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  1. Acute Exercise Increases Plasma Total Antioxidant Status and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Untrained Men

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    C. Berzosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defences are essential for cellular redox regulation. Since free-radical production may be enhanced by physical activity, herein, we evaluated the effect of acute exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS and the plasma activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and its possible relation to oxidative stress resulting from exercise. Healthy untrained male subjects (=34 performed three cycloergometric tests, including maximal and submaximal episodes. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after each different exercise. TAS and enzyme activities were assessed by spectrophotometry. An increase of the antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma was detected after both maximal and submaximal exercise periods. Moreover, under our experimental conditions, exercise also led to an augmentation of TAS levels. These findings are consistent with the idea that acute exercise may play a beneficial role because of its ability to increase antioxidant defense mechanisms through a redox sensitive pathway.

  2. Higher Plasma Pyridoxal Phosphate Is Associated with Increased Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Critically Ill Surgical Patients

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    Chien-Hsiang Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Critically ill patients experience severe stress, inflammation and clinical conditions which may increase the utilization and metabolic turnover of vitamin B-6 and may further increase their oxidative stress and compromise their antioxidant capacity. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between vitamin B-6 status (plasma and erythrocyte PLP oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacities in critically ill surgical patients. Thirty-seven patients in surgical intensive care unit of Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, were enrolled. The levels of plasma and erythrocyte PLP, serum malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined on the 1st and 7th days of admission. Plasma PLP was positively associated with the mean SOD activity level on day 1 (r=0.42, P<0.05, day 7 (r=0.37, P<0.05, and on changes (Δ (day 7 − day 1 (r=0.56, P<0.01 after adjusting for age, gender, and plasma C-reactive protein concentration. Higher plasma PLP could be an important contributing factor in the elevation of antioxidant enzyme activity in critically ill surgical patients.

  3. Acute Exercise Increases Plasma Total Antioxidant Status and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Untrained Men

    OpenAIRE

    Berzosa, C.; I. Cebrián; Fuentes-Broto, L.; E. Gómez-Trullén; Piedrafita, E.; Martínez-Ballarín, E.; López-Pingarrón, L.; Reiter, R. J.; García, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant defences are essential for cellular redox regulation. Since free-radical production may be enhanced by physical activity, herein, we evaluated the effect of acute exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS) and the plasma activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and its possible relation to oxidative stress resulting from exercise. Healthy untrained male subjects ( = 3 4 ) performed three cycloergometric tests, including maxi...

  4. Cerebral antioxidant enzyme increase associated with learning deficit in type 2 diabetes rats.

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    Suge, Rie; Shimazu, Tomokazu; Hasegawa, Hajime; Inoue, Ikuo; Hayashibe, Hidemasa; Nagasaka, Hironori; Araki, Nobuo; Katayama, Shigehiro; Nomura, Masahiko; Watanabe, Shu-Ichi

    2012-10-24

    In this study, we examined alterations in the enzymatic antioxidant defenses associated with learning deficits induced by type 2 diabetes, and studied the effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist pioglitazone on these learning deficits. Learning ability was assessed by visual discrimination tasks in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, as a model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes. Levels of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Cu(2+)-Zn(2+) superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and manganese SOD were measured in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Half the rats received oral pioglitazone (20mg/kg/day) from the early stage of diabetes (22 weeks old) to 27 weeks old. OLETF rats showed learning deficits compared with control, Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. GPx levels in the cortex and hippocampus were increased in OLETF rats compared with LETO rats, with an inverse correlation between GPx in the hippocampus and learning score. CuZn-SOD levels were also increased in the hippocampus in OLETF rats. Pioglitazone reduced blood glucose and increased serum adiponectin levels, but had no effect on learning tasks or antioxidant enzymes, except for CuZn-SOD. These results suggest that an oxidative imbalance reflected by increased brain antioxidant enzymes plays an important role in the development of learning deficits in type 2 diabetes. Early pioglitazone administration partly ameliorated diabetic symptoms, but was unable to completely recover cerebral oxidative imbalance and functions. These results suggest that diabetes-induced brain impairment, which results in learning deficits, may have occurred before the appearance of the symptoms of overt diabetes.

  5. Coffee modulates transcription factor Nrf2 and highly increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rats.

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    Vicente, Silvio J V; Ishimoto, Emília Y; Torres, Elizabeth A F S

    2014-01-08

    This study investigated the effect of a 28 day administration of coffee brew on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rats. After this period of 2.0 mL/day dosages of this beverage, the activities of hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase increased 74.8, 59.4, and 135.2%, respectively, whereas the cytosolic level of Nrf2 increased 131.3%. At the same time, the total antioxidant capacity of the hepatic tissue increased 25.1%, improving the defensive status against oxidative stress. At the end of the experiment, the levels of biomarkers alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase remained equal to the control group, and no changes were observed in the hepatic histoarchiteture of the animals, suggesting that the liver tissue was not impaired by the exposure to coffee. The changes in enzyme activities and antioxidant capacity were statistically significant (p < 0.05), indicating that coffee could be considered an important alternative against oxidative stress and its correlated degenerative diseases.

  6. Enzyme-assisted processing increases antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of bilberry.

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    Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Nohynek, Liisa; Ammann, Sabine; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Buchert, Johanna

    2008-02-13

    The effects of nine cell wall-degrading enzymes on the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bilberry were studied. Antimicrobial activity was measured using the human pathogens Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus as test strains. Enzyme treatments liberated phenolics from the cell wall matrix, which clearly increased the antimicrobial activity of berry juices, press cakes, and berry mashes on the basis of plate counts. Antibacterial effects were stronger against Salmonella than against Staphylococcus bacteria. In general, the increase in activity measured as colony-forming units per milliliter was 3-5 logarithmic units against Salmonella and 1-2 units against Staphylococcus bacteria. Increase in antimicrobial activity was observed only in acidic conditions, which is also the natural environment in various berry products, such as juices. The activity profile of the pectinase preparation affected the chemistry of the phenolics due to the presence of deglycosylating activities in some preparations. The difference in phenolic profiles was reflected in the antimicrobial effects. Bilberry mashes treated with Pectinex Ultra SP-L, Pectinex 3 XL, and Pectinex BE XXL were most efficient against Salmonella bacteria, whereas mashes treated with Pectinex Smash, Pectinex BE 3-L, and Biopectinase CCM showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus bacteria. Due to the liberation of phenolics from the cell wall matrix the antioxidant activity measured as radical scavenging activity was also increased on average about 30% by the enzymatic treatments. The highest increase in phenolic compounds was about 40%. Highest increases in anthocyanins and in antioxidant activity were observed in berry mash treated with Pectinex Smash XXL enzyme, and the lowest increase was observed after treatment with Pectinex BE 3-L. Enzyme-assisted processing is traditionally used to improve berry and fruit juice yields. However, enzymatic treatments also

  7. Oenanthe javanica extract increases immunoreactivities of antioxidant enzymes in the rat kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun-Jin Tae; Joon Ha Park; Jeong-Hwi Cho; In Hye Kim; Ji Hyeon Ahn; Jae Chul Lee; Jong-Dai Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background Oenanthe javanica is an aquatic perennial herb originated from East Asia.Nowadays,the effects of Oenanthe javanica have been proven in various disease models.Studies regarding the antioxidant effect of Oenanthe javanica in the kidney are still unclear.Methods This study was therefore performed to investigate the effect of the Oenanthe javanica extract (OJE) in the rat kidney using immunohistochemistry for antioxidant enzymes,copper,zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1),manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2),catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx).Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups:(1) normal diet fed-group (normal-group),(2) diet containing ascorbic acid (AA)-fed group (AA-group) as a positive control,(3) diet containing OJE-fed group (OJE-group).AA and OJE were supplied during 28 days.Results The side-effects were not observed in all the groups.Immunoreactivities of SOD1,SOD2,CAT and GPx were easily detected in the distal tubules of the kidney,and their immunoreactivities in the AA-and OJE-groups were increased to about 1.4-1.5 times and 2 times,respectively,compared with those in the normal-group.Conclusion OJE significantly increased expressions of SOD1 & 2,CAT and GPx immunoreactivities in the distal tubules of the rat kidney,and this finding suggests that significant enhancements of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants by OJE treatment may be a legitimate strategy for decreasing oxidative stresses in the kidney.

  8. Baccaurea angulata fruit inhibits lipid peroxidation and induces the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities.

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    Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Hazali, Norazlanshah; Abdul Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Abdul Ghani, Radiah; Hashim, Ridzwan; Abdul Wahab, Ridhwan; Jahuari Arief, Solachuddin; Md Isa, Muhammad Lokman; Draman, Samsul; Adros Yahya, Mohammad Noor

    2016-06-01

    The consequence of the increased demand due to the population expansion has put tremendous pressure on the natural supply of fruits. Hence, there is an unprecedented growing interest in the exploration of the potentials of underutilized fruits as alternatives to the commercially available fruits. Baccaurea angulata is an underutilized fruit widely distributed in Borneo Island of Malaysia. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of B. angulata whole fruit (WF), skin (SK) and pulp (PL) juices on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant enzymes in rabbits fed high-cholesterol diet. Thirty-six male rabbits of New Zealand strain were randomly assigned to six groups. Rabbits were fed either a standard pellet (group NC) or a high-cholesterol diet (groups HC, PC, WF, SK and PL). Groups WF, SK and PL were also given 1 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF, SK and PL juices, respectively. Baccaurea angulata had high antioxidant activities. The administration of the various juices significantly reduced (p levels caused by cholesterol feeding was also ameliorated with B. angulata. Our results show that B. angulata fruit is beneficial in positively influencing and managing oxidative damage.

  9. Chemical stress induced by heliotrope (Heliotropium europaeum L.) allelochemicals and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.

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    Abdulghader, Kalantar; Nojavan, Majid; Naghshbandi, Nabat

    2008-03-15

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the allelopathic potential of heliotrope on some biochemical processes of dodder. The preliminary experiments revealed that the effect of aqueous extract of leaves of heliotrope is higher than its seeds and roots. So, the aqueous extract of leaves was used in remaining experiments. Leaf extracts of 5 g powder per 100 mL H2O inhibited the germination of dodder seeds up to 95% and that of radish up to 100%. While, the aqueous extract of vine leaves which is a non-allelopathic plant did not have any inhibitory effect on these seeds. Vine leaf was used as a control to show that the inhibitory effect of heliotrope is due to an inhibitory compound but not due to the concentration. The leaf extract of heliotrope at 0.0, 0.1, 1.0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g powder per 100 mL H2O reduced the radish seedling growth from 14 cm to about 0.5 cm and that of dodder from 7.5 cm to about 0.25 cm. The effects of heliotrope allelochemicals on some physiological and biochemical processes of radish was also Investigated. The activity of auxin oxidase increased in leaves and roots of radish. Suggesting that the reduced radish growth is due to the decreased active auxin levels in its leaves and roots. The activity of alpha-amylase was reduced, so reduction of starch degradation and lack of respiratory energy is the prime reason of germination inhibition in dodder and radish seeds. The level of soluble sugars increased. This is an indication of reduction of the activity of some respiratory enzymes and reduced consumption of these sugars. Proline levels were also increased, indicating that, the chemical stress is induced by leaf extract. Finally, the activities of GPX and CAT which are antioxidant enzymes were increased, along with increased extract concentration. These finding shows that the chemical stress induced by leaf extract produces super oxide (O2*) and H2O2, which is neutralized to H2O and O2 by these enzymes.

  10. Strawberry polyphenols attenuate ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats by activation of antioxidant enzymes and attenuation of MDA increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Alvarez-Suarez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. CONCLUSIONS: Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in

  11. Antioxidant enzyme levels in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Oberley, T. D.; Oberley, L W

    1997-01-01

    Normal cells are protected by antioxidant enzymes from the toxic effects of high concentrations of reactive oxygen species generated during cellular metabolism. Even though cancer cells generate reactive oxygen species, it has been demonstrated biochemically that antioxidant enzyme levels are low in most animal and human cancers. However, a few cancer types have been found to have elevated levels of antioxidant enzymes, particularly manganese superoxide dismuta...

  12. Plasma Homocysteine Is Associated with Increased Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Welders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Hsin Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the association of vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine with oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities in welders. Workers were divided into either the welding exposure group (n=57 or the nonexposure controls (n=42 based on whether they were employed as welders. There were no significant differences in vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine concentration between the welding exposure group and the nonexposure controls. The welding exposure group had significantly higher levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower erythrocyte glutathione concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities when compared to nonexposure controls. Plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate concentration did not correlate with oxidative stress indicators or antioxidant capacities in either group. However, plasma homocysteine significantly correlated with total antioxidant capacity (TAC (partial rs=-0.34, P<0.05 and erythrocyte SOD activities (partial rs=0.29, P<0.05 after adjusting for potential confounders in the welding exposure group. In the welding exposure group, adequate vitamin B6 status was not associated with oxidative stress or antioxidant capacities. However, elevated plasma homocysteine seemed to be a major contributing factor to antioxidant capacities (TAC and erythrocyte SOD activities in welders.

  13. Increase in flavan-3-ols by silencing flavonol synthase mRNA affects the transcript expression and activity levels of antioxidant enzymes in tobacco.

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    Mahajan, M; Joshi, R; Gulati, A; Yadav, S K

    2012-09-01

    Flavonoids are plant secondary metabolites widespread throughout the plant kingdom involved in many physiological and biochemical functions. Amongst the flavonoids, flavan-3-ols (catechin and epicatechin) are known for their direct free radical scavenging activity in vitro, but studies on their antioxidant potential and interaction with antioxidant enzymes in vivo are lacking. Here, the flavonoid pathway was engineered by silencing a gene encoding flavonol synthase (FLS) in tobacco to direct the flow of metabolites towards production of flavan-3-ols. FLS silencing reduced flavonol content 17-53%, while it increased catechin and epicatechin content 51-93% and 18-27%, respectively. The silenced lines showed a significant increase in expression of genes for dihydroflavonol reductase and anthocyanidin synthase, a downstream gene towards epicatechin production, with no significant change in expression of other genes of the flavonoid pathway. Effects of accumulation of flavan-3-ols in FLS silenced lines on transcript level and activities of antioxidant enzymes were studied. Transcripts of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APx), and catalase (CAT) increased, while glutathione-S-transferase (GST), decreased in FLS silenced lines. Enhanced activity of all the antioxidant enzymes was observed in silenced tobacco lines. To validate the affect of flavan-3-ols on the antioxidant system, in vitro experiments were conducted with tobacco seedlings exposed to two concentrations of catechin (10  and 50 μm) for 2 days. In vitro exposed seedlings produced similar levels of transcripts and activity of antioxidant enzymes as FLS silenced seedlings. Results suggest that flavan-3-ols (catechin) might be increasing activity of GR, Apx and CAT by elevating their mRNAs levels. Since these enzymes are involved in scavenging of reactive oxygen species, this strategy would help in tailoring crops for enhanced catechin production as well as making

  14. Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.

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    Gumral, Nurhan; Kumbul, Duygu Doguc; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

    2015-01-01

    It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. © The Author(s) 2012.

  15. Lycium chinensis Mill attenuates glutamate induced oxidative toxicity in PC12 cells by increasing antioxidant defense enzymes and down regulating ROS and Ca(2+) generation.

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    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2016-03-11

    Lycium chinensis Mill is a famous traditional Chinese medicine which displays several medicinal activities including antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. However, the mechanism of action towards the neuroprotective action has not been fully elucidated. This work was aimed at investigating the neuroprotective effects of L. chinensis Mill against glutamate-induced oxidative neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Oxidative cell death was induced with 5mM glutamate in PC12 cells. Cell viability, LDH release, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, GSH-Px, CAT and SOD antioxidant enzyme levels were measured. Our results indicated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with L. chinensis Mill extracts markedly attenuated the loss of cell viability, the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Ca(2+) overload, ROS generation, and cell apoptosis induced by glutamate toxicity. Furthermore, L. chinensis Mill extracts also significantly increased the levels of innate antioxidant enzymes GSH-Px, SOD and CAT in glutamate-induced PC12 cells. Conclusively, our results provided substantial evidence that L. chinensis Mill protected PC12 cells against glutamate-induced cell death by attenuating ROS generation, Ca(2+) influx, and increased the antioxidant defense capacity of PC12 cells against oxidative stress damages, suggesting the possible potential of extracts from the plant as sources of bioactive molecules in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  16. Determination of chemopreventive role of Foeniculum vulgare and Salvia officinalis infusion on trichloroacetic acid-induced increased serum marker enzymes lipid peroxidation and antioxidative defense systems in rats.

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    Celik, Ismail; Isik, Ismail

    2008-01-10

    Today's world is increasingly seeking ways to replace the synthetic drugs with the therapeutic power of natural products. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Foeniculum vulgare (FV) and Salvia officinalis (SO) waters infusions against carcinogen chemical trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-exposure in rats. The chemopreventive potential of the plant infusions were evaluated by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)], antioxidant defense systems [Reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)] and lipid peroxidation level (Malondialdehyde = MDA) in various tissues of rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 150-200 g, were randomly allotted into four experimental groups. While the control group (A) received only natural spring water, the treatment B group (0.2% TCA) supplied with the drinking water containing 0.2% TCA, the treatment C (TCA + FV infusion) and D (TCA + SO infusion) groups drank the drinking water containing 0.2% TCA and 2.5% the plant grains and leaves ad libitum for 50 days during experiment. At the end of the 50 days experiment, TCA and the plant's infusions caused different affect on the serum marker enzymes, tissues antioxidant defense systems and lipid peroxidation against TCA-exposed in rats with comparison to those of TCA exposed and control rats. According to the results, both TCA and TCA + plants infusions caused a significant increase in serum AST, ALT and CPK activity. Non-enzymic antioxidant GSH level significantly increased in the brain whereas reduced in the erythrocytes and kidney of TCA + FV and TCA + SO as compared to TCA group and control. While MDA content slightly increased in tissues of TCA group in comparison to those of control, significantly

  17. Ethanol and supercritical fluid extracts of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) increase gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunghyun Hong; Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan; Taewoo Joo; Chanmook Lim; Haeme Cho; Songmun Kim; Gur-Yoo Kim; Jin-Woo Jhoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes by hemp seed extracts in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Methods: Ethanol and supercritical fluid (SF) extracts obtained from de-hulled hemp seed were used for the evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. In vitro antioxidant activities of the samples evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. The expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) in HepG2cells was evaluated by real-time PCR. Results:In the antioxidant assay, SF extract of hemp seed exhibited higher ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities (IC50 of 66.6 µg/mL and 9.2 mg/mL, respectively) than ethanol extract. The results of antioxidant enzyme expression in real-time PCR study revealed the H2O2 (200 µM) challenged HepG2 cells reduced the expression of enzymes such as SOD, GPx and CAT. However, the cells treated with ethanol and SF extracts were up-regulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes in concentration dependent manner. When compared to ethanol extract, the SF extract exhibited higher activity in the expression of all the antioxidant enzymes at the concentration of 500 µg/mL. Conclusion: In conclusion, the findings of our study demonstrated that the hemp seed effectively inhibited H2O2 mediated oxidative stress and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in preventing oxidative stress mediated diseases.

  18. Paradoxical Roles of Antioxidant Enzymes: Basic Mechanisms and Health Implications.

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    Lei, Xin Gen; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Bao, Yongping; Ho, Ye-Shih; Reddi, Amit R; Holmgren, Arne; Arnér, Elias S J

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are generated from aerobic metabolism, as a result of accidental electron leakage as well as regulated enzymatic processes. Because ROS/RNS can induce oxidative injury and act in redox signaling, enzymes metabolizing them will inherently promote either health or disease, depending on the physiological context. It is thus misleading to consider conventionally called antioxidant enzymes to be largely, if not exclusively, health protective. Because such a notion is nonetheless common, we herein attempt to rationalize why this simplistic view should be avoided. First we give an updated summary of physiological phenotypes triggered in mouse models of overexpression or knockout of major antioxidant enzymes. Subsequently, we focus on a series of striking cases that demonstrate "paradoxical" outcomes, i.e., increased fitness upon deletion of antioxidant enzymes or disease triggered by their overexpression. We elaborate mechanisms by which these phenotypes are mediated via chemical, biological, and metabolic interactions of the antioxidant enzymes with their substrates, downstream events, and cellular context. Furthermore, we propose that novel treatments of antioxidant enzyme-related human diseases may be enabled by deliberate targeting of dual roles of the pertaining enzymes. We also discuss the potential of "antioxidant" nutrients and phytochemicals, via regulating the expression or function of antioxidant enzymes, in preventing, treating, or aggravating chronic diseases. We conclude that "paradoxical" roles of antioxidant enzymes in physiology, health, and disease derive from sophisticated molecular mechanisms of redox biology and metabolic homeostasis. Simply viewing antioxidant enzymes as always being beneficial is not only conceptually misleading but also clinically hazardous if such notions underpin medical treatment protocols based on modulation of redox pathways.

  19. Willow bark extract increases antioxidant enzymes and reduces oxidative stress through activation of Nrf2 in vascular endothelial cells and Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Ishikado, Atsushi; Sono, Yoko; Matsumoto, Motonobu; Robida-Stubbs, Stacey; Okuno, Aya; Goto, Masashi; King, George L; Blackwell, T Keith; Makino, Taketoshi

    2013-12-01

    Willow bark extract (WBE) is listed in the European Pharmacopoeia and has been traditionally used for treating fever, pain, and inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated its clinical usefulness. This study investigated the antioxidative effects of WBE in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Caenorhabditis elegans. WBE prevented oxidative-stress-induced cytotoxicity of HUVECs and death of C. elegans. WBE dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein expression levels of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) target genes heme oxygenase-1, γ-glutamylcysteine ligase modifier and catalytic subunits, and p62 and intracellular glutathione (GSH) in HUVECs. In the nematode C. elegans, WBE increased the expression of the gcs-1::green fluorescent protein reporter, a well-characterized target of the Nrf2 ortholog SKN-1, in a manner that was SKN-1-dependent. WBE increased intranuclear expression and DNA binding of Nrf2 and the activity of an antioxidant response element (ARE) reporter plasmid in HUVECs. WBE-induced expression of Nrf2-regulated genes and increased GSH levels in HUVECs were reduced by Nrf2 and p38 small interfering (si) RNAs and by the p38-specific inhibitor SB203580. Nrf2 siRNA reduced the cytoprotective effect of WBE against oxidative stress in HUVECs. Salicin, a major anti-inflammatory ingredient of WBE, failed to activate ARE-luciferase activity, whereas a salicin-free WBE fraction showed intensive activity. WBE induced antioxidant enzymes and prevented oxidative stress through activation of Nrf2 independent of salicin, providing a new potential explanation for the clinical usefulness of WBE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. GH overexpression modifies muscle expression of anti-oxidant enzymes and increases spinal curvature of old zebrafish.

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    Rosa, Carlos Eduardo da; Kuradomi, Rafael Yutaka; Almeida, Daniela Volcan; Lannes, Carlos Frederico Ceccon; Figueiredo, Márcio de Azevedo; Dytz, Aline Guerra; Fonseca, Duane Barros; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2010-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) excess causes an increment in the metabolic rate and in reactive oxygen species generation, which accelerate the ageing process in mammals. Considering that there is no information on this subject in fish, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the excess GH effect on senescence in a zebrafish (Danio rerio) transgenic model. In order to reach this objective, we analyzed the phenotype of spinal curvature and expression of genes related to the anti-oxidant defense system and myogenesis in muscle of 8 and 30 months old GH-transgenic males. Gene expression analyses revealed that both superoxide dismutase isoforms were down-regulated only in 30 months old animals, while glutamate cysteine ligase was down-regulated in GH-transgenic zebrafish. Acceleration of the spinal curvature and a reduction in the expression of miogenin at both ages and MyoD in the old fish were also observed. Although neurolipofuscin accumulation was not significant in GH-transgenic zebrafish, the estimation of maximum longevity based on the von Bertalanffy growth function was significantly lower in this group. The results obtained here indicate that GH overexpression reduces the transcription of anti-oxidant defense system and myogenesis-related genes, which probably accelerates senescence in the zebrafish transgenic model used.

  1. Paradoxical Roles of Antioxidant Enzymes: Basic Mechanisms and Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xin Gen; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Bao, Yongping; Ho, Ye-Shih; Reddi, Amit R.; Holmgren, Arne; Arnér, Elias S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are generated from aerobic metabolism, as a result of accidental electron leakage as well as regulated enzymatic processes. Because ROS/RNS can induce oxidative injury and act in redox signaling, enzymes metabolizing them will inherently promote either health or disease, depending on the physiological context. It is thus misleading to consider conventionally called antioxidant enzymes to be largely, if not exclusively, health protective. Because such a notion is nonetheless common, we herein attempt to rationalize why this simplistic view should be avoided. First we give an updated summary of physiological phenotypes triggered in mouse models of overexpression or knockout of major antioxidant enzymes. Subsequently, we focus on a series of striking cases that demonstrate “paradoxical” outcomes, i.e., increased fitness upon deletion of antioxidant enzymes or disease triggered by their overexpression. We elaborate mechanisms by which these phenotypes are mediated via chemical, biological, and metabolic interactions of the antioxidant enzymes with their substrates, downstream events, and cellular context. Furthermore, we propose that novel treatments of antioxidant enzyme-related human diseases may be enabled by deliberate targeting of dual roles of the pertaining enzymes. We also discuss the potential of “antioxidant” nutrients and phytochemicals, via regulating the expression or function of antioxidant enzymes, in preventing, treating, or aggravating chronic diseases. We conclude that “paradoxical” roles of antioxidant enzymes in physiology, health, and disease derive from sophisticated molecular mechanisms of redox biology and metabolic homeostasis. Simply viewing antioxidant enzymes as always being beneficial is not only conceptually misleading but also clinically hazardous if such notions underpin medical treatment protocols based on modulation of redox pathways. PMID:26681794

  2. Iridoid extracts from Ajuga iva increase the antioxidant enzyme activities in red blood cells of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouderbala, Sherazede; Prost, Josiane; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie Aleth; Bouchenak, Malika

    2010-05-01

    The lyophilized aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (Ai) is able to reduce oxidative stress, which may prevent lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemic rats. Iridoids (I) were isolated from Ai. We hypothesized that the antioxidant defense status in red blood cells (RBC) and tissues in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet and treated with Ai may be correlated to these compounds. Male Wistar rats (n = 32) weighing 120 +/- 5 g were fed a diet containing 1% cholesterol for 15 days. After this phase, hypercholesterolemic (HC) rats were divided into groups, fed the same diet, and received either the same or different doses (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection) of I for 15 days. Compared with the HC group, total cholesterol value was 1.4- and 1.2-fold lower in the I(5)-HC and I(10)-HC groups. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content was 2.3-, 2.9-, and 3-fold lower in the I(5)-HC, I(10)-HC, and I(15)-HC groups compared with the HC group. In RBC, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher in the I(5)-HC, I(10)-HC, and I(15)-HC groups than the HC group. Liver, heart, and muscle glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher in the groups treated with I than the HC group. Muscle glutathione reductase activity was increased 1.4-fold in the I(5)-HC, 1.5-fold in the I(10)-HC, and 1.5-fold in the I(15)-HC group. In HC rats, different doses of I increase the antioxidant enzyme activities in RBC and act differently in tissues. Treatment with I may play an important role in suppressing oxidative stress caused by dietary cholesterol and, thus, may be useful for the prevention and/or early treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

  3. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthinee Anantachoke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla, Averrhoa bilimbi, Malpighia glabra, Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape, Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress.

  4. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantachoke, Natthinee; Lomarat, Pattamapan; Praserttirachai, Wasin; Khammanit, Ruksinee

    2016-01-01

    The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla, Averrhoa bilimbi, Malpighia glabra, Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape, Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress. PMID:28074103

  5. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in male infertility.

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    Dandekar S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Mammalian spermatozoa are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and are very susceptible to attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS and membrane lipid peroxide ion. Normally a balance is maintained between the amount of ROS produced and that scavenged. Cellular damage arises when this equilibrium is disturbed. A shift in the levels of ROS towards pro-oxidants in semen and vaginal secretions can induce an oxidative stress on spermatozoa. The aim was to study lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD and to correlate the same, with the ′water test′, in male infertility. SETTINGS: Experimental study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ejaculates from a total of 83 infertile and fertile healthy individuals were obtained. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels were studied and correlated with water test. RESULTS: The results indicate that (i the antioxidant enzyme catalase showed no significant changes in the various pathological samples, (ii antioxidant enzymes SOD and glutathione peroxidase correlate positively with asthenozoospermic samples and (iii the degree of lipid peroxidation also correlates positively with the poorly swollen sperm tails. The increase in SOD and glutathione peroxidase values, in the pathological cases represents an attempt made to overcome the reactive oxygen species. CONCLUSION: Water test could be used as a preliminary marker test for sperm tail damage by reactive oxygen species, since it correlates very well with lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes.

  6. Alterations in antioxidants enzymes and Malondialdehyde status in preeclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnodim Johnkennedy; Ihim Augustin; Uduji Hellen Ifeoma

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was done to determine and evaluate the level of antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde (MDA) in preeclamptic women. Method: 100 preeclamptic and 100 healthy pregnant women between the age of 20-32 attending General Hospital Owerri were selected in this study. Fasting veinous blood was collected and was used for the estimation of antioxidant enzymes and malondiadehyde. Result: The result obtained showed that the level of MDA was significantly increased in preeclamptic pregnant women when compared with the healthy control (P<0.05). On the other hand, the level of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) was significantly reduced in preeclamptic women when compared with the control(P<0.05). Conclusions: This observation showed that the antioxidants are excessively used to attenuate the cellular changes mediated by free radicals. Hence, the level of antioxidants are depleted.

  7. A novel copper complex induces ROS generation in doxorubicin resistant Ehrlich ascitis carcinoma cells and increases activity of antioxidant enzymes in vital organs in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efferth Thomas

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In search of a suitable GSH-depleting agent, a novel copper complex viz., copper N-(2-hydroxyacetophenone glycinate (CuNG has been synthesized, which was initially found to be a potential resistance modifying agent and later found to be an immunomodulator in mice model in different doses. The objective of the present work was to decipher the effect of CuNG on reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and antioxidant enzymes in normal and doxorubicin-resistant Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC/Dox-bearing Swiss albino mice. Methods The effect of CuNG has been studied on ROS generation, multidrug resistance-associated protein1 (MRP1 expression and on activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. Results CuNG increased ROS generation and reduced MRP1 expression in EAC/Dox cells while only temporarily depleted glutathione (GSH within 2 h in heart, kidney, liver and lung of EAC/Dox bearing mice, which were restored within 24 h. The level of liver Cu was observed to be inversely proportional to the level of GSH. Moreover, CuNG modulated SOD, CAT and GPx in different organs and thereby reduced oxidative stress. Thus nontoxic dose of CuNG may be utilized to reduce MRP1 expression and thus sensitize EAC/Dox cells to standard chemotherapy. Moreover, CuNG modulated SOD, CAT and and GPx activities to reduce oxidative stress in some vital organs of EAC/Dox bearing mice. CuNG treatment also helped to recover liver and renal function in EAC/Dox bearing mice. Conclusion Based on our studies, we conclude that CuNG may be a promising candidate to sensitize drug resistant cancers in the clinic.

  8. Antioxidant enzymes activities in obese Tunisian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfar Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oxidant stress, expected to increase in obese adults, has an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. It results when free radical formation is greatly increased or protective antioxidant mechanisms are compromised. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant response to obesity-related stress in healthy children. Methods A hundred and six healthy children (54 obese and 52 controls, aged 6–12 years old, participated in this study. The collected data included anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and enzymatic antioxidants (Superoxide dismutase: SOD, Catalase: CAT and Glutathione peroxidase: GPx. Results The first step antioxidant response, estimated by the SOD activity, was significantly higher in obese children compared with normal-weight controls (p  Conclusions The obesity-related increase of the oxidant stress can be observed even in the childhood period. In addition to the complications of an increased BMI, obesity itself can be considered as an independent risk factor of free radical production resulting in an increased antioxidant response.

  9. Cofactor metals and antioxidant enzymes in cisplatin-treated rats: effect of antioxidant intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuncuoglu, Suna; Eken, Ayse; Aydin, Ahmet; Ozgunes, Hilal; Orhan, Hilmi

    2015-10-01

    We explored the association between the activities of antioxidant enzymes and their metallic cofactors in rats treated with cisplatin. The antioxidant effects of aminoguanidine, and a combination of vitamins E and C were investigated. Plasma platin was significantly lower than liver and kidney. Cisplatin treatment caused significant increase in plasma Se-glutathione peroxidase activity. Activities of Se-glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase have been found to be significantly decreased in liver and kidney compared to controls. Zn levels in these organs were diminished upon cisplatin treatment, while levels of Cu were unaffected. Interestingly, levels of iron, the cofactor of catalase, were found to be significantly increased in liver and kidney. Intervention with aminoguanidine or vitamins was generally prevented cisplatin-caused changes in the activity of enzymes and in the tissue levels of cofactor metals. These observations suggest that relation between activities of enzymes and levels of cofactor metals is multifactorial.

  10. lmmunogold analysis of antioxidant enzymes in common renal cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Oberley, T. D.; Sempf, J.M.; Oberley, L W

    1996-01-01

    Immunogold studies of normal human kidney and common human kidney cancers were performed using polyclonal antibodies to antioxidant enzymes, including antibodies to copper, zinc and manganese superoxide dismutases, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferases and their subunits. Normal tissue adjacent to human renal tumors had the same antioxidant enzyme immunoreactive protein profiles as normal human kidney, thus establishing that the p...

  11. Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase Increases the Therapeutic Potential of Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Maintaining Antioxidant Enzyme Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Dae Won; Chung, Jin Young; Jung, Hyo Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo; Choi, Jung Hoon; Choi, Goang-Min; Choi, Soo Young; Moon, Seung Myung

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the ability of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) to improve the therapeutic potential of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) against ischemic damage in the spinal cord. Animals were divided into four groups: the control group, vehicle (PEP-1 peptide and artificial cerebrospinal fluid)-treated group, Ad-MSC alone group, and Ad-MSC-treated group with PEP-1-SOD1. The abdominal aorta of the rabbit was occluded for 30 min in the subrenal region to induce ischemic damage, and immediately after reperfusion, artificial cerebrospinal fluid or Ad-MSCs (2 × 10(5)) were administered intrathecally. In addition, PEP-1 or 0.5 mg/kg PEP-1-SOD1 was administered intraperitoneally to the Ad-MSC-treated rabbits. Motor behaviors and NeuN-immunoreactive neurons were significantly decreased in the vehicle-treated group after ischemia/reperfusion. Administration of Ad-MSCs significantly ameliorated the changes in motor behavior and NeuN-immunoreactive neuronal survival. In addition, the combination of PEP-1-SOD1 and Ad-MSCs further increased the ameliorative effects of Ad-MSCs in the spinal cord after ischemia. Furthermore, the administration of Ad-MSCs with PEP-1-SOD1 decreased lipid peroxidation and maintained levels of antioxidants such as SOD1 and glutathione peroxidase compared to the Ad-MSC alone group. These results suggest that combination therapy using Ad-MSCs and PEP-1-SOD1 strongly protects neurons from ischemic damage by modulating the balance of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants.

  12. Trace elements and antioxidant enzymes in extremely low birthweight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Andrea; Raab, Andrea; Maier, Rolf F; Brätter, Peter; Obladen, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Oxygen radicals are believed to contribute to typical diseases of prematurity, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Our aim was to investigate whether these disorders are associated with disturbances in antioxidant enzyme activities and with low trace elements, which are co-factors of antioxidant enzymes. 209 infants with birthweight less than 1000g were enrolled into a European multicentre randomised erythropoietin (rhEPO) trial; 155 developed one or more of the above mentioned diseases. We analysed Zn, Cu, Fe, Se in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs), superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) in RBCs on the 3rd and 68th day of life. Zn, Fe, Se in plasma, and Se in RBCs decreased (p<0.01), and Zn in RBC (p<0.001), CuZn-SOD (p<0.01) and CAT increased (p<0.05), whereas GSH-Px remained unchanged. No differences were observed between the rhEPO and control groups. Antioxidant enzyme activities did not correlate with gestational age. In infants with BPD, IVH, ROP, or NEC, CuZn-SOD and CAT (p<0.05) were higher at day 68 than in infants without these diseases. CuZn-SOD and GSH-Px at 3 days and CuZn-SOD at 68 days correlated positively (p<0.05) with the duration of oxygen treatment. In conclusion, in ELBW infants, trace element concentrations decreased over the first 10 weeks of life. Lower trace element concentrations, did not affect the activities of CuZn-SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT. Typical diseases of prematurity were not associated with decreased antioxidant enzyme activities.

  13. Alternations of salivary antioxidant enzymes in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaieni, S H; Derakhshan, Z; Sariri, R

    2015-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with chronic systemic inflammation. Oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of SLE. An increase in free radicals or an impaired antioxidant defense system in SLE causes oxidative stress. Therefore, oxidative damage plays an important role in the pathogenesis of SLE. Variations in antioxidant activity have been previously studied in serum of patients with this disease. However, salivary factors have not been evaluated. Considering that saliva, the noninvasive biological fluid, could be a reflection of the state of health, the purpose of this study was evaluation of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in the saliva of patients with SLE. During the course of the practical part of the project, 30 patients with SLE and 30 healthy controls were selected to donate their saliva samples. After centrifugation of un-stimulated saliva, biological activity of POD, CAT and SOD were evaluated on their appropriate substrates using spectrophotometric methods and the results were statistically analyzed. The results showed that activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT were significantly reduced in saliva of SLE patients as compared to controls. The results suggest that antioxidant status was impaired in the saliva of SLE patients, and antioxidant status of saliva could be one of the non-invasive markers for SLE.

  14. Antioxidants can increase melanoma metastasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Kristell; Ibrahim, Mohamed X; Wiel, Clotilde; Sayin, Volkan I; Akula, Murali K; Karlsson, Christin; Dalin, Martin G; Akyürek, Levent M; Lindahl, Per; Nilsson, Jonas; Bergo, Martin O

    2015-10-07

    Antioxidants in the diet and supplements are widely used to protect against cancer, but clinical trials with antioxidants do not support this concept. Some trials show that antioxidants actually increase cancer risk and a study in mice showed that antioxidants accelerate the progression of primary lung tumors. However, little is known about the impact of antioxidant supplementation on the progression of other types of cancer, including malignant melanoma. We show that administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) increases lymph node metastases in an endogenous mouse model of malignant melanoma but has no impact on the number and size of primary tumors. Similarly, NAC and the soluble vitamin E analog Trolox markedly increased the migration and invasive properties of human malignant melanoma cells but did not affect their proliferation. Both antioxidants increased the ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione in melanoma cells and in lymph node metastases, and the increased migration depended on new glutathione synthesis. Furthermore, both NAC and Trolox increased the activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) RHOA, and blocking downstream RHOA signaling abolished antioxidant-induced migration. These results demonstrate that antioxidants and the glutathione system play a previously unappreciated role in malignant melanoma progression. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Antioxidant enzymes responses to cadmium in radish tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitória, A P; Lea, P J; Azevedo, R A

    2001-07-01

    To investigate the antioxidant responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) to cadmium (Cd) treatment, seedlings of a tolerant variety were grown in increasing concentrations of CdCl(2), ranging from 0.25-1 mM, for up to 72 h in a hydroponic system. Analysis of Cd uptake indicated that most of the Cd accumulated in the roots, but some was also translocated and accumulated in the leaves, especially at the higher concentrations of Cd used in the experiments. Roots and leaves were analysed for catalase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities. Catalase and glutathione reductase activities increased considerably in the roots and leaves after 24 h exposure to the metal, indicating a direct correlation with Cd accumulation. The analysis of native PAGE enzyme activity staining, revealed several superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in leaves, with the two predominant isoenzymes exhibiting increases in activity in response to Cd treatment. The results suggest that in radish, the activity of antioxidant enzymes responds to Cd treatment. The main response may be via the activation of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle for the removal of hydrogen peroxide, or to ensure the availability of glutathione for the synthesis of Cd-binding proteins.

  16. Effect of pectolytic enzyme preparations on the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of asparagus juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Tang, Juming; Powers, Joseph R

    2005-01-12

    Commercial pectolytic enzymes were investigated for their influence on phenolics and antioxidant activities of asparagus juice. The antioxidant activity of asparagus juice was analyzed according to 2,2'-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) methods. The enzymes, with the exception of pectinase from Rhizopus sp., contained rutinase, which hydrolyzed rutin to quercetin. Asparagus juice treated with Viscozyme had the highest quercetin content without exhibiting a significant increase in the antioxidant activity. For a pectinase from Aspergillus niger, the antioxidant activity of asparagus juice was markedly reduced. Caution should be paid in the selection of pectolytic enzyme preparations for production of antioxidant activity-rich juice.

  17. Protective Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are Affected by Drought in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fghire, Rachid; Ali, Oudou Issa; Anaya, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenoloxydase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), measured at flowering in quinoa, subjected to varying levels of drought stress. Drought levels were 100, 50 and 33% of evapotranspiration (ETc), and rainfed. Compared to full water supply (100%ETc...... increased in all treatments. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in quinoa plant exposed to drought stress....

  18. The Relationship between Plasma Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Sex Hormones during the Menstrual Cycle

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    Tavilani, H. (PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: There is increasing evidence for the role of oxidative stress in female reproductive tract. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes during menstrual cycle. In addition, the relationship between activity of antioxidant enzyme and sex hormones was evaluated. Material and Methods: In this study the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity during the menses, follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in twenty women with regular menstrual cycle were studied. Furthermore, the correlation between activity of antioxidant enzymes and estradiol, progesterone, LH, FSH and testosterone were evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference between activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity during the menses, follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle (P>0.05. We found significant correlation, in luteal phase, between superoxide dismutase and FSH (P<0.05، r=0.44 and LH P<0.05،r=0.54. Also it is observed between LH and glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05، r=0.44. Conclusion: Based on the results, there is no significant difference between antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma during menstrual cycle. In other words, physiologic system of women with regular menstrual cycle can protect body against oxidative stress and this is probably performed due to action of FSH and LH hormones. Keywords: Antioxidants; Menstrual cycle; Sex hormones

  19. Developmental Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Their Impact on Neonatal Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Kathryn N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Deficient antioxidant defenses and compromised ability to respond to oxidative stress burden the immature lung. Routine neonatal therapies can cause increased oxidative stress with subsequent injury to the premature lung. Novel therapeutic approaches to protect the premature lung are greatly needed. Recent Advances: Live cell imaging with targeted redox probes allows for the measurement of subcellular oxidative stress and for comparisons of oxidative stress across development. Comprehension of subcellular and cell-type-specific responses to oxidative stress may influence the targeting of future antioxidant therapies. Critical Issues: Challenges remain in identifying the optimal cellular targets, degree of enzyme activity, and appropriate antioxidant therapy. Further, the efficacy of delivering exogenous antioxidants to specific cell types or subcellular compartments remains under investigation. Treatment with a nonselective antioxidant could unintentionally compromise cellular function or impact cellular defense mechanisms and homeostasis. Future Directions: Genetic and/or biomarker screening may identify infants at the greatest risk for oxidative lung injury and guide the use of more selective antioxidant therapies. Novel approaches to the delivery of antioxidant enzymes may allow cell type- or cellular organelle-specific therapy. Improved comprehension of the antioxidant enzyme regulation across cell type, cell compartment, gender, and developmental stage is critical to the design and optimization of therapy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1837–1848. PMID:24295375

  20. [Effect of melatonin on antioxidant enzyme activities in blood erythrocytes of rats during acute emotional stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsov, S S; Kalinichenko, L S; Koplik, E V; Nagler, L G; Alinkina, E S; Kozachenko, A I

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the epiphyseal hormone melatonin on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) was studied in peripheral blood erythrocytes of behaviorally passive and active Wistar rats. Acute emotional stress was modeled by immobilization of animals for1 h with simultaneous electrocutaneous stimulation. Basal activity of antioxidant glutathione enzymes in erythrocytes of behaviorally passive rats was higher than that in active animals. Administration of melatonin (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was accompanied by a decrease in the activity of GPx and GR in erythrocytes from non-stressed passive animals. After experimental stress, passive rats demonstrated a significant increase in the activity of Cu/Zn-SOD and GPx in peripheral blood erythrocytes. The absence of stress-induced changes in functional activity of antioxidant defense enzymes in the blood of behaviorally active animals suggests a relatively constant oxidative status of tissues in these animals under stress conditions. Melatonin administration had little effect on stress-induced changes in functional activity of the erythrocyte antioxidant system in passive rats. Active specimens pretreated with melatonin before stress exposure were characterized by activation of study antioxidant enzymes. Quantitative parameters of the erythrocyte antioxidant defense enzymes did not differ in behaviorally active and passive rats subjected to experimental stress after melatonin injection. Thus, exogenous melatonin abolishes differences in the activity of study antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes of animals with different behavioral parameters under basal conditions and after experimental stress. In passive rats melatonin mainly reduced the initial tension of oxidative processes. By contrast, administration of this hormone to active specimens is followed by an increase in functional activity of the antioxidant enzyme system under

  1. Strawberry consumption is associated with increased antioxidant capacity in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Susanne M; Seeram, Navindra P; Zhang, Yanjun; Li, Luyi; Gao, Kun; Lee, Ru-Po; Wang, David C; Zerlin, Alona; Karp, Hannah; Thames, Gail; Kotlerman, Jenny; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2010-02-01

    Strawberries are known to contain antioxidants, but the significance of ingesting antioxidant-rich fruits remains to be established. In order to determine whether the consumption of strawberries impacted measures of in vivo antioxidant capacity, frozen strawberries (250 g) were administered daily for 3 weeks to 21 healthy female volunteers. Compliance was confirmed by quantitating pelargonidin-glucuronide, urolithin A-glucuronide, and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-[(2)H]furanone-glucuronide in plasma and urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and antioxidant capacity in serum measured by the increase in lag phase of low-density lipoprotein after copper sulfate exposure, DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes, and activity of phase II enzymes. Among these measures lipid peroxidation lag time increased by 20% (P < .01), whereas other measures did not change significantly. The potent antioxidant defenses in humans make determination of changes due to dietary ingestion in healthy individuals difficult. In summary, daily consumption of strawberries resulted in a modest but significant increase in antioxidant capacity in a healthy population.

  2. Relationship between Estradiol and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity of Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some evidence suggests the neuroprotection of estrogen provided by the antioxidant activity of this compound. The main objective of this study was to determine the level of estradiol and its correlation with the activity of antioxidant enzymes, total antioxidant status and ferritin from ischemic stroke subjects. The study population consisted of 30 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 30 controls. There was no significant difference between estradiol in stroke and control group. The activity of superoxide dismutase and level of ferritin was higher in stroke compared with control group (<.05, <.001, resp.. There was no significant correlation between estradiol and glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, total antioxidant status, and ferritin in stroke and control groups. We observed inverse correlation between estradiol with superoxide dismutase in males of stroke patients (=−0.54, =.029. Our results supported that endogenous estradiol of elderly men and women of stroke or control group has no antioxidant activity.

  3. Antioxidant enzymes in oral verrucous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ting-Ying; Tsai, Meng-Han; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Ger, Luo-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a non-metastasizing variant of welldifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma, which has been associated with reactive oxygen species generated by betel quid chewing. Salivary antioxidant systems have been suggested to play a protective role in reducing the oxidative damage. Herein, we investigated the difference of the enzymatic antioxidant system expressions in oral verrucous carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma. The enzymatic antioxidant system expressions, including manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a series of 202 surgically resected oral squamous cell carcinoma and 20 oral verrucous carcinoma specimens, using tissue microarray slides. The immuno-staining intensities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were strongest in the oral squamous cell carcinoma group than in verrucous carcinoma. The catalase expression showed no difference between different pathological groups. The different degrees of superoxide dismutase and glutathione expressions in verrucous carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma may be helpful for pathologists to differentiate these two entities, especially between oral verrucous carcinoma and well differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in avian semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Agnieszka; Lukaszewicz, Ewa; Niżański, Wojciech

    2012-10-01

    The present study compared the antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in semen of two avian species: chicken and goose. The experiment was conducted on Greenleg Partridge roosters and White Koluda(®) ganders, each represented by 10 mature males. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in sperm cells and seminal plasma. In gander spermatozoa, the amount of MDA was 10 times greater (Pantioxidant enzymes had greater (Pactivity in goose than chicken sperm. Catalase activity was detected in seminal plasma and spermatozoa from both studied species for the first time. In seminal plasma, the activity of GPx was two times greater (Pactivity was less (Pactivity of antioxidant defense and LPO. The greater amount of lipid peroxidation and greater activity of antioxidant enzymes in goose semen might suggest that spermatozoa were under greater oxidative stress and the enzymes were not utilized for the protection of functionally and structurally impaired cells. In turn, in fresh chicken semen a lesser activity of antioxidant enzymes accompanied with a lesser lipid peroxidation amount and good semen quality could indicate that fowl spermatozoa were under oxidative stress, but the enzymes were employed to protect and maintain sperm quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant, enzyme inhibition, and cytotoxic activity of three anthraquinones (alizarin, purpurin, and quinizarin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, G; Degirmenci, N S; Alpsoy, L; Aktumsek, A

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the cytotoxic, antioxidative, and enzyme inhibition effects of alizarin, quinizarin, and purpurin, which are anthraquinones (AQ). Cytotoxic effects were evaluated with cell inhibition rate by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Different chemical assays, including free radical scavenging activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazloine-6-sulfonic acid)), phosphomolybdenum and reducing power (ferric reducing antioxidant power and cupric ion reducing activity), were used to evaluate the antioxidant properties. Moreover, enzyme inhibitory activities were analyzed against acetylcholinesterase, butrylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase. These components have antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activity. Especially, purpurin showed the strongest antioxidant and good enzyme inhibitory effects. According to our cytotoxicity results, alizarin, purpurin, and quinizarin induced dose- and time-dependent cell proliferation. Furthermore, when we applied AQs with mitomycin C (MC) on L929 cell line, we demonstrated that cell proliferation in MC-AQ groups compared with MC group was increased. The most effective component was alizarin at 100 µM concentration. These AQs showed positive effects on L929 cell lines with high half-maximal inhibitory concentration values. Our results demonstrate that AQs may be used as antioxidative compounds in food and medicinal applications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Dietary phenylalanine-improved intestinal barrier health in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is associated with increased immune status and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes and related signalling molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Li, Wen; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Wu, Pei; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-08-01

    The present work evaluated the effects of dietary phenylalanine (Phe) on the intestinal immune response, tight junction proteins transcript abundance, and the gene expression of immune- and antioxidant-related signalling molecules in the intestine. In addition, the dietary Phe (and Phe + Tyr) requirement of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was also estimated. Fish were fed fish meal-casein-gelatin based diets (302.3 g crude protein kg(-1)) containing 3.4 (basal diet), 6.1, 9.1, 11.5, 14.0 and 16.8 g Phe kg(-1) with a fixed amount of 10.7 g tyrosine kg(-1) for 8 weeks. The results showed that Phe deficiency or excess Phe reduced the lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities and complement C 3 content in the intestine (P 0.05). Gene expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), target of rapamycin (TOR) and inhibitor of nuclear factor κBα (IκBα) in proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) increased as dietary Phe increased up to 6.1, 9.1, 11.5 and 14.0 g kg(-1), respectively (P < 0.05). However, interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) mRNA levels showed opposite tendencies. In addition, the mRNA level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower in the intestinal tissue of the group fed a diet with Phe levels of 16.8 g kg(-1) than in those of other groups (P < 0.05). The expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene was increased as dietary Phe increased up to 9.1 g kg(-1) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Phe improved intestinal immune status, and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes, NF-κB p65, IκBα, TOR, and Nrf2 in the fish intestine. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of lysozyme activity at a 95% maximum, the dietary Phe requirement of young grass carp (256-629 g) was estimated to be 8.31 g kg(-1), corresponding to 2.75 g 100 g(-1) protein.

  8. Investigation of Baseline Antioxidant Enzyme Expression in Pocillopora damicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J.; Richmond, R. H.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and valuable ecosystems in the world. Vital for maintaining ecological balance in coastal tropical environments, they also stand as the foundation for enormous cultural and economic resources. However, the continued degradation of coral reefs around the world, particularly within NOAA's Hawaii Marine Sanctuary, is an alarming call for action towards the identification of stressors and subsequent rehabilitation of these national treasures. Aligned with the goals of NOAA's National Marine Sanctuary to protect areas of the marine environment that are of special national significance to cultural, scientific, educational, and ecological values, this research targets addressing and standardizing antioxidant enzyme stress levels in Hawaiian coral over reproductive cycles in order to increase management aptitude and efficiency. By developing a greater understanding for biochemical biomarkers of stress in corals, specifically through the study of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity and expression, my research will aid in the adaptation and further development of biochemical tests to understand baseline thresholds of stress on coral reefs within Sanctuary waters. Slight, but significant variations in enzyme expression over reproductive time points alert us to modifications that must be made to consider fluctuating levels of coral susceptibility when sampling corals under stress. These findings will be applied to diagnostic tests describing the effect of different chemical pollutants on coral health in order to identify ecological issues and expand the knowledge of local communities and NOAA, so that steps can be taken to mitigate human Sanctuary impacts.

  9. Against Drought Stress Effect of Antioxidant Enzymes of Boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Doğan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soybean seeds (Glycine max. L., cv., “A3935 were grown under controlled conditions (25±2 C composed of different boron compounds. In the experiment, 5 groups were determined respectively as potassium tetraborate tetrahydrate (1 mg/1, ammonium tetraborate tetrahydrate (1 mg/1, sodium boron hydride (1 mg/1, lithium tetraborate tetrahydrate (100 mg/1, and sodium tetraborate decahydrate (100 mg/1. The doses used in this study were determined according to the results of a preliminary study. Soybean seeds were exposed to different amounts of drought stress based on time (control, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 days. Activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1, glutathione reductase (GR: EC 1.6.4.2, ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11 and catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6 measured. According to the results stress+potassium tetraborate tetrahydrate environment has increased the amount of CAT, decreased the amount GR, APX and SOD. Potassium tetraborate 0.1 mg / l dose administration is the most appropriate critical value, and the most important indicator of drought CAT enzyme found to give the best results.

  10. Trace elements as an activator of antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wołonciej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a state of impaired balance between the formation of free radicals and antioxidant capacity of the body. It causes many defects of the body, e.g. lipid peroxidation, DNA and protein damage. In order to prevent the effects of oxidative stress, the organism has developed defence mechanisms. These mechanisms capture and inhibit the formation of free radicals and also chelate ion metals that catalyse free radical reactions. Trace elements are components of antioxidant enzymes involved in antioxidant mechanisms. Selenium, as a selenocysteine, is a component of the active site of glutathione peroxidase (GPx. The main function of GPx is neutralization of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and organic peroxide (LOOH. Furthermore, selenium is a structural part of a large group of selenoproteins that are necessary for proper functioning of the body. Manganese, copper and zinc are a part of the group of superoxide dismutase enzymes (MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, which catalyse the superoxide anion dismutation into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Formed hydrogen peroxide is decomposed into water and oxygen by catalase or glutathione peroxidase. An integral component of catalase (CAT is iron ions. The concentration of these trace elements has a significant influence on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and thus on defence against oxidative stress. Even a small change in the level of trace elements in the tissue causes a disturbance in their metabolism, leading to the occurrence of many diseases.

  11. Studies on antioxidant activity of teasaponins after hydrolyzed by enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Zhao, Sen; Xu, Longquan; Fei, Xu; Wang, Xiuying; Wang, Yi

    The biological activity of teasaponins and their molecular structure are closely related, and the activity of saponins may be increased with the change of their molecular structure. In this report, teasaponins were hydrolyzed by Aspergillus niger for increasing the antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of teasaponins before and after hydrolyzed was tested by DPPH, and the result showed four new teasaponins were produced after hydrolysis, and their antioxidant activity was increased significantly than the original teasaponins before hydrolysis, the radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was partly up to 95 %.

  12. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semsang, Nuananong, E-mail: nsemsang@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, LiangDeng [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► Ion beam bombarded rice seeds in vacuum. ► Studied seed survival from the ion bombardment. ► Determined various antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level. ► Discussed vacuum, ion species and ion energy effects. ► Attributed the changes to free radical formation due to ion bombardment. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29–60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup −2}. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  13. Antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress in the erythrocytes of iron deficiency anemic patients supplemented with vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhikarmi, Nirjala Laxmi; Murthy, Kora Rudraiah Siddalinga

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Evidences from epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a possible correlation between antioxidant levels and the anemic disease risk. The present work is to investigate antioxidant levels and lipid peroxidation in anemic patients. A number of 30 patients (15 males and 15 females) were selected for the study. Likewise, 30 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were selected with their informed consent. Patients and healthy subjects were supplemented with vitamins C and E for 15 days. The lipid peroxidation both in plasma and erythrocyte lysates was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid peroxides. The antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and total antioxidant activity were also analyzed. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were also determined. Based on analysis, we found that the increase in lipid peroxidation was higher in the anemic subjects before vitamin supplementation, which was statistically significant at Pantioxidant enzymes were higher in the patients before antioxidant supplementation when compared with patients after vitamin supplementation. Our data revealed higher oxidative stress before vitamin supplementation in iron deficiency anemic patients and after supplementation, lower lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant vitamins were achieved.

  14. Effects of Buyang Huanwu Decoction on antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xing-Hua; Shi, Wei-Zhou; Cheng, Yun-Xiang; Yang, Xiu-Fen

    2014-06-01

    To study the effect of Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD) on the antioxidant enzymes and drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver. Following treatment of rats with BYHWD at 6.42, 12.83, or 25.66 g·kg(-1) per day for 15 days, microsomes and cytosols isolated from the liver tissues were prepared by differential centrifugation according to standard procedures. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes and cytochrome b5, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, CYP3A, CYP2E1, UGT, and GST of the rat livers were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The activities of ALT, AST, antioxidant enzymes, and the Hepatosomatic Index in serum were not significantly affected. In cytosols, the activity of CAT was significantly increased at the dosage of 12.83 g·kg(-1), and all the other antioxidant activities and MDA levels were not affected by this treatment. BYHWD had no effect on cytochrome b5, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, CYP3A, and UGT. At the highest dose (25.66 g·kg(-1)), the activity of CYP2E1 was significantly inhibited, and the activities of GST and the level of GSH were increased. BYHWD is safe for the liver, and has the functions of detoxification and antioxidant. Patients should be cautioned about the herb-drug interaction of BYHWD and CYP2E1 substrates. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are Affected by Drought in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fghire, Rachid; Ali, Oudou Issa; Anaya, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Changes in water availability are responsible for a variety of biochemical stress responses in plant organisms. Stress induced by this factor may be associated with enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generations, which cause oxidative damage. In the present study we investigated the activities...... of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenoloxydase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), measured at flowering in quinoa, subjected to varying levels of drought stress. Drought levels were 100, 50 and 33% of evapotranspiration (ETc), and rainfed. Compared to full water supply (100%ETc...... increased in all treatments. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in quinoa plant exposed to drought stress....

  16. Indirect evaluation of corneal apoptosis in contact lens wearers by estimation of nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes in tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Contact lens induced trauma to the corneal epithelium results in increased release of inflammatory mediators. The keratocyte apoptosis is directly related to epithelial injury and has been correlated with increased production of nitric oxide. Potent antioxidant enzymes protect cells from oxidative damage by inactivating reactive oxygen species and thus inhibiting apoptosis. This study aims at determination of total nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes in tears which will be an indirect criteria for assessing apoptosis. Materials and Methods : Nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes were estimated in tears of 25 soft contact lens wearers and compared with 25 age and sex matched controls. Results : Statistically significant increase of nitric oxide (P< 0.001, superoxide dismutase (P< 0.001 and glutathione peroxidase (P< 0.001 levels was seen in tears of contact lens wearers as compared to controls. There was also statistically significant increase in the levels of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (P< 0.05 and glutathione peroxidase (P< 0.01, with increase in the total duration of contact lens wear in years. Conclusions : Increase in the level of nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes in tears of contact lens wearers suggested that contact lens wear suppresses the process of apoptosis. However, it was also postulated that the increased levels of nitric oxide balances the anti-apoptotic activities of increased levels of antioxidant enzymes by its pro-apoptotic activity leading to protective outcomes in contact lens wearers.

  17. Neuroprotective effect of ginger on anti-oxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Kondeti Ramudu; Mallikarjuna, Korivi; Kesireddy, Nishanth; Sathyavelu Reddy, Kesireddy

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginger on oxidative stress markers in the mitochondrial fractions of cerebral cortex (CC), cerebellum (CB), hippocampus (HC) and hypothalamus (HT) of diabetic rats. Diabetes exacerbates neuronal injury induced by hyperglycemia mediated oxidative damage. A marked decrease in anti-oxidant marker enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) was observed in the diabetic rats. Decreased activities of anti-oxidant enzymes in diabetic rats were augmented on oral administration of ginger. Moreover, ginger administration depleted the MDA level, which was earlier increased in the diabetic rats. These results suggest that ginger exhibit a neuroprotective effect by accelerating brain anti-oxidant defense mechanisms and down regulating the MDA levels to the normal levels in the diabetic rats. Thus, ginger may be used as therapeutic agent in preventing complications in diabetic patients.

  18. Major shifts in the spatio-temporal distribution of lung antioxidant enzymes during influenza pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Yamada

    Full Text Available With the incessant challenge of exposure to the air we breathe, lung tissue suffers the highest levels of oxygen tension and thus requires robust antioxidant defenses. Furthermore, following injury or infection, lung tissue faces the additional challenge of inflammation-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS. Little is known about the identity or distribution of lung antioxidant enzymes under normal conditions or during infection-induced inflammation. Using a mouse model of influenza (H1N1 influenza virus A/PR/8/34 [PR8] in combination with bioinformatics, we identified seven lung-abundant antioxidant enzymes: Glutathione peroxidase 3 (Gpx3, Superoxide dismutase 3 (Sod3, Transferrin (Tf, peroxyredoxin6 (Prdx6, glutathione S-transferase kappa 1 (Gstk1, Catalase (Cat, and Glutathione peroxidase 8 (Gpx8. Interestingly, despite the demand for antioxidants during inflammation, influenza caused depletion in two key antioxidants: Cat and Prdx6. As Cat is highly expressed in Clara cells, virus-induced Clara cell loss contributes to the depletion in Cat. Prdx6 is also reduced due to Clara cell loss, however there is a coincident increase in Prdx6 levels in the alveoli, resulting in only a subtle reduction of Prdx6 overall. Analogously, Gpx3 shifts from the basement membranes underlying the bronchioles and blood vessels to the alveoli, thus maintaining balanced expression. Taken together, these studies identify key lung antioxidants and reveal their distribution among specific cell types. Furthermore, results show that influenza depletes key antioxidants, and that in some cases there is coincident increased expression, consistent with compensatory expression. Given that oxidative stress is known to be a key risk factor during influenza infection, knowledge about the antioxidant repertoire of lungs, and the spatio-temporal distribution of antioxidants, contributes to our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of influenza

  19. Differential effects of antipsychotics on expression of antioxidant enzymes and membrane lipid peroxidation in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Vinay; Khan, Mohammad M; Mahadik, Sahebarao P

    2003-01-01

    Typical and atypical antipsychotics significantly differ in their neurotransmitter receptor affinity profiles, and their efficacy and side effects in schizophrenic patients. Typical antipsychotics have been found to increase the oxidative (i.e. free radical-mediated) cellular injury in rats. Since schizophrenia also involves oxidative injury, the understanding of differential effects of these antipsychotics on expression of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative injury may be very critical. The effect of chronic exposure of haloperidol (HAL), a typical antipsychotic, was compared to effects of risperidone (RIS) or clozapine (CLZ) or olanzapine (OLZ), atypical antipsychotics on antioxidant defense enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the rat brain. The levels of antioxidant enzymes and hydroxyalkenals (HAEs) were measured in rat brain cytosol and fatty acids were measured in brain cell membranes. Chronic HAL treatment for both 45 and 90 days significantly decreased manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and catalase (CAT) activity with parallel marked increase in (HAEs), a marker of lipid peroxidation in rat brain. The levels of enzymatic activity very well correlated with the levels of enzyme proteins indicating that the changes were probably in the expression of net protein. However, RIS, CLZ and OLZ treatments did not produce any alterations in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and HAEs, both after 45 and 90 days. There were no alterations in the levels of saturated as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids in brain membranes. These findings indicate that chronic administration of HAL, but none of the studied atypicals induce oxidative stress by persistent changes in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and cause membrane lipid peroxidation.

  20. Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Glutathione Precursor on Antioxidant Enzyme and Cell Survival in Yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinkyu; Roh, Changhyun; Ryu, Taeho; Park, Jiyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Michael A. [Oxiage Cosmeceutical Research Institute, Virginia (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Cells react to such an induced oxidative stress through scavenging the generated reactive oxygen species to reduce oxidative damage. Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase are immediately triggered for reactive oxygen species. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, is one of the antioxidants. The effect of NAC as an antioxidant and/or a cell rescue agent was investigated in the present study. Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant intracellular thiol, which involves in antioxidant defense via direct interaction with ROS or via activities of detoxication enzymes like glutathione peroxidases (GPx). NAC flowed in the cell is converted to cysteine by deacetylation, that is supplied to the depleted GSH by oxidative stress. NAC prevents the depletion of GSH by radiation, increases the production of GSH, and improves enzymes activity such as GPx and alkaline phosphatase. Cell growth and survivorship and transcriptional level of glutathione gene are analyzed in two yeast strains exposed to combined treatment of NAC with gamma-rays. The effect of NAC on cell growth was measured during 72 hours. The cell growth was hampered by higher concentrations of NAC at stationary phase. NAC, however, didn't affect the cell division at the exponential phase. The survival of the cells decreased with radiation dose. The cell viability of the strain W303-1A was reduced significantly at the low dose (10 and 30 Gy). By comparison, the strain W303-1A was more sensitive to radiation with having a half lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) of about 20 Gy. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcriptional expression of antioxidant enzyme gene GPX1 increased after irradiation while the expression of the gene decreased by the combined treatment of NAC with 100 Gy radiation. The present study shows that NAC can directly scavenge ROS against oxidative stress in vivo. In conclusion, NAC can prevent radiation-induced oxidative

  1. [Photodynamic reaction and oxidative stress - influence of the photodynamic effect on the activity antioxidant enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romiszewska, Anna; Nowak-Stępniowska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of light with a photosensitizer, accumulated in a tissue in the presence of oxygen, leads to formation of reactive oxygen species, mainly of singlet oxygen and free radicals. These factors react with biomolecules producing their oxidized states. Reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen and free radicals are able to damage membranes, DNA, enzymes, structural peptides and other cellular structures leading to cell death. An antioxidant protection of cell is formed by enzymes belonging to the family of oxidoreductases: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR). Photodynamic therapy leads to the increased production of oxidizing toxic forms. It is important to analyze impact of PDT on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, CAT, GPx. The activity of antioxidant enzymes during the photodynamic effect is influenced by both the light energy dose and the concentration of photosensitizer. The presence only of the photosensitizer or only the light energy may also result in changes in the activity of these enzymes. The differences in changes in the activity of these enzymes depend on the type of used photosensitizer. A phenomenon of selective accumulation of photosensitizer in tumor tissues is used in the photodynamic method of tumor diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Lifestyle predictors of oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant capacity in healthy women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Amjad A; Zhang, Yali; Zhao, Hua; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hong, Chi-Chen

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify demographic and modifiable lifestyle factors that may be related to endogenous oxidant and antioxidant activity measured in blood specimens from putatively healthy women recruited at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, NY, USA). Total glutathione (TGSH), catalase (CAT), CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured in 124 healthy women, and associations with epidemiological factors were tested using general linear models. There were significant differences in oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities according to lifestyle factors, after adjusting for duration of blood storage and season of blood draw. Compared to women who consumed ≤2.8 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, those consuming >5.3 servings had on average 31 % lower MPO activity (p-trend = 0.02), as a marker of oxidative stress, 16 % higher antioxidant GPx activity (p-trend = 0.08), and 9 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.05). Obese women (body mass index, BMI ≥ 30) in contrast showed 17 % lower antioxidant GPx activity, 44 % higher MPO activity (p-trend = 0.03), and 10 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.03) compared to women with normal BMI levels were most strongly associated with increasing age (standardized β = 0.40, p levels, multivitamin use, and alcohol intake were not associated with TAC. Our data indicate that endogenous oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities are associated with lifestyle factors and, therefore, may be potentially modifiable, with implications for risk reduction of chronic conditions related to oxidative stress.

  3. EFFECTS OF SALT CONCENTRATIONS ON ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY OF GRAIN SORGHUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridvan Temizgul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine salt response of grain sorghum (Sureno plants through antioxidant defense enzymes and to determine their salt resistanceat biochemical level. Sorghum plants were grown in climate chambers for 15 days in 3 replications in Hoagland growth medium under different salt concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 mM. At the end of growing period, roots and leaves were separated and the effects of salt stress were assessed spectrophotometrically through antioxidant enzymes, chlorophyll and carotenes. Root CAT increased until 100 mM, SOD, APX and GST activities increased with increasing salt concentrations until 150 mM and then they all decreased. Increasing salt concentrations elevated MDA accumulation in sorghum roots. Leaf SOD and APX activities and proline contents increased until 150 mM and CAT, GR and GST activities increased until 100 mM and then they all decreased. Leaf MDA contents also increased with higher salt concentrations. However, increasing salt concentrations decreased chlorophyll contents at 100 mM, carotene contents increased until 150 mM and then decreased. Although ascending antioxidant enzyme activity improved salt resistance of sorghum plants, increasing concentrations were not found to be sufficient. Thus, further studies with higher concentrations should be carried out to elucidate the case.

  4. Role of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant compound probucol in antiradical protection of pancreatic beta-cells during alloxan-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankin, V Z; Korchin, V I; Konovalova, G G; Lisina, M O; Tikhaze, A K; Akmaev, I G

    2004-01-01

    The severity of disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes depended on activity of antioxidant enzymes in the target organ (pancreas). Damage to the pancreas is related to intensive generation of reactive oxygen species, free radicals, and lipid peroxides. Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats is a free radical disease, which in vivo serves as a useful model for the search for pharmacological preparations with antiradical and antioxidant properties. The antioxidant compound probucol indirectly increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in the pancreas and prevented the development of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Our results indicate that different sensitivity of laboratory animals of various species (rats and guinea pigs) to the influence of alloxan is associated with abnormal variations in activity of enzymes utilizing reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides in mammalian pancreatic cells.

  5. Natural Antioxidants, Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes of Different Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eqbal M.A. Dauqan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant plays a very important role in the body defense system against Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. The free radicals also play an important role in combustion, atmospheric chemistry, biochemistry and biotechnology including human physiology. Fats and oils are energy sources that are composed mostly of triacylglycerols. Lipid ptofile are risk indicators of coronary heart disease. Various types of lipoproteins exist, but the two most abundant are Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL and High-density Lipoprotein (HDL. Lipid peroxidation is the introduction of a functional group containing two catenated oxygyen atomsinto unsturated fatty acids in a free radical reaction. Life in oxygen has led to the evolution of biochemical adaptations that exploit the reactivity of Active Oxygen Species (AOS. Antioxidant enzymes are an important protective mechanism ROS. This paper highlight the functions of antioxidants in the blood and selected organs associated with health.

  6. Biobehavioral and neuroendocrine correlates of antioxidant enzyme activity in ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Jennifer L; Spitz, Douglas R; Christensen, Desire; McCormick, Michael L; Farley, Donna; DeGeest, Koen; Damoush, Laila; Aust, Samantha; Sood, Anil K; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2015-11-01

    Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide have been reported in many cancer cells and they have been implicated in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Antioxidant enzymes, such as Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD or SOD2) and Glutathione Peroxidase-1 (GPx1), act coordinately to neutralize ROS. These enzymes are also thought to contribute to cancer cell resistance to conventional radio-chemo-therapies. Although some relationships have been reported between psychosocial factors and the regulation of antioxidant enzymes, little is known about these relationships in the context of cancer progression. The current study investigated the levels of MnSOD and GPx1in confirmed serous, high-grade tumor tissue from 60 ovarian cancer patients, and explored the relationship between the activity of these enzymes, the levels of tumor norepinephrine (NE), and patient mood as determined via pre-operative questionnaires. MnSOD activity was positively related to depressed mood (p=0.025) and tumor NE (p=0.023). In contrast, GPx1 activity was inversely related to fatigue (p=0.015) and tumor NE (p=0.009), and was positively associated with vigor (p=0.024). These findings suggest that psychological state and adrenergic signaling are linked with antioxidant enzyme activity in ovarian cancer and may have implications for patient treatments and outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Protective role of selenium in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in piglet splenic lymphocytes exposed to deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemei; Zuo, Zhicai; Zhao, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhuo; Peng, Guangneng; Cao, Suizhong; Hu, Yanchun; Yu, Shumin; Zhong, Zhijun; Deng, Junliang; Ren, Zhihua

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of selenium (Se) on antioxidant enzymes of piglet splenic lymphocytes exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON). We measured cell viability, the activities of several antioxidant enzymes, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We found that DON exposure increased the concentrations of LDH, MDA, and H2O2 in all experimental groups in a dose-dependent manner, while the concentrations of other antioxidant enzymes were decreased. In Se-pretreated DON-exposed cells, damage to antioxidant enzymes was reduced, especially in the lower-dose DON groups over longer exposure times. These results may indicate that in piglet splenic lymphocytes, Se can alleviate DON-induced damage to antioxidant enzymes by improving glutathione peroxidase activity. Se may function as a potential antioxidative agent to alleviate DON-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lipoamide Acts as an Indirect Antioxidant by Simultaneously Stimulating Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Phase II Antioxidant Enzyme Systems in ARPE-19 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lin; Liu, Zhongbo; Jia, Haiqun; Feng, Zhihui; Liu, Jiankang; Li, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, we found that pretreatment with lipoamide (LM) more effectively than alpha-lipoic acid (LA) protected retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from the acrolein-induced damage. However, the reasons and mechanisms for the greater effect of LM than LA are unclear. We hypothesize that LM, rather than the more direct antioxidant LA, may act more as an indirect antioxidant. In the present study, we treated ARPE-19 cells with LA and LM and compared their effects on activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and induction of phase II enzyme systems. It is found that LM is more effective than LA on increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and inducing the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its translocation to the nucleus, leading to an increase in expression or activity of phase II antioxidant enzymes (NQO-1, GST, GCL, catalase and Cu/Zn SOD). Further study demonstrated that mitochondrial biogenesis and phase II enzyme induction are closely coupled via energy requirements. These results suggest that LM, compared with the direct antioxidant LA, plays its protective effect on oxidative damage more as an indirect antioxidant to simultaneously stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and induction of phase II antioxidant enzymes.

  9. The Antioxidant Profiles, Lysosomal and Membrane Enzymes Activity in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnerowicz, Halina; Bukowski, Radosław; Jabłonowska, Monika; Ściskalska, Milena; Milnerowicz, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6, play an important role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. The study was aimed to assess the degree of the pro/antioxidative imbalance and estimate which antioxidant plays a role in the maintenance of pro/antioxidative balance during acute pancreatitis. The study was investigated in the blood of 32 patients with acute pancreatitis and 37 healthy subjects. IL-6 concentration as early marker of inflammation was determinated. The intensity of oxidative stress was assessed by TBARS concentration. To investigate antioxidative status, the GPx and Cu/Zn SOD activities and the levels of GSH, MT, SH groups, and TRAP were measured. The concentrations of Cu and Zn as ions participating in the maintenance of antioxidant enzymes stability and playing a role in the course of disease were determinated. The activities of GGT, AAP, NAG, and β-GD as markers of tissue damage were also measured. An increase in IL-6 concentration, which correlated with Ranson criteria, and an increase in GPx activity, levels of MT, TBARS, or GGT, and NAG activities in patients group compared to healthy subjects were demonstrated. A decrease in GSH level in patients group compared to control group was noted. The studies suggest that GPx/GSH and MT play the role of the first line of defence against oxidative stress and pro/antioxidant imbalance in the course of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25298618

  10. The Antioxidant Profiles, Lysosomal and Membrane Enzymes Activity in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Milnerowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6, play an important role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. The study was aimed to assess the degree of the pro/antioxidative imbalance and estimate which antioxidant plays a role in the maintenance of pro/antioxidative balance during acute pancreatitis. The study was investigated in the blood of 32 patients with acute pancreatitis and 37 healthy subjects. IL-6 concentration as early marker of inflammation was determinated. The intensity of oxidative stress was assessed by TBARS concentration. To investigate antioxidative status, the GPx and Cu/Zn SOD activities and the levels of GSH, MT, SH groups, and TRAP were measured. The concentrations of Cu and Zn as ions participating in the maintenance of antioxidant enzymes stability and playing a role in the course of disease were determinated. The activities of GGT, AAP, NAG, and β-GD as markers of tissue damage were also measured. An increase in IL-6 concentration, which correlated with Ranson criteria, and an increase in GPx activity, levels of MT, TBARS, or GGT, and NAG activities in patients group compared to healthy subjects were demonstrated. A decrease in GSH level in patients group compared to control group was noted. The studies suggest that GPx/GSH and MT play the role of the first line of defence against oxidative stress and pro/antioxidant imbalance in the course of acute pancreatitis.

  11. The influence of cadmium on the antioxidant enzyme activities in polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiutang; Chen, Aihua; Zhou, Yibing; Liu, Haiying; Yang, Dazuo

    2010-07-01

    The infaunal polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube, distributed widely along Asian coasts and estuaries, is considered a useful animal model in ecotoxicological tests and a promising candidate in biomonitoring programs. This paper deals with the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Px) in infaunal polychaete P. aibuhitensis exposed to a series of sublethal water-bound cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 0.34, 1.72, 3.44, 6.89, and 17.22 mg L-1) under a short-term exposure (1-8 d). The results indicate that the SOD and GSH-Px activities in P. aibuhitensis are stimulated first and then renewed to the original level. The CAT activity of worms decreases at an earlier exposure time but increases to the control values at a later exposure time. Our study suggests that Cd can interfere with the antioxidant defense system of P. aibuhitensis. However, the changes in antioxidant enzyme activities for this species do not show the best promise as biomarkers in Cd biomonitoring of estuarine and coastal zones because weak or non-dose-effect relationships between the antioxidant enzymes activities and Cd levels are found.

  12. Wheat bran feruloyl oligosaccharides modulate the phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes via Nrf2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yingli; Sun, Baoguo

    2015-03-01

    The antioxidant activities of wheat bran feruloyl oligosaccharides (FOs) were determined in rats by determining the activities and mRNA expression levels of phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rat organs. FOs was given by gavage at doses of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mmol/kg body weight every day for 15 days. Compared with the control group, the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px in FOs treatment groups significantly (Plevels of SOD, CAT, and HO-1 in organs. Moreover, the immunoblot analysis revealed increased nuclear factor-E2-related factor (Nrf2) protein expression levels in organs and there were positive correlations between the mRNA expression of phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes and the expressions of Nrf2 protein, which demonstrated FOs treatment could modulate the detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes via Nrf2 signaling. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes in non-obese type-2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Chang Seon; Oh, Soo Jin; Oh, Jung Min; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kwak, Hui Chan; Yun, Kang Uk; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Park, Song-Kyu; Kim, Bong-Hee; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Sang Kyum

    2014-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus and its complications have been attributed in part to oxidative stress, against which antioxidant enzymes constitute a major protective mechanism. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of early stage type 2 diabetes in the absence of obesity and liver damage on hepatic antioxidant enzyme expression and oxidative stress using 9-week-old Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Hepatic total antioxidant capacity determined by total oxygen radical scavenging capacity and lipid peroxidation determined by malondialdehyde in plasma and liver were not significantly different between normal Wistar rats and GK rats. These results indicated that oxidative stress is not evident in these type 2 diabetic rats. Hepatic expression levels of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase-1, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase, thioredoxin-1, mu- and pi-class glutathione S-transferase (GST), and the gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit, were not different between normal rats and GK rats. But, hepatic level and activity of alpha-class GST were decreased and peroxiredoxin-1 level was increased in GK rats, suggesting that upregulation of peroxiredoxin-1 compensates for downregulation of alpha-class GST. These results suggest that alpha-class GST and peroxiredoxin-1 in liver can be altered during the early stages of type 2 diabetes in the absence of obesity and severe oxidative stress.

  14. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in endometrium of patients with polyps, myoma, hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajović Snežana B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant system have been proposed as a potential factors involved in the pathophysiology of diverse disease states, including carcinogenesis. In this study, we explored the lipid peroxidation levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in women diagnosed with different forms of gynecological diseases in order to evaluate the antioxidant status in endometrium of such patients. Methods Endometrial tissues of gynecological patients with different diagnoses were collected and subjected to assays for superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and lipid hydroperoxides. Results Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased (50% in average in hyperplastic and adenocarcinoma patients. Activities of both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were increased 60% and 100% on average, in hyperplastic patients, while in adenocarcinoma patients only glutathione reductase activity was elevated 100%. Catalase activity was significantly decreased in adenocarcinoma patients (47%. Lipid hydroperoxides level was negatively correlated to superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and positively correlated to glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. Conclusions This study provided the first comparison of antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in endometrial tissues of patients with polyps, myoma, hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma. The results showed that patients with premalignant (hyperplastic and malignant (adenocarcinoma lesions had enhanced lipid peroxidation and altered uterine antioxidant enzyme activities than patients with benign uterine diseases, polyps and myoma, although the extent of disturbance varied with the diagnosis. Further investigation is needed to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the observed alterations and whether lipid hydroperoxide levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in uterus of gynecological patients

  15. Study of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels in tobacco chewers and smokers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Sirisha, Chundru Venkata; Manohar, Ram M

    2013-01-01

    Free radical associated damages play a major role in causation of cancer in tobacco habituates. The free radicals released by tobacco bring about alterations in antioxidant levels in humans and these free radical associated damages are reflected through antioxidant enzyme activities in blood. To evaluate the effects of tobacco consumption on the erythrocyte Antioxidant enzymes-Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) as they act as first line of defense antioxidants. A case control study comprising of 4 study groups of healthy controls (n = 27), smokers (n = 27), tobacco chewers (n = 30) and combination habit (n = 22) were included. Erythrocyte SOD and GPx enzyme activities were measured by spectrophotometry. The results were statistically analyzed using one way-Anova and Mann Whitney test. The data analysis revealed an alteration in mean SOD levels as it was decreased in cases compared to control group where as mean GPx was seen to be increased in cases compared to controls. When SOD and GPx were compared for the frequency and duration of habit, GPx showed a significant decrease in chewers with increase in frequency and duration of habit. The present study gave us an insight about the relationship between antioxidant enzyme activity, oxidative stress and tobacco. The altered antioxidant enzyme levels observed in this study will act as a predictor for pre potentially malignant lesions. Therefore an early intervention of tobacco habit and its related oxidative stress would prevent the development of tobacco induced lesions.

  16. Endothelial delivery of antioxidant enzymes loaded into non-polymeric magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorny, Michael; Hood, Elizabeth; Levy, Robert J; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2010-08-17

    Antioxidant enzymes have shown promise as a therapy for pathological conditions involving increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However the efficiency of their use for combating oxidative stress is dependent on the ability to achieve therapeutically adequate levels of active enzymes at the site of ROS-mediated injury. Thus, the implementation of antioxidant enzyme therapy requires a strategy enabling both guided delivery to the target site and effective protection of the protein in its active form. To address these requirements we developed magnetically responsive nanoparticles (MNP) formed by precipitation of calcium oleate in the presence of magnetite-based ferrofluid (controlled aggregation/precipitation) as a carrier for magnetically guided delivery of therapeutic proteins. We hypothesized that antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), can be protected from proteolytic inactivation by encapsulation in MNP. We also hypothesized that catalase-loaded MNP applied with a high-gradient magnetic field can rescue endothelial cells from hydrogen peroxide toxicity in culture. To test these hypotheses, a family of enzyme-loaded MNP formulations were prepared and characterized with respect to their magnetic properties, enzyme entrapment yields and protection capacity. SOD- and catalase-loaded MNP were formed with average sizes ranging from 300 to 400 nm, and a protein loading efficiency of 20-33%. MNP were strongly magnetically responsive (magnetic moment at saturation of 14.3 emu/g) in the absence of magnetic remanence, and exhibited a protracted release of their cargo protein in plasma. Catalase stably associated with MNP was protected from proteolysis and retained 20% of its initial enzymatic activity after 24h of exposure to pronase. Under magnetic guidance catalase-loaded MNP were rapidly taken up by cultured endothelial cells providing increased resistance to oxidative stress (62+/-12% cells rescued from hydrogen peroxide induced

  17. Growth, osmolyte concentration and antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of Sesuvium portulacastrum L. under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, P Ramesh; Deepa, S; Kanth, Swarna V; Rengasamy, R

    2013-12-01

    In this study, growth and osmolyte concentration in the leaves of halophyte, Sesuvium portulacastrum, were studied with respect to salinity. Therefore, the changes in shoot growth, leaf tissue water content, osmolyte concentration (proline content, glycine betaine) and antioxidant enzymes [polyphenol oxidase (PPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)] were investigated. The 30-day old S. portulacastrum plants were subjected to 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mM NaCl for 28 days. The plant growth was steadily increased up to 500 mM NaCl stress at 28 days. TWC was higher in 300 mM NaCl treated leaves than that of 600 mM NaCl. Salinity stress induced the accumulation of osmolyte concentration when compared to control during the study period. The antioxidant enzymes PPO, CAT and SOD were increased under salinity.

  18. Salt-induced hydrogen peroxide is involved in modulation of antioxidant enzymes in cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Xiangqian Li; Jinyao Li; Qian Bao; Fuchun Zhang; Gulinuer Tulaxi; Zhicai Wang

    2016-01-01

    Salt severely restricts cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) growth and production. The present study was undertaken to study the effect of salt-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on antioxidant enzymes in cotton. NaCl treatment or exogenous H2O2 was used to investigate the relationship between H2O2 content and levels of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), as well as the transcriptional levels of corresponding genes. H2O2 content increased within 24 h following 200 mmol L–1 NaCl treatment. Both NaCl-induced and exogenous H2O2 increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes including APX and SOD and upregulated the transcriptional levels of GhcAPX1, GhFeSOD, and GhchlCSD. These increased activities and upregulated transcriptional levels were inhibited when the salt-induced H2O2 was scavenged by NAC. These results indicate that salt-induced H2O2 as a second signaling messenger modulates APX and SOD activities by regulating the transcription levels of corresponding genes, alleviating oxidative stress, and increasing salt tolerance in cotton.

  19. Antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes status of rats fed on n-3 PUFA rich Garden cress (Lepidium Sativum L) seed oil and its blended oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesha, Shankar Shetty; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2015-04-01

    Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L) seed oil (GCO) is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 33.6 %) and the oil has a fairly balanced SFA, MUFA and PUFA ratio. In this study we have investigated the effect of GCO and its blends with n-6 PUFA rich edible vegetable oils sunflower oil (SFO), rice bran oil (RBO) and sesame oil (SESO) on antioxidant status of oils and antioxidative enzymes in Wistar rats. Physical blending of GCO with n-6 PUFA rich vegetable oils (SFO, RBO and SESO) increased content of natural antioxidants such as tocopherols, oryzanol and lignans, decreased the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and improved the radical scavenging activity of blended oils. Dietary feeding of GCO and its blended oils for 60 days, increased the tocopherols levels (12.2-21.6 %) and activity of antioxidant enzymes namely catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), but did not affect the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in liver compared to native oil fed rats. Thus, blending of GCO with other vegetable oil decreased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (>2.0) and dietary feeding of GCO blended oils increased the antioxidant status and activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and GPx) in experimental rats.

  20. Transgenerational stress memory in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.: antioxidative enzymes and HSP70

    OpenAIRE

    Ćuk, Katarina; Gogalo, Marko; Tkalec, Mirta; Vidaković-Cifrek, Željka

    2010-01-01

    Transgenerational transmission of information about stress exposure is manifested as an increase in the somatic homologous recombination frequency in plants. Our aim was to investigate whether information about changes of antioxidative enzyme activities and protein HSP70 induction are also transmitted in response to stress caused by UV-C irradiation. These stress indicators were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to UV-C irradiation (6 and 600 J m-2) and its non-irradiated pr...

  1. Effects of smokeless dipping tobacco (Naswar) consumption on antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in its users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Faiza; Bano, Samina

    2015-09-01

    Dipping tobacco, traditionally referred to as moist snuff, is a type of finely ground, moistened smokeless tobacco product. Naswar is stuffed in the floor of the mouth under the lower lip, or inside the cheek, for extended periods of time. Tobacco use causes dyslipidemia and also induces oxidative stress, leading to alteration in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in turn play a vital role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies conducted on smokeless tobacco products reveal contradictory findings regarding its effects on lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes. As use of Naswar is quite common in Pakistan, the current study aimed to evaluate levels of the antioxidant enzymes viz glutathione per oxidase (GPx) and super oxide dismutase (SOD), alongside lipid profile parameters such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to assess the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in Naswar users.90 Healthy males aged 16-43 years, who consumed Naswar daily, were selected for the study, alongside 68 age-matched non-tobacco users as controls. Both GPx and SOD levels as well as serum HDL-C were significantly reduced (Pantioxidant enzymes thereby placing its consumers at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  2. Antioxidant Activity and Induction of mRNA Expressions of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Mangmool, Supachoke; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2015-08-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera, collected in different provinces in Thailand, were determined for the contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids, major components, and antioxidant activity. The extract and its major active components were investigated for the inhibition of H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production and the effects on antioxidant enzymes mRNA expression. The extract, crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin, significantly reduced the reactive oxygen species production inducing by H2O2 in HEK-293 cells. Treatment with isoquercetin significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and heme oxygenase 1. These results confirm that M. oleifera leaves are good sources of natural antioxidant with isoquercetin as an active compound. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Effect of Cross-Sex Hormonal Replacement on Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Retroperitoneal Fat Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez Espejel, Rodrigo; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Pavón, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    We report the effect of cross-sex hormonal replacement on antioxidant enzymes from rat retroperitoneal fat adipocytes. Eight rats of each gender were assigned to each of the following groups: control groups were intact female or male (F and M, resp.). Experimental groups were ovariectomized F (OvxF), castrated M (CasM), OvxF plus testosterone (OvxF + T), and CasM plus estradiol (CasM + E2) groups. After sacrifice, retroperitoneal fat was dissected and processed for histology. Adipocytes were isolated and the following enzymatic activities were determined: Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). Also, glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured. In OvxF, retroperitoneal fat increased and adipocytes were enlarged, while in CasM rats a decrease in retroperitoneal fat and small adipocytes are observed. The cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats was associated with larger adipocytes and a further decreased activity of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, and GSH, in addition to an increase in LPO. CasM + E2 exhibited the opposite effects showing further activation antioxidant enzymes and decreases in LPO. In conclusion, E2 deficiency favors an increase in retroperitoneal fat and large adipocytes. Cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats aggravates the condition by inhibiting antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27630756

  4. Therapeutic potential and biological role of endogenous antioxidant enzymes in multiple sclerosis pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreibelt, Gerty; van Horssen, Jack; van Rossum, Saskia; Dijkstra, Christine D; Drukarch, Benjamin; de Vries, Helga E

    2007-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species contribute to the formation and persistence of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions by acting on distinct pathological processes. To counteract the detrimental effects of ROS the central nervous system is endowed with a protective mechanism consisting of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Expression of most antioxidant enzymes is regulated through the transcription factor nuclear factor-E2-related factor (Nrf2) and antioxidant response elements (ARE) in the genes encoding enzymatic antioxidants and is induced by oxidative stress. In brain tissue of MS patients, enhanced expression of Nrf2/ARE-regulated antioxidants is suggestive of the occurrence of oxidative stress in these lesions. Antioxidant therapy may therefore represent an attractive treatment of MS. Several studies have shown that antioxidant therapy is beneficial in vitro and in vivo in animal models for MS. However, the use of exogenous antioxidants for MS treatment has drawbacks, as large amounts of antioxidants are required to achieve functional antioxidant levels in the central nervous system. Therefore, the induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes by activators of the Nrf2/ARE pathway may be an interesting approach to obtain sufficient levels of antioxidants to interfere with pathological processes underlying MS lesion formation. In this review we summarize and discuss the biological role, regulation and potential therapeutic effects of endogenous antioxidant enzymes in MS. We propose that antioxidants may inhibit the development and progression of MS lesions and may therefore represent an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of MS and other oxidative stress-related neurological diseases.

  5. The effect of bilirubin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in cumene hydroperoxide-treated erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilkaya, A; Yeğin, A; Ozdem, S; Aksu, T A

    1998-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that bilirubin may act as a potent biological chain-breaking antioxidant. To observe the effects of free bilirubin on antioxidant reactions in cumene hydroperoxide-treated erythrocytes (15 g hemoglobin/dl), we added bilirubin at four different concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, and 10 mg/dl). We measured the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and reduced glutathione levels, and some antioxidant enzyme activities, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and chemiluminescent signals decreased during the incubation. Superoxide dismutase activities also decreased but not as much as in the control group. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities and reduced glutathione levels increased, but catalase activities remained the same as the control group. Our results suggest that bilirubin--in the concentrations we have used--partially prevented the oxidant effects of cumene hydroperoxide.

  6. Effect of sound wave stress on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of Dendrobium candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao; Wei, Jinmin; Wei, Xiaolan; Tang, Kun; Liang, Yilong; Shu, Kunxian; Wang, Bochu

    2008-06-01

    The effect of sound wave stress on important medicinal plant, Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl, was investigated, including the responses on malondialdehyde (MDA) content, the activities change of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Results were found that the activities of SOD, CAT, POD and APX enhanced totally in different organs of D. candidum, as leaves, stems and roots, in response to the stress. Furthermore there happened similar shift of antioxidant enzymes activities, which increased in the initial stimulation and decreased afterwards. Data showed SOD, CAT, POD and APX activities ascended to max at day 9, 6, 9 and 12 in leaves, at day 9, 6, 12 and 9 in stems, and at day 12, 6, 9 and 9 in roots, respectively. As a lipid peroxidation parameter, MDA content in different organs increased in the beginning, dropped afterward, and increased again in the late. Anyway the total trend was the rise of MDA level compared to the control. It was interesting that the MDA content appeared the lowest levels almost when the antioxidant enzymes activities were up to the highest. Our results demonstrated the different organs of D. candidum might produce accumulation of active oxygen species (AOS) under initial treatment of sound wave stress. Later AOS might start to reduce due to the enhancement of antioxidant enzymes activities treated by the stress. The data revealed that the antioxidant metabolism was to be important in determining the ability of plants to survive in sound stress, and the up regulation of these enzymes activities would help to reduce the build up of AOS, which could protect plant cells from oxidative damage. Moreover, different cell compartments might activate different defensive system to reduce excessive amount of AOS. Finally the mechanism of this action was also discussed simply.

  7. ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY AND FRESH-CUT ARRACACHA QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hêmina Carla Vilela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The arracacha is an alternative of fresh-cut product; however it can be easily degraded after the processing techniques. The objective of this work was to evaluate the useful life of fresh-cut arracacha submitted to two types of cuts and storage, as well as to evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The roots were selected, sanitized and submitted to two cut types: cubed and grated. Then they were evaluated at 3 times: 0, 3 and 7 days. The cutting in cubes provided higher quality and lower SOD, CAT and APX activity. However, the grated product presented higher PG activity and lower PPO activity. The microbiological safety and the nutritional value were maintained in both cuts during the whole storage period. The useful life, regarding the physicochemical, nutritional and microbiological aspects, can be established at 7 days under refrigeration for fresh-cut arracacha.

  8. Optimization of enzyme assisted extraction of Fructus Mori polysaccharides and its activities on antioxidant and alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qingfang; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Huaguo

    2014-10-13

    In the present study, enzyme assisted extraction of Fructus Mori polysaccharides (FMPS) from F. mori using four kinds of enzymes and three compound enzymes were examined. Research found that glucose oxidase offered a better performance in enhancement of the extraction yields of FMPS, antioxidant and activate alcohol dehydrogenase activities. The glucose oxidase assisted extraction process was further optimized by using response surface method (RSM) to obtain maximum yield of crude FMPS. The results showed that optimized extraction conditions were ratio of enzyme amount 0.40%, enzyme treated time 38 min, treated temperature 58 °C and liquid-solid radio 11.0. Under these conditions, the mean experimental value of extraction yield (16.16 ± 0.14%) corresponded well with the predicted values and increased 160% than none enzyme treated ones. Pharmacological verification tests showed that F. mori crude polysaccharides had good antioxidant and activate alcohol dehydrogenase activities in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Glutathione redox system, immune status, antioxidant enzymes and metabolism of purine nucleotides in hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapbergenov, S O; Sovetov, B S; Bekbosynova, R B; Bolysbekova, S M

    2015-01-01

    The immune status, components of the glutathione redox system, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and metabolism of purine nucleotides have been investigated in animals with experimental hypothyroidism. On day 8 after an increase in the number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, T-helpers and T-suppressors as well as increased number of B-lymphocytes was found in blood of thyroidectomized rats. This was accompanied by decreased activity of adenosine deaminase (AD), AMP-deaminase (AMPD), and 5'-nucleotidase (5'N) in blood, but the ratio of enzyme activity AD/AMPD increased. These changes in the activity of enzymes, involved in purine catabolism can be regarded as increased functional relationships between T and B lymphocytes in hypothyroidism. The functional changes of immune system cells were accompanied by increased activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), a decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and the ratio GH/GPx. Thyroidectomized rats had increased amounts of total, oxidized (GSSG) and reduced glutathione (GSH), but the ratio GSH/GSSG decerased as compared with control animals. In the liver, hypothyroidism resulted in activation of SOD, GPx, decreased activity of GR and decreased ratio GR/GPx. At the same time, the levels of total, oxidized, and reduced glutathione increased, but the ratio GSH/GSSG as well as activities of enzymes involved in purine nucleotide metabolism ratio (and their ratio 5'N/AD + AMPD) decreased. All these data suggest a functional relationship of the glutathione redox system not only with antioxidant enzymes, but also activity of enzymes involved purine nucleotide metabolism and immune status.

  10. Age-related protective effect of deprenyl on changes in the levels of diagnostic marker enzymes and antioxidant defense enzymes activities in cerebellar tissue in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Manju V; James, T J

    2010-09-01

    Antioxidants are free radical scavengers and protect living organisms against oxidative damage to tissues. Experimental evidence implicates oxygen-derived free radicals as important causative agents of aging and the present study was designed to evaluate the age-related effects of deprenyl on the antioxidant defense in the cerebellum of male Wistar rats. Experimental rats of three age groups (6, 12, and 18 months old) were administered with liquid deprenyl (2 mg/kg body weight/day for a period of 15 days i.p) and levels of diagnostic marker enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase) in plasma, lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione and activities of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and antiperoxidative enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) in the cerebellar tissue were determined. Intraperitonial administration of deprenyl (2 mg/kg body weight/day for a period of 15 days) significantly (p levels of diagnostic marker enzymes plasma of experimental animals. Deprenyl also exerted an antioxidant effect against aging process by hindering lipid peroxidation to an extent. Moderate rise in the levels of reduced glutathione and activities of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes and antiperoxidative enzymes was also observed. The results of the present investigation indicated that the protective potential of deprenyl was probably due to the increase of the activity of the free radical scavenging enzymes or to a counteraction of free radicals by its antioxidant nature or to a strengthening of neuronal membrane by its membrane-stabilizing action. Histopathological observations also confirmed the protective effect of deprenyl against the age-related aberrations in rat cerebellum. These data on the effect of deprenyl on parameters of normal aging provides new additional information concerning the anti-aging potential of deprenyl.

  11. Effects of Launaea procumbens on brain antioxidant enzymes and cognitive performance of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rahmat Ali

    2012-11-14

    Launaea procumbens is used in the treatment of oxidative stress and mental disorders. The effects of Launaea procumbens methanolic extracts (LPMEs), i.e., 100 and 200 LPME mg/kg body weight (b.w.), on cognitive performance as well as on the activity of acetylcholinesterase, and antioxidant enzymes in rat brain tissue homogenates were evaluated. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into three groups. Rats in group I (control) were given saline (vehicle), group II received LPME (100 mg/kg b.w., p.o.), and group III were treated with LPME (200 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 7 days. Antioxidant potential was assessed by measuring the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), glutathione reductase (GSR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) contents in brain tissue homogenates. Activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cognitive performance were also assessed. LPME administration reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation products (TBARS contents), increased GSH levels and enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT, GSHpx, GSR and GST. AChE activity was reduced by LPME treatment compared with untreated controls. These findings suggested the significant impact of LPMEs on brain function. These effects could be through the antioxidant effects of the bioactive constituents present in LPME.

  12. Effects of copper stress on antioxidative enzymes, chlorophyll and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. DOI: 10.5897/AJB10. ... density of these enzymes increased with increase of Cu-dose. These results indicate that ... *Corresponding author. E-mail: blotmani@yahoo.fr.

  13. Antioxidant enzymes expression and activity in liver of stressed wistar rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjević, J.; Nićiforović, A.; Radojčić, M. B.

    2009-09-01

    Altered activities of antioxidant defence system enzymes and the levels of free radicals scavengers have been found to correlate with various physiological or pathological conditions, including stress. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic 21 day isolation stress on antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) expression and activity in Wistar rat liver tissue. The serum corticosterone (CORT) and glucose (GLU) levels were also measured, as one of the most important indicators of stress. Our data revealed that in chronic stress conditions, when both CORT and GLU were low, the AOEs expression was markedly induced. This increase in MnSOD, CuZnSOD, and catalase exhibited similar trend implying efficient detoxification of O_2^{ - .} and H2O2. However, this trend was not followed by the respective enzyme activity. While the total SOD activity was induced by the stress, catalase activity remained unaltered. This discrepancy led us to a conclusion that chronic isolation stress may cause oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in rat liver tissue, favoring H2O2 accumulation.

  14. Effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and steroidogenic enzymes in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Sujatha; K.C. Chitin; C. Latchoumycandane; P.P. Mathur

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To find out the effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and testicular steroidogenesis in adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered with lindane at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg body weight per day for 30 days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment the rats were killed using anesthetic ether. Testes, epididymis,seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were removed and weighed. A 10% testicular homogenate was prepared and cen trifuged at 4°C. The supematant was used for various biochemical estimations. Results: The body weight and the weights of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were reduced in lindane-treated rars. There was asignificant decline in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione reduc tase while an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation was observed. The specific activities of testicular steroidogenic enzymes 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were decreased. The levels of DNA, RNA and protein were also decreased in lindane-treated rats. Conclusion: Lindane induces oxida tive stress and decreases antioxidant enzymes in adult male rats.

  15. Complex of vitamins and antioxidants protects low-density lipoproteins in blood plasma from free radical oxidation and activates antioxidants enzymes in erythrocytes from patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalova, G G; Lankin, V Z; Tikhaze, A K; Nezhdanova, I B; Lisina, M O; Kukharchuk, V V

    2003-08-01

    We studied the effect of a complex containing antioxidant vitamins C and E, provitamin A, and antioxidant element selenium on the contents of primary (lipid peroxides) and secondary products (malonic dialdehyde) of free radical lipid oxidation in low-density lipoproteins isolated from the plasma of patients with coronary heart disease and hypercholesterolemia by means of preparative ultracentrifugation. Activity of key antioxidant enzymes in the blood was measured during treatment with the antioxidant preparation. Combination treatment with antioxidant vitamins and antioxidant element selenium sharply decreased the contents of primary and secondary free radical oxidation products in circulating low-density lipoproteins and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes. Activities of superoxide dismutase and selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase increased 1 and 2 months after the start of therapy, respectively.

  16. Diphenyl diselenide modulates gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum of female hypothyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseni Mundstock Dias, Glaecir; Medeiros Golombieski, Ronaldo; de Lima Portella, Rafael; Pires do Amaral, Guilherme; Antunes Soares, Félix; Teixeira da Rocha, João Batista; Wayne Nogueira, Cristina; Vargas Barbosa, Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Cellular antioxidant signaling can be altered either by thyroid disturbances or by selenium status. To investigate whether or not dietary diphenyl diselenide can modify the expression of genes of antioxidant enzymes and endpoint markers of oxidative stress under hypothyroid conditions. Female rats were rendered hypothyroid by continuous exposure to methimazole (MTZ; 20 mg/100 ml in the drinking water) for 3 months. Concomitantly, MTZ-treated rats were either fed or not with a diet containing diphenyl diselenide (5 ppm). mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant/oxidant status were determined in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Hypothyroidism caused a marked upregulation in mRNA expression of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD-1, SOD-3), glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1, GPx-4) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR-1) in brain structures. SOD-2 was increased in the cortex and striatum, while TrxR-2 increased in the cerebral cortex. The increase in mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes was positively correlated with the Nrf-2 transcription in the cortex and hippocampus. Hypothyroidism caused oxidative stress, namely an increase in lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species levels in the hippocampus and striatum, and a decrease in nonprotein thiols in the cerebral cortex. Diphenyl diselenide was effective in reducing brain oxidative stress and normalizing most of the changes observed in gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. The present work corroborates and extends that hypothyroidism disrupts antioxidant enzyme gene expression and causes oxidative stress in the brain. Furthermore, diphenyl diselenide may be considered a promising molecule to counteract these effects in a hypothyroidism state. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Differential Expression of Antioxidant Enzymes During Degradation of Azo Dye Reactive black 8 in Hairy roots of Physalis minima L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pamela; Modi, Nikita; Jobby, Renitta; Desai, Neetin

    2015-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the protection of plant metabolism in presence of azo dye was characterized by studying activities of the role of antioxidant enzymes in the hairy roots (HRs) of Physalis minima L. during degradation of an azo dye, Reactive Black 8 (RB8). When the HRs were exposed to RB8 (30 mg L(-1)), a  nine fold increase in SOD activity was observed after 24 h, while 22 and 50 fold increase in activity was observed for POX and APX respectively after 72 h, whereas there was no significant change in activity of CAT. The activation of different antioxidant enzymes at different time intervals under dye stress suggests the synchronized functioning of antioxidant machinery to protect the HRs from oxidative damage. FTIR analysis confirmed the degradation of dye and the non-toxic nature of metabolites formed after dye degradation was confirmed by phytotoxicity study.

  18. [Intensity of lipid peroxidation processes and activity of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes during anemia in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazantsev, V V; Grishchenko, O V; Pereĭra, A A; Belous, A M

    1996-01-01

    The given report deals with investigation of the level of spontaneous lipid peroxidation (LPO) (as judged by the accumulation of MDA) and activity of antioxidative enzymes (GSH-peroxidase, GSH-reductase) in red blood cells of pregnant women (24-26 weeks) suffering from minor (blood Hb is 95 g/l) and medium (blood Hb is 85-90 g/l) anemias. We have found that as the anemia becomes deeper, the red blood cells of pregnant women demonstrate a linear increase in the level of spontaneous LPO, which rises by 54% during anemia of moderate severity (p < 0.02) as compared with control. At the same time, simultaneously with LPO, the activity of the above glutathione-containing enzymes increases as the anemia progresses, which, apparently, is of the compensatory nature, aimed at the maintenance of the reduced glutathione pool, the latter being an important component of the cell antioxidative system during LPO activation. The authors think the increased activity of the physiological antioxidative system and intensification of the LPO processes to be a natural adaptive process, since lipid hydroperoxides are the activators of synthesis of prostaglandins, which are required in delivery.

  19. Influence of UV-A radiation on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arif; Rashid, Muhammad Adnan; Huang, Qiu Ying; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2017-03-01

    Abiotic stress factors, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, significantly affect insect life. UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) has been widely used for insect control since it increases the production of ROS and causes oxidative cell damage. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of UV-A irradiation on an important pest in China, the ear-cutting caterpillar, Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We exposed 3-day-old M. separata adults to UV-A radiation for different periods of time (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min) and evaluated the resulting total antioxidant capacity and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase. The total antioxidant capacity significantly increased after exposure to UV-A radiation for 60 min but decreased after 90 and 120 min of exposure, compared with the control. The antioxidant activity of glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase increased after 60-min exposure, and it was decreased at the longest exposure period 120 min. The longest exposure time period relatively activates the xenobiotic detoxifying enzymes like glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase enzymes. The longest duration of UV-A radiation may cooperate with pesticide detoxification mechanism in insects, making them more susceptible to insecticides. Our results demonstrated that UV irradiation causes oxidative stress, affects the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and disturbs the physiology of M. separata adults.

  20. Antioxidant activity of white rice, brown rice and germinated brown rice (in vivo and in vitro) and the effects on lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes in hyperlipidaemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Abdul Kadir, Khairul-Kamilah; Amom, Zulkhairi; Azlan, Azrina

    2013-11-15

    Antioxidant activity of different rice extract and the effect on the levels of antioxidant enzyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), vitamin E, lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes in hyperlipidaemia rabbits were investigated. Germinated brown rice (GBR) has the highest antioxidant activity compared to white rice (WR) and brown rice (BR). All rice grains increased the activity of SOD and GPx. However, vitamin E levels increased only in the groups that received the BR and GBR diets. The reduction of lipid peroxidation levels and activity of hepatic enzymes (alanine transferase, ALT and aspartate transaminase, AST) were only significantly observed in the GBR group. In conclusion, GBR supplementation has the greatest impact on increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and vitamin E level and on reducing lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolaemia rabbit, thereby preventing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, GBR diet can also reduce the level of hepatic enzymes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cadmium phytotoxicity: Quantitative sensitivity relationships between classical endpoints and antioxidative enzyme biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa Correa, Albertina Xavier da [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil); Roerig, Leonardo Rubi [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil); Verdinelli, Miguel A. [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil); Cotelle, Sylvie [Centre des Sciences de l' Environnement, Universite de Metz, 57000 Metz (France); Ferard, Jean-Francois [Centre des Sciences de l' Environnement, Universite de Metz, 57000 Metz (France); Radetski, Claudemir Marcos [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Rua Uruguai, 458, 88302-202 Itajai SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: radetski@univali.br

    2006-03-15

    In this work, cadmium phytotoxicity and quantitative sensitivity relationships between different hierarchical endpoints in plants cultivated in a contaminated soil were studied. Thus, germination rate, biomass growth and antioxidative enzyme activity (i.e. superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in three terrestrial plants (Avena sativa L., Brassica campestris L. cv. Chinensis, Lactuca sativa L. cv. hanson) were analyzed. Plant growth tests were carried out according to an International Standard Organization method and the results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Williams' test. The concentration of Cd{sup 2+} that had the smallest observed significant negative effect (LOEC) on plant biomass was 6.25, 12.5 and 50 mg Cd/kg dry soil for lettuce, oat and Chinese cabbage, respectively. Activity of all enzymes studied increased significantly compared to enzyme activity in plant controls. For lettuce, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) for enzymic activity ranged from 0.05 (glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (catalase). For oat, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) ranged from 0.19 (for superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (for catalase and peroxidase). For Chinese cabbage, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) ranged from 0.19 (peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (superoxide dismutase). Classical (i.e. germination and biomass) and biochemical (i.e. enzyme activity) endpoints were compared to establish a sensitivity ranking, which was: enzyme activity > biomass > germination rate. For cadmium-soil contamination, the determination of quantitative sensitivity relationships (QSR) between classical and antioxidative enzyme biomarkers showed that the most sensitive plant species have, generally, the lowest QSR values.

  2. Copper-induced response of physiological parameters and antioxidant enzymes in the aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton pusillus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monferran, Magdalena V.; Sanchez Agudo, Jose A. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba - CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Dto. Bioquimica Clinica - CIBICI, Medina Allende Esq., Haya de la Torre, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Pignata, Maria L. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba - CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales - IMBIV, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Wunderlin, Daniel A., E-mail: dwunder@fcq.unc.edu.a [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba - CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Dto. Bioquimica Clinica - CIBICI, Medina Allende Esq., Haya de la Torre, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2009-08-15

    Bioaccumulation and toxicity of copper was evaluated on Potamogeton pusillus L. The effect of copper (5-100 mug L{sup -1}) applied for several days was assessed by measuring changes in the chlorophyll's, phaeophytin's, malondialdehyde, electrical conductivity, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) activities. Plants accumulated copper with a maximum of 162 mug g{sup -1} dw after 7-days exposure at 100 mug L{sup -1}, however most of the metal was accumulated after 1-day exposure. The toxic effect caused by Cu was evident by the reduction of photosynthetic pigments, increase of malondialdehyde and electrical conductivity. P. pusillus shows Cu-induced oxidative stress by modulating antioxidant enzymes like GPX, GR and POD. Antioxidant enzymes activity increased significantly after exposure to 40 mug L{sup -1} during 24 h, followed by a drop at longer times. Thus, P. pusillus is proposed as a good biomonitor for the assessment of metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. - The tolerance of Potamogeton pusillus to copper largely depends on the enhanced activity of its antioxidant system, showing that a decrease on its activity favored oxidative stress and cell damage.

  3. Assessment of the effect of silicon on antioxidant enzymes in cotton plants by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Moldes, Carlos; Fontão de Lima Filho, Oscar; Manuel Camiña, José; Gabriela Kiriachek, Soraya; Lia Molas, María; Mui Tsai, Siu

    2013-11-27

    Silicon has been extensively researched in relation to the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stress, as an element triggering defense mechanisms which activate the antioxidant system. Furthermore, in some species, adding silicon to unstressed plants modifies the activity of certain antioxidant enzymes participating in detoxifying processes. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots of unstressed cotton plants fertilized with silicon (Si). Cotton plants were grown in hydroponic culture and added with increasing doses of potassium silicate; then, the enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Using multivariate analysis, we found that silicon altered the activity of GPOX, APX, and CAT in roots and leaves of unstressed cotton plants, whereas lipid peroxidation was not affected. The analysis of these four variables in concert showed a clear differentiation among Si treatments. We observed that enzymatic activities in leaves and roots changed as silicon concentration increased, to stabilize at 100 and 200 mg Si L(-1) treatments in leaves and roots, respectively. Those alterations would allow a new biochemical status that could be partially responsible for the beneficial effects of silicon. This study might contribute to adjust the silicon application doses for optimal fertilization, preventing potential toxic effects and unnecessary cost.

  4. Synergistic defensive mechanism of phytochelatins and antioxidative enzymes in Brassica chinensis L. against Cd stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN LiQin; GUO YiFei; YANG LiMin; WANG QiuQuan

    2008-01-01

    Brassica chinensis L. was chosen and exposed to different concentrations of Cd exposure to evaluate its Cd-accumulating capacity and its potential cellular defensive mechanisms. Cd accumulation in the shoots and roots of B. chinensis was up to 1348.3±461.8 and 3761.0±795.0 mg per killogram of dry weight, respectively, under 200 μmol/L of Cd exposure. Increasing Cd accumulation in the plant was accompanied by rapid accumulation of phytochelatins (PCs), and the sequestration of Cd by PCs pro-vided a primary cellular mechanism for Cd detoxification and tolerance of B. chinensis. Furthermore, malondialdehyde formation, hydrogen peroxide content and antioxidative enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase were observed in the shoots of Cd-stressed B. chinensis. Increasing enzyme activities in response to concentrations of 5 to 50 μmol/L Cd showed an efficient defense against oxidative stress, suggesting that the antioxidative system was a secondary defensive mechanism. These resulted in reduced free Cd damage and en-hanced Cd accumulation and tolerance. Glutathione plays a pivotal role in these two detoxification pathways. In general, these results suggested that PCs and the antioxidative system are synergistic in combatting Cd-induced oxidative stress and that they play important roles in Cd detoxification of B. chinensis, and also give a deep understanding of the natural defensive mechanisms in plants under heavy metal stress.

  5. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  6. [Clinical and pathogenetic significance of antibodies to antioxidative enzymes in patients with Raynaud's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, L N; Gontar', I P; Zborovskaia, I A; Novikova, O V; Emel'ianov, N N

    2010-01-01

    Patients presenting with systemic scleroderma were found to have antibodies to antioxidative enzymes the levels of which increased with activity of the disease. Taking into account the important role of immune disorders in the development of systemic sclerosis, it can be conjectured that antienzyme antibodies may cause dysregulation of enzymatic systems. Serum antibodies were detected by the original modification of indirect enzyme immunoassay using immobilized antigenic forms of enzymes. All patients with high antibody titers presented with class II-IV Raynaud"s syndrome (RS). Pathogenetic mechanisms of RS are complicated and poorly known, it is supposed to be a multifactor pathology associated with disturbances in neural, vascular, mediator, and immune systems. Reperfusion and free oxygen radicals may also contribute to the development of ischemia in RS. The antioxidative system is known to involve a number of enzymes that neutralize pathogenic effects of free oxygen species. Disturbance of equilibrium between aggressive and protective factors under pathological conditions leads to further aggravation of tissue lesions. The presence of antienzyme antibodies in the blood of patients with primary RS may be regarded as an unfavourable prognostic factor preceding a systemic disease of connective tissue.

  7. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  8. Amelioration of altered antioxidant enzyme activity by Satureja khuzistanica essential oil in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadvand, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    To examine the possible protective effect of Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SKE) on antioxidant enzyme activity in alloxan-induced Type 1 diabetic rats. Thirty Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into three groups randomly; group one as control, group two diabetic, with no treatment, and group three treatment with SKE at 500 ppm in drinking water, respectively. Diabetes was induced in the second and third groups by alloxan injection subcutaneously. After eight weeks, animals were anaesthetized. Blood samples were also collected before killing to measure antioxidant enzymes activity. SKE significantly increased the serum level of glutathione and the serum activity of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the treated group compared with the diabetic untreated group. The findings showed that SKE exerts beneficial effects on the antioxidant enzymes activity in alloxan-induced Type 1 diabetic rats. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, total phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahantigh, Omolbanin; Najafi, Farzaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan Ali; Sanjarian, Forough

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between salt stress and antioxidant enzymes activities, proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants in growth stage were investigated. The plants were subjected to five levels of saline irrigation water, 0.37 (tap water as control) with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm(-1) of saline water. After two months the uniform plants were harvested for experimental analysis. Antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents of the plants were examinated. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined by increasing salinity that plays an important protective role in the ROS-scavenging process. Proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents increased significantly with increasing salinity. These results suggest that salinity tolerance of Hyssopus officinalis plants might be closely related with the increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species and with the accumulation of osmoprotectant proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents under salinity conditions.

  10. Analysis of metallotionein expression and antioxidant enzyme activities in Meretrix meretrix larvae under sublethal cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qing [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Graduate University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Xiaomei [Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang Xiaoyu [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Engineering Research Center of Seawater Utilization Technology, Ministry of Education, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Yang Hongsheng, E-mail: hshyang@ms.qdio.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Liu Baozhong, E-mail: bzliu@ms.qdio.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2010-11-15

    To investigate the possible role of metallothioneins (MTs) and antioxidant enzymes in cadmium (Cd) tolerance in Meretrix meretrix larvae, a new MT (designated MmMT) gene was identified and cloned from M. meretrix. The full-length cDNA of MmMT consisted of an open reading frame (ORF) of 231 bp encoding a protein of 76 amino acids, with 21 cysteine residues and a conserved structural pattern Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-Tyr-Gly-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-Lys at the C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of MmMT showed about 57-84% identity with previously published MT sequences of mussels and oysters. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression level of MmMT mRNA at different M. meretrix larval stages under Cd exposure (25 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Results showed that Cd could induce the expression of MmMT mRNA in the larvae, and the expression level increased 5.04-fold and 3.99-fold in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers, respectively. Immunolocalization of MmMT in the stressed larvae revealed that MmMT was synthesized in almost all of the soft parts at the trochophore and postlarva stages, whereas it was only synthesized in the velum and epidermis at the D-shaped larva and pediveliger stages. The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), also were measured in larvae at different developmental stages. Increased enzymatic activities were detected mainly in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers under Cd stress, suggesting that these enzymes respond synchronously with MT. Our results indicate that MmMT and antioxidant enzymes played important roles in counteracting Cd stress in M. meretrix larvae.

  11. Age-Related Changes in Antioxidant and Glutathione S-Transferase Enzyme Activities in the Asian Clam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranković, J

    2016-03-01

    Aging is accompanied by increased production of free oxygen radicals and impairment of normal cellular functions. The aim of this work was to provide preliminary data on age-related differences in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) in a wild population of the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and GST were assessed in visceral mass of four age classes (0+-, 1+-, 2+-, and 3+-year-old) of C. fluminea clams. Age-related changes were seen in antioxidant enzyme status: levels of total SOD (totSOD) (P levels being the highest in age class II, then being lower in age classes III and IV (P enzyme activities, coupled with higher and lower activities of totSOD and CAT, respectively, as the individual grows older, may render the older animals more susceptible to oxidative stress. Data reported here are not intended to be exhaustive since they concern only age/size structure of the population at one locality, so more detailed studies on both the developmental stages and levels of antioxidant enzymes of this new alien species in Serbian rivers are required.

  12. Altered Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Vávrová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, an increase of oxidative stress could play an important role which is closely linked with insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and chronic inflammation. The aim of our study was to assess several parameters of the antioxidant status in MetS. Methods: 40 subjects with MetS and 40 age- and sex-matched volunteers without MetS were examined for activities of superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1, glutathione reductase (GR, paraoxonase1 (PON1, concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH, and conjugated dienes in low-density lipoprotein (CD-LDL. Results: Subjects with MetS had higher activities of CuZnSOD (p Conclusions: Our results implicated an increased oxidative stress in MetS and a decreased antioxidative defense that correlated with some laboratory (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and clinical (waist circumference, blood pressure components of MetS.

  13. Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Abdel Latef, Arafat A.; Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Gucel, Salih; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosyntheses of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system. PMID:27066020

  14. Nitric oxide mitigates salt stress by regulating levels of osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes in chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz eAhmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. plants. SNAP (50 μM was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl. Salt stress negatively affected growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and glutathione reductase (GR in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosynthesis of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

  15. Photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes of phyllodes of Acacia mangium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu; Ong

    2000-10-16

    Physiological processes are influenced by environmental factors and plant characteristics. The distribution of photosynthetic capacity of phyllodes of Acacia mangium Willd. seedlings was studied in relation to the in vivo photosystem II (PSII) function, photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) of phyllodes at different positions on seedlings. There was a vertical gradient in photosynthetic capacity of phyllodes along the shoot. Phyllode 1 (at the apex) showed negative carbon uptake at PPFD lower than 400 µmol m(-2) s(-1). High photosynthetic capacities, chlorophyll concentrations, DeltaF/F'(m), and q(P) were observed in phyllodes 4, 6 and 8. The high photosynthetic capacities of mature phyllodes could be attributed to the enhanced availability of CO(2) and the high efficiency of PSII in energy absorption and utilization. Total SOD and APX activities (on a dry weight basis) were highest at phyllode 1 and decreased as the phyllodes matured. The high photosynthetic capacity and low respiration loss in mature phyllodes could be important factors, responsible for the rapid establishment and fast growth of A. mangium in reforestation programs.

  16. Abscisic acid induced changes in production of primary and secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, antioxidant capability, antioxidant enzymes and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2013-07-05

    An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2-, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX)] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA) application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM) for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2-, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC) were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05) and O2- (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05). This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  17. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Kanter; Omer Coskun; Mustafa Budancamanak

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L (NS)and Urtica dioica L (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats.METHODS: Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated) and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals.All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc,twice a week for 60 d). Tn addition, B, C and D groups also received daily J.p. injections of 0.2 mL/kg NS or/and 2 mL/kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand,received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d.Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment.RESULTS: The CCl4 treatment for 60 d increased thelipid peroxidation and liver enzymes,and also decreasedthe antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (aloneor combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipidperoxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increasedthe reduced antioxidant enzyme levels.The weight ofrats decreased in group A,and increased in groups B, Cand D.CONCLUSION: NS and UD decrease the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the antioxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats.

  18. Ex vivo effects of ibogaine on the activity of antioxidative enzymes in human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić-Kokić, Aleksandra; Oreščanin-Dušić, Zorana; Spasojević, Ivan; Slavić, Marija; Mijušković, Ana; Paškulin, Roman; Miljević, Čedo; Spasić, Mihajlo B; Blagojević, Duško P

    2015-04-22

    Ibogaine is a naturally occurring alkaloid with psychotropic and metabotropic effects, derived from the bark of the root of the West African Tabernanthe iboga plant. The tribes of Kongo basin have been using iboga as a stimulant, for medicinal purposes, and in rite of passage ceremonies, for centuries. Besides, it has been found that this drug has anti-addictive effects. Previous studies have demonstrated that ibogaine changed the quantity of ATP and energy related enzymes as well as the activity of antioxidant enzymes in cells thus altering redox equilibrium in a time manner. In this work, the mechanism of its action was further studied by measuring the effects of ibogaine in human erythrocytes in vitro on ATP liberation, membrane fluidity and antioxidant enzymes activity. Heparinized human blood samples were incubated with ibogaine (10 and 20 μM) at 37°C for 1h. Blood plasma was separated by centrifugation and the levels of ATP and uric acid were measured 10 min after the addition of ibogaine using standard kits. The activity of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR) were measured in erythrocytes after incubation period. The stability of SOD1 activity was further tested through in vitro incubation with H2O2 and scanning of its electrophoretic profiles. Membrane fluidity was determined using an electron paramagnetic resonance spin-labelling method. Results showed that ibogaine treatment of erythrocytes in vitro increased ATP concentration in the blood plasma without changes in neither erythrocytes membrane fluidity nor uric acid concentration. Ibogaine also increased SOD1 activity in erythrocytes at both doses applied here. Treatment with 20 μM also elevated GR activity after in vitro incubation at 37°C. Electrophoretic profiles revealed that incubation with ibogaine mitigates H2O2 mediated suppression of SOD1 activity. Some of the effects of ibogaine seem to be mediated through

  19. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants.

  20. Effect of sprint cycle training on activities of antioxidant enzymes in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Apple, F. S.; Sjödin, B.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of intermittent sprint cycle training on the level of muscle antioxidant enzyme protection was investigated. Resting muscle biopsies, obtained before and after 6 wk of training and 3, 24, and 72 h after the final session of an additional 1 wk of more frequent training, were analyzed...... for activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Activities of several muscle metabolic enzymes were determined to assess the effectiveness of the training. After the first 6-wk training period, no change in GPX, GR, or SOD...... the level of antioxidant protection in the muscle....

  1. Effect of spaceflight on oxidative and antioxidant enzyme activity in rat diaphragm and intercostal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mona D.; Tuttle, Ronald; Girten, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    There are limited data regarding changes in oxidative and antioxidant enzymes induced by simulated or actual weightlessness, and any additional information would provide insight into potential mechanisms involving other changes observed in muscles from animals previously flown in space. Thus, the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program was an opportunity to collect valuable information. Oxidative and antioxidant enzyme levels, as well as lipid peroxidation, were measured in respiratory muscles from rates flown on board Space Shuttle mission STS-54. The results indicated that there was an increasing trend in citrate synthase activity in the flight diaphragm when compared to ground based controls, and there were no significant changes observed in the intercostal muscles for any of the parameters. However, the lipid peroxidation was significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased in the flight diaphragm. These results indicate that 6 day exposure to microgravity may have a different effect on oxidative and antioxidant activity in rat respiratory muscles when compared to data from previous 14 day hindlimb suspension studies.

  2. miR-17* suppresses tumorigenicity of prostate cancer by inhibiting mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xu

    Full Text Available Aberrant micro RNA (miRNA expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer. Recent studies have shown that the miR-17-92 cluster is overexpressed in many types of cancer. The oncogenic function of mature miRNAs encoded by the miR-17-92 cluster has been identified from the 5' arm of six precursors. However, the function of the miRNAs produced from the 3' arm of these precursors remains unknown. The present study demonstrates that miR-17* is able to suppress critical primary mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes, such as manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPX2 and thioredoxin reductase-2 (TrxR2. Transfection of miR-17* into prostate cancer PC-3 cells significantly reduces levels of the three antioxidant proteins and activity of the luciferase reporter under the control of miR-17* binding sequences located in the 3'-untranslated regions of the three target genes. Disulfiram (DSF, a dithiolcarbomate drug shown to have an anticancer effect, induces the level of mature miR-17* and cell death in PCa cells, which can be attenuated by transfection of antisense miR-17*. Increasing miR-17* level in PC-3 cells by a Tet-on based conditional expression system markedly suppresses its tumorigencity. These results suggest that miR-17* may suppress tumorigenicity of prostate cancer through inhibition of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes.

  3. Effect of sunlight-exposure on antioxidants and antioxidant enzyme activities in 'd'Anjou' pear in relation to superficial scald development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Xie, Xingbin; Shen, Xiang; Wang, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Influence of preharvest sunlight exposure on superficial scald development in 'd'Anjou' pears during cold storage was investigated. The biochemical changes related to scald including α-farnesene, conjugated trienols (CTols), antioxidants, antioxidant enzyme activities were monitored among separated blushed and shaded peels of unbagged fruit as well as the whole peel of bagged fruit. In unbagged fruit, scald symptom was restricted to shaded peel; while there was no difference in α-farnesene between blushed and shaded peels, CTols increased significantly in shaded peel along with scald development after 3months storage. Bagging treatment increased both α-farnesene and CTols significantly and enhanced scald. Preharvest sunlight exposure significantly increased certain antioxidant contents and antioxidant enzyme activities in blushed peel at harvest and during storage. These results reveal a direct role of CTols during development of scald, however, antioxidant systems may play an important role in α-farnesene oxidation to CTols and scald susceptibility in 'd'Anjou pears. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antioxidant enzymes as potential targets in cardioprotection and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Enzyme antioxidants: the next stage of pharmacological counterwork to the oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vavaev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus in antioxidant research is on enzyme derivative investigations. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD is of particular interest, as it demonstrates in vivo the protective action against development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus. The reliable association of coronary artery disease with decreased level of heparin-released EC-SOD was established in clinical research. To create a base for and to develop antioxidant therapy, various SOD isozymes, catalase (CAT, methods of gene therapy, and combined applications of enzymes are used. Covalent bienzyme SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate (CHS, chondroitin sulphate showed high efficacy and safety as the drug candidate. There is an evident trend to use the components of glycocalyx and extracellular matrix for target delivery of medical substances. Development of new enzyme antioxidants for therapeutic application is closely connected with progress in medical biotechnology, pharmaceutical industry, and bioeconomy.

  5. Role of antioxidant enzymes and small molecular weight antioxidants in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Paulina; Kaarniranta, Kai; Blasiak, Janusz

    2013-10-01

    Cells in aerobic condition are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may induce damage to biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. In normal circumstances, the amount of ROS is counterbalanced by cellular antioxidant defence, with its main components-antioxidant enzymes, DNA repair and small molecular weight antioxidants. An imbalance between the production and neutralization of ROS by antioxidant defence is associated with oxidative stress, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many age-related and degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), affecting the macula-the central part of the retina. The retina is especially prone to oxidative stress due to high oxygen pressure and exposure to UV and blue light promoting ROS generation. Because oxidative stress has an established role in AMD pathogenesis, proper functioning of antioxidant defence may be crucial for the occurrence and progression of this disease. Antioxidant enzymes play a major role in ROS scavenging and changes of their expression or/and activity are reported to be associated with AMD. Therefore, the enzymes in the retina along with their genes may constitute a perspective target in AMD prevention and therapy.

  6. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black current juice press residues (Ribes nigrum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    protease, significantly increased plant cell wall breakdown of the pomace. Each of the tested enzyme preparations except Grindamyl pectinase also significantly enhanced the amount of phenols extracted from the pomace. Macer8 FJ and Macer8 R decreased the extraction yields of anthocyanins, whereas Pectinex...... BE and Novozym 89 protease showed no effect. A decrease in pomace particle sizes from 500-1000 mum to wine pomace. Four selected black currant...... pomace extracts all exerted a pronounced antioxidant activity against human LDL oxidation in vitro when tested at equimolar phenol concentrations of 7.5-10 muM....

  7. Genetically increased antioxidative protection and decreased chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Klaus; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Marklund, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    RATIONALE: Increased oxidative stress is involved in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, plasma and bronchial lining fluid contains the antioxidant extracellular superoxide dismutase. Approximately 2% of white individuals carry the R213G polymorphism in the gene encoding...

  8. Genetically increased antioxidative protection and decreased chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Klaus; Marklund, Stefan; Lange, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    RATIONALE: Increased oxidative stress is involved in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, plasma and bronchial lining fluid contains the antioxidant extracellular superoxide dismutase. Approximately 2% of white individuals carry the R213G polymorphism in the gene encoding extrac...

  9. Drought Tolerance Is Correlated with the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Cerasus humilis Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing; Sun, Li Na; Zhang, Qiu Yan; Song, Xing Shun

    2016-01-01

    Cerasus humilis, grown in the northern areas of China, may experience water deficit during their life cycle, which induces oxidative stress. Our present study was conducted to evaluate the role of oxidative stress management in the leaves of two C. humilis genotypes, HR (drought resistant) and ND4 (drought susceptible), when subjected to a long-term soil drought (WS). The HR plants maintained lower membrane injury due to low ROS and MDA accumulation compared to ND4 plants during a long-term WS. This is likely attributed to global increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoenzymes and enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle and maintenance of ascorbate (AsA) levels. Consistent closely with enzymes activities, the expression of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (cAPX) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) followed a significant upregulation, indicating that they were regulated at the transcriptional level for HR plants exposed to WS. In contrast, ND4 plants exhibited high ROS levels and poor antioxidant enzyme response, leading to enhanced membrane damage during WS conditions. The present study shows that genotypic differences in drought tolerance could be likely attributed to the ability of C. humilis plants to induce antioxidant defense under drought conditions.

  10. Age-related changes in mitochondrial function and antioxidative enzyme activity in fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingying; Wong, Yee Ting; Chen, Jie; Ruan, Runsheng

    2007-03-01

    We have previously reported the changes of mitochondrial function and/or antioxidative enzyme efficiency in a few organs of rats as a result of aging. However, there is a further need to reach a conclusion about their interactions in biological functions based on other evaluation tips like the usage of advanced methods and the exploring of crucial biochemical parameters. Therefore, we investigated the mitochondrial inner membrane functional integrity by the analysis of respiration control ratio and membrane potential in the liver and brain of young (8 months) and old (26 months) Fischer 344 rats. The disintegration of mitochondrial membrane integrity was determined higher in the liver of old rats than that of young rats. This was well correlated with the decrease of total superoxide dismutase (SOD), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and glutathione peroxidase activities in most of the organs, except for the increase of catalase activity in heart of old rats. Similarly, the protein expressions of these enzymes were down regulated in the liver and kidney of old rats. Taken together, we suggest that the mitochondrial malfunction in old rats is associated with the decrease of antioxidative enzyme efficiency. And the data are also discussed with changes in the results from inter-laboratories.

  11. Prenatal hormones alter antioxidant enzymes and lung histology in rats with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. IJsselstijn (Hanneke); B.A. Pacheco; A. Albert; W. Sluiter (Wim); P.K. Donahoe; J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J.J. Schnitzer; D. Tibboel (Dick)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal administration of dexamethasone (Dex) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) synergistically enhances lung maturity, but TRH suppresses the antioxidant enzyme activity. Prenatal hormonal therapy improves alveolar surfactant content and lung compliance in

  12. Definition of regional dependence of activity antioxidative enzymes means of the dispersive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly T. Bykov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In article application of the dispersive analysis for an estimation of dependence of activity antioxidative enzymes from region of constant residing, age, sex and the disease diagnosis is considered.

  13. Prenatal hormones alter antioxidant enzymes and lung histology in rats with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. IJsselstijn (Hanneke); B.A. Pacheco; A. Albert; W. Sluiter (Wim); P.K. Donahoe; J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J.J. Schnitzer; D. Tibboel (Dick)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal administration of dexamethasone (Dex) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) synergistically enhances lung maturity, but TRH suppresses the antioxidant enzyme activity. Prenatal hormonal therapy improves alveolar surfactant content and lung compliance in rat

  14. Photosynthesis performance, antioxidant enzymes, and ultrastructural analyses of rice seedlings under chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Lv, Chunfang; Xu, Minli; Chen, Guoxiang; Lv, Chuangen; Gao, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of increasing concentrations of chromium (Cr(6+)) (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) morphological traits, photosynthesis performance, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes. In addition, the ultrastructure of chloroplasts in the leaves of hydroponically cultivated rice (O. sativa L.) seedlings was analyzed. Plant fresh and dry weights, height, root length, and photosynthetic pigments were decreased by Cr-induced toxicity (200 μM), and the growth of rice seedlings was starkly inhibited compared with that of the control. In addition, the decreased maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm) might be ascribed to the decreased the number of active photosystem II reaction centers. These results were confirmed by inhibited photophosphorylation, reduced ATP content and its coupling factor Ca(2+)-ATPase, and decreased Mg(2+)-ATPase activities. Furthermore, overtly increased activities of antioxidative enzymes were observed under Cr(6+) toxicity. Malondialdehyde and the generation rates of superoxide (O2̄) also increased with Cr(6+) concentration, while hydrogen peroxide content first increased at a low Cr(6+) concentration of 25 μM and then decreased. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy showed that Cr(6+) exposure resulted in significant chloroplast damage. Taken together, these findings indicate that high Cr(6+)concentrations stimulate the production of toxic reactive oxygen species and promote lipid peroxidation in plants, causing severe damage to cell membranes, degradation of photosynthetic pigments, and inhibition of photosynthesis.

  15. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Ghanbari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8% after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH (56.00% and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC (59.00% methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions.

  16. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora) Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Raheleh; Zarei, Mohammad; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-12-04

    In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora) hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8%) after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) (56.00%) and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC) (59.00%) methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions.

  17. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant enzyme activity regulates radioresistance in human pancreatic cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Carolyn J.; Goswami, Prabhat C.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, cellular redox environment gained significant attention as a critical regulator of cellular responses to oxidative stress. Cellular redox environment is a balance between production of reactive oxygen species and their removal by antioxidant enzymes. We investigated the hypothesis that mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activity regulates radioresistance in human pancreatic cancer cells. Vector-control and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) overexpressing human pancreatic c...

  18. Hindlimb unloading increases oxidative stress and disrupts antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, John M.; Song, Wook; Demaree, Scott R.; Bloomfield, S. A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal muscle disuse with space-flight and ground-based models (e.g., hindlimb unloading) results in dramatic skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness. Pathological conditions that cause muscle wasting (i.e., heart failure, muscular dystrophy, sepsis, COPD, cancer) are characterized by elevated "oxidative stress," where antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed by oxidant production. However, the existence, cellular mechanisms, and ramifications of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle subjected to hindlimb unloading are poorly understood. Thus we examined the effects of hindlimb unloading on hindlimb muscle antioxidant enzymes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), nonenzymatic antioxidant scavenging capacity (ASC), total hydroperoxides, and dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) oxidation, a direct indicator of oxidative stress. Twelve 6 month old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups: 28 d of hindlimb unloading (n = 6) and controls (n = 6). Hindlimb unloading resulted in a small decrease in Mn-superoxide dismutase activity (10.1%) in the soleus muscle, while Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase increased 71.2%. In contrast, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, antioxidant enzymes that remove hydroperoxides, were significantly reduced in the soleus with hindlimb unloading by 54.5 and 16.1%, respectively. Hindlimb unloading also significantly reduced ASC. Hindlimb unloading increased soleus lipid hydroperoxide levels by 21.6% and hindlimb muscle DCFH-DA oxidation by 162.1%. These results indicate that hindlimb unloading results in a disruption of antioxidant status, elevation of hydroperoxides, and an increase in oxidative stress.

  19. Phytotoxicity of cadmium on protein, proline and antioxidant enzyme activities in growing Arachis hypogaea L. seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Phytotoxicity of cadmium on growing Arachis hypogaea L. seedlings was studied. Seeds were exposed to 25, 50, and 100 μmol/L CdCl2 concentrations, for a period of 10, 15, 20 and 25 d. The extent of damage to chlorophyll, protein, proline, nitrate and nitrite reductase, antioxidant enzyme activity in leaves and roots were evaluated after 10 d of cadmium stress. The higher concentration of cadmium (100 μmol/L) resulted (leaves and roots) total chlorophyll 91.01%, protein 79.51%, 83.61%, nitrate reductase 79.39%,80.72% and nitrite reductase 77.07%, 75.88% activity decreased with increase in cadmium concentrations and exposure periods. Cadmium caused significant changes in the activity of antioxidative enzymes. Contrastingly Cd treated plant tissues showed an increase in proline 159.87%, 239.6%, gluthion reductase (GR) 337.72%, 306.14%, superoxide disumutase (SOD) 688.56%, 381.72%, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) 226.47%, 252.14%, peroxidase (POD) 72.19%, 60.29% and catalase (CAT) 228.96%, 214.74% as compared to control. Cadmium stress caused a significant increase in the rate of SOD activity in leaves and roots of plant species. Results show the crop A. hypogaea is highly sensitive even at very low cadmium concentrations.

  20. Effects of melatonin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdullah Armagan; Efkan Uz; H. Ramazan Yilmaz; Sedat Soyupek; Taylan Oksay; Nurten Ozcelik

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effects of melatonin treatment on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the testicular tissue of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty-six male rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: group Ⅰ, control, non-diabetic rats (n = 9); group Ⅱ, STZ-induced,Following 8-week melatonin treatment, all rats were anaesthetized and then were killed to remove testes from the scrotum. Results: As compared to group Ⅰ, in rat testicular tissues of group Ⅱ, increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.01) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P < 0.01) as well as decreased levels of catalase (CAT) (P < 0.01)and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (P > 0.05) were found. In contrast, as compared to group Ⅱ, in rat testicular tissues of group Ⅲ, levels of MDA decreased (but this decrease was not significant, P > 0.05) and SOD (P < 0.01) as well as CAT (P < 0.05) increased. GSH-Px was not influenced by any of the treatment. Melatonin did not significantly affect the elevated glucose concentration of diabetic group. At the end of the study, there was no significant difference between the melatonin-treated group and the untreated group by means of body and testicular weight.Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus increases oxidative stress and melatonin inhibits lipid peroxidation and might regulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes of diabetic rat testes.

  1. Biomonitoring of air pollution using antioxidative enzyme system in two genera of family Pottiaceae (Bryophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Pooja; Verma, Sonam; Srivastava, Alka

    2016-09-01

    Bryophyte particularly mosses, have been found to serve as reliable indicators of air pollution and can serve as bryometers-biological instruments for measuring air pollution. They are remarkable colonizers, as they have the ability to survive in adverse environments and are also particular in their requirement of environmental conditions, which makes them appropriate ecological indicators. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidative enzymes in two mosses viz., Hyophila rosea R.S. Williams and Semibarbula orientalis (Web.) Wijk. & Marg. and assess their suitability as biomonitors. Three different locations viz., Lucknow University, Residency (contaminated sites) and Dilkusha Garden (reference site) within Lucknow city with different levels of air pollutants were used for comparison. Our results indicate that air pollution caused marked enhancement in activity of antioxidative enzymes viz., catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. All the three are capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species. In the genus S. orientalis, catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was minimum at the reference site Dilkusha Garden and was significantly higher at the two contaminated sites for catalase and peroxidase, whereas the difference was non significant for superoxide dismutase. In H. rosea the activity of catalase and peroxidase at the three locations was almost similar, however superoxide dismutase activity showed a significant increase in the two contaminated sites when compared to the reference site, the value being highest for Lucknow University site. It was thus observed that the two genera, from the same location, showed difference in the activity of the antioxidative enzymes. Based on our results, we recommend bryophytes as good monitors of air pollution.

  2. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black current juice press residues (Ribes nigrum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    Enzymatic release of phenolic compounds from pomace remaining from black currant (Ribes nigrum) juice production was examined. Treatment with each of the commercial pectinolytic enzyme preparations Grindamyl pectinase, Macer8 FJ, Macer8 R, and Pectinex BE, as well as treatment with Novozym 89...... protease, significantly increased plant cell wall breakdown of the pomace. Each of the tested enzyme preparations except Grindamyl pectinase also significantly enhanced the amount of phenols extracted from the pomace. Macer8 FJ and Macer8 R decreased the extraction yields of anthocyanins, whereas Pectinex...... pomace extracts all exerted a pronounced antioxidant activity against human LDL oxidation in vitro when tested at equimolar phenol concentrations of 7.5-10 muM....

  3. In vivo effects of pentoxifylline on enzyme and non-enzyme antioxidant levels in rat liver after carrageenan-induced paw inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vircheva, Stefani; Alexandrova, Albena; Georgieva, Almira; Mateeva, Polina; Zamfirova, Rositza; Kubera, Marta; Kirkova, Margarita

    2010-12-02

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) on the carrageenan (CG)-induced paw oedema and on the endogenous levels of cell enzyme and non-enzyme antioxidants in rat liver, 4 and 24 h after CG injection. PTX (50 mg kg(-1) , i.p.), administered 30 min before CG, decreased the paw oedema, 2-4 h after CG administration. The drug protected CG-induced decrease of glutathione (non-enzyme antioxidant) and had no effect on CG-unchanged activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase (enzyme antioxidants) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (enzyme, important for the activity of GSH-conjugated antioxidant enzymes). The drug showed a good antioxidant capacity in chemical systems, generating reactive oxygen species. The present results suggest that the antioxidant activity of PTX might contribute to its beneficial effects in liver injuries. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. AM Fungi Influences the Photosynthetic Activity, Growth and Antioxidant Enzymes in Allium sativum L. under Salinity Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh BORDE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Potential of Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi in alleviating adverse salt effects on growth was tested in garlic (Allium sativum L.. Towards this objective we analyzed the AM root colonization and the activities of various antioxidant enzymes like peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM salinity levels. The activities of all the antioxidant enzymes studied were found to be increased in AM garlic plants. Antioxidant activity was maximum in 100 and 200 mM NaCl (sodium chloride in AM and non-AM plants. Proline accumulation was induced by salt levels and it was more in leaves as well as roots of AM plants as compared to non-AM plants, this indicating that mycorrhiza reduced salt injury. Growth parameters of garlic plants like leaf area, plant fresh and dry weight and antioxidant enzyme activities were higher at moderate salinity level. This work suggests that the mycorrhiza helps garlic plants to perform better under moderate salinity level by enhancing the antioxidant activity and proline content as compared to non-AM plants.

  5. Effect of benzo[a]pyrene on detoxification and the activity of antioxidant enzymes of marine microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Miao, Jingjing; Li, Yun; Pan, Luqing

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on the detoxification and antioxidant systems of two microalgae, Isochrysis zhanjiangensis and Platymonas subcordiformis. In our study, these two algae were exposed to BaP for 4 days at three different concentrations including 0.5 μg L-1 (low), 3 μg L-1 (mid) and 18 μg L-1 (high). The activity of detoxification enzymes, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased in P. subcordiformis in all BaP-treated groups. In I. zhanjiangensis, the activity of these two enzymes increased at the beginning of exposure, and then decreased in the groups treated with mid- and high BaP. The activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased in I. zhanjiangensis in all BaP-treated groups, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no significant change was observed in P. subcordiformis. The activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) increased in I. zhanjiangensis and P. subcordiformis in all BaPtreated groups. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in Isochrysis zhanjiangensis increased first, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no change occurred in P. subcordiformis. These results demonstrated that BaP significantly influenced the activity of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes in microalgae. The metabolic related enzymes (EROD, GST and CAT) may serve as sensitive biomarkers of measuring the contamination level of BaP in marine water.

  6. Analyses of antioxidant status and nucleotide alterations in genes encoding antioxidant enzymes in patients with benign and malignant thyroid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nur Siti Fatimah; Mat Junit, Sarni; Leong, Ng Khoon; Razali, Nurhanani; Jayapalan, Jaime Jacqueline; Abdul Aziz, Azlina

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis of thyroid hormones and regulation of their metabolism involve free radicals that may affect redox balance in the body. Thyroid disorders causing variations in the levels of thyroid hormones may alter cellular oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to measure the antioxidant activities and biomarkers of oxidative stress in serum and red blood cells (RBC) of patients with benign and malignant thyroid disorders and to investigate if changes in the antioxidant activities in these patients were linked to alterations in genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes. Forty-one patients with thyroid disorders from University of Malaya Medical Centre were recruited. They were categorised into four groups: multinodular goitre (MNG) (n = 18), follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) (n = 7), papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) (n = 10), and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) (n = 6). Serum and RBC of patients were analysed for antioxidant activities, antioxidant enzymes, and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Alterations in genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes were analysed using whole exome sequencing and PCR-DNA sequencing. Patients with thyroid disorders had significantly higher serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities compared to control, but had lower activities in RBC. There were no significant changes in serum glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Meanwhile, GPx activity in RBC was reduced in PTC and FTC, compared to control and the respective benign groups. Antioxidant activities in serum were decreased in the thyroid disorder groups when compared to the control group. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were elevated in the serum of FTA group when compared to controls, while in the RBC, only the MNG and PTC groups showed higher MDA equivalents than control. Serum reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in PTC group of both serum and RBC were significantly higher than control group. Whole exome sequencing has resulted in identification of 49 single

  7. Analyses of antioxidant status and nucleotide alterations in genes encoding antioxidant enzymes in patients with benign and malignant thyroid disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Siti Fatimah Ramli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Synthesis of thyroid hormones and regulation of their metabolism involve free radicals that may affect redox balance in the body. Thyroid disorders causing variations in the levels of thyroid hormones may alter cellular oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to measure the antioxidant activities and biomarkers of oxidative stress in serum and red blood cells (RBC of patients with benign and malignant thyroid disorders and to investigate if changes in the antioxidant activities in these patients were linked to alterations in genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes. Methods Forty-one patients with thyroid disorders from University of Malaya Medical Centre were recruited. They were categorised into four groups: multinodular goitre (MNG (n = 18, follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA (n = 7, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC (n = 10, and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC (n = 6. Serum and RBC of patients were analysed for antioxidant activities, antioxidant enzymes, and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Alterations in genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes were analysed using whole exome sequencing and PCR–DNA sequencing. Results Patients with thyroid disorders had significantly higher serum superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities compared to control, but had lower activities in RBC. There were no significant changes in serum glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity. Meanwhile, GPx activity in RBC was reduced in PTC and FTC, compared to control and the respective benign groups. Antioxidant activities in serum were decreased in the thyroid disorder groups when compared to the control group. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA were elevated in the serum of FTA group when compared to controls, while in the RBC, only the MNG and PTC groups showed higher MDA equivalents than control. Serum reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in PTC group of both serum and RBC were significantly higher than control group. Whole exome sequencing has resulted in

  8. Effect of Sodium Fluoride Ingestion on Malondialdehyde Concentration and the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-González, José A.; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; García-Ortiz, Liliana; del Carmen Chima-Galán, María; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, César; González-Rubio, Manuel García-Luna y

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride intoxication has been shown to produce diverse deleterious metabolic alterations within the cell. To determine the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes, Male Wistar rats were treated with 50 ppm of NaF or were untreated as controls. Erythrocytes were obtained from rats sacrificed weekly for up to eight weeks and the concentration of MDA in erythrocyte membrane was determined. In addition, the activity of the enzymes superoxide, dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Treatment with NaF produces an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde in the erythrocyte membrane only after the eight weeks of treatment. On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activity was observed to increase after the fourth week of NaF treatment. In conclusion, intake of NaF produces alterations in the erythrocyte of the male rat, which indicates induction of oxidative stress. PMID:20640162

  9. Effect of sodium fluoride ingestion on malondialdehyde concentration and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-González, José A; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; García-Ortiz, Liliana; Del Carmen Chima-Galán, María; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, César; González-Rubio, Manuel García-Luna Y

    2010-06-11

    Fluoride intoxication has been shown to produce diverse deleterious metabolic alterations within the cell. To determine the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes, Male Wistar rats were treated with 50 ppm of NaF or were untreated as controls. Erythrocytes were obtained from rats sacrificed weekly for up to eight weeks and the concentration of MDA in erythrocyte membrane was determined. In addition, the activity of the enzymes superoxide, dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Treatment with NaF produces an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde in the erythrocyte membrane only after the eight weeks of treatment. On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activity was observed to increase after the fourth week of NaF treatment. In conclusion, intake of NaF produces alterations in the erythrocyte of the male rat, which indicates induction of oxidative stress.

  10. [Effects of rutin on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in liver of rats fed diets with different level of fat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, I V; Trusov, N V; Avren'eva, L I; Guseva, G V; Lashneva, N V; Kravchenko, L V; Tutel'ian, V A

    2014-01-01

    The study has been carried out on 6 groups of male Wistar rats, which received semi-synthetic diets within 28 days. Rats of 1st and 4th group received fat-free diet, 2nid.and 5th - diet containing standard amount of fat (10% by weight, 26% by caloric content; lard/sunflower oil - 1/1); 3rd and 6th group - a high-fat diet (30% by weight, 56% by caloric content). During the last 14 days of the experiment rats received rutin in the dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. AOA, MDA level and the activity of paraoxonase I have been evaluated in blood serum. In rat liver along with the parameters of the antioxidant status (MDA level, activity of paraoxonase 1, quinone reductase, heme oxygenase-1) the activity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A1, CYP2B1, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase and glutathione transferase) and the activity of lysosomal enzymes (arylsulfatase A and B, β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase) have been investigated. Elevation of the activity of antioxidant enzymes and XME in liver with the increase of diet fat content has been-noted. Rutin admihistration had no effect onparamete6rs of antioxidant status and decreased unsedimentable activity of lysosomal enzymes that did not depend on fat content in the diet. Rutin receiving increased the activity of all studied XME in rats fed standard diet, but practically did not effect on their activity in rats fed by fat-free and high-fat diets. Thus, rutin in pharmacological dose has no effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes that doesn't depend on the level of fat in the diet, while the decrease or increase of diet fat content modulates (weakens) the influence of rutin on the XME activity.

  11. Low in situ expression of antioxidative enzymes in rat cerebellar granular cells susceptible to methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, M; Usuki, F

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg), an environmental neurotoxicant, induces site-specific toxicity in the brain. Although oxidative stress has been demonstrated with MeHg toxicity, the site-specific toxicity is not completely understood. Among the cerebellar neurons, cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) appear vulnerable to MeHg, whereas Purkinje cells and molecular layer neurons are resistant. Here, we use a MeHg-intoxicated rat model to investigate these cerebellar neurons for the different causes of susceptibility to MeHg. Rats were exposed to 20 ppm MeHg for 4 weeks and subsequently exhibited neuropathological changes in the cerebellum that were similar to those observed in humans. We first isolated the three cerebellar neuron types using a microdissection system and then performed real-time PCR analyses for antioxidative enzymes. We observed that expression of manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TRxR1) was significantly higher in Purkinje cells and molecular layer neurons than in CGCs. Finally, we performed immunohistochemical analyses on the cerebellum. Immunohistochemistry showed increased expression of Mn-SOD, GPx1, and TRxR1 in Purkinje cells and molecular layer neurons, which was coincident with the mRNA expression patterns. Considering Mn-SOD, GPx1, and TRxR1 are critical for protecting cells against MeHg intoxication, the results indicate that low expression of these antioxidative enzymes increases CGCs vulnerability to MeHg toxicity.

  12. Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Enzymes in Normal and Stressed Rat Fed with Palm Olein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eqbal M.A. Dauqan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of Red Palm Olein (RPO and Palm Olein (PO on lipid profile and antioxidant enzyme in normal and stressed rat. Approach: Thirty six Sprague Dawley male rats which were randomly divided into six groups of 6 rats per group (tree normal groups and three stressed groups were treated with 15% of RPO and PO for four weeks. Results: The results at 4 weeks of treatment showed a decline in Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C level at RPO and PO for normal and stressed groups compared to the control group. The High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C level increased in RPO and PO of the normal and stressed groups. There was significant decreased (p≤0.05 in the TC in RPO normal group for 4 weeks of treatment compared to the control group while the TC in PO was within the normal range and increased in stressed group. After 4 weeks of treatment the study indicated that there was no significant (p≥0.05 effect on antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase in stressed rat liver but there was a significant decreased (p≤0.05 on catalase in stressed rat liver. Conclusion: These results could be due to the high content of vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols and β-carotene in red palm olein.

  13. Toxic effects of nitenpyram on antioxidant enzyme system and DNA in zebrafish (Danio rerio) livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Saihong; Wang, Jinhua; Zhu, Lusheng; Chen, Aimei; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Nitenpyram is one of the most commonly used neonicotinoid pesticide worldwide and was found to be toxic to non-target aquatic organisms. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the oxidative stress, changes in the detoxifying system and DNA damage in zebrafish induced by nitenpyram. In the present study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to four concentrations (0.6, 1.2, 2.5, and 5.0 mg L(-1)) for 28 d and then sampled in triplicate on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were dramatically inhibited at most exposure times compared with the control group, except SOD at low concentration (0.6 mg L(-1)) of nitenpyram and CAT on day 21. This difference is due to the excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in zebrafish livers. The activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased in in the treatment groups at a higher concentration compared with the control group. We found that nitenpyram exposure could affect the antioxidant enzymes and DNA damage in the exposed zebrafish livers. Additionally, the changes in the antioxidant enzyme activities could be an adaptive response protecting against the toxicity induced by nitenpyram.

  14. Serum and BAL cytokine and antioxidant enzyme levels at different stages of pneumoconiosis in coal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulker, O.C.; Yucesoy, B.; Demir, O.; Tekin, I.O.; Karakaya, A. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Toxicology

    2008-12-15

    Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is an occupational pulmonary disease that occurs by chronic inhalation of coal dust. CWP is divided into two stages depending on the extent of the disease, as simple pneumoconiosis (SP) and progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). In the present study, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytokine (interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)) and antioxidant enzymes levels, their relation with the disease severity, and whether they can be considered as biological markers were investigated. Serum and BAL levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha were higher in SP and PMF patient groups compared with that in active and retired miner groups. Serum and BAL IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha levels were also found to be higher in patients with PMF compared with the SP group. BAL superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and catalase levels and serum SOD level were increased in both patient groups compared with the control group. In addition, mean serum and BAL TGF-beta levels were found to be increased in patients with SP compared with PMF group. Based on these results, BAL and serum cytokine and antioxidant enzymes levels were evaluated and discussed as potential biomarkers for different stages of CWP.

  15. Markers of inflammation and antioxidant enzyme activities in restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantović Snežana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is often compromised by the need for repeat revascularization, because of restenosis development. Numerous studies have tried to establish the predictive value of different biochemical markers of restenosis, with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of inflammatory and lipid markers, and major antioxidant enzyme activity for the development of in-stent restenosis (ISR following PCI. Serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β, lipoprotein(a and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL levels, as well as serum extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD and catalase (CAT activity were determined in 44 patients before stent implantation procedure, and after 6-month follow-up. Results after follow-up revealed that, in patients that developed angiografically confirmed ISR, the increase in serum hs-CRP levels was significanty higher, compared to those without stenosis. Stent implantation induced compensatory increase in serum antioxidant enzyme activities at follow-up, with significantly lower CAT activity in patients with ISR, possibly contributing to stenosis development. No significant changes in circulating levels of ICAM-1, TGF-β, oxLDL and Lp(a were observed between the groups. In conclusion, serum hs-CRP level and CAT activity may be considered as useful biochemical markers for monitoring patients during follow-up after stent implantation.

  16. In vitro larvicidal potential against Anopheles stephensi and antioxidative enzyme activities of Ginkgo biloba, Stevia rebaudiana and Parthenium hysterophorous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisar Ahmad; Hina Fazal; Bilal H Abbasi; Mazhar Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in vitro larvicidal and antioxidant enzymes potential of the medicinal plants Ginkgo biloba (G. biloba), Stevia rebaudiana (S. rebaudiana) and Parthenium hysterophorous (P. hysterophorous) against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) 4th instars larvae. Methods:For evaluation of larvicidal potential, the ethanolic, methanolic and dichloromethane leaves extracts of three different plants were used in dose-dependent experiments in two media, while the antioxidant enzymes activities were investigated using four different methods viz., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, ascorbate and catalase. Results:An. stephensi has developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. The comparative performance of ethanolic extracts (65%-90%) was found better than the methanolic extract (70%-87%) and dichloromethane extract (60%-70%). Among the three plants extracts tested in two media, S. rebaudiana exhibited higher larvicidal activity with LC50 (24 h) in methanolic extract than P. hysterophorous and G. biloba. G. biloba and P. hysterophorous exhibited the strongest antioxidative enzymes activity and S. rebaudiana were less active and no significant difference was observed. Conclusions:These three plants exhibit larvicidal potential and can be further used for vector control alternative to synthetic insecticide due to eco-friendly and diseases control, furthermore these plant species have potent antioxidative enzyme activities, therefore, making them strong natural candidate particularly for diseases which are caused due to free radicals.

  17. Effect of curcumin on hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities and gene expressions in rats intoxicated with aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahr, S M

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight rats were examined in a 5-week experiment to investigate the effect of curcumin on gene expression and activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes in rats intoxicated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ). The rats were divided into four groups. Rats in 1-4 groups served as control, oral curcumin treated (15 mg/kg body weight), single i.p. dose of AFB1 (3 mg/kg body weight) and combination of single i.p. dose of AFB1 with oral curcumin treated, respectively. AFB1 Liver damage and oxidative stress were evident in untreated AFB1 -intoxicated rats as indicated by a significant elevation in hepatic transaminases, elevation in lipid peroxide biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS), reduction of reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, reduction in the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely catalase (CAT), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and down-regulation of gene expression of these antioxidant enzymes compared to control. Liver sections of rats intoxicated with AFB1 showed a disrupted lobular architecture, scattered necrotic cells and biliary proliferation. Administration of curcumin with AFB1 resulted in amelioration of AFB1 -induced effects compared to untreated AFB1 -intoxicated rats via an up-regulation of antioxidant enzyme gene expression, activation of the expressed genes and increase in the availability of GSH.

  18. Effects of alginate on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa quality, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinghua; Geng, Guoxia; Li, Qingwang; Sun, Xiuzhu; Cao, Hualin; Liu, Yawei

    2014-06-30

    Although alginate was reported to play an important role as free radical scavengers in vitro and could be used as sources of natural antioxidants, there was no study about the cryoprotective effects of alginate on boar spermatozoa freezing. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of alginate added to the freezing extenders on boar spermatozoa motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial activities, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes activities (SOD and GSH-Px) after thawing. Alginate was added to the TCG extender to yield six different final concentrations: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0mg/mL. The semen extender supplemented with various doses of alginate increased (Palginate also provided significantly positive effect on post-thaw boar spermatozoa acrosomal integrity at concentrations of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL, compared with that of the control (Palginate led to higher SOD and GSH-Px activities and lower MDA levels, in comparison to the control (Palginate exhibited a dose-related response on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa motility, functional integrity and antioxidative capacity at appropriate concentrations. Therefore alginate could be employed as an effective cryoprotectant in boar spermatozoa cryopreservation.

  19. Effect of selenium on growth and antioxidant enzyme activities of wine related yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, M; Martins, L L; Mourato, M P; Baleiras-Couto, M M

    2015-12-01

    The use of supplements in the diet is a common practice to address nutritional deficiencies. Selenium is an essential micronutrient with an antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic role in human and animal health. There is increasing interest in developing nutritional supplements such as yeast cells enriched with selenium. The possibility of producing beverages, namely wine, with selenium-enriched yeasts, led us to investigate the selenium tolerance of six wine related yeasts. The production of such cells may hamper selenium toxicity problems. Above certain concentrations selenium can be toxic inducing oxidative stress and yeast species can show different tolerance. This work aimed at studying selenium tolerance of a diversity of wine related yeasts, thus antioxidant response mechanisms with different concentrations of sodium selenite were evaluated. Viability assays demonstrated that the yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii showed the highest tolerance for the tested levels of 100 µg mL(-1) of sodium selenite. The evaluation of antioxidative enzyme activities showed the best performance for concentrations of 250 and 100 µg mL(-1), respectively for the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii. These results encourage future studies on the possibility to use pre-enriched yeast cells as selenium supplement in wine production.

  20. In vitro effect of sodium fluoride on antioxidative enzymes and apoptosis during murine odontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto-Alemán, L F; Hernández-Guerrero, J C; Trejo-Solís, C; Jiménez-Farfán, M D; Fernández-Presas, A M

    2010-10-01

    Excessive fluoride ingestion has been identified as a risk factor for fluorosis and oxidative stress. The oxidative stress results from the loss of equilibrium between oxidative and antioxidative mechanisms that can produce kinase activation, mitochondrial disturbance and DNA fragmentation, resulting in apoptosis. Actually many people are exposed to no-adverted fluoride consumption in acute or chronic way. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sodium fluoride on first molar germ in relation to its effect on antioxidative enzymes immunoexpression and apoptosis. Thirty first molar germs from 1-day-old Balb/c mice were cultured for 24 h with sodium fluoride (0 mM, 1 mM and 5 mM). Immunoexpression determination of CuZnSod, MnSod, catalase, Bax, Bid, caspase 8, caspase 9, caspase 3 and TUNEL assay were performed. Cellular disorganization in ameloblast and odontoblast-papilla zones was observed. CuZnSod and MnSod immunoexpression decrease in experimental groups. Caspase 8, caspase 3, Bax, Bid increase expression and more TUNEL positive cells in both experimental groups than control, suggest that apoptosis induced by fluoride is related to oxidative stress due to reduction of the enzymatic antioxidant. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Involvement of anti-oxidative enzymes, photosynthetic pigments and flavonoid metabolism in the adaptation of Reaumuria soongorica to salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuBing Liu; Bo Cao; MeiLing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Reaumuria soongorica is a short woody shrub widely found in semi-arid areas of China. It can survive severe environ-mental stress including high salinity in its natural habitat. Thus, we investigated the involvement of anti-oxidative enzymes, photosynthetic pigments and flavonoid metabolism in the adaptation of R. soongorica to saline environments. R. soon-gorica was treated with 0, 100, 200 and 400 mM NaCl solutions for 14 days. Soil salt content increased significantly by watering with high content of NaCl solution, and no variation between 8 and 14 days during treatment. The levels of pe-roxidation of lipid membranes (measured by malondialdehyde content) and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) increased under salt stress. Chlorophyll and carotenoid content decreased with increasing salt content. The ratio of Chl a/Chl b and carotenoid/Chl exhibited sig-nificant increase under 400 mM NaCl. However, total flavonoid and anthocyanin contents and key enzyme activities in the flavonoid pathway including phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and Chalcone isomerase (CHI) decreased under salt stress. These findings possibly suggest that R. soongorica has an adaptation protection mechanism against salt-induced oxidative damage by inducing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and maintaining a steady level of carotenoid/Chl.

  2. Induction of phase 2 antioxidant enzymes by broccoli sulforaphane: Perspectives in maintaining the antioxidant activity of vitamins A, C, and E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekhar s Boddupalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of fruits and vegetables is recognized as an important part of a healthy diet. Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables in particular has been associated with a decreased risk of several degenerative and chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Members of the cruciferous vegetable family, which includes broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and cabbage, accumulate significant concentrations of glucosinolates, which are metabolized in vivo to biologically active isothiocyanates (ITCs. The ITC sulforaphane, which is derived from glucoraphanin, has garnered particular interest due to its extraordinary ability to induce expression of several enzymes via the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Nrf2/ARE gene products are typically characterized as Phase II detoxification enzymes and/or antioxidant (AO enzymes. Over the last decade, human clinical studies have begun to provide in vivo evidence of both Phase II and AO enzyme induction by SF. Many AO enzymes are redox cycling enzymes that maintain redox homeostasis and activity of free radical scavengers such as such as vitamins A, C and E. In this review, we present the existing evidence for induction of PII and AO enzymes by SF, the interactions of SF-induced AO enzymes and proposed maintenance of the essential vitamins A, C and E, and, finally, the current view of genotypic effects on ITC metabolism and AO enzyme induction and function.

  3. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activity of bioactive peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of skin from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Jierong; De Gobba, Cristian; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp skin pieces were homogenized in water and hydrolyzed by Alcalase®, collagenase, proteinase K, and/or trypsin at their optimum conditions. Samples were taken at various degrees of hydrolysis and were evaluated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory...... activities. Alcalase and collagenase completely hydrolyzed the skin with different rates, and released peptides with antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity. These activities increased linearly with increasing degrees of hydrolysis. Subsequent incubation of the collagenase...... hydrolysates with trypsin slightly increased the antioxidant activity. Proteinase K, although only partially hydrolyzing the skin, also catalyzed the release of peptides with antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activities. These results show that skin by-products from grass carp can...

  4. Copper toxicity in expanding leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L.: antioxidant enzyme response and nutrient element uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazizi, Houda; Jouili, Hager; Geitmann, Anja; El Ferjani, Ezzeddine

    2010-09-01

    Bioaccumulation and toxicity of copper (CuSO4) were assessed in expanding leaves of 14-day-old bean seedlings. CuSO4 was administrated in the growth medium for three days and changes in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT), and in the H2O2 production and mineral element contents were measured. Copper accumulated in exposed plants caused severe symptoms such as chlorosis and necrosis as well as a dramatic reduction in dry weight production. Simultaneously, concentrations of iron, zinc and potassium were reduced significantly suggesting that a change in nutrient homeostasis may be responsible for the observed symptoms. Contrary to mature tissues, the expanding leaves did not display significant oxidative stress, since malondialdehyde (MDA) content was unchanged, the activities of GPX and CAT were lowered or unaltered, and endogenous H2O2 only increased at high copper concentrations. Our results suggest that while excess copper slightly alters the activity of the antioxidative enzyme system in young expanding leaves of bean plants, it exerts its toxicity primarily through causing a disturbance in the nutrient balance.

  5. Effects on antioxidant enzyme activities and osmolytes in Halocnemum strobilaceum under salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TianPeng Gao; Rui Guo; XiangWen Fang; ZhiGang Zhao; GuoHua Chang; YinQuan Chen; Qing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The seedlings ofHalocnermum strobilaceum were cultivated in 0.5% hoagland nutrient solution containing 0.0%, 0.9%, 2.7% and 5.4% of NaCl as well as composite salt (Na+, Ca2+, K+, Si4+) for 20 days; all the contents are in weight ratio. Succulent level, inorganic ions (Na+, K+), organics such as betaine, proline, malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) were measured to reveal its salt tolerance mechanism. When the composite salt concentration reaches 5.4%, SOD activity level, and MDA content is five times the control group; when it reaches 2.7%, the succulent level of seedlings, and the content of K+ in roots is nearly two times the NaCl treatment; the dry weight is more than three times the control group; with the NaCl treatment, MDA is three times the contrast; when the salt concentration is 2.7%, POD reaches the maximum. Results indicate that Si4+, K+, and Ca2+ from composite salt in the roots ofH. strobilaceum improved the water-holding capacity. The activities of antioxidant enzyme were raised by the accumulation of proline and betaine, which increased the salt tolerance. The absorption of K+ promoted the high ratio of K+/Na+ and alleviated the damage of cell membranes ofH. strobilaceum, which is associated with osmotic contents such as betaine and proline.

  6. Effect of lindane on antioxidant enzymes in epididymis and epididymal sperm of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.C. Chitra; R. Sujatha; C. Latchoumycandane; P.P. Mathur

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To find out the changes induced by lindane on the antioxidant enzymes in epididymis and epididymal sperm of adult rats, Methods; Adult male rats were orally administered lindane at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg body weight per day for 30 days. At the end of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed. The epididymis was removed and weighed and sperm were collected for sperm count, motility and biochemical studies. A 1% homogenate of epididymis was prepared and used for biochemical estimations. Results: In lindane-treated rats, there were significant reductions in the epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count and motility compared with the controls. Significant decreases in the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities and significant increases in the H2O2 generation and lipid peroxidation were also observed in the epididymis and epididymal sperm of lindane-treated rats. Conclusion: Lindane decreases the levels of antioxidant enzymes in the epididymis and epididymal sperm of adult rats thereby inducing oxidative stress.

  7. Activity of selected antioxidative enzymes in rats exposed to dimethoate and pyrantel tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barski, D; Spodniewska, A

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the results of research concerning the effect of single and combined application of pyrantel tartrate and dimethoate on selected antioxidative enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in rat erythrocytes. Pyrantel tartrate was applied twice, at a dose of 85 mg/kg bw at a two week interval, i.e. on day 14 and 28 of the experiment, orally, in a water solution with a stomach tube. Dimethoate was administered with drinking water for 28 days at a dose of 25 mg/kg bw/day. It was found that pyrantel tartrate caused only small changes in the activity of the antioxidative enzymes under analysis. Subchronic exposure of rats to dimethoate caused a significant increase in the activity of CAT, SOD and GPx in erythrocytes, indicating the existence of strong oxidative stress. In combined intoxication, no significant effects of administering pyrantel tartrate on the activity of CAT, SOD and GPx was found in animals poisoned with dimethoate. The profile of changes was similar to that observed in rats exposed only to the organophosphorus insecticide. This may indicate a lack of interaction between the compounds used in the experiment.

  8. Coated with nanomaterials intraocular lenses, ophthalmic and human body implantable devices with high catalytic antioxidant activities: a new nanotechnology strategy of peroxidase cellular enzyme mimics increasing the biocompatibility and therapeutic deployment of the medical prosthetic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    While cataract surgery is generally recognized as being one of the safest operations, there is still a significant complication rate. From 30 to 50% of all patients in the United States having cataract extraction develop opacification of the posterior lens capsule within two years and require laser treatment with its own significant risk of complications. Of the patients having cataract surgery, 0.8% develop retinal detachments, from 0.6% to 1.3% were rehospitalized for corneal edema or required corneal transplantation and about 0.1% presented with endophthalmitis . Thus, aside from secondary cataract, about 2% of 1.3 million people, or 26,000 individuals in the United States annually develop serious complications as a result of cataract surgery. The aim of this investigation was to increase the safety and effectiveness of an individual intraocular lens (IOL) preventing an impairment in peroxide metabolism of the mature human cataractous lenses compared to normal lenses employing the specific nanotechnology coating which substitutes the inhibitory effect of the implantable device towards the active species of oxygen and the ability of IOL to regulate the H2O2 and lipid hydroperoxides levels in the surrounding medium. The implantation of IOLs with metabolic activity improves the capability of the surrounding ocular tissues to withstand oxidative stress induced in ocular humors by the photochemical and other metabolic reactions. The coated implantable medical device with thin film of platinum applied with magnetron sputtering, reacts as a body enzyme with deleterious peroxide compounds and free radical oxygen species in body fluids and tissue when said device is implanted into human body. The IOL having haptics coated with thin film of platinum, catalyzes the reduction of peroxide compounds to decrease their levels within the aqueous humor. Further, the coatings also scavenge toxic free radicals of oxygen, thus preventing cellular dysfunction resulting from oxidative

  9. Molybdenum application enhances antioxidant enzyme activity and COR15a protein expression under cold stress in wheat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Issawi, Mohammed; Rihan, Hail Z; Al-Shmgani, Hanady; Fuller, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    .... The results confirmed that antioxidant defense is important in wheat that is exposed to abiotic stress and that changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes occurred during exposure of plants to low...

  10. Phytoestrogens enhance antioxidant enzymes after swimming exercise and modulate sex hormone plasma levels in female swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre-Alfaro, Antonia; Ferrer, Miguel D; Sureda, Antoni; Tauler, Pedro; Martínez, Elisa; Bibiloni, Maria M; Micol, Vicente; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2011-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects of diet supplementation with phytoestrogens on sex hormone levels, antioxidant adaptive responses and oxidative damage induced by exercise. Ten female swimmers participated for 26 days in a diet intervention with either a functional beverage rich in vitamins C and E or the same beverage but also supplemented with Lippia citriodora extract (PLX) containing 20 mg/100 ml verbascoside. After the intervention all subjects participated in a swimming session for 30 min maintaining the intensity at about 75-80% of their individual best performance time for a 50-m swim. In lymphocytes, the superoxide dismutase activity increased after exercise, with a higher increase in the PLX group. Swimming increased the erythrocyte activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the PLX group. Purified glutathione reductase activity increased after an in vitro incubation with PLX. No effects were observed on the lymphocyte levels of malondialdehyde and carbonyls, but exercise increased the percentage of high-damaged lymphocytes 2.8 times in the placebo group and 1.5 times in the PLX group. PLX decreased the levels of 17-β-estradiol and testosterone and increased the levels of the sex hormone binding globulin. In conclusion, supplementation with phytoestrogens enhances the glutathione-dependent enzyme activities in erythrocytes and the superoxide dismutase activity in lymphocytes in response to exercise. PLX also shows direct antioxidant properties, by increasing glutathione reductase enzyme activity in vitro. Supplementation with phytoestrogens also decreases the plasma steroid hormone levels, pointing towards a possible agonistic effect of verbascoside in the hypothalamic regulation of estradiol synthesis.

  11. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of egg protein hydrolysates produced with gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sun-Jong; Wu, Jianping

    2011-08-01

    Egg is a well-known rich source of bioactive peptides. In this study, egg protein (egg white and egg yolk proteins) hydrolysates were produced with gastrointestinal enzymes (pepsin and pancreatin) or nongastrointestinal enzymes (thermolysin and alcalase), and fractionated by ultrafiltration and cation exchange chromatography. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities, amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution were studied, and the physicochemical properties were related with the bioactivities. Our results showed that egg protein hydrolysates produced with non-GI enzymes (thermolysin and alcalase) showed significantly higher ACE inhibitory activity, whereas similar or even lower antioxidative activities, than those of hydrolysates produced with GI enzymes. ACE-inhibitory activity significantly correlated with the amino acid composition, especially the proportion of positively charged amino acid, whereas antioxidant activities correlated with the proportion of low molecular weight peptides under 500 Da. Understanding the relationship between the bioactivities and physicochemical properties of the hydrolysates/fractions is important to facilitate the development technologies for preparing fractions with improved bioactivities. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Antioxidative capacity and enzyme activity in Haematococcus pluvialis cells exposed to superoxide free radicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建国; 张晓丽; 孙延红; 林伟

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidative capacity of astaxanthin and enzyme activity of reactive oxygen eliminating enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD),peroxidase (POD),catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were studied in three cell types of Haematococcus pluvialis exposed to high concentrations of a superoxide anion radical (O2ˉ).The results show that defensive enzymes and astaxanthin-related mechanisms were both active in H.pluvialis during exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as Oˉ2.Astaxanthin reacte...

  13. Oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in the developing brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Yeon Shim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants are vulnerable to the oxidative stress due to the production of large amounts of free radicals, antioxidant system insufficiency, and immature oligodendroglial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a pivotal role in the development of periventricular leukomalacia. The three most common ROS are superoxide (O2&#8226;-, hydroxyl radical (OH&#8226;, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Under normal physiological conditions, a balance is maintained between the production of ROS and the capacity of the antioxidant enzyme system. However, if this balance breaks down, ROS can exert toxic effects. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase are considered the classical antioxidant enzymes. A recently discovered antioxidant enzyme family, peroxiredoxin (Prdx, is also an important scavenger of free radicals. Prdx1 expression is induced at birth, whereas Prdx2 is constitutively expressed, and Prdx6 expression is consistent with the classical antioxidant enzymes. Several antioxidant substances have been studied as potential therapeutic agents; however, further preclinical and clinical studies are required before allowing clinical application.

  14. Differential Responses of the Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes to Thermal Stresses between Two Invasive Eupatorium Species in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Lu; Wei-Guo Sang; Ke-Ping Ma

    2008-01-01

    The effect of thermal stress on the antioxidant system was Investigated in two invasive plants, Eupatorlum adenophorum Spreng. and E. odoratum L. The former is sensitive to high temperature, whereas the latter is sensitive to low temperature.Our aim was to explore the relationship between the response of antioxidant enzymes and temperature In the two Invasive weeds with different distribution patterns in China. Plants were transferred from glasshouse to growth chambers at a constant 25 ℃ for 1 week to acclimatize to the environment. For the heat treatments, temperature was Increased stepwise to 30, 35, 38 and finally to 42 ℃. For the cold treatments, temperature was decreased stepwise to 20, 15,10 and finally to 5 ℃.Plants were kept In the growth chambers for 24 h at each temperature step. In E. adenophorum, the coordinated Increase of the activities of antioxidant enzymes was effective In protecting the plant from the eccumulatlon of active oxygen species (AOS) at low temperature, but the activities of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX),glutathione reductase (GR), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) were not accompanied by the Increase of super-oxide dismutase (SOD) during the heat treatments. As a result, the level of lipid peroxidation in E. adenophorum was higher under heat stress than under cold stress. In E. odoratum, however, the lesser degree of membrane damage, as indicated by low monodehydroascorbate content, and the coordinated Increase of the oxygen. Dstoxlfying enzymes were observed in hest-treated plants, but the antioxidant enzymes were unable to operate in cold stress. This indicates that the plants have a higher capacity for scavenging oxygen radicals in heat stress than in cold stress. The different responses of antloxidant enzymes may be one of the possible mechanisms of the differences in temperature sensitivities of the two plant species.

  15. Castasterone confers copper stress tolerance by regulating antioxidant enzyme responses, antioxidants, and amino acid balance in B. juncea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Poonam; Kaur, Ravdeep; Kanwar, Mukesh Kumar; Sharma, Anket; Verma, Vinod; Sirhindi, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2017-09-20

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of exogenous application of castasterone (CS) on physiologic and biochemical responses in Brassica juncea seedlings under copper (Cu) stress. Seeds were pre-soaked in different concentrations of CS and grown for 7 days under various levels of Cu. The exposure of B. juncea to higher levels of Cu led to decrease of morphologic parameters, with partial recovery of length and fresh weight in the CS pre-treated seedlings. Metal content was high in both roots and shoots under Cu exposure while the CS pre-treatment reduced the metal uptake. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion radical (O2(-)) were chosen as stress biomarker and higher levels of H2O2 (88.89%) and O2(-) (62.11%) showed the oxidative stress in metal treated B. juncea seedlings, however, CS pre-treatment reduced ROS accumulation in Cu-exposed seedlings. The Cu exposures lead to enhance the plant's enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system. It was observed that enzymatic activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APOX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione perxoidase (GPOX) and gultrathione-s-transferase increased while activity of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) decreased under Cu stress. The pre-treatment with CS positively affected the activities of enzymes. RT-PCR analysis showed that mRNA transcript levels were correlated with total enzymatic activity of DHAR, GR, GST and GSH. Increase in the gene expression of DHAR (1.85 folds), GR (3.24 folds), GST-1 (2.00 folds) and GSH-S (3.18 folds) was noticed with CS pre-treatment. Overall, the present study shows that Cu exposure induced severe oxidative stress in B. juncea plants and exogenous application of CS improved antioxidative defense system by modulating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and amino acid metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano ( L. Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP, antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol, 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP, 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP, and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP. Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05. Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05. These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.

  17. Green tea supplementation increases glutathione and plasma antioxidant capacity in adults with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Mulugeta, Afework; Tong, Capella; Newman, Emily; Lyons, Timothy J

    2013-03-01

    Green tea, a popular polyphenol-containing beverage, has been shown to alleviate clinical features of the metabolic syndrome. However, its effects in endogenous antioxidant biomarkers are not clearly understood. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that green tea supplementation will upregulate antioxidant parameters (enzymatic and nonenzymatic) in adults with the metabolic syndrome. Thirty-five obese participants with the metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to receive one of the following for 8 weeks: green tea (4 cups per day), control (4 cups water per day), or green tea extract (2 capsules and 4 cups water per day). Blood samples and dietary information were collected at baseline (0 week) and 8 weeks of the study. Circulating carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene) and tocopherols (α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol) and trace elements were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, respectively. Serum antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, catalase) and plasma antioxidant capacity were measured spectrophotometrically. Green tea beverage and green tea extract significantly increased plasma antioxidant capacity (1.5 to 2.3 μmol/L and 1.2 to 2.5 μmol/L, respectively; P glutathione (1783 to 2395 μg/g hemoglobin and 1905 to 2751 μg/g hemoglobin, respectively; P glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities. Green tea extract significantly reduced plasma iron vs baseline (128 to 92 μg/dL, P green tea may provide antioxidant protection in the metabolic syndrome.

  18. Abscisic Acid Induced Changes in Production of Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, Antioxidant Capability, Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2−, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2−, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05 and O2− (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05. This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  19. Study of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Background: The oxidative stress and inflammation are cooperative events involved in atherosclerosis ... reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lipid status parameters in the patients with coronary artery .... Data were analyzed with t-test and expressed as mean ± SD. ... biomolecules including; lipids, proteins and DNA. Antioxidative ...

  20. Water stress induced changes in antioxidant enzymes, membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Then electrical conductivity (C1) was recorded by EC (Elec- ..... 251 (Table 4) and accession. 320 (Table 4); the magnitude of stimulation was ..... thus indicating the sensitivity of its antioxidant system to smaller changes in leaf ...

  1. Effect of combined pharmacotherapy lipid peroxidation and activity of enzymes antioxidant protection in rat livergepatoсancerogeneze

    OpenAIRE

    KASYMOVA GULMIRA GAFUROVNA

    2016-01-01

    When hepatitis carcinogenesis marked imbalance in the system of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme system. Pharmacotherapy cytostatic leads to even greater intensification of lipid peroxidation. Thus activity of antioxidant defense enzymes even more oppressed. Roncoleukin results to some rebalancing of the system of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme systems. Which has a temporary nature. The combined use of doxorubicin and ronkolejkin some what reduces the marked of doxorubicin...

  2. Gelam Honey Protects against Gamma-Irradiation Damage to Antioxidant Enzymes in Human Diploid Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Makpol

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the radioprotective effects of Malaysian Gelam honey on gene expression and enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs subjected to gamma-irradiation. Six groups of HDFs were studied: untreated control, irradiated HDFs, Gelam honey-treated HDFs and HDF treated with Gelam honey pre-, during- and post-irradiation. HDFs were treated with 6 mg/mL of sterilized Gelam honey (w/v for 24 h and exposed to 1 Gray (Gy of gamma rays at the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/min. Gamma-irradiation was shown to down-regulate SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPx1 gene expressions (p < 0.05. Conversely, HDFs treated with Gelam honey alone showed up-regulation of all genes studied. Similarly, SOD, CAT and GPx enzyme activities in HDFs decreased with gamma-irradiation and increased when cells were treated with Gelam honey (p < 0.05. Furthermore, of the three different stages of study treatment, pre-treatment with Gelam honey caused up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT genes expression and increased the activity of SOD and CAT. As a conclusion, Gelam honey modulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes at gene and protein levels in irradiated HDFs indicating its potential as a radioprotectant agent.

  3. Serum antioxidant enzymes activities and oxidative stress levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke: influence on neurological status and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanlioglu, Aysel; Aslan, Mehmet; Ozkol, Halil; Çilingir, Vedat; Nuri Aydın, Mehmet; Karadas, Sevdegül

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress is well believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of acute ischemic stroke. Reports on antioxidant enzyme activities in patients with stroke are conflicting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate serum antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative stress levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke within 1st, 5th, and 21st day after stroke onset and also the relationship between these results and the clinical status of patients. The current study comprised 45 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 30 healthy controls. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase activities were measured spectrophotometrically. Serum MDA levels were significantly higher in acute ischemic stroke patients within 24 h after stroke onset than controls (p levels did not change (p > 0.05). Serum SOD activity was significantly lower in 21st day compared to SOD activity of controls (p levels, GSH-Px, and CAT activities did not change significantly. Our study demonstrated that acute ischemic stroke patients have increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant enzymes activities. These findings indicated that an imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant status might play a role in the pathogenesis of acute ischemic stroke.

  4. Understanding salt tolerance mechanisms in wheat genotypes by exploring antioxidant enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amjad, M.; Akhtar, J.; Haq, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    ), shoot fresh weight (SFW), shoot-root ratio, and K+:Na+ ratio, compared to the most salt sensitive genotypes (S-9189 and S-9476). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased significantly in SARC-1 and SARC-2 with increasing salt stress, while there was no difference in S-9189 and S- 9476......The activities of antioxidant enzymes were analyzed in six wheat genotypes under different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100 and 200 mM). Plants were harvested after either 15 or 30 days of salt stress. The most salt tolerant genotype (SARC-1) maintained lower Na+ and higher relative growth rate (RGR....... Additionally, glutathione reductase (GR) activity was decreased in salt sensitive (S-9189 and S-9476) than salt tolerant (SARC-1) genotypes. Under salt stress conditions a negative relationship between SOD and leaf Na+, and a positive between SOD and shoot fresh weight (SFW), were observed. The higher...

  5. Adenanthin, a new inhibitor of thiol-dependent antioxidant enzymes, impairs the effector functions of human natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siernicka, Marta; Winiarska, Magdalena; Bajor, Malgorzata; Firczuk, Malgorzata; Muchowicz, Angelika; Bobrowicz, Malgorzata; Fauriat, Cyril; Golab, Jakub; Olive, Daniel; Zagozdzon, Radoslaw

    2015-09-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are considered critical components of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Deficiencies in NK cell activity are common, such as those that occur in cancer patients, and they can be responsible for dysfunctional immune surveillance. Persistent oxidative stress is intrinsic to many malignant tumours, and numerous studies have focused on the effects of reactive oxygen species on the anti-tumour activity of NK cells. Indeed, investigations in animal models have suggested that one of the most important thiol-dependent antioxidant enzymes, peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1), is essential for NK cell function. In this work, our analysis of the transcriptomic expression pattern of antioxidant enzymes in human NK cells has identified PRDX1 as the most prominently induced transcript out of the 18 transcripts evaluated in activated NK cells. The change in PRDX1 expression was followed by increased expression of two other enzymes from the PRDX-related antioxidant chain: thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. To study the role of thiol-dependent antioxidants in more detail, we applied a novel compound, adenanthin, to induce an abrupt dysfunction of the PRDX-related antioxidant chain in NK cells. In human primary NK cells, we observed profound alterations in spontaneous and antibody-dependent NK cell cytotoxicity against cancer cells, impaired degranulation, and a decreased expression of activation markers under these conditions. Collectively, our study pinpoints the unique role for the antioxidant activity of the PRDX-related enzymatic chain in human NK cell functions. Further understanding this phenomenon will prospectively lead to fine-tuning of the novel NK-targeted therapeutic approaches to human disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Foliar application of chlorocholine chloride improves leaf mineral nutrition, antioxidant enzyme activity, and tuber yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huigun; Xiao, Langtao; Tong, Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    growth conditions; however, the physiological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects have not been fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of CCC treatment on mineral nutrition, antioxidant enzyme system, and tuber yield of potato (cv. Zhongshu 3) under field...... conditions. The plants were foliar sprayed twice with 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g l-1 CCC at 24 and 28 days after emergence (DAE), respectively; and plants without CCC treatment were serviced as control. Leaf samples were collected on 56 DAE for determination of mineral nutrition contents and antioxidant enzyme...... activity. Results showed that 1.5 and 2.0 g l-1 CCC treatments significantly increased the contents of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in potato leaves. These treatments also increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidases (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities in the leaves. A positive linear relationship...

  7. Synthesis, antioxidant, enzyme inhibition and DNA binding studies of novel N-benzylated derivatives of sulfonamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Aadil; Murtaza, Shahzad; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Shamim, Saima; Sirajuddin, Muhammad; Rana, Usman Ali; Naseem, Khadija; Rafique, Hummera

    2016-08-01

    A series of novel N-benzylated derivatives of sulfonamide were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, NMR and XRD analysis. The synthesized compounds were assayed for their biological potential. The biological studies involved antioxidant, enzyme inhibition, and DNA interaction studies. Antioxidant potential was investigated by Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay (FRAP) and DPPH free radical scavenging method, the capacity of synthesized compounds to inhibit the enzyme's activity was assayed by using the well-known Elman method whereas DNA interaction studies were carried out with the help UV-Vis absorption titration method. Moreover, a direct correlation between enzyme inhibition activity and concentration of the compounds was observed both in experimental and molecular docking studies. DNA interaction studies of the synthesized compounds showed weak interaction.

  8. Effect of Oenanthe Javanica Extract on Antioxidant Enzyme in the Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong-Hyun Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oenanthe javanica (O. javanica has been known to have high antioxidant properties via scavenging reactive oxygen species. We examined the effect of O. javanica extract (OJE on antioxidant enzymes in the rat liver. Methods: We examined the effect of the OJE on copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1, manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the rat liver using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups; (1 normal diet fed group (normal-group, (2 diet containing ascorbic acid (AA-fed group (AA-group as a positive control, (3 diet containing OJE-fed group (OJE-group. Results: In this study, no histopathological finding in the rat liver was found in all the experimental groups. Numbers of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx immunoreactive cells and their protein levels were significantly increased in the AA-fed group compared with those in the normal-group. On the other hand, in the OJE-group, numbers of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx immunoreactive cells in the liver were significantly increased by about 190%, 478%, 685%, and 346%, respectively, compared with those in the AA-group. In addition, protein levels of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx in the OJE-group were also significantly much higher than those in the AA-group. Conclusion: OJE significantly increased expressions of SOD1 and SOD2, CAT, and GPx in the liver cells of the rat, and these suggests that significant enhancements of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants by OJE might be a legitimate strategy for decreasing oxidative stresses in the liver.

  9. Effect of Oenanthe Javanica Extract on Antioxidant Enzyme in the Rat Liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choong-Hyun Lee; Joon-Ha Park; Jeong-Hwi Cho; In-Hye Kim; Ji-Hyeon Ahn; Jae-Chul Lee; Bai Hui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background:Oenanthe javanica (O.javanica) has been known to have high antioxidant properties via scavenging reactive oxygen species.We examined the effect of O.javanica extract (OJE) on antioxidant enzymes in the rat liver.Methods:We examined the effect of the OJE on copper,zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1),manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2),catalase (CAT),and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the rat liver using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis.Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups;(1) normal diet fed group (normal-group),(2) diet containing ascorbic acid (AA)-fed group (AA-group) as a positive control,(3) diet containing OJE-fed group (OJE-group).Results:In this study,no histopathological finding in the rat liver was found in all the experimental groups.Numbers of SOD1,SOD2,CAT,and GPx immunoreactive cells and their protein levels were significantly increased in the AA-fed group compared with those in the normal-group.On the other hand,in the OJE-group,numbers of SOD1,SOD2,CAT,and GPx immunoreactive cells in the liver were significantly increased by about 190%,478%,685%,and 346%,respectively,compared with those in the AA-group.In addition,protein levels of SOD 1,SOD2,CAT,and GPx in the OJE-group were also significantly much higher than those in the AA-group.Conclusion:OJE significantly increased expressions of SOD 1 and SOD2,CAT,and GPx in the liver cells of the rat,and these suggests that significant enhancements of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants by OJE might be a legitimate strategy for decreasing oxidative stresses in the liver.

  10. Variations of antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde content in nemertean Cephalothrix hongkongiensis after exposure to heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyi; Zhao, Xidan; Sun, Shichun

    2010-07-01

    The antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of Cephalothrix hongkongiensis were studied to assess variations in the biochemical/physiological parameters of nemerteans under heavy metal stress. Worms were exposed to copper, zinc and cadmium solutions at different concentrations, and the activity of three antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and MDA content were measured. The results show that the activity of each enzyme changed immediately after exposure to heavy metals. CAT was invariably inhibited throughout the experimental period, while the SOD activity was significantly elevated by exposure to Cu2+ for 48 h, but then decreased. SOD was inhibited by Zn2+during the first 12 h of exposure, but activated when exposed for longer periods. Under Cd2+ stress, SOD activity decreased within 72 h. GPX activity varied greatly, being significantly increased by both Cu2+ and Zn2+, but significantly inhibited by Cd2+ in the first 12-24 h after exposure. MDA content increased on Cu2+ exposure, but normally decreased on Zn2+ exposure. MDA content followed an increase-decrease-increase pattern under Cd2+ stress. In conclusion, the antioxidant system of this nemertean is sensitive to heavy metals, and its CAT activity may be a potential biomarker for monitoring heavy metal levels in the environment.

  11. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic potential of Acacia hydaspica R. Parker aerial parts extract: Modulation of brain antioxidant enzyme status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Tayyaba; Razak, Suhail; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Almajwal, Ali

    2017-04-24

    Oxidative stress may link to psychiatric disorders, and is being regarded as a plausible mechanism that can affect the regulation of these illnesses. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidepressant and anxiolytic potential of A. hydaspica R. parkers. Brain oxidative stress enzyme levels were analyzed to correlate depression and stress with brain antioxidant status. Antidepressant and anxiolytic effect of methanol extract of A. hydaspica and its derived soluble fractions [n-hexane (AHH), ethyl-acetate (AHE), chloroform (AHC), n-butanol (AHB) and remaining aqueous fraction (AHA)] was investigated by using three behavioral models; the Forced swimming test, Tail suspension test and Elevated plus-maze test (EPM). Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) was employed to induce stress in rats. AHM and AHE (200 mg/kg, p.o), fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, i.p) and diazepam (DZM) (1 mg/kg, p.o) were administered during the 7 day stress exposure period, and rats were assessed for antidepressant and anxiolytic behavioral despair paradigms. Antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers were measured in brain tissue of depressed rats. Phytochemical analysis was done by GCMS experimentation. AHM and AHE (acute dose) significantly (p antioxidant enzyme levels and increase in MDA, H2O2 and NO level were observed in stressed rats. AHM and AHE (for 7 days/CMS) significantly improved behavior in FST, TST and EPMT. Treatment also improved antioxidant enzyme level and controlled the oxidative stress markers in brain tissues. GCMS analysis indicated the presence of 10 different chemical constituents in A. hydaspica. The present study revealed that A. hydaspica exerts an antidepressant and anxiolytic effect by improving brain antioxidant status. The observed activities might be due to the presence of diverse phytochemicals.

  12. Acidic infusion in early reperfusion affects the activity of antioxidant enzymes in postischemic isolated rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Claudia; Perrelli, Maria-Giulia; Tullio, Francesca; Angotti, Carmelina; Pagliaro, Pasquale

    2013-07-01

    Acidic perfusion (AP) performed at the onset of reperfusion (i.e., acid postconditioning) is cardioprotective. We investigated the effect of AP on postischemic cardiac function and on the activity of endogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase. The role of exogenous CAT or SOD on AP cardioprotection was also investigated. Phosphorylation of redox-sensitive survival kinases (protein kinase C [PKC] ε and extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] 1/2) was also checked. Isolated rat hearts underwent ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) for 30 and 120 min, respectively. AP was obtained by lowering [HCO3(-)] in the perfusion buffer. Infarct size and left ventricular pressure were measured. Protocols include I/R only, I/R plus acidic perfusion in early reperfusion (I/R + AP), and I/R plus AP and CAT (I/R + AP + CAT) or SOD (I/R + AP + SOD). I/R + SOD and I/R + CAT additional hearts served as controls. AP and/or antioxidants were given in the initial 3 min of reperfusion. Enzyme activities were studied in postischemic phase (seventh minute of reperfusion) in I/R or I/R + AP and Sham (buffer-perfused) hearts. AP with (I/R + AP + CAT or I/R + AP + SOD) or without (I/R + AP) antioxidant enzymes resulted in a larger reduction of infarct size compared with I/R, I/R + SOD, or I/R + CAT. Compared with I/R, the postischemic systolic and diastolic recoveries of the cardiac function were markedly improved by the addition of AP and a lesser extent by AP + SOD or AP + CAT. AP increased the postischemic activity of CAT and lowered that of SOD and glutathione peroxidase compared with I/R only. Also, the phosphorylation and activity of ERK1/2 and PKCε were increased by AP. Acid postconditioning affects the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, activates ERK1/2-PKCε pathways, and protects against myocardial I/R injury. The combination of AP and exogenous SOD or CAT still provides cardioprotection. It is likely that intracellular (not

  13. Altered Antioxidant Status and Increased Lipid Per-Oxidation in Seminal Plasma of Tunisian Infertile Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atig, Fatma; Raffa, Monia; Ali, Habib Ben; Abdelhamid, Kerkeni; Saad, Ali; Ajina, Mounir

    2012-01-01

    Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40), asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35). Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and the levels of glutathione (GSH), zinc (Zn) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome. PMID:22211112

  14. Altered Antioxidant Status and Increased Lipid Per-Oxidation in Seminal Plasma of Tunisian Infertile Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Atig, Monia Raffa, Habib Ben Ali, Kerkeni Abdelhamid, Ali Saad, Mounir Ajina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40, asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45 and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35. Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX and the levels of glutathione (GSH, zinc (Zn and malondialdehyde (MDA were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome.

  15. The effects of dopamine on antioxidant enzymes activities and reactive oxygen species levels in soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Bruno Ribeiro; Siqueira-Soares, Rita de Cássia; Dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Marchiosi, Rogério; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    In the current work, we investigated the effects of dopamine, an neurotransmitter found in several plant species on antioxidant enzyme activities and ROS in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) roots. The effects of dopamine on SOD, CAT and POD activities, as well as H2O2, O2(•-), melanin contents and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 6.0), without or with 0.1 to 1.0 mM dopamine, in a growth chamber (25°C, 12 h photoperiod, irradiance of 280 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for 24 h. Significant increases in melanin content were observed. The levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation decreased at all concentrations of dopamine tested. The SOD activity increased significantly under the action of dopamine, while CT activity was inhibited and POD activity was unaffected. The results suggest a close relationship between a possible antioxidant activity of dopamine and melanin and activation of SOD, reducing the levels of ROS and damage on membranes of soybean roots.

  16. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jinghua; XU Wei; MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Wenbing; FENG Xiuni; LIUFU Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight:1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length:19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0,10,and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg,respectively.Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments.Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD),glutathione peroxidase (GPX),glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione.However,activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased.Therefore,antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  17. Differential antioxidative enzyme responses of Jatropha curcas L. to chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Dhote, Monika; Kumar, Phani; Sharma, Jitendra; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2010-08-15

    Chromium (Cr) tolerant and accumulation capability of Jatropha curcas L. was tested in Cr spiked soil amended with biosludge and biofertilizer. Plants were cultivated in soils containing 0, 25, 50, 100 and 250 mg kg(-1) of Cr for one year with and without amendment. Plant tissue analysis showed that combined application of biosludge and biofertilizer could significantly reduce Cr uptake and boost the plant biomass, whereas biofertilizer alone did not affect the uptake and plant growth. Antioxidative responses of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were increased with increasing Cr concentration in plant. Hyperactivity of the CAT and GST indicated that antioxidant enzymes played an important role in protecting the plant from Cr toxicity. However, APX took a little part in detoxification of H(2)O(2) due to its sensitivity to Cr. Therefore, reduced APX activity was recorded. Reduced glutathione (GSH) activity was recorded in plant grown on/above 100 mg kg(-1) of Cr in soil. The study concludes that J. curcas could grow under chromium stress. Furthermore, the results encouraged that J. curcas is a suitable candidate for the restoration of Cr contaminated soils with the concomitant application of biosludge and biofertilizer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of NaCl stress on antioxidative enzymes of glycine Soja sieb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan

    2009-03-15

    The activity of anti-oxidant enzymes (Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Peroxidase (POD), Catalase (CAT) and parameters of oxidative stress malondialdehyde (MDA) of shoots were investigated in S. sieb naturally salt-resistant halophyte. The seedlings of S. sieb were treated with varying (0, 80, 160 and 240 mM) NaCl stress. The results showed that NaCl played an important role in growth of S. sieb. It made obviously promotion of certain NaCl concentration to growth of S. sieb, the seeflings of S. sieb grew best under 80 mM salt stress. MDA concentration of S. sieb obviously decreased under 80 mM salt stress then increased with salt concentration increased. The activities of SOD, POD and CAT increased with the increase of the concentration of NaCl in S. sieb. The salt tolerance of this halophyte under salt stress condition are probably due to its ability to exhibit high SOD, POD and CAT enzyme activities and Soluble Sugar (SS) concentration.

  19. Curcumin attenuates CFA induced thermal hyperalgesia by modulation of antioxidant enzymes and down regulation of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajeet Kumar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2015-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species are signaling mediators of nociceptive pathways. Exogenous administrations of antioxidants show anti-hyperalgesic effect. However, very little is known about the role of endogenous antioxidant defense system in pain pathology. Curcumin is a dietary antioxidant which shows ameliorative effect on thermal hypersensitivity, however detailed study is lacking. Present study was aimed to analyze the changes in oxidative stress, modulation of antioxidant enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines in complete Freund's adjuvant induced inflammatory hyperalgesia and the effect of curcumin on antioxidant defense system and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Anti-hyperalgesic activity of curcumin was evidenced after 6 h of treatment. Oxidative stress was evidenced in paw skin and spinal cord of hyperalgesic rats by high level of lipid peroxidation. A decrease in activity of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and an increase in level of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in paw skin was observed as compared to normal rats. However, activity of antioxidant enzymes was enhanced in spinal cord. The changes were brought towards normal level after curcumin treatment. The results suggest that modulation of antioxidant defense system is early event in initiation of inflammatory hyperalgesia which might lead to initiation of other signaling pathways mediated by lipid peroxide, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Decrease in oxidative stress and down regulation of these cytokines by curcumin is suggested to be involved in its anti-hyperalgesic effect.

  20. Association of salivary lipid peroxidation levels, antioxidant enzymes, and chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Shilpa; Lal, Nand; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Singh, Babita; Pandey, Shivani

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) and free radical damage marker malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in saliva of 30 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) compared to 30 healthy controls by spectrophotometry. MDA levels were significantly elevated in the CP group, whereas the SOD, CAT, and GR activities were significantly reduced compared to healthy controls. MDA levels demonstrated a significant direct correlation with all periodontal parameters, whereas all antioxidant enzymes studied (SOD, CAT, and GR) showed an inverse correlation. These findings support the idea that oxidative stress has a role in periodontal disease pathogenesis.

  1. Antioxidant enzyme and osmotic adjustment changes in bean seedlings as affected by biochar under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangi-Abriz, Salar; Torabian, Shahram

    2017-03-01

    Salinity damaged cellular membranes through overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while osmolytes and antioxidant capacities play a vital role in protecting plants from salinity caused oxidative damages. Biochar also could alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crops. The pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biochar on some antioxidant enzyme activities and osmolyte adjustments of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Derakhshan) under salinity stress. Bean plants were subjected to three salinity levels (non-saline, 6 and 12 dSm(-1) of NaCl) and biochar treatments (non-biochar, 10% and 20% total pot mass). Shoot and root dry weights of bean were decreased at two salt stress treatments. Salinity increased the activity of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), oxygen radicals (O(2•-)), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in leaf and root compared to control. Additionally, increased magnitudes of proline, glycine betaine, soluble sugar and soluble protein contents were more pronounced under 12 dSm(-1) NaCl than those under 6 dSm(-1) NaCl. In contrast, biochar applied to soil enhanced the shoot and root dry weight in comparison with the non-biochar treatment. Furthermore, all of the antioxidant activities of seedlings in soil treated with biochar, particularly at 20% biochar, declined. With the addition of biochar, the contents of MDA, O(2•-) and H2O2 displayed remarkable decrease, and the osmotic substances accumulation in leaves and roots also reduced. The presented results supported the view that biochar can contribute to protect common bean seedlings against NaCl stress by alleviating the oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups and serum levels of anti-oxidant enzymes in patients with osteoarthritis

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    Fernandez-Moreno Mercedes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress play a main role in the initiation and progression of the OA disease and leads to the degeneration of mitochondria. To prevent this, the chondrocytes possess a well-coordinated enzymatic antioxidant system. Besides, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups are associated with the OA disease. Thus, the main goal of this work is to assess the incidence of the mtDNA haplogroups on serum levels of two of the main antioxidant enzymes, Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (Mn-SOD or SOD2 and catalase, and to test the suitability of these two proteins for potential OA-related biomarkers. Methods We analyzed the serum levels of SOD2 and catalase in 73 OA patients and 77 healthy controls carrying the haplogroups J, U and H, by ELISA assay. Knee and hip radiographs were classified according to Kellgren and Lawrence (K/L scoring from Grade 0 to Grade IV. Appropriate statistical analyses were performed to test the effects of clinical variables, including gender, body mass index (BMI, age, smoking status, diagnosis, haplogroups and radiologic K/L grade on serum levels of these enzymes. Results Serum levels of SOD2 appeared statistically increased in OA patients when compared with healthy controls (p Conclusions The increased levels of SOD2 in OA patients indicate an increased oxidative stress OA-related, therefore this antioxidant enzyme could be a suitable candidate biomarker for diagnosis of OA. Mitochondrial haplogroups significantly correlates with serum levels of catalase

  3. Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women. © 2013.

  4. Serum and liver tissue bio-element levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity: protective effects of royal jelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemek, Mustafa; Yılmaz, Fatma; Büyükokuroğlu, Mehmet Emin; Büyükben, Ahmet; Aymelek, Fatih; Ayaz, Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    The liver is a vital organ, and its function is generally impaired by chemicals. Some natural compounds have a protective role against liver diseases such as royal jelly (RJ). To our knowledge, there are no data available on the effect of RJ therapy on the levels of bio-element metabolisms and antioxidant enzyme activities in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Therefore, in the present study, we have investigated the role of RJ therapy in the trace and major elements and antioxidant enzymes in CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Antioxidant enzyme activities decreased in the CCl(4)-treated group more than they did in the sham and RJ-administered groups. Many bio-element levels were also reduced in only the CCl(4)-treated group. This showed that the depletion of trace elements was related to erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities. RJ administration clearly increased the trace and major element levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in RJ groups. RJ may be used as functional foods because of their naturally high antioxidant potential and rich element content.

  5. Disturbance of Antioxidant Enzymes and Purine Metabolism in the Ejaculate of Men Living in Disadvantaged Areas of Kyzylorda Region

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    Valentihna N. Kislitskaya

    2015-07-01

    CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of study, it was put the influence  of negative factors of the Aral Sea region in men’s sperm of reproductive  age gives to disability free-radical processes, that proves changing of ferments of ant oxidative protection Catalase and adenosine deaminase (ADA.  This disturbance in men’s sperm of reproductive age leading to increased level of oxidative stress and impaired activity of  antioxidant enzymes and purine metabolism, responsible for the abnormal transmembrane and intracellular processes, reflecting the degree of imbalance of enzymes.

  6. Identification and characterization of antioxidant enzyme mRNAs in the rat epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, A; Schlegel, P N

    1997-04-01

    Spermatozoa are highly sensitive to oxidative stress. The epididymis, a natural sperm reservoir, has maturational and storage functions. The epididymis may also protect spermatozoa from oxidative injury by elaborating scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, we have evaluated the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes in the normal rat epididymis and the effects of efferent duct ligation no the expression of these enzymes. Adult rat epididymides were harvested, divided into caput, corpus and cauda and processed for RNA extraction. Additional adult rats were subjected to unilateral efferent duct ligation and the epididymides harvested at 1, 4, 8, 16 or 28 days after the procedure. Antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression was assessed by Northern blot analysis using 32P-labelled DNA probes derived from known cDNA sequences for classical cellular glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX), secretory epididymal glutathione peroxidase (E-GPX), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD), secretory epididymal superoxide dismutase (E-SOD) and catalase. Specific mRNA levels were measured, with gene expression evaluated relative to total RNA, not per organ. Variations in lane loading were controlled by measuring the levels of 28S ribosomal RNA. GSHPx, PHGPX, SOD and catalase mRNA were detected in the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. E-GPX mRNA was only detected in the caput, whereas E-SOD mRNA was primarily detected in the corpus. At 28 days after efferent duct ligation, epididymal weight decreased by 34% relative to controls (p < 0.05). With the exception of PHGPX, the relative mRNA levels of the antioxidant enzymes studied did not change after efferent duct ligation. This study demonstrates that mRNAs for multiple antioxidant enzymes are expressed in the epididymis and that the relative expression of these enzymes remains largely unchanged in response to efferent duct ligation. Taken together, these results suggest

  7. Influence and interaction of iron and cadmium on photosynthesis and antioxidative enzymes in two rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Houjun; Zhang, Chengxin; Wang, Junmei; Zhou, Chongjun; Feng, Huan; Mahajan, Manoj D; Han, Xiaori

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a soil pot experiment was conducted to investigate the changes in photosynthesis and antioxidative enzymes in two rice varieties (Shendao 6 and Shennong 265) supplied with iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), and Fe and Cd together. The concentrations of Fe and Cd in the soil were 0, 1.0 g Fe·kg(-1) and 0, 2.0 mg Cd·kg(-1), respectively. Photosynthetic indices and antioxidative enzyme activities were recorded at different rice growth stages. At the early stage, Cd showed a transient stimulatory effect on the photosynthetic rate of Shennong 265. For Shendao 6, however, Cd showed a transient stimulatory effect on photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO2 concentration, stomatal conductance and transpiration efficiency. In addition, the results show that Cd can also enhance the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, but reduce the malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble protein contents in the two rice cultivars. Subsequently, Cd starts to inhibit photosynthesis and SOD activity until the ripening stage, causing the lowest photosynthetic rate and SOD activity at this stage. In contrast, Fe alleviates the Cd-induced changes at earlier or later growth stage. Notably at the later growth stage, the results show that the interaction between Fe and Cd increases the SOD and catalase (CAT) activities, while decreasing the lipid peroxidation and promoting photosynthesis. As a result, it ultimately increases the biomass. The results from this study suggest that Fe (as Fe fertilizer) is a promising alternative for agricultural use to enhance the plant development and, simultaneously, to reduce Cd toxicity in extensively polluted soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidative Defense Enzymes in Placenta Protect Placenta and Fetus in Inherited Thrombophilia from Hydrogen Peroxide

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    Jelena Bogdanovic Pristov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate the activities of antioxidative defense enzymes in the placenta, fetal blood and amnion fluid in inherited thrombophilia. Thrombophilia was associated with nearly threefold increase of activity (p < 0.001 of the placental catalase (81.1 ± 20.6 U/mg of proteins in controls and 270.0 ± 69.9 U/mg in thrombophilic subjects, glutathione (GSH peroxidase (C: 20.2 ± 10.1 U/mg; T: 60.0 ± 15.5 U/mg, and GSH reductase (C: 28.9 ± 5.6 U/mg; T: 72.7 ± 23.0 U/mg. The placental activities of superoxide dismutating enzymes—MnSOD and CuZnSOD, did not differ in controls and thrombophilia. Likewise, the activities of catalase and SOD in the fetal blood, and the level of ascorbyl radical which represents a marker of oxidative status of amniotic fluid, were similar in controls and thrombophilic subjects. From this we concluded that in thrombophilia, placental tissue is exposed to H2O2-mediated oxidative stress, which could be initiated by pro-thrombic conditions in maternal blood. Increased activity of placental H2O2-removing enzymes protects fetus and mother during pregnancy, but may increase the risk of postpartum thrombosis.

  9. Antioxidant enzyme activities in hepatic tissue from children with chronic cholestatic liver disease

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    Ismail Nagwa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: To study the oxidative stress status in children with cholestatic chronic liver disease by determining activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in liver tissue. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 children suffering from cholestatic chronic liver disease were studied. They were selected from the Hepatology Clinic, Cairo University, and compared with seven children who happened to have incidental normal liver biopsy. The patients were divided into three groups: extrahepatic biliary atresia (n=13, neonatal hepatitis (n=15 and paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts (n=6; GPx, SOD and CAT levels were measured in fresh liver tissue using ELISA . Results: In the cholestatic patients, a significant increase was found in mean levels of SOD, GPx and CAT in hepatic tissue compared to control children. The three enzymes significantly increased in the extrahepatic biliary atresia group, whereas in the groups of neonatal hepatitis and paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts, only GPx and CAT enzymes were significantly increased. Conclusion: Oxidative stress could play a role in the pathogenesis of cholestatic chronic liver diseases. These preliminary results are encouraging to conduct more extensive clinical studies using adjuvant antioxidant therapy.

  10. The interactive effects of mercury and selenium on metabolic profiles, gene expression and antioxidant enzymes in halophyte Suaeda salsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Lai, Yongkai; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan; Zou, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Suaeda salsa is the pioneer halophyte in the Yellow River Delta and was consumed as a popular vegetable. Mercury has become a highly risky contaminant in the sediment of intertidal zones of the Yellow River Delta. In this work, we investigated the interactive effects of mercury and selenium in S. salsa on the basis of metabolic profiling, antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression quantification. Our results showed that mercury exposure (20 μg L(-1)) inhibited plant growth of S. salsa and induced significant metabolic responses and altered expression levels of INPS, CMO, and MDH in S. salsa samples, together with the increased activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD and POD. Overall, these results indicated osmotic and oxidative stresses, disturbed protein degradation and energy metabolism change in S. salsa after mercury exposures. Additionally, the addition of selenium could induce both antagonistic and synergistic effects including alleviating protein degradation and aggravating osmotic stress caused by mercury.

  11. Alterations in seedling vigour and antioxidant enzyme activities in Catharanthus roseus under seed priming with native diazotrophs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KARTHIKEYAN B.; JALEEL C.A.; GOPI R.; DEIVEEKASUNDARAM M.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on Catharanthus roseus to study the effect of seed treatments with native diazotrophs on its seedling growth and antioxidant enzyme activities. The treatments had significant influence on various seedling parameters.There is no significant influence on dry matter production with the diazotrophs, Azospirillum and Azotobacter. However, the vital seedling parameters such as germination percentage and vigour index were improved. Azotobacter treatment influenced maximum of 50% germination, whereas Azospirillum and Azotobacter were on par with C. roseus with respect to their vigour index. There was significant difference in the population of total diazotrophs. Azospirillum and Azotobacter between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of C. roseus had the same trend and were observed at various locations of the study. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) were increased to a significant extent due to the treatment with diazotrophs.

  12. Change in Free Radical and Antioxidant Enzyme Levels in the Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Fevzi Sarper; Doğan, Ayşe; Ozan, Gonca; Kıbar, Kurtuluş; Erışır, Mine

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study is to determine the changes in oxidative damage and antioxidant parameters in open heart surgeries with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in preoperative and early postoperative periods. Methods. A total of three consecutive arterial blood samples were obtained from the patients in the study group, in preoperative, early postoperative, and postoperative periods, respectively. Oxidative damage indicator (MDA) and antioxidant indicators (GPx, GSH, CAT, and SOD) were examined. Results. A statistically significant increase was observed in MDA level in postoperative period compared to preoperative and early postoperative periods. GSH levels and CAT activities increased significantly in early postoperative and postoperative periods. Analyses revealed an increase in GPx and SOD enzyme activities only in the postoperative period. Conclusion. Even though the increase in MDA level was suppressed by the increased GSH level and CAT activity like in early postoperative period, efficiency can be brought for the increases in insufficient significant antioxidant parameters in postoperative period by administering antioxidant supplements to the patients and thus the increase in MDA in postoperative period can be significantly suppressed.

  13. Change in Free Radical and Antioxidant Enzyme Levels in the Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

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    Fevzi Sarper Türker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study is to determine the changes in oxidative damage and antioxidant parameters in open heart surgeries with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB in preoperative and early postoperative periods. Methods. A total of three consecutive arterial blood samples were obtained from the patients in the study group, in preoperative, early postoperative, and postoperative periods, respectively. Oxidative damage indicator (MDA and antioxidant indicators (GPx, GSH, CAT, and SOD were examined. Results. A statistically significant increase was observed in MDA level in postoperative period compared to preoperative and early postoperative periods. GSH levels and CAT activities increased significantly in early postoperative and postoperative periods. Analyses revealed an increase in GPx and SOD enzyme activities only in the postoperative period. Conclusion. Even though the increase in MDA level was suppressed by the increased GSH level and CAT activity like in early postoperative period, efficiency can be brought for the increases in insufficient significant antioxidant parameters in postoperative period by administering antioxidant supplements to the patients and thus the increase in MDA in postoperative period can be significantly suppressed.

  14. Change in Free Radical and Antioxidant Enzyme Levels in the Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozan, Gonca; Kıbar, Kurtuluş; Erışır, Mine

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study is to determine the changes in oxidative damage and antioxidant parameters in open heart surgeries with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in preoperative and early postoperative periods. Methods. A total of three consecutive arterial blood samples were obtained from the patients in the study group, in preoperative, early postoperative, and postoperative periods, respectively. Oxidative damage indicator (MDA) and antioxidant indicators (GPx, GSH, CAT, and SOD) were examined. Results. A statistically significant increase was observed in MDA level in postoperative period compared to preoperative and early postoperative periods. GSH levels and CAT activities increased significantly in early postoperative and postoperative periods. Analyses revealed an increase in GPx and SOD enzyme activities only in the postoperative period. Conclusion. Even though the increase in MDA level was suppressed by the increased GSH level and CAT activity like in early postoperative period, efficiency can be brought for the increases in insufficient significant antioxidant parameters in postoperative period by administering antioxidant supplements to the patients and thus the increase in MDA in postoperative period can be significantly suppressed. PMID:28101295

  15. Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) under different cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Kang, Young-Hwa

    2014-03-12

    An adaptation of cultural management to the specific cultural system, as well as crop demand, can further result in the improvement of the quality of horticultural products. Therefore, this study focused on the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) grown in hydroponics in comparison with those of the plant grown in soil. The antioxidant activities of Plebeian herba extract were measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as the reducing power by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in vitro. Interestingly, by comparison with hydroponics and traditional cultivation, Plebeian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, and NO and increased the contents of phenolics such as caffeic acid (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), homoplantaginin (3), hispidulin (4), and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as α-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herba grown in nutrition-based soil than in plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition.

  16. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaotao; Jiang, Yuping; Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease.

  17. Effect of Maturity Stage on the Gene Expression of Antioxidative Enzymes in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Fruits Under Chilling Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Chun-lu; MI Hong-bo; ZHAO Yu-ying; HE Zhi-ping; MAO Lin-chun

    2013-01-01

    The gene expression patterns of antioxidative enzymes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruits at four different maturity stages, immature (3-8 d after anthesis (DAA), mature (9-16 DAA), breaker (17-22 DAA), and yellow (35-40 DAA), were determined before and after cold storage at 2°C for 9 d and after subsequent rewarming at 20°C for 2 d. The electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content in cucumber fruits were increased after cold storage and subsequent rewarming. Increased expressions of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and monodehydroascorbate reductase after cold storage played an important role in cucumber fruits to cope with chilling injury. The elevated cyt-superoxide dismutase, catalase, APX and dehydroascorbate reductase after subsequent rewarming in cucumber fruits facilitated the recovery from chilling stress. The highest expression levels of all the seven antioxidative enzyme genes in yellow fruits might be responsible for the enhanced chilling tolerance. Cucumber fruits at earlier developmental stages was more susceptible to chilling stress than those at later stages. The relative higher gene expressions of antioxidative enzymes genes at earlier developmental stages may be the responses to the sever oxidative stress caused by chilling injury.

  18. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao Ding

    Full Text Available Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease.

  19. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

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    Ramin Lotfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L− 1 on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L. plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm and performance index (PI of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  20. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin; Lotfi; Mohammad; Pessarakli; Puriya; Gharavi-Kouchebagh; Hossein; Khoshvaghti

    2015-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid(0, 300, and 600 mg L-1) on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed(Brassica napus L.) plant under water stress(60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan) was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid(FA) improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII(Fv/Fm)and performance index(PI) of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Foto Fmand the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species(ROS) is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  1. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress:Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin Lotfi; Mohammad Pessarakli; Puriya Gharavi-Kouchebagh; Hossein Khoshvaghti

    2015-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L−1) on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan) was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA) improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and performance index (PI) of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  2. Costus afer Possesses Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes Inhibitory Activity and Antioxidant Capacity In Vitro

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    Armelle D. Tchamgoue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism which correlates with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Control of blood glucose level is imperative in the management of diabetes. The present study tested the hypothesis that Costus afer, an antihyperglycemic medicinal plant, possesses inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were prepared from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of C. afer and subjected to phytochemical screening, assayed for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and antioxidant capacity (determined by total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and DPPH radical scavenging activity. All extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Ethyl acetate rhizome and methanol leaf extracts exhibited the best inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase (IC50: 0.10 and 5.99 mg/mL, respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed two modes of enzyme inhibition (competitive and mixed. All extracts showed antioxidant capacity, with hexane extracts exhibiting the best activity. DPPH assay revealed that methanol leaf, rhizome, and ethyl acetate stem extracts (IC50 < 5 mg/mL were the best antioxidants. The presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, and tannins may account for the antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of C. afer.

  3. Costus afer Possesses Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes Inhibitory Activity and Antioxidant Capacity In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamgoue, Armelle D.; Tchokouaha, Lauve R. Y.; Tarkang, Protus A.; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Agbor, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism which correlates with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Control of blood glucose level is imperative in the management of diabetes. The present study tested the hypothesis that Costus afer, an antihyperglycemic medicinal plant, possesses inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were prepared from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of C. afer and subjected to phytochemical screening, assayed for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and antioxidant capacity (determined by total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and DPPH radical scavenging activity). All extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Ethyl acetate rhizome and methanol leaf extracts exhibited the best inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase (IC50: 0.10 and 5.99 mg/mL), respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed two modes of enzyme inhibition (competitive and mixed). All extracts showed antioxidant capacity, with hexane extracts exhibiting the best activity. DPPH assay revealed that methanol leaf, rhizome, and ethyl acetate stem extracts (IC50 < 5 mg/mL) were the best antioxidants. The presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, and tannins may account for the antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of C. afer. PMID:26246844

  4. Study of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels in tobacco chewers and smokers: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chundru Venkata Naga Sirisha

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study gave us an insight about the relationship between antioxidant enzyme activity, oxidative stress and tobacco. The altered antioxidant enzyme levels observed in this study will act as a predictor for pre potentially malignant lesions. Therefore an early intervention of tobacco habit and its related oxidative stress would prevent the development of tobacco induced lesions.

  5. Effect of the French oak wood extract Robuvit on markers of oxidative stress and activity of antioxidant enzymes in healthy volunteers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvathova, Martina; Orszaghova, Zuzana; Laubertova, Lucia; Vavakova, Magdalena; Sabaka, Peter; Rohdewald, Peter; Durackova, Zdenka; Muchova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    We examined in vitro antioxidant capacity of polyphenolic extract obtained from the wood of oak Quercus robur (QR), Robuvit, using TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the effect of its intake on markers of oxidative stress, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and total antioxidant capacity in plasma of 20 healthy volunteers. Markers of oxidative damage to proteins, DNA, and lipids and activities of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined in the erythrocytes. We have found an in vitro antioxidant capacity of Robuvit of 6.37 micromole Trolox equivalent/mg of Robuvit. One month intake of Robuvit in daily dose of 300 mg has significantly decreased the serum level of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and lipid peroxides (LP). Significantly increased activities of SOD and CAT as well as total antioxidant capacity of plasma after one month intake of Robuvit have been shown. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that the intake of Robuvit is associated with decrease of markers of oxidative stress and increase of activity of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma in vivo.

  6. Differential effects of dietary flavonoids on drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in female rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S.T.; Dragsted, L.O.

    1999-01-01

    of glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) was only significantly decreased by genistein. 4. The oxidative status of the animal, measured as plasma malondialdehyde, revealed that chrysin, quercetin, genistein, and beta-naphthoflavone (BNF......) significantly protected against, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-induced oxidative stress. Hepatic PhIP-DNA adduct formation was not affected by any of the administered flavonoids, whereas PhIP-DNA adduct formation in colon was slightly, but significantly, inhibited by quercetin......, genistein, tangeretin and BNF. 5. The observed effects of chrysin, quercetin and genistein on antioxidant enzymes, concurrently with a protection against oxidative stress, suggest a feedback mechanism on the antioxidant enzymes triggered by the flavonoid antioxidants. 6. Despite the use of high flavonoid...

  7. Evaluation of erythrocyte antioxidant mechanisms: antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and serum trace elements associated with progressive anemia in ovine malignant theileriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazifi, S; Razavi, S M; Kianiamin, P; Rakhshandehroo, E

    2011-08-01

    Ovine malignant theileriosis is a fatal disease that is characterized by severe progressive anemia. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in anemia, this study was designed to assess the antioxidant status and erythrocyte oxidative injuries in Iranian fat-tailed sheep that suffered from malignant theileriosis. The infected animals (infected group), composed of 50 Iranian sheep about 1-2 years old, naturally infected with Theileria sp., were divided into three subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1-3%, 3-5%), and ten non-infected animals were also selected as the control group. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase, erythrocyte osmotic fragility, and serum concentrations of some trace elements (copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and selenium), were measured. As an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was also determined. According to the results, a significant decrease in red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume, the activities of SOD, GPX, and catalase (P <0.001), and also serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se (P < 0.05) were evident in the infected sheep. In contrast, significantly increased levels of MDA and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (P < 0.001) as well as serum concentration of iron (P < 0.05) were recorded in the infected animals. The significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities and substantial elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte osmotic fragility associated with the increase in parasitemia indicate increased exposure of RBCs to oxidative damage. Also, it appears that disturbed antioxidant defense mechanisms can promote the development of anemia in ovine theileriosis.

  8. Different responses of tobacco antioxidant enzymes to light and chilling stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, T; Willekens, H; Van Montagu, M; Inze, D; Van Camp, W; Toneva, [No Value; Minkov, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    The effect of elevated light treatment (25 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m(-2) sec(-1)) or chilling temperatures combined with elevated light (5 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m-2 sec-1) on the activity of six antioxidant enzymes, guaiacol peroxidases, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, EC 1.11.1.9) protein accu

  9. Different responses of tobacco antioxidant enzymes to light and chilling stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, T; Willekens, H; Van Montagu, M; Inze, D; Van Camp, W; Toneva, [No Value; Minkov, [No Value

    The effect of elevated light treatment (25 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m(-2) sec(-1)) or chilling temperatures combined with elevated light (5 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m-2 sec-1) on the activity of six antioxidant enzymes, guaiacol peroxidases, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, EC 1.11.1.9) protein

  10. Effect of heavy metals on plasma membrane lipids and antioxidant enzymes of Zygophyllum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Ahmed Morsy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals are major environmental pollutant when they present in high concentration in soil and have toxic effects on growth and development of plants. Industrial activities result in heavy metal pollution of large areas of land, which greatly affects natural vegetation. Understanding the mechanism of how plants combat heavy metals adverse effects is hence of great importance. Materials and Methods: Two different localities were chosen; one locality was in the vicinity of gypsum factory and the other one was 25 km away from the factory. Two Zygophyllum species (Z. album and Z. coccineum were naturally grown in the studied areas. The effects of soil heavy metal stress on shoot heavy metal concentrations, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and the root plasma membrane (PM lipid composition were analyzed. Results: Heavy metal concentrations and Lipid peroxidation increased in the shoot of both species grown in the polluted area. The activities of ascorbate oxidase (ASO, guaiacal peroxidase (GPX, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and superoxide dismutase (SOD were increased whereas these of catalase (CAT were decreased in both species under the polluted conditions. PM total lipids, phospholipids, glycolipids and sterols were decreased in Z. album and Z. coccineum as a result of the polluted soil. Heavy metal stress increased phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and decreased phosphatidylinositol (PI and phophatidylglycerol (PG, with no significant change in phosphatidylcholine (PC in the root PM of both species. Phosphatidylserine (PS decreased in the PM of Z. album whereas it increased in the PM of Z. coccineum under the pollution conditions. Heavy metal stress changed the composition and concentration of fatty acids of the root PM, resulting in increased sat/unsat ratio of both species. Conclusion: the results suggest that efficient antioxidant machinery and favorable PM lipid homeostasis are important to enable Zygophyllum species

  11. Activity of Stress-related Antioxidative Enzymes in the Invasive Plant Crofton Weed(Eupatorium adenophorum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Crofton weed is an Invasive weed in southwestern China.The activities of several antioxidative enzymes involved in plant protection against oxidative stress were assayed to determine physiological aspects of the crofton weed that might render the plant vulnerable to environmental stress.Stresses imposed on crofton weed were heat (progressively increasing temperatures:25℃,30℃,35℃.38℃ and 42℃ at 24 h intervals),cold(progressively decreasing temperatures:25℃,20℃,15℃,10℃ and 5℃ at 24h intervals),and drought(without watering up to 4 days).The three stresses induced oxidative damage as evidenced by an increase in lipid peroxidation.The effect varied with the stress imposed and the length of exposure.The activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD)increased in response to all stresses but was not significantly different from the controls(P<0.05) when exposed to cold stress.Catalase (CAT)activity decreased in response to heat and drought stress but increased when exposed to cold conditions.Guaiacol peroxidase(POD) and glutathione reductase (GR)activities increased in response to cold and drought but decreased in response to heat stress.The activity of ascorbate peroxidase(APX) responded differently to all three stresses.Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR)activity decreased in response to heat and drought,and slightly increased in response to the cold stress but was not significantly different from the controls (P<0.05).The activity of dehydroascorbate reductase(DHAR)increased in response to all three stresses.Taken together,the co-ordinate increase of the oxygen-detoxifying enzymes might be more effective to protect crofton weed from the accumulation of oxygen radicals at low temperatures rather than at high temperatures.

  12. Effect of static magnetic field and/or cadmium in the antioxidant enzymes activity in rat heart and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Salem; Garrel, Catherine; Favier, Alain; Ben Rhouma, Khémais; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2009-12-01

    Currently, environmental and industrial pollution along with increase and causes multiple stress conditions, the combined exposure to magnetic field and other toxic agents is recognised as an important research area, with a view to better protecting human health against their probable unfavourable effects. In the present study, we investigated the effect of co-exposure to static magnetic field (SMF) and cadmium (Cd) on the antioxidant enzymes activity and the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in rat skeletal and cardiac muscles. The exposure of rats to SMF (128 mT, 1 h/day during 30 consecutive days) decreased the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) in heart muscle. Sub-chronic exposure to SMF increased the MDA concentration in rat cardiac muscle. Cd treatment (CdCl2, 40 mg/l, per os) during 4 weeks decreased the activities of catalase (CAT) in skeletal muscle and the CuZn-SOD in the heart. Moreover, Cd administration increased MDA concentration in the both structures. The combined effect of SMF (128 mT, 1 h/day during 30 consecutive days) and Cd (40 mg/l, per os) disrupt the antioxidant enzymes activity in rat skeletal and cardiac muscles. Moreover, we noted a huge increase in MDA concentration in the heart and skeletal muscle compared to control group. Thus it is possible that the SMF- and/or Cd-induced depletion of antioxidant enzymes activity in muscle tissues might, like the enhanced lipid peroxidation, importantly contribute to oxidative damage. The combined effect of SMF and Cd altered significantly the antioxidant enzymatic capacity and induced lipid peroxidation in both skeletal and cardiac muscle.

  13. Alterations of erythrocyte antioxidant mechanisms: antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and serum trace elements associated with anemia in bovine tropical theileriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, S M; Nazifi, S; Bateni, M; Rakhshandehroo, E

    2011-08-25

    In order to investigate the alterations of erythrocyte protective antioxidant mechanisms, lipid peroxidation and trace elements associated with anemia in bovine tropical theileriosis, an infected group comprised of 50 crossbred Holstein cattle, about 1-2 years old, naturally infected with Theileria annulata, were divided into 4 subgroups according to their parasitemia rates (5%) and also 10 healthy cattle as control were selected. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase and serum concentrations of some antioxidant trace elements (copper, iron, zinc, manganese and selenium) were measured. As an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) was also determined. The results showed a conspicuous decrease in the activities of SOD, GPX and catalase (P<0.01), and a significant decrease in the serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn and Se in cattle with higher than 1% parasitemia (P<0.05) compared to the control. In addition, remarkable elevations in the MDA level (P<0.01) and serum concentration of iron (P<0.05) were observed in the infected animals. These findings pointed to the occurrence of exacerbating oxidative injuries to erythrocytes during parasitemia. Furthermore, it can be concluded that infection with T. annulata can interfere with protective antioxidant mechanisms of RBCs against oxidative damages, which promote the development of anemia.

  14. What is the main driver of ageing in long-lived winter honeybees: antioxidant enzymes, innate immunity, or vitellogenin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurori, Cristian M; Buttstedt, Anja; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Moritz, Robin F A; Erler, Silvio

    2014-06-01

    To date five different theories compete in explaining the biological mechanisms of senescence or ageing in invertebrates. Physiological, genetical, and environmental mechanisms form the image of ageing in individuals and groups. Social insects, especially the honeybee Apis mellifera, present exceptional model systems to study developmentally related ageing. The extremely high phenotypic plasticity for life expectancy resulting from the female caste system provides a most useful system to study open questions with respect to ageing. Here, we used long-lived winter worker honeybees and measured transcriptional changes of 14 antioxidative enzyme, immunity, and ageing-related (insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway) genes at two time points during hibernation. Additionally, worker bees were challenged with a bacterial infection to test ageing- and infection-associated immunity changes. Gene expression levels for each group of target genes revealed that ageing had a much higher impact than the bacterial challenge, notably for immunity-related genes. Antimicrobial peptide and antioxidative enzyme genes were significantly upregulated in aged worker honeybees independent of bacterial infections. The known ageing markers vitellogenin and IlP-1 were opposed regulated with decreasing vitellogenin levels during ageing. The increased antioxidative enzyme and antimicrobial peptide gene expression may contribute to a retardation of senescence in long-lived hibernating worker honeybees.

  15. Effects of Heavy-ion Beams Irradiation on Survival Rate and Antioxidant Enzymes of Sweet Sorghum Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the effects of heavy-ion beams irradiation on the seed germination potential, survival rate, antioxidant enzyme activi- ties and lipid peroxidation of sweet sorghum. [Method] The dry seeds were irradiated by '2(36. heavy ion beams with absorbed doses: 0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 Gy, respectively. Then, the seed germination potential, survival rate, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of sweet sorghum were measured. [Result] Heavy-ion beams irradiation exhibited different influence on germination potential and survival rates. Germination rate showed a downward trend, but the corresponding survival curve of seedlings was saddle-shaped. The activities of SOD, POD, CAT and ASA- POD changed in different trends as well. The MDA content rose toward increasing irradiation dose, suggesting that high dose of heavy-ion beams irradiation enhanced the damage to membrane of sweet sorghum seedlings. [Conclusion] After being irra- diated, germination potential and survival rates of sweet sorghum were decreased, and antioxidant enzymes activity changed greatly. This study laid the basis for fur- ther work on breeding and improvement of sweet sorghum irradiated by ,^(12)C^(6+) heavy ion beams.

  16. [Impacts of root-zone hypoxia stress on muskmelon growth, its root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Ling; Li, Tian-Lai; Sun, Zhou-Ping; Chen, Ya-Dong

    2010-06-01

    By using aeroponics culture system, this paper studied the impacts of root-zone hypoxia (10% O2 and 5% O2) stress on the plant growth, root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities of muskmelon at its fruit development stage. Root-zone hypoxia stress inhibited the plant growth of muskmelon, resulting in the decrease of plant height, root length, and fresh and dry biomass. Comparing with the control (21% O2), hypoxia stress reduced the root respiration rate and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity significantly, and the impact of 5% O2 stress was more serious than that of 10% O2 stress. Under hypoxic conditions, the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content were significantly higher than the control. The increment of antioxidative enzyme activities under 10% O2 stress was significantly higher than that under 5% O2 stress, while the MDA content was higher under 5% O2 stress than under 10% O2 stress, suggesting that when the root-zone oxygen concentration was below 10%, the aerobic respiration of muskmelon at its fruit development stage was obviously inhibited while the anaerobic respiration was accelerated, and the root antioxidative enzymes induced defense reaction. With the increasing duration of hypoxic stress, the lipid peroxidation would be aggravated, resulting in the damages on muskmelon roots, inhibition of plant growth, and decrease of fruit yield and quality.

  17. The relationship between the activates of antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells and body mass index in Iranian type 2 diabetes and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri Ehsaneh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by increased production of free radicals and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GR, and glutathione peroxide (GSH-PX in type 2 diabetic patients compared with healthy subjects. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 type 2 diabetic patients and 100 healthy controls. Total antioxidant capacity and fasting serum levels of SOD, GR, and GSH-Px were measured. All data were analyzed using SPSS software compatible with Microsoft Windows. Results The activity levels of SOD were lower in diabetic patients (111.93 ± 354.99 U/g Hb than in healthy controls (1158.53 ± 381.21 U/g Hb, but this was not significant. Activity levels of GSH-PX and GR in diabetics (62.33 ± 36.29 and 7.17 ± 5.51 U/g Hb, respectively were higher than in controls (24.62 ± 11.2 and 3.16 ± 2.95 U/g Hb, respectively. The statistical difference in enzyme activity of both GSH-Px and GR was significant (P Conclusion The increasing production of free radicals and changes in activity levels of antioxidant enzymes in order to scavenge free radicals and/or the effect of diabetes on the activity levels of antioxidant enzymes has an important effect on diabetic complications and insulin resistance. Evaluation of the levels of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant factors in patients at different stages of the disease, and pharmaceutical and nutritional interventions, can be helpful in reducing oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients. There were positive relationship between BMI and the activity of antioxidant enzymes including SOD, GR and GPX in both groups.

  18. Ambient particulate air pollution and circulating antioxidant enzymes: A repeated-measure study in healthy adults in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Wang, Bin; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Li, Hongyu; Pan, Lu; Huang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Qin, Yu; Zheng, Chanjuan; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-01-01

    The association of systemic antioxidant activity with ambient air pollution has been unclear. A panel of 40 healthy college students underwent repeated blood collection for 12 occasions under three exposure scenarios before and after relocating from a suburban area to an urban area in Beijing, China in 2010-2011. We measured various air pollutants including fine particles (PM2.5) and determined circulating levels of antioxidant enzymes extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) in the laboratory. An interquartile range increase of 63.4 μg/m(3) at 3-d PM2.5 moving average was associated with a 6.3% (95% CI: 0.6, 12.4) increase in EC-SOD and a 5.5% (95% CI: 1.3, 9.8) increase in GPX1. Several PM2.5 chemical constituents, including negative ions (nitrate and chloride) and metals (e.g., iron and strontium), were consistently associated with increases in EC-SOD and GPX1. Our results support activation of circulating antioxidant enzymes following exposure to particulate air pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estradiol Modulates Membrane-Linked ATPases, Antioxidant Enzymes, Membrane Fluidity, Lipid Peroxidation, and Lipofuscin in Aged Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radical production and oxidative stress are known to increase in liver during aging, and may contribute to the oxidative damage. These changes increase during menopausal condition in females when the level of estradiol is decreased. The objective of this study was to observe the changes in activities of membrane linked ATPases (Na+K+ ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, lipid peroxidation levels, lipofuscin content and membrane fluidity occurring in livers of female rats of 3, 12 and 24 months age groups, and to see whether these changes are restored to 3 months control levels rats after exogenous administration of 17-β-estradiol (E2. The aged rats (12 and 24 months were given subcutaneous injection of E2 (0.1 μg/g body weight daily for one month. The results obtained in the present work revealed that normal aging was associated with significant decrease in the activities of membrane linked ATPases, antioxidant enzymes, membrane fluidity and an increase in lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin content in livers of aging female rats. The present study showed that E2 treatment reversed the changes to normal levels. E2 treatment may be beneficial in preventing some of the age related changes in the liver by increasing antioxidant defenses.

  20. Growth inhibition of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans by cadmium: an antioxidant enzyme approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelfi, Andrea; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Lea, Peter J; Molina, Silvia M G

    2003-04-01

    The heavy metal cadmium is very toxic to biological systems. Although its effect on the growth of microorganisms and plants has been investigated, the response of antioxidant enzymes of Aspergillus nidulans to cadmium is not well documented. We have studied the effect of cadmium (supplied as CdCl(2)) on catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). 0.005 mM CdCl(2) had a very slight stimulatory effect on the growth rate of A. nidulans, but at concentrations above 0.025 mM, growth was totally inhibited. The accumulation of Cd within the mycelium was directly correlated with the increase in the concentration of CdC(2) used in the treatments. Although a cadmium-stimulated increase in SOD activity was observed, there was no change in the relative proportions of the individual Mn-SOD isoenzymes. Higher concentrations of CdCl(2) induced a small increase in total CAT activity, but there was a major increase in one isoenzymic form, that could be separated by gel electrophoresis. GR activity increased significantly following treatment with the highest concentration (0.05 mM) of CdCl(2). The increases in SOD, CAT, and GR activities suggest that CdCl(2) induces the formation of reactive oxygen species inside the mycelia of A. nidulans.

  1. L-malate enhances the gene expression of carried proteins and antioxidant enzymes in liver of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Wu, J; Wu, Q; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory reported L-malate as a free radical scavenger in aged rats. To investigate the antioxidant mechanism of L-malate in the mitochondria, we analyzed the change in gene expression of two malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS)-related carried proteins (AGC, aspartate/glutamate carrier and OMC, oxoglutarate/malate carrier) in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and three antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px) in the mitochondria. The changes in gene expression of these proteins and enzymes were examined by real-time RT-PCR in the heart and liver of aged rats treated with L-malate. L-malate was orally administered in rats continuously for 30 days using a feeding atraumatic needle. We found that the gene expression of OMC and GSH-Px mRNA in the liver increased by 39 % and 38 %, respectively, in the 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment group than that in the control group. The expression levels of SOD mRNA in the liver increased by 39 %, 56 %, and 78 % in the 0.105, 0.210, and 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment groups, respectively. No difference were observed in the expression levels of AGC, OMC, CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px mRNAs in the heart of rats between the L-malate treatment and control groups. These results predicted that L-malate may increase the antioxidant capacity of mitochondria by enhancing the expression of mRNAs involved in the MAS and the antioxidant enzymes.

  2. Exogenous Nitric Oxide Alleviated the Inhibition of Photosynthesis and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Iron-Deficient Chinese Cabbage(Brassica chinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Fei; WANG Xiu-feng; SHI Qing-hua; WANG Mei-ling; YANG Feng-juan; GAO Qing-hai

    2008-01-01

    The effects of exogenous nitric oxide(NO)on plant growth,chlorophyll contents,photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters as well as lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Chinese cabbage plants exposed to iron(Fe)deficiency.Iron deficiency led to serious chlorosis in Chinese cabbage leaves,and resulted in significant decrease in plant growth,photosynthetic pigments,net photosynthetic rate,Fv/Fm,ΦPsⅡand activities of antioxidant enzymes,and increase in lipid peroxidation.While treatment with SNP,a NO donor,it could revert the iron deficiency symptoms,increased photosynthetic rate as well as activities of antioxidant enzymes,and protected membrane from lipid peroxidation,as a result,the growth inhibition of Chinese cabbage by Fe deficiency was alleviated.

  3. Change of antioxidant enzymes activity of hazel (Corylus avellana L.) cells by AgNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Mitra; Ghanati, Faezeh; Rezaei, Ayatollah; Bemani, Ebrahim

    2016-05-01

    Elicitation effect of silver nano particles (AgNPs) and triggering of defence system by production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a signaling molecule in the regulation of the activity of stress-related enzymes and production of Taxol was evaluated in suspension- cultured hazel cells (Corylus avellana L.). The cells were treated with different concentrations of AgNPs (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 ppm), in their logarithmic growth phase (d7) and were harvested after 1 week. Treatment of hazel cells with AgNPs decreased the viability of the cells. Also the results showed that while the activity of certain radical scavenging enzymes in particular of catalase and peroxidase increased by 2.5 and 5 ppm AgNPs, the activity of superoxide dismutase decreased in these treatments. The highest activity of ascorbate peroxidase was observed in 10 ppm AgNPs treatments. This treatment also showed the highest contents of H2O2 and phenolic compounds, as well as the highest activity of phenylalanine ammonialyase. According to the results, 5 ppm AgNPs was the best concentration for elicitation of hazel cells to produce efficient amounts of H2O2 in order for stimulation of antioxidant defence system, production of Taxol at the highest capacity of the cells, meanwhile reserving their viability.

  4. Dynamic changes of anti-oxidative enzymes of 10 wheat genotypes at soil water deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hong Bo; Liang, Zong Suo; Shao, Ming An; Sun, Qun

    2005-05-25

    Drought is a world-spread problem seriously influencing crop production and quality, the loss of which is the total for other natural disasters, with increasing global climate change making the situation more serious. Wheat is the staple food for more than 35% of world population, so wheat anti-drought physiology study is of importance to wheat production and biological breeding for the sake of coping with abiotic and biotic conditions. Much research is involved in this hot topic, but the pace of progress is not so large because of drought resistance being a multiple-gene-control quantitative character and wheat genome being larger (16,000 Mb). On the other hand, stress adaptive mechanisms are quite different, with stress degree, different growth and developmental stages, time course, materials and experimental plots, thus increasing the complexity of the issue in question. Additionally, a little study is related to the whole life circle of wheat, which cannot provide a comprehensive understanding of its anti-drought machinery. We selected 10 kinds of wheat genotypes as materials, which have potential to be applied in practice, and measured change of relative physiological indices through wheat whole growing developmental circle (i.e. seedling, tillage and maturing). Here, we reported the dynamic anti-oxidative results of whole stage (i.e. seedling, tillage and maturing) in terms of activities of POD, SOD, CAT of 10 wheat genotypes as follows: (1) 10 wheat genotypes can be grouped into three kinds (A, B and C, respectively) according to their changing trend of the measured indices; (2) A group performed better resistance drought under the condition of treatment level 1, whose activities of anti-oxidative enzymes (POD, SOD, CAT) were higher; (3) B group exhibited stronger anti-drought under treatment level 2, whose activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were higher; (4) C group expressed anti-drought to some extent under treatment level 3, whose activities of anti-oxidative

  5. [Effect of exogenous calcium on the activities of antioxidative protective enzymes in ectomycorrhizal fungi under aluminum stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Xia; Huang, Jian-Guo; Yuan, Ling; Zhou, Zhi-Feng

    2012-10-01

    In order to investigate the function of Ca2+ in the alleviation of Al3+ stress in ectomycorrhizal fungi, four strains (Bo 02, Bo 15, Pt 715 and Sl 08) were grown in liquid culture media to study the Al resistance of different strains and the effect of exogenous Ca2+ (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 mmol x L(-1)) on the activity of antioxidative protective enzymes under Al3+ stress. It was showed that ectomycorrhizal fungal species varied in resistance to Al3+ stress. Pt 715 and Sl 08 were more tolerant to Al3+ than Bo 02 and Bo 15 in vitro. The activities of CAT and SOD in Bo 02, SOD in Bo 15, CAT and POD in Sl 08 increased significantly under Al3+ stress. It was showed that the activities of these enzymes in ectomycorrhizal fungi had a close relationship with Al3+ stress. The enzymes in Bo 02 were most sensitive to exogenous Ca2+ and the function of Ca2+ in resisting Al3+ stress was the best in the four strains. A high concentration of Ca2+ (> or = 0.5 mmol x L(-1)) could alleviate or offset the increased activities of antioxidative protective enzymes by Al3+ stress in Sl 08.

  6. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate modulates antioxidant defense enzyme expression in murine submandibular and pancreatic exocrine gland cells and human HSG cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Douglas; DeRossi, Scott; Yu, Hongfang; Thomas, Cristina; Kragor, Chris; Paquin, Becky; Hahn, Emily; Ohno, Seiji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Hsu, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) and type 1 diabetes are prevalent autoimmune diseases in the United States. We reported previously that Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) prevented and delayed the onset of autoimmune disease in NOD mice, a model for both Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) and type 1 diabetes. EGCG also normalized the levels of proteins related to DNA repair and antioxidant activity in NOD.B10.Sn-H2 mice, a model for primary SS, prior to disease onset. The current study examined the effect of EGCG on the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the submandibular salivary gland and the pancreas of NOD mice and cultured human salivary gland acinar cells. NOD mice consuming 0.2% EGCG daily dissolved in water showed higher protein levels of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), a major antioxidant defense protein, and catalase, while the untreated NOD mice exhibited significantly lowered levels of PRDX6. Similarly, pancreas samples from water-fed NOD mice were depleted in PRDX6 and superoxide dismutase, while EGCG-fed mice showed high levels of these antioxidant enzymes. In cultured HSG cells EGCG increased PRDX6 levels significantly, and this was inhibited by p38 and JNK inhibitors, suggesting the EGCG-mediated increase in protective antioxidant capacity is regulated in part through MAPK pathway signaling. This mechanism may explain the higher levels of PRDX6 found in EGCG-fed NOD mice. These preclinical observations warrant future preclinical and clinical studies to determine whether EGCG or green tea polyphenols could be used in novel preventive and therapeutic approaches against autoimmune diseases and salivary dysfunction involving oxidative stress. PMID:24444391

  7. Activity of antioxidative enzymes in fresh and frozen thawed buffalo (Bubalus bubalis spermatozoa in relation to lipid peroxidation and semen quality

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    G. Kadirve

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: It was concluded that loss of activity of intracellular antioxidative enzymes was evident after freezing and thawing and there was a strong association between the antioxidative enzyme activities, ROS, lipid peroxidation and sperm function in buffalo semen.

  8. Increase in sphingolipid catabolic enzyme activity during aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santosh J SACKET; Hae-young CHUNG; Fumikazu OKAJIMA; Dong-soon IM

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To understand the contribution of sphingolipid metabolism and its metabolites to development and aging.Methods: A systemic analysis on the changes in activity of sphingolipid metabolic enzymes in kidney, liver and brain tissues during development and aging was conducted. The study was conducted using tissues from 1-day-old to 720-day-old rats.Results: Catabolic enzyme activities as well as the level of sphingomyelinase (SMase) and ceramidase (CDase) were higher than that of anabolic enzyme activities, sphingomyelin synthase and ceramide synthase. This suggested an accumulation of ceramide and sphingosine during development and aging. The liver showed the highest neutral-SMase activity among the tested enzymes while the kidney and brain exhibited higher neutral-SMase and ceramidase activities, indicating a high production of ceramide in liver and ceramide/sphingosine in the kidney and brain. The activities of sphingolipid metabolic enzymes were significantly elevated in all tested tissues during development and aging, although the onset of significant increase in activity varied on the tissue and enzyme type. During aging, 18 out of 21 enzyme activities were further increased on day 720 compared to day 180.Conclusion: Differential increases in sphingolipid metabolic enzyme activities suggest that sphingolipids including ceramide and sphingosine might play important and dynamic roles in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis during development and aging.

  9. Thymosin beta 4 protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress by targeting anti-oxidative enzymes and anti-apoptotic genes.

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    Chuanyu Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. The mechanism by which Tβ4 modulates cardiac protection under oxidative stress is not known. The purpose of this study is to dissect the cardioprotective mechanism of Tβ4 on H(2O(2 induced cardiac damage. METHODS: Rat neonatal cardiomyocytes with or without Tβ4 pretreatment were exposed to H(2O(2 and expression of antioxidant, apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. ROS levels were estimated by DCF-DA using fluorescent microscopy and fluorimetry. Selected antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic genes were silenced by siRNA transfections in neonatal cardiomyocytes and effect of Tβ4 on H(2O(2-induced cardiac damage was evaluated. RESULTS: Pre-treatment of Tβ4 resulted in reduction of the intracellular ROS levels induced by H(2O(2 in cardiomyocytes. Tβ4 pretreatment also resulted in an increase in the expression of antiapoptotic proteins and reduction of Bax/BCl(2 ratio in the cardiomyocytes. Pretreatment with Tβ4 resulted in stimulating the expression of antioxidant enzymes copper/zinc SOD and catalase in cardiomyocytes at both transcription and translation levels. Tβ4 treatment resulted in the increased expression of anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory genes. Silencing of Cu/Zn SOD and catalase gene resulted in apoptotic cell death in the cardiomyocytes which was prevented by treatment with Tβ4. CONCLUSION: This is the first report that demonstrates the effect of Tβ4 on cardiomyocytes and its capability to selectively upregulate anti-oxidative enzymes, anti-inflammatory genes, and antiapoptotic enzymes in the neonatal cardiomyocytes thus preventing cell death thereby protecting the myocardium. Tβ4 treatment resulted in decreased oxidative stress and inflammation in the

  10. Antioxidant enzymes in women with endometrial polyps: relation with sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejić, Snežana A; Kasapović, Jelena D; Todorović, Ana U; Stojiljković, Vesna R; Gavrilović, Ljubica V; Popović, Nataša M; Pajović, Snežana B

    2013-09-01

    To investigate whether antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) and lipid hydroperoxide levels in patients with endometrial polyps are influenced by the changes in sex hormones (estradiol, progesterone, FSH, and LH) during the menstrual cycle and in postmenopause. The material consisted of blood and endometrial tissue specimens from women diagnosed with endometrial polyps. Patients were divided into groups depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle--follicular or luteal--and the postmenopause. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and the lipid hydroperoxide levels were compared among the phases and a linear regression model was used to evaluate the associations between hormones and antioxidant/oxidant variables. In the blood of examined women, a significant difference in superoxide dismutase activity and lipid hydroperoxide levels was recorded among the phases. There was also a positive correlation between the estradiol concentration and superoxide dismutase. In polyp tissue, we recorded a phase-related difference in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as in the lipid hydroperoxide levels. A negative correlation was observed between FSH/LH and glutathione peroxidase, and between LH and superoxide dismutase. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid hydroperoxide levels in patients with endometrial polyps are influenced by the changes in sex hormones during the menstrual cycle and after the menopause, pointing to a role of the observed relationship in polyp etiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Extract from Eugenia punicifolia is an antioxidant and inhibits enzymes related to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Galeno, Denise Morais; Carvalho, Rosany Piccolotto; Boleti, Ana Paula de Araújo; Lima, Arleilson Sousa; Oliveira de Almeida, Patricia Danielle; Pacheco, Carolina Carvalho; Pereira de Souza, Tatiane; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate in vitro biological activities of extract of Eugenia punicifolia leaves (EEP), emphasizing the inhibitory activity of enzymes related to metabolic syndrome and its antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity was analyzed by free radicals scavengers in vitro assays: DPPH·, ABTS(·+), O2(·−), and NO· and a cell-based assay. EEP were tested in inhibitory colorimetric assays using α-amylase, α-glucosidase, xanthine oxidase, and pancreatic lipase enzymes. The EEP exhibited activity in ABTS(·+), DPPH·, and O2(·−) scavenger (IC50 = 10.5 ± 1.2, 28.84 ± 0.54, and 38.12 ± 2.6 μg/mL), respectively. EEP did not show cytotoxic effects, and it showed antioxidant activity in cells in a concentration-dependent manner. EEP exhibited inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase activities in vitro assays (IC50 = 122.8 ± 6.3; 2.9 ± 0.1; 23.5 ± 2.6), respectively; however, EEP did not inhibit the lipase activity. The findings supported that extract of E. punicifolia leaves is a natural antioxidant and inhibitor of enzymes, such as α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase, which can result in a reduction in the carbohydrate absorption rate and decrease of risks factors of cardiovascular disease, thereby providing a novel dietary opportunity for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

  12. Transcription and activity of antioxidant enzymes after ionizing irradiation in radiation-resistant and radiation-sensitive mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hardmeier, Rosmarie; Hoeger, Harald; Fang-Kircher, Susanne; Khoschsorur, Ali; Lubec, Gert

    1997-01-01

    The involvement of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase in radiobiological processes has been described at the enzyme activity level. We irradiated radiation-resistant (RR) and radiation-sensitive (RS) mice and studied antioxidant enzymes at the transcriptional and activity level. In addition, aromatic hydroxylation and lipid peroxidation parameters were determined to study radiation resistance at the oxidation level. RS BALB/c/J Him m...

  13. Selenium-induced Changes in Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes and Content of Photosynthetic Pigments in Spirulina platensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Spirulina platensis exposed to various selenium (Se) concentrations (0,10,20, 40, 80, 150, 175, 200, 250 mglL) accumulated high amounts of Se in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Under low Se concentrations (≤150 mg/L), Se induced increases in biomass concentration, content of photosynthetic pigments, and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and Gua-dep peroxidases (POD), which indicates that antioxidant enzymes play an important role in protecting cells from Se stress. Higher Se concentrations (≥ 175 mg/L) led to higher Se accumulation and increases in activities of GPX, SOD, CAT and POD, but also induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) coupled with potassium leakage and decreases in biomass concentration and contents of photosynthetic pigment. The results indicate that increases in activities of the antioxidant enzymes were not sufficient to protect cell membranes against Se stress. Time-dependent variations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, contents of chlorophyll a and carotenoid and the LPO level were also investigated under representative Se concentrations of 40 and 200 mg/L. Opposite variation trends between SOD-CAT activities, and GPX-POD-APX activities were observed during the growth cycles. The results showed that the prevention of damage to cell membranes of S. platensis cells could be achieved by cooperative effects of SOD-CAT and GPX-POD-APX enzymes. This study concludes that S. platensis possessed tolerance to Se and could protect itself from phytotoxicity induced by Se by altering various metabolic processes.

  14. Insulin, catecholamines, glucose and antioxidant enzymes in oxidative damage during different loads in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, J; Blazícek, P; Marko, M; Grna, J D; Kvetnanský, R; Vigas, M

    2000-01-01

    Exercise, insulin-induced hypoglycemia and oral glucose loads (50 g and 100 g) were used to compare the production of malondialdehyde and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in healthy subjects. Twenty male volunteers participated in the study. Exercise consisted of three consecutive work loads on a bicycle ergometer of graded intensity (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 W/kg, 6 min each). Hypoglycemia was induced by insulin (Actrapid MC Novo, 0.1 IU/kg, i.v.). Oral administration of 50 g and 100 g of glucose was given to elevate plasma glucose. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was determined in red blood cells, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was measured in whole blood. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined by HPLC, catecholamines were assessed radioenzymatically and glucose was measured by the glucose-oxidase method. Exercise increased MDA concentrations, GSH-Px and SOD activities as well as plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Insulin hypoglycemia increased plasma adrenaline levels, but the concentrations of MDA and the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased. Hyperglycemia increased plasma MDA concentrations, but the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were significantly higher after a larger dose of glucose only. Plasma catecholamines were unchanged. These results indicate that the transient increase of plasma catecholamine and insulin concentrations did not induce oxidative damage, while glucose already in the low dose was an important triggering factor for oxidative stress.

  15. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplement on Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toorang, Fatemeh; Djazayery, Abolghassem; Djalali, Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes is a major cause of death. Oxidative stress mainly caused by hyperglycemia is the primary reason of related complications. Omega-3 fatty acids are prescribed in diabetes but the effect on antioxidant defense is controversial. This study investigated effects of omega-3 supplementation on antioxidant enzymes activity in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial was performed on 90 type2 diabetic patients. The treatment group took, daily, three capsules of omega-3 for two mo, which totally provided 2714mg omega-3 (EPA=1548 mg, DHA=828 mg and 338 mg of other omega=3 fatty acids). Placebo contained 2100 mg sunflower oil (12% SFA, 65% linoleic acid, 23% MUFA), which is the main oil used in the study population. Food intakes, anthropometric and demographic characteristics, and therapeutic regimen data were recorded before and after the intervention. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after the intervention to measure super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity in erythrocytes. A total of 81 subjects completed the study. Two study groups were similar as regards duration of diabetes, age and the enzymes at baseline. Energy and macro- and micronutrients intakes, weight and hypoglycemic agent consumption were similar in the two groups at baseline and did not change. Supplementation had no effect on antioxidant enzyme status. Glycated hemoglobin showed a significant reduction by supplementation. Daily supplementation of 2714 mg mega-3 for two mo results in a significant reduction in HbA1c level in type2 diabetic patients with no effects on antioxidant enzymes activity.

  16. Pregnancy Exercise Increase Enzymatic Antioxidant In Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagey Freddy Wagey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnancy is a vulnerable condition to all kinds of "stress", resulting in changes of physiological and metabolic functions. This research aims to determine effect of exercise during pregnancy in increasing enzymatic antioxidant marked by increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalase (CAT levels. Methods: Randomized pre and posttest control group design was employed in this study. A number of 66 pregnant women were recruited in this study and grouped into two groups, i.e 30 of them as control group and the rest as treatment group. Pregnancy exercise was performed to all 36 pregnant women from 20 weeks gestation on treatment group. The exercise was performed in the morning for about 30 minutes, twice a weeks. On the other hand, daily activities was sugested for control group. Student’s t-test was then applied to determine the mean different of treatment and control group with 5 % of significant value. Results: This study reveals that there were significantly higher increase of (superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalse (CAT levels of treatment group compare to control group. These enzymatic antioxidant increase among these two group were around 1.36 mg/gHb for SOD; 1.14 IU/gHb for GSHPx; and 0.97 IU/gHb for CAT, (p < 0.05.  Clinical outcomes, such as strengten of pelvic muscle and quality of life of treatment group were significantly better compared to control group (p < 0.05. Conclusions: This means that exercise during pregnancy ages of 20 weeks increase enzymatic antioxidant levels SOD, GSHPx, and CAT higher compare to control group without exercise.  

  17. Pregnancy Exercise Increase Enzymatic Antioxidant In Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagey Freddy Wagey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnancy is a vulnerable condition to all kinds of "stress", resulting in changes of physiological and metabolic functions. This research aims to determine effect of exercise during pregnancy in increasing enzymatic antioxidant marked by increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalase (CAT levels. Methods: Randomized pre and posttest control group design was employed in this study. A number of 66 pregnant women were recruited in this study and grouped into two groups, i.e 30 of them as control group and the rest as treatment group. Pregnancy exercise was performed to all 36 pregnant women from 20 weeks gestation on treatment group. The exercise was performed in the morning for about 30 minutes, twice a weeks. On the other hand, daily activities was sugested for control group. Student’s t-test was then applied to determine the mean different of treatment and control group with 5 % of significant value. Results: This study reveals that there were significantly higher increase of (superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalse (CAT levels of treatment group compare to control group. These enzymatic antioxidant increase among these two group were around 1.36 mg/gHb for SOD; 1.14 IU/gHb for GSHPx; and 0.97 IU/gHb for CAT, (p < 0.05. Clinical outcomes, such as strengten of pelvic muscle and quality of life of treatment group were significantly better compared to control group (p < 0.05. Conclusions: This means that exercise during pregnancy ages of 20 weeks increase enzymatic antioxidant levels SOD, GSHPx, and CAT higher compare to control group without exercise.

  18. Edible bird's nest enhances antioxidant capacity and increases lifespan in Drosophila Melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q; Li, G; Yao, H; He, S; Li, H; Liu, S; Wu, Y; Lai, X

    2016-04-30

    In this study, we aims to investigate the effects of edible bird's nest (EBN) on anti-aging efficacy. In order to investigate lifespan and mortality rate of flies, we treated flies with various doses of EBN. Besides, fecundity, water content and food are determined and heat-stress test is conducted after flies treating with different medium. Effects of EBN on total antioxidant activity (T-AOC), super-oxide dismutase activity (SOD), catalase activity (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined in drosophila melanogaster. Results indicated that flies in EBN treated group illustrated significantly lower mortality rates and longer median and maximum lifespan compared to control group (Pdrosophila melanogaster aging, attributing to the increasing antioxidant enzyme activities and decreasing content of lipid peroxidation products in drosophila melanogaster.

  19. Curcumin and resveratrol in combination modulate drug-metabolizing enzymes as well as antioxidant indices during lung carcinogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Wu, Y-M; Yu, Y; Cao, C-S; Zhang, J-H; Li, K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated combined chemopreventive potential of curcumin and resveratrol during benzo(a)pyrene (BP)-induced lung carcinogenesis in mice. The mice were segregated into five groups that included normal control, BP-treated, BP + curcumin-treated, BP + resveratrol-treated, and BP + curcumin + resveratrol-treated groups. A statistically significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was observed in the lungs of mice after 22 weeks of single dose of benzo(a)pyrene. Further, BP treatment also resulted in a significant increase in the enzyme activities of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase as well as drug-metabolizing enzymes, namely cytocrome P450 and cytochrome b5. On the other hand, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were found to be significantly decreased following BP treatment. Supplementation with curcumin and resveratrol to BP-treated mice significantly decreased the LPO levels, GSH levels, and enzyme activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Further, treatment of curcumin and resveratrol to BP-treated mice significantly elevated the activities of SOD, GR, and GST. Histoarchitectural studies showed well-differentiated signs of lung carcinogenesis following BP administration to mice. However, combined treatment with curcumin and resveratrol resulted in a noticeable improvement in the lung histoarchitecture. This study, therefore, concludes that curcumin and resveratrol when supplemented in combination regulate drug-metabolizing enzymes as well as antioxidant enzymes during lung carcinogenesis in mice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Activity of antioxidative defense enzymes in the blood of patients with liver echinococcosis

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    Lilić Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Chronic echinococcocal disease is the parasite human disease caused by the penetration of larval (asexual stages of the canine tapeworm (Echinococcus granulosus in the liver of humans. After the penetration of the parasite, the host organism react by activating complement- depending immune response. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of larval form of Echinococcus granulosus in the liver on the activity of antioxidative defense enzymes in the blood of patients before and after the surgical intervention. Methods. We investigated the activity of antioxidative defense enzymes: copper/zinc containing superoxide dismutase (CuZn SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione reductase (GR and glutathione-S-transferase (GST in the blood of patients before and after the surgical intervention in respect to the controls, clinically healthy persons. Results. Our results showed that the activity of the GSH-Px was significantly decreased in the plasma of the patients with echinocococal disease before the surgery in respect to the controls. The activity of GST was significantly higher in the blood of the patients after the surgery in comparison to the controls. Conclusion. Chronic liver echinoccocal disease caused significant changes of some antioxidative defense enzymes, first of all Se-dependent enzyme GSH-Px, which could be a suitabile biomarker in the biochemical evaluation of the disease. This work represents a first comprehensive study of the activity of antioxidative defense enzymes in cronic liver echinococcocosis in the patients before and after the surgical intervention in respect to the clinically healthy persons.

  1. Haem Biosynthesis and Antioxidant Enzymes in Circulating Cells of Acute Intermittent Porphyria Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Miguel D.; Mestre-Alfaro, Antonia; Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Capó, Xavier; Jiménez-Monreal, Antonia M.; García-Diz, Luis; Roche, Enrique; Murcia, María A.; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to explore the expression pattern of haem biosynthesis enzymes in circulating cells of patients affected by two types of porphyria (acute intermittent, AIP, and variegate porphyria, VP), together with the antioxidant enzyme pattern in AIP in order to identify a possible situation of oxidative stress. Sixteen and twelve patients affected by AIP and VP, respectively, were analysed with the same numbers of healthy matched controls. Erythrocytes, neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were purified from blood, and RNA and proteins were extracted for quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western-blot analysis, respectively. Porhobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) gene and protein expression was analysed. Antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression were additionally determined in blood cells, together with protein carbonyl content in plasma. PBMCs isolated from AIP patients presented low mRNA levels of PBGD when compared to controls, while PBMCs isolated from VP patients presented a decrease in PPOX mRNA. PPOX protein content was higher in AIP patients and lower in VP patients, compared to healthy controls. Regarding antioxidant enzymes, PBMCs and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) presented statistically significant higher activity in AIP patients compared to controls, while catalase activity tended to be lower in these patients. No differences were observed regarding antioxidant gene expression in white blood cells. Circulating cells in AIP and VP patients present altered expression of haem biosynthetic enzymes, which could be useful for the differential diagnosis of these two types of porphyria in certain difficult cases. AIP patients present a condition of potential oxidative stress similar to VP patients, evidenced by the post-transcriptional activation of SOD and possible catalase impairment. PMID:27788171

  2. Effects of antimony and arsenic on antioxidant enzyme activities of two steppic plant species in an old antimony mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamdi, Asma; Bentellis, Alima; Rached, Oualida; Du Laing, Gijs; Mechakra, Aicha

    2014-04-01

    The present work was undertaken to determine strategies and antioxidant enzyme activities involved in the adaptation of two wild steppic plants (Hedysarum pallidum Desf. and Lygeum spartum L.) to the toxic environment of the abandoned antimony mining area of Djebel Hamimat (Algeria). For this purpose, soils and plants were collected in different zones coinciding with a Sb and As concentrations gradient in the soil. Antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) were analyzed by ICP-OES in the soils and the aboveground parts and roots of the plants. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured by spectrometry. Results show levels of Sb and As exceptionally high in most soil and plant samples. The two species accumulate differently Sb and As in their above and belowground parts. MDA levels, in the two parts of both species, increase significantly with increasing soil Sb and As concentrations, but they are significantly higher in H. pallidum than in L. spartum. The activities of antioxidant enzymes differ significantly according to the soil metalloid concentrations, the plant species considered and the plant part. Apart from superoxide dismutase (SOD) whose activity is, overall, higher in H. pallidum than in L. spartum, the activities of all the other enzymes studied (glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) are generally higher in L. spartum than in H. pallidum. For both species, APX and GST are overall more active in the upper parts than in the roots, while it is the reverse for SOD and CAT. POD is more active in the upper parts than in the roots of L. spartum and the reverse applies to H. pallidum. It appears that the two studied plant species use different tolerance strategies to protect themselves against elevated As and Sb concentrations.

  3. Radioprotective effects of ginsan through the stimulation hematopoiesis and antioxidant enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie Young; Son, Soo Jung; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Shim, Ji Young; Han, Young Soo; Yun, Yeon Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    An immunomodulator ginsan which was isolated from Panax ginseng showed the mitogenic activity, generation of LAK cells, and secretion of several cytokines. In the extended effort to search other immunostimulatory effects, we evaluated protective effects of in vivo injected Ginsan against irradiation, by measuring the recovery of CFU-S, and the functioning of bone marrow (BM) and spleen cells. Ginsan was found to significantly increase the number of BM cells, spleen cells, granulocytes macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFC), and the number of circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets in irradiated mice. In addition, it induced endogenous production of cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IFN-g and IL-12, which are required for hematopoietic recovery, and was able to enhance Th1 function while interfering with the Th2 response in irradiated mice. We demonstrated that the pretreatment with Ginsan protected mice from lethal effects of ionizing radiation more effectively than given immediately or after the irradiation. A significant increase of the survival of Ginsan-treated group (100mg/kg) from LD50/30 7.54 Gy of PBS-injection to 10.93 Gy was observed. Moreover, the levels of the antioxidant enzymes such as SODs, catalase and gluthathion peroxidase were increased 1.5-2 fold in ginsan treated mice compared to the irradiated mice. These findings indicate that ginsan may be a promising agent to be used in reducing the time needed for reconstituting of hematopoietic cells after irradiation treatment.

  4. Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles interfere with the activity of antioxidant enzymes in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktorovová, Slavomira; Santos, Dario L; Costa, Inês; Andreani, Tatiana; Souto, Eliana B; Silva, Amélia M

    2014-08-25

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are colloidal drug and/or gene carriers developed from solid lipids and surfactants that are considered safe. Cationic SLN, usually used for formulating poorly water-soluble drugs and for gene delivery purposes, as positively charged particles may attach to cellular surfaces and be internalized more easily than negatively charged SLN, but they can also cause damage. The main aim of this work was to test a set of cationic SLN and investigate its influence on the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), on antioxidant enzymes activities and on possible oxidative damage to membrane lipids in HepG2 cells. The Dichlorofluorescein assay revealed great increase in ROS presence after cell exposure to SLN. While the exposure to SLN increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase it decreased glutathione reductase activity. Although no significant increase in thiobarbituric reactive species was found, a decrease in sulfhydryl groups was detected. These results indicate that cationic SLN caused oxidative stress in HepG2 cells, but under reported exposure conditions HepG2 cells could attenuate the stress and thus the damage to cellular components was minimal.

  5. Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Schwarz, Dietmar; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Zaare Nahandi, Fariborz

    2016-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly 'Red Azar-shahr', showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system.

  6. EFFECTS OF AGE INCREMENT AND 36-WEEK EXERCISE TRAINING ON ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES AND APOPTOSIS IN RAT HEART TISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Ahmadiasl

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the onset of age-related changes in the myocardial antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis and the vulnerability of the myocardium to oxidative stress following exercise training. Few studies have investigated the influence of the most prevalent life-prolonging strategy physical exercise, on the age increment alterations in the myocardial antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis at mid age and to determine whether exercise-induced antioxidant defense system could attenuate lipid peroxidation. Thirty six male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to exercise trained (n = 18 and sedentary (n = 18 groups. The rats in the training group went under 12, 24 and 36 weeks of moderate exercise trainings (25 m·min-1 for 60-min with a 0% slope. Six sedentary controls were killed together with each exercise group at the end of the training programs. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS and catalase (CAT activity in myocardial homogenates were unchanged by training irrespective of the protocol duration. However, an increased content of the TBARS was detected in hearts from both the 24 and 36-week trained and sedentary control rats when compared with their corresponding 12-week groups (p<0.01. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD remained unchanged after the 12-week training period whereas a significant increase was observed in heart homogenates of 24-week trained animals as compared with their sedentary controls (p<0.05. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX remained unchanged. The rates of apoptosis which was detected by ELISA assays, were significantly modified after 24 and 36-week of training (p<0.05. These results demonstrate that a long-term endurance training (24 weeks induced increases in SOD activities in rat myocardium and elicited a marked reduction in apoptosis rate. However, a shorter training program (12 weeks was not effective in increasing heart antioxidant defenses

  7. Atorvastatin effects on liver enzymes, antioxidant content and paraoxonase 1: An animal trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Barzegar,

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver cirrhosis (LC is end-stage and irreversible phase of some chronic liver diseases. Treatment of cirrhosis is varied. Statins are one of them for prophylactic use, and several studies have shown their usefulness and effectiveness in control of LC but according to some other studies the use of Atorvastatin is now matter of discuss. Many studies reported the role of statins in increased activity of PON1 in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia. This study aims to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on PON1 activities on development of liver cirrhosis in animal models of mice with ligated bile duct. Material and methods:The 32 rats were haphazardly partitioned On two groups: sham group and Bile duct ligated (BDL group. Each group was also divided in two subgroups in order to treat with either atorvastatin 15 mg/kg suspended in 5%CMC (Sigma Chemicals Co., USA or the same volume/weight of the 5% CMC vehicle for 28 days. At the end of the 4-week period, blood samples were collected by puncturing the heart under deep anesthesia and laboratory test for blood was operated. All statistical analyses were carried out using Prism statistical software .These differences were considered significant when probability was less than 0.05. Results: BDL decreased paraoxonase activities and increase MDA and liver enzymes while atorvastatin treatment increase PON1 activity and decreased MDA levels and liver enzymes. Conclusion: These data confirm activity of atorvastatin in cirrhosis probably by its ability of prevention reducing paraoxonase 1 activity. Conclusion: These data confirm the antioxidant activity of atorvastatin in cirrhosis probably by its ability of prevention reducing paraoxonase 1 activity and expression

  8. Toxaphene affects the levels of mRNA transcripts that encode antioxidant enzymes in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seonock; Lee, Aekyung; Won, Hyokyoung; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Yum, Seungshic

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated toxaphene-induced acute toxicity in Hydra magnipapillata. The median lethal concentrations of the animals (LC(50)) were determined to be 34.5 mg/L, 25.0 mg/L and 12.0 mg/L after exposure to toxaphene for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Morphological responses of hydra polyps to a range of toxaphene concentrations suggested that toxaphene negatively affects the nervous system of H. magnipapillata. We used real-time quantitative PCR of RNA extracted from polyps exposed to two concentrations of toxaphene (0.3 mg/L and 3 mg/L) for 24 h to evaluate the differential regulation of levels of transcripts that encode six antioxidant enzymes (CAT, G6PD, GPx, GR, GST and SOD), two proteins involved in detoxification and molecular stress responses (CYP1A and UB), and two proteins involved in neurotransmission and nerve cell differentiation (AChE and Hym-355). Of the genes involved in antioxidant responses, the most striking changes were observed for transcripts that encode GPx, G6PD, SOD, CAT and GST, with no evident change in levels of transcripts encoding GR. Levels of UB and CYP1A transcripts increased in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to toxaphene. Given that toxaphene-induced neurotoxicity was not reflected in the level of AChE transcripts and only slight accumulation of Hym-355 transcript was observed only at the higher of the two doses of toxaphene tested, there remains a need to identify transcriptional biomarkers for toxaphene-mediated neurotoxicity in H. magnipapillata. Transcripts that respond to toxaphene exposure could be valuable biomarkers for stress levels in H. magnipapillata and may be useful for monitoring the pollution of aquatic environments.

  9. Ageing of enteric neurons: oxidative stress, neurotrophic factors and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korsak Kris

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing is associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction, which can have a major impact on quality of life of the elderly. A number of changes in the innervation of the gut during ageing have been reported, including neuronal loss and degenerative changes. Evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS are elevated in ageing enteric neurons, but that neurotrophic factors may reduce generation of neuronal ROS. Two such factors, glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 have also been found to protect enteric neurons against oxidative stress induced cell death of enteric ganglion cells in vitro. We have investigated the possible roles of neurotrophic factors further, by examining their expression in the gut during ageing, and by analysing their effects on antioxidant enzyme production in cultures of enteric ganglion cells. Results Analysis of the expression of GDNF and its receptors c-Ret and GFR α − 1 in rat gut by RT-PCR showed that expression continues throughout life and into ageing, in both ad libitum(AL and calorically-restricted (CR animals. Levels of expression of GDNF and GFR α − 1 were elevated in 24 month AL animals compared to 24 month CR animals, and to 24 CR and 6 month control animals respectively. The related factor Neurturin and its receptor GFR α − 2 were also expressed throughout life, the levels of the GFR – α-2(b isoform were reduced in 24 m AL animals. Immunolabelling showed that c-Ret and GFR α − 1 proteins were expressed by myenteric neurons in ageing animals. GDNF, but not NT-3, was found to increase expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase by cultured enteric ganglion cells. Conclusions The neurotrophic factors GDNF and neurturin and their receptors continue to be expressed in the ageing gut. Changes in the levels of expression of GDNF , GFR α-1 and GFR α-2(b isoform occurred in 24 m AL animals. GDNF, but not

  10. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-Bo; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR and S6K1 in fish fillets.

  11. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SOD1, CAT and Se-GPx mRNA levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P < 0.05). In conclusion, valine improved the physical and flavor characteristics, FA profile, and antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR

  12. Antioxidant deficit in gills of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) exposed to chlorodinitrobenzene increases menadione toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, Rafael; Arl, Miriam [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Sacchet, Cassia Lopes [Universidade do Oeste do Estado de Santa Catarina, 89600-000 Joacaba, SC (Brazil); Engel, Cristiano Severino; Danielli, Naissa Maria; Mello, Danielle Ferraz [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Brocardo, Caroline [Universidade do Oeste do Estado de Santa Catarina, 89600-000 Joacaba, SC (Brazil); Maris, Angelica Francesca [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Embriologia e Genetica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Dafre, Alcir Luiz, E-mail: alcir@ccb.ufsc.br [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-02-15

    Disturbances in antioxidant defenses decrease cellular protection against oxidative stress and jeopardize cellular homeostasis. To knock down the antioxidant defenses of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, animals were pre-treated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and further challenged with pro-oxidant menadione (MEN). CDNB pre-treatment (10 {mu}M for 18 h) was able to consume cellular thiols in gills, decreasing GSH (53%) and decrease protein thiols (25%). CDNB pre-treatment also disrupted glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase activity in the gills, but likewise strongly induced glutathione S-transferase activity (270% increase). Surprisingly, hemocyte viability was greatly affected 24 h after CDNB removal, indicating a possible vulnerability of the oyster immune system to electrophilic attack. New in vivo approaches were established, allowing the identification of higher rates of GSH-CDNB conjugate export to the seawater and enabling the measurement of the organic peroxide consumption rate. CDNB-induced impairment in antioxidant defenses decreased the peroxide removal rate from seawater. After showing that CDNB decreased gill antioxidant defenses and increased DNA damage in hemocytes, oysters were further challenged with 1 mM MEN over 24 h. MEN treatment did not affect thiol homeostasis in gills, while CDNB pre-treated animals recovered GSH and PSH to the control level after 24 h of depuration. Interestingly, MEN intensified GSH and PSH loss and mortality in CDNB-pre-treated animals, showing a clear synergistic effect. The superoxide-generating one-electron reduction of MEN was predominant in gills and may have contributed to MEN toxicity. These results support the idea that antioxidant-depleted animals are more susceptible to oxidative attack, which can compromise survival. Data also corroborate the idea that gills are an important detoxifying organ, able to dispose of organic peroxides, induce phase II enzymes, and efficiently export GSH

  13. Enzyme Inhibitory Properties, Antioxidant Activities, and Phytochemical Profile of Three Medicinal Plants from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Zengin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the inhibitory potential of three medicinal plants (Hedysarum varium, Onobrychis hypargyrea, and Vicia truncatula from Turkey against key enzymes involved in human pathologies, namely, diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase, neurodegenerative disorders (tyrosinase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase, and hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase. The antioxidant potential, phenolic and flavonoid content of ethyl acetate, and methanolic and aqueous extracts were investigated using in vitro assays. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC, β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH•, 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS•+, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and metal chelating activity on ferrous ions were used to evaluate the antioxidant capabilities of the extracts. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 of the extracts on cholinesterase, tyrosinase, and α-amylase were significantly higher than the references, galantamine, kojic acid, and acarbose, respectively. The half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50 of the extracts on TAC, CUPRAC, and FRAP were significantly higher than trolox. The phenol and flavonoid contents of the plant extracts were in the range 20.90±0.190–83.25±0.914 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract and 1.45±0.200–39.71±0.092 mg rutin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The plants were found to possess moderate antioxidant capacities and interesting inhibitory action against key enzymes.

  14. Understanding salt tolerance mechanisms in wheat genotypes by exploring antioxidant enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amjad, M.; Akhtar, J.; Haq, M.A.;

    2014-01-01

    The activities of antioxidant enzymes were analyzed in six wheat genotypes under different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100 and 200 mM). Plants were harvested after either 15 or 30 days of salt stress. The most salt tolerant genotype (SARC-1) maintained lower Na+ and higher relative growth rate (RGR....... Additionally, glutathione reductase (GR) activity was decreased in salt sensitive (S-9189 and S-9476) than salt tolerant (SARC-1) genotypes. Under salt stress conditions a negative relationship between SOD and leaf Na+, and a positive between SOD and shoot fresh weight (SFW), were observed. The higher...... efficiency of antioxidant enzymes of tolerant genotypes could be considered as one of the factors involved in salt tolerance of wheat....

  15. Studies on antioxidative enzymes induced by cadmium in pea plants (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nalini; Singh, Gaurav Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Swati) exposed to different concentration of cadmium (50,100, 200 microM Cd) under controlled glass house conditions were quantified for different physiological parameters and antioxidative enzymes. In pea plants, Cd produced a significant inhibition of growth and induced chlorosis, marginal yellowing and necrosis in young leaves, the effect being most pronounced at 200 microM Cd supply. An alteration in the activated oxygen metabolism of pea plants were also detected as evidenced by an increase in concentration of H2O2 and TBARS along with decrease in the chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration in leaves. Cadmium toxicity induced an increase in non-protein thiol, ascorbate, proline and cysteine concentration. A significant increment in the activity of SOD, APX and GR, and a decrease in CAT was observed as a result of Cd treatment. The enhanced activity of SOD and inhibition of CAT and POD produces a high build up of H2O2 which appears to be the main cause of oxidative stress due to Cd toxicity in pea plants.

  16. Photobiomodulation Therapy Decreases Oxidative Stress in the Lung Tissue after Formaldehyde Exposure: Role of Oxidant/Antioxidant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Silva Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is ubiquitous pollutant that induces oxidative stress in the lung. Several lung diseases have been associated with oxidative stress and their control is necessary. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT has been highlighted as a promissory treatment, but its mechanisms need to be better investigated. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of PBMT on the oxidative stress generated by FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were submitted to FA exposure of 1% or vehicle (3 days and treated or not with PBMT (1 and 5 h after each FA exposure. Rats treated only with laser were used as control. Twenty-four hours after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the effects of PBMT on the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide, oxidative burst, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, S-transferase enzyme activities, the gene expression of nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase, superoxide dismutase, the catalase enzyme, and heme oxygenase-1. PBMT reduced the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide and increased oxidative burst in the lung cells. A decreased level of oxidant enzymes was observed which were concomitantly related to an increased level of antioxidants. This study provides new information about the antioxidant mechanisms of PBMT in the lung and might constitute an important tool for lung disease treatment.

  17. Photobiomodulation Therapy Decreases Oxidative Stress in the Lung Tissue after Formaldehyde Exposure: Role of Oxidant/Antioxidant Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Tarcio Teodoro; Barioni, Éric Diego; de Oliveira Duro, Stephanie; Ratto Tempestini Horliana, Anna Carolina; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Marcourakis, Tânia; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde is ubiquitous pollutant that induces oxidative stress in the lung. Several lung diseases have been associated with oxidative stress and their control is necessary. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) has been highlighted as a promissory treatment, but its mechanisms need to be better investigated. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of PBMT on the oxidative stress generated by FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were submitted to FA exposure of 1% or vehicle (3 days) and treated or not with PBMT (1 and 5 h after each FA exposure). Rats treated only with laser were used as control. Twenty-four hours after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the effects of PBMT on the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide, oxidative burst, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, S-transferase enzyme activities, the gene expression of nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase, superoxide dismutase, the catalase enzyme, and heme oxygenase-1. PBMT reduced the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide and increased oxidative burst in the lung cells. A decreased level of oxidant enzymes was observed which were concomitantly related to an increased level of antioxidants. This study provides new information about the antioxidant mechanisms of PBMT in the lung and might constitute an important tool for lung disease treatment. PMID:27293324

  18. Impact of kanamycin on melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in melanocytes--an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrześniok, Dorota; Otręba, Michał; Beberok, Artur; Buszman, Ewa

    2013-12-01

    Aminoglycosides, broad spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotics, are used in various infections therapy due to their good antimicrobial characteristics. However, their adverse effects such as nephrotoxicity and auditory ototoxicity, as well as some toxic effects directed to pigmented tissues, complicate the use of these agents. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aminoglycoside antibiotic-kanamycin on viability, melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in cultured human normal melanocytes (HEMa-LP). It has been demonstrated that kanamycin induces concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 was found to be ~6.0 mM. Kanamycin suppressed melanin biosynthesis: antibiotic was shown to inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity and to reduce melanin content in normal human melanocytes. Significant changes in the cellular antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT and GPx were stated in melanocytes exposed to kanamycin. Moreover, it was observed that kanamycin caused depletion of antioxidant defense sytem. It is concluded that the inhibitory effect of kanamycin on melanogenesis and not sufficient antioxidant defense mechanism in melanocytes in vitro may explain the potential mechanisms of undesirable side effects of this drug directed to pigmented tissues in vivo. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Phenolic Compounds from Olea europaea L. Possess Antioxidant Activity and Inhibit Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Dekdouk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic composition and biological activities of fruit extracts from Italian and Algerian Olea europaea L. cultivars were studied. Total phenolic and tannin contents were quantified in the extracts. Moreover 14 different phenolic compounds were identified, and their profiles showed remarkable quantitative differences among analysed extracts. Moreover antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activities were studied. Three complementary assays were used to measure their antioxidant activities and consequently Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI was used to compare and easily describe obtained results. Results showed that Chemlal, between Algerian cultivars, and Coratina, among Italian ones, had the highest RACI values. On the other hand all extracts and the most abundant phenolics were tested for their efficiency to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Leccino, among all analysed cultivars, and luteolin, among identified phenolic compounds, were found to be the best inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Results demonstrated that Olea europaea fruit extracts can represent an important natural source with high antioxidant potential and significant α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects.

  20. Phenolic Compounds from Olea europaea L. Possess Antioxidant Activity and Inhibit Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekdouk, Nadia; Malafronte, Nicola; Russo, Daniela; Faraone, Immacolata; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Ameddah, Souad; Severino, Lorella; Milella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic composition and biological activities of fruit extracts from Italian and Algerian Olea europaea L. cultivars were studied. Total phenolic and tannin contents were quantified in the extracts. Moreover 14 different phenolic compounds were identified, and their profiles showed remarkable quantitative differences among analysed extracts. Moreover antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activities were studied. Three complementary assays were used to measure their antioxidant activities and consequently Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI) was used to compare and easily describe obtained results. Results showed that Chemlal, between Algerian cultivars, and Coratina, among Italian ones, had the highest RACI values. On the other hand all extracts and the most abundant phenolics were tested for their efficiency to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Leccino, among all analysed cultivars, and luteolin, among identified phenolic compounds, were found to be the best inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Results demonstrated that Olea europaea fruit extracts can represent an important natural source with high antioxidant potential and significant α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. PMID:26557862

  1. Effect of Cassava Processing Effluents on Antioxidant Enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    the presence of a specific toxicant and are increasingly being used as valid indicators of aquatic pollution (Fernandes et al., 2002). ..... assess the water quality in two low-stream rivers (NE Spain). Environ ... Ecotoxicology 12:417– 26. 2003.

  2. Lithium and valproate modulate antioxidant enzymes and prevent ouabain-induced oxidative damage in an animal model of mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jornada, Luciano K; Valvassori, Samira S; Steckert, Amanda V; Moretti, Morgana; Mina, Francielle; Ferreira, Camila L; Arent, Camila O; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we assessed the oxidative stress parameters in rats submitted to an animal model of mania induced by ouabain (OUA), which included the use of lithium (Li) and valproate (VPA). Li and VPA treatment reversed and prevented the OUA-induced damage in these structures, however, this effect varies depending on the brain region and treatment regimen. Moreover, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was found to be increased and decreased, respectively, in the brain of OUA-administered rats. Li and VPA modulated SOD and CAT activities in OUA-subjected rats in both experimental models. Our results support the notion that Li and VPA exert antioxidant-like properties in the brain of rats submitted to animal model of mania induced by ouabain.

  3. Antioxidant Enzymes, Membrane Stability and Essential Oil Percentage of Balm under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ardakani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this research, the effect of drought stress on antioxidant enzymes, membrane stability and essential oil percentage in Balm (Melissa officinalis L. has been evaluted under field conditions. Experimental design was complete randomized block design with 4 replications. The treatments included: T1 (control; non stress, T2 (80%FC, T3 (60%FC, T4 (40%FC and T5 (20%FC. Results showed that there was a significant differences (P

  4. Red blood cell antioxidant enzymes in age-related macular degeneration.

    OpenAIRE

    De La Paz, M A; Zhang, J; Fridovich, I

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: Oxidative damage has been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether red blood cell antioxidant enzyme activity correlates with severity of aging maculopathy in affected individuals. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 54 patients with varying severity of aging maculopathy and 12 similarly aged individuals with normal ophthalmoscopic examination. Macular findings were graded a...

  5. Comparison of microwaves and conventional thermal treatment on enzymes activity and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit puree

    OpenAIRE

    Benlloch Tinoco, María; Igual Ramo, Marta; Rodrigo Aliaga, María Dolores; Martínez Navarrete, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes are naturally present in food and can cause product deterioration. For this reason,most food-processing steps try to reduce the enzymatic activity. The aimof thisworkwas to compare, in terms of both the inactivation of kiwifruit puree peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and pectinmethylesterase and also themaintenance of the antioxidant capacity of the product, the effect of a microwave treatment with a conventional thermal treatment designed to cause the same level of peroxidas...

  6. ANTI-OXIDANT AND ENZYME-INHIBITORY POTENTIAL OF MARINE STREPTOMYCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Suthindhiran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine actinomycetes are potential source for the discovery of novel compounds and enzymes. Though extensive research on marine actinomycetes is underway globally, the actinomycetes research from Indian marine ecosystem is unexplored and understudied. Hence, the present research is focussed on the screening of bioactive compounds from marine actinomycetes isolated from Indian coastal region. This study is designed to determine the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory potential of Streptomyces sp. VITMSS05 strain, isolated from Marakkanam, southern coast of India. An actinomycetes strain designated as VITMSS05 was isolated. This strain was cultivated in Starch Caesin Agar medium (SCA supplemented with sea water. The cultural, morphological and molecular characterization was determined for the isolate. The crude extract of the isolate was extracted with ethyl acetate. Antioxidant activity of the crude extract was determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay. Alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitory potential of the extract was determined. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis the strain was identified as Streptomyces sp. Significant antioxidant activity of the extract was observed with an IC50 value of 92.49 μg mL-1. The extract shows 64.1% inhibition on α-amylase and 91.5% inhibition on α-glucosidase at 100 μg mL-1 with an IC50 value of 385.97 and 42.89 μg mL-1. From the results it is evident that the ethyl acetate extract of Streptomyces sp. VITMSS05 has potent antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity in vitro. The combined effect of free radical scavenging and enzyme inhibition makes it a potent anti diabetic drug.

  7. Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation as biomarker compounds for potato tuber stored by gamma radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd El-Moneim MR Afify; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Amina A Aly; Abeer E El-Ansary

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the capability of gamma irradiation for inhibiting sprouting of potato tubers.Methods:S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), in addition to lipid peroxidation level were tested in potato tubers stored for 3, 6 and 9 weeks. Gamma irradiation with five treatments (0, 30, 50, 100 and 200 Gy) was used to control germination process of potato tubers. Results: Gamma radiation was able to maintain potato tuber for 6 weeks. The main biomarkers for validity of potato tuber during storage were studying antioxidant enzyme activitiesi.e. The enzymes activities i.e. peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), glutathione-POD, PPO, GST, SOD, CAT enzyme activities as well as lipid peroxidation during storage time. Conclusions: The optimum dose was 50 Gy which prevented the sprouting initiation all over the storage period without casting undesirable rotting for potato tubers. At this dose all antioxidant enzyme activities i.e. POD, PPO, GST, SOD, CAT enzyme activities as well as lipid peroxidation level during storage time recorded the best rates.

  8. Therapeutic Approach to Neurodegenerative Diseases by Medical Gases: Focusing on Redox Signaling and Related Antioxidant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyota Fujita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress in the central nervous system is strongly associated with neuronal cell death in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In order to overcome the oxidative damage, there are some protective signaling pathways related to transcriptional upregulation of antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and superoxide dismutase (SOD-1/-2. Their expression is regulated by several transcription factors and/or cofactors like nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α. These antioxidant enzymes are associated with, and in some cases, prevent neuronal death in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. They are activated by endogenous mediators and phytochemicals, and also by several gases such as carbon monoxide (CO, hydrogen sulphide (H2S, and hydrogen (H2. These might thereby protect the brain from severe oxidative damage and resultant neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, we discuss how the expression levels of these antioxidant enzymes are regulated. We also introduce recent advances in the therapeutic uses of medical gases against neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. NO is involved in spermidine-induced drought tolerance in white clover via activation of antioxidant enzymes and genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dandan; Wang, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhou; Zhang, Yan; Peng, Yan; Li, Yaping; He, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Xinquan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Linkai; Yan, Yanhong

    2016-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a key signaling molecule, can be induced by polyamines (PAs), which play an important role in improving drought tolerance in plants. This study was to further investigate the role of NO in spermidine (Spd)-induced drought tolerance associated with antioxidant defense in leaves of white clover (Trifolium repens) under drought stress induced by -0.3 MPa polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) solution. A hydroponic growth method was used for cultivating plants in a controlled growth chamber for 30-33 days until the second leaves were fully expanded. Two relative independent experiments were carried out in our study. One is that exogenous application of Spd or an NO donor (sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) significantly improved drought tolerance in whole plants, as demonstrated by better phenotypic appearance, increased relative water content (RWC), and decreased electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves as compared to untreated plants. For another detached leaf experiment, PEG induced an increase in the generation of NO in cells and significantly improved activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). These responses could be blocked by pre-treatment with a Spd biosynthetic inhibitor, dicyclohexyl amine (DCHA), and then reversed by application of exogenous Spd. Meanwhile, PEG induced up-regulation of activities and gene transcript levels of corresponding antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) to varying degrees, while these effects were partially blocked by pre-treatment with DCHA, the scavenger of NO, the inhibitors of NR or NOS. In addition, Spd-induced antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression also could be effectively inhibited by an NO scavenger as well as inhibitors of NR and NOS. These findings suggest that both Spd and NO can enhance drought tolerance. Spd was involved in drought stress-activated NR and NOS

  10. Differential Activity and Expression Profile of Antioxidant Enzymes and Physiological Changes in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Under Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheoran, Sonia; Thakur, Vidisha; Narwal, Sneh; Turan, Rajita; Mamrutha, H M; Singh, Virender; Tiwari, Vinod; Sharma, Indu

    2015-11-01

    Wheat crop may experience water deficit at crucial stages during its life cycle, which induces oxidative stress in the plants. The antioxidant status of the plant plays an important role in providing tolerance against the water stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of water stress on physiological traits, antioxidant activity and transcript profile of antioxidant enzyme related genes in four wheat genotypes (C306, AKAW3717, HD2687, PBW343) at three crucial stages of plants under medium (75% of field capacity) and severe stress (45% of field capacity) in pots. Drought was applied by withholding water for 10 days at a particular growth stage viz. tillering, anthesis and 15 days after anthesis (15DAA). For physiological traits, a highly significant effect of water stress at a particular stage and genotypic variations for resistance to drought tolerance was observed. Under severe water stress, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased while the relative water content (RWC) and chlorophyll index decreased significantly in all the genotypes. The drought susceptibility index (DSI) of the genotypes varied from 0.18 to 1.9. The drought treatment at the tillering and anthesis stages was found more sensitive in terms of reduction in thousand grain weight (TGW) and grain yield. Antioxidant enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POX)] increased with the decrease in osmotic potential in drought tolerant genotypes C306 and AKAW3717. Moreover, the transcript profile of Mn-SOD upregulated significantly and was consistent with the trend of the variation in SOD activity, which suggests that Mn-SOD might play an important role in drought tolerance.

  11. Vitamin and antioxidant rich diet increases MLH1 promoter DNA methylation in DMT2 subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Switzeny Olivier J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress may lead to an increased level of unrepaired cellular DNA damage, which is discussed as one risk for tumor initiation. Mismatch repair (MMR enzymes act as proofreading complexes that maintain the genomic integrity and MMR-deficient cells show an increased mutation rate. One important gene in the MMR complex is the MutL homolog 1 (MLH1 gene. Since a diet rich in antioxidants has the potential to counteract harmful effects by reactive oxygen species (ROS, we investigated the impact of an antioxidant, folate, and vitamin rich diet on the epigenetic pattern of MLH1. These effects were analyzed in individuals with non-insulin depended diabetes mellitus type 2 (NIDDM2 and impaired fasting glucose (IFG. Methods In this post-hoc analysis of a randomized trial we analyzed DNA methylation of MLH1, MSH2, and MGMT at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention, consisting of 300 g vegetables and 25 ml plant oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids per day. DNA methylation was quantified using combined bisulfite restriction enzyme analysis (COBRA and pyrosequencing. MLH1 and DNMT1 mRNA expression were investigated by qRT-PCR. DNA damage was assessed by COMET assay. Student’s two-tailed paired t test and one-way ANOVA with Scheffé corrected Post hoc test was used to determine significant methylation and expression differences. Two-tailed Pearson test was used to determine correlations between methylation level, gene expression, and DNA strand break amount. Results The intervention resulted in significantly higher CpG methylation in two particular MLH1 promoter regions and the MGMT promoter. DNA strand breaks and methylation levels correlated significantly. The expression of MLH1, DNMT1, and the promoter methylation of MSH2 remained stable. CpG methylation levels and gene expression did not correlate. Conclusion This vitamin and antioxidant rich diet affected the CpG methylation of MLH1. The higher methylation might be a

  12. Certain antioxidant enzymes of Allium cepa as biomarkers for the detection of toxic heavy metals in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatima, Riffat A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, AMU, Aligarh 202002 (India); Ahmad, Masood [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, AMU, Aligarh 202002 (India)]. E-mail: smasood_ahmad@lycos.com

    2005-06-15

    The utility of antioxidant enzymes, viz glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), as biomarkers of heavy metal pollution in water was investigated using the Allium cepa (onion) system. These antioxidant enzymes were assayed in onion bulbs exposed to certain heavy metals taken separately, the test metals taken in combination as well as the industrial wastewater especially found to contain these metals. GST exhibited significantly enhanced activity upon treatment with individual heavy metals. However, GR, SOD and CAT did not show such a pronounced increase in activities. At higher heavy metal concentrations, GR, SOD and CAT showed a steep decline while GST activity still showed a rise. Moreover, APX, GPX and MDHAR also exhibited remarkable induction with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals. However, there was no significant change in DHAR activity with respect to the controls. Metabolites like ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) exhibited significant decline with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals while the level of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} continued to display the rise up to a heavy metal concentration of 100 {mu}M, after which it showed a gradual decline. A. cepa bulbs treated with wastewater sample showed enzyme activity profiles similar to that shown with heavy metals, thereby suggesting the presence of heavy metals in the test wastewater. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry also detected large amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the test water sample. The metal mixture, containing the amounts of heavy metals equivalent to those found in the wastewater, resulted in steep declines in GR, SOD and CAT activities in A. cepa while GST showed a rise. However, when this metal mixture was diluted to 2000-fold, GR, SOD and CAT also

  13. Evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activity and malondialdehyde levels in patients with chronic periodontitis and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Shilpa; Lal, Nand; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Mittal, Madhukar; Singh, Babita; Pandey, Shivani

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of diabetes, a known risk factor for periodontitis, on activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) as well as levels of free radical damage marker malondialdehyde (MDA) in blood and saliva of individuals with chronic periodontitis (CP). Sixty patients with CP (30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus [DMCP] and 30 systemically healthy patients [CP]) and 60 periodontally healthy individuals (30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 30 systemically healthy patients [PH]) were included in this study. After clinical measurements, blood and saliva samples were collected. SOD, GR, and CAT activities in red blood cell lysate and saliva and MDA levels in plasma and saliva samples were spectrophotometrically assayed. An analysis of variance test followed by a post hoc test was used to compare the intragroup and intergroup variances among the study groups. MDA levels in both the periodontitis groups were higher than in the periodontally healthy groups, but the difference between the CP and DMCP groups did not reach statistical significance (P >0.05). There was a highly significant difference between the CP and PH groups for all the enzymes studied except for SOD in blood. Only salivary SOD and GR activities were significantly different in the CP and DMCP groups. This study favors the role of oxidative stress in both diabetes and periodontitis. It shows that the compensatory mechanism of the body is partially collapsed because of excessive production of free radicals during periodontitis and is not able to cope with increased free radical generation attributable to diabetes, thereby worsening the situation.

  14. Effect of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, and immune response in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashemipour, H.; Kermanshahi, H.; Golian, A.; Veldkamp, T.

    2013-01-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of phytogenic product containing an equal mixture of thymol and carvacrol at 4 levels (0, 60, 100, and 200 mg/kg of diet) on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, an

  15. Effect of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, and immune response in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashemipour, H.; Kermanshahi, H.; Golian, A.; Veldkamp, T.

    2013-01-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of phytogenic product containing an equal mixture of thymol and carvacrol at 4 levels (0, 60, 100, and 200 mg/kg of diet) on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities,

  16. Effect of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, and immune response in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashemipour, H.; Kermanshahi, H.; Golian, A.; Veldkamp, T.

    2013-01-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of phytogenic product containing an equal mixture of thymol and carvacrol at 4 levels (0, 60, 100, and 200 mg/kg of diet) on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, an

  17. Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Protein Hydrolysate from Muscle of Barbel (Barbus callensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Assaad Sila; Anissa Haddar; Oscar Martinez-Alvarez; Ali Bougatef

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of barbel muscle protein hydrolysate prepared with Alcalase. The barbel muscle protein hydrolysate displayed a high ACE inhibitory activity (C I 50 = 0.92 mg/mL). The antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysate at different concentrations were evaluated using various in vitro antioxidant assays, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method and reducing power assay. The...

  18. Cobalt and manganese stress in the microalga Pavlova viridis (Prymnesiophyceae): Effects on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of marine environment has become an issue of major concern in recent years. Serious environmental pollution by heavy metals results from their increasing utilization in industrial processes and because most heavy metals are transported into the marine environment and accumulated without decomposition. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects on growth, pigments, lipid peroxidation, and some antioxidant enzyme activities of marine microalga Pavlova. viridis, in response to elevated concentrations of cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn), especially with regard to the involvement of antioxidative defences against heavy metal-induced oxidative stress. In response to Co2+, lipid peroxidation was enhanced compared to the control, as an indication of the oxidative damage caused by metal concentration assayed in the microalgal cells but not Mn2+. Exposure of P. viridis to the two metals caused changes in enzyme activities in a different manner, depending on the metal assayed: after Co2+ treatments, total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was irregular, although it was not significantly affected by Mn2+ exposure. Co2+ and Mn2+ stimulated the activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH), whereas, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) showed a remarkable increase in activity in response to Co2+ treatments and decreased gradually with Mn2+ concentration, up to 50 μmol/L, and then rose very rapidly, reaching to about 38.98% at 200 μmol/L Mn2+. These results suggest that an activation of some antioxidant enzymes was enhanced, to counteract the oxidative stress induced by the two metals at higher concentration.

  19. Antioxidant enzymes are induced by phenol in the marine microalga Lingulodinium polyedrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, P L G; Marques, L G; Colepicolo, P

    2015-06-01

    Knowing the impacts of different anthropogenic activities on ecosystems promotes preservation of aquatic organisms. Aiming to facilitate the identification of polluted or contaminated areas, the study of microalga Lingulodinium polyedrum in phenol-containing medium comprises the determination of toxic and metabolic phenol effects, featuring a possible use of this microorganism as bioindicator for this pollutant. Marine microalga L. polyedrum exposure to phenol increases superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. The 20% and 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC20 and IC50) of cells exposed to phenol were 40 μmol L(-1) and 120 μmol L(-1), respectively. Phenol biodegradation by L. polyedrum was 0.02 μmol h(-1)cell(-1), and its biotransformation was catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase (GST), phenol hydroxylase and catechol 2,3-dihydroxygenase metabolic pathways. Phenol exposure produced the metabolites 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde acid, 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (catechol), and 2-oxo-4-pentenoic acid; also, it induced the activity of key antioxidant biomarker enzymes SOD and CAT by three folds compared to that in the controls. Further, phenol decreased the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG), highlighting the effective glutathione oxidation in L. polyedrum. Overall, our results suggest that phenol alters microalga growth conditions and microalgae are sensitive bioindicators to pollution by phenol in marine environments.

  20. Rhodiola-induced inhibition of adipogenesis involves antioxidant enzyme response associated with pentose phosphate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kwon, Young-In; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Shetty, Kalidas; Kim, Young-Cheul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Rhodiola crenulata extract and tyrosol, a major bioactive phenolic compound present in Rhodiola, change the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzyme response (AER) and energy pathways linked to proline-mediated pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during adipogenesis. Treatment with Rhodiola extracts inhibited the activities of proline dehydrogenase (PDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) as well as lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The inhibition of PDH and G6PDH activities by Rhodiola likely prevented proline oxidation required for critical ATP generation that is coupled to AER via the PPP, leading to inhibition of adipogenesis. Rhodiola extracts dose-dependently increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, resulting in a reduced ROS level during adipogenesis. Moreover, the effects of tyrosol, a major bioactive compound in Rhodiola species, were directly correlated with all observed effects by Rhodiola extracts. These results indicate that the antiadipogenic effects of Rhodiola extracts can be attributed to a phenolic tyrosol that may potentially disrupt proline-mediated energy generation and AER via PPP, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and lipid accumulation. This further provides a biochemical rationale to identify the roles of phenolics that modulate the cellular redox environment and therefore have relevance for obesity management.

  1. Effects of supplemental zinc source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z H; Lu, L; Wang, R L; Lei, H L; Li, S F; Zhang, L Y; Luo, X G

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental Zinc (Zn) source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers. Dietary treatments included the Zn-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) and basal diets supplemented with 60, 120, or 180 mg Zn/kg as Zn sulfate, Zn amino acid chelate with a weak chelation strength of 6.5 quotient of formation (Qf) (11.93% Zn) (Zn-AA W), Zn proteinate with a moderate chelation strength of 30.7 Qf (13.27% Zn) (Zn-Pro M), or Zn proteinate with an extremely strong chelation strength of 944.0 Qf (18.61% Zn) (Zn-Pro S). The results showed that dietary supplemental Zn increased (P enzymes in the abdominal fat and liver of broilers. Dietary Zn source, and an interaction between Zn source and level, had no effects on any measurements. It is concluded that dietary Zn supplementation improved Zn status and resulted in promoting antioxidant ability and activities and gene expressions of fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers regardless of Zn source and level, and the addition of 60 mg Zn/kg to the corn-soybean meal basal diet (a total dietary Zn of approximately 90 mg/kg) was appropriate for improving the above aspects of broilers.

  2. Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska [Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department of Inland Fisheries, Biochemical Regulation, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: contardo@igb-berlin.de; Klingelmann, Eva [Technische Universitaet Berlin/Berlin Institute of Technology, Department of Ecology, Chair of Soil Protection, Salzufer 12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: eva.klingelmann@TU-Berlin.de; Wiegand, Claudia [Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department of Inland Fisheries, Biochemical Regulation, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Humboldt University Berlin, Faculty of Biology, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: cwiegand@igb-berlin.de

    2009-01-15

    The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5 mg L{sup -1} pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using {sup 14}C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations, and was higher than estimated from log P{sub ow}. Glyphosate and its surfactant POEA caused elevation of biotransformation enzyme soluble glutathione S-transferase at non-toxic concentrations. Membrane bound glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in Roundup Ultra exposed worms, compared to treatment with equal glyphosate concentrations, but did not significantly differ from the control. Antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by glyphosate but in particular by Roundup Ultra exposure indicating oxidative stress. The results show that the formulation Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the glyphosate itself. - Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the active ingredient, glyphosate, to Lumbriculus variegatus regarding accumulation potential and enzymatic responses.

  3. Effect of ageing and oxidative stress on antioxidant enzyme activity in different regions of the rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiab, Noor Riyadh; King, Nicola; Jones, Graham L

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in ageing and the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease. We examined levels of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and superoxide dismutase as modulated by age and oxidative stress in different regions of the kidney. Antioxidant enzymes were examined in different regions of the kidney in male Wistar rats. Kidneys from rats of different ages (5, 12, 36 and 60 weeks) were dissected into cortex, outer medulla and inner medulla. Tissues were incubated for 30 min with or without 0.2 mM H2O2 to induce oxidative stress. Antioxidant enzyme activities progressively decreased with age under both control and stress conditions (P Antioxidant enzyme activities were greater in the cortex (P < 0.05) by comparison with the outer and inner medulla, respectively.

  4. GENOTYPIC THERMOTOLERANCE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED PRE-STRESS ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY IN COTTON LEAVES AND PISTILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous studies have illustrated the need for antioxidant enzymes in acquired photosynthetic thermotolerance, but information on their possible role in promoting innate thermotolerance in either leaves or reproductive tissues is limited for cotton. We investigated the hypothesis that genotypic diff...

  5. Increased LCAT activity and hyperglycaemia decrease the antioxidative functionality of HDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; de Boer, Jan Freark; Perton, Frank G.; Annema, Wijtske; de Vries, Rindert; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Antioxidative properties of high density lipoprotein (HDL) are important for atheroprotection. This study investigated whether the antioxidative functionality of HDL is altered in type 2 diabetes mellit

  6. Increased LCAT activity and hyperglycaemia decrease the antioxidative functionality of HDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; de Boer, Jan Freark; Perton, Frank G.; Annema, Wijtske; de Vries, Rindert; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Antioxidative properties of high density lipoprotein (HDL) are important for atheroprotection. This study investigated whether the antioxidative functionality of HDL is altered in type 2 diabetes

  7. Effects of osmotic stress on antioxidant enzymes activities in leaf discs of PSAG12-IPT modified gerbera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Qi-xian; BAO Zhi-yi; ZHU Zhu-jun; QIAN Qiong-qiu; MAO Bi-zeng

    2007-01-01

    Leaf senescence is often caused by water deficit and the chimeric gene PSAG12-IPT is an auto-regulated gene delaying leaf senescence. Using in vitro leaf discs culture system, the changes of contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, soluble protein and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and antioxidant enzymes activities were investigated during leaf senescence of PSAG12-IPT modified gerbera induced by osmotic stress compared with the control plant (wild type). Leaf discs were incubated in 20%, 40% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6 000 nutrient solution for 20 h under continuous light [130 μmol/(m2·s)]. The results showed that the contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids and soluble protein were decreased by osmotic stress with the decrease being more pronounced at 40% PEG, but that, at the same PEG concentration the decrease in the transgenic plants was significantly lower than that in the control plant. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalases (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX),guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) were stimulated by PEG treatment. However, the increases were higher in PSAG12-IPT transgenic plants than in the control plants, particularly at 40% PEG treatment. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS content) was increased by PEG treatment with the increase being much lower in transgenic plant than in the control plant.It could be concluded that the increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD, CAT, APX, GPX and DHAR were responsible for the delay of leaf senescence induced by osmotic stress.

  8. Effect of Alkali Stress on Soluble Sugar, Antioxidant Enzymes and Yield of Oat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jian-hui; LIU Jing-hui; ZHANG Na; YANG Jun-heng; SA Ru-la; WU Lan

    2013-01-01

    Alkali stress can cause severe crop damage and reduce production. However, physiological processes involved in alkali stress in oat seedlings are not well understood. In this study, physiological responses and yield of oat to alkali stress were studied using the alkali-tolerant oat genotype Vao-9 and the alkali-sensitive oat genotype Baiyan 5. The results were:(i) low concentrations of alkali stress (25 and 50 mmol L-1) significantly reduced the yield and grain weight while increased the oat grain number per spike. A negative correlation between yield and malondialdehyde (MDA) content at the jointing and grain filling stages and positive correlations between yield on one hand and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) activities on the other at the jointing stage were observed. There was a positive correlation between MDA and soluble sugar at the grain filling stage;(ii) soluble sugar content was increased at the jointing and grain filling stages and decreased at the heading stage by alkali stress;(iii) alkali stress increased the SOD activity during the heading and grain filling stages, and increased the POD activity at the heading stage. As compared to the control, the increase of MDA contents in alkali-treated oat was observed, during the jointing, heading and grain filling stages;(iv) under alkali stress, the oat genotype Vao-9 showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower soluble sugar contents during the heading stage, and lower MDA contents than those in the oat genotype Baiyan 5 under alkali stress. The result suggested that the high ROS scavenging capacity and soluble sugar levels might play roles in oat response to alkali stress.

  9. Oxidative Stress and Anti-Oxidant Enzyme Activities in the Trophocytes and Fat Cells of Queen Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Yu-Shan; Hsu, Chin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Trophocytes and fat cells of queen honeybees have been used for delayed cellular senescence studies, but their oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities with advancing age are unknown. In this study, we assayed reactive oxygen species (ROS) and anti-oxidant enzymes in the trophocytes and fat cells of young and old queens. Young queens had lower ROS levels, lower superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and higher thioredoxin reductase ...

  10. Effect of enzyme hydrolysis on solubility and antioxidative properties of potato protein isolates derived from heat coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    MIKOVÁ, Klára

    2014-01-01

    The bachelor thesis is focused on effect of enzyme