may change behavior and lifestyle and promote health. In this context, it is a surprise that knowledge and awareness about blood pressure and hypertension among elderly people is poor. We hypothesized...... that knowledge about blood pressure and hypertension would be better among individuals with self-reported hypertension compared with subjects without self-reported hypertension. METHODS: We mailed a questionnaire to a random sample of 1,000 subjects living in the municipality of Silkeborg, Denmark. The study...... often had a family history of hypertension. More than 80% reported that overweight and obesity increases blood pressure. More than 60% reported that untreated hypertension may cause heart disease or stroke. More than half of the responders did not know their blood pressure, and only 21% knew...

  2. Blood pressure and serum creatinine in obese female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrin, M; Nessa, A; Hasan, M I; Das, R K

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is increasing in developed as well as in developing countries. This analytical cross sectional study was carried out to document the relation between blood pressure, serum creatinine and body mass index in female and to assess potential health differences among obese female and normal weight female. This study was done in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2012 to June 2013. Seventy female persons volunteered as subjects. Among them 35 were within normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9kg/m²) and 35 were obese (BMI≥30kg/m²). Non probability purposive type of sampling technique was used to select the subjects. Measurement of body mass index and blood pressure were done as per procedure. Serum creatinine level was estimated by enzymatic colorimetric method. The results were calculated and analyzed by using SPSS (statistical package for social science, version 17.0), scientific electronic calculator and simultaneously with a computer assisted program like Microsoft excel. Unpaired 't' test was applied to find the significance of difference regarding serum creatinine and blood pressure levels in obese female. The value of p was 1% to indicate highly significant and 5% to indicate simply significant or statistically significant. The mean±SE of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and serum creatinine levels were 135.71±1.58mmHg, 88.74±0.95mmHg and 1.03±0.01mg/dl respectively; significant at 1% level for obese group of BMI (phigh BMI is significantly related to increased levels of serum creatinine & blood pressure in obese female which indicate the obese subjects are prone to cardiovascular & metabolic risk.

  3. The effects of endurance and resistance training on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R S; Hirth, V A

    1995-10-01

    There now exists substantial clinical data supporting a blood pressure lowering effect of endurance training. Though the effect is modest (5-10 mmHg), epidemiologic studies indicate the possibility of protection against the development of hypertension and also indicate significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality and increased longevity associated with chronic endurance exercise. The data for blood pressure lowering effects of resistive training are much less compelling, and this area requires additional investigation. However, it appears that resistance training is not associated with chronic elevations in blood pressure. Future studies need to focus on: 1) the relative efficacy of low-, moderate- and high-intensity training on lowering blood pressure; 2) the effect of training on ambulatory blood pressure; 3) targeting of at risk and high responding populations; and 4) the importance of insulinemia, SNS tone and central adiposity in the mechanism of any blood pressure lowering effect of training.

  4. Blood Pressure Measurement: Clinic, Home, Ambulatory, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawz, Paul E.; Abdalla, Mohamed; Rahman, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Blood pressure has traditionally been measured in the clinic setting using the auscultory method and a mercury sphygmomanometer. Technological advances have led to improvements in measuring clinic blood pressure and allowed for measuring blood pressures outside the clinic. This review outlines various methods for evaluating blood pressure and the clinical utility of each type of measurement. Home blood pressures and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressures have improved our ability to evaluate risk for target organ damage and hypertension related morbidity and mortality. Measuring home blood pressures may lead to more active participation in health care by patients and has the potential to improve blood pressure control. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring enables the measuring nighttime blood pressures and diurnal changes, which may be the most accurate predictors of risk associated with elevated blood pressure. Additionally, reducing nighttime blood pressure is feasible and may be an important component of effective antihypertensive therapy. Finally, estimating central aortic pressures and pulse wave velocity are two of the newer methods for assessing blood pressure and hypertension related target organ damage. PMID:22521624

  5. THE EFFECT OF HORMONE THERAPY ON MEAN BLOOD PRESSURE AND VISIT-TO-VISIT BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN: RESULTS FROM THE WOMEN’S HEALTH INITIATIVE RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Daichi; Wang, Lu; Lamonte, Michael J.; Allison, Matthew; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Bavry, Anthony A.; Martin, Lisa W.; Aragaki, Aaron; Newman, Jonathan D.; Swica, Yael; Rossouw, Jacques E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Mean and visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of blood pressure are associated with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. We examined the effect of hormone therapy on mean and VVV of blood pressure in postmenopausal women from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trials. Methods Blood pressure was measured at baseline and annually in the two WHI hormone therapy trials in which 10,739 and 16,608 postmenopausal women were randomized to conjugated equine estrogens (CEE, 0.625 mg/day) or placebo, and CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 2.5 mg/day) or placebo, respectively. Results At the first annual visit (Year 1), mean systolic blood pressure was 1.04 mmHg (95% CI 0.58, 1.50) and 1.35 mmHg (95% CI 0.99, 1.72) higher in the CEE and CEE+MPA arms respectively compared to corresponding placebos. These effects remained stable after Year 1. CEE also increased VVV of systolic blood pressure (ratio of VVV in CEE vs. placebo, 1.03, Pblood pressure increased at Year 1, and the differences in the CEE and CEE+MPA arms vs. placebos also continued to increase after Year 1. Further, both CEE and CEE+MPA significantly increased VVV of systolic blood pressure (ratio of VVV in CEE vs. placebo, 1.04, Pblood pressure. PMID:24991872

  6. Baseline Blood Pressure, the 2017 ACC/AHA High Blood Pressure Guidelines, and Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk in SPRINT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Pareek, Manan; Qamar, Arman; Pandey, Ambarish; Olsen, Michael H; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2018-02-05

    The 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines include lower thresholds to define hypertension than previous guidelines. Little is known about the impact of these guideline changes in patients with or at high risk for cardiovascular disease. In this exploratory analysis using baseline blood pressure assessments in Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), we evaluated the prevalence and associated cardiovascular prognosis of patients newly reclassified with hypertension based on the 2017 ACC/AHA (systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mm Hg) compared with the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) guidelines (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg). The primary endpoint was the composite of myocardial infarction, other acute coronary syndromes, stroke, heart failure, or cardiovascular death. In 4683 patients assigned to the standard treatment arm of SPRINT, 2328 (49.7%) met hypertension thresholds by JNC 7 guidelines, and another 1424 (30.4%) were newly reclassified as having hypertension based on the 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines. Over 3.3-year median follow-up, 319 patients experienced the primary endpoint (87 of whom were newly reclassified with hypertension based on the revised guidelines). Patients with hypertension based on prior guidelines compared with those newly identified with hypertension based on the new guidelines had similar risk of the primary endpoint (2.3 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.0-2.7] vs 2.0 [95% CI, 1.6-2.4] events per 100 patient-years; adjusted HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.84-1.44]; P = .48). The 2017 ACC/AHA high blood pressure guidelines are expected to significantly increase the prevalence of patients with hypertension (perhaps to a greater extent in higher-risk patient cohorts compared with the general population) and

  7. Potentiation by aminopeptidase P of blood pressure response to bradykinin.

    OpenAIRE

    Kitamura, S; Carbini, L A; Carretero, O A; Simmons, W H; Scicli, A G

    1995-01-01

    We examined whether a specific aminopeptidase P (APP) inhibitor, apstatin, increases vasodepressor responses to bradykinin in anaesthetized rats, and whether it would augment blood pressure responses further after treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi), lisinopril. Apstatin doubled the maximum blood pressure response to bradykinin. The area under the curve (AUC), which incorporates both peak blood pressure changes and duration of response, was doubled in apstatin-tr...

  8. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, Rochelle E., E-mail: rochelle.garner@canada.ca [Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Levallois, Patrick [Direction de la santé environnementale et de la toxicologie, Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Québec City, Québec (Canada); Axe santé des populations et pratiques optimales en santé, Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec City, Québec (Canada)

    2017-05-15

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure

  9. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, Rochelle E.; Levallois, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure

  10. Effects of parental smoking on exercise systolic blood pressure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Claudia; Weisser, Burkhard

    2015-05-11

    In adults, exercise blood pressure seems to be more closely related to cardiovascular risk than resting blood pressure; however, few data are available on the effects of familial risk factors, including smoking habits, on exercise blood pressure in adolescents. Blood pressure at rest and during exercise, parental smoking, and other familial risk factors were investigated in 532 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years (14.6±1.5 years) in the Kiel EX.PRESS. (EXercise PRESSure) Study. Exercise blood pressure was determined at 1.5 W/kg body weight using a standardized submaximal cycle ergometer test. Mean resting blood pressure was 113.1±12.8/57.2±7.1 mm Hg, and exercise blood pressure was 149.9±19.8/54.2±8.6 mm Hg. Parental smoking increased exercise systolic blood pressure (+4.0 mm Hg, 3.1 to 4.9; P=0.03) but not resting blood pressure of the subjects (adjusted for age, sex, height, body mass index percentile, fitness). Parental overweight and familial hypertension were related to both higher resting and exercise systolic blood pressure values, whereas associations with an inactive lifestyle and a low educational level of the parents were found only with adolescents' blood pressure during exercise. The cumulative effect of familial risk factors on exercise systolic blood pressure was more pronounced than on blood pressure at rest. Parental smoking might be a novel risk factor for higher blood pressure, especially during exercise. In addition, systolic blood pressure during a submaximal exercise test was more closely associated with familial risk factors than was resting blood pressure, even in adolescents. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  11. Quantitative and qualitative retinal microvascular characteristics and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Carol Y; Tay, Wan T; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie J; Hsu, Wynne; Lee, Mong L; Lau, Qiangfeng P; Zhu, Ai L; Klein, Ronald; Saw, Seang M; Wong, Tien Y

    2011-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of blood pressure on a spectrum of quantitative and qualitative retinal microvascular signs. Retinal photographs from the Singapore Malay Eye Study, a population-based cross-sectional study of 3280 (78.7% response) persons aged 40-80 years, were analyzed. Quantitative changes in the retinal vasculature (branching angle, vascular tortuosity, fractal dimension, and vascular caliber) were measured using a semi-automated computer-based program. Qualitative signs, including focal arteriolar narrowing (FAN), arteriovenous nicking (AVN), opacification of the arteriolar wall (OAW), and retinopathy (e.g., microaneurysms, retinal hemorrhages), were assessed from photographs by trained technicians. After excluding persons with diabetes and ungradable photographs, 1913 persons provided data for this analysis. In multivariable linear regression models controlling for age, sex, BMI, use of antihypertensive medication, and other factors, retinal arteriolar branching asymmetry ratio, arteriolar tortuosity, venular tortuosity, fractal dimension, arteriolar caliber, venular caliber, FAN, AVN, and retinopathy were independently associated with mean arterial blood pressure. In contrast, arteriolar/venular branching angle, venular branching asymmetry ratio and OAW were not related to blood pressure. Retinal arteriolar caliber (sβ = -0.277) and FAN (sβ = 0.170) had the strongest associations with mean arterial blood pressure, and higher blood pressure levels were associated with increasing number of both quantitative and qualitative retinal vascular signs (P trend qualitative retinal vascular signs, with the number of signs increasing with higher blood pressure levels.

  12. Blood pressure as a therapeutic target in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, Pedro; de la Sierra, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Stroke, as a clinical manifestation of the cardiovascular diseases, is one of the leading causes of death and disability in both developed and developing countries. Hypertension is by far, the most important risk factor for stroke. Epidemiological data indicate that the risk of stroke increases with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure elevation, from levels of 115/75 mmHg. It is also evident that most adults worldwide have values above these limits, thus emphasizing the importance of blood pressure as a risk factor for stroke. Clinical trials of antihypertensive treatment, both in studies that have compared active drugs against placebo or in those comparing different types of drugs have clearly demonstrated a protective effect of blood pressure reduction in the prevention of stroke. The degree of protection is directly related to blood pressure reduction and, the lower the level, the better the prognosis. Although data on secondary stroke prevention are scarcer, studies also seem to indicate that lowering blood pressure with antihypertensive treatment protects against stroke recurrence. At the present moment there is still uncertainty on 2 different aspects regarding the relationship between antihypertensive treatment and stroke. First, the blood pressure management during acute stroke has not adequately investigated in clinical trials. Second, the possibility of a protective role of specific types of antihypertensive drugs beyond blood pressure reduction is a matter of debate. Independently of these unresolved issues, prevention of hypertension development by lifestyle changes and adequate treatment and control to the hypertensive population will be a very effective measure in reducing stroke incidence, stroke recurrence, and stroke mortality.

  13. Relationship between blood pressure, body mass index and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Globally, studies have shown that the trend of overweight and obesity has increased astronomically and there is a close link between body mass index and blood pressure. This study determined the link between the body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and health promoting practices of women in rural and ...

  14. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Jeekeeree, Wanpen; Funkhiew, Thippawan; Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn; Phopueng, Ittipol

    2015-01-01

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β 2 -microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β 2 -microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β 2 -microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β 2 -microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children

  15. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamaoka, K; Yano, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the adverse effects of long working hours on the cardiovascular systems of workers in Japan, including "Karoshi" (death from overwork), have been the focus of social concern. However, conventional methods of health checkups are often unable to detect the early signs of such adverse effects. To evaluate the influence of overtime work on the cardiovascular system, we compared 24-hour blood pressure measurements among several groups of male white-collar workers. As a result, for those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24-hour average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups; for those who periodically did overtime work, the 24-hour average blood pressure and heart rate during the busy period increased. These results indicate that the burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work.

  16. Mean Blood Pressure Difference among Adolescents Based on Dyssomnia Types

    OpenAIRE

    Krisnarta Sembiring; Oke Rina Ramayani; Munar Lubis

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dyssomnia is the most frequent sleep disturbance and associated with increased blood pressure. There has been no study determining the difference in mean blood pressure based on dyssomnia types among adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To determine the difference in mean blood pressure among adolescents based on dyssomnia types. METHODS: a Cross-sectional study was conducted in SMP Negeri 1 Muara Batang Gadis in April 2016. Samples were students having sleep disturbance based on Sleep...

  17. Child Abuse, Resting Blood Pressure, and Blood Pressure Reactivity to Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly E; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with hypertension in adults. It is unknown whether childhood trauma predicts elevated blood pressure earlier in development. We investigated whether the trauma of child abuse was associated with blood pressure in adolescents. The sample included 145 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 40% with exposure to child abuse. The mean age of participants was 14.93 years (SD = 1.33); 58% were female. The majority self-identified as non-Hispanic White (43%), with the remainder identifying as non-Hispanic Black (17%), Hispanic (17%), or other/mixed race (23%). We used established age/sex/height-specific cutoffs to determine the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in the sample. We used two-sample t tests to examine associations of abuse with resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and blood pressure reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test and a frustration task. We used linear regression to adjust for potential confounders including sociodemographic variables, body mass index, smoking, and psychopathology. Mean resting SBP and DBP were 114.07 mmHg and 61.35 mmHg in those with a history of abuse and 111.39 mmHg and 56.89 mmHg in those without a history of abuse. This difference was significant for DBP only. Twelve percent of participants met criteria for prehypertension or hypertension based on resting blood pressure values; this did not differ between those with and without an abuse history. Child abuse was associated with lower DBP and SBP reactivity to laboratory stress tasks and reduced DBP reactivity to frustration. These associations were robust to adjustment for potential confounders. Child abuse is associated with higher resting DBP and blunted DBP and SBP reactivity to laboratory stress in adolescence. These findings suggest a potential pathway by which child abuse leads to hypertension. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All

  18. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood pressure...

  19. Perinatal development and adult blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashton

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence supports the concept of fetal programming in cardiovascular disease in man, which asserts that an insult experienced in utero exerts a long-term influence on cardiovascular function, leading to disease in adulthood. However, this hypothesis is not universally accepted, hence animal models may be of value in determining potential physiological mechanisms which could explain how fetal undernutrition results in cardiovascular disease in later life. This review describes two major animal models of cardiovascular programming, the in utero protein-restricted rat and the cross-fostered spontaneously hypertensive rat. In the former model, moderate maternal protein restriction during pregnancy induces an increase in offspring blood pressure of 20-30 mmHg. This hypertensive effect is mediated, in part, by fetal exposure to excess maternal glucocorticoids as a result of a deficiency in placental 11-ß hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. Furthermore, nephrogenesis is impaired in this model which, coupled with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system, could also contribute to the greater blood pressure displayed by these animals. The second model discussed is the cross-fostered spontaneously hypertensive rat. Spontaneously hypertensive rats develop severe hypertension without external intervention; however, their adult blood pressure may be lowered by 20-30 mmHg by cross-fostering pups to a normotensive dam within the first two weeks of lactation. The mechanisms responsible for this antihypertensive effect are less clear, but may also involve altered renal function and down-regulation of the renin-angiotensin system. These two models clearly show that adult blood pressure is influenced by exposure to one of a number of stimuli during critical stages of perinatal development.

  20. Blood pressure associates with standing balance in elderly outpatients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantsje H Pasma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Assessment of the association of blood pressure measurements in supine and standing position after a postural change, as a proxy for blood pressure regulation, with standing balance in a clinically relevant cohort of elderly, is of special interest as blood pressure may be important to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance in routine geriatric assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional cohort study, 197 community-dwelling elderly referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic of a middle-sized teaching hospital were included. Blood pressure was measured intermittently (n = 197 and continuously (subsample, n = 58 before and after a controlled postural change from supine to standing position. The ability to maintain standing balance was assessed during ten seconds of side-by-side, semi-tandem and tandem stance, with both eyes open and eyes closed. Self-reported impaired standing balance and history of falls were recorded by questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between blood pressure and 1 the ability to maintain standing balance; 2 self-reported impaired standing balance; and 3 history of falls, adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Blood pressure decrease after postural change, measured continuously, was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance and falls. Presence of orthostatic hypotension was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed for both intermittent and continuous measurements and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance for continuous measurements. CONCLUSION: Continuous blood pressure measurements are of additional value to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance and may therefore be useful in routine geriatric care.

  1. Association between ambient temperature and blood pressure and blood pressure regulators: 1831 hypertensive patients followed up for three years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Chen

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested an association between ambient air temperature and blood pressure. However, this has not been reliably confirmed by longitudinal studies. Also, whether the reaction to temperature stimulation is modified by other factors such as antihypertensive medication is rarely investigated. The present study explores the relationship between ambient temperature and blood pressure, without and with antihypertensive medication, in a study of 1,831 hypertensive patients followed up for three years, in two or four weekly check ups, accumulating 62,452 follow-up records. Both baseline and follow-up blood pressure showed an inverse association with ambient temperature, which explained 32.4% and 65.6% of variation of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.05 respectively. The amplitude of individual blood pressure fluctuation with temperature throughout a year (a 29 degrees centigrade range was 9.4/7.3 mmHg. Medication with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril attenuated the blood pressure fluctuation by 2.4/1.3 mmHg each year, though the inverse association of temperature and blood pressure remained. Gender, drinking behavior and body mass index were also found to modify the association between temperature and diastolic blood pressure. The results indicate that ambient temperature may negatively regulate blood pressure. Hypertensive patients should monitor and treat blood pressure more carefully in cold days, and it could be especially important for the males, thinner people and drinkers.

  2. Serial blood pressure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Koehler

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to study the effects of a 60-s interval of venous congestion between two noninvasive measurements of arterial blood pressure (ABP on the fluctuation of ABP, assessed by the standard deviation of the differences between two readings. ABP was measured in 345 successive patients, at rest, four times each. For 269 participants, one pair of readings was obtained with a 60-s interval and the other pair without an interval. For 76 patients, the first pair was read at the same interval, and the second pair had venous congestion interposed and there was no waiting interval. There was no increased ABP oscillation, either when there was no interval between ABP readings, or when venous congestion was interposed compared to pairs of ABP measurements performed with a 60-s interval. There was no increase in ABP oscillations when successive ABP readings were taken without an interval or even with venous congestion interposed. Contrary to the present belief, there seems to be no loss of reliability when blood pressure recordings are taken immediately one after another, in the clinical setting.

  3. Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring in Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Guillaume; Shuzo, Masaki; Ushida, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Keita; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Imai, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akio; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

    Continuous monitoring of blood pressure in daily life could improve early detection of cardiovascular disorders, as well as promoting healthcare. Conventional ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) equipment can measure blood pressure at regular intervals for 24 hours, but is limited by long measuring time, low sampling rate, and constrained measuring posture. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for continuous real-time measurement of blood pressure during daily activities. Our method is based on blood pressure estimation from pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation, which formula we improved to take into account changes in the inner diameter of blood vessels. Blood pressure estimation results using our new method showed a greater precision of measured data during exercise, and a better accuracy than the conventional PWV method.

  4. High blood pressure at old age : The Leiden 85 plus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, Thomas van

    2010-01-01

    The last decades have shown an increasing interest in treatment of high blood pressure. Copious amounts of data have been published on the mortality and morbidity risks of high blood pressure. Overall these data have resulted in an increasing awareness of the deleterious effects of only modest

  5. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  6. High blood pressure - medicine-related

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by using a chemical substance or medicine. ... of the arteries There are several types of high blood pressure : Essential hypertension has no cause that can be ...

  7. Ambulatory blood pressure profiles in familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lior; Bar-Aluma, Bat-El; Krauthammer, Alex; Efrati, Ori; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2018-02-12

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare genetic disease that involves extreme blood pressure fluctuations secondary to afferent baroreflex failure. The diurnal blood pressure profile, including the average, variability, and day-night difference, may have implications for long-term end organ damage. The purpose of this study was to describe the circadian pattern of blood pressure in the FD population and relationships with renal and pulmonary function, use of medications, and overall disability. We analyzed 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring recordings in 22 patients with FD. Information about medications, disease severity, renal function (estimated glomerular filtration, eGFR), pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEV1) and an index of blood pressure variability (standard deviation of systolic pressure) were analyzed. The mean (± SEM) 24-h blood pressure was 115 ± 5.6/72 ± 2.0 mmHg. The diurnal blood pressure variability was high (daytime systolic pressure standard deviation 22.4 ± 1.5 mmHg, nighttime 17.2 ± 1.6), with a high frequency of a non-dipping pattern (16 patients, 73%). eGFR, use of medications, FEV1, and disability scores were unrelated to the degree of blood pressure variability or to dipping status. This FD cohort had normal average 24-h blood pressure, fluctuating blood pressure, and a high frequency of non-dippers. Although there was evidence of renal dysfunction based on eGFR and proteinuria, the ABPM profile was unrelated to the measures of end organ dysfunction or to reported disability.

  8. The hidden magnitude of raised blood pressure and elevated blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The prevalence of undiagnosed raised blood pressure and elevated blood sugar was high in Ethiopia and only very small percentage of people had been aware of their high blood pressure and elevated blood sugar. Policy makers in the health sector including other health development partners need to ...

  9. The Influence of Proximity to City Parks on Blood Pressure in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of proximity to city parks on blood pressure categories during the first trimester of pregnancy. This cross-sectional study included 3,416 female residents of the city of Kaunas, Lithuania, who were enrolled in the FP7 PHENOTYPE project study. The women were classified into four blood pressure categories: optimal, normal, high-normal blood pressure, and hypertension. Multinomial regression models were used to investigate the association between three women’s groups with respect to the residence distances from city parks (300, >300–1,000, and >1,000 m and four blood pressure categories. When using the optimal blood pressure as the reference group, the crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR for normal blood pressure and for high-normal blood pressure proved to be statistically significantly higher after the inclusion of the selected covariates into the regression analysis. The probability of normal blood pressure increased by 9%, and that of high-normal blood pressure—by 14% for every 300 m increase in the distance to green spaces. The findings of this study suggest a beneficial impact of nearby city parks on blood pressure amongst 20- to 45-year-old women. This relationship has important implications for the prevention of hypertension and the reduction of hypertension-related morbidity.

  10. Use of home blood-pressure monitoring in the detection, treatment and surveillance of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Gillian; Donnelly, Richard

    2005-11-01

    Use of home blood-pressure monitoring is increasing but the technique and the equipment have limitations. We provide an overview of recent evidence in this rapidly evolving field. Home blood-pressure monitoring is an acceptable method for screening patients for hypertension. There is increasing evidence supporting the predictive power of home blood pressure for stroke risk even in the general population. The identification of white-coat and masked hypertension remains an important role for home blood-pressure monitoring. Unvalidated equipment and poor patient technique are major concerns. The purchase of devices needs to be linked to a simple patient-education programme, which is perhaps an opportunity for collaboration between healthcare providers and commercial companies. Devices that store the blood-pressure measurements in the memory are preferred to ensure accuracy of reporting. Data-transmission systems providing automatic storage, transmission and reporting of blood pressure, direct involvement of the patient and potentially a reduced number of hospital/general practitioner visits, offer significant advantages. To reduce patient anxiety, overuse of home blood-pressure monitoring should be avoided but there is the potential for self-modification of treatment, subject to certain safeguards. Self-monitoring of blood pressure is developing rapidly, linked to increasing awareness of the impact of reducing high blood pressure on public health and the marketing/advertising strategies used to sell automatic devices. Home blood-pressure monitoring has a role in the detection and management of blood pressure, but not at the expense of careful blood-pressure measurement in the office and adherence to national guidelines.

  11. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Jeekeeree, Wanpen [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Funkhiew, Thippawan [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Phopueng, Ittipol [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2015-01-15

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children.

  12. Blood pressure monitors for home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007482.htm Blood pressure monitors for home To use the sharing features ... may ask you to keep track of your blood pressure at home. To do this, you will need ...

  13. Phytotherapy of High Blood Pressure in Three Phytogeographic Regions of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabang, Nole; Yedjou, Clement G; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2017-01-01

    High blood pressure is a public health challenge worldwide. According to World Health Organization, 30% of men and 50% of women 65 to 75 years old are suffering from high blood pressure. The number of hypertensive patients in the world will attain 1.56 billion of people, with 60% increase in prevalence. The incidence of high blood pressure increases with age, but nowadays, is being noticed an increasing incidence in young people. The socio-cultural medicine may provide new solutions in the management of this pathology. Therefore this study was carried out to record and document plants used against high blood pressure in socio-cultural medicine for future drugs discovery worldwide. An ethno botanical survey was realized between 2002 and 2016 to identify manifold plants used to fight against high blood pressure. This survey was carried out in three phytogeographic regions of Cameroon. Amongst people living in those regions, 1131 randomly screened interviewees distributed in 58 socio-cultural groups were involved in this study. This survey reveals that about 70% of interviewees don't know high blood pressure which is a symptomless disease. A total of 28 species of plants were recorded. These plants belong to 25 genera and 24 families. They were used to prepare 28 herbal remedies for the treatment of high blood pressure. In the morphological point of view about 10/28 (36%) plants are herbs; 9/28 (32%) plants are trees and 9/28 (32%) plants are shrubs. Only 3/28 plants (11%) used including Allium sativum, Aloe barteri and Aloe buttneri) are cultivated. This means that the plants used in this study don't usually have some form of protection through cultivation which is encouraging in terms of their conservation. The uncontrolled use of a hypotensive plants can provoke a fatal hypotension in hypertensive patients. Therefore the use of hypotensive plants needs to be controlled by physician or by a patient verification using a blood pressure monitor. Recorded species which

  14. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients with hyperthyroidism before the introduction of therapy and on therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased secretion of thyroid gland hormones affects the cardiovascular system by increasing heart rate and often by increasing systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We examined the influence of elevated thyroid hormone on blood pressure. Blood pressure monitoring was performed prior to the introduction of therapy in people with increased FT4 and on therapy when FT4 was in the normal range. We analyzed 32 people, of which 26 women had normal blood pressure values measured by blood pressure monitoring. Average age 45 and body mass index 27 kg/m2. Blood pressure was measured by monitoring blood pressure for 24 hours. On average, before the introduction of the therapy, it was 133/83 mmHg P 96 / min. The blood pressure on average on therapy with tireosuppressive was 128/82 mmHg P 74 / min. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney paired test shows a significant P <0.05 higher systolic blood pressure and pulse rate during the day and night before the treatment, when FT4 was higher, than the time when medication was taking, when the FT4 was in the normal range. No significant difference was found for diastolic blood pressure before the introduction of therapy and during therapy with tireosuppressives. When values of FT4 are increased, monitoring of blood pressure shows significantly higher values of systolic blood pressure and pulse during day and night compared to systolic blood pressure and pulse values when FT4 is in the normal range.

  15. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:May 4,2018 Knowing the facts ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  16. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Nov 13,2017 ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  17. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  18. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  19. Nocturnal Blood Pressure Variability in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynowicz, H; Porębska, I; Poręba, R; Mazur, G; Brzecka, A

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common respiratory disorder associated with hypertension and cardiovascular complications. Blood pressure variability may be a sign of risk of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that severe OSA syndrome is associated with increased blood pressure variability. Based on respiratory polygraphy, 58 patients were categorized into two groups: severe OSA with apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) greater than 29 episodes per hour (mean 52.2 ± 19.0/h) and mild-to-moderate OSA with AHI between 5 and 30 episodes per hour (mean 20.2 ± 7.8/h). A 24-h noninvasive blood pressure monitoring was performed. The standard deviation of mean blood pressure was used as the indicator of blood pressure variability. In patients with severe, compared with mild-to-moderate OSA, a higher mean nocturnal systolic blood pressure (133.2 ± 17.4 mmHg vs. 117.7 ± 31.2 mmHg, p variability (12.1 ± 6.0 vs. 7.6 ± 4.3, p variability (10.5 ± 6.1 vs. 7.3 ± 4.0 p variability (9.1 ± 4.9 mmHg vs. 6.8 ± 3.5 mmHg) were detected. The findings of the study point to increased nocturnal systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure and blood pressure variability as risk factors of cardiovascular complications in patients with severe OSA.

  20. The conundrum of arterial stiffness, elevated blood pressure, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhatrif, Majd; Lakatta, Edward G

    2015-02-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension is a major health burden that is expanding with the aging of our population. There is evidence that central arterial stiffness contributes to the rise in systolic blood pressure (SBP); at the same time, central arterial stiffening is accelerated in patients with increased SBP. This bidirectional relationship created a controversy in the field on whether arterial stiffness leads to hypertension or vice versa. Given the profound interdependency of arterial stiffness and blood pressure, this question seems intrinsically challenging, or probably naïve. The aorta's function of dampening the pulsatile flow generated by the left ventricle is optimal within a physiological range of distending pressure that secures the required distal flow, keeps the aorta in an optimal mechanical conformation, and minimizes cardiac work. This homeostasis is disturbed by age-associated, minute alterations in aortic hemodynamic and mechanical properties that induce short- and long-term alterations in each other. Hence, it is impossible to detect an "initial insult" at an epidemiological level. Earlier manifestations of these alterations are observed in young adulthood with a sharp decline in aortic strain and distensibility accompanied by an increase in diastolic blood pressure. Subsequently, aortic mechanical reserve is exhausted, and aortic remodeling with wall stiffening and dilatation ensue. These two phenomena affect pulse pressure in opposite directions and different magnitudes. With early remodeling, there is an increase in pulse pressure, due to the dominance of arterial wall stiffness, which in turn accelerates aortic wall stiffness and dilation. With advanced remodeling, which appears to be greater in men, the effect of diameter becomes more pronounced and partially offsets the effect of wall stiffness leading to plateauing in pulse pressure in men and slower increase in pulse pressure (PP) than that of wall stiffness in women. The complex nature of

  1. Blood Pressure Drugs and AMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Research News: Blood Pressure Drugs and AMD Leer en Español: Noticias de ... also found an association between AMD and high blood pressure, but this has been inconsistent. To help clarify ...

  2. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Feb 27,2018 First, let’s define high ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  3. Prediction of blood pressure and blood flow in stenosed renal arteries using CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhunjhunwala, Pooja; Padole, P. M.; Thombre, S. B.; Sane, Atul

    2018-04-01

    In the present work an attempt is made to develop a diagnostive tool for renal artery stenosis (RAS) which is inexpensive and in-vitro. To analyse the effects of increase in the degree of severity of stenosis on hypertension and blood flow, haemodynamic parameters are studied by performing numerical simulations. A total of 16 stenosed models with varying degree of stenosis severity from 0-97.11% are assessed numerically. Blood is modelled as a shear-thinning, non-Newtonian fluid using the Carreau model. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis is carried out to compute the values of flow parameters like maximum velocity and maximum pressure attained by blood due to stenosis under pulsatile flow. These values are further used to compute the increase in blood pressure and decrease in available blood flow to kidney. The computed available blood flow and secondary hypertension for varying extent of stenosis are mapped by curve fitting technique using MATLAB and a mathematical model is developed. Based on these mathematical models, a quantification tool is developed for tentative prediction of probable availability of blood flow to the kidney and severity of stenosis if secondary hypertension is known.

  4. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  5. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: → We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. → This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. → Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  6. Smartphone-based Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement Using Pulse Transit Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamhosseini, Hamid; Meintjes, Andries; Baig, Mirza; Linden, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The increasing availability of low cost and easy to use personalized medical monitoring devices has opened the door for new and innovative methods of health monitoring to emerge. Cuff-less and continuous methods of measuring blood pressure are particularly attractive as blood pressure is one of the most important measurements of long term cardiovascular health. Current methods of noninvasive blood pressure measurement are based on inflation and deflation of a cuff with some effects on arteries where blood pressure is being measured. This inflation can also cause patient discomfort and alter the measurement results. In this work, a mobile application was developed to collate the PhotoPlethysmoGramm (PPG) waveform provided by a pulse oximeter and the electrocardiogram (ECG) for calculating the pulse transit time. This information is then indirectly related to the user's systolic blood pressure. The developed application successfully connects to the PPG and ECG monitoring devices using Bluetooth wireless connection and stores the data onto an online server. The pulse transit time is estimated in real time and the user's systolic blood pressure can be estimated after the system has been calibrated. The synchronization between the two devices was found to pose a challenge to this method of continuous blood pressure monitoring. However, the implemented continuous blood pressure monitoring system effectively serves as a proof of concept. This combined with the massive benefits that an accurate and robust continuous blood pressure monitoring system would provide indicates that it is certainly worthwhile to further develop this system.

  7. Smart blood pressure holter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, İlhan

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a wireless blood pressure holter that can be used with smart mobile devices was developed. The developed blood pressure holter consists of two parts, which are a smart mobile device and a cuff. The smart mobile device is used as a recording, control and display device through a developed interface, while the cuff was designed to take measurements from the arm. Resistor-Capacitor (RC) and digital filters were used on the cuff that communicates with the smart mobile device via Bluetooth. The blood pressure was estimated using the Simple Hill Climbing Algorithm (HCA). It is possible to measure instantaneous or programmable blood pressure and heart rate values at certain intervals using this holter. The test was conducted with 30 individuals at different ages with the guidance of a specialist health personnel. The results showed that an accuracy at 93.89% and 91.95% rates could be obtained for systolic and diastolic pressure values, respectively, when compared with those obtained using a traditional sphygmomanometer. The accuracy level for the heart rate was measured as 97.66%. Furthermore, this device was tested day and night in the holter mode in terms of working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The test results were evaluated separately in terms of measurement accuracy, working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The measurement accuracy for systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate values was obtained as 93.89%, 91.95% and 97.66%, respectively. The maximum number of measurements which can be conducted with four 1000 mA alkaline batteries at 20 min intervals was found approximately 79 (little more than 24 h). In addition, it was determined that the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results were automatically achieved through the features in the interface developed for the

  8. Mean Blood Pressure Difference among Adolescents Based on Dyssomnia Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, Krisnarta; Ramayani, Oke Rina; Lubis, Munar

    2018-02-15

    Dyssomnia is the most frequent sleep disturbance and associated with increased blood pressure. There has been no study determining the difference in mean blood pressure based on dyssomnia types among adolescents. To determine the difference in mean blood pressure among adolescents based on dyssomnia types. Cross-sectional study was conducted in SMP Negeri 1 Muara Batang Gadis in April 2016. Samples were students having sleep disturbance based on Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) questionnaire. Stature and blood pressure data were collected along with demographic data and sleep disorder questionnaire. Analyses were done with Kruskal-Wallis test and logistic regression. P - value blood pressure (DBP) was 111.1 (SD 16.46) mmHg and 70.3 (SD 11.98) mmHg respectively. Mean SDSC score was 49.7 (SD 8.96), and the most frequent dyssomnia type was disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep. Age and sex were not the risk factors of hypertension in dyssomnia. There was a significant difference in mean SBP (P = 0.006) and DBP (P = 0.022) based on dyssomnia types. Combination dyssomnia type had the highest mean blood pressure among dyssomnia types. There is a significant difference in mean blood pressure among adolescents based on dyssomnia types.

  9. Blood pressure control among type 2 diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shehri, Ahmed M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess blood pressure BP control in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 DM type treated in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was conducted in primary health care at King Fahd Military Complex Hospital in Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August 2003 and February 2004, to assess blood control in type 2 diabetics. A sample of 403 medical records of type 2 diabetic patients was selected using systematic random sampling after ordering the medical record numbers. The data were collected through the pre-coded checklist. Hypertension was found in 57.8% of diabetic patients with no statistically significant difference between males and females. The mean age of diabetic patients was significantly highly in hypertensive than non-hypertensive p=0.001. The mean duration of hypertension was significantly higher in females p=0.02. There were only 14.2% of hypertensive diabetic patients in whom blood pressure was controlled. Poor control was significantly associated with obesity and a high rate of complications. Blood pressure control correlated positively and significantly with the age of patients and negatively with duration of diabetes and hypertension. The most commonly prescribed antihypertensive were angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in 29.3%, followed by angiotensin receptors blockers in 24.1%, and the least prescribed drug was thiazide diuretic. Blood pressure in diabetic patients needs to be given particular attention from all health care professionals, especially primary care family physicians, who should follow the new guideline for better control of blood pressure, and fewer complications. Patient's awareness should be increased, through continuous health education with different modalities. (author)

  10. Blood pressure control among patients with hypertension and newly diagnosed diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choma, N N; Griffin, M R; Kaltenbach, L A; Greevy, R A; Roumie, C L

    2012-09-01

    To determine the proportion of patients who achieved blood pressure control during the 2 years following new diabetes diagnosis. A retrospective cohort of veterans ≥ 18 years with hypertension who initiated a diabetes medication from 2000 to 2007 in the Veterans Administration Mid-South Network was assembled. Blood pressure control at diabetes treatment initiation (baseline) was compared with blood pressure control 6, 12, 18 and 24 months later. The Veterans Affairs and American Diabetes Association definitions of control, ≤ 140/90 and ≤ 130/80 mmHg, respectively, were primary and secondary outcomes. At baseline, 59.5% of 16,182 patients had controlled blood pressure according to the Veterans Affairs guideline (31.5% using American Diabetes Association definition). Six months following initiation of diabetes treatment, 65.7% had their blood pressure controlled (P < 0.001). Blood pressure control was sustained but not further improved between 6 months and 2 years, with 66.5% controlled at 2 years following baseline. Higher initial systolic blood pressure, black race and hospitalization in the previous year were associated with higher likelihood of uncontrolled blood pressure at 6 months; whereas baseline cardiovascular disease, baseline dementia and later year of cohort entry were associated with lower likelihood of uncontrolled blood pressure. We found an increase in blood pressure control in the 6 months following initiation of diabetes treatment. However, overall blood pressure control remained suboptimal and with no further improvement over the next 18 months. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of high blood pressure? Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  12. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  13. Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-19

    Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure. We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20-29 years to 70-79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probit-transformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure. In 2005-16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the high-income Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association. Change in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in

  14. Dysglycemia induces abnormal circadian blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Sivarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediabetes (PreDM in asymptomatic adults is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability (abnormal CBPV. Hypothesis Systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. Methods Dahl salt-sensitive (S rats (n = 19 after weaning were fed either an American (AD or a standard (SD diet. The AD (high-glycemic-index, high-fat simulated customary human diet, provided daily overabundant calories which over time lead to body weight gain. The SD (low-glycemic-index, low-fat mirrored desirable balanced human diet for maintaining body weight. Body weight and serum concentrations for fasting glucose (FG, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin, and proinflammatory cytokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α] were measured. Rats were surgically implanted with C40 transmitters and blood pressure (BP-both systolic; SBP and diastolic; DBP and heart rate (HR were recorded by telemetry every 5 minutes during both sleep (day and active (night periods. Pulse pressure (PP was calculated (PP = SBP-DBP. Results [mean(SEM]: The AD fed group displayed significant increase in body weight (after 90 days; p Conclusion These data validate our stated hypothesis that systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a cause and effect relationship between caloric excess, enhanced systemic inflammation, dysglycemia, loss of blood pressure control and abnormal CBPV. Our results provide the fundamental basis for examining the relationship between dysglycemia and perturbation of the underlying mechanisms (adipose tissue dysfunction induced local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and alteration of adipose tissue precursors for the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system which generate abnormal CBPV.

  15. Cuffless differential blood pressure estimation using smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Vikram; Dantu, Ram; Jonnada, Srikanth; Thiyagaraja, Shanti; Subbu, Kalyan Pathapati

    2013-04-01

    Smart phones today have become increasingly popular with the general public for their diverse functionalities such as navigation, social networking, and multimedia facilities. These phones are equipped with high-end processors, high-resolution cameras, and built-in sensors such as accelerometer, orientation-sensor, and light-sensor. According to comScore survey, 26.2% of U.S. adults use smart phones in their daily lives. Motivated by this statistic and the diverse capability of smart phones, we focus on utilizing them for biomedical applications. We present a new application of the smart phone with its built-in camera and microphone replacing the traditional stethoscope and cuff-based measurement technique, to quantify vital signs such as heart rate and blood pressure. We propose two differential blood pressure estimating techniques using the heartbeat and pulse data. The first method uses two smart phones whereas the second method replaces one of the phones with a customized external microphone. We estimate the systolic and diastolic pressure in the two techniques by computing the pulse pressure and the stroke volume from the data recorded. By comparing the estimated blood pressure values with those measured using a commercial blood pressure meter, we obtained encouraging results of 95-100% accuracy.

  16. Frequency of diarrhoea as a predictor of elevated blood pressure in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Juan Jaime; Davies, Alisha R.; Smith, George Davey; Smeeth, Liam; Cabrera, Lilia; Gilman, Robert H.; García, Héctor H.; Ortega, Ynes R.; Cama, Vitaliano A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Diarrhoeal illness is a major public health problem for children worldwide, particularly among developing countries, and is a proxy condition for severe dehydration. It has been hypothesized that severe dehydration in the first 6 months of life could be associated with increased blood pressure later in life. This study aimed to explore whether frequency of diarrhoea is associated with elevated blood pressure in children in a setting with a high incidence of diarrhoeal disease. Methods The present study is a cross-sectional study of blood pressure among children from a longitudinal child diarrhoeal disease cohort in Lima, Peru. From 2001 to 2006, daily diarrhoeal surveillance was made. Children were revisited in 2006 and blood pressure was measured. Diarrhoeal exposures were evaluated in terms of total number of diarrhoea days, number of episodes of diarrhoea, persistent diarrhoeal episodes and by the quartiles of daily incidence and episode incidence of diarrhoea. Results The overall incidence of diarrhoeal episodes at age under 1 year was 4.35 (95% confidence interval: 3.79-4.98) and under 5 years was 2.80 (95% confidence interval: 2.69-2.92). No association was observed between the total number of diarrhoeal days, diarrhoeal episodes or diarrhoeal incidence rates with childhood blood pressure. There was weak evidence that hospital admission due to severe dehydration in the first year of life showed a gradient towards an increase in both, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion In the first study to date to examine the association in a setting with a high incidence of diarrhoeal disease, diarrhoeal frequency did not show an association with increased blood pressure. Our observations of elevated levels of blood pressure among those admitted into hospitals in the first year of life are in line with the original hypothesis of dehydration in early infancy and high blood pressure. However, the effect of episodes of severe dehydration on later blood

  17. Social Stress Induced Pressure Breathing and Consequent Blood Pressure Oscillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Dirk S.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Meulen, Jan van der; Schoemaker, Regien

    1986-01-01

    A large amplitude blood pressure oscillation occurs during social defeat in a territorial fight between male rats, and during the application of a psychosocial stimulus associated with this defeat. Synchronous recording of blood pressure, intrathoracic pressure and diaphragm activity shows that the

  18. Pediatric Blood Pressure and Adult Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Costan G.; Smith, Kylie J.

    2016-01-01

    A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention could be focused. In the absence of substantive data directly linking childhood blood pressure levels to overt adult CV disease, this review outlines the available literature that examines the association between pediatric blood pressure and adult preclinical markers of CV disease. PMID:27168729

  19. Non-invasive pulmonary blood flow analysis and blood pressure mapping derived from 4D flow MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delles, Michael; Rengier, Fabian; Azad, Yoo-Jin; Bodenstedt, Sebastian; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Ley, Sebastian; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2015-03-01

    In diagnostics and therapy control of cardiovascular diseases, detailed knowledge about the patient-specific behavior of blood flow and pressure can be essential. The only method capable of measuring complete time-resolved three-dimensional vector fields of the blood flow velocities is velocity-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), often denoted as 4D flow MRI. Furthermore, relative pressure maps can be computed from this data source, as presented by different groups in recent years. Hence, analysis of blood flow and pressure using 4D flow MRI can be a valuable technique in management of cardiovascular diseases. In order to perform these tasks, all necessary steps in the corresponding process chain can be carried out in our in-house developed software framework MEDIFRAME. In this article, we apply MEDIFRAME for a study of hemodynamics in the pulmonary arteries of five healthy volunteers. The study included measuring vector fields of blood flow velocities by phase-contrast MRI and subsequently computing relative blood pressure maps. We visualized blood flow by streamline depictions and computed characteristic values for the left and the right pulmonary artery (LPA and RPA). In all volunteers, we observed a lower amount of blood flow in the LPA compared to the RPA. Furthermore, we visualized blood pressure maps using volume rendering and generated graphs of pressure differences between the LPA, the RPA and the main pulmonary artery. In most volunteers, blood pressure was increased near to the bifurcation and in the proximal LPA, leading to higher average pressure values in the LPA compared to the RPA.

  20. The impact of arm circumference on noninvasive oscillometric blood pressure referenced with intra-aortic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Qing; Wu, Yanqing; Xu, Jinsong; Su, Hai; Li, Juxiang; Hong, Kui; Cheng, Xiaoshu

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the influence of arm circumference (AC) on the brachial blood pressure (BP) measured with an adult cuff. This study included 208 patients (150 men, 61.0±8.0 years) for coronary angiography. Intra-aortic BP and noninvasive right brachial oscillometric BP (noninvasive BP) were measured simultaneously before coronary angiography. The noninvasive BP was measured using an electronic oscillometric device with an adult cuff (12×22 cm). The mid-ACs were measured. Thus, proper cuff-arm (≤26 cm) and small cuff (>26 cm) groups were created. The difference in intra-aortic and noninvasive BP was calculated as BPi-n. The correlation coefficients (r) between noninvasive and invasive systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean artery pressure, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 0.88, 0.76, and 0.58, respectively. The SBPi-n was higher (7.9±1.6 vs. 5.2±1.1 mmHg), but the DBPi-n (3.9±1.4 vs. 6.1±1.0 mmHg, P26 cm. Among the four subgroups divided by 20-23, 24-26, 27-30, and 31-37 cm of AC, as the AC increased, the SBPi-n increased, but DBP decreased, resulting in noninvasive SBP 4.6 mmHg higher and noninvasive DBP 4.6 mmHg lower in the 31-37 cm group in comparison with the 20-23 cm group. When an adult cuff was used, the noninvasive oscillometric SBP was overestimated, but DBP was underestimated in the individuals with large arms against the intra-aortic BP.

  1. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Georg B; Munroe, Patricia B; Rice, Kenneth M; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D; Chasman, Daniel I; Smith, Albert V; Tobin, Martin D; Verwoert, Germaine C; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A; Jackson, Anne U; Peden, John F; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C; Fox, Ervin R; Kumari, Meena; Go, Min Jin; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D G; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Lehtimäki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N; Platou, Carl G P; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Palmas, Walter; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Steinle, Nanette I; Grobbee, Diederick E; Arking, Dan E; Kardia, Sharon L; Morrison, Alanna C; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J; Connell, John M; Hingorani, Aroon D; Day, Ian N M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Beilby, John P; Lawrence, Robert W; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C; Ongen, Halit; Dreisbach, Albert W; Li, Yali; Young, J Hunter; Bis, Joshua C; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S; Lee, Nanette R; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Bolton, Judith A Hoffman; Köttgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R; Bornstein, Stefan R; Grässler, Jürgen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B; Hunt, Steven C; Sun, Yan V; Bergman, Richard N; Collins, Francis S; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Scott, Laura J; Stringham, Heather M; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Thomas J; Burton, Paul R; Soler Artigas, Maria; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K; Rudock, Megan E; Heckbert, Susan R; Smith, Nicholas L; Wiggins, Kerri L; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stančáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Schwartz, Stephen M; Ikram, M Arfan; Longstreth, W T; Mosley, Thomas H; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R G; Wain, Louise V; Morken, Mario A; Swift, Amy J; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A; Humphries, Steve E; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J L; van Gilst, Wiek H; Janipalli, Charles S; Mani, K Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Oostra, Ben A; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Dörr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F; Nalls, Michael A; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M V Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Fowkes, F Gerald R; Charchar, Fadi J; Schwarz, Peter E H; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Casas, Juan P; Mohlke, Karen L; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Ganesh, Santhi K; Wong, Tien Y; Tai, E Shyong; Cooper, Richard S; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C; Harris, Tamara B; Morris, Richard W; Dominiczak, Anna F; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Kooner, Jaspal S; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B; Wright, Alan F; Wilson, James F; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J F; Shuldiner, Alan R; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rotter, Jerome I; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S; Boerwinkle, Eric; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Caulfield, Mark J; Johnson, Toby

    2011-09-11

    Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or  ≥90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention.

  2. High beat-to-beat blood pressure variability in atrial fibrillation compared to sinus rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbers, Joakim; Gille, Adam; Ljungman, Petter; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Östergren, Jan; Witt, Nils

    2018-02-07

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, not entirely explained by thromboembolism. The underlying mechanisms for this association are largely unknown. Similarly, high blood pressure (BP) increases the risk for cardiovascular events. Despite this the interplay between AF and BP is insufficiently studied. The purpose of this study was to examine and quantify the beat-to-beat blood pressure variability in patients with AF in comparison to a control group of patients with sinus rhythm. We studied 33 patients - 21 in atrial fibrillation and 12 in sinus rhythm - undergoing routine coronary angiography. Invasive blood pressure was recorded at three locations: radial artery, brachial artery and ascending aorta. Blood pressure variability, defined as average beat-to-beat blood pressure difference, was calculated for systolic and diastolic blood pressure at each site. We observed a significant difference (p blood pressure variability between the atrial fibrillation and sinus rhythm groups at all locations. Systolic blood pressure variability roughly doubled in the atrial fibrillation group compared to the sinus rhythm group (4.9 and 2.4 mmHg respectively). Diastolic beat-to-beat blood pressure variability was approximately 6 times as high in the atrial fibrillation group compared to the sinus rhythm group (7.5 and 1.2 mmHg respectively). No significant difference in blood pressure variability was seen between measurement locations. Beat-to-beat blood pressure variability in patients with atrial fibrillation was substantially higher than in patients with sinus rhythm. Hemodynamic effects of this beat-to-beat variation in blood pressure may negatively affect vascular structure and function, which may contribute to the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality seen in patients with atrial fibrillation.

  3. Home blood pressure measurement in elderly patients with cognitive impairment: comparison of agreement between relative-measured blood pressure and automated blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plichart, Matthieu; Seux, Marie-Laure; Caillard, Laure; Chaussade, Edouard; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Boully, Clémence; Hanon, Olivier

    2013-08-01

    Home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) is recommended by guidelines for hypertension management. However, this method might be difficult to use in elderly individuals with cognitive disorders. Our aim was to assess the agreement and the feasibility of HBPM by a relative as compared with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in elderly patients with dementia. Sixty outpatients with dementia aged 75 years and older with office hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) were subjected successively to HBPM by a trained relative and 24-h ABPM. The order of the two methods was randomized. Current guidelines' thresholds for the diagnosis of hypertension were used. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 80.8 (6.1) years (55% women) and the mean (SD) mini-mental state examination score was 20.1 (6.9). The feasibility of relative-HBPM was very high, with a 97% success rate (defined by ≥12/18 measurements reported). The blood pressure measurements were highly correlated between the two methods (r=0.75 and 0.64 for systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, respectively; Pmethods for the diagnosis of sustained hypertension and white-coat hypertension was excellent (overall agreement, 92%; κ coefficient, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.61-0.93). Similar results were found for daytime-ABPM. In cognitively impaired elderly patients, HBPM by a relative using an automated device was a good alternative to 24-h ABPM.

  4. Polynomial analysis of ambulatory blood pressure measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinderman, A. H.; Cleophas, T. A.; Cleophas, T. J.; van der Wall, E. E.

    2001-01-01

    In normotensive subjects blood pressures follow a circadian rhythm. A circadian rhythm in hypertensive patients is less well established, and may be clinically important, particularly with rigorous treatments of daytime blood pressures. Polynomial analysis of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

  5. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Click here for the Color Version (PDF 533KB) High blood pressure is a serious illness. High blood pressure is ...

  6. Angiotensin II type 1a receptor-deficient mice develop angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage without blood pressure increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnol, Anna; Amann, Kerstin; Mandel, Philipp; Hartmann, Christina; Schupp, Nicole

    2017-12-01

    Hypertensive patients have an increased risk of developing kidney cancer. We have shown in vivo that besides elevating blood pressure, angiotensin II causes DNA damage dose dependently. Here, the role of blood pressure in the formation of DNA damage is studied. Mice lacking one of the two murine angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) subtypes, AT1aR, were equipped with osmotic minipumps, delivering angiotensin II during 28 days. Parameters of oxidative stress and DNA damage of kidneys and hearts of AT1aR-knockout mice were compared with wild-type (C57BL/6) mice receiving angiotensin II, and additionally, with wild-type mice treated with candesartan, an antagonist of both AT1R subtypes. In wild-type mice, angiotensin II induced hypertension, reduced kidney function, and led to a significant formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, genomic damage was markedly increased in this group. All these responses to angiotensin II could be attenuated by concurrent administration of candesartan. In AT1aR-deficient mice treated with angiotensin II, systolic pressure was not increased, and renal function was not affected. However, angiotensin II still led to an increase of ROS in kidneys and hearts of these animals. Additionally, genomic damage in the form of double-strand breaks was significantly induced in kidneys of AT1aR-deficient mice. Our results show that angiotensin II induced ROS production and DNA damage even without the presence of AT1aR and independently of blood pressure changes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. High Blood Pressure - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Being 8 - High Blood Pressure - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... Being 8 - High Blood Pressure - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) ( ...

  8. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  9. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  10. Exploring the relationship of peripheral total bilirubin, red blood cell, and hemoglobin with blood pressure during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Tian; Yang, Song; Yang, Ya-Ming; Zhao, Hai-Long; Chen, Yan-Chun; Zhao, Xiang-Hai; Wen, Jin-Bo; Tian, Yuan-Rui; Yan, Wei-Li; Shen, Chong

    2017-11-04

    Total bilirubin is beneficial for protecting cardiovascular diseases in adults. The authors aimed to investigate the association of total bilirubin, red blood cell, and hemoglobin levels with the prevalence of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. A total of 3776 students (aged from 6 to 16 years old) were examined using cluster sampling. Pre-high blood pressure and high blood pressure were respectively defined as the point of 90th and 95th percentiles based on the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were standardized into z-scores. Peripheral total bilirubin, red blood cell and hemoglobin levels were significantly correlated with age, and also varied with gender. Peripheral total bilirubin was negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure in 6- and 9-year-old boys, whilst positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure in the 12-year-old boys and 13- to 15-year-old girls (p0.05). Total bilirubin could be weakly correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as correlations varied with age and gender in children and adolescents; in turn, the increased levels of red blood cell and hemoglobin are proposed to be positively associated with the prevalence of high blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Dark chocolate and blood pressure: a novel study from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Safi, Saafan A; Ayoub, Nehad M; Al-Doghim, Imad; Aboul-Enein, Faisal H

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of dark chocolate intake on cardiovascular parameters like blood pressure and heart rate values in a normotensive population. This is a randomized cross-sectional study involving a total of 14,310 adults that were selected from various regions of Jordan. Well-trained pharmacy students interviewed participants in the outpatient settings. Participants reported their weekly intake of dark chocolate that has been further classified into mild (1-2 bars/week), moderate (3-4 bars/week), and high intake ( > 4 bars/week). For each participant, the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate were measured three times with (10-15) minute intervals in the sitting position and the resting state. The arterial blood pressure (ABP) was calculated from the measured SBP and DBP values. All measured blood pressure values were significantly decreased for participants who reported higher dark chocolate consumption. Our results showed that heart rate values were not affected by variable intake of dark chocolate. In addition, increasing dark chocolate intake was associated with a significant decrease of blood pressure values in participants irrespective of the family history of hypertension or the age of the individual. However, heart rate values were unaffected. Higher intake of dark chocolate can be associated with lower values of blood pressure, while its effect on heart rate values was not consistent.

  12. Effects of hormone therapy on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Zeinab; Seely, Ellen W; Rahme, Maya; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada

    2015-04-01

    Although hormone therapy remains the most efficacious option for the management of vasomotor symptoms of menopause, its effects on blood pressure remain unclear. This review scrutinizes evidence of the mechanisms of action of hormone therapy on signaling pathways affecting blood pressure and evidence from clinical studies. Comprehensive Ovid MEDLINE searches were conducted for the terms "hypertension" and either of the following "hormone therapy and menopause" or "selective estrogen receptor modulator" from year 2000 to November 2013. In vitro and physiologic studies did not reveal a clear deleterious effect of hormone therapy on blood pressure. The effect of oral therapy was essentially neutral in large trials conducted in normotensive women with blood pressure as primary outcome. Results from all other trials had several limitations. Oral therapy had a neutral effect on blood pressure in hypertensive women. Transdermal estrogen and micronized progesterone had a beneficial effect on blood pressure in normotensive women and, at most, a neutral effect on hypertensive women. In general, tibolone and raloxifene had a neutral effect on blood pressure in both hypertensive and normotensive women. Large randomized trials are needed to assess the effect of oral hormone therapy on blood pressure as a primary outcome in hypertensive women and the effect of transdermal preparations on both normotensive and hypertensive women. Transdermal preparations would be the preferred mode of therapy for hypertensive women, in view of their favorable physiologic and clinical profiles. The decision regarding the use of hormone therapy should be individualized, and blood pressure should be monitored during the course of treatment.

  13. Blood pressure regulation in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1985-01-01

    Defective blood pressure responses to standing, exercise and epinephrine infusions have been demonstrated in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. The circulatory mechanisms underlying blood pressure responses to exercise and standing up in these patients are well characterized: In both...... which may contribute to exercise hypotension in these patients. During hypoglycemia, blood pressure regulation seems intact in patients with autonomic neuropathy. This is probably due to release of substantial amounts of catecholamines during these experiments. During epinephrine infusions a substantial...... blood pressure fall ensues in patients with autonomic neuropathy, probably due to excessive muscular vasodilation. It is unresolved why blood pressure regulation is intact during hypoglycemia and severely impaired--at similar catecholamine concentrations--during epinephrine infusions....

  14. The association between smoking and blood pressure in men: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoju; Wang, Hailing; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wenrui; Dong, Fen; Qian, Yonggang; Gong, Haiying; Hui, Chunxia; Xu, Guodong; Li, Yanlong; Pan, Li; Zhang, Biao; Shan, Guangliang

    2017-10-10

    Cigarette smoking is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the association between smoking and blood pressure is unclear. Thus, the current study examined the association between cigarette smoking and blood pressure in men. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) were examined using digital blood pressure measuring device, and smoking status was determined with China National Health Survey. The ANCOVA showed that the adjusted DBP and MAP were lower in current smokers versus nonsmokers and the adjusted SBP was lower in current smokers versus former smokers (P smoking on blood pressure indices except PP was observed. Smoking cessation was significantly associated with an increased risk of hypertension. However, current smoking was not a risk factor of hypertension.

  15. The systolic blood pressure difference between arms and cardiovascular disease in the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Ido; Gona, Philimon; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Jaff, Michael R; Murabito, Joanne M

    2014-03-01

    An increased interarm systolic blood pressure difference is an easily determined physical examination finding. The relationship between interarm systolic blood pressure difference and risk of future cardiovascular disease is uncertain. We described the prevalence and risk factor correlates of interarm systolic blood pressure difference in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) original and offspring cohorts and examined the association between interarm systolic blood pressure difference and incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. An increased interarm systolic blood pressure difference was defined as ≥ 10 mm Hg using the average of initial and repeat blood pressure measurements obtained in both arms. Participants were followed through 2010 for incident cardiovascular disease events. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to investigate the effect of interarm systolic blood pressure difference on incident cardiovascular disease. We examined 3390 (56.3% female) participants aged 40 years and older, free of cardiovascular disease at baseline, mean age of 61.1 years, who attended a FHS examination between 1991 and 1994 (original cohort) and from 1995 to 1998 (offspring cohort). The mean absolute interarm systolic blood pressure difference was 4.6 mm Hg (range 0-78). Increased interarm systolic blood pressure difference was present in 317 (9.4%) participants. The median follow-up time was 13.3 years, during which time 598 participants (17.6%) experienced a first cardiovascular event, including 83 (26.2%) participants with interarm systolic blood pressure difference ≥ 10 mm Hg. Compared with those with normal interarm systolic blood pressure difference, participants with an elevated interarm systolic blood pressure difference were older (63.0 years vs 60.9 years), had a greater prevalence of diabetes mellitus (13.3% vs 7.5%,), higher systolic blood pressure (136.3 mm Hg vs 129.3 mm Hg), and a higher total cholesterol

  16. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Jun 1,2018 What do your blood ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, ...

  17. The blood pressure-induced diameter response of retinal arterioles decreases with increasing diabetic maculopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Jeppesen, Peter; Knudsen, Søren Tang

    2006-01-01

    A consisted of normal individuals and groups B-D consisted of type 2 diabetic patients matched for diabetes duration, age, and gender, and characterized by: Group B no retinopathy, Group C mild retinopathy, Group D maculopathy not requiring laser treatment. The diameter changes of a large retinal arteriole......+/-4.5 microm), and Group C (253+/-4.4 microm), but was significantly (p=0.006) increased in Group D (279+/-5.3 microm). CONCLUSIONS: The diameter response was reduced in type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy, whereas retinal thickness was increased in patients with diabetic maculopathy. This suggests......BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare the diameter response of retinal arterioles and retinal thickness in patients with different stages of diabetic maculopathy during an increase in the arterial blood pressure. METHODS: Four groups each consisting of 19 individuals were studied. Group...

  18. FAILURE OF PROGESTERONE TO PRODUCE HIGH BLOOD-PRESSURE IN RABBITS AND RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, M.; Veldhuyzen, B.; Dorhout Mees, E.J.

    1972-01-01

    Contrary to earlier claims, daily Summary administration of 50 mg. progesterone over ten days did not increase the blood-pressure of 6 rabbits. Daily injection of 10 mg. progesterone had no influence on the blood-pressure of rats. The weight-gain of female rats was significantly increased by this

  19. Blood pressure patterns in women with gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tuuk, K; Tajik, P; Koopmans, C M; van den Berg, P P; Mol, B W J; van Pampus, M G; Groen, H

    2017-03-01

    Gestational hypertension (GH) and mild preeclampsia (PE) represent the most common medical complications of pregnancy, with the majority of cases developing at or near term. There is little knowledge of the course of blood pressure over time in these women. We explored the pattern of systolic and diastolic blood pressure over time in women with GH or mild PE at term participating in the HYPITAT trial, and we attempted to identify clinical factors influencing these blood pressure patterns and the impact of severe hypertension on clinical management. We used data from the HYPITAT trial, that included women with a singleton pregnancy with a fetus in cephalic position between 36 and 41 weeks of gestation with the diagnosis of GH or mild PE. Blood pressure measurements were performed from randomization or admission until delivery or discharge from the hospital. We included the highest blood pressure of each day. We evaluated systolic and diastolic blood pressure change over time, as well as the influence of clinical characteristics and laboratory findings on the course of blood pressure. We used univariate and multivariate regression analysis with a backward stepwise algorithm for the selection of variables. The model with the best fit (lowest AIC) was selected as the final model. We also compared mode of delivery for women with and without severe hypertension. We studied 1076 women who had 4188 blood pressure measurements done. The systolic blood pressure showed a significant non-linear increase over time and for the diastolic blood pressure the pattern was also non-linear. In the multivariable model of systolic blood pressure change over time, nulliparity, ethnicity, systolic blood pressure (at baseline), BMI and LDH at randomization influenced the course of blood pressure. In the diastolic blood pressure model ALT and the baseline diastolic blood pressure had a significant influence. When we explored the association between blood pressure and mode of delivery, it

  20. The optimal scheme of self blood pressure measurement as determined from ambulatory blood pressure recordings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Willem J.; Kroon, Abraham A.; Kessels, Alfons G. H.; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; Thien, Theo; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Smit, Andries J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.

    Objective To determine how many self-measurements of blood pressure (BP) should be taken at home in order to obtain a reliable estimate of a patient's BP. Design Participants performed self blood pressure measurement (SBPM) for 7 days (triplicate morning and evening readings). In all of them, office

  1. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. We measured the blood pressures of 650 healthy, randomly ... In addition, blood pressure measurement should be a part of the routine clinical examination of children. ... familial risk factors.2 ... common cause of elevated blood pressure in children.4 They ... sphygmomanometer (Accoson, hospital model BS 274,.

  2. Title: variations and sensitivities of some blood pressure monitors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels. Accuracy in blood pressure meters is of essence to health, especially in blood pressure monitoring and treatment. The aim of this research was to compare the readings and the sensitivities of some blood pressure monitors in use ...

  3. High blood pressure - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure is found. This is called essential hypertension. High blood pressure that is caused by another medical condition or medicine you are taking is called secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension may be due to: Chronic ...

  4. PREDICTION OF BLOOD PATTERN IN S-SHAPED MODEL OF ARTERY UNDER NORMAL BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azrul Hisham Mohd Adib

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Athletes are susceptible to a wide variety of traumatic and non-traumatic vascular injuries to the lower limb. This paper aims to predict the three-dimensional flow pattern of blood through an S-shaped geometrical artery model. This model has created by using Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI software. The modeling of the geometrical S-shaped artery is suitable for understanding the pattern of blood flow under constant normal blood pressure. In this study, a numerical method is used that works on the assumption that the blood is incompressible and Newtonian; thus, a laminar type of flow can be considered. The authors have compared the results with a previous study with FSI validation simulation. The validation and verification of the simulation studies is performed by comparing the maximum velocity at t = 0.4 s, because at this time, the blood accelerates rapidly. In addition, the resulting blood flow at various times, under the same boundary conditions in the S-shaped geometrical artery model, is presented. The graph shows that velocity increases linearly with time. Thus, it can be concluded that the flow of blood increases with respect to the pressure inside the body.

  5. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Five Decades of More Light and Less Shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Fernando; Mion Junior, Décio

    2016-01-01

    Casual blood pressure measurements have been extensively questioned over the last five decades. A significant percentage of patients have different blood pressure readings when examined in the office or outside it. For this reason, a change in the paradigm of the best manner to assess blood pressure has been observed. The method that has been most widely used is the Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring - ABPM. The method allows recording blood pressure measures in 24 hours and evaluating various parameters such as mean BP, pressure loads, areas under the curve, variations between daytime and nighttime, pulse pressure variability etc. Blood pressure measurements obtained by ABPM are better correlated, for example, with the risks of hypertension. The main indications for ABPM are: suspected white coat hypertension and masked hypertension, evaluation of the efficacy of the antihypertensive therapy in 24 hours, and evaluation of symptoms. There is increasing evidence that the use of ABPM has contributed to the assessment of blood pressure behaviors, establishment of diagnoses, prognosis and the efficacy of antihypertensive therapy. There is no doubt that the study of 24-hour blood pressure behavior and its variations by ABPM has brought more light and less darkness to the field, which justifies the title of this review. PMID:27168473

  6. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozza, Rodrigo; Campos, Wagner de; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Stabelini Neto, Antonio; Silva, Michael Pereira da; Maziero, Renato Silva Barbosa

    2016-05-01

    Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR) was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI) indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6). Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28) had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.

  7. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bozza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. Objective: To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. Methods: A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. Results: The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6. Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR, 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28 had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Conclusion: Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.

  8. Diurnal changes of blood pressure values (24 h blood pressures in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grzechocińska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: More attention is being paid lately to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS not only in the aspect of fertility but also according to long-term metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities. Observations of women with PCOS show that the occurrence of blood hypertension is more frequent after the menopause. There are few articles concerning the predictable symptoms of blood hypertension. It seems that twenty-four hour blood pressure monitoring and assessment of changes of diurnal rhythm could be useful in this group of patients.Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to assess diurnal changes of blood pressure in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Material and methods: 26 women with PCOS diagnosed according to Rotterdam consensus criteria and Androgen Excess Society (AES criteria were included in our study. The mean age of the examined women was 29.5 years and the mean BMI (body mass index was 24.7 kg/m2. The control group consisted of 12 age-matched women, without PCOS. Twenty-four hour Holter monitoring of ambulatory blood pressure was performed during normal daily activity in all patients. Halberg’s cosinor method was used to analyse daily biorhythm.Results: Results show the diurnal changes of systolic blood pressure in the preclinical phase in 30% and diastolic in 15% of PCOS women. In this group no physiological decrease of blood pressure at night time was observed.

  9. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an inelastic...

  10. Preconception Blood Pressure Levels and Reproductive Outcomes in a Prospective Cohort of Women Attempting Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Carrie J; Mendola, Pauline; Mumford, Sunni L; Naimi, Ashley I; Yeung, Edwina H; Kim, Keewan; Park, Hyojun; Wilcox, Brian; Silver, Robert M; Perkins, Neil J; Sjaarda, Lindsey; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2018-05-01

    Elevated blood pressure in young adulthood is an early risk marker for cardiovascular disease. Despite a strong biological rationale, little research has evaluated whether incremental increases in preconception blood pressure have early consequences for reproductive health. We evaluated preconception blood pressure and fecundability, pregnancy loss, and live birth in the EAGeR trial (Effects of Aspirin on Gestational and Reproduction; 2007-2011), a randomized clinical trial of aspirin and reproductive outcomes among 1228 women attempting pregnancy with a history of pregnancy loss. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured during preconception in the first observed menstrual cycle and in early pregnancy and used to derive mean arterial pressure. Fecundability was assessed as number of menstrual cycles until pregnancy, determined through human chorionic gonadotropin testing. Pregnancy loss included both human chorionic gonadotropin-detected and clinical losses. Analyses adjusted for treatment assignment, age, body mass index, race, marital status, smoking, parity, and time since last loss. Mean preconception systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 111.6 mm Hg (SD, 12.1) and 72.5 (SD, 9.4) mm Hg. Risk of pregnancy loss increased 18% per 10 mm Hg increase in diastolic blood pressure (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.36) and 17% per 10 mm Hg increase in mean arterial pressure (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.35) in adjusted analyses. Findings were similar for early pregnancy blood pressure. Preconception blood pressure was not related to fecundability or live birth in adjusted analyses. Findings suggest that preconception blood pressure among healthy women is associated with pregnancy loss, and lifestyle interventions targeting blood pressure among young women may favorably impact reproductive health. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00467363. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. [Blood pressure and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Milewicz, Tomasz; Klocek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder occurring in women of childbearing age. The literature describes the relationship between PCOS and high blood pressure levels and increased risk of arterial hypertension development, which is an important and strong risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events in the future. Among the main causes of hypertension in PCOS women insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, greater sympathetic nerve activity and concomitance of obesity are stressed. Because PCOS may contribute to earlier development of hypertension, as well as pre-hypertension, therefore it is advisable to monitor blood pressure systematically, to control known risk factors, and to initiate the treatment of hypertension when the disease occur.

  12. Potential benefits of exercise on blood pressure and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone; Ho, Suleen

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity seems to enhance cardiovascular fitness during the course of the lifecycle, improve blood pressure, and is associated with decreased prevalence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. It may also delay or prevent age-related increases in arterial stiffness. It is unclear if specific exercise types (aerobic, resistance, or combination) have a better effect on blood pressure and vascular function. This review was written based on previous original articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses indexed on PubMed from years 1975 to 2012 to identify studies on different types of exercise and the associations or effects on blood pressure and vascular function. In summary, aerobic exercise (30 to 40 minutes of training at 60% to 85% of predicted maximal heart rate, most days of the week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure and reduce augmentation index. Resistance training (three to four sets of eight to 12 repetitions at 10 repetition maximum, 3 days a week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure, whereas combination exercise training (15 minutes of aerobic and 15 minutes of resistance, 5 days a week) is beneficial to vascular function, but at a lower scale. Aerobic exercise seems to better benefit blood pressure and vascular function. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fall in blood pressure during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.E.; Lindahl, J.; Unsgaard, B.

    1976-01-01

    Blood pressure and heart rate at rest in the supine and standing positions were followed before, during and after irradiation for malignant tumours in 114 patients. A statistically significant gradual reduction in blood pressure during the treatment period was established. This was more marked in older patients and in patients with higher initial blood pressure but was not related to the region irradiated or the type of tumour treated. Particularly if the patient experiences vertigo and nausea on change of position, it seems advisable to check the blood pressure during treatment. (author)

  14. Occupational Noise Exposure, Bilateral High-Frequency Hearing Loss, and Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Mannino, David M

    2017-11-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between occupational noise exposure and blood pressure using self-reported occupational exposure and bilateral high-frequency hearing loss. This study included 4548 participants aged 20 to 69 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2004. On the basis of self-reported exposure status, participants were divided into the current, former, or never exposed groups. Bilateral high-frequency hearing loss was defined as the average high-frequency hearing threshold at least 25 dB in both ears. The currently exposed participants had slightly increased diastolic blood pressure compared with those never exposed. Among previously exposed participants, those with bilateral high-frequency hearing loss had increased systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and the prevalence of hypertension compared with those with normal high-frequency hearing. Although there were some significant results, the evidence was not consistent to support the associations between occupational noise exposure and blood pressure.

  15. Influence of sleep apnea severity on blood pressure variability of patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhorst, Ana P; Gonçalves, Sandro C; Oliveira, Ana T; Massierer, Daniela; Gus, Miguel; Fuchs, Sandra C; Moreira, Leila B; Martinez, Denis; Fuchs, Flávio D

    2014-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Apnea overloads the autonomic cardiovascular control system and may influence blood pressure variability, a risk for vascular damage independent of blood pressure levels. This study investigates the hypothesis that blood pressure variability is associated with OSA. In a cross-sectional study, 107 patients with hypertension underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and level III polysomnography to detect sleep apnea. Pressure variability was assessed by the first derivative of blood pressure over time, the time rate index, and by the standard deviation of blood pressure measurements. The association between the apnea-hypopnea index and blood pressure variability was tested by univariate and multivariate methods. The 57 patients with apnea were older, had higher blood pressure, and had longer duration of hypertension than the 50 patients without apnea. Patients with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 10 had higher blood pressure variability assessed by the standard deviation than patients with AHI variability assessed by the time rate index presented a trend for association during sleep (P = 0.07). Daytime blood pressure variability was not associated with the severity of sleep apnea. Sleep apnea increases nighttime blood pressure variability in patients with hypertension and may be another pathway linking sleep abnormalities to cardiovascular disease.

  16. Methodology and technology for peripheral and central blood pressure and blood pressure variability measurement: current status and future directions - Position statement of the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on blood pressure monitoring and cardiovascular variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, George S; Parati, Gianfranco; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Achimastos, Apostolos; Andreadis, Emanouel; Asmar, Roland; Avolio, Alberto; Benetos, Athanase; Bilo, Grzegorz; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Castiglioni, Paolo; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Dolan, Eamon; Head, Geoffrey; Imai, Yutaka; Kario, Kazuomi; Kollias, Anastasios; Kotsis, Vasilis; Manios, Efstathios; McManus, Richard; Mengden, Thomas; Mihailidou, Anastasia; Myers, Martin; Niiranen, Teemu; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Omboni, Stefano; Padfield, Paul; Palatini, Paolo; Papaioannou, Theodore; Protogerou, Athanasios; Redon, Josep; Verdecchia, Paolo; Wang, Jiguang; Zanchetti, Alberto; Mancia, Giuseppe; O'Brien, Eoin

    2016-09-01

    Office blood pressure measurement has been the basis for hypertension evaluation for almost a century. However, the evaluation of blood pressure out of the office using ambulatory or self-home monitoring is now strongly recommended for the accurate diagnosis in many, if not all, cases with suspected hypertension. Moreover, there is evidence that the variability of blood pressure might offer prognostic information that is independent of the average blood pressure level. Recently, advancement in technology has provided noninvasive evaluation of central (aortic) blood pressure, which might have attributes that are additive to the conventional brachial blood pressure measurement. This position statement, developed by international experts, deals with key research and practical issues in regard to peripheral blood pressure measurement (office, home, and ambulatory), blood pressure variability, and central blood pressure measurement. The objective is to present current achievements, identify gaps in knowledge and issues concerning clinical application, and present relevant research questions and directions to investigators and manufacturers for future research and development (primary goal).

  17. What Is High Blood Pressure Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a medicine calendar. • Set a reminder on your smartphone. What types of medicine may be prescribed? One ... High Blood Pressure Medicine? What are their side effects? For many people, high blood pressure medicine can ...

  18. Letter to editor: Blood pressure, hypertension and lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Yi; Staessen, Jan A

    2018-02-19

    A significant association of office diastolic blood pressure with low-level blood lead exposure was reported in a Brazilian adult population. However, caution should be taken to interpret these results. The multivariable-adjusted association with blood pressure was positive for diastolic blood pressure, but inverse for systolic blood pressure. The association sizes were infinitesimal without clinical relevance. The outcome measures, i.e. blood pressure and the prevalence of hypertension were analysed across categories of the blood lead distribution - not in relation to blood lead as continuous variable. Blood pressure was the average of two oscillometric office readings, whereas ambulatory monitoring is the state-of-the-art.

  19. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes.

  20. Blood Pressure Quiz | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It… is highest while ...

  1. Blood Pressure Control: Stroke and Stroke Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Christoph Diener

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for primary and secondary stroke prevention.All antihypertensive drugs are effective in primary prevention: the risk reduction for stroke is 30—42%. However, not all classes of drugs have the same effects: there is some indication that angiotensin receptor blockers may be superior to other classes of antihypertensive drugs in stroke prevention.Seventy-five percent of patients who present to hospital with acute stroke have elevated blood pressure within the first 24—48 hours. Extremes of systolic blood pressure (SBP increase the risk of death or dependency. The aim of treatment should be to achieve and maintain the SBP in the range 140—160 mmHg. However, fast and drastic blood pressure lowering can have adverse consequences.The PROGRESS trial of secondary prevention with perindopril + indapamide versus placebo + placebo showed a decrease in numbers of stroke recurrences in patients given both active antihypertensive agents, more impressive for cerebral haemorrhage.There were also indications that active treatment might decrease the development of post-stroke dementia.

  2. Waist circumference as an indicator of high blood pressure in preschool obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Li, Hai-fei

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between waist circumference and blood pressure (BP) to determine if waist circumference was an indicator of BP in preschool children. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and blood pressure of 939 3-6-year-old preschool children were collected. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in obese children were significantly higher than that in normal weight children in both sexes (phigh blood pressure in children of both sexes. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis using SBP as the dependent variable showed that BMI and WC were significant independent factors that influence high blood pressure adjusted for age, WtHr and waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHr) in boys. When using DBP as the dependent variable, BMI was the only significant independent factor that influenced high blood pressure adjusted for age, WtHr and WHr, in both sex-es. Waist circumference was independently associated with high blood pressure in boys aged 3-6 years. In addition to BMI, increased waist circumference was found to be an indicator of high blood pressure in the preschool children, especially in boys.

  3. Making hypertensive smokers motivated in quitting: developing 'blood pressure equivalence of smoking'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chi Pang; Tsai, Min Kuang; Chan, Hui Ting; Tsai, Shan Pou; Cheng, Ting Yuan David; Chiang, Po Huang

    2008-04-01

    To express the increased risk from smoking in terms of 'blood pressure' so that hypertensive smokers are motivated into quitting. Mortality risks of smokers were compared with nonsmokers in a large worker cohort in Taiwan (n = 23755 with a 17-year follow-up) for all-cause and for cardiovascular diseases. The blood pressure equivalence of smoking was then identified by the difference in mortality risks between smokers and nonsmokers. Some interaction between hypertension and smoking was found to be synergistic. When hypertension and smoking co-existed, the all-cause mortality outcome [relative risk (RR) = 4.25] was larger than the sum or product of each individual risk for hypertension (RR = 2.16) or for smoking (RR = 1.97). The excess mortality risks of smoking for smokers were converted into a 'blood pressure equivalence'. The results demonstrate that the addition of smoking was similar to an increase of mortality risk approximately equivalent to an increase in blood pressure of 40 mmHg. Smoking cessation in hypertensive patients could provide a reduction of mortality risks similar to a permanent reduction of 40 mmHg in blood pressure, over and above any antihypertensive medications. Appreciating this relationship enables physicians to bridge the clinical disconnection and motivates hypertensive smokers to seek smoking cessation. The use of a 'blood pressure equivalence of smoking' can link the two separate risk factors and may lead to a paradigm shift in overcoming an existing clinical challenge.

  4. Circadian Misalignment Increases C-Reactive Protein and Blood Pressure in Chronic Shift Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Mistretta, Joseph; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2017-04-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classical risk factors. Shift workers' behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers, independent of differences in work stress, food quality, and other factors that are likely to differ between night and day shifts. Thus, our objectives were to determine the independent effect of circadian misalignment on 24-h high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; a marker of systemic inflammation) and blood pressure levels-cardiovascular disease risk factors-in chronic shift workers. Chronic shift workers undertook two 3-day laboratory protocols that simulated night work, comprising 12-hour inverted behavioral and environmental cycles (circadian misalignment) or simulated day work (circadian alignment), using a randomized, crossover design. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h hs-CRP by 11% ( p shift workers. This may help explain the increased inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers.

  5. Is the area under blood pressure curve the best parameter to evaluate 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Fernando; Mion, Décio

    2005-10-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) provides relevant data about blood pressure over a 24-h period. The analysis of parameters to determine the blood pressure profile from these data is of great importance. To calculate areas under systolic and diastolic blood pressure curves (SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC) and compare with systolic and diastolic blood pressure load (SBPL/DBPL) and 24-h systolic and diastolic blood pressure (24-h SBP/24-h DBP) in order to determine which provides the best correlation with left ventricular mass index (LVMI). ABPM measurements (1143 individuals) were analyzed to obtain 24-h SBP/24-h DBP, SBPL/DBPL, and SBP-AUC/ DBP-AUC, using Spacelabs (90207) and CardioSistemas devices. Left ventricular mass was determined using an echocardiograph HP Sonos 5500 and LVMI was calculated. The correlations between all possible pairs within the group 24-h SBP/SBPL/SBP-AUC and 24-h DBP/DBPL/DBP-AUC were high and statistically significant. The correlations between 24-h SBP/24-h DBP and SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC with SBPL/DBPL close to 100%, were lower than those mentioned above. The correlations of the parameters obtained by ABPM with LVMI were also high and statistically significant, except for blood pressure load between 90 and 100%, and for 24-h SBP of 135 mmHg or less and SBPL higher than 50%. SBPL/DBPL and SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC can be used for the evaluation of ABPM data owing to the strong correlation with 24-h SBP/24-h DBP and with LVMI, except when SBPL is close to 100% or 24-h SBP is below 135 mmHg but SBPL is above 50%. SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC, however, are a better alternative because they do not have the limitations of blood pressure load or even of 24-h blood pressure present.

  6. Relationship between systemic hemodynamics and ambulatory blood pressure level are sex dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfie, J; Waisman, G D; Galarza, C R; Magi, M I; Vasvari, F; Mayorga, L M; Cámera, M I

    1995-12-01

    Sex-related differences in systemic hemodynamics were analyzed by means of cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance according to the level of daytime ambulatory blood pressure. In addition, we assessed the relations between ambulatory blood pressure measurements and systemic hemodynamics in male and female patients. We prospectively included 52 women and 53 men referred to our unit for evaluation of arterial hypertension. Women and men were grouped according to the level of daytime mean arterial pressure: or = 110 mm Hg. Patients underwent noninvasive evaluation of resting hemodynamics (impedance cardiography) and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Compared with women men with lower daytime blood pressure had a 12% higher systemic vascular resistance index (P = NS) and a 14% lower cardiac index (P < .02), whereas men with higher daytime blood pressure had a 25% higher vascular resistance (P < .003) and a 21% lower cardiac index (P < .0004). Furthermore, in men systemic vascular resistance correlated positively with both daytime and nighttime systolic and diastolic blood pressures, whereas cardiac index correlated negatively only with daytime diastolic blood pressure. In contrast, women did not exhibit any significant correlation between hemodynamic parameters and ambulatory blood pressure measurements. In conclusion, sex-related differences in systemic hemodynamics were more pronounced in the group with higher daytime hypertension. The relations between systemic hemodynamics and ambulatory blood pressure level depended on the sex of the patient. In men a progressive circulatory impairment underlies the increasing level of ambulatory blood pressure, but this was not observed in women.

  7. [Comparison of invasive blood pressure measurement in the aorta with indirect oscillometric blood pressure measurement at the wrist and forearm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, F; Aristidou, Y; Klaus, D; Wiemeyer, A; Lösse, B

    1995-09-01

    Indirectly measured blood pressure at the wrist or upper arm was compared with directly measured values in the aortic arch during routinely performed diagnostic cardiac catheterization in 100 patients (31-80 years, mean 59.3 years, 60% males). The noninvasive measurements were carried out by oscillometric devices, NAiS Blood Pressure Watch for measurements at the wrist, and Hestia OZ80 at the upper arm. Systolic blood pressure measured at the wrist was 4.3 +/- 14.1 mm Hg, and the diastolic value 6.0 +/- 8.9 mm Hg higher than when measured at the aortic arch; the difference was significant in both cases. Correlation coefficients were 0.85 for systolic and 0.71 for diastolic blood pressure. In 16% of the patients the systolic blood pressure at the wrist differed more than +/- 20 mm Hg. The diastolic blood pressure at the wrist measured more than +/- 20 mm Hg higher than in the aorta in 5% of the patients. At the upper arm mean systolic values were not different to the aorta. The diastolic pressure was 9.3 +/- 9.8 mm Hg higher in the aorta than at the upper arm. To verify the accuracy of values measured with the NAiS Blood Pressure Watch compared with the standard technique at the upper arm, sequential measurements were made at wrist and ipsilateral upper arm in the same group of 100 patients. The systolic blood pressure at the left wrist was 3.4 +/- 13.3 mm Hg higher and the diastolic pressure 3.8 +/- 9.5 mm Hg lower than at the upper arm. Only 53% of systolic values lay within a range of +/- 10 mm Hg. The correspondence between wrist and upper arm values was better for diastolic blood pressure, the values differing by less than +/- 10 mm Hg in two-thirds of patients. Self-measurement of arterial blood pressure with an oscillometric device at the wrist can be recommended only in individual cases with a difference of simultaneously measured values at the upper arm of less than +/- 10 mm Hg for systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The standard method for indirectly

  8. Effects of adrenalectomy, adrenal regeneration, and renal irradiation on blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, M.; Casarett, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Adrenalectomized, adrenal-enucleated and adrenal-intact rats were sham-irradiated or received an x-ray dose of 1100 rad bilaterally to temporarily exteriorized kidneys. Systolic blood pressures were measured at 10, 25, 40, 60, and 80 days after irradiation. At 100 days after irradiation the rats were sacrificed for gross pathologic examination and renal histopathologic studies of the kidneys. Adrenalectomy alone caused a significant drop in blood pressure which persisted throughout the experiment; adrenal regeneration in adrenal-enucleated rats or in those adrenalectomized rats in which adrenal tissue regenerated caused a significant increase in systolic blood pressure after 80 days postirradiation. Irradiation of adrenal-intact, adrenal-regenerating, or adrenalectomized rats did not cause significant elevation of blood pressure in comparison with that of the corresponding nonirradiated controls. Rats showing subtle renal histological changes usually showed somewhat higher blood pressures than rats showing no renal histological changes; a few rats which became severely hypertensive showed considerable histopathological changes in kidneys and other organs

  9. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ...

  10. Exercise Blood Pressure and the Risk for Future Hypertension Among Normotensive Middle‐Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Assaf; Grossman, Ehud; Katz, Moshe; Kivity, Shaye; Klempfner, Robert; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Sidi, Yehezkel; Maor, Elad

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to examine whether exercise blood pressure can be used to predict the development of hypertension in normotensive middle‐aged adults. Methods and Results We investigated 7082 normotensive subjects who were annually screened in a tertiary medical center and completed maximal treadmill exercise tests at each visit. After the initial 3 years, subjects were divided into approximate quartiles according to their average exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses (≤158; 158 to 170; 170 to 183; ≥183 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and ≤73; 73 to 77; 77 to 82; ≥82 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure). Mean age of the study population was 48±9 years and 73% were men. Average baseline resting blood pressure was 120/77±12/7 mm Hg. During a follow‐up of 5±3 years, 1036 (14.6%) subjects developed hypertension. The cumulative probability of new‐onset hypertension at 5 years was significantly increased with increasing quartiles of exercise systolic blood pressure (5%, 9%, 17%, and 35%, respectively; Pexercise either systolic or diastolic blood pressures were independently associated with respective 11% (Phypertension. Conclusions In normotensive middle‐aged individuals, blood pressure response to exercise is associated with future development of hypertension. PMID:25904593

  11. The difference in blood pressure readings between arms and survival: primary care cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher E; Taylor, Rod S; Shore, Angela C; Campbell, John L

    2012-03-20

    To determine whether a difference in systolic blood pressure readings between arms can predict a reduced event free survival after 10 years. Cohort study. Rural general practice in Devon, United Kingdom. 230 people receiving treatment for hypertension in primary care. Bilateral blood pressure measurements recorded at three successive surgery attendances. Cardiovascular events and deaths from all causes during a median follow-up of 9.8 years. At recruitment 24% (55/230) of participants had a mean interarm difference in systolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg or more and 9% (21/230) of 15 mm Hg or more; these differences were associated with an increased risk of all cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 2.0 to 6.5 and 3.1, 1.6 to 6.0, respectively). The risk of death was also increased in 183 participants without pre-existing cardiovascular disease with an interarm difference in systolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg or more or 15 mm Hg or more (2.6, 1.4 to 4.8 and 2.7, 1.3 to 5.4). An interarm difference in diastolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg or more was weakly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events or death. Differences in systolic blood pressure between arms can predict an increased risk of cardiovascular events and all cause mortality over 10 years in people with hypertension. This difference could be a valuable indicator of increased cardiovascular risk. Bilateral blood pressure measurements should become a routine part of cardiovascular assessment in primary care.

  12. Associations between particulate matter composition and childhood blood pressure - The PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilenko, Natalya; Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; de Hoogh, Kees; Hoek, Gerard; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wang, Meng; van Rossem, Lenie; Gehring, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood blood pressure is an important predictor of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Evidence for an association between ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure and blood pressure is increasing, but little is known about the relevance of different PM constituents.

  13. Intrathecal fentanyl abolishes the exaggerated blood pressure response to cycling in hypertensive men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Thales C; Vianna, Lauro C; Fernandes, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    . In the present study, we tested whether the attenuation of these neural signals in hypertensive patients could normalize their abnormal increase in blood pressure during physical activity. Attenuation of the neural signals from the leg muscles with intrathecal fentanyl injection reduced the blood pressure...... of fentanyl, a μ-opioid receptor agonist, aiming to attenuate the central projection of opioid-sensitive group III and IV muscle afferent nerves. The cardiovascular response to exercise of these subjects was compared with that of six normotensive men. During cycling, the hypertensive group demonstrated...... an exaggerated increase in blood pressure compared to the normotensive group (mean ± SEM: +17 ± 3 vs. +8 ± 1 mmHg, respectively; P 0.05). Fentanyl inhibited the blood pressure response to exercise...

  14. Income inequality and high blood pressure in Colombia: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucumi, Diego I; Schulz, Amy J; Roux, Ana V Diez; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2017-11-21

    The objective of this research was to examine the association between income inequality and high blood pressure in Colombia. Using a nationally representative Colombian sample of adults, and data from departments and municipalities, we fit sex-stratified linear and logistic multilevel models with blood pressure as a continuous and binary variable, respectively. In adjusted models, women living in departments with the highest quintile of income inequality in 1997 had higher systolic blood pressure than their counterparts living in the lowest quintile of income inequality (mean difference 4.42mmHg; 95%CI: 1.46, 7.39). Women living in departments that were at the fourth and fifth quintile of income inequality in 1994 were more likely to have hypertension than those living in departments at the first quintile in the same year (OR: 1.56 and 1.48, respectively). For men, no associations of income inequality with either systolic blood pressure or hypertension were observed. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that income inequality is associated with increased risk of high blood pressure for women. Future studies to analyze pathways linking income inequality to high blood pressure in Colombia are needed.

  15. Influence of Baseline Diastolic Blood Pressure on Effects of Intensive Compared With Standard Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Chertow, Glenn M; Cheung, Alfred K; Cushman, William C; Rahman, Mahboob; Greene, Tom; Wei, Guo; Campbell, Ruth C; Conroy, Margaret; Freedman, Barry I; Haley, William; Horwitz, Edward; Kitzman, Dalane; Lash, James; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Pisoni, Roberto; Riessen, Erik; Rosendorff, Clive; Watnick, Suzanne G; Whittle, Jeffrey; Whelton, Paul K

    2018-01-09

    In individuals with a low diastolic blood pressure (DBP), the potential benefits or risks of intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering are unclear. SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) was a randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of intensive (target baseline DBP. Mean baseline SBP and DBP were 139.7±15.6 and 78.1±11.9 mm Hg, respectively. Regardless of the randomized treatment, baseline DBP had a U-shaped association with the hazard of the primary cardiovascular disease outcome. However, the effects of the intensive SBP intervention on the primary outcome were not influenced by baseline DBP level ( P for interaction=0.83). The primary outcome hazard ratio for intensive versus standard treatment was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.07) in the lowest DBP quintile (mean baseline DBP, 61±5 mm Hg) and 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.90) in the upper 4 DBP quintiles (mean baseline DBP, 82±9 mm Hg), with an interaction P value of 0.78. Results were similar for all-cause death and kidney events. Low baseline DBP was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease events, but there was no evidence that the benefit of the intensive SBP lowering differed by baseline DBP. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01206062. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Prevalence of pre-high blood pressure and high blood pressure among non-overweight children and adolescents using international blood pressure references in developed regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Changwei; Xu, Shuang; Wang, Hua; Wang, Wenming; Shen, Hui

    2017-09-01

    There is a lack of data on the prevalence of pre-high blood pressure (PreHBP) and high blood pressure (HBP), based on recent international blood pressure references, in non-overweight children and adolescents. To describe the prevalence of PreHBP and HBP in non-overweight children and adolescents in developed regions of China. In total, 588 097 non-overweight children and adolescents aged 6-17 years from the National Surveys on Chinese Students' Constitution and Health in 2015 were included. The prevalence of PreHBP was 13.41% and subjects in urban areas had a higher prevalence of PreHBP (14.14%) than those in rural areas (12.92%). Subjects in regions with a high (13.56%) or moderate (13.61%) socioeconomic status showed a higher prevalence of PreHBP than those in regions with a relatively low socioeconomic status (12.76%). A similar pattern was found for the prevalence of HBP, and the prevalence of HBP was 18.25% for all participants, 20.55% for subjects in urban areas, 16.71% in rural areas, 18.76% in high socioeconomic areas, 18.62% in moderate socioeconomic areas and 16.70% in relatively low socioeconomic areas. A large proportion of non-overweight children and adolescents had elevated blood pressure and there were urban-rural and socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of elevated blood pressure.

  17. Blood pressure and mesenteric blood flow in the rat during infusion of biogenic amines. Influence of a supralethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, R.; Gerber, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    The action of biogenic amines (noradrenaline, dopamine), infused at different concentration into the aorta of the urethane anesthetized control and irradiated rats for 2 min., was followed on the basis of systemic blood pressure and mesenteric blood flow. The mesenteric blood flow was measured by means of an electromagnetic flow meter. The changes observed i.e. after dopamine an increase in pressure and flow, after noradrenaline an increase in pressure and a decrease in flow with an increase after infusion had been stopped, correspond to those obtained in larger animals. In many, but not in all cases, the response is proportional to the log of the concentration of the amine infused. Irradiation with 2 kR, i.e. a dose which causes the animals to die from the gastrointestinal syndrome after 3 days modified the response to dopamine and noradrenaline. The changes are, for noradrenaline, a greater pressure and a lower flow responses and for dopamine a greater pressure response at low and middle doses [fr

  18. Blood pressure and mesenteric blood flow in the rat during infusion of biogenic amines. Influence of a supralethal irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmermans, R; Gerber, G B [Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1978-01-01

    The action of biogenic amines (noradrenaline, dopamine), infused at different concentration into the aorta of the urethane anesthetized control and irradiated rats for 2 min., was followed on the basis of systemic blood pressure and mesenteric blood flow. The mesenteric blood flow was measured by means of an electromagnetic flow meter. The changes observed i.e. after dopamine an increase in pressure and flow, after noradrenaline an increase in pressure and a decrease in flow with an increase after infusion had been stopped, correspond to those obtained in larger animals. In many, but not in all cases, the response is proportional to the log of the concentration of the amine infused. Irradiation with 2 kR, i.e. a dose which causes the animals to die from the gastrointestinal syndrome after 3 days, modified the response to dopamine and noradrenaline. The changes are, for noradrenaline, a greater pressure and a lower flow responses and for dopamine a greater pressure response at low and middle doses.

  19. Definition of ambulatory blood pressure targets for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in relation to clinic blood pressure: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Geoffrey A; Mihailidou, Anastasia S; Duggan, Karen A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Berry, Narelle; Brown, Mark A; Bune, Alex J; Cowley, Diane; Chalmers, John P; Howe, Peter R C; Hodgson, Jonathan; Ludbrook, John; Mangoni, Arduino A; McGrath, Barry P; Nelson, Mark R; Sharman, James E; Stowasser, Michael

    2010-04-14

    Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure thresholds have been defined for the diagnosis of mild hypertension but not for its treatment or for other blood pressure thresholds used in the diagnosis of moderate to severe hypertension. We aimed to derive age and sex related ambulatory blood pressure equivalents to clinic blood pressure thresholds for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. We collated 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure data, recorded with validated devices, from 11 centres across six Australian states (n=8575). We used least product regression to assess the relation between these measurements and clinic blood pressure measured by trained staff and in a smaller cohort by doctors (n=1693). Mean age of participants was 56 years (SD 15) with mean body mass index 28.9 (5.5) and mean clinic systolic/diastolic blood pressure 142/82 mm Hg (19/12); 4626 (54%) were women. Average clinic measurements by trained staff were 6/3 mm Hg higher than daytime ambulatory blood pressure and 10/5 mm Hg higher than 24 hour blood pressure, but 9/7 mm Hg lower than clinic values measured by doctors. Daytime ambulatory equivalents derived from trained staff clinic measurements were 4/3 mm Hg less than the 140/90 mm Hg clinic threshold (lower limit of grade 1 hypertension), 2/2 mm Hg less than the 130/80 mm Hg threshold (target upper limit for patients with associated conditions), and 1/1 mm Hg less than the 125/75 mm Hg threshold. Equivalents were 1/2 mm Hg lower for women and 3/1 mm Hg lower in older people compared with the combined group. Our study provides daytime ambulatory blood pressure thresholds that are slightly lower than equivalent clinic values. Clinic blood pressure measurements taken by doctors were considerably higher than those taken by trained staff and therefore gave inappropriate estimates of ambulatory thresholds. These results provide a framework for the diagnosis and management of hypertension using ambulatory blood pressure values.

  20. Blood Pressure Matters: Keep Hypertension in Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 Print this issue Blood Pressure Matters Keep Hypertension in Check En español Send us your comments ... 1 in 3 adults in the U.S. has high blood pressure, but many don’t realize it. High blood ...

  1. Central blood pressure variability is increased in hypertensive patients with target organ damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Pareja, Julia; Yun, Sergi; Acosta, Eva; Aiello, Francesco; Oliveras, Anna; Vázquez, Susana; Armario, Pedro; Blanch, Pedro; Sierra, Cristina; Calero, Francesca; Fernández-Llama, Patricia

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association of aortic and brachial short-term blood pressure variability (BPV) with the presence of target organ damage (TOD) in hypertensive patients. One-hundred seventy-eight patients, aged 57 ± 12 years, 33% women were studied. TOD was defined by the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram, microalbuminuria, reduced glomerular filtration rate, or increased aortic pulse wave velocity. Aortic and brachial BPV was assessed by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (Mobil-O-Graph). TOD was present in 92 patients (51.7%). Compared to those without evidence of TOD, they had increased night-to-day ratios of systolic and diastolic BP (both aortic and brachial) and heart rate. They also had significant increased systolic BPV, as measured by both aortic and brachial daytime and 24-hours standard deviations and coefficients of variation, as well as for average real variability. Circadian patterns and short-term variability measures were very similar for aortic and brachial BP. We conclude that BPV is increased in hypertensive-related TOD. Aortic BPV does not add relevant information in comparison to brachial BPV. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of Intensive Blood Pressure Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richman, Ilana B; Fairley, Michael; Jørgensen, Mads Emil

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Among high-risk patients with hypertension, targeting a systolic blood pressure of 120 mm Hg reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with a higher target. However, intensive blood pressure management incurs additional costs from treatment and from adverse events......-effectiveness of intensive blood pressure management among 68-year-old high-risk adults with hypertension but not diabetes. We used the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) to estimate treatment effects and adverse event rates. We used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Life Tables to project age...... and accrued $155 261 in lifetime costs, while intensive management yielded 10.5 QALYs and accrued $176 584 in costs. Intensive blood pressure management cost $23 777 per QALY gained. In a sensitivity analysis, serious adverse events would need to occur at 3 times the rate observed in SPRINT and be 3 times...

  3. Menopausal hormone therapy is associated with having high blood pressure in postmenopausal women: observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Christine L; Lujic, Sanja; Thornton, Charlene; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and cardiovascular risk remains controversial, with a number of studies advocating the use of MHT in reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases, while others have shown it to increase risk. The aim of this study was to determine the association between menopausal hormone therapy and high blood pressure. A total of 43,405 postmenopausal women were included in the study. Baseline data for these women were sourced from the 45 and Up Study, Australia, a large scale study of healthy ageing. These women reported being postmenopausal, having an intact uterus, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure prior to menopause. Odds ratios for the association between MHT use and having high blood pressure were estimated using logistic regression, stratified by age (high blood pressure: past menopausal hormone therapy use: high blood pressure, with the effect of hormone therapy use diminishing with increasing age. Menopausal hormone therapy use is associated with significantly higher odds of having high blood pressure, and the odds increase with increased duration of use. High blood pressure should be conveyed as a health risk for people considering MHT use.

  4. Job strain associated with increases in ambulatory blood and pulse pressure during and after work hours among female hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Matt; Krause, Niklas

    2018-06-01

    Previously documented elevated hypertension rates among Las Vegas hotel room cleaners are hypothesized to be associated with job strain. Job strain was assessed by questionnaire. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was recorded among 419 female cleaners from five hotels during 18 waking hours. Multiple linear regression models assessed associations of job strain with ABP and pulse pressure for 18-h, work hours, and after work hours. Higher job strain was associated with increased 18-h systolic ABP, after work hours systolic ABP, and ambulatory pulse pressure. Dependents at home but not social support at work attenuated effects. Among hypertensive workers, job strain effects were partially buffered by anti-hypertensive medication. High job strain is positively associated with blood pressure among female hotel workers suggesting potential for primary prevention at work. Work organizational changes, stress management, and active ABP surveillance and hypertension management should be considered for integrated intervention programs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Music improves dopaminergic neurotransmission: demonstration based on the effect of music on blood pressure regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoo, Den'etsu; Akiyama, Kayo

    2004-08-06

    The mechanism by which music modifies brain function is not clear. Clinical findings indicate that music reduces blood pressure in various patients. We investigated the effect of music on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Previous studies indicated that calcium increases brain dopamine (DA) synthesis through a calmodulin (CaM)-dependent system. Increased DA levels reduce blood pressure in SHR. In this study, we examined the effects of music on this pathway. Systolic blood pressure in SHR was reduced by exposure to Mozart's music (K.205), and the effect vanished when this pathway was inhibited. Exposure to music also significantly increased serum calcium levels and neostriatal DA levels. These results suggest that music leads to increased calcium/CaM-dependent DA synthesis in the brain, thus causing a reduction in blood pressure. Music might regulate and/or affect various brain functions through dopaminergic neurotransmission, and might therefore be effective for rectification of symptoms in various diseases that involve DA dysfunction.

  6. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors Diabetes High blood pressure Family history Obesity Race/ethnicity Full list of causes and risk factors ... give Give monthly Memorials and tributes Donate a car Donate gently used items Stock donation Workplace giving ...

  7. [Health and exercise: effects of exercise on high blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Nanri, H; Himeno, E

    1993-09-01

    Many factors, such as genetic, psychological, environmental, and socioeconomical factors, influence the health of individuals. Recently behavioral risks which cause preventable chronic diseases or premature death have been increasing. These risk factors are mainly due to living habits, such as over-eating, less exercise and psychological stress. Physical activity or fitness is reported to be inversely associated with morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases diabetes mellitus, cancer and so on. Hypertension has also been reported to be associated with low physical fitness in cross-sectional studies. We have so far reported a significant blood pressure reduction in mild hypertensive patients who completed mild intensity exercise training in well controlled studies. Exercise seemed to modify the multiple factors that might participate in raising and maintaining high blood pressure. The mechanisms of lowering blood pressure by exercise training are mainly due to a depletion of blood volume or the reduction of both cardiac output and the sympathetic tone. They were supported by the evidence of increased levels of prostaglandin E, dopamine, taurine, and decreased levels of plasma norepinephrine and endogenous ouavain-like substance. In this article, we have reviewed the physiological and biochemical roles of exercise, the effects of exercise on high blood pressure, and the hypotensive mechanism of mild aerobic exercise hypertensive patients.

  8. Severe obesity and high blood pressure among children, Philadelphia health centers, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, John V; Robbins, Jessica M; Houck, Kevin L; Nobis, Elizabeth A; Inman, Katelyn A; Khan, Khudsiya S; Robbins, Susan W

    2014-04-01

    Child obesity is a major health problem particularly affecting disadvantaged population groups. Severe obesity carries additional health risks for children. In the context of the childhood obesity epidemic, high blood pressure among children is of increasing concern. Chart reviews were carried out to examine the prevalence of severe obesity and its association with high blood pressure measurements among randomly selected patients aged 3 to 17 years who had well-child care visits at 8 public community health centers during 2010. A majority of the 691 patients reviewed were African American (58%); an additional 16% were Hispanic. The prevalence of severe obesity was 7.7% (95% confidence interval = 5.8% to 9.9%) and the prevalence of high blood pressure measurements was 17.5% (95% confidence interval = 14.8% to 20.6%). Patients who were severely obese were more than twice as likely as other children to have high blood pressure values. Severe obesity is associated with substantially increased frequency of high blood pressure measurements in children, and should be investigated further as a potential marker for hypertension in children. Primary care providers should be prepared to diagnose and treat hypertension in severely obese children.

  9. Exercise blood pressure and the risk for future hypertension among normotensive middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Assaf; Grossman, Ehud; Katz, Moshe; Kivity, Shaye; Klempfner, Robert; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Sidi, Yehezkel; Maor, Elad

    2015-04-22

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether exercise blood pressure can be used to predict the development of hypertension in normotensive middle-aged adults. We investigated 7082 normotensive subjects who were annually screened in a tertiary medical center and completed maximal treadmill exercise tests at each visit. After the initial 3 years, subjects were divided into approximate quartiles according to their average exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses (≤158; 158 to 170; 170 to 183; ≥183 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and ≤73; 73 to 77; 77 to 82; ≥82 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure). Mean age of the study population was 48 ± 9 years and 73% were men. Average baseline resting blood pressure was 120/77 ± 12/7 mm Hg. During a follow-up of 5 ± 3 years, 1036 (14.6%) subjects developed hypertension. The cumulative probability of new-onset hypertension at 5 years was significantly increased with increasing quartiles of exercise systolic blood pressure (5%, 9%, 17%, and 35%, respectively; Pexercise either systolic or diastolic blood pressures were independently associated with respective 11% (Phypertension. In normotensive middle-aged individuals, blood pressure response to exercise is associated with future development of hypertension. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  10. Linseed oil increases HDL3 cholesterol and decreases blood pressure in patients diagnosed with mild hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczyńska, Anna H; Gluza, Ewa; Wojakowska, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Skoczyńska, Marta

    2018-04-24

    Linseed oil has cardio-protective effects. However, its antihypertensive action has not yet been well characterized. The primary purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of short-term dietary supplementation with linseed oil on blood pressure (BP) and lipid metabolism in patients with mild hypercholesterolemia. The secondary aim was to evaluate the effect of linseed oil on nitric oxide pathway and selected serum trace metals. 150 volunteers: 43 men (49.9±11.5 years) and 107 women (53.2±10.3 years), diagnosed with mild hypercholesterolemia, were assessed prospectively for BP and lipids' levels, before and after lipid-lowering diet plus linseed oil supplementation at a dose of 15 ml daily for 4 weeks (study groups) or 4-weekly lipid-lowering diet (control group). The multivariate logistic regression analysis model was used to determine the effect of linseed oil on BP after adjustment for age, gender, height, body weight, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption. The supplementation with linseed oil significantly decreased LDL- and non-HDL cholesterol, and increased HDL- and HDL₃- cholesterol levels. Additionally, linseed oil decreased diastolic BP in men (CI:-6.0;-1.1, poil reduced (poil consumption was associated with a decrease in mean BP (aOR 3.85, 95%CI 1.32-11.33). Our findings confirm the benefit of short-term linseed oil use in mild hypercholesterolemia, in particular in patients with increased blood pressure.

  11. Blood pressure kiosks for medication therapy management programs: business opportunity for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Sherilyn K D; Chuck, Anderson W; Tsuyuki, Ross T

    2012-01-01

    To develop an economic model based on the use of pharmacy-based blood pressure kiosks for case finding of remunerable medication therapy management (MTM) opportunities. Descriptive, exploratory, nonexperimental study. Ontario, Canada, between January 2010 and September 2011. More than 7.5 million blood pressure kiosk readings were taken from 341 pharmacies. A model was developed to estimate revenues achievable by using blood pressure kiosks for 1 month to identify a cohort of patients with blood pressure of 130/80 mm Hg or more and caring for those patients during 1 year. Revenue generated from MTM programs. Pharmacies could generate an average of $12,270 (range $4,523-24,420) annually in revenue from billing for MTM services. Blood pressure kiosks can be used to identify patients with elevated blood pressure who may benefit from reimbursable pharmacist cognitive services. Revenue can be reinvested to purchase automated dispensing technology or offset pharmacy technician costs to free pharmacists to provide pharmaceutical care. Improved patient outcomes, increased patient loyalty, and improved adherence are additional potential benefits.

  12. Renal-Specific Silencing of TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) Unmasks Salt-Dependent Increases in Blood Pressure via an NKCC2A (Na+-K+-2Cl- Cotransporter Isoform A)-Dependent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shoujin; Hao, Mary; Ferreri, Nicholas R

    2018-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-α produced within the kidney and acting on the renal tubular system is part of a regulatory mechanism that attenuates increases in blood pressure in response to high salt intake. Intrarenal administration of a lentivirus construct, which specifically silenced TNF in the kidney, did not affect baseline blood pressure. However, blood pressure increased significantly 1 day after mice with intrarenal silencing of TNF ingested 1% NaCl in the drinking water. The increase in blood pressure, which was continuously observed for 11 days, promptly returned to baseline levels when mice were switched from 1% NaCl to tap water. Silencing of renal TNF also increased NKCC2 (Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransporter) phosphorylation and induced a selective increase in NKCC2A (NKCC2 isoform A) mRNA accumulation in both the cortical and medullary thick ascending limb of Henle loop that was neither associated with a compensatory decrease of NKCC2F in the medulla nor NKCC2B in the cortex. The NaCl-mediated increases in blood pressure were completely absent when NKCC2A, using a lentivirus construct that did not alter expression of NKCC2F or NKCC2B, and TNF were concomitantly silenced in the kidney. Moreover, the decrease in urine volume and NaCl excretion induced by renal TNF silencing was abolished when NKCC2A was concurrently silenced, suggesting that this isoform contributes to the transition from a salt-resistant to salt-sensitive phenotype. Collectively, the data are the first to demonstrate a role for TNF produced by the kidney in the modulation of sodium homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Anxiety and blood pressure prior to dental treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamins, C.; Schuurs, A.H.; Asscheman, H.; Hoogstraten, J.

    1990-01-01

    Assessed dental anxiety and blood pressure immediately prior to a dental appointment in 24 patients attending a university dental clinic or a clinic for anxious dental patients in the Netherlands. Blood pressure was assessed by 2 independent methods, and the interchangeability of the blood-pressure

  14. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-01

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.

  15. Interarm difference in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the interarm difference in blood pressure and its use as an indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data were included from consecutive patients referred from their general practitioner to our vascular laboratory for possible PAD aged 50 years or older...... without known cardiac disease, renal disease, or diabetes mellitus. 824 patients (453 women) with mean age of 72 years (range: 50-101) were included. 491 patients had a diagnosis of hypertension and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was present in 386 patients. Systolic blood pressure was 143 ± 24 mm......Hg and 142 ± 24 mmHg on the right and left arm, respectively (P = 0.015). The interarm difference was greater in patients with hypertension (P = 0.002) and PAD (P blood pressure was reproducible...

  16. Urinary albumin excretion is associated with nocturnal systolic blood pressure in resistant hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras, Anna; Armario, Pedro; Martell-Clarós, Nieves; Ruilope, Luis M; de la Sierra, Alejandro

    2011-03-01

    Microalbuminuria is a known marker of subclinical organ damage. Its prevalence is higher in patients with resistant hypertension than in subjects with blood pressure at goal. On the other hand, some patients with apparently well-controlled hypertension still have microalbuminuria. The current study aimed to determine the relationship between microalbuminuria and both office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. A cohort of 356 patients (mean age 64 ± 11 years; 40.2% females) with resistant hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140 and/or 90 mm Hg despite treatment with ≥ 3 drugs, diuretic included) were selected from Spanish hypertension units. Patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were excluded. All patients underwent clinical and demographic evaluation, complete laboratory analyses, and good technical-quality 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was averaged from 3 first-morning void urine samples. Microalbuminuria (urinary albumin/creatinine ratio ≥ 2.5 mg/mmol in males or ≥ 3.5 mg/mmol in females) was detected in 46.6%, and impaired renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) was detected in 26.8%. Bivariate analyses showed significant associations of microalbuminuria with older age, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, increased nighttime systolic blood pressure, and elevated daytime, nighttime, and 24-hour diastolic blood pressure. In a logistic regression analysis, after age and sex adjustment, elevated nighttime systolic blood pressure (multivariate odds ratio, 1.014 [95% CI, 1.001 to 1.026]; P=0.029) and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (multivariate odds ratio, 2.79 [95% CI, 1.57 to 4.96]; P=0.0005) were independently associated with the presence of microalbuminuria. We conclude that microalbuminuria is better associated with increased nighttime systolic blood pressure than with any other office and 24-hour ambulatory blood

  17. CLASSICAL MUSIC DECREASE STRESS LEVEL AND BLOOD PRESSURE PRIMIGRAVIDA IN THE THIRD TRIMESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Alit Armini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many changes in psychology and biology increase primigravida’s stress in the third trimester. The stress response makes blood pressure being unstable, it causes bad effect for pregnancy. Classical music can be used as one of relaxation facilities that can reduce stress. The aimed of this study were to analyze the effect of classical music on stress level and blood pressure. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental purposive sampling design. The sample in this study were 14 pregnancy women in the third trimester in RSIA Cempaka Putih Permata Surabaya. The independent variable in this study was classical music and the dependent variable were stress level and blood pressure. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, Mann Withney U Test, Paired t Test and Independent t Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that the stress level in controlled group with p=0.567 and intervention group with p=0.025. The result of blood pressure in controlled group with p=0.522 in systolic blood pressure, p=0.35 in diastolic blood pressure and intervention group showed p=0.103 in systolic blood pressure and p=1.00 in diastolic blood pressure. Discussion: It can be concluded that listening classical music can reduce stress level, stabilize blood pressure, although blood pressure hasn’t significant result but mean of blood pressure show that it was stable. Further studies should be considered to used cortisol to identify stress biology response spesifically.

  18. Peripheral vascular effects on auscultatory blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbany, S Y; Drzewiecki, G M; Noordergraaf, A

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the accuracy of the conventional auscultatory method of blood pressure measurement. The influence of the physiologic state of the vascular system in the forearm distal to the site of Korotkoff sound recording and its impact on the precision of the measured blood pressure is discussed. The peripheral resistance in the arm distal to the cuff was changed noninvasively by heating and cooling effects and by induction of reactive hyperemia. All interventions were preceded by an investigation of their effect on central blood pressure to distinguish local effects from changes in central blood pressure. These interventions were sufficiently moderate to make their effect on central blood pressure, recorded in the other arm, statistically insignificant (i.e., changes in systolic [p cooling experiments was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Moreover, both measured systolic (p < 0.004) and diastolic (p < 0.001) pressure decreases during the reactive hyperemia experiments were statistically significant. The findings demonstrate that alteration in vascular state generates perplexing changes in blood pressure, hence confirming experimental observations by earlier investigators as well as predictions by our model studies.

  19. Risk Stratification by Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Across JNC Classes of Conventional Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brguljan-Hitij, Jana; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines propose classification of conventional blood pressure (CBP) into normotension (<120/<80 mm Hg), prehypertension (120-139/80-89 mm Hg), and hypertension (≥140/≥90 mm Hg). METHODS: To assess the potential differential contribution of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in predict......BACKGROUND: Guidelines propose classification of conventional blood pressure (CBP) into normotension (ABP......%) and of cardiovascular (-34%), cardiac (-33%), or cerebrovascular (-47%) events. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for stroke associated with 24-hour and daytime diastolic ABP (+5 mm Hg) were higher (P ≤ 0.045) in normotension than in prehypertension and hypertension (1.98 vs.1.19 vs.1.28 and 1.73 vs.1.09 vs. 1.......24, respectively) with similar trends (0.03 ≤ P ≤ 0.11) for systolic ABP (+10 mm Hg). However, HRs for fatal endpoints and cardiac events associated with ABP did not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.13) across CBP categories. Of normotensive and prehypertensive participants, 7.5% and 29.3% had masked hypertension...

  20. Achieved Blood Pressure and Outcomes in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Michelle C; McClure, Leslie A; Sawaya, B Peter; White, Carole L; Peralta, Carmen A; Field, Thalia S; Hart, Robert G; Benavente, Oscar R; Pergola, Pablo E

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest a J-shaped association between blood pressure and cardiovascular events in the setting of intensive systolic blood pressure control; whether there is a similar association with stroke remains less well established. The Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes was a randomized trial to evaluate higher (130-149 mm Hg) versus lower (blood pressure targets in participants with recent lacunar infarcts. We evaluated the association of mean achieved blood pressure, 6 months after randomization, and recurrent stroke, major vascular events, and all-cause mortality. After a mean follow up of 3.7 years, there was a J-shaped association between achieved blood pressure and outcomes; the lowest risk was at ≈124 and 67 mm Hg systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. For example, above a systolic blood pressure of 124 mm Hg, 1 standard deviation higher (11.1 mm Hg) was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 2.7), whereas below this level, this relationship was inverted (0.29; 0.10, 0.79), Pblood pressure of 67 mm Hg, a 1 standard deviation higher (8.2 mm Hg) was associated with an increased risk of stroke (2.2; 1.4, 3.6), whereas below this level, the association was in the opposite direction (0.34; 0.13, 0.89), P=0.02 for interaction. The lowest risk of all events occurred at a nadir of ≈120 to 128 mm Hg systolic blood pressure and 65 to 70 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure. Future studies should evaluate the impact of excessive blood pressure reduction, especially in older populations with preexisting vascular disease. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00059306. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. CAUSES OF UNCONTROLLED BLOOD PRESSURE IN THE OVER-65 POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Khosravi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is a major cause of cardiovascular disease and the prevalence of hypertension shows a linear increase with aging so that it increases by 10 percent every 10 years. This study was conducted to investigate the causes of uncontrolled blood pressure in people aged over 65 years. methods: This descriptive case-control study was conducted at Isfahan Amin Hospital in 2003 on two-hundred over-65 subjects diagnosed with hypertension through a routine travel check-up for Mecca pilgrimage. After medical examinations and blood pressure measurement according to WHO standards, the subjects were divided into a case group (controlled blood pressure and a control group (uncontrolled blood pressure, respectively. A questionnaire was filled in for each subject and the data were analyzed with χ2 and t-student test. results: The case and control groups had mean ages of 70.7±5.2 and 69.5±4.9 years, respectively. In the case group, less than half of the subjects were taking their antihypertensive medications regularly and 12.5% engaged in self-therapy. Fifty-five percent of subjects in the case group expressed a lack of motivation as the reason for discontinuing therapy. Their knowledge and practice were also found to be significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05. Discussion: In comparison with other studies, it was observed that the most common causes of uncontrolled blood pressure are poor knowledge, inappropriate practice in avoiding risk factors, and the discontinuation of pharmaceutical antihypertensive therapy.Keywords . Hypertension . Cardiovascular diseases . Antihypertensive agents . Diet therapy

  2. The Utility of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Diagnosing White Coat Hypertension in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kristi; Bowling, C Barrett; Sim, John J; Sridharan, Lakshmi; Harrison, Teresa N; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-11-01

    The beneficial effect of antihypertensive medication on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is supported by data from randomized controlled trials of older adults with hypertension. However, in clinical practice, overtreatment of hypertension in older adults may lead to side effects and an increased risk of falls. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is primarily based on blood pressure measurements obtained in the clinic setting. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) complements clinic blood pressure by measuring blood pressure in the out-of-clinic setting. ABPM can be used to identify white coat hypertension, defined as elevated clinic blood pressure and non-elevated ambulatory blood pressure. White coat hypertension is common in older adults but does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of CVD events among this population. Herein, we review the current literature on ABPM in the diagnoses of white coat hypertension in older adults, including its potential role in preventing overtreatment.

  3. The Utility of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Diagnosing White Coat Hypertension in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kristi; Bowling, C. Barrett; Sim, John J.; Sridharan, Lakshmi; Harrison, Teresa N.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial effect of antihypertensive medication on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is supported by data from randomized controlled trials of older adults with hypertension. However, in clinical practice, overtreatment of hypertension in older adults may lead to side effects and an increased risk of falls. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is primarily based on blood pressure measurements obtained in the clinic setting. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) complements clinic blood pressure by measuring blood pressure in the out-of-clinic setting. ABPM can be used to identify white coat hypertension, defined as elevated clinic blood pressure and non-elevated ambulatory blood pressure. White coat hypertension is common in older adults but does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of CVD events among this population. Herein, we review the current literature on ABPM in the diagnoses of white coat hypertension in older adults, including its potential role in preventing overtreatment. PMID:26400076

  4. Reaction of blood pressure and mesenteric blood flow to infusion of biogenic amines in normal and supralethally x-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, R.; Gerber, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    The responss of blood pressure and mesenteric blood flow were recorded during infusion of biogenic amines (noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, and histamine) to control and x-irradiated rats (first and third days after 2 kR x irradiation). Responses to different doses of the amines were evaluated, and the results obtained correspond to those seen in other species (e.g., an increase in pressure and a decrease in flow after dopamine, an increase in pressure and a decrease in flow after serotonin, a decrease in pressure and flow after acetylcholine, and a decrease in flow after serotonin, a decrease in pressure and flow after acetylcholine, and a decrease in pressure and an increase in flow after histamine). Irradiated animals are more responsive to pressure-raising agents, in particular to noradrenaline. They also have an altered dose-pressure response curve for dopamine

  5. Older Women with Controlled Isolated Systolic Hypertension: Exercise and Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubolsakka-Jones, Chulee; Sangthong, Benjarat; Aueyingsak, Sahachat; Jones, David A

    2016-06-01

    Exercise is generally regarded as beneficial for health, but the consequent increases in blood pressure might pose a risk for hypertensive subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine blood pressure responses to dynamic exercise and sustained handgrip in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) who were stable on medication. Nineteen female ISH patients (66 ± 5 yr) and 19 age-matched normotensive (NT) female controls undertook a 5-min cycle exercise (60% heart rate reserve [HRR]) and a 2-min handgrip exercise (30% maximum voluntary contraction). Blood pressure responses were measured using an oscillometric cuff, together with heart rate and resting brachial pulse transit times. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels after cycle exercise were 194 ± 18 and 153 ± 19 mm Hg for ISH and NT, respectively, with the increase above resting being greater for ISH (P exercise, SBP rose to 168 ± 19 and 140 ± 8 mm Hg for ISH and NT, respectively. The increases above baseline were greater for ISH both during the exercise and postexercise circulatory occlusion (P = 0.017). The increase in DBP levels during exercise and postexercise occlusion were similar in ISH and NT, suggesting little difference in metaboreflex sensitivity. Pulse transit time was shorter for ISH compared with NT (166 ± 6 ms and 242 ± 24 ms, respectively, P exercises, which may constitute a risk for cardiovascular incidents.

  6. High blood pressure in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossello, Enrico; Simoni, David

    2016-06-22

    High blood pressure and cognitive impairment often coexist in old age, but their pathophysiological association is complex. Several longitudinal studies have shown that high blood pressure at midlife is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia, although this association is much less clear in old age. The effect of blood pressure lowering in reducing the risk of dementia is only borderline significant in clinical trials of older subjects, partly due to the insufficient follow-up time. Conversely, dementia onset is associated with a decrease of blood pressure values, probably secondary to neurodegeneration. Prognostic effect of blood pressure values in cognitively impaired older subjects is still unclear, with aggressive blood pressure lowering being potentially harmful in this patients category. Brief cognitive screening, coupled with simple motor assessment, are warranted to identify frail older subjects who need a more cautious approach to antihypertensive treatment. Values obtained with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring seem more useful than clinical ones to predict the outcome of cognitively impaired older subjects. Future studies should identify the most appropriate blood pressure targets in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

  7. Agreement of high definition oscillometry with direct arterial blood pressure measurement at different blood pressure ranges in horses under general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tünsmeyer, Julia; Hopster, Klaus; Feige, Karsten; Kästner, Sabine Br

    2015-05-01

    To determine the agreement of high definition oscillometry (HDO) with direct arterial blood pressure measurements in normotensive, hypotensive and hypertensive horses during general anaesthesia. Experimental study. Seven healthy warmblood horses, aged 3-11 years, weighing 470-565 kg. Measurements from a HDO device with the cuff placed around the base of the tail were compared with pressures measured invasively from the facial artery. High blood pressures were induced by intravenous (IV) administration of dobutamine (5 μg kg(-1) minute(-1)) over ten minutes followed by norepinephrine (0.1 mg kg(-1) IV) and low pressures by increasing the inspired fraction of isoflurane and administration of nitroglycerine (0.05 mg kg(-1) IV). For analysis three pressure levels were determined: high (MAP>110 mmHg), normal (60 mmHgstandard deviation for SAP, MAP and DAP were 0.1 ± 19.4 mmHg, 0.5 ± 14.0, 4.7 ± 15.6, respectively. At high pressure levels bias and SD were 26.1 ± 37.3 (SAP), 4.2 ± 19.4 (MAP), 1.5 ± 16.8 (DAP) and at low pressures -20.0 ± 20.9 (SAP), -11.4 ± 19.6 (MAP), -4.7 ± 20.1 (DAP), with HDO measurements at a MAP <50 mmHg often failing. Good agreement with invasive arterial blood pressures was obtained with HDO at normotensive levels in horses. At high and low pressure ranges HDO was unreliable. Therefore, if haemodynamic instability is expected, invasive measurement remains preferable. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  8. Peripheral arterial volume distensibility: significant differences with age and blood pressure measured using an applied external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan

    2011-01-01

    A new arterial distensibility measurement technique was assessed in 100 healthy normotensive subjects. Arterial transmural pressures on the whole right arm were reduced with a 50 cm long cuff inflated to 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg. The electrocardiogram, and finger and ear photoplethysmograms were recorded simultaneously. Arm pulse propagation time, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and arterial volume distensibility were determined. With a 40 mmHg reduction in transmural pressure, arm pulse propagation time increased from 61 to 83 ms, PWV decreased from 12 to 8 m s −1 and arterial distensibility increased from 0.102% to 0.232% per mmHg (all P < 0.0001). At all cuff pressures, arterial distensibility was significantly related to resting mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and age, and for systolic blood pressure at 30 and 40 mmHg (all P < 0.05). At 40 mmHg cuff pressure, arterial distensibility fell by 54% for a MAP increase from 75 to 105 mmHg, 57% for a DBP increase from 60 to 90 mmHg and 47% for an age increase from 20 to 70 years. These changes were more than double than those without cuff pressure. Our technique showed that systemic volume distensibility of the peripheral arm artery reduced with age, with a greater effect at higher external and lower transmural pressures

  9. Blood pressure modifies retinal susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng He

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP. An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion, moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline, or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5-10 per group were subjected to IOP challenge (10-120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes. Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR. Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow.

  10. Increased blood pressure later in life may be associated with perinatal n-3 fatty acid deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, James A; Pearce, Adrian D; Sinclair, Andrew J; Vingrys, Algis J; Weisinger, Richard S; Weisinger, Harrison S

    2003-04-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Previous work in both animals and humans with high blood pressure has demonstrated the antihypertensive effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), although it is not known whether these nutrients are effective in preventing hypertension. The predominant n-3 PUFA in the mammalian nervous system, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is deposited into synaptic membranes at a high rate during the perinatal period, and recent observations indicate that the perinatal environment is important for the normal development of blood pressure control. This study investigated the importance of perinatal n-3 PUFA supply in the control of blood pressure in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Pregnant rat dams were fed semisynthetic diets that were either deficient in (DEF) or supplemented with (CON) n-3 PUFA. Offspring were fed the same diets as their mothers until 9 wk; then, half of the rats from each group were crossed over to the opposite diet creating four groups, i.e., CON-CON; CON-DEF; DEF-DEF, DEF-CON. Mean arterial blood pressures (MAP) were measured directly, at 33 wk of age, by cannulation of the femoral artery. The phospholipid fatty acid profile of the hypothalamic region was determined by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. The tissue phospholipid fatty acid profile reflected the diet that the rats were consuming at the time of testing. Both groups receiving DEF after 9 wk of age (i.e., DEF-DEF and CON-DEF) had similar profiles with a reduction in DHA levels of 30%, compared with rats receiving CON (i.e., CON-CON and DEF-CON). DEF-DEF rats had significantly raised MAP compared with all other groups, with differences as great as 17 mm Hg. DEF-CON rats had raised MAP compared with CON-CON rats, and DEF-DEF rats had higher MAP than CON-DEF rats, despite the fact that their respective fatty acid profiles were not different. These findings indicate that inadequate levels of DHA in the perinatal

  11. Cocoa, blood pressure, and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudano, Isabella; Flammer, Andreas J; Roas, Susanne; Enseleit, Frank; Ruschitzka, Frank; Corti, Roberto; Noll, Georg

    2012-08-01

    The consumption of a high amount of fruits and vegetables was found to be associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Epidemiologically, a similar relationship has been found with cocoa, a naturally polyphenol-rich food. Obviously, double blind randomized studies are difficult to perform with cocoa and chocolate, respectively. However, intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa has several beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, including the lowering of blood pressure, the improvement of vascular function and glucose metabolism, and the reduction of platelet aggregation and adhesion. Several potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its positive effects have been proposed, among them activation of nitric oxide synthase, increased bioavailability of nitric oxide as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on blood pressure and vascular function.

  12. Influence of caffeine on blood pressure and platelet aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wilson S. Cavalcante

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have demonstrated that methylxanthines, such as caffeine, are A1 and A2 adenosine receptor antagonists found in the brain, heart, lungs, peripheral vessels, and platelets. Considering the high consumption of products with caffeine in their composition, in Brazil and throughout the rest of the world, the authors proposed to observe the effects of this substance on blood pressure and platelet aggregation. METHODS: Thirteen young adults, ranging from 21 to 27 years of age, participated in this study. Each individual took 750mg/day of caffeine (250mg tid, over a period of seven days. The effects on blood pressure were analyzed through the pressor test with handgrip, and platelet aggregation was analyzed using adenosine diphosphate, collagen, and adrenaline. RESULTS: Diastolic pressure showed a significant increase 24 hours after the first intake (p<0.05. This effect, however, disappeared in the subsequent days. The platelet aggregation tests did not reveal statistically significant alterations, at any time during the study. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that caffeine increases diastolic blood pressure at the beginning of caffeine intake. This hypertensive effect disappears with chronic use. The absence of alterations in platelet aggregation indicates the need for larger randomized studies.

  13. Relationship between Resting Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Pulse Pressure in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Casonatto, Juliano; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; Dias, Raphael Mendes Ritti

    2017-05-01

    High resting heart rate is considered an important factor for increasing mortality chance in adults. However, it remains unclear whether the observed associations would remain after adjustment for confounders in adolescents. To analyze the relationship between resting heart rate, blood pressure and pulse pressure in adolescents of both sexes. A cross-sectional study with 1231 adolescents (716 girls and 515 boys) aged 14-17 years. Heart rate, blood pressure and pulse pressure were evaluated using an oscillometric blood pressure device, validated for this population. Weight and height were measured with an electronic scale and a stadiometer, respectively, and waist circumference with a non-elastic tape. Multivariate analysis using linear regression investigated the relationship between resting heart rate and blood pressure and pulse pressure in boys and girls, controlling for general and abdominal obesity. Higher resting heart rate values were observed in girls (80.1 ± 11.0 beats/min) compared to boys (75.9 ± 12.7 beats/min) (p ≤ 0.001). Resting heart rate was associated with systolic blood pressure in boys (Beta = 0.15 [0.04; 0.26]) and girls (Beta = 0.24 [0.16; 0.33]), with diastolic blood pressure in boys (Beta = 0.50 [0.37; 0.64]) and girls (Beta = 0.41 [0.30; 0.53]), and with pulse pressure in boys (Beta = -0.16 [-0.27; -0.04]). This study demonstrated a relationship between elevated resting heart rate and increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure in both sexes and pulse pressure in boys even after controlling for potential confounders, such as general and abdominal obesity. A frequência cardíaca de repouso é considerada um importante fator de aumento de mortalidade em adultos. Entretanto, ainda é incerto se as associações observadas permanecem após ajuste para fatores de confusão em adolescentes. Analisar a relação entre frequência cardíaca de repouso, pressão arterial e pressão de pulso em adolescentes dos dois sexos. Estudo transversal

  14. Autonomic control of body temperature and blood pressure: influences of female sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Hart, Emma C J; Barnes, Jill N; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Female reproductive hormones exert important non-reproductive influences on autonomic regulation of body temperature and blood pressure. Estradiol and progesterone influence thermoregulation both centrally and peripherally, where estradiol tends to promote heat dissipation, and progesterone tends to promote heat conservation and higher body temperatures. Changes in thermoregulation over the course of the menstrual cycle and with hot flashes at menopause are mediated by hormonal influences on neural control of skin blood flow and sweating. The influence of estradiol is to promote vasodilation, which, in the skin, results in greater heat dissipation. In the context of blood pressure regulation, both central and peripheral hormonal influences are important as well. Peripherally, the vasodilator influence of estradiol contributes to the lower blood pressures and smaller risk of hypertension seen in young women compared to young men. This is in part due to a mechanism by which estradiol augments beta-adrenergic receptor mediated vasodilation, offsetting alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction, and resulting in a weak relationship between muscle sympathetic nerve activity and total peripheral resistance, and between muscle sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. After menopause, with the loss of reproductive hormones, sympathetic nerve activity, peripheral resistance and blood pressure become more strongly related, and sympathetic nerve activity (which increases with age) becomes a more important contributor to the prevailing level of blood pressure. Continuing to increase our understanding of sex hormone influences on body temperature and blood pressure regulation will provide important insight for optimization of individualized health care for future generations of women.

  15. Interarm blood pressure difference in a post-stroke population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, Eva; Brewer, Linda; Mellon, Lisa; Hall, Patricia; Horgan, Frances; Shelley, Emer; Dolan, Eamonn; Hickey, Anne; Bennett, Kathleen; Williams, David J

    2017-09-01

    An increased interarm systolic blood pressure (SBP) difference of ≥10 mm Hg is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and a difference of ≥15 mm Hg with increased cerebrovascular risk. The stroke population presents a high-risk group for future cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and therefore estimation of interarm SBP difference as a predictive tool may assist with further secondary stroke prevention. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of interarm SBP and diastolic blood pressure difference in a post-stroke population. A comprehensive assessment of secondary risk factors along with blood pressure measurements were taken 6-months' post-ischemic stroke from the Action on Secondary Prevention Interventions and Rehabilitation in Stroke cohort. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals are presented. Two hundred thirty-eight (M: F,139:99; mean age, 68.4 years) of 256 patients followed up at 6 months post-stroke had suitable blood pressure readings from both arms. Ninety-six patients (40.3%) had an interarm SBP difference of ≥10 mm Hg and 49 (20.6%) had a difference of ≥15 mm Hg. A history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and obesity was not significantly associated with an increased risk of interarm SBP difference. After multivariate logistic analysis, a history of alcohol excess was associated with an increased IASBP ≥15 mm Hg (odds ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.03-5.22). We have demonstrated that interarm SBP difference is commonly seen in a post stroke population. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Comparison and Calibration of a Wrist-Worn Blood Pressure Monitor for Patient Management: Assessing the Reliability of Innovative Blood Pressure Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Sarah; Teskey, Robert; Philip, Shona; Simpson, Jeremy A; Lutchmedial, Sohrab

    2018-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines recommend monitoring of blood pressure at home using an automatic blood pressure device for the management of hypertension. Devices are not often calibrated against direct blood pressure measures, leaving health care providers and patients with less reliable information than is possible with current technology. Rigorous assessments of medical devices are necessary for establishing clinical utility. Objective The purpose of our study was 2-fold: (1) to assess the validity and perform iterative calibration of indirect blood pressure measurements by a noninvasive wrist cuff blood pressure device in direct comparison with simultaneously recorded peripheral and central intra-arterial blood pressure measurements and (2) to assess the validity of the measurements thereafter of the noninvasive wrist cuff blood pressure device in comparison with measurements by a noninvasive upper arm blood pressure device to the Canadian hypertension guidelines. Methods The cloud-based blood pressure algorithms for an oscillometric wrist cuff device were iteratively calibrated to direct pressure measures in 20 consented patient participants. We then assessed measurement validity of the device, using Bland-Altman analysis during routine cardiovascular catheterization. Results The precalibrated absolute mean difference between direct intra-arterial to wrist cuff pressure measurements were 10.8 (SD 9.7) for systolic and 16.1 (SD 6.3) for diastolic. The postcalibrated absolute mean difference was 7.2 (SD 5.1) for systolic and 4.3 (SD 3.3) for diastolic pressures. This is an improvement in accuracy of 33% systolic and 73% diastolic with a 48% reduction in the variability for both measures. Furthermore, the wrist cuff device demonstrated similar sensitivity in measuring high blood pressure compared with the direct intra-arterial method. The device, when calibrated to direct aortic pressures, demonstrated the potential to reduce a treatment gap in high blood

  17. Noise exposure at school and blood pressure in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhilah Ihsani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The increasing prevalence of primary hypertension has motivated researchers to identify influencing factors, one of which is noise. There have been few studies on a relationships between noise exposure and blood pressure in children, and none have dealt exclusively with adolescents. Objective To assess for an association between noise exposure at school and blood pressure in adolescents.   Methods To identify noisy and quiet schools, the mean noise levels of 192 senior high schools in Medan were measured using sound level meters. One noisy school and one quiet school were randomly selected for inclusion (mean noise levels of  68.2 and  53.8 dB, respectively. Students from both schools underwent blood pressure measurements by mercury sphygmomanometer. Their Body weights and heights were obtained for body mass index calculations. Subjects filled questionnaires and their parents were interviewed regarding history of illnesses. Results Of the 271 adolescents recruited, 136 (50.2% were from the noisy school. Adolescents from the noisy school had higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures [121.6 (SD 13.87 mmHg and 71.1 (SD 8.15 mmHg, respectively], than those from the quiet school [111.8 (SD 12.61 mmHg and 63.8 (SD 8.05 mmHg, respectively]. After adjusting for other factors, noise had a significant, moderate, positive association with systolic and diastolic blood pressures [β = 0.452; B = 6.21 (95% CI 3.86-8.55 mmHg; and β = 0.473; B = 4.18 (95% CI 2.41 to 5.94 mmHg, respectively]. Conclusion Adolescents from a noisy school have a greater risk of higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures than those from a quiet school.

  18. Blood pressure measurement: one arm or both arm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Prasad K; Shekhar, Susheela; Reddy, B N; Nirmala, B C

    2011-09-01

    Guidelines for measuring blood pressure includes measurement of blood pressure on both arms but it is often ignored. Our case report aims at highlighting the need follow the guidelines. A 60 year old 59 kg weighing male asymptomatic patient without any comobidities was posted for bilateral inguinal hernia repair. The interarm blood pressure difference was discovered incidentally during his preanaesthetic evalution. On further evaluation patient was found to be having subclavian stenosis on left side which was asymptomatic. Intraoperative and post operative period was uneventful. Blood pressure measurement should be done in accordance with the stipulated guidelines. Inter arm blood pressure difference should be noted in all patients as not only for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension but also as a tool to diagnose asymptomatic peripheral vascular disesase.

  19. Differential effects of lower body negative pressure and upright tilt on splanchnic blood volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Indu; Moran, Christopher; Medow, Marvin S.; Glover, June L.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Stewart, Julian M.

    2015-01-01

    Upright posture and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) both induce reductions in central blood volume. However, regional circulatory responses to postural changes and LBNP may differ. Therefore, we studied regional blood flow and blood volume changes in 10 healthy subjects undergoing graded lower-body negative pressure (−10 to −50 mmHg) and 8 subjects undergoing incremental head-up tilt (HUT; 20°, 40°, and 70°) on separate days. We continuously measured blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and regional blood volumes and blood flows in the thoracic, splanchnic, pelvic, and leg segments by impedance plethysmography and calculated regional arterial resistances. Neither LBNP nor HUT altered systolic BP, whereas pulse pressure decreased significantly. Blood flow decreased in all segments, whereas peripheral resistances uniformly and significantly increased with both HUT and LBNP. Thoracic volume decreased while pelvic and leg volumes increased with HUT and LBNP. However, splanchnic volume changes were directionally opposite with stepwise decreases in splanchnic volume with LBNP and stepwise increases in splanchnic volume during HUT. Splanchnic emptying in LBNP models regional vascular changes during hemorrhage. Splanchnic filling may limit the ability of the splanchnic bed to respond to thoracic hypovolemia during upright posture. PMID:17085534

  20. Diagnosis of childhood hypertension: is blood pressure height ratio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure was also recorded according to the standard method. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure to height ratio were then calculated. Receiver operating curves was used to assess the ability of systolic blood and diastolic blood pressure height ratio to discriminate childhood prehypertension and hypertension.

  1. How to Prevent High Blood Pressure: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Understanding Blood Pressure Readings (American Heart Association) Weightlifting: Bad for Your Blood Pressure? (Mayo Foundation for ... High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy Nutrition Quitting Smoking Stress National Institutes of Health The ...

  2. A novel approach to office blood pressure measurement: 30-minute office blood pressure vs daytime ambulatory blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, M.C. van der; Buunk, I.E.; Weel, C. van; Thien, Th.; Bakx, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Current office blood pressure measurement (OBPM) is often not executed according to guidelines and cannot prevent the white-coat effect. Serial, automated, oscillometric OBPM has the potential to overcome both these problems. We therefore developed a 30-minute OBPM method that we compared

  3. Blood pressure-lowering treatment strategies based on cardiovascular risk versus blood pressure: A meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Kunal N; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; van der Leeuw, Joep; Goff, David C; Yusuf, Salim; Zanchetti, Alberto; Glasziou, Paul; Jackson, Rodney; Woodward, Mark; Rodgers, Anthony; Neal, Bruce C; Berge, Eivind; Teo, Koon; Davis, Barry R; Chalmers, John; Pepine, Carl; Rahimi, Kazem; Sundström, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Clinical practice guidelines have traditionally recommended blood pressure treatment based primarily on blood pressure thresholds. In contrast, using predicted cardiovascular risk has been advocated as a more effective strategy to guide treatment decisions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. We aimed to compare outcomes from a blood pressure-lowering treatment strategy based on predicted cardiovascular risk with one based on systolic blood pressure (SBP) level. We used individual participant data from the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration (BPLTTC) from 1995 to 2013. Trials randomly assigned participants to either blood pressure-lowering drugs versus placebo or more intensive versus less intensive blood pressure-lowering regimens. We estimated 5-y risk of CVD events using a multivariable Weibull model previously developed in this dataset. We compared the two strategies at specific SBP thresholds and across the spectrum of risk and blood pressure levels studied in BPLTTC trials. The primary outcome was number of CVD events avoided per persons treated. We included data from 11 trials (47,872 participants). During a median of 4.0 y of follow-up, 3,566 participants (7.5%) experienced a major cardiovascular event. Areas under the curve comparing the two treatment strategies throughout the range of possible thresholds for CVD risk and SBP demonstrated that, on average, a greater number of CVD events would be avoided for a given number of persons treated with the CVD risk strategy compared with the SBP strategy (area under the curve 0.71 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.72] for the CVD risk strategy versus 0.54 [95% CI 0.53-0.55] for the SBP strategy). Compared with treating everyone with SBP ≥ 150 mmHg, a CVD risk strategy would require treatment of 29% (95% CI 26%-31%) fewer persons to prevent the same number of events or would prevent 16% (95% CI 14%-18%) more events for the same number of persons treated. Compared with treating

  4. Blood pressure-lowering treatment strategies based on cardiovascular risk versus blood pressure: A meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal N Karmali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical practice guidelines have traditionally recommended blood pressure treatment based primarily on blood pressure thresholds. In contrast, using predicted cardiovascular risk has been advocated as a more effective strategy to guide treatment decisions for cardiovascular disease (CVD prevention. We aimed to compare outcomes from a blood pressure-lowering treatment strategy based on predicted cardiovascular risk with one based on systolic blood pressure (SBP level.We used individual participant data from the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration (BPLTTC from 1995 to 2013. Trials randomly assigned participants to either blood pressure-lowering drugs versus placebo or more intensive versus less intensive blood pressure-lowering regimens. We estimated 5-y risk of CVD events using a multivariable Weibull model previously developed in this dataset. We compared the two strategies at specific SBP thresholds and across the spectrum of risk and blood pressure levels studied in BPLTTC trials. The primary outcome was number of CVD events avoided per persons treated. We included data from 11 trials (47,872 participants. During a median of 4.0 y of follow-up, 3,566 participants (7.5% experienced a major cardiovascular event. Areas under the curve comparing the two treatment strategies throughout the range of possible thresholds for CVD risk and SBP demonstrated that, on average, a greater number of CVD events would be avoided for a given number of persons treated with the CVD risk strategy compared with the SBP strategy (area under the curve 0.71 [95% confidence interval (CI 0.70-0.72] for the CVD risk strategy versus 0.54 [95% CI 0.53-0.55] for the SBP strategy. Compared with treating everyone with SBP ≥ 150 mmHg, a CVD risk strategy would require treatment of 29% (95% CI 26%-31% fewer persons to prevent the same number of events or would prevent 16% (95% CI 14%-18% more events for the same number of persons treated. Compared with

  5. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring - comparison with office ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ambulatory blood pressure recordings in private practice ... position according to established guidelines. ... white-coat effect was defined as a difference of at least 20 .... patients with hypertension: Importance of blood pressure response to ...

  6. Pharmacovigilance: Tiens Slimming Tea Causes Increased Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... possible link between the constituents of the slimming tea and increased blood pressure and also provide evidence of other possible harmful effects that may occur with the use of the slimming tea. Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, hypertension, slimming tea. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research Vol.

  7. [Central blood pressure and vascular damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lahiguera, Francisco; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, José Antonio; Pascual, José María

    2015-07-20

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between central blood pressure and vascular damage. This cross-sectional study involved 393 never treated hypertensive patients (166 women). Clinical blood pressure (BP), 24h blood pressure (BP24h) and central blood pressure (CBP) were measured. Vascular organ damage (VOD) was assessed by calculating the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), wave pulse pressure velocity and echocardiographic left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Patients with VOD had higher values of BP, BP24h, and CBP than patients without ACR. When comparing several systolic BP, systolic BP24h had a higher linear correlation with CBP (Z Steiger test: 2.26; P=.02) and LVMI (Z Steiger test: 3.23; P=.01) than PAC. In a multiple regression analysis corrected by age, sex and metabolic syndrome, all pressures were related with VOD but systolic BP24h showed the highest correlation. In a logistic regression analysis, having the highest tercile of systolic BP24h was the stronger predictor of VOD (multivariate odds ratio: 3.4; CI 95%: 2.5-5.5, P=.001). CBP does not have more correlation with VOD than other measurements of peripheral BP. Systolic BP24h is the BP measurement that best predicts VOD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. High-sodium intake prevents pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauséjour, Annie; Auger, Karine; St-Louis, Jean; Brochu, Michéle

    2003-07-01

    Despite an increase of circulatory volume and of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activity, pregnancy is paradoxically accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure. We have reported that the decrease in blood pressure was maintained in pregnant rats despite overactivation of RAAS following reduction in sodium intake. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the opposite condition, e.g., decreased activation of RAAS during pregnancy in the rat. To do so, 0.9% or 1.8% NaCl in drinking water was given to nonpregnant and pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 days (last week of gestation). Increased sodium intakes (between 10- and 20-fold) produced reduction of plasma renin activity and aldosterone in both nonpregnant and pregnant rats. Systolic blood pressure was not affected in nonpregnant rats. However, in pregnant rats, 0.9% sodium supplement prevented the decreased blood pressure. Moreover, an increase of systolic blood pressure was obtained in pregnant rats receiving 1.8% NaCl. The 0.9% sodium supplement did not affect plasma and fetal parameters. However, 1.8% NaCl supplement has larger effects during gestation as shown by increased plasma sodium concentration, hematocrit level, negative water balance, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. With both sodium supplements, decreased AT1 mRNA levels in the kidney and in the placenta were observed. Our results showed that a high-sodium intake prevents the pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in rats. Nonpregnant rats were able to maintain homeostasis but not the pregnant ones in response to sodium load. Furthermore, pregnant rats on a high-sodium intake (1.8% NaCl) showed some physiological responses that resemble manifestations observed in preeclampsia.

  9. Association of betaine with blood pressure in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lulu; Zhao, Mingming; Liu, Wenjin; Li, Xiurong; Chu, Hong; Bai, Youwei; Sun, Zhuxing; Gao, Chaoqing; Zheng, Lemin; Yang, Junwei

    2018-02-01

    Mechanisms underlying elevated blood pressure in dialysis patients are complex as a variety of non-traditional factors are involved. We sought to explore the association of circulating betaine, a compound widely distributed in food, with blood pressure in dialysis patients. We used baseline data of an ongoing cohort study involving patients on hemodialysis. Plasma betaine was measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 327 subjects. Blood pressure level was determined by intradialytic ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The mean age of the patients was 52.6 ± 11.9 years, and 58.4% were male. Average interdialytic ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 138.4 ± 22.7 mm Hg and 84.4 ± 12.5 mm Hg, respectively. Mean plasma betaine level was 37.6 μmol/L. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed significant associations of betaine with both systolic blood pressure (β = -3.66, P = .003) and diastolic blood pressure (β = -2.00, P = .004). The associations persisted even after extensive adjustment for cardiovascular covariates. Subgroup analysis revealed that the association between betaine and blood pressure was mainly limited to female patients. Our data suggest that alteration of circulating betaine possibly contributes to blood pressure regulation in these patients. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Circadian pattern of blood pressure in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Hem Prabha; Singh, R K; Singh, Urmila; Mehrotra, Seema; Verma, N S; Baranwal, Neelam

    2011-08-01

    AIMS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; To find out the circadian pattern of blood pressure in normotensive pregnant women and in women with preeclampsia. A cross-sectional prospective observational case control study. Blood pressure was sampled in thirty-five normotensive pregnant women (control) and thirty five preeclamptic women (study group) by using non-invasive automatic ambulatory blood pressure monitoring machine for 72 h. Blood pressure (BP) was not constant over 24 h period and it oscillated from time to time in control group. BP was maximum during early part of afternoon. However, in preeclampsia besides quantitative increase in BP, circadian BP oscillations were less pronounced and in around 50% subjects BP was maximum during evening and night hours. Both systolic and diastolic BP showed definite reproducible circadian pattern in both preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women. This pattern both quantitatively and qualitatively was different in preeclamptic women. Standardized 24 h BP monitoring allows quantitative and qualitative evaluation of hypertensive status and is important for timing and dosing of antihypertensive medications.

  11. Stress and High Blood Pressure: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress and high blood pressure: What's the connection? Stress and long-term high blood pressure may not be linked, but taking steps to reduce your stress can improve your general health, including your blood ...

  12. Calcium Supplements: Do They Interfere with Blood Pressure Drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with blood pressure drugs? Is it true that calcium supplements may interact with blood pressure medications? Answers ... G. Sheps, M.D. Yes. In large amounts, calcium supplements may interact with some blood pressure medications. ...

  13. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  14. Snapshot: Blood Pressure in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Home Blood Pressure: Make Control Your Goal Infographic Recommend on Facebook ... Compartir Copy the code below to use the Blood Pressure Infographic on your web page or social media ...

  15. A longitudinal study of altered taste and smell perception and change in blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y-H; Huang, Z; Vaidya, A; Li, J; Curhan, G C; Wu, S; Gao, X

    2018-05-29

    Previous studies suggest that olfactory receptors, which mediate smell chemosensation, are located in the kidney and involved in blood pressure regulation. Mammalian epithelial sodium channels located in taste receptor cells are also found to participate in blood pressure regulation. However, there is currently no human study that has examined the association between taste and smell function and blood pressure. We thus conducted a longitudinal study to examine whether participants with altered taste and smell perception had larger increases in blood pressure compared with those without altered perception in a community-based cohort. The study included 5190 Chinese adults (4058 men and 1132 women) who were normotensive at baseline. Taste and smell perception were assessed via questionnaire in 2012 (baseline). Blood pressure was measured in 2012 and 2014 to determine relative change in blood pressure. Mean differences of 2-year blood pressure change and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across four categories of taste and smell perception were calculated after adjusting for known risk factors for hypertension. After adjusting for potential confounders, individuals with altered taste and smell perception had larger increases in systolic blood pressure (adjusted mean difference = 5.1 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.1-10.0, p-value: 0.04) and mean arterial pressure (adjusted mean difference = 3.8 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.4-7.1, p-value: 0.03) after two years of follow-up compared with those having neither altered taste nor altered smell perception. No significant association was observed in individuals with altered taste or smell perception only. Our results suggest an association between chemosensory function and blood pressure. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  16. Transvenous stimulation of the renal sympathetic nerves increases systemic blood pressure: a potential new treatment option for neurocardiogenic syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Malini; Desimone, Christopher V; Ebrille, Elisa; Mulpuru, Siva K; Mikell, Susan B; Johnson, Susan B; Suddendorf, Scott H; Ladewig, Dorothy J; Gilles, Emily J; Danielsen, Andrew J; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2014-10-01

    Neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS) is a common and sometimes debilitating disorder, with no consistently effective treatment. NCS is due to a combination of bradycardia and vasodilation leading to syncope. Although pacemaker devices have been tried in treating the bradycardic aspect of NCS, no device-based therapy exists to treat the coexistent vasodilation that occurs. The renal sympathetic innervation has been the target of denervation to treat hypertension. We hypothesized that stimulation of the renal sympathetic nerves can increase blood pressure and counteract vasodilation in NCS. High-frequency stimulation (800-900 pps, 10 V, 30-200 seconds) was performed using a quadripolar catheter in the renal vein of 7 dogs and 1 baboon. A significant increase in blood pressure (BP; mean [SD] systolic BP 117 [±28] vs. 128 [±33], diastolic BP 75 [±19] vs. 87 [±29] mmHg) was noted during the stimulation, which returned to baseline after cessation of stimulation. The mean increase in systolic and diastolic BP was 13.0 (±3.3) (P = 0.006) and 10.2 (±4.6) (P = 0.08), respectively. We report the first ever study of feasibility and safety of high-frequency electrical stimulation of the renal sympathetic innervation to increase BP in animal models. This has potential applications in the treatment of hypotensive states such as NCS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effects of autogenic training and antihypertensive agents on circadian and circaseptan variation of blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Cornélissen, Germaine; Watanabe, Misako; Watanabe, Fumihiko; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Ohkawa, Shi-ichiro; Kikuchi, Takenori; Halberg, Franz

    2003-10-01

    Even when the daily blood pressure mean is acceptable, too large a circadian amplitude of blood pressure largely increases cardiovascular disease risk. Autogenic training (N = 11), a non-pharmacologic intervention capable of lowering an excessive blood pressure variability, may be well-suited for MESOR-normotensive patients diagnosed with circadian-hyper-amplitude-tension (CHAT). Not all anti-hypertensive drugs affect blood pressure variability. Accordingly, long-acting carteolol (N = 11) and/or atenolol (N = 8) may be preferred to captopril retard (N = 13), nilvadipine (N = 8), or amlodipine (N = 7) for midline-estimating statistic of rhythm (MESOR)-hypertensive patients with CHAT. Prospective outcome studies are needed to assess whether the relative merits of these treatments are in keeping with their effects on blood pressure and blood pressure variability.

  18. Increased systolic ambulatory blood pressure and microalbuminuria in treated and non-treated hypertensive smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Kristensen, Kjeld S; Bang, Lia E

    2004-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of smoking status on both clinic and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) by using 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring in treated and non-treated hypertensive smokers and non-smokers. A secondary aim was to evaluate...

  19. Differential contributions of theobromine and caffeine on mood, psychomotor performance and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E S; Slettenaar, M; vd Meer, N; Transler, C; Jans, L; Quadt, F; Berry, M

    2011-10-24

    The combination of theobromine and caffeine, methylxanthines found in chocolate, has previously been shown to improve mood and cognition. However, it is unknown whether these molecules act synergistically. This study tested the hypothesis that a combination of caffeine and theobromine has synergistic effects on cognition, mood and blood pressure in 24 healthy female subjects. The effects of theobromine (700 mg), caffeine (120 mg) or the combination of both, or placebo were tested on mood (the Bond-Lader visual analog scale), psychomotor performance (the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)) and blood pressure before and at 1, 2 and 3 h after administration. Theobromine alone decreased self-reported calmness 3h after ingestion and lowered blood pressure relative to placebo 1 h after ingestion. Caffeine increased self-reported alertness 1, 2 and 3h after ingestion and contentedness 1 and 2 h after ingestion, and increased blood pressure relative to placebo (at 1 h). The combination of caffeine+theobromine had similar effects as caffeine alone on mood, but with no effect on blood pressure. There was no treatment effect on DSST performance. Together these results suggest that theobromine and caffeine could have differential effects on mood and blood pressure. It was tentatively concluded that caffeine may have more CNS-mediated effects on alertness, while theobromine may be acting primarily via peripheral physiological changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intensive versus conventional blood pressure monitoring in a general practice population. The Blood Pressure Reduction in Danish General Practice trial: a randomized controlled parallel group trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Pia; Bang, Lia E; Schultz-Larsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    To compare the effect of a conventional to an intensive blood pressure monitoring regimen on blood pressure in hypertensive patients in the general practice setting. Randomized controlled parallel group trial with 12-month follow-up. One hundred and ten general practices in all regions of Denmark....... One thousand forty-eight patients with essential hypertension. Conventional blood pressure monitoring ('usual group') continued usual ad hoc blood pressure monitoring by office blood pressure measurements, while intensive blood pressure monitoring ('intensive group') supplemented this with frequent...... a reduction of blood pressure. Clinical Trials NCT00244660....

  1. Can Whole-Grain Foods Lower Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating more whole-grain foods help lower my blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. It might. Eating ... might help reduce your chance of developing high blood pressure (hypertension). Whole grains are grains that include the ...

  2. Maternal first-trimester dietary intake and childhood blood pressure: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hil, Leontine C L; Rob Taal, H; de Jonge, Layla L; Heppe, Denise H M; Steegers, Eric A P; Hofman, Albert; van der Heijden, Albert J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2013-10-01

    Suboptimal maternal dietary intake during pregnancy might lead to fetal cardiovascular adaptations and higher blood pressure in the offspring. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations of maternal first-trimester dietary intake with blood pressure in children at the age of 6 years. We assessed first-trimester maternal daily dietary intake by a FFQ and measured folate, homocysteine and vitamin B₁₂ concentrations in the blood, in a population-based prospective cohort study among 2863 mothers and children. Childhood systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured using a validated automatic sphygmomanometer. First-trimester maternal daily intake of energy, fat, protein and carbohydrate was not associated with childhood blood pressure. Furthermore, maternal intake of micronutrients was not associated with childhood blood pressure. Also, higher maternal vitamin B₁₂ concentrations were associated with a higher diastolic blood pressure (0·31 mmHg per standard deviation increase in vitamin B₁₂ (95% CI 0·06, 0·56)). After taking into account multiple testing, none of the associations was statistically significant. Maternal first-trimester folate and homocysteine concentrations were not associated with childhood blood pressure. The results from the present study suggest that maternal Fe intake and vitamin B₁₂ concentrations during the first trimester of pregnancy might affect childhood blood pressure, although the effect estimates were small and were not significant after correction for multiple testing. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and to assess whether these differences in blood pressure persist in later life.

  3. Chronobiometric assessment of autogenic training effects upon blood pressure and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y; Halberg, F; Cornélissen, G; Saito, Y; Fukuda, K; Otsuka, K; Kikuchi, T

    1996-12-01

    Autogenic training, a method of self-hypnosis, lowers the extent of within-day variation of systolic blood pressure assessed by the circadian double amplitude. The blood pressure and heart rate of ten patients, conventionally diagnosed as having hypertension or white-coat hypertension, were automatically monitored at 30-min intervals for 7 days before autogenic training and again for 7 days, at 1 or 2 months after the start of autogenic training (practiced three times daily). The circadian double amplitude of systolic blood pressure of the patients investigated was 3 to 17 mm Hg lower on autogenic training. In 5 patients, reductions by 7 to 17 mm Hg were statistically significant. These results are regarded as provisional statistics, the utility of which depends on replication. By contrast, the over-all group reduction of the circadian double amplitude of systolic blood pressure by 8 mm Hg on the average can be taken at face value. Autogenic training also lowered the circadian double amplitude of diastolic blood pressure, but the effect was small as was the effect of autogenic training upon the MESOR (a rhythm adjusted mean) and acrophase (a measure of the timing of over-all high values recurring each day). The effect of autogenic training upon the circadian double amplitude of systolic blood pressure suggests its trial as first-line treatment of patients with an excessive circadian blood pressure amplitude, a condition which, even in the absence of an elevated 24-hr, average of blood pressure, is associated with a large increase in the risk of developing ischemic stroke or nephropathy.

  4. Phenylephrine-induced elevations in arterial blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that phenylephrine-induced elevations in blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans, blood pressure was elevated via steady-state infusion of three doses of phenylephrine HCl in 10 healthy subjects in both normothermic and heat stress conditions. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature by 0.5 degrees C, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), heart rate, and cardiac output and decreased total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR; all P blood pressure (MAP; P > 0.05). At the highest dose of phenylephrine, the increase in MAP and TPR from predrug baselines was significantly attenuated during the heat stress [DeltaMAP 8.4 +/- 1.2 mmHg; DeltaTPR 0.96 +/- 0.85 peripheral resistance units (PRU)] compared with normothermia (DeltaMAP 15.4 +/- 1.4 mmHg, DeltaTPR 7.13 +/- 1.18 PRU; all P blood pressure, as well as the slope of the relationship between heart rate and systolic blood pressure, respectively, was similar between thermal conditions (each P > 0.05). These data suggest that phenylephrine-induced elevations in MAP are attenuated in heat-stressed humans without affecting baroreflex control of MSNA or heart rate.

  5. Significant role of the cardiopostural interaction in blood pressure regulation during standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Da; Verma, Ajay K; Garg, Amanmeet; Bruner, Michelle; Fazel-Rezai, Reza; Blaber, Andrew P; Tavakolian, Kouhyar

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular and postural control systems have been studied independently despite the increasing evidence showing the importance of cardiopostural interaction in blood pressure regulation. In this study, we aimed to assess the role of the cardiopostural interaction in relation to cardiac baroreflex in blood pressure regulation under orthostatic stress before and after mild exercise. Physiological variables representing cardiovascular control (heart rate and systolic blood pressure), lower limb muscle activation (electromyography), and postural sway (center of pressure derived from force and moment data during sway) were measured from 17 healthy participants (25 ± 2 yr, 9 men and 8 women) during a sit-to-stand test before and after submaximal exercise. The cardiopostural control (characterized by baroreflex-mediated muscle-pump effect in response to blood pressure changes, i.e., muscle-pump baroreflex) was assessed using wavelet transform coherence and causality analyses in relation to the baroreflex control of heart rate. Significant cardiopostural blood pressure control was evident counting for almost half of the interaction time with blood pressure changes that observed in the cardiac baroreflex (36.6-72.5% preexercise and 34.7-53.9% postexercise). Thus, cardiopostural input to blood pressure regulation should be considered when investigating orthostatic intolerance. A reduction of both cardiac and muscle-pump baroreflexes in blood pressure regulation was observed postexercise and was likely due to the absence of excessive venous pooling and a less stressed system after mild exercise. With further studies using more effective protocols evoking venous pooling and muscle-pump activity, the cardiopostural interaction could improve our understanding of the autonomic control system and ultimately lead to a more accurate diagnosis of cardiopostural dysfunctions. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We examined the interaction between cardiovascular and postural control systems during

  6. Lifetime racism and blood pressure changes during pregnancy: implications for fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmert, Clayton J; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Srinivas, Sindhu K; Glynn, Laura M; Hobel, Calvin J; Sandman, Curt A

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that exposure to racism partially explains why African American women are 2 to 3 times more likely to deliver low birth weight and preterm infants. However, the physiological pathways by which racism exerts these effects are unclear. This study examined how lifetime exposure to racism, in combination with maternal blood pressure changes during pregnancy, was associated with fetal growth. African American pregnant women (n = 39) reported exposure to childhood and adulthood racism in several life domains (e.g., at school, at work), which were experienced directly or indirectly, meaning vicariously experienced when someone close to them was treated unfairly. A research nurse measured maternal blood pressure at 18 to 20 and 30 to 32 weeks gestation. Standardized questionnaires and trained interviewers assessed maternal demographics. Neonatal length of gestation and birth weight data were collected from medical charts. Childhood racism interacted with diastolic blood pressure to predict birth weight. Specifically, women with two or more domains of indirect exposure to racism in childhood and increases in diastolic blood pressure between 18 and 32 weeks had lower gestational age adjusted birth weight than the other women. A similar pattern was found for direct exposure to racism in childhood. Increases in diastolic blood pressure between the second and third trimesters predicted lower birth weight, but only when racism exposure in childhood (direct or indirect) was relatively high. Understanding pregnant African American women's lifetime direct and indirect experiences with racism in combination with prenatal blood pressure may improve identification of highest risk subgroups within this population. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 The importance of stress ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  8. Riboflavin intake and 5-year blood pressure change in Chinese adults: interaction with hypertensive medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zumin; Yuan, Baojun; Taylor, Anne W; Zhen, Shiqi; Zuo, Hui; Dai, Yue; Wittert, Gary A

    2014-03-01

    One previous large cross-sectional study across four countries suggests that riboflavin intake may be inversely associated with blood pressure. The aim of this analysis was to investigate a possible association between riboflavin intake and change in blood pressure over 5 years. The study population comprised Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study. Quantitative data relating to riboflavin intake at baseline in 2002 and measurements of blood pressure at baseline and follow-up in 2007 were available for 1,227 individuals. Overall, 97.2% of the participants had inadequate riboflavin intake (below the Estimated Average Requirement). In multivariable analysis adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and dietary patterns, a higher riboflavin intake was inversely associated with change in systolic blood pressure (p = .036). In participants taking antihypertensive medication at baseline, the relationship between riboflavin intake and systolic blood pressure persisted; whereas, in those not taking antihypertensive medication, the diastolic blood pressure was less likely to increase with the increasing intake of riboflavin (p = .031). There was a three-way interaction between antihypertensive medications, body mass index, and riboflavin intake. Among those who were obese and taking antihypertensive medication, a higher riboflavin intake was associated with a smaller increment in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. There are complex interactions between riboflavin intake and blood pressure change that depend on prior antihypertensive use and the presence or absence of obesity.

  9. Blood borne hormones in a cross-talk between peripheral and brain mechanisms regulating blood pressure, the role of circumventricular organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnal, Marcin; Skrzypecki, Janusz

    2014-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that blood borne hormones modulate brain mechanisms regulating blood pressure. This appears to be mediated by the circumventricular organs which are located in the walls of the brain ventricular system and lack the blood-brain barrier. Recent evidence shows that neurons of the circumventricular organs express receptors for the majority of cardiovascular hormones. Intracerebroventricular infusions of hormones and their antagonists is one approach to evaluate the influence of blood borne hormones on the neural mechanisms regulating arterial blood pressure. Interestingly, there is no clear correlation between peripheral and central effects of cardiovascular hormones. For example, angiotensin II increases blood pressure acting peripherally and centrally, whereas peripherally acting pressor catecholamines decrease blood pressure when infused intracerebroventricularly. The physiological role of such dual hemodynamic responses has not yet been clarified. In the paper we review studies on hemodynamic effects of catecholamines, neuropeptide Y, angiotensin II, aldosterone, natriuretic peptides, endothelins, histamine and bradykinin in the context of their role in a cross-talk between peripheral and brain mechanisms involved in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of partial sports massage on blood pressure and heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Pystupa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the growing popularity and demand for different types of massages (including sports is a growing need for research on specific forms. There is also a need to study the advantages and effects on various body functions. The objective was to study the effect of partial sports massage on blood pressure and heart rate in both men and women. Material and methods. Research has been extended 80 healthy men and women are physically active (age 20-25 years. Blood pressure and heart rate were made on the left arm automatic digital device (model HEM - 907. The device is intended to measure blood pressure. It is established that it is possible to verify the existing beliefs. This promotes more efficient use of massage therapy. Conclusions . Sports massage has an effect on hemodynamic changes, the increase (decrease in blood pressure acceleration (deceleration of the heart rate. It depends on what part of the body exposed to the massage procedure.

  11. Korean Red Ginseng Improves Blood Pressure Stability in Patients with Intradialytic Hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ju Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intradialytic hypotension (IDH is a common complication during hemodialysis which may increase mortality risks. Low dose of Korean red ginseng (KRG has been reported to increase blood pressure. Whether KRG can improve hemodynamic stability during hemodialysis has not been examined. Methods. The 8-week study consisted of two phases: observation phase and active treatment phase. According to prehemodialysis blood pressure (BP, 38 patients with IDH were divided into group A (BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg, n = 18 and group B (BP < 140/90 mmHg, n = 20. Patients were instructed to chew 3.5 gm KRG slices at each hemodialysis session during the 4-week treatment phase. Blood pressure changes, number of sessions disturbed by symptomatic IDH, plasma levels of vasoconstrictors, blood biochemistry, and adverse effects were recorded. Results. KRG significantly reduced the degree of blood pressure drop during hemodialysis (P<0.05 and the frequency of symptomatic IDH (P<0.05. More activation of vasoconstrictors (endothelin-1 and angiotensin II during hemodialysis was found. The postdialytic levels of endothelin-1 and angiotensin II increased significantly (P<0.01. Conclusion. Chewing KRG renders IDH patients better resistance to acute BP reduction during hemodialysis via activation of vasoconstrictors. Our results suggest that KRG could be an adjuvant treatment for IDH.

  12. Heme oxygenase-1 gene expression modulates angiotensin II-induced increase in blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Quan, Shuo; Nasjletti, Alberto; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal; Abraham, Nader G

    2004-06-01

    The heme-heme oxygenase (HO) system has been implicated in the regulation of vascular reactivity and blood pressure. This study examines the notion that overexpression of HO decreases pressor responsiveness to angiotensin II (Ang II). Five-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats received an intraleft ventricular injection of approximately 5x10(9) cfu/mL of retroviruses containing human HO-1 sense (LSN-HHO-1), rat HO-1 antisense (LSN-RHO-1-AS), or control retrovirus (LXSN). Three months later, rats were instrumented with femoral arterial and venous catheters for mean arterial pressure (MAP) determination and Ang II administration, respectively. Rats injected with LSN-HHO-1, but not with LXSN, expressed human HO-1 mRNA and protein in several tissues. BP increased with administration of Ang II in rats expressing and not expressing human HO-1. However, the Ang II-induced pressor response (mm Hg) in LSN-HHO-1 rats (16+/-3, 27+/-3, and 38+/-3 at 0.5, 2, and 10 ng) was surpassed (PHHO-1 rats with the HO inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) enhanced (P<0.05) the Ang II-induced pressor response to a level not different from that observed in LXSN rats. Rats injected with LSN-RHO-1-AS showed a decrease in renal HO-1 protein expression and HO activity relative to control LXSN rats. Administration of Ang II (0.1 to 2 ng) caused small (4 to 5 mm Hg) but significant increases in MAP in rats injected with LSN-RHO-1-AS (P<0.05) compared with rats injected with LXSN. These data demonstrate that overexpression of HO-1 brings about a reduction in pressor responsiveness to Ang II, which is most likely due to increased generation of an HO-1 product, presumably CO, with the ability to inhibit vascular reactivity to constrictor stimuli.

  13. Methyl mercury, but not inorganic mercury, associated with higher blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ellen M; Herbstman, Julie B; Lin, Yu Hong; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Halden, Rolf U; Witter, Frank R; Goldman, Lynn R

    2017-04-01

    Prior studies addressing associations between mercury and blood pressure have produced inconsistent findings; some of this may result from measuring total instead of speciated mercury. This cross-sectional study of 263 pregnant women assessed total mercury, speciated mercury, selenium, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in umbilical cord blood and blood pressure during labor and delivery. Models with a) total mercury or b) methyl and inorganic mercury were evaluated. Regression models adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, prepregnancy body mass index, neighborhood income, parity, smoking, n-3 fatty acids and selenium. Geometric mean total, methyl, and inorganic mercury concentrations were 1.40µg/L (95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.52); 0.95µg/L (0.84, 1.07); and 0.13µg/L (0.10, 0.17), respectively. Elevated systolic BP, diastolic BP, and pulse pressure were found, respectively, in 11.4%, 6.8%, and 19.8% of mothers. In adjusted multivariable models, a one-tertile increase of methyl mercury was associated with 2.83mmHg (0.17, 5.50) higher systolic blood pressure and 2.99mmHg (0.91, 5.08) higher pulse pressure. In the same models, an increase of one tertile of inorganic mercury was associated with -1.18mmHg (-3.72, 1.35) lower systolic blood pressure and -2.51mmHg (-4.49, -0.53) lower pulse pressure. No associations were observed with diastolic pressure. There was a non-significant trend of higher total mercury with higher systolic blood pressure. We observed a significant association of higher methyl mercury with higher systolic and pulse pressure, yet higher inorganic mercury was significantly associated with lower pulse pressure. These results should be confirmed with larger, longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Context-aware patient guidance during blood pressure self-measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandager, Puk; Lindahl, Camilla; Schlütter, Jacob Mørup

    2013-01-01

    The importance of accurate measurement of blood pressure in the screening and management of hypertension during pregnancy is well established. Blood pressure levels can be measured manually by healthcare staff or by using a blood pressure self-measurement device, either at home or in the clinic...... the blood pressure self-measurement process. Preliminary results indicate that such active and context-aware guidance leads to more reliable measurements by inhibiting non-adherent patient behavior...

  15. Effects of Concord grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohadwala, Mustali M; Hamburg, Naomi M; Holbrook, Monika; Kim, Brian H; Duess, Mai-Ann; Levit, Aaron; Titas, Megan; Chung, William B; Vincent, Felix B; Caiano, Tara L; Frame, Alissa A; Keaney, John F; Vita, Joseph A

    2010-11-01

    Consumption of flavonoid-containing foods may be useful for the management of hypertension. We investigated whether 100% Concord grape juice lowers blood pressure in patients with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension. We conducted a double-blind crossover study to compare the effects of grape juice (7 mL · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹) and matched placebo beverage on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, stress-induced changes in blood pressure, and biochemical profile. Participants consumed each beverage for 8 wk with a 4-wk rest period between beverages. They ceased consumption of grapes and other flavonoid-containing beverages throughout the study. We enrolled 64 otherwise healthy patients taking no antihypertensive medications (31% women, 42% black, age 43 ± 12 y). Baseline mean (± SD) cuff blood pressure was 138 ± 7 (systolic)/82 ± 7 (diastolic) mm Hg. No effects on the primary endpoint of 24-h mean systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, or stress-induced changes in blood pressure were observed. A secondary endpoint was nocturnal dip in systolic pressure. At baseline, nocturnal pressure was 8.3 ± 7.1% lower at night than during daytime. The mean nocturnal dip increased 1.4 percentage points after grape juice and decreased 2.3 percentage points after placebo (P = 0.005). Fasting blood glucose was 91 ± 10 mg/dL at baseline for the entire cohort. Glucose decreased 2 mg/dL after consumption of grape juice and increased 1 mg/dL after consuming the placebo (P = 0.03). We observed no effect of grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in this cohort of relatively healthy individuals with modestly elevated blood pressure. Secondary analyses suggested favorable effects on nocturnal dip and glucose homeostasis that may merit further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00302809.

  16. Blood Pressure and Intracranial Aneurysms in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Niemczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is correlated with an increased frequency of both intracranial aneurysms (ICANs, and arterial hypertension (AH. The aim of our study was to search for the association between blood pressure (BP and ICANs in ADPKD patients. Methods: Sixty-eight adult, pre-dialysis phase ADPKD patients underwent both screening for ICANs with magnetic resonance angiography of the brain, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM. Results: ICANs were diagnosed in 10 patients (ICAN(+ group, while in 58 were not (ICAN(- group. The nighttime maximum diastolic blood pressure (DBP, maximum increase in DBP from measurement to measurement (positive delta of DBP at night, and the standard deviation of the daytime mean arterial pressure were significantly higher in ICAN(+ compared to ICAN(- patients. Additionally, in a subgroup of patients after 45 years-of-age, ICAN(+ patients had significantly higher maximum 24-hour and daytime systolic blood pressure, maximum 24-hour, daytime, nighttime DBP, maximum daytime and nighttime positive delta of DBP compared to ICAN(- cases. Conclusions: Development of ICANs in hypertensive ADPKD patients is accompanied with higher values of some BP parameters measured by ABPM. Hypertensive ADPKD patients with substantial fluctuations in BP assessed by ABPM, especially those after 45 years-of-age, should become candidates for screening for ICANs.

  17. Correlates of blood pressure in Yanomami Indians of northwestern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D E; Mancilha-Carvalho, J J

    1993-01-01

    We determined associations of measures of body habitus with blood pressure for 100 adult Yanomami Indians (61 men, 39 women) examined during February and March 1990. Measurements included body weight and height, four skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, abdomen), four circumferences (wrist, upper arm, abdomen, hip), systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse rate, and estimated age. Various indices of fat distribution were determined from the measurements of skinfolds, circumferences, weight, and height. Estimated age averaged 35.0 years in men and 33.4 years in women (range: 15 to 63 years). Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were low in both men (104.8/70.4 mm Hg) and women (94.8/63.5 mm Hg), as was body mass index (men: 20.7; women: 21.4 kg/m2). In Yanomami women, all four skinfolds, wrist circumference, and the indices of hip and abdominal fat were significant correlates of systolic blood pressure, while the abdominal skinfold and wrist and hip circumferences correlated significantly with diastolic blood pressure. Among men, there was a negative correlation between estimated age and systolic blood pressure and a positive correlation between BMI and upper arm and hip circumferences and systolic blood pressure. There was a significant positive correlation between wrist, upper arm, and hip circumferences and diastolic blood pressure among Yanomami men. We used stepwise regression to generate sex-specific predictive equations for blood pressure. For men, estimated age and hip circumference, and for women, abdominal skinfold measurement and age were included in the model for systolic blood pressure. Among men, wrist circumference and height, and among women, wrist circumference alone entered the model for diastolic blood pressure. On the basis of these results, we suggest that even in a low-blood pressure, low-body fat, no-salt setting, systolic blood pressure is associated with the amount and placement of adipose tissue. However, diastolic blood

  18. Blood pressure directly correlates with blood viscosity in diabetes type 1 children but not in normals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Beatriz Y Salazar; Vázquez, Miguel A Salazar; Jáquez, Manuel Guajardo; Huemoeller, Antonio H Bracho; Intaglietta, Marcos; Cabrales, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    To determine the relationship between mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and blood viscosity in diabetic type 1 children and healthy controls to investigate whether MAP is independent of blood viscosity in healthy children, and vice versa. Children with diabetes type 1 treated by insulin injection were studied. Controls were healthy children of both sexes. MAP was calculated from systolic and diastolic pressure measurements. Blood viscosity was determined indirectly by measuring blood hemoglobin (Hb) content. The relationship between Hb, hematocrit (Hct) and blood viscosity was determined in a subgroup of controls and diabetics selected at random. 21 (10.6+/-2.5 years) type 1 diabetic children treated with insulin and 25 healthy controls age 9.6+/-1.7 years were studied. Hb was 13.8+/-0.8 g/dl in normal children vs. 14.3+/-0.9 g/dl in the diabetic group (p<0.05). MAP was 71.4+/-8.2 in the normal vs. 82.9+/-7.2 mmHg in the diabetic group (p<0.001). Glucose was 89.3+/-10.6 vs. 202.4+/-87.4 mg/dl respectively. Diabetics had a positive MAP/Hb correlation (p=0.007), while normals showed a non significant (p=0.2) negative correlation. The blood viscosity/Hb relationship was studied in a subgroup of 8 healthy controls and 8 diabetic type 1 children. There was no significant difference in Hb and Hct between groups. Diabetics showed a trend of increasing blood viscosity (+7%, p=0.15). Normal children compensate for the increase in vascular resistance due to increased blood viscosity (increased Hb and Hct) while diabetic children do not, probably due to endothelial dysfunction.

  19. Blood Pressure of Jordanian Workers Chronically Exposed to Noise in Industrial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saed Nserat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational studies investigating the association between blood pressure and noise exposure are almost lacking in the Eastern Mediterranean Region countries. Objective: To determine the association between occupational exposure to high level of noise and blood pressure among a group of workers in Jordan. Methods: All workers who had been exposing to noise for at least 3 years in 3 plants in Madaba governorate in Jordan were included in this cross-sectional study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The occupational noise level was measured with a portable calibrated sound meter. Results: We studied 191 male workers, of whom 145 (75.9% were exposed to a noise level higher than the permissible limit of 85 dBA. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the prevalence of hypertension were significantly higher among those exposed to higher noise level. In multivariate analysis, workers exposed to high level of noise had a significantly higher odds of hypertension compared to those exposed to noise level lower than the permissible limit (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.6 to 13.8. The odds of hypertension increased by 17% (95% CI 10% to 30% for each dB increase in noise intensity. Conclusion: Exposure to high level of noise is associated with elevated blood pressure.

  20. Palpatory method of measuring diastolic blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Sahu

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: The palpatory method would be very useful where frequent blood pressure measurement are being done manually like in wards, in busy OPD, patient on treadmill and also whenever stethoscope is not available. The blood pressure can be measured in noisy environment too.

  1. Soybean oil increases SERCA2a expression and left ventricular contractility in rats without change in arterial blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassallo Dalton

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to evaluate the effects of soybean oil treatment for 15 days on arterial and ventricular pressure, myocardial mechanics and proteins involved in calcium handling. Methods Wistar rats were divided in two groups receiving 100 μL of soybean oil (SB or saline (CT i.m. for 15 days. Ventricular performance was analyzed in male 12-weeks old Wistar rats by measuring left ventricle diastolic and systolic pressure in isolated perfused hearts according to the Langendorff technique. Protein expression was measured by Western blot analysis. Results Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures did not differ between CT and SB rats. However, heart rate was reduced in the SB group. In the perfused hearts, left ventricular isovolumetric systolic pressure was higher in the SB hearts. The inotropic response to extracellular Ca2+ and isoproterenol was higher in the soybean-treated animals than in the control group. Myosin ATPase and Na+-K+ATPase activities, the expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA2a and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX were increased in the SB group. Although the phosfolamban (PLB expression did not change, its phosphorylation at Ser16 was reduced while the SERCA2a/PLB ratio was increased. Conclusions In summary, soybean treatment for 15 days in rats increases the left ventricular performance without affecting arterial blood pressure. These changes might be associated with an increase in the myosin ATPase activity and SERCA2a expression.

  2. Intensive versus conventional blood pressure monitoring in a general practice population. The Blood Pressure Reduction in Danish General Practice trial: a randomized controlled parallel group trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarskov, Pia; Bang, Lia E; Schultz-Larsen, Peter; Gregers Petersen, Hans; Benee Olsen, David; Berg, Ronan M G; Abrahamsen, Henrik; Wiinberg, Niels

    2018-01-17

    To compare the effect of a conventional to an intensive blood pressure monitoring regimen on blood pressure in hypertensive patients in the general practice setting. Randomized controlled parallel group trial with 12-month follow-up. One hundred and ten general practices in all regions of Denmark. One thousand forty-eight patients with essential hypertension. Conventional blood pressure monitoring ('usual group') continued usual ad hoc blood pressure monitoring by office blood pressure measurements, while intensive blood pressure monitoring ('intensive group') supplemented this with frequent home blood pressure monitoring and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Mean day- and night-time systolic and diastolic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. Change in systolic and diastolic office blood pressure and change in cardiovascular risk profile. Of the patients, 515 (49%) were allocated to the usual group, and 533 (51%) to the intensive group. The reductions in day- and night-time 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure were similar (usual group: 4.6 ± 13.5/2.8 ± 82 mmHg; intensive group: 5.6 ± 13.0/3.5 ± 8.2 mmHg; P = 0.27/P = 0.20). Cardiovascular risk scores were reduced in both groups at follow-up, but more so in the intensive than in the usual group (P = 0.02). An intensive blood pressure monitoring strategy led to a similar blood pressure reduction to conventional monitoring. However, the intensive strategy appeared to improve patients' cardiovascular risk profile through other effects than a reduction of blood pressure. Clinical Trials NCT00244660. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Antihypertensive regimen and blood pressure control in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension is a major public health problem worldwide. In Nigeria, records have shown an increasing prevalence with suboptimal evaluation of blood pressure (BP) control. Generally, antihypertensives have recorded significant successes in BP control over the years. This study was aimed at investigating ...

  4. [Effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on blood pressure in patients with coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudano, I; Roas, S; Flammer, A J; Noll, G; Ruschitzka, F

    2012-06-06

    Analgesic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and paracetamol (acetaminophen) in particular, belong to the most widely prescribed therapeutic agents. Beside their efficacy in pain relief, these drugs were recently linked to increased cardiovascular risk. Indeed, epidemiological and clinical studies showed that non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors both may increase blood pressure and cardiovascular events. However, the effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on blood pressure and cardiovascular health should not be neglected, too. Unfortunately, long-term randomized controlled trials appropriately powered to evaluate cardiovascular outcomes are lacking. This review summarizes the available data about the effect of paracetamol in particular, on blood pressure and other cardiovascular outcomes.

  5. Differential Influence of Distinct Components of Increased Blood Pressure on Cardiovascular OutcomesR3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Susan; Gupta, Deepak K.; Claggett, Brian; Sharrett, A. Richey; Shah, Amil M.; Skali, Hicham; Takeuchi, Madoka; Ni, Hanyu; Solomon, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation in blood pressure (BP) increases risk for all cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, the extent to which different indices of BP elevation may be associated to varying degrees with different cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. We studied 13,340 participants (aged 54±6 years, 56% women, 27% black) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who were free of baseline cardiovascular disease. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare the relative contributions of systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) to risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF), stroke, and all-cause mortality. For each multivariable-adjusted model, the largest area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) and smallest -2 log likelihood values were used to identify BP measures with the greatest contribution to risk prediction for each outcome. A total of 2095 CHD events, 1669 HF events, 771 stroke events, and 3016 deaths occurred during up to 18±5 years of follow up. In multivariable analyses adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the BP measures with the greatest risk contributions were: SBP for CHD (AUC=0.74); PP for HF (AUC=0.79), SBP for stroke (AUC=0.74), and PP for all-cause mortality (AUC=0.74). With few exceptions, results were similar in analyses stratified by age, sex, and race. Our data indicate that distinct BP components contribute variably to risk for different cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:23876475

  6. Self-Esteem and the Acute Effect of Anxiety on Ambulatory Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; Arndt, Jamie; Alcántara, Carmela; Chaplin, William; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2015-09-01

    Recent research suggests that self-esteem may be associated with improved parasympathetic nervous system functioning. This study tested whether high self-esteem is associated with decreased ambulatory systolic blood pressure (ASBP) reactivity to anxiety in healthy adults during the waking hours of a normal day. Each of 858 participants completed a short version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and then wore an ABP monitor that took two blood pressure readings per hour for 24 hours. Immediately after each blood pressure reading, participants completed an electronic diary report that included an anxiety rating on a 100-point visual analog scale. Using multilevel models, we assessed the association of momentary anxiety, high trait self-esteem, and their interaction on momentary ASBP, with adjustment for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and body mass index. Sensitivity analyses were conducted examining psychological factors associated with self-esteem: sense of mastery, optimism, social support, and depressive symptoms. On average, a 1-point increase in cube root-transformed anxiety was associated with a 0.80-mm Hg (standard error = 0.09, p self-esteem and momentary anxiety was significant, such that this effect was 0.48 (standard error = 0.20, p = .015) less in individuals with high self-esteem compared with all others. Results for self-esteem remained significant when adjusting for sex and psychological factors. Momentary increases in anxiety are associated with acute increases in ASBP, and high self-esteem buffers the effect of momentary anxiety on blood pressure. Thus, high self-esteem may confer cardiovascular benefit by reducing the acute effects of anxiety on systolic blood pressure.

  7. Facets of negative affectivity and blood pressure in middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel V. Igna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Research results suggesting that facets of negative affectivity, i.e. anxiety, anger-hostility, and depression, relate to incident cardiovascular diseases have been steadily increasing. Evidence for depression has been especially extensive. Elevated blood pressure, a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, is one probable mediator in this context. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship of specific key elements of depressive disposition, i.e. depressive symptoms, hopelessness and vital exhaustion, with health behavior and blood pressure. Study sample was comprised of 710 middle-aged men. Participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing health behavior, depressive symptoms, vital exhaustion and hopelessness. Statistical analyses involved descriptive analyses, correlations and path analysis. Depressive symptoms and vital exhaustion associated with several unfavorable lifestyles such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and inactivity (standardized solution coefficients: 0.10, 0.14, 0.17, accordingly. However, no significant direct associations with blood pressure could be found for depressive symptoms or vital exhaustion. Hopelessness associated only with unhealthy diet (standardized solution coefficient -0.10 Moreover, for hopelessness, results showed a direct but inverse association with systolic blood pressure (standardized solution coefficient -0.08. Results suggest that the previously reported relations of depression and vital exhaustion with blood pressure could be mediated by unfavorable lifestyles. The relation of hopelessness with adverse health behaviors seems to be less significant. Also, the role of hopelessness as a risk factor of elevated blood pressure is not supported by the results of this study.

  8. Relationship between blood lead, blood pressure, stroke, and heart attacks in middle-aged British men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocock, S.J.; Shaper, A.G.; Ashby, D.; Delves, H.T.; Clayton, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between blood lead concentration and blood pressure is examined in a survey of 7371 men aged 40 to 59 from 24 British towns. After allowance for relevant confounding variables, including town of residence and alcohol consumption, there exists a very weak but statistically significant positive association between blood lead and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. After 6 years of follow-up, 316 of these men had major ischemic heart disease, and 66 had a stroke. After allowance for the confounding effects of cigarette smoking and town of residence there is no evidence that blood lead is a risk factor for these cardiovascular events. However, as the blood lead-blood pressure association is so weak, it is unlikely that any consequent association between lead and cardiovascular disease could be demonstrated from prospective epidemiological studies. An overview of data from this and other large epidemiological surveys provides reasonable consistent evidence on lead and blood pressure. While NHANES II data on 2254 US men indicate a slightly stronger association between blood lead and systolic blood pressure, data from two Welsh studies on over 2000 men did not show a statistically significant association. Nevertheless, such statistical association cannot be taken as establishing a causal effect of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure

  9. Electrocardiographic and Blood Pressure Alterations During Electroconvulsive Therapy in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumi Demetrio Ortega

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To study cardiovascular alterations in young patients with no apparent organic disease who underwent electroconvulsive therapy. METHODS - The study comprised 47 healthy patients (22 males and 25 females with a mean age of 30.3 years, who underwent electroconvulsive therapy. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and continuous electrocardiographic monitoring (Holter monitor were performed during 24 hours. Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed 4 hours prior to electric shock administration, during electric shock administration, and 3 hours after electric shock administration. Arrhythmias and alterations in the ST segment in 24 hours were recorded. RESULTS - On electroconvulsive therapy, a significant increase in blood pressure and heart rate was observed and the measurements returned to basal values after 25 minutes. Three females had tracings with depression of the ST segment suggesting myocardial ischemia prior to and after electroconvulsive therapy. Coronary angiography was normal. No severe cardiac arrhythmias were diagnosed. CONCLUSION - 1 Electroconvulsive therapy is a safe therapeutic modality in psychiatry; 2 it causes a significant increase in blood pressure and heart rate; 3 it may be associated with myocardial ischemia in the absence of coronary obstructive disease; 4 electroconvulsive therapy was not associated with the occurrence of severe cardiac arrhythmias.

  10. A comparison of blood pressure measurements in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Joyce

    2012-02-01

    Blood pressure monitoring is an essential component of neonatal intensive care. We compared invasive and noninvasive (Dinamap, Marquette, and Dash) recordings in newborns and also noninvasive values obtained from upper and lower limbs. Infants\\' blood pressure was recorded every 6 hours for 72 hours using three noninvasive devices and compared with invasive readings taken simultaneously. Twenty-five babies were enrolled in the study, with birth weights of 560 to 4500 g and gestation 24 + 1 to 40 + 5 weeks. Three hundred thirty-two recordings were obtained. Comparison between invasive and noninvasive readings revealed that all three noninvasive monitors overread mean blood pressure. There was no significant difference between the cuff recordings obtained from the upper or lower limbs. All three noninvasive devices overestimated mean blood pressure values compared with invasive monitoring. Clinicians may be falsely reassured by noninvasive monitoring. Mean blood pressure values obtained from the upper and lower limb are similar.

  11. Racial differences in the impact of social support on nocturnal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Denise C; Ziegler, Michael G; Nelesen, Richard A; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2009-06-01

    To investigate whether black and white adults benefit similarly from perceived social support in relation to blood pressure (BP) dipping during sleep. The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL, 12-item version), which measures the perceived availability of several types of functional social support, was examined for interactive effects with race on dipping of mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) derived from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). The sample consisted of 156 young to middle-aged adults (61 blacks, 95 whites; mean age = 35.7 years). Mean ISEL scores did not differ between racial groups. Controlling for age, body mass index (BMI), resting BP, and socioeconomic status (SES), the interaction of social support by race yielded associations with nighttime dipping in MAP and DBP (p social support increased, white adults received cardiovascular benefits as suggested by enhanced nocturnal dipping of BP, but black adults accrued risks as evidenced by blunted declines in BP during sleep.

  12. Traffic-related air pollution and noise and children's blood pressure: results from the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenko, Natalya; van Rossem, Lenie; Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Hoek, Gerard; Houthuijs, Danny; de Jongste, Johan C; van Kempen, Elise; Koppelman, Gerard H; Meliefste, Kees; Oldenwening, Marieke; Smit, Henriette A; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Elevation of a child's blood pressure may cause possible health risks in later life. There is evidence for adverse effects of exposure to air pollution and noise on blood pressure in adults. Little is known about these associations in children. We investigated the associations of air pollution and noise exposure with blood pressure in 12-year-olds. Blood pressure was measured at age 12 years in 1432 participants of the PIAMA birth cohort study. Annual average exposure to traffic-related air pollution [NO2, mass concentrations of particulate matter with diameters of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and less than 10 µm (PM10), and PM2.5 absorbance] at the participants' home and school addresses at the time of blood pressure measurements was estimated by land-use regression models. Air pollution exposure on the days preceding blood pressure measurements was estimated from routine air monitoring data. Long-term noise exposure was assessed by linking addresses to modelled equivalent road traffic noise levels. Associations of exposures with blood pressure were analysed by linear regression. Effects are presented for an interquartile range increase in exposure. Long-term exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 absorbance were associated with increased diastolic blood pressure, in children who lived at the same address since birth [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval) [mmHg] 0.83 (0.06 to 1.61) and 0.75 (-0.08 to 1.58), respectively], but not with systolic blood pressure. We found no association of blood pressure with short-term air pollution or noise exposure. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution may increase diastolic blood pressure in children. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. The effects of increasing levels of dietary garlic bulb on growth performance, systolic blood pressure, hematology, and ascites syndrome in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmaghany, Saifali; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Lotfollahian, Houshang; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The effects of dietary garlic bulb were studied separately on hematological parameters, ascites incidence, and growth performance of an ascites susceptible broiler hybrid under both standard temperature conditions ( STC: ) and cold temperature conditions ( CTC: ). A total of 336 one-day-old male broiler chickens were allocated to 4 experimental groups with 4 replicates of 21 birds each under STC. In addition, the same grouping with another 336 birds was used for CTC. Under CTC, the birds were exposed to cold temperatures for induction of ascites. Experimental groups were defined by the inclusion of 0 (control), 5, 10 or 15 g/kg garlic bulbs in the diets under both STC and CTC. Growth performance, systolic blood pressure (as a measure of systemic arterial blood pressure), physiological and biochemical parameters, as well as ascites indices (right ventricle [ RV: ], total ventricle [ TV: ] weights, and RV/TV: ) were evaluated. Systolic blood pressure was determined using an indirect method with a sphygmomanometer, a pediatric cuff, and a Doppler device. The final body weight decreased quadratically (P = 0.003), with increasing garlic bulb levels in the diets under STC. The feed conversion ratio showed no significant differences among all groups under both STC and CTC. No significant differences were observed in total mortality and ascites-related mortality in all groups under STC, although total mortality (L: P = 0.01; Q: P = 0.001) and ascites-related mortality (L: P = 0.007; Q: P = 0.001) were significantly different among the diets under CTC. Under STC, the systolic blood pressure, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, RV, TV, and RV/TV did not vary significantly among the diets. However, red blood cell count and erythrocyte osmotic fragility decreased linearly (P garlic bulb levels in the diets under STC. Under CTC, the systolic blood pressure, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and erythrocyte osmotic fragility decreased (P garlic levels. It is

  14. Combined effects of γ-ray radiation and high atmospheric pressure on peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bingchai; Lu Jiaben; Wang Zongwu; Chen Tiehe

    1989-01-01

    The combined effects of γ-ray radiation and high atmospheric pressure on chromosome aberration, micronucleus and transformation frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been studied. The results indicated that there were no significant influence for effects of high atmospheric pressure on chromosome aberrations, transformation frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes induced γ-ray radiation, and that high atmospheric pressure increased effect of micronucleus in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro induced γ-ray radiation

  15. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezzati, Majid; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background

    Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic

  16. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.

  17. Serum leptin levels correlation with high blood pressure in adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Z.; Shahid, K.U.; Mazahir, I.; Lakho, G.R.; Nafees, M.

    2006-01-01

    To measure serum leptin levels and compare them in lean and obese subjects and to identify correlation between serum leptin levels, heart rate and hypertension in lean and obese subjects among adult females. Seventy female subjects with different body mass indices were selected from OPD of Jinnah Medical and Dental College Hospital (OPD), Karachi. Heart rate was counted manually; blood pressure was measured by mercury sphygmomanometer while serum leptin was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The outcomes hypertension and heart rate were correlated to risk factor leptin. Mean heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and serum leptin levels of obese people were 90+-1, 142+-2, 89+-1 and 24.13+-1.7 respectively, which were significantly higher as compared to lean subjects (p<0.05). All the parameters correlated positively and significantly with increasing BMI. There was a relationship of tachycardia and hypertension with high serum leptin levels in obesity. Serum leptin levels increase with the level of obesity. Hyper-leptinemia is associated with tachycardia and increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obesity via complex mechanisms. (author)

  18. Renal rescue of dopamine D2 receptor function reverses renal injury and high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkalmatt, Prasad R.; Asico, Laureano D.; Zhang, Yanrong; Yang, Yu; Drachenberg, Cinthia; Zheng, Xiaoxu; Han, Fei; Jose, Pedro A.; Armando, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) deficiency increases renal inflammation and blood pressure in mice. We show here that long-term renal-selective silencing of Drd2 using siRNA increases renal expression of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors and blood pressure in mice. To determine the effects of renal-selective rescue of Drd2 expression in mice, the renal expression of DRD2 was first silenced using siRNA and 14 days later rescued by retrograde renal infusion of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector with DRD2. Renal Drd2 siRNA treatment decreased the renal expression of DRD2 protein by 55%, and DRD2 AAV treatment increased the renal expression of DRD2 protein by 7.5- to 10-fold. Renal-selective DRD2 rescue reduced the expression of proinflammatory factors and kidney injury, preserved renal function, and normalized systolic and diastolic blood pressure. These results demonstrate that the deleterious effects of renal-selective Drd2 silencing on renal function and blood pressure were rescued by renal-selective overexpression of DRD2. Moreover, the deleterious effects of 45-minute bilateral ischemia/reperfusion on renal function and blood pressure in mice were ameliorated by a renal-selective increase in DRD2 expression by the retrograde ureteral infusion of DRD2 AAV immediately after the induction of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thus, 14 days after ischemia/reperfusion injury, the renal expression of profibrotic factors, serum creatinine, and blood pressure were lower in mice infused with DRD2 AAV than in those infused with control AAV. These results indicate an important role of renal DRD2 in limiting renal injury and preserving normal renal function and blood pressure. PMID:27358912

  19. Side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.S. van der; Lenders, J.W.M.; Thien, Th.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the experiences and complaints of patients who underwent 24 h blood pressure monitoring. METHODS: Two groups of hypertensive patients of a tertiary outpatient clinic were asked to fill in a nine-item questionnaire about the side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

  20. Effects of nattokinase on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Gum, Si Nae; Paik, Jean Kyung; Lim, Hyo Hee; Kim, Kyong-Chol; Ogasawara, Kazuya; Inoue, Kenichi; Park, Sungha; Jang, Yangsoo; Lee, Jong Ho

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of nattokinase supplementation on blood pressure in subjects with pre-hypertension or stage 1 hypertension. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 86 participants ranging from 20 to 80 years of age with an initial untreated systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 130 to 159 mmHg received nattokinase (2,000 FU/capsule) or a placebo capsule for 8 weeks. Seventy-three subjects completed the protocol. Compared with the control group, the net changes in SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were -5.55 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.5 to -0.57 mmHg; pnattokinase group compared with the control group (pnattokinase supplementation resulted in a reduction in SBP and DBP. These findings suggest that increased intake of nattokinase may play an important role in preventing and treating hypertension.

  1. Evidence-based blood pressure reducing actions of electroacupuncture: mechanisms and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, John C; Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C

    2017-10-25

    Hypertension is a serious world-wide health problem as it increases cardiovascular atherosclerotic risk, stroke and attending morbidity and mortality. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures and particularly systolic pressure increase with aging. The downsides from pharmacological therapy have led to consideration of additional treatments, including acupuncture, which evokes endogenous neural-hormonal systems to lower blood pressure. Using basic science studies to guide clinical approaches to research, it is apparent that low frequency, low intensity electroacupuncture reduces sympathetic outflow in approximately 70% of patients with mild to moderate hypertension who are off antihypertensive drugs. Systolic and, to a lesser extent, diastolic arterial blood pressures can be lowered over two to four weeks for prolonged periods, lasting as long as one month, after cessation of an eight weeks of once weekly stimulation. Many questions about long-term therapy, treatment of resistant patients and efficacy in patients on medication remain to be studied. Current data, however, suggest that there may be a role of acupuncture in treatment of hypertension.

  2. Automatic noninvasive measurement of systolic blood pressure using photoplethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glik Zehava

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic measurement of arterial blood pressure is important, but the available commercial automatic blood pressure meters, mostly based on oscillometry, are of low accuracy. Methods In this study, we present a cuff-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, based on photoplethysmographic signals measured simultaneously in fingers of both hands. After inflating the pressure cuff to a level above systolic blood pressure in a relatively slow rate, it is slowly deflated. The cuff pressure for which the photoplethysmographic signal reappeared during the deflation of the pressure-cuff was taken as the systolic blood pressure. The algorithm for the detection of the photoplethysmographic signal involves: (1 determination of the time-segments in which the photoplethysmographic signal distal to the cuff is expected to appear, utilizing the photoplethysmographic signal in the free hand, and (2 discrimination between random fluctuations and photoplethysmographic pattern. The detected pulses in the time-segments were identified as photoplethysmographic pulses if they met two criteria, based on the pulse waveform and on the correlation between the signal in each segment and the signal in the two neighboring segments. Results Comparison of the photoplethysmographic-based automatic technique to sphygmomanometry, the reference standard, shows that the standard deviation of their differences was 3.7 mmHg. For subjects with systolic blood pressure above 130 mmHg the standard deviation was even lower, 2.9 mmHg. These values are much lower than the 8 mmHg value imposed by AAMI standard for automatic blood pressure meters. Conclusion The photoplethysmographic-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, and the algorithm which was presented in this study, seems to be accurate.

  3. Blood pressure regulation III: what happens when one system must serve two masters: temperature and pressure regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, W Larry; Stanhewicz, Anna E; Bruning, Rebecca S; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-03-01

    When prolonged intense exercise is performed at high ambient temperatures, cardiac output must meet dual demands for increased blood flow to contracting muscle and to the skin. The literature has commonly painted this scenario as a fierce competition, wherein one circulation preserves perfusion at the expense of the other, with the regulated maintenance of blood pressure as the ultimate goal. This review redefines this scenario as commensalism, an integrated balance of regulatory control where one circulation benefits with little functional effect on the other. In young, healthy subjects, arterial pressure rarely falls to any great extent during either extreme passive heating or prolonged dynamic exercise in the heat, nor does body temperature rise disproportionately due to a compromised skin blood flow. Rather, it often takes the superimposition of additional stressors--e.g., dehydration or simulated hemorrhage--upon heat stress to substantially impact blood pressure regulation.

  4. [Development of an automatic pneumatic tourniquet system that determines pressures in synchrony with systolic blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyun; Li, Kaiyuan; Zhang, Zhengbo; Guo, Junyan; Wang, Weidong

    2012-11-01

    The correlation coefficients between arterial occlusion pressure and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, limb circumference, body mass etc were obtained through healthy volunteer experiments, in which tourniquet were applied on upper/lower extremities. The prediction equations were derived from the data of experiments by multiple regression analysis. Based on the microprocessor C8051F340, a new pneumatic tourniquet system that can determine tourniquet pressure in synchrony with systolic blood pressure was developed and verified the function and stability of designed system. Results showed that the pneumatic tourniquet which automatically adjusts occlusion pressure in accordance with systolic blood pressure could stop the flow of blood to get a bloodless field.

  5. Admission Systolic Blood Pressure Predicts the Number of Blood Pressure Medications at Discharge in Patients With Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Ayaz M; Shiue, Harn; Boehme, Amelia K; Albright, Karen C; Venkatraman, Anand; Kumar, Gyanendra; Lyerly, Michael J; Hays-Shapshak, Angela; Mirza, Maira; Gropen, Toby I; Harrigan, Mark R

    2018-03-01

    Control of systolic blood pressure (SBP) after primary intracerebral hemorrhage improves outcomes. Factors determining the number of blood pressure medications (BPM) required for goal SBP<160 mm Hg at discharge are unknown. We hypothesized that higher admission-SBPs require a greater number of BPM for goal discharge-SBP<160 mm Hg, and investigated factors influencing this goal. We conducted a retrospective review of 288 patients who presented with primary intracerebral hemorrhage. Admission-SBP was obtained. Primary outcome was the number of BPM at discharge. Comparison was made between patients presenting with and without a history of hypertension, and patients discharged on <3 and ≥3 BPM. Patients with hypertension history had a higher median admission-SBP compared with those without (180 vs. 157 mm Hg, P=0.0001). In total, 133 of 288 (46.2%) patients were discharged on <3 BPM; 155/288 (53.8%) were discharged on ≥3 BPM. Hypertension history (P<0.0001) and admission-SBP (P<0.0001) predicted the number of BPM at discharge. In patients without hypertension history, every 10 mm Hg increase in SBP resulted in an absolute increase of 0.5 BPM at discharge (P=0.0011), whereas in those with hypertension, the absolute increase was 1.3 BPM (P=0.0012). In comparison with patients discharged on <3 BPM, patients discharged on ≥3 BPM were more likely to have a higher median admission-SBP, be younger in age, belong to the African-American race, have a history of diabetes, have higher median admission-National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin Scale of 4 to 5 at discharge. An understanding of the factors influencing BPM at discharge may help clinicians better optimize blood pressure control both before and after discharge.

  6. Utility of the theory of planned behavior to predict nursing staff blood pressure monitoring behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joan M; Cook, Paul F; Ingram, Jennifer C

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate constructs from the theory of planned behavior (TPB, Ajzen 2002) - attitudes, sense of control, subjective norms and intentions - as predictors of accuracy in blood pressure monitoring. Despite numerous initiatives aimed at teaching blood pressure measurement techniques, many healthcare providers measure blood pressures incorrectly. Descriptive, cohort design. Medical assistants and licensed practical nurses were asked to complete a questionnaire on TPB variables. These nursing staff's patients had their blood pressures measured and completed a survey about techniques used to measure their blood pressure. We correlated nursing staff's responses on the TBP questionnaire with their intention to measure an accurate blood pressure and with the difference between their actual blood pressure measurement and a second measurement taken by a researcher immediately after the clinic visit. Patients' perceptions of MAs' and LPNs' blood pressure measurement techniques were examined descriptively. Perceived control and social norm predicted intention to measure an accurate blood pressure, with a negative relationship between knowledge and intention. Consistent with the TPB, intention was the only significant predictor of blood pressure measurement accuracy. Theory of planned behavior constructs predicted the healthcare providers' intention to measure blood pressure accurately and intention predicted the actual accuracy of systolic blood pressure measurement. However, participants' knowledge about blood pressure measurement had an unexpected negative relationship with their intentions. These findings have important implications for nursing education departments and organisations which traditionally invest significant time and effort in annual competency training focused on knowledge enhancement by staff. This study suggests that a better strategy might involve efforts to enhance providers' intention to change, particularly by changing social norms or increasing

  7. Non-invasive continuous finger blood pressure measurement during orthostatic stress compared to intra-arterial pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imholz, B. P.; Settels, J. J.; van der Meiracker, A. H.; Wesseling, K. H.; Wieling, W.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether invasive blood pressure responses to orthostatic stress can be replaced by non-invasive continuous finger blood pressure responses. DESIGN - Intrabrachial and Finapres blood pressures were simultaneously measured during passive head up tilt and during

  8. The pulmonary vasculature in a neonatal porcine model with increased pulmonary blood flow and pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbøg, Elisabeth Vidstid; Steinbruchel, Daniel Andreas; Thomsen, Anne Bloch

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertension and hyperperfusion of the pulmonary vascular bed in the setting of congenital cardiac malformations may lead to progressive pulmonary vascular disease. To improve the understanding of the basic mechanisms of this disease, there is a need for clinically relevant animal....... By three months of age, nearly all shunts had closed spontaneously, and haemodynamics were normal. Ligation of the left pulmonary artery resulted in a normal total pulmonary blood flow, despite only the right lung being perfused, and a 33% increase in systolic pulmonary arterial pressure...... in humans. Elevated circulating levels of endothelin were associated with abnormal haemodynamics rather than abnormal pathology. These findings could be valuable for future studies on the pathogenesis of hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease associated with congenital cardiac malformations....

  9. Effects of Topical Phenylephrine HCl 2.5% used before Cataract Surgery on Systemic Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Ayıntap

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of topical phenylephrine HCl 2.5% (Mydfrin, used as a fast and effective mydriatic before cataract surgery, on systemic blood pressure. Material and Method: Topical phenylephrine HCl 2.5% was administered 3 times with 5-minute intervals before cataract surgery to 44 eyes of 44 patients. The systemic blood pressure was measured preoperatively and at 15 and 30 minutes. Results: The mean systolic blood pressure before the topical administration of phenylephrine HCl 2.5% was 119.7mmHg, while 15 and 30 minutes later, it was 125.3 mmHg and 121.2 mmHg, respectively. The mean diastolic blood pressure before the topical administration of phenylephrine HCl 2.5% was 75.9 mmHg; 15 and 30 minutes later, it was 76.9 mmHg and 75.3 mmHg, respectively. The increase in systolic blood pressure at 15 and 30 minutes was statistically significant (p=0.003 and p=0.042. The change in diastolic blood pressure was not statistically significant. Discussion: Phenylephrine HCl 2.5%, which is used preoperatively as a fast and effective mydriatic for cataract surgery, can increase the systolic blood pressure. This effect is most significant at 15 minutes and lasts at least 30 minutes. This agent should be used with care in hypertensive patients. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 164-6

  10. Dietary protein and blood pressure : epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.

    2012-01-01


    Background
    Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Diet and lifestyle have a substantial impact on blood pressure, but the role of protein intake is not yet clear. This thesis focuses on total dietary protein, types of protein (i.e. plant and

  11. Central aortic systolic blood pressure can predict prolonged QTc duration better than brachial artery systolic blood pressure in rural community residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuqing; Tang, Songtao; Chen, Ji-Yan; Huang, Cheng; Li, Jie; Cai, An-Ping; Feng, Yingqing

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that prolonged electrocardiogram QTc duration was independent risk factor for both increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, but there was no dating about the relationship between central aortic systolic blood pressure (CASP) and QTc duration. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between CASP and QTc duration, and assess whether CASP can predict prolonged QTc duration more than BSBP. A total of 500 patients were enrolled in this study, central and brachial aortic blood pressure and electrocardiogram QTc duration were measured. Pearson correlation was assessed for determining the associations of QTc duration with clinical conditions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the independent predictor of prolonged QTc duration. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the utility of blood pressure for prolonged QTc duration. We found QTc durations were significantly positive with CASP (r = 0.308, p AUC: 0.771 vs. 0.646, p < 0.001) BSBP. Our results suggested that the non-invasive CASP is independently correlated with QTc duration, and CASP can predict prolonged QTc duration more than BSBP.

  12. Major depression as a risk factor for high blood pressure: epidemiologic evidence from a national longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Scott B; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Campbell, Norman R C; Eliasziw, Michael; Campbell, Tavis S

    2009-04-01

    To determine whether major depression (MD) leads to an increased risk of new-onset high blood pressure diagnoses. The data source was the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS). The NPHS included a short-form version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-SF) to assess MD and collected self-report data about professionally diagnosed high blood pressure and the use of antihypertensive medications. The analysis included 12,270 respondents who did not report high blood pressure or the use of antihypertensive medications at a baseline interview conducted in 1994. Proportional hazards models were used to compare the incidence of high blood pressure in respondents with and without MD during 10 years of subsequent follow-up. After adjustment for age, the risk of developing high blood pressure was elevated in those with MD. The hazard ratio was 1.6 (95% Confidence Interval = 1.2-2.1), p = .001, indicating a 60% increase in risk. Adjustment for additional covariates did not alter the association. MD may be a risk factor for new-onset high blood pressure. Epidemiologic data cannot definitely confirm a causal role, and the association may be due to shared etiologic factors. However, the increased risk may warrant closer monitoring of blood pressure in people with depressive disorders.

  13. Brachial versus central blood pressure and vascular stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Hansen, Tine; Frimodt-Møller, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) estimates the true load imposed on the left ventricle to a higher degree than does brachial BP. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and central BP are risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Both can be measured by simple and noninvasive methods. Guidelines...

  14. Brachial versus central blood pressure and vascular stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Hansen, Tine; Frimodt-Møller, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) estimates the true load imposed on the left ventricle to a higher degree than does brachial BP. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and central BP are risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Both can be measured by simple and noninvasive methods. Guidelines...

  15. Lack of association between systolic blood pressure and blood viscosity in normotensive healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irace, Concetta; Carallo, Claudio; Scavelli, Faustina; Loprete, Antonio; Merante, Valentina; Gnasso, Agostino

    2012-01-01

    A direct relationship between blood pressure and viscosity has frequently been reported, although clear data are not available. To better understand the relationship between these two variables, we evaluated blood viscosity and blood pressure in a group of healthy subjects without cardiovascular risk factors. Healthy subjects were selected from participants in a campaign of prevention of cardiovascular disease (n = 103). They underwent blood sampling for measurement of plasma and blood viscosity, haematocrit, blood lipids and glucose. The quantity and distribution of body fat was assessed by body mass index and waist/hip ratio, respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) correlated significantly with age (r = 0.222) and waist/hip ratio (r = 0.374). Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) correlated significantly with waist/hip ratio (r = 0.216), haematocrit (r = 0.333) and blood viscosity (r = 0.258). Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that the only variable significantly associated with SBP was age, while haematocrit was the only variable significantly associated with DBP. Blood viscosity was closely related to waist/hip ratio. These findings show that SBP, in healthy subjects, is not influenced by haematocrit and blood viscosity. In contrast, DBP is related to the values of haematocrit. Among classical cardiovascular risk factors, waist/hip ratio is closely related to blood viscosity.

  16. Balancing Model Performance and Simplicity to Predict Postoperative Primary Care Blood Pressure Elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Robert B; Dai, Feng; Brandt, Cynthia A; Burg, Matthew M

    2015-09-01

    Because of uncertainty regarding the reliability of perioperative blood pressures and traditional notions downplaying the role of anesthesiologists in longitudinal patient care, there is no consensus for anesthesiologists to recommend postoperative primary care blood pressure follow-up for patients presenting for surgery with an increased blood pressure. The decision of whom to refer should ideally be based on a predictive model that balances performance with ease-of-use. If an acceptable decision rule was developed, a new practice paradigm integrating the surgical encounter into broader public health efforts could be tested, with the goal of reducing long-term morbidity from hypertension among surgical patients. Using national data from US veterans receiving surgical care, we determined the prevalence of poorly controlled outpatient clinic blood pressures ≥140/90 mm Hg, based on the mean of up to 4 readings in the year after surgery. Four increasingly complex logistic regression models were assessed to predict this outcome. The first included the mean of 2 preoperative blood pressure readings; other models progressively added a broad array of demographic and clinical data. After internal validation, the C-statistics and the Net Reclassification Index between the simplest and most complex models were assessed. The performance characteristics of several simple blood pressure referral thresholds were then calculated. Among 215,621 patients, poorly controlled outpatient clinic blood pressure was present postoperatively in 25.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25.5%-25.9%) including 14.2% (95% CI, 13.9%-14.6%) of patients lacking a hypertension history. The most complex prediction model demonstrated statistically significant, but clinically marginal, improvement in discrimination over a model based on preoperative blood pressure alone (C-statistic, 0.736 [95% CI, 0.734-0.739] vs 0.721 [95% CI, 0.718-0.723]; P for difference 1 of 4 patients (95% CI, 25

  17. Body size at birth and blood pressure among children in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C M; Egger, P; Dada, O; Delgado, H; Kylberg, E; Lavin, P; Tang, G H; von Hertzen, H; Shiell, A W; Barker, D J

    2001-02-01

    Studies in developed countries have shown that reduced fetal growth is related to raised blood pressure in childhood and adult life. Little is known about this association in developing countries, where fetal growth retardation is common. In 1994-1995, we measured blood pressure in 1570 3-6-year-old children living in China, Guatemala, Chile, Nigeria and Sweden. We related their blood pressure to patterns of fetal growth, as measured by body proportions at birth. The children were all born after 37 weeks gestation and weighed more than 2.5 kg at birth. In each country, blood pressure was positively related to the child's current weight. After adjusting for this and gender, systolic pressure was inversely related to size at birth in all countries except Nigeria. In Chile, China and Guatemala, children who were proportionately small at birth had raised systolic pressure. For example, in Chile, systolic pressure adjusted for current weight increased by 4.9 mmHg (95% CI : 2.1, 7.7) for every kilogram decrease in birthweight, by 1 mmHg (95% CI : 0.4, 1.6) for every centimetre decrease in birth length, and by 1.3 mmHg (95% CI : 0.4, 2.2) for every centimetre decrease in head circumference at birth. In Sweden, systolic pressure was higher in children who were disproportionately small, that is thin, at birth. Systolic pressure increased by 0.3 mmHg (95% CI : 0.0, 0.6) for every unit (kg/m3) decrease in ponderal index at birth. These associations were independent of the duration of gestation. Raised blood pressure among children in three samples from China, Central and South America is related to proportionate reduction in body size at birth, which results from reduced growth throughout gestation. The relation between fetal growth and blood pressure may be different in African populations. Proportionately reduced fetal growth is the prevalent pattern of fetal growth retardation in developing countries, and is associated with chronic undernutrition among women. Improvement

  18. The association between obesity and blood pressure in Thai public school children

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhonthachit, Penmat; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Hudthagosol, Chatrapa; Sirikulchayanonta, Chutima

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity has substantially increased in the past 3 decades in both developed and developing countries and may lead to an increase in high blood pressure (BP) at an early age. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity and its association with blood pressure among primary school children in central Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in two public schools in Bangkok in 2012. A total of 693 students (317 boys and 376 girls) aged 8–12 ...

  19. Associations between bacterial infections and blood pressure in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Clive J; Ong, Ken K; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Dunger, David B

    2017-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that bacterial infections in pregnancy are related to maternal blood pressure. Bacterial infection was assessed using antibiotic usage as a surrogate and its association with blood pressure in pregnancy tested in the Cambridge Baby Growth Study. Antibiotic usage in pregnancy was self-reported in questionnaires. Blood pressure measurements at four time points in pregnancy were collected from the hospital notes of 622 women. Using all the available blood pressure readings (adjusted for weeks gestation) antibiotic usage was associated with a higher mean arterial blood pressure across pregnancy: antibiotics used 85(84, 87)mmHg vs. no antibiotics used 83 (83, 84) mmHg (β=2.3 (0.6, 4.0) mmHg, p=9.6×10 -3 , from 621 individuals). Further analysis revealed that antibiotic usage was associated with diastolic (β=2.3 (0.6, 4.0) mmHg; p=7.0×10 -3 ) more than systolic blood pressure (β=1.4(-0.9, 3.7)mmHg; p=0.2). The effect size associated with antibiotic usage appeared to rise slightly after the first trimester. Bacterial infection in pregnancy, as assessed by self-reported antibiotic usage, is associated with small rises in blood pressure. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal from...

  1. Excess Weight, Anthropometric Variables and Blood Pressure in Schoolchildren aged 10 to 18 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schommer, Vânia Ames; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Cesa, Cláudia Ciceri; Oliveira, Rosemary; Silva, Anelise Damiani; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension among children and adolescents is estimated to range between 1% and 13%. Excess weight and central obesity are related to blood pressure levels in adults, and may be important in the early pathogenesis of SH when present in childhood. To study the association between anthropometric variables and blood pressure levels in schoolchildren from the 5 th and 8 th grades, and to identify which parameter was more strongly correlated with blood pressure levels. Contemporary cross-sectional study with probabilistic population-based cluster sampling of schoolchildren enrolled from the 5 th to the 8 th grades in public elementary schools of Porto Alegre. Data on familial risk factors and anthropometry were collected. Statistical analysis included correlations and cluster-adjusted confidence intervals. The mean age of participants was 12.57 (± 1.64) years, and 55.2% of them were females. Abnormal blood pressure levels were found in 11.3% of the sample and borderline values, in 16.2%. Among the anthropometric variables analyzed, hip circumference was the one with the strongest correlation with increased blood pressure (r = 0.462, p < 0.001), followed by waist circumference (r = 0.404, p < 0.001) and abdominal skinfold (r = 0.291, p < 0.001). We observed an association of waist circumference and skinfolds with increased blood pressure levels in the schoolchildren of the sample. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that early measurements of blood pressure, and waist and hip circumferences become a routine in health services in order to prevent this condition

  2. Excess Weight, Anthropometric Variables and Blood Pressure in Schoolchildren aged 10 to 18 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schommer, Vânia Ames [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Cesa, Cláudia Ciceri; Oliveira, Rosemary [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Anelise Damiani [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pellanda, Lucia Campos, E-mail: luciapell.pesquisa@cardiologia.org.br [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    The prevalence of hypertension among children and adolescents is estimated to range between 1% and 13%. Excess weight and central obesity are related to blood pressure levels in adults, and may be important in the early pathogenesis of SH when present in childhood. To study the association between anthropometric variables and blood pressure levels in schoolchildren from the 5{sup th} and 8{sup th} grades, and to identify which parameter was more strongly correlated with blood pressure levels. Contemporary cross-sectional study with probabilistic population-based cluster sampling of schoolchildren enrolled from the 5{sup th} to the 8{sup th} grades in public elementary schools of Porto Alegre. Data on familial risk factors and anthropometry were collected. Statistical analysis included correlations and cluster-adjusted confidence intervals. The mean age of participants was 12.57 (± 1.64) years, and 55.2% of them were females. Abnormal blood pressure levels were found in 11.3% of the sample and borderline values, in 16.2%. Among the anthropometric variables analyzed, hip circumference was the one with the strongest correlation with increased blood pressure (r = 0.462, p < 0.001), followed by waist circumference (r = 0.404, p < 0.001) and abdominal skinfold (r = 0.291, p < 0.001). We observed an association of waist circumference and skinfolds with increased blood pressure levels in the schoolchildren of the sample. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that early measurements of blood pressure, and waist and hip circumferences become a routine in health services in order to prevent this condition.

  3. Blood pressure in Afghan male immigrants to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Immigration from a Third-World society to a Western society can be associated with higher blood pressure and salt sensitivity. We therefore tested whether immigrants from Afghanistan to Denmark compared with non-immigrant Danes exhibit a (i) higher 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (24-h ABP...... immigrants to Denmark exhibit a lower 24-h ABP than Danes. In young Afghans, PRA is less sensitive to changes in salt intake, while PNA is higher and may reflect their lower systolic blood pressure and/or arterial pulse pressure. Whether these hormonal differences can explain the lower 24-h ABP in Afghans...

  4. The correlation between serum leptin and blood pressure after exposure to noise at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muayad S Rahma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several epidemiologic studies have reported that exposure to noise is associated with cardiovascular disease. The increased body weight is often associated with metabolic as well as increased blood pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the elevation of blood pressure and serum leptin hormones due to the effects of noise in the work place. A total of 80 volunteer males where included in this study with an age range between of 20 and 45 years, they were divided in two groups equally, the 1 st group were exposed to noise in the workplace while the 2 nd group were not. The individual noise exposure was determined by using a sound level meter. The range of noise was 80-100 dBA. Body Mass Index was also taken for each individual by a standard measure, blood pressure was measured by OMRON sphygmomanometer and serum leptin was measured through venous blood sample analysis enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Spearman rank order correlation was used to examine the correlations between Blood pressure value (Systolic, Diastolic and Leptin. All the relationships between parameters showed a positive correlation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values had a significant correlation to leptin hormone level in comparison to the control. There was a significant relation between leptin and blood pressure. leptin effects on the sympathetic nervous system may provide a partial explanation. Therefore, Leptin might have diverse cardiovascular actions.

  5. Increasing blood flow to exercising muscle attenuates systemic cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Masashi; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-11-15

    Reducing blood flow to working muscles during dynamic exercise causes metabolites to accumulate within the active muscles and evokes systemic pressor responses. Whether a similar cardiovascular response is elicited with normal blood flow to exercising muscles during dynamic exercise remains unknown, however. To address that issue, we tested whether cardiovascular responses are affected by increases in blood flow to active muscles. Thirteen healthy subjects performed dynamic plantarflexion exercise for 12 min at 20%, 40%, and 60% of peak workload (EX20, EX40, and EX60) with their lower thigh enclosed in a negative pressure box. Under control conditions, the box pressure was the same as the ambient air pressure. Under negative pressure conditions, beginning 3 min after the start of the exercise, the box pressure was decreased by 20, 45, and then 70 mmHg in stepwise fashion with 3-min step durations. During EX20, the negative pressure had no effect on blood flow or the cardiovascular responses measured. However, application of negative pressure increased blood flow to the exercising leg during EX40 and EX60. This increase in blood flow had no significant effect on systemic cardiovascular responses during EX40, but it markedly attenuated the pressor responses otherwise seen during EX60. These results demonstrate that during mild exercise, normal blood flow to exercising muscle is not a factor eliciting cardiovascular responses, whereas it elicits an important pressor effect during moderate exercise. This suggests blood flow to exercising muscle is a major determinant of cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise at higher than moderate intensity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Effect of tilting on blood pressure and interstitial fluid pressures of bluefish and smooth dogfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvy, C S; DuBois, A B

    1982-01-01

    Tolerance of the circulatory system of fish for gravitational stress has not been measured previously. We examined this in bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) and smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis) by placing them horizontally on a V-board in air while their gills were perfused with aerated seawater, then tilting them head up for 0.5 h, and finally returning them to horizontal. Meanwhile, we recorded the blood pressure, pulse pressure, and heart rate in the ventral aorta, and interstitial fluid pressure in the head and tail. All four bluefish tolerated a 30 degrees tilt or even a 60 degrees tilt with little change in blood pressure or interstitial pressure in the anterior and posterior regions. All recovered afterward. However, in the seven dogfish examined, the posterior interstitial fluid pressure increased from 2.8 +/- 1.0 cmH2O before tilting to 11.8 +/- 3.3 cmH2O toward the end of a 30 degrees tilt lasting 30 min. The blood pressure decreased as the pulse pressure approached zero, showing that circulatory insufficiency had developed due to insufficient venous return to the heart. Most of the dogfish died within a few hours after the experiment. These findings are in keeping with the conclusion that the vasculature of bluefish has more rigidity, less permeability, and perhaps more compensatory tone than that of smooth dogfish. We speculate that bluefish may have evolved their circulatory tolerance for gravity as a cross-adaptation to the stresses imposed on the circulation by forward acceleration and by regional differences of transcutaneous pressure occurring during fast carangiform swimming.

  7. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found...... on the operated side. None of the patients had symptoms from the lowered pressure. We conclude that in patients without signs of ischemia, the postoperative segmental pressure decrease is reversible and therefore not dangerous....

  8. TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION USING TELEMEDICAL HOME BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Petersen, N; Lauritzen, T; Bech, J N

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Telemonitoring of home blood pressure measurements (TBPM) is a new and promising supplement to diagnosis, control and treatment of hypertension. We wanted to compare the outcome of antihypertensive treatment based on TBPM and conventional monitoring of blood pressure. DESIGN AND METHOD...... of the measurements and subsequent communication by telephone or E-mail. In the control group, patients received usual care. Primary outcome was reduction in daytime ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) from baseline to 3 months' follow-up. RESULTS: In both groups, daytime ABPM decreased significantly....../181), p = 0.34. Blood pressure reduction in the TBPM group varied with the different practices. CONCLUSIONS: No further reduction in ABPM or number of patients reaching blood pressure targets was observed when electronic transmission of TBPM was applied in the treatment of hypertension by GPs. Thus...

  9. Self-esteem and the acute effect of anxiety on ambulatory blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; Arndt, Jamie; Alcántara, Carmela; Chaplin, William; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent research suggests that self-esteem may be associated with improved parasympathetic nervous system functioning. This study tested whether high self-esteem is associated with decreased ambulatory systolic blood pressure (ASBP) reactivity to anxiety in healthy adults during the waking hours of a normal day. Methods Each of 858 participants completed a short version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and then wore an ABP monitor which took two blood pressure readings per hour for 24 hours. Immediately after each blood pressure reading, participants completed an electronic diary report that included an anxiety rating on a 100-point visual analog scale (VAS). Using multilevel models, we assessed the association of momentary anxiety, high trait self-esteem, and their interaction on momentary ASBP, with adjustment for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and body mass index. Sensitivity analyses were conducted examining psychological factors associated with self-esteem: sense of mastery, optimism, social support, and depressive symptoms. Results On average, a 1-point increase in cube root-transformed anxiety was associated with a 0.80 mmHg (SE=0.09, pself-esteem and momentary anxiety was significant, such that this effect was 0.48 (SE=0.20, p=0.015) less in individuals with high self-esteem compared to all others. Results for self-esteem remained significant when adjusting for sex and psychological factors. Conclusions Momentary increases in anxiety are associated with acute increases in ASBP, and high self-esteem buffers the effect of momentary anxiety on blood pressure. Thus, high self-esteem may confer cardiovascular benefit by reducing the acute effects of anxiety on systolic blood pressure. PMID:26230481

  10. Accuracy of home blood pressure readings: monitors and operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Trina; Wilson, Merne; Wilson, Thomas W

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of automated digital blood pressure monitoring devices and operators in the community. Also, we tested the effects of a simple education program, and looked for arm-arm differences. Subjects who had bought their own automated digital blood pressure monitor were recruited via an advertisement in the local newspaper. On arrival, they were asked to record their blood pressure exactly as they would at home. The investigator noted any technique deficiencies then corrected them. Blood pressures were then recorded by the investigator and the subject, on opposite arms, simultaneously, and repeated with the arms switched. Finally, subjects recorded their blood pressure again. The subjects' readings were compared to the average of monitor and mercury readings using Bland-Altman methods. A total of 80 subjects were tested. Before educating, subjects' systolic blood pressure (SBP) readings were +5.8+/-6.4 (standard deviation) mmHg greater than the mean of all readings, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were +1.3+/-4.0 mmHg; after educating they were +1.3+/-4.0 and -1.3+/-2.7 respectively. The monitors, as a group, were accurate, and met British Hypertension Society and AAMI highest standards. We found no differences among monitors that had been validated (n=26) and those that had not. There were differences between the arms: 5.3+/-5.2 mmHg for SBP and 3.4+/-3.3 mmHg for DBP. Most patients had never been informed by anyone of proper blood pressure measuring techniques. We conclude that home blood pressure measurement, as practiced in our community, is prone to error, mostly due to mistakes by the operator. These can easily be corrected, so that readings become more accurate. Attention should be paid to arm-arm differences.

  11. Substantial effect of acute hydration on blood pressure in patients with autonomic failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Boesen, F

    1987-01-01

    fraction were measured in the supine position. Measurements were repeated after rapid infusion of 11 of isotonic saline. Acute hydration resulted in increased supine mean blood pressure levels (P less than 0.01) despite normal plasma volumes in all patients. The postural reductions in mean blood pressure......The effect of acute hydration on arterial blood pressure levels was investigated in ten patients with severe postural hypotension due to autonomic failure. Blood pressure and heart rate were determined in the supine and 60-degree head-up tilted position. Plasma volume and left ventricular ejection...... were reduced from 40 mmHg before to 20 mmHg after saline (median values, P less than 0.01). The results indicate that normal plasma volumes do not ensure optimal circulatory status in patients with autonomic failure. Acute hydration with isotonic saline may be used for immediate corrections of blood...

  12. Consumption of alcohol and blood pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Nathália Miguel Teixeira; Mill, José Geraldo; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Moreira, Alexandra Dias; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Viana, Maria Carmen; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi

    2018-01-01

    Prevention and reduction of excessive use of alcohol represents damages to society in general. In turn, arterial hypertension is the main attributable risk factor premature life lost years and disability. To investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and high blood pressure in participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). A baseline data of total of 7,655 participants volunteers between 35 and 74 years of age, of both genders, in six educational and research institutions of three different regions of the country were interviewed between 2008-2010. Socioeconomic, haemodynamic, anthropometric and health data were collected in the research centers of ELSA-Brasil. The presence of high blood pressure was identified when the systolic blood pressure was ≥140 mm Hg and/or the diastolic was ≥90 mm Hg. Alcohol consumption was estimated and categorized regarding consumption and pattern of ingestion. The Student's t-test, chi-squared and logistic regression tests were used for analysis, including potential co-variables of the model, and a 5% significance level was adopted. A dose-response relation was observed for the consumption of alcohol (g/week) in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Alcohol consumption was associated with high blood pressure in men who reported moderate (OR = 1.69; 95%CI 1.35-2.11) and excessive (OR = 2.70; 95%CI 2.04-3.59) consumption. Women have nearly three times more chance of presenting elevated blood pressure when presenting excessive consumption (OR = 2.86, 95%CI 1.77-4.63), and binge drinkers who drink more than 2 to 3 times a month have approximately 70% more chance of presenting with elevated blood pressure, after adjusting for consumption of drinks with meals. The consumption of alcohol beverages increases the odds of elevated blood pressure, especially among excessive drinkers. Therefore alcohol consumption needs a more robust regulation in view of its impact on population

  13. Further insights into blood pressure induced premature beats: Transient depolarizations are associated with fast myocardial deformation upon pressure decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemers, Peter; Sutherland, George; Cikes, Maja; Jakus, Nina; Holemans, Patricia; Sipido, Karin R; Willems, Rik; Claus, Piet

    2015-11-01

    An acute increase in blood pressure is associated with the occurrence of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs). We aimed to study the timing of these PVCs with respect to afterload-induced changes in myocardial deformation in a controlled, preclinically relevant, novel closed-chest pig model. An acute left ventricular (LV) afterload challenge was induced by partial balloon inflation in the descending aorta, lasting 5-10 heartbeats (8 pigs; 396 inflations). Balloon inflation enhanced the reflected wave (augmentation index 30% ± 8% vs 59% ± 6%; P blood pressure by 35% ± 4%. This challenge resulted in a more abrupt LV pressure decline, which was delayed beyond ventricular repolarization (rate of pressure decline 0.16 ± 0.01 mm Hg/s vs 0.27 ± 0.04 mm Hg/ms; P pressure 1 ± 12 ms vs 36 ± 9 ms; P = .008), during which the velocity of myocardial shortening at the basal septum increased abruptly (ie, postsystolic shortening) (peak strain rate -0.6 ± 0.5 s(-1) vs -2.5 ± 0.8 s(-1); P pressure decline, with increased postsystolic shortening, and not at peak pressure, that PVCs occur (22% of inflations). These PVCs preferentially occurred at the basal and apical segments. In the same regions, monophasic action potentials demonstrated the appearance of delayed afterdepolarization-like transient depolarizations as origin of PVCs. An acute blood pressure increase results in a more abrupt LV pressure decline, which is delayed after ventricular repolarization. This has a profound effect on myocardial mechanics with enhanced postsystolic shortening. Coincidence with induced transient depolarizations and PVCs provides support for the mechanoelectrical origin of pressure-induced premature beats. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Concord grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohadwala, Mustali M; Hamburg, Naomi M; Holbrook, Monika; Kim, Brian H; Duess, Mai-Ann; Levit, Aaron; Titas, Megan; Chung, William B; Vincent, Felix B; Caiano, Tara L; Frame, Alissa A; Keaney, John F

    2010-01-01

    Background: Consumption of flavonoid-containing foods may be useful for the management of hypertension. Objective: We investigated whether 100% Concord grape juice lowers blood pressure in patients with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension. Design: We conducted a double-blind crossover study to compare the effects of grape juice (7 mL · kg−1 · d−1) and matched placebo beverage on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, stress-induced changes in blood pressure, and biochemical profile. Participants consumed each beverage for 8 wk with a 4-wk rest period between beverages. They ceased consumption of grapes and other flavonoid-containing beverages throughout the study. Results: We enrolled 64 otherwise healthy patients taking no antihypertensive medications (31% women, 42% black, age 43 ± 12 y). Baseline mean (±SD) cuff blood pressure was 138 ± 7 (systolic)/82 ± 7 (diastolic) mm Hg. No effects on the primary endpoint of 24-h mean systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, or stress-induced changes in blood pressure were observed. A secondary endpoint was nocturnal dip in systolic pressure. At baseline, nocturnal pressure was 8.3 ± 7.1% lower at night than during daytime. The mean nocturnal dip increased 1.4 percentage points after grape juice and decreased 2.3 percentage points after placebo (P = 0.005). Fasting blood glucose was 91 ± 10 mg/dL at baseline for the entire cohort. Glucose decreased 2 mg/dL after consumption of grape juice and increased 1 mg/dL after consuming the placebo (P = 0.03). Conclusions: We observed no effect of grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in this cohort of relatively healthy individuals with modestly elevated blood pressure. Secondary analyses suggested favorable effects on nocturnal dip and glucose homeostasis that may merit further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00302809. PMID:20844075

  15. [Development of a continuous blood pressure monitoring and recording system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Yong; Gao, Shumei; Song, Yilin

    2012-09-01

    A small experimental system is constructed with working principle of continuous blood pressure monitoring based on the volume compensation method. The preliminary experimental results show that the system can collect blood pressure signals at the radial artery effectively. The digital PID algorithm can track the variation of blood pressure. And the accuracy of continuous blood pressure detecting achieve the level of same kind of product.

  16. Community-based blood pressure measurement by non-health workers using electronic devices: a validation study

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel D. Reidpath; Mei Lee Ling; Shajahan Yasin; Kanason Rajagobal; Pascale Allotey

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Population monitoring and screening of blood pressure is an important part of any population health strategy. Qualified health workers are expensive and often unavailable for screening. Non-health workers with electronic blood pressure monitors are increasingly used in community-based research. This approach is unvalidated. In a poor, urban community we compared blood pressure measurements taken by non-health workers using electronic devices against qualified health workers usin...

  17. High blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yasuhiro; Kono, Syoichiro; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Narai, Hisashi; Omori, Nobuhiko

    2009-11-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of acute phase blood pressure in patients with acute ischemic stroke by determining whether or not it contributes to clinical outcome. We studied 515 consecutive patients admitted within the first 48 hours after the onset of ischemic strokes, employing systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements recorded within 36 hours after admission. High blood pressure was defined when the mean of at least 2 blood pressure measurements was ≥200 mmHg systolic and/or ≥110 mmHg diastolic at 6 to 24 hours after admission or ≥180 mmHg systolic and/or ≥105 mmHg diastolic at 24 to 36 hours after admission. The high blood pressure group was found to include 16% of the patients. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, stroke history, carotid artery stenosis, leukoaraiosis, NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission and mortality were not significantly correlated with either the high blood pressure or non-high blood pressure group. High blood pressure on admission was significantly associated with a past history of hypertension, kidney disease, the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on discharge and the length of stay. On logistic regression analysis, with no previous history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and kidney disease were independent risk factors associated with the presence of high blood pressure [odds ratio (OR), 1.85 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-3.22), 1.89 (95% CI: 1.11-3.22), and 3.31 (95% CI: 1.36-8.04), respectively]. Multi-organ injury may be presented in acute stroke patients with high blood pressure. Patients with high blood pressure had a poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.

  18. Blood pressure and falls in community-dwelling people aged 60 years and older in the VHM&PP cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Diana; Nagel, Gabriele; Kleiner, Andrea; Ulmer, Hanno; Rehberger, Barbara; Concin, Hans; Rapp, Kilian

    2013-05-21

    Falls are one of the major health problems in old people. Different risk factors were identified but only few epidemiological studies analysed the influence of conventionally measured blood pressure on falls. The objective of our study was to investigate the relationship between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and falls. In 3,544 community-dwelling Austrian women and men aged 60 years and older, data on falls within the previous three months were collected by questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured by general practitioners within the Vorarlberg Health Monitoring and Prevention Programme (VHM&PP) 90 to 1095 days before the fall assessment. A multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted. The models were stratified by gender and adjusted by age, number of medical conditions and subjective feeling of illness. In total, 257 falls in 3,544 persons were reported. In women, high systolic and diastolic blood pressure was associated with a decreased risk of falls. An increase of systolic blood pressure by 10 mmHg and of diastolic blood pressure by 5 mmHg reduced the risk of falling by 9% (OR 0.91, 95% Cl 0.84-0.98) and 8% (OR 0.92, 95% Cl 0.85-0.99), respectively. In men, an increased risk of falls was observed in participants with low systolic or low diastolic blood pressure. Blood pressure was associated with the risk of falls. Hypertensive values decreased the risk in women and low blood pressure increased the risk in men.

  19. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  20. Remote Blood Pressure Waveform Sensing Method and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-02

    test the effects of drugs, exercise, or other stimuli, whereby an increase or decrease in the ratio may indicate an improvement or worsening of systolic...even though high blood pressure in animals can be symptomatic of a variety of diseases including chronic renal failure, hyperthyroidism , Cushing’s

  1. Difference in blood pressure measurements between arms: methodological and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher E

    2015-01-01

    Differences in blood pressure measurements between arms are commonly encountered in clinical practice. If such differences are not excluded they can delay the diagnosis of hypertension and can lead to poorer control of blood pressure levels. Differences in blood pressure measurements between arms are associated cross sectionally with other signs of vascular disease such as peripheral arterial disease or cerebrovascular disease. Differences are also associated prospectively with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and all cause mortality. Numbers of publications on inter-arm difference are rising year on year, indicating a growing interest in the phenomenon. The prevalence of an inter-arm difference varies widely between reports, and is correlated with the underlying cardiovascular risk of the population studied. Prevalence is also sensitive to the method of measurement used. This review discusses the prevalence of an inter-arm difference in different populations and addresses current best practice for the detection and the measurement of a difference. The evidence for clinical and for vascular associations of an inter-arm difference is presented in considering the emerging role of an inter-arm blood pressure difference as a novel risk factor for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Competing aetiological explanations for an inter-arm difference are explored, and gaps in our current understanding of this sign, along with areas in need of further research, are considered.

  2. [Invasive arterial blood pressure measurement using an aneroid pressure system in cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, M; Franz, S; Iff, I; Schwendenwein, I

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of invasive arterial blood pressure measurement using an electronic pressure transducer (EPT) or an aneroid pressure system (APS) in cattle. A catheter was placed in the auricular artery of 11 adult cattle and connected to a pressure transducer via pressure line. The aneroid system was connected to the same catheter using a three-way stop-cock in the pressure line. On five occasions three consecutive measurements were performed with the APS. The mean blood pressure values of the EPT were recorded before each individual measurement. Values from each device were compared using Passing and Bablok regression of agreement and a Bland and Altman difference plot. One hundred and forty-seven paired measurements were analysed. The average bias between the two methods (EPT vs. APS) was -1.6 mmHg (95 % confidence interval [CI]: -3.0 to -0.2 mmHg). The coefficient of correlation was 1.0084. The aneroid system showed an almost perfect agreement with the EPT. This study shows that it can be used in a clinical setting as well as under field conditions to measure arterial blood pressure in cattle.

  3. Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about Bayer Consumer Health. HBP Resources Risk Calculator Animation Library Track Your Blood Pressure: Print (PDF) | Online ... Pressure Tracker Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  4. Blood pressure pattern of adolescent offsprings of hypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure pattern of adolescent offsprings of hypertensive fathers in Lagos ... in adults which emphasizes the need to track blood pressure in children. ... are hypertensive while among adolescents with normotensive parents, 11.0% for ...

  5. Body size and blood pressure: an analysis of Africans and the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Francesco P; Kerry, Sally M; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Luke, Amy; Amoah, Albert G B; Bovet, Pascal; Connor, Myles D; Forrester, Terrence; Gervasoni, Jean-Pierre; Kaki, Gisela Kimbally; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Thorogood, Margaret; Cooper, Richard S

    2008-01-01

    Blood pressure is directly and causally associated with body mass index (BMI) in populations worldwide. However, the relationship may vary across BMI in populations of African origin. We compared the relationship between blood pressure and BMI in populations of African origin, using 13 samples from Africa, the Caribbean, the United Kingdom and the United States. We had access to data from individual participants for age, height, weight, blood pressure, and treatment of hypertension. Analysis was restricted to 18,072 participants (age 35-64 years; 44% men). We carried out multivariate regression analysis to estimate the relationship between blood pressure and BMI by country and by sex. The use of antihypertensive treatment was taken into account by exclusion and by sensitivity analysis. There was a positive relationship between both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and BMI. In men the slopes for systolic blood pressure varied from 0.27 mm Hg per kg/m (95% confidence interval = -0.01 to 0.56) in the United States to 1.72 mm Hg per kg/m (95% confidence interval = 0.92 to 2.53) in Ghana (Kumasi). In women, the slopes varied from 0.08 (-0.54 to 0.72) in South Africa to 1.32 (0.98 to 1.66) in the Republic of Congo. Similar variation in trends was seen for diastolic blood pressure. The higher the BMI, the shallower the slopes [-0.10 (-0.15 to -0.06) for systolic, -0.09 (-0.12 to -0.06) for diastolic]. No differences were seen after excluding persons who were being treated for hypertension. Blood pressure and BMI levels vary among populations of the African diaspora. The effect of BMI on blood pressure levels diminishes as BMI increases. These results suggest a complex relationship among excess body weight, adiposity, and energy expenditure.

  6. Results of ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in children with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Öktem

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The relationship between obesity and essential hypertension is well known. In this study, we aimed to evaluate ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring of obese and non-obese children who had similar demographic characteristics.Materials and methods: Seventy one children and adolescents (n=39 obesity, n=32 controls were studied. Blood pressure of the children were measured by 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring device.Results: Obese children had significantly higher mean blood pressure values (systolic 121.9±11.7 mmHg, diastolic 70.2±5.3 mmHg than control subjects (systolic 109.3±6.7 mmHg, diastolic 65.1±4.6 mmHg, p0.05. Blood pressure load was found to be increased in obese children compared to the controls (%13.6±12.9 and %2.6±3.4, respectively; p<0.05. Serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels of obese children (181.1±33.4 and 131.1±23.1mg/dl were significantly higher than those of the controls (134.3±11.1 and 103.3±14.2 mg/dl, p<0.05.Conclusions: Obesity in children and adolescents should not be regarded as variations of normality, but as abnormality with an extremely high risk for the development of hypertension and hyperlipidemia in adulthood.

  7. [Blood pressure targets : The lower the better does not suit all].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, U

    2018-04-01

    The systolic blood pressure intervention trial (SPRINT) published in 2015 has opened up new discussions on whether a lower blood pressure target as recommended by the current guidelines would be better for some patient groups. To review patient groups in which lower blood pressure targets would not be better. The results of SPRINT, its post-hoc and subgroup analyses, other studies and newer studies, as well as metaanalyses on the topic of blood pressure targets are reviewed and discussed. Studies with patients excluded from the SPRINT study were also analysed. The current international guidelines and recommendations of the Deutsche Hochdruckliga e. V. DHL® are included. Blood pressure monitoring methods differed considerably in the previously published studies. The low blood pressure value in SPRINT was mainly achieved due to the unusual method of blood pressure monitoring used and, as such, cannot be compared with blood pressure values in other studies. Based on current evidence, "the lower the better" should not be recommended in the following patient groups: older patients, in particular infirm older patients, patients with diabetes, patients without coronary heart disease or with low cardiovascular risk. When determining a blood pressure target, the method of blood pressure monitoring should be defined. A lower blood pressure target has been shown to be better in some well defined patient groups. However, adverse events due to antihypertensive medications should always be taken into account. Given the multiple exclusion criteria in trials and the results of many studies, "new" lower blood pressure targets could not be recommended in a large population of patients.

  8. Concomitant administration of nitrous oxide and remifentanil reduces oral tissue blood flow without decreasing blood pressure during sevoflurane anesthesia in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Masataka; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Okamoto, Sota; Okada, Reina; Kanbe, Hiroaki; Matsuura, Nobuyuki

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether continuous administration of nitrous oxide and remifentanil—either alone or together—alters blood flow in oral tissues during sevoflurane anesthesia. Eight male tracheotomized Japanese white rabbits were anesthetized with sevoflurane under mechanical ventilation. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), common carotid arterial blood flow (CCBF), tongue mucosal blood flow (TMBF), mandibular bone marrow blood flow (BBF), masseter muscle blood flow (MBF), upper alveolar tissue blood flow (UBF), and lower alveolar tissue blood flow (LBF) were recorded in the absence of all test agents and after administration of the test agents (50 % nitrous oxide, 0.4 μg/kg/min remifentanil, and their combination) for 20 min. Nitrous oxide increased SBP, DBP, MAP, CCBF, BBF, MBF, UBF, and LBF relative to baseline values but did not affect HR or TMBF. Remifentanil decreased all hemodynamic variables except DBP. Combined administration of nitrous oxide and remifentanil recovered SBP, DBP, MAP, and CCBF to baseline levels, but HR and oral tissue blood flow remained lower than control values. Our findings suggest that concomitant administration of nitrous oxide and remifentanil reduces blood flow in oral tissues without decreasing blood pressure during sevoflurane anesthesia in rabbits.

  9. Cerebral blood flow changes in response to elevated intracranial pressure in rabbits and bluefish: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiner, J M; Olgivy, C S; DuBois, A B

    1997-03-01

    In mammals, the cerebrovascular response to increases in intracranial pressure may take the form of the Cushing response, which includes increased mean systemic arterial pressure, bradycardia and diminished respirations. The mechanism, effect and value of these responses are debated. Using laser-Doppler flowmetry to measure cerebral blood flow, we analyzed the cardiovascular responses to intracranial pressure raised by epidural infusion of mock cerebrospinal fluid in the bluefish and in the rabbit, and compare the results. A decline in cerebral blood flow preceding a rise in mean systemic arterial pressure was observed in both species. Unlike bluefish, rabbits exhibit a threshold of intracranial pressure below which cerebral blood flow was maintained and no cardiovascular changes were observed. The difference in response between the two species was due to the presence of an active autoregulatory system in the cerebral tissue of rabbits and its absence in bluefish. For both species studied, the stimulus for the Cushing response seems to be a decrement in cerebral blood flow. The resulting increase in the mean systemic arterial pressure restores cerebral blood flow to levels approaching controls.

  10. Beyond birth-weight: early growth and adolescent blood pressure in a Peruvian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie Sterling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Longitudinal investigations into the origins of adult essential hypertension have found elevated blood pressure in children to accurately track into adulthood, however the direct causes of essential hypertension in adolescence and adulthood remains unclear.Methods. We revisited 152 Peruvian adolescents from a birth cohort tracked from 0 to 30 months of age, and evaluated growth via monthly anthropometric measurements between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and blood pressure measurements 11–14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of infantile and childhood growth trends on blood pressure and central obesity in early adolescence.Results. In regression models adjusted for interim changes in weight and height, each 0.1 SD increase in weight for length from 0 to 5 months of age, and 1 SD increase from 6 to 30 months of age, was associated with decreased adolescent systolic blood pressure by 1.3 mm Hg (95% CI −2.4 to −0.1 and 2.5 mm Hg (95% CI −4.9 to 0.0, and decreased waist circumference by 0.6 (95% CI −1.1 to 0.0 and 1.2 cm (95% CI −2.3 to −0.1, respectively. Growth in infancy and early childhood was not significantly associated with adolescent waist-to-hip ratio.Conclusions. Rapid compensatory growth in early life has been posited to increase the risk of long-term cardiovascular morbidities such that nutritional interventions may do more harm than good. However, we found increased weight growth during infancy and early childhood to be associated with decreased systolic blood pressure and central adiposity in adolescence.

  11. Nutrition label experience, obesity, high blood pressure, and high blood lipids in a cohort of 42,750 Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpeekool, Wimalin; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kirk, Martyn; Banwell, Cathy; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition labels have been promoted for nearly two decades in Thailand to educate people about healthy eating and to combat nutrient-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). But little is known about how nutrition labels are experienced and whether they are linked with better health. Our objective was to investigate the associations between nutrition label experience, obesity and nutrient-related NCDs in Thai consumers. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with a nationwide cohort of 42,750 distance learning Thai adult students enrolled in an Open University in 2013. We measured exposure as nutrition label experience (read, understand, use). Health outcomes were high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and high Body Mass Index (overweight at risk and obesity). Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between nutrition label experience and health outcome adjusting for sociodemographic attributes, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake. Frequent nutrition label use varied by cohort attributes and health outcomes and was least for those with low physical activity and high blood pressure. Being male, older, an urban resident or with low physical activity was associated with increasing high blood pressure and high blood lipids. Compared to those who read, understand and use nutrition labels, participants who did not (read, understand, and use), were more likely to report high blood pressure (Adjusted Odds Ratio 1.33; 1.17-1.51), high blood lipids (AOR 1.26; 1.14-1.39), and obesity (AOR 1.23; 1.13-1.33), but were not more likely to be overweight at risk (AOR 1.06; 0.97-1.16). We found cross-sectional associations between low nutrition label experience and increased likelihood of high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and obesity among Thai adults. Nutrition label education should be promoted as part of a public health approach to appropriate food choices and better lifestyles to reduce obesity and nutrient-related NCDs.

  12. Nutrition label experience, obesity, high blood pressure, and high blood lipids in a cohort of 42,750 Thai adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimalin Rimpeekool

    Full Text Available Nutrition labels have been promoted for nearly two decades in Thailand to educate people about healthy eating and to combat nutrient-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs. But little is known about how nutrition labels are experienced and whether they are linked with better health. Our objective was to investigate the associations between nutrition label experience, obesity and nutrient-related NCDs in Thai consumers.A cross-sectional study was undertaken with a nationwide cohort of 42,750 distance learning Thai adult students enrolled in an Open University in 2013. We measured exposure as nutrition label experience (read, understand, use. Health outcomes were high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and high Body Mass Index (overweight at risk and obesity. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between nutrition label experience and health outcome adjusting for sociodemographic attributes, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake.Frequent nutrition label use varied by cohort attributes and health outcomes and was least for those with low physical activity and high blood pressure. Being male, older, an urban resident or with low physical activity was associated with increasing high blood pressure and high blood lipids. Compared to those who read, understand and use nutrition labels, participants who did not (read, understand, and use, were more likely to report high blood pressure (Adjusted Odds Ratio 1.33; 1.17-1.51, high blood lipids (AOR 1.26; 1.14-1.39, and obesity (AOR 1.23; 1.13-1.33, but were not more likely to be overweight at risk (AOR 1.06; 0.97-1.16.We found cross-sectional associations between low nutrition label experience and increased likelihood of high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and obesity among Thai adults. Nutrition label education should be promoted as part of a public health approach to appropriate food choices and better lifestyles to reduce obesity and nutrient-related NCDs.

  13. Increased QTc dispersion is related to blunted circadian blood pressure variation in normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, P L; Ebbehøj, E; Arildsen, H

    2001-01-01

    . The association between QTc dispersion and diastolic night BP persisted after controlling for potential confounders such as sex, age, duration of diabetes, urinary albumin excretion, and HbA1c. Power spectral analysis suggested an altered sympathovagal balance in patients with QTc dispersion above the median...... (ratio of low-frequency/high-frequency power: 1.0 vs. 0.85, P fall in BP and an altered sympathovagal balance. This coexistence may be operative in the ability of these parameters......A reduced nocturnal fall in blood pressure (BP) and increased QT dispersion both predict an increased risk of cardiovascular events in diabetic as well as nondiabetic subjects. The relationship between these two parameters remains unclear. The role of diabetic autonomic neuropathy in both QT...

  14. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Karin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. Methods We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive. Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P Results Fifteen trial arms of 13 assessed studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled meta-analysis of all trials revealed a significant blood pressure-reducing effect of cocoa-chocolate compared with control (mean BP change ± SE: SBP: -3.2 ± 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 ± 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003. However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 ± 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01, while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 ± 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 ± 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12. Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30

  15. Blood pressure response to conventional and low-dose enalapril in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, Thomas; Heisterberg, Jens; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: In chronic renal failure, the clearance of most ACE inhibitors including enalapril is reduced. Hence, with conventional dosage, plasma enalaprilat may be markedly elevated. It is unclear whether this excess of drug exposure affords an improved control of blood pressure. The aim of the present...... study was to evaluate short-term blood pressure response to two different plasma levels of enalaprilat. METHODS: As part of an open, randomized, controlled trial of the effect of high and low dosage of enalapril on the progression of renal failure, short-term blood pressure response was evaluated. Data...... potassium concentrations at day 90 and patients in the low group experienced a slight increase in GFR. CONCLUSIONS: In moderate to severe chronic renal insufficiency the same degree of blood pressure control was achieved on low as well as moderate daily doses of enalapril. This was irrespective...

  16. The effect of orthostatic stress on multiscale entropy of heart rate and blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turianikova, Zuzana; Javorka, Kamil; Calkovska, Andrea; Javorka, Michal; Baumert, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular control acts over multiple time scales, which introduces a significant amount of complexity to heart rate and blood pressure time series. Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis has been developed to quantify the complexity of a time series over multiple time scales. In previous studies, MSE analyses identified impaired cardiovascular control and increased cardiovascular risk in various pathological conditions. Despite the increasing acceptance of the MSE technique in clinical research, information underpinning the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the MSE of heart rate and blood pressure is lacking. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of orthostatic challenge on the MSE of heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV, BPV) and the correlation between MSE (complexity measures) and traditional linear (time and frequency domain) measures. MSE analysis of HRV and BPV was performed in 28 healthy young subjects on 1000 consecutive heart beats in the supine and standing positions. Sample entropy values were assessed on scales of 1–10. We found that MSE of heart rate and blood pressure signals is sensitive to changes in autonomic balance caused by postural change from the supine to the standing position. The effect of orthostatic challenge on heart rate and blood pressure complexity depended on the time scale under investigation. Entropy values did not correlate with the mean values of heart rate and blood pressure and showed only weak correlations with linear HRV and BPV measures. In conclusion, the MSE analysis of heart rate and blood pressure provides a sensitive tool to detect changes in autonomic balance as induced by postural change

  17. The effects of heated vegetable oils on blood pressure in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamsiah Jaarin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the possible mechanism that is involved in the blood pressureraising effect of heated vegetable oils. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 11 groups; the control group was fed with rat chow, and the other groups were fed with chow that was mixed with 15% weight/weight palm or soy oils, which were either in a fresh form or heated once, twice, five, or ten times. Blood pressures were measured at the baseline and throughout the 24-week study. Plasma nitric oxide levels were assessed prior to treatment and at the end of the study. Following 24 weeks, the rats were sacrificed to investigate their vascular reactivity using the thoracic aorta. RESULTS: Palm and soy oils had no detrimental effects on blood pressure, and they significantly elevated the nitric oxide contents and reduced the contractile responses to phenylephrine. However, trials using palm and soy oils that were repeatedly heated showed an increase in blood pressure, enhanced phenylephrine-induced contractions, reduced acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations relative to the control and rats that were fed fresh vegetable oils. CONCLUSIONS: The blood pressure-raising effect of the heated vegetable cooking oils is associated with increased vascular reactivity and a reduction in nitric oxide levels. The chronic consumption of heated vegetable oils leads to disturbances in endogenous vascular regulatory substances, such as nitric oxide. The thermal oxidation of the cooking oils promotes the generation of free radicals and may play an important contributory role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in rats.

  18. A modified isometric test to evaluate blood pressure control with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lifting and supporting weights) and have an important influence on blood pressure, it is essential to evaluate blood pressure response to iso- metric effort. This test can reveal high blood pressure that might otherwise not be detected. Only a few ...

  19. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito AF

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aline de Freitas Brito,1 Caio Victor Coutinho de Oliveira,2 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos,1 Amilton da Cruz Santos1 1Physical Education Department, 2Research Laboratory for Physical Training Applied to Performance and Health, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects.Methods: The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2 subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1, and exercise with three sets (S3. For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention in the supine position.Results: Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05. Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05.Conclusion: Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular

  20. Contribution of the Arterial System and the Heart to Blood Pressure during Normal Aging - A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksuti, Elira; Westerhof, Nico; Westerhof, Berend E; Broomé, Michael; Stergiopulos, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    During aging, systolic blood pressure continuously increases over time, whereas diastolic pressure first increases and then slightly decreases after middle age. These pressure changes are usually explained by changes of the arterial system alone (increase in arterial stiffness and vascular resistance). However, we hypothesise that the heart contributes to the age-related blood pressure progression as well. In the present study we quantified the blood pressure changes in normal aging by using a Windkessel model for the arterial system and the time-varying elastance model for the heart, and compared the simulation results with data from the Framingham Heart Study. Parameters representing arterial changes (resistance and stiffness) during aging were based on literature values, whereas parameters representing cardiac changes were computed through physiological rules (compensated hypertrophy and preservation of end-diastolic volume). When taking into account arterial changes only, the systolic and diastolic pressure did not agree well with the population data. Between 20 and 80 years, systolic pressure increased from 100 to 122 mmHg, and diastolic pressure decreased from 76 to 55 mmHg. When taking cardiac adaptations into account as well, systolic and diastolic pressure increased from 100 to 151 mmHg and decreased from 76 to 69 mmHg, respectively. Our results show that not only the arterial system, but also the heart, contributes to the changes in blood pressure during aging. The changes in arterial properties initiate a systolic pressure increase, which in turn initiates a cardiac remodelling process that further augments systolic pressure and mitigates the decrease in diastolic pressure.

  1. Emergence of ethnic differences in blood pressure in adolescence: the determinants of adolescent social well-being and health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Seeromanie; Whitrow, Melissa; Lenguerrand, Erik; Maynard, Maria; Teyhan, Alison; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Der, Geoff

    2010-04-01

    The cause of ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease remains a scientific challenge. Blood pressure tracks from late childhood to adulthood. We examined ethnic differences in changes in blood pressure between early and late adolescence in the United Kingdom. Longitudinal measures of blood pressure, height, weight, leg length, smoking, and socioeconomic circumstances were obtained from London, United Kingdom, schoolchildren of White British (n=692), Black Caribbean (n=670), Black African (n=772), Indian (n=384), and Pakistani and Bangladeshi (n=402) ethnicity at 11 to 13 years and 14 to 16 years. Predicted age- and ethnic-specific means of blood pressure, adjusted for anthropometry and social exposures, were derived using mixed models. Among boys, systolic blood pressure did not differ by ethnicity at 12 years, but the greater increase among Black Africans than Whites led to higher systolic blood pressure at 16 years (+2.9 mm Hg). Among girls, ethnic differences in mean systolic blood pressure were not significant at any age, but while systolic blood pressure hardly changed with age among White girls, it increased among Black Caribbeans and Black Africans. Ethnic differences in diastolic blood pressure were more marked than those for systolic blood pressure. Body mass index, height, and leg length were independent predictors of blood pressure, with few ethnic-specific effects. Socioeconomic disadvantage had a disproportionate effect on blood pressure for girls in minority groups. The findings suggest that ethnic divergences in blood pressure begin in adolescence and are particularly striking for boys. They signal the need for early prevention of adverse cardiovascular disease risks in later life.

  2. Different systolic blood pressure targets for people with history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack: PAST-BP (Prevention After Stroke—Blood Pressure) randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Richard J; Roalfe, Andrea; Fletcher, Kate; Taylor, Clare J; Martin, Una; Virdee, Satnam; Greenfield, Sheila; Hobbs, F D Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether using intensive blood pressure targets leads to lower blood pressure in a community population of people with prevalent cerebrovascular disease. Design Open label randomised controlled trial. Setting 99 general practices in England, with participants recruited in 2009-11. Participants People with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack whose systolic blood pressure was 125 mm Hg or above. Interventions Intensive systolic blood pressure target (different target, patients in both arms were actively managed in the same way with regular reviews by the primary care team. Main outcome measure Change in systolic blood pressure between baseline and 12 months. Results 529 patients (mean age 72) were enrolled, 266 to the intensive target arm and 263 to the standard target arm, of whom 379 were included in the primary analysis (182 (68%) intensive arm; 197 (75%) standard arm). 84 patients withdrew from the study during the follow-up period (52 intensive arm; 32 standard arm). Mean systolic blood pressure dropped by 16.1 mm Hg to 127.4 mm Hg in the intensive target arm and by 12.8 mm Hg to 129.4 mm Hg in the standard arm (difference between groups 2.9 (95% confidence interval 0.2 to 5.7) mm Hg; P=0.03). Conclusions Aiming for target below 130 mm Hg rather than 140 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure in people with cerebrovascular disease in primary care led to a small additional reduction in blood pressure. Active management of systolic blood pressure in this population using a blood pressure. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29062286. PMID:26919870

  3. Acute effects of consumption of energy drinks on intraocular pressure and blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilechie AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A Alex Ilechie, Sandra TettehDepartment of Optometry, University of Cape Coast, GhanaBackground: Energy drinks contain a wide variety of ingredients including caffeine, for which there have been conflicting reports regarding its effects on intraocular pressure (IOP and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of an energy drink (Red Bull® on the IOP and blood pressure of healthy young adults.Methods: Thirty healthy university students of either gender, aged 18–30 (mean 23.20 ± 2.81 years were randomly selected to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control and were asked to abstain from caffeine for 48 hours prior to and during the study. Baseline IOP and blood pressure were measured. The experimental group (n = 15 consumed one can of the energy drink (containing 85 mg of caffeine in 250 mL and measurements were repeated at 30, 60, and 90 minutes, while the control group drank 250 mL of water and were tested over the same time period.Results: When compared with baseline, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in mean IOP at 60 and 90 minutes was observed in the experimental group. There was no corresponding change in systolic or diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Our results suggest that energy drinks (ie, Red Bull produce a significant reduction in IOP but have no effect on blood pressure. These findings may be interpreted as reflecting the effect of the combination of caffeine and taurine in the Red Bull energy drink. This effect may result from the known hypotensive effect of taurine, and warrants further study.Keywords: acute effect, intraocular pressure, blood pressure, glaucoma, caffeine, taurine

  4. The Role of Central Blood Pressure Monitoring in the Management of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Adrian; Patarroyo-Aponte, Gabriel; Rahman, Mahboob

    2018-04-19

    Central blood pressure is a novel predictor of cardiovascular risk that can be measured in the clinical setting using currently available technology. This paper will review current available methods of central blood pressure monitoring as well as its impact in cardiac and renal disease. Both aortic and carotid systolic blood pressure are independently associated with cardiovascular mortality and serious cardiac events. Furthermore, studies show that systolic aortic blood pressure has been shown to be superior predictor of cardiovascular as compared to brachial blood pressure. Inhibitors of the renin angiotensin axis may have a beneficial effect on central blood pressure; however, long term studies evaluating the impact of lowering central blood pressure on clinical outcomes are lacking. Central blood pressure is a good predictor of cardiovascular risk. As more studies emerge demonstrating the value of central blood pressure as a therapeutic target, it is possible that targeting central blood pressure may become an important part of the armamentarium to lower cardiovascular risk.

  5. Blood pressure and pain sensitivity in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Sammantha; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2013-06-01

    Elevated blood pressure is associated with diminished pain sensitivity. While this finding is well established in adults, it is less clear when the relation between blood pressure and pain sensitivity emerges across the life course. Evidence suggests this phenomenon may exist during childhood. Children (N = 309; 56% boys) aged 10-15 years and their parents participated. Blood pressure readings were taken during a resting baseline. Maximum pain intensity was rated using a visual analogue scale (rated 0-10) in response to a finger prick pain induction. Parent-measured resting blood pressure was inversely associated with boys' pain ratings only. Cross-sectionally, lower pain ratings were related to higher SBP, univariately. Longitudinally, pain ratings predicted higher DBP, even after controlling for covariates. Determining when and how the relation between blood pressure and pain sensitivity emerges may elucidate the pathophysiology of hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  7. Drinking water fluoride and blood pressure? An environmental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Hassan; Taghavi Shahri, Seyed Mahmood; Amini, Mohamad; Ramezani Mehrian, Majid; Mokhayeri, Yaser; Yunesian, Masud

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between intakes of fluoride (F) from drinking water and blood pressure has not yet been reported. We examined the relationship of F in ground water resources (GWRs) of Iran with the blood pressure of Iranian population in an ecologic study. The mean F data of the GWRs (as a surrogate for F levels in drinking water) were derived from a previously conducted study. The hypertension prevalence and the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP & DBP) of Iranian population by different provinces and genders were also derived from the provincial report of non-communicable disease risk factor surveillance of Iran. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between the mean concentrations of F in the GWRs and the hypertension prevalence of males (r = 0.48, p = 0.007), females (r = 0.36, p = 0.048), and overall (r = 0.495, p = 0.005). Also, statistically significant positive correlations between the mean concentrations of F in the GWRs and the mean SBP of males (r = 0.431, p = 0.018), and a borderline correlation with females (r = 0.352, p = 0.057) were found. In conclusion, we found the increase of hypertension prevalence and the SBP mean with the increase of F level in the GWRs of Iranian population.

  8. Methylmercury and elemental mercury differentially associate with blood pressure among dental professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi; Gillespie, Brenda; Werner, Robert; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury-associated effects on the cardiovascular system have been documented though discrepancies exist, and most studied populations experience elevated methylmercury exposures. No paper has investigated the impact of low-level elemental (inorganic) mercury exposure on cardiovascular risk in humans. The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of the association between mercury exposure (methylmercury and elemental mercury) and blood pressure measures in a cohort of dental professionals that experience background exposures to both mercury forms. Dental professionals were recruited during the 2010 Michigan Dental Association Annual Convention. Mercury levels in hair and urine samples were analyzed as biomarkers of methylmercury and elemental mercury exposure, respectively. Blood pressure (systolic, diastolic) was measured using an automated device. Distribution of mercury in hair (mean, range: 0.45, 0.02–5.18 μg/g) and urine (0.94, 0.03–5.54 μg/L) correspond well with the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Linear regression models revealed significant associations between diastolic blood pressure (adjusted for blood pressure medication use) and hair mercury (n = 262, p = 0.02). Urine mercury results opposed hair mercury in many ways. Notably, elemental mercury exposure was associated with a significant systolic blood pressure decrease (n = 262, p = 0.04) that was driven by the male population. Associations between blood pressure and two forms of mercury were found at exposure levels relevant to the general population, and associations varied according to type of mercury exposure and gender. PMID:22494934

  9. How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 Understanding the heart-healthy ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  10. How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Jan 29,2018 ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  11. Hearing Impairment and High Blood Pressure among Bus Drivers in Puducherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Rajeshwar; Rajasegaran, Rajalakshmi; John, Nitin Ashok; Venkatappa, Umadevi Sajja

    2016-02-01

    Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL), a major heath concern due to constant exposure to loud noise is on the rising trend in today's world. The bus drivers are more vulnerable to the auditory and non-auditory ill effects of noise pollution. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the hearing level, blood pressure and peak expiratory flow rate of bus drivers and individuals employed in office jobs. Fifty male bus drivers aged 30-50 years and fifty males of the same group employed in office jobs were recruited as the test and control groups respectively. The hearing level of the individuals in both the groups was assessed using the Hearing Deterioration Index (HDI). The lung function and cardiovascular status of the study participants were assessed by measuring their Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and Blood Pressure (BP) respectively. The mean HDI, PEFR and BP values of both the groups were compared using the unpaired t-test and the extent of correlation between HDI, service years, exposure level, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was determined using Pearson correlation coefficient test. HDI, SBP and DBP were significantly higher among the bus drivers when compared to the controls. However, there was no significant difference in the PEFR values between the test and the control groups. There was a highly significant positive correlation between HDI and service years and exposure level. Similarly, there was a significant positive correlation between exposure level and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Prolonged exposure to high intensity of sound results in deterioration of hearing capacity and increase in blood pressure among the bus drivers.

  12. Blood pressure changes in dogs with babesiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Jacobson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Systemic arterial blood pressures were measured in 30 dogs with acute babesiosis, 10 each with mild uncomplicated, severe uncomplicated and complicated disease. Ten healthy dogs were used as controls. Hypotension was defined as more than 3 standard deviations below the control mean. Normal mean pressures (±SD were: systolic arterial pressure 151 (±11 mm Hg, diastolic arterial pressure 89 (±8 mm Hg and mean arterial pressure 107 (±10 mmHg. Hypotension was the most frequent abnormality, and increased strikingly in incidence as disease severity increased, with 5/10 dogs in the complicated group being hypotensive for systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures, compared with 2/10 in the severe uncomplicated group and 0/10 in the mild uncomplicated group. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures in the complicated group and severe uncomplicated group, and systolic pressure in the mild uncomplicated group, were significantly lower than in the controls. There were no significant relationships between arterial pressures and age, pulse rate, respiratory rate, temperature, mucous membrane colour or haematocrit. There was a significant negative correlation between arterial pressures and white cell and immature neutrophil counts. Arterial pressures differed significantly between dogs that were clinically collapsed and those that were not, but not between survivors and non-survivors. Pulse pressure (systolic - diastolic was low in 7/10 complicated, 1/10 mild uncomplicated, and 1/10 severe uncomplicated cases, and differed significantly between the complicated and control groups. The high incidence of hypotension in clinically severe babesiosis has important implications for therapy.

  13. The effect of ventricular assist devices on cerebral blood flow and blood pressure fractality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellapart, Judith; Fraser, John F; Chan, Gregory S H; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh; Ainslie, Philip N; Dunster, Kimble R; Barnett, Adrian G; Boots, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Biological signals often exhibit self-similar or fractal scaling characteristics which may reflect intrinsic adaptability to their underlying physiological system. This study analysed fractal dynamics of cerebral blood flow in patients supported with ventricular assist devices (VAD) to ascertain if sustained modifications of blood pressure waveform affect cerebral blood flow fractality. Simultaneous recordings of arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity using transcranial Doppler were obtained from five cardiogenic shock patients supported by VAD, five matched control patients and five healthy subjects. Computation of a fractal scaling exponent (α) at the low-frequency time scale by detrended fluctuation analysis showed that cerebral blood flow velocity exhibited 1/f fractal scaling in both patient groups (α = 0.95 ± 0.09 and 0.97 ± 0.12, respectively) as well as in the healthy subjects (α = 0.86 ± 0.07). In contrast, fluctuation in blood pressure was similar to non-fractal white noise in both patient groups (α = 0.53 ± 0.11 and 0.52 ± 0.09, respectively) but exhibited 1/f scaling in the healthy subjects (α = 0.87 ± 0.04, P < 0.05 compared with the patient groups). The preservation of fractality in cerebral blood flow of VAD patients suggests that normal cardiac pulsation and central perfusion pressure changes are not the integral sources of cerebral blood flow fractality and that intrinsic vascular properties such as cerebral autoregulation may be involved. However, there is a clear difference in the fractal scaling properties of arterial blood pressure between the cardiogenic shock patients and the healthy subjects

  14. Blood pressure and blood flow variation during postural change from sitting to standing: model development and validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olufsen, M.S.; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Tran, H.T.

    2005-01-01

    Short-term cardiovascular responses to postural change from sitting to standing involve complex interactions between the autonomic nervous system, which regulates blood pressure, and cerebral autoregulation, which maintains cerebral perfusion. We present a mathematical model that can predict...... dynamic changes in beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during postural change from sitting to standing. Our cardiovascular model utilizes 11 compartments to describe blood pressure, blood flow, compliance, and resistance in the heart and systemic circulation....... To include dynamics due to the pulsatile nature of blood pressure and blood flow, resistances in the large systemic arteries are modeled using nonlinear functions of pressure. A physiologically based submodel is used to describe effects of gravity on venous blood pooling during postural change. Two types...

  15. Sex, ageing and resting blood pressure: gaining insights from the integrated balance of neural and haemodynamic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Emma C; Joyner, Michael J; Wallin, B Gunnar; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2012-05-01

    Young women tend to have lower blood pressure, and less risk of hypertension, compared to young men. As people age, both blood pressure and the risk of hypertension increase in both sexes; this occurs most strikingly in women after menopause. However, the mechanisms for these influences of sex and age remain incompletely understood. In this review we are specifically interested in the interaction between neural (sympathetic nerve activity; SNA) and haemodynamic factors (cardiac output, blood pressure and vascular resistance) and how these change with sex and age. While peripheral vascular SNA can vary 7- to 10-fold among normotensive young men and women, it is reproducible in a given individual. Surprisingly, higher levels of SNA are not associated with higher blood pressures in these groups. In young men, high SNA is associated with higher total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR), and appears to be balanced by lower cardiac output and less peripheral vascular responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation. Young women do not exhibit the SNA-TPR relationship. Recent evidence suggests that β-adrenergic vasodilatation offsets the vasoconstrictor effects of α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in young women, which may contribute to the generally lower blood pressures in this group. Sympathetic nerve activity increases with age, and in groups over 40, levels of SNA are more tightly linked to levels of blood pressure. The potentially protective β-adrenergic effect seen in young women appears to be lost after menopause and probably contributes to the increased blood pressure and increased risk of hypertension seen in older women.

  16. Measures of total stress-induced blood pressure responses are associated with vascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzaro, Pietro; Seccia, Teresa; Vulpis, Vito; Schirosi, Gabriella; Serio, Gabriella; Battista, Loredana; Pirrelli, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The role of cardiovascular reactivity to study hypertension, and the assessment methods, are still controversial. We aimed to verify the association of hypertension and vascular damage with several measures of cardiovascular response. We studied 40 patients with normal-high (132 +/- 1/87 +/- 1 mm Hg) blood pressure (Group 1) and 80 untreated hypertensive subjects. Postischemic forearm vascular resistance (mFVR) served to differentiate hypertensive subjects (142 +/- 2/92 +/- 1 mm Hg v 143 +/- 2/94 +/- 2 mm Hg, P = NS) with a lower (Group 2) and higher (Group 3) hemodynamic index of vascular damage (4.8 +/- .05 v 6.3 +/- .09, P blood pressure, heart rate, forearm blood flow, and vascular resistance. Reactivity measures included: a) change from baseline, b) residualized score, c) cumulative change from baseline and residualized score, and d) total reactivity as area-under-the-curve (AUC), including changes occurring during baseline and recovery phases. The AUC of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mFVR progressively increased in the groups (P AUC of SBP, DBP, and forearm blood flow and resistance demonstrated the highest (P AUC of SBP (beta = 0.634) and forearm blood flow (beta = -0.337) were predictive (P blood pressure stress response, as AUC, including baseline and recovery phases, was significantly better associated with hypertension and vascular damage than the other reactivity measures studied.

  17. High intensity interior aircraft noise increases the risk of high diastolic blood pressure in Indonesian Air Force pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the effects of aircraft noise, resting pulse rate, and other factors on the risk of high diastolic blood pressure (DBP in Indonesian Air Force pilots.Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted using data extracted from annual medical check-ups indoctrination aerophysiologic training records at the Saryanto Aviation and Aerospace Health Institute (LAKESPRA in Jakarta from January 2003 – September 2008. For analysis of DBP: the case group with DBP ≥ 90 mmHg were compared with contral group with DBP < 79 mmHG. One case matched to 12 controls.Results: Out of 567 pilots, 544 (95.9% had complete medical records. For this analysis there were 40 cases of high DBP and 480 controls for DBP. Pilots exposed to aircraft noise 90-95 dB rather than 70-80 dB had a 2.7-fold increase for high DBP [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 2.70; 95% confi dence interval (CI = 1.05-6.97]. Pilots with resting pulse rates of ≥ 81/minute rather than ≤ 80/minute had a 2.7-fold increase for high DBP (ORa = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.26-5.61. In terms of total fl ight hours, pilots who had 1401-11125 hours rather than 147-1400 hours had a 3.2-fold increase for high DBP (ORa = 3.18; 95% CI = 1.01-10.03.Conclusion: High interior aircraft noise, high total flight hours,  and high resting pulse rate, increased risk for high DBP. Self assessment of resting pulse rate can be used to control the risk of high DBP. (Med J Indones 2009; 276: 276-82Keywords: diastolic blood pressure, aircraft noise, resting pulse rate, military pilots

  18. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Sullivan, Thomas; Fakler, Peter; Frank, Oliver R; Stocks, Nigel P

    2010-06-28

    Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive). Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P chocolate compared with control (mean BP change +/- SE: SBP: -3.2 +/- 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 +/- 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003). However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 +/- 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 +/- 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01), while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 +/- 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 +/- 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12). Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30 mg to 1000 mg in the active treatment groups, and interventions ran for 2 to 18 weeks. Meta-regression analysis found study design and type of control to be borderline significant but possibly indirect predictors

  19. Blood pressure and control of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Whitworth

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving away from a dichotomous approach to risk classification, and away from notions of hypertension and normotension towards an appreciation that blood pressure-related risk is continuous. In parallel, there has been a paradigm shift from a single risk factor approach to comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk prevention. Accordingly, prevention of cardiovascular disease requires a focus on lowering of blood pressure and modification of associated risk factors rather than simply treatment of hypertension. This emphasis is reflected in the World Health Organization (WHO – International Society of Hypertension (ISH 2003 statement on management of hypertension.Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, treatment

  20. Blood pressure and sexual maturity in adolescents: the Heartfelt Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S D; Mueller, W H; Meininger, J C; Liehr, P; Chan, W

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates sexual maturity as a predictor of resting blood pressures independent of other known predictors, in 179 boys and 204 girls 11-16 years of age from the Heartfelt Study. The sample included youth of African (n = 140), Mexican (n = 117), and European and "other" (n = 126) backgrounds. Sexual maturity was assessed during clinical examination of three standard indicators for each sex. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in children of maturity stages IV and V, compared to stages I-III, in each gender/ethnic group (P maturity for their age group, had significantly higher systolic blood pressures (but not diastolic) than the less advanced in linear models that included height, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and age as co-predictors. Diastolic blood pressures were predicted by height in boys and by age and the BMI in girls. This analysis, using a very conservative approach, suggests that sexual maturity provides important and independent information on systolic blood pressure in adolescents. Further investigation of its role in 24-hr blood pressures and in blood pressures taken during physical and emotional stress, is recommended.

  1. Cantilever arrayed blood pressure sensor for arterial applanation tonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeungleul; Jeong, Jinwoo; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Bonghwan; Chun, Kukjin

    2014-03-01

    The authors developed a cantilever-arrayed blood pressure sensor array fabricated by (111) silicon bulk-micromachining for the non-invasive and continuous measurement of blood pressure. The blood pressure sensor measures the blood pressure based on the change in the resistance of the piezoresistor on a 5-microm-thick-arrayed perforated membrane and 20-microm-thick metal pads. The length and the width of the unit membrane are 210 and 310 microm, respectively. The width of the insensible zone between the adjacent units is only 10 microm. The resistance change over contact force was measured to verify the performance. The good linearity of the result confirmed that the polydimethylsiloxane package transfers the forces appropriately. The measured sensitivity was about 4.5%/N. The maximum measurement range and the resolution of the fabricated blood pressure sensor were greater than 900 mmHg (= 120 kPa) and less than 1 mmHg (= 133.3 Pa), respectively.

  2. 6A.03: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTER-ARM SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Zhang, B; Yang, Y; Qi, L; Meng, L; Zhang, Y; Huo, Y

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the relationship between the inter arm blood pressure difference (IASBPD) and other cardiovascular risk factors. To identify what factors are associated with this difference in a general population. The study subjects were 1426 individuals. The BP was measured simultaneously in both arms by VP1000 vascular profiler (Omron Colin, Japan). The inter-arm BP difference was expressed as the absolute difference (|R - L|). The various risk factors, ba-PWV, carotid IMT and plaque were compared between IASBPD more than 10mmHg group and IASBPD less than 10mmHg group. The relationship between IASBPD more than 10mmHg and various cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic analysis. Left upper limb systolic blood pressure was higher than the right upper limb, while right upper limb diastolic pressure was higher than the left upper limb. The prevalence of hypertension was higher in IASBPD increasing group than normal group (40.5% vs 22.6%, p blood pressure were also higher in IASBPD increasing group(p blood pressure, BMI and ABI independently, which may partly explain the mechanism that increasing IASBPD is associated with cardiovascular disease.

  3. Announcement: National High Blood Pressure Education Month - May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major contributor to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the United States.* High blood pressure affects one third of U.S. adults, or approximately 75 million persons, yet approximately 11 million of these persons are not aware they have hypertension, and approximately 18 million are not being treated (unpublished data) (1,2).

  4. The importance of neurotransmitters in the central control of the blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfitscher-Klausmair, A.

    1990-12-01

    In anaesthetized cats, the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and the locus coeruleus (LC) were bilaterally superfused through push-pull cannulae with artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Catecholamines were determined in the superfusate by a radioenzymatic assay, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was determined in the superfusate and homogenitate with glutamate by an enzymatic and fluorimetric assay. In the NTS and LC the resting release of catecholamines varied rhythmically. To investigate the function of catecholaminergic neurons and GABAergic neurons of the NTS in cardiovascular control, the influence of experimentally induced blood pressure changes on the rates of the endogenous catecholamines dopamine,noradrenaline and adrenaline in the NTS was observed. The decreased noradrenaline and adrenaline release elicited by increases in blood pressure and the reduced release of dopamine induced by decreases in blood pressure suggest a hypertensive function on noradrenaline and adrenaline and a hypotensive role of dopamine at the level of the rostral and intermediate NTS. Bilateral carotid occlusion led to a very pronounced increase in the release rate of GABA in the rostral NTS. This result demonstrated the hypertensive function of GABA in the NTS, thus underlining the importance of catecholaminergic and GABAergic neurons of the NTS in central cardiovascular control. The GABA-transaminase inhibitor Vigabatrin was injected in kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats. GABA-Transaminase inhibition was accompanied by an increase of GABA concentration in the rat brain. The administration of Vigabatrin had no influence on the blood pressure but on body weight of the rats. (author)

  5. Lean mass influences overnight changes in hydration, blood pressure and strength in community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Melissa J; Schlairet, Maura C

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that greater lean mass promotes better overnight hydration, improved postural blood pressure and greater strength. Thirty women, aged 71 ± 0.9 years (mean ± SE), completed one measurement in a euhydrated state and another the following morning after an overnight fast. Measurements included hydration, lean mass, orthostatic blood pressure and strength. Participants were grouped by fat-free mass index (FFMI), with cut-points defined as low (blood pressure. On day 1, women with low FFMI experienced significant postural systolic blood pressure changes from sitting to standing (-11.3 ± 4.0 mmHg, p postural blood pressure and loss of strength that increases the risk for early morning falls.

  6. Validation of the HONSUN LD-578 blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Jie; Huang, Qi-Fang; Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric upper arm blood pressure monitor LD-578 (HONSUN Group, Shanghai, China) for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the LD-578 device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 15 participants in phase 1 and a further 18 participants in phase 2 of the validation study. Data analysis was performed using the ESHIP Analyzer. The LD-578 device successfully passed phase 1 of the validation study with a number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for at least 32 of 45, 41 of 45, and 45 of 45 measurements (required 25, 35, and 40), respectively. The device also achieved the targets for phase 2.1, with 67 of 99, 90 of 99, and 98 of 99 differences within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively, for systolic blood pressure, and with 69 of 99, 95 of 99, and 98 of 99 within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. In phase 2.2, 24 participants had at least two of the three device-observers differences within 5 mmHg (required >or=22) for systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The HONSUN upper arm blood pressure monitor LD-578 can be recommended for home use in adults.

  7. 10-20-30 training increases performance and lowers blood pressure and VEGF in runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Hellsten, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    into either a control group (CON; n = 28), or a 10-20-30 training group (10-20-30; n = 132) replacing two of three weekly training sessions with 10-20-30 training for 8 weeks and performance of a 5-km run (5-K) and BP was measured. VO2max was measured and resting muscle biopsies were taken in a subgroup......The present study examined the effect of training by the 10-20-30 concept on performance, blood pressure (BP), and skeletal muscle angiogenesis as well as the feasibility of completing high-intensity interval training in local running communities. One hundred sixty recreational runners were divided......-20-30 increased VO2max but did not influence muscle fiber area, distribution or capillarization, whereas the expression of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was lowered by 22%. No changes were observed in CON. These results suggest that 10-20-30 training is an effective and easily...

  8. Life course path analysis of birth weight, childhood growth, and adult systolic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Andersen, Per Kragh; Baker, Jennifer L

    2009-01-01

    body size, and thereby the total effect, of size and changes in size on later outcomes. Using data on childhood body size and adult systolic blood pressure from a sample of 1,284 Danish men born between 1936 and 1970, the authors compared results from path analysis with results from 3 standard...... regression methods. Path analysis produced easily interpretable results, and compared with standard regression methods it produced a noteworthy gain in statistical power. The effect of change in relative body size on adult blood pressure was more pronounced after age 11 years than in earlier childhood....... These results suggest that increases in body size prior to age 11 years are less harmful to adult blood pressure than increases occurring after this age....

  9. Deuterium oxide normalizes blood pressure and vascular calcium uptake in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasdev, S.; Prabhakaran, V.; Sampson, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the effect of 25% deuterium oxide in drinking water on systolic blood pressure, uptakes of calcium, and rubidium 86 by aortas of Dahl salt-sensitive rats on 0.4% (low) and 8% (high) sodium chloride (salt) diet. Twenty-four rats were divided into four groups. Groups I and II were on the low salt diet and groups III and IV on the high salt diet from 6 weeks of age. Additionally, at 10 weeks of age groups I and III were placed on 100% water and groups II and IV on 25% deuterium oxide. At 14 weeks, systolic blood pressure, uptakes of calcium, and rubidium 86 by aortas were significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in rats on the high salt diet as compared with those on the low salt diet. Deuterium oxide intake normalized systolic blood pressure and aortic calcium uptake but not aortic rubidium 86 uptake in hypertensive rats on the high salt diet. Deuterium oxide had no effect on blood pressure or aortic calcium uptake in rats on the low salt diet. The parallel increase in systolic blood pressure and vascular calcium uptake suggests that increased calcium uptake mechanisms are associated with hypertension in salt-sensitive Dahl rats. Furthermore, deuterium oxide appears to normalize elevated blood pressure in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats by normalizing elevated vascular (aortic) calcium uptake

  10. Longitudinal Patterns of Change in Systolic Blood Pressure and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruski-Ivleva, Natalia; Viera, Anthony J; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul; Avery, Christy L; Schneider, Andrea L C; Couper, David; Kucharska-Newton, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Elevated blood pressure in midlife contributes significantly to the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, patterns of blood pressure increase may differ among individuals and may result in differential risk. Our goal was to examine the contribution of longitudinal patterns of blood pressure change to incidence of heart failure, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular disease mortality. Latent class growth models were used to identify patterns of change in blood pressure across 4 clinical examinations (1987-1998) among 9845 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort participants (mean age, 53.7 [SD 5.7] years). Patterns of change in systolic blood pressure included slowly and steeply increasing, a decreasing and a sustained elevated blood pressure. Changes in diastolic and mid-blood pressure (½ systolic+½ diastolic) were less pronounced. The association of blood pressure pattern group membership with incidence of clinical outcomes was examined in follow-up from the fourth clinical examination (1996-1998) to December 31, 2011, using Poisson regression models adjusted for demographic and metabolic characteristics, and hypertension medication use. A gradient of rates of all events was observed across the identified patterns. Associations were attenuated after adjustment for covariates. Cumulative systolic blood pressure load, rather than the temporal pattern of change in systolic blood pressure itself, plays a role in determining the risk of cardiovascular disease, in particular, of heart failure and cardiovascular disease mortality, independent of blood pressure level measured at one point in time. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P < 0.001), and it significantly decreased systolic (130 +/- 3 to 121 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01), diastolic (69 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.04), and mean (89 +/- 2 to 81 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01) arterial blood pressures at rest. Resistance training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  12. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage uni.......0001). The synchronism of the nocturnal subcutaneous hyperemia and the decrease in systemic mean arterial blood pressure point to a common, possibly central nervous or humoral, eliciting mechanism.......Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...

  13. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Increased Blood Pressure in School-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Barr, Dana; Bellinger, David C.; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. Objectives In northern Ecuador, where floriculture is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children’s neurobehavioral functions at 6–8 years of age. Methods We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children’s current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. Results Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed to pesticides during pregnancy via maternal occupational exposure, and 23 had indirect exposure from paternal work. Twenty-two children had detectable current exposure irrespective of their prenatal exposure status. Only children with prenatal exposure from maternal greenhouse work showed consistent deficits after covariate adjustment, which included stunting and socioeconomic variables. Exposure-related deficits were the strongest for motor speed (Finger Tapping Task), motor coordination (Santa Ana Form Board), visuospatial performance (Stanford-Binet Copying Test), and visual memory (Stanford-Binet Copying Recall Test). These associations corresponded to a developmental delay of 1.5–2 years. Prenatal pesticide exposure was also significantly associated with an average increase of 3.6 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in body mass index of 1.1 kg/m2. Inclusion of the pilot data strengthened these results. Conclusions These findings support the notion that prenatal exposure to pesticides—at levels not producing adverse health outcomes in the mother

  14. Blood pressure in young adulthood and residential greenness in the early-life environment of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijnens, Esmée M; Nawrot, Tim S; Loos, Ruth Jf; Gielen, Marij; Vlietinck, Robert; Derom, Catherine; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2017-06-05

    Previous research shows that, besides risk factors in adult life, the early-life environment can influence blood pressure and hypertension in adults. However, the effects of residential traffic exposure and residential greenness in the early-life on blood pressure in young adulthood are currently unknown. Ambulatory (24-h) blood pressures of 278 twins (132 pairs) of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Study were obtained at the age of 18 to 25 years. Prenatal and adulthood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal traffic and greenness indicators. Mixed modelling was performed to investigate blood pressure in association with greenness while adjusting for potential confounding factors. Night-time systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with greenness at the residential address in twins living at the same address their entire life (non-movers, n = 97, 34.9%). An interquartile increase in residential greenness exposure (1000 m radius) was associated with a 3.59 mmHg (95% CI: -6.0 to -1.23; p = 0.005) lower adult night systolic blood pressure. Among twins who were living at a different address than their birth address at time of the measurement (n = 181, 65.1%), night-time blood pressure was inversely associated with residential surrounding greenness at adult age as well as with residential greenness in early-life. However after additional adjustment for residential greenness exposure in adulthood, only residential greenness exposure in early-life was significantly associated with night systolic blood pressure. While no significant effect of adult residential greenness with adult blood pressure was observed, while accounting for the early-life greenness exposure. Lower residential greenness in the early-life environment was independently associated with a higher adult blood pressure. This indicates that residential greenness has persistent effects on blood pressure.

  15. [High blood pressure and physical exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosner, P; Gremeaux, V; Bosquet, L; Herpin, D

    2014-06-01

    High blood pressure is a frequent pathology with many cardiovascular complications. As highlighted in guidelines, the therapeutic management of hypertension relies on non-pharmacological measures, which are diet and regular physical activity, but both patients and physicians are reluctant to physical activity prescription. To acquire the conviction that physical activity is beneficial, necessary and possible, we can take into account some fundamental and clinical studies, as well as the feedback of our clinical practice. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension contributes to increase this risk. Conversely, regular practice of physical activity decreases very significantly the risk by up to 60%. The acute blood pressure changes during exercise and post-exercise hypotension differs according to the dynamic component (endurance or aerobic and/or strength exercises), but the repetition of the sessions leads to the chronic hypotensive benefit of physical activity. Moreover, physical activity prescription must take into account the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, the control of the hypertension, and the opportunities and desires of the patient in order to promote good adherence and beneficial lifestyle change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of the Kingyield BP210 wrist blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension-International Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei-Fang; Huang, Qi-Fang; Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2012-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric wrist blood pressure monitor BP210 for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese participants (21 women, 51 years of mean age) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the BP210 device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 15 participants in phase 1 and a further 18 participants in phase 2 of the validation study. Data analysis was conducted using the ESHIP analyzer. The BP210 device successfully passed phase 1 of the validation study with a number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for at least 33/45, 44/45, and 44/45 measurements, respectively. The device also achieved the targets for phase 2.1, with 77/99, 95/99, and 97/99 differences within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively for systolic blood pressure, and with 78/99, 97/99, and 99/99 within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively for diastolic blood pressure. In phase 2.2, 29 and 25 participants had at least two of the three device-observers differences within 5 mmHg (required≥22) for systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. The Kingyield wrist blood pressure monitor BP210 has passed the International Protocol requirements, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  17. Cerebral blood flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamo, H.L.; Meric, P.C.; Ponsin, J.C.; Rey, A.C.; Luft, A.G.; Seylaz, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A xenon-133 method was used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removal in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Preliminary results suggested that shunting should be performed on patients whose CBF increased after CSF removal. There was a significant increase in CBF in patients with NPH, which was confirmed by the favorable outcome of 88% of patients shunted. The majority of patients with senile and presenile dementia showed a decrease or no change in CBF after CSF removal. It is suggested that although changes in CBF and clinical symptoms of NPH may have the same cause, i.e., changes in the cerebral intraparenchymal pressure, there is no simple direct relation between these two events. The mechanism underlying the loss of autoregulation observed in NPH is also discussed

  18. Cuff inflation during ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Skov-Madsen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mia Skov-Madsen, My Svensson, Jeppe Hagstrup ChristensenDepartment of Nephrology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, DenmarkIntroduction: Twenty four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a clinically validated procedure in evaluation of blood pressure (BP. We hypothesised that the discomfort during cuff inflation would increase the heart rate (HR measured with 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring compared to a following HR measurement with a 24-h Holter monitor.Methods: The study population (n = 56 were recruited from the outpatient’s clinic at the Department of Nephrology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital at Aalborg, Denmark. All the patients had chronic kidney disease (CKD. We compared HR measured with a 24-h Holter monitor with a following HR measured by a 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring.Results: We found a highly significant correlation between the HR measured with the Holter monitor and HR measured with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (r = 0.77, p < 0.001. Using the Bland-Altman plot, the mean difference in HR was only 0.5 beat/min during 24 hours with acceptable limits of agreement for both high and low HR levels. Dividing the patients into groups according to betablocker treatment, body mass index, age, sex, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment, statins treatment, diuretic treatment, or calcium channel blocker treatment revealed similar results as described above.Conclusion: The results indicate that the discomfort induced by cuff inflation during 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring does not increase HR. Thus, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring may be a reliable measurement of the BP among people with CKD.Keywords: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, Holter monitoring, heart rate, chronic kidney disease, hypertension

  19. A Nutrition Curriculum for Families with High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Rosanne P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A nutrition curriculum for elementary and secondary school students with high blood pressure was implemented as part of a Dietary/Exercise Alteration Program trial. Reduced sodium and energy intake and increased potassium intake were promoted. Materials and methods of the program are described. (Author/DF)

  20. Blood pressure and lipid profiles in adolescents with hypertensive parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Fitriany

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Adolescent hypertension is a significant health problem of increasing prevalence and causes high morbidity and mortality. It is found primarily in young males, with a familial history of hypertension and/or cardiovascular disease. Examination of lipid profiles has been used to detect the risk of hypertension in adolescents. Objective To compare blood pressure and lipid profiles in adolescents with and without a parental history of hypertension. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2012 on students from a senior high school in the Toba Samosir District, North Sumatera. Sixty-eight adolescents were included, aged 15 to 18 years. Group I comprised 34 adolescents with hypertensive parents, and group II comprised 34 adolescents with normotensive parents. Subjects were selected based on questionnaires. Subjects’ blood pressures were measured at rest. Three measurements were made in intervals of 10-15 minutes, then averaged for both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Lipid profiles were measured using the CardioCheck cholesterol test after subjects had fasted for 12 hours. Results The median systolic blood pressures (SBP in groups I and II were 110 mmHg (range 93.3-123.3 and 106.7 mmHg (range 96.7-123.3, respectively, (P=0.584. The median diastolic blood pressures (DBP were 73.3 mmHg (range 66.7-83.3 and 71.7 mmHg (range 63.3-80.0, respectively, (P=0.953. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels in group I were significantly higher than those levels in group II [median total cholesterol: 162.0 (range 158-170 vs. 159.0 (range 150-170, respectively; (P=0.001; and mean LDL-C: 103.5 (SD 3.72 vs. 99.1 (SD 4.63, respectively; (P=0.001. Multivariate analysis revealed a correlation of moderate strength between parental history of hypertension and increased LDL-C (P<0.001 in adolescents. Conclusion Adolescents with and without familial history of hypertension have no

  1. Maternal asthma, diabetes, and high blood pressure are associated with low birth weight and increased hospital birth and delivery charges; Hawai'i hospital discharge data 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald K; Feigal, David W; Smith, Ruben A; Fuddy, Loretta J

    2014-02-01

    Asthma, diabetes, and high blood pressure are common maternal conditions that can impact birth outcomes. Data from hospital discharges in Hawai'i were analyzed for 107,034 singleton births from 2003-2008. Categories were determined using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) from linked delivery records of mother and infant. Prevalence estimates of asthma (ICD-9: 493), diabetes (ICD-9: 250,648.0, 648.8), high blood pressure (ICD-9: 401-405,642) as coded on the delivery record, low birth weight (4500 grams), Cesarean delivery, and median hospital charges were calculated. Median regression analysis assessed total hospital charges adjusting for maternal age, maternal race, insurance, and Cesarean delivery. Maternal asthma was present in 4.3% (95% confidence interval=4.1-4.4%), maternal diabetes was present in 7.7% (95% CI=7.6-7.9%), and maternal high blood pressure was present in 9.2% (95% CI=9.0-9.3%) of births. In the adjusted median regression analysis, mothers with asthma had $999 (95% CI: $886 to $1,112) higher hospital charges compared to those without; mothers with diabetes had $743 (95% CI: $636 to $850) higher charges compared to those without; and mothers with high blood pressure had $2,314 (95% CI: $2,194 to $2,434) higher charges compared to those without. Asthma, diabetes, and high blood pressure are associated with higher hospital delivery charges and low birth weight. Diabetes and high blood pressure were also associated with Cesarean delivery. An increased awareness of the impact of these conditions on both adverse birth outcomes and the development of chronic disease is needed.

  2. PP033. High blood pressure in pregnancy: an indicator of future health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooher, J; Chiu, C L; Thornton, C; Lupton, S; O'Loughlin, A; Makris, A; Hennessy, A; Lind, J M; Korda, A; Ogle, R; Horvath, J

    2012-07-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) remain a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Australia approximately 10% of all pregnancies are affected by HDP. There is growing evidence that endothelial damage caused by HDP remains after pregnancy and has long term consequences on maternal health. The aim of our research was to determine the association between HDP and risk of having high blood pressure in later life. Self-reported data regarding a physician's diagnosis of HDP and of high blood pressure later in life were obtained from women recruited from the 45 and Up Study, Australia. Relative risks (converted from odds ratios) and 99% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression, adjusting for demographic and lifestyle characteristics. A total of 82,164 women were included in the study, of which 9,845 reported having HDP. Women who had HDP had a significantly increased risk of having high blood pressure later in life compared to women who did not have HDP (adjusted relative risk of 2.05, 99% CI 1.99-2.11, phigh blood pressure 6.3 years (99% CI 5.85-6.66, phigh blood pressure compared to women who have a healthy pregnancy. Women with HDP should be monitored closely in the years following pregnancy for early identification and intervention of high blood pressure. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Take your blood pressure to heart! Screening programme 13-17 October

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The silent health threat, high blood pressure, can only be detected by regular blood pressure tests. In Switzerland, one in four people suffer from high blood pressure without being aware of it.  A screening programme will take place from 13 to 17 October 2014 at the Medical Service Infirmary, Building 57, from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. and from 1.30 to 4.30 p.m. Blood pressure tests, advice and general information on high blood pressure will be available to everyone working at CERN. Medical Service

  4. Blood pressure-lowering effect of Shinrin-yoku (Forest bathing): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideno, Yuki; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Abe, Yukina; Ueda, Kayo; Iso, Hiroyasu; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Lee, Jung-Su; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2017-08-16

    Shinrin-yoku (experiencing the forest atmosphere or forest bathing) has received increasing attention from the perspective of preventive medicine in recent years. Some studies have reported that the forest environment decreases blood pressure. However, little is known about the possibility of anti-hypertensive applications of Shinrin-yoku. This study aimed to evaluate preventive or therapeutic effects of the forest environment on blood pressure. We systematically reviewed the medical literature and performed a meta-analysis.Four electronic databases were systematically searched for the period before May 2016 with language restriction of English and Japanese. The review considered all published, randomized, controlled trials, cohort studies, and comparative studies that evaluated the effects of the forest environment on changes in systolic blood pressure. A subsequent meta-analysis was performed. Twenty trials involving 732 participants were reviewed. Systolic blood pressure of the forest environment was significantly lower than that of the non-forest environment. Additionally, diastolic blood pressure of the forest environment was significantly lower than that of the non-forest environment. This systematic review shows a significant effect of Shinrin-yoku on reduction of blood pressure.

  5. The intraventricular filling vortex under heightened aortic blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Nicholas; Gaddam, Manikantam; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Hypertension, or high aortic blood pressure, can induce structural changes in the left ventricle (LV) such as concentric hypertrophy. Previous studies have identified that the intraventricular filling vortex serves as an effective means of blood transport during diastolic filling. However, a fundamental understanding of how hypertension affects this vortex is unavailable. This knowledge can be useful for improving diagnosis and treatment of related heart disease conditions, including hypertensive heart failure. In this experimental study, we hypothesized that the circulation of the filling vortex would diminish with increased aortic pressure. Using a LV physical model within a left heart simulator, we performed hemodynamic measurements to acquire pressure and volumetric inflow profiles and 2D particle image velocimetry to visualize the intraventricular flow fields. Peak aortic pressures of 120 mm Hg, 140 mm Hg, and 160 mm Hg were each tested at heart rates of 70, 100, and 110 beats per minute, under: 1) reduced ejection fraction (EF), and 2) constant EF. Our results indicate that peak vortex circulation is reduced under elevated aortic pressures. Hemodynamics and characteristics of the intraventricular filling vortex in all examined experimental cases will be presented.

  6. Admission Blood Pressure of Stroke Patients and Its Relationship to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High blood pressure is often said to be associated with poor outcome in stroke. However, there remains some uncertainly about the relationship of blood pressure to mortality in stroke. Objective: This study seeks to determine the influence of admission blood pressure on early mortality of stroke patients at the ...

  7. A modified isometric test to evaluate blood pressure control with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure at rest is not predictive of roundthe- clock values. Blood pressure should therefore be measured during effort to evaluate hypertension and its response to treatment. The effect of sustained-release verapamil (240 mg taken once a day) on blood pressure at rest and during isometric effort was therefore ...

  8. High Salt Intake Increases Blood Pressure via BDNF-Mediated Downregulation of KCC2 and Impaired Baroreflex Inhibition of Vasopressin Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Katrina Y.; Han, Su Y.; Gaub, Perrine; Shell, Brent; Voisin, Daniel L.; Knapp, Blayne A.; Barker, Philip A.; Brown, Colin H.; Cunningham, J. Thomas; Bourque, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which dietary salt promotes hypertension are unknown. Previous work established that plasma [Na+] and osmolality rise in proportion with salt intake and thus promote release of vasopressin (VP) from the neurohypophysis. Although high levels of circulating VP can increase blood pressure, this effect is normally prevented by a potent GABAergic inhibition of VP neurons by aortic baroreceptors. Here we show that chronic high salt intake impairs baroreceptor inhibition of rat VP ...

  9. Effect of aquatic resistance training on blood pressure and physical function of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Sattar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4    BACKGROUND: In postmenopausal women, the risk of having cardiac diseases, especially high blood pressure, is increased due to the decrease in secretion of estrogen. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of aquatic resistance training on blood pressure and physical function of postmenopausal women.    METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, 24 postmenopausal women (age: 53-60 years, BMI= 29.23 ± 5.27kg/m2  ( were randomly divided into experimental (n = 14 and control (n = 10 groups. Women in the experimental group participated in an aquatic exercise program for 8 weeks (3 sessions per week in the deep parts of the pool. Training included walking and running in water with water dumbbells weighing 250 grams. Before and after the exercise period, the body composition, blood pressure, dynamic balance, and flexibility of the subjects were measured.    RESULTS: According to the T-score, the average systolic blood pressure in the experimental group significantly decreased (9.29% (P = 0.001. Dynamic balance and flexibility, respectively, significantly increased by 22.02% and 24.4% (P < 0.01. No significant changes were observed in body fat and weight.    CONCLUSION: Due to the positive effect of aquatic resistance training on blood pressure, dynamic balance, and flexibility these exercises are recommended for postmenopausal women.   Keywords: Menopausal Women, Blood Pressure, Flexibility, Aquatic Resistance Training  

  10. Validation of the Rossmax CF175 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Zeng, Wei-Fang; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the Rossmax CF175 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese (17 women, mean age 46 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the Rossmax CF175 device (one supervisor). A total of 99 pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. All the blood pressure requirements were fulfilled. The Rossmax CF175 device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between the device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 78/99, 94/99, and 98/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure, and 81/99, 96/99, and 97/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also achieved the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Twenty-nine participants, for both of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, had at least two of the three device-observers differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥24). Only one participant for diastolic blood pressure had all three device-observers comparisons greater than 5 mmHg. The Rossmax automated oscillometric upper-arm blood pressure monitor CF175 fulfilled the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for blood pressure measurement in adults.

  11. Avaliação de fatores de risco associados com elevação da pressão arterial em crianças Evaluation of risk factors associated with increased blood pressure in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico D Garcia

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar fat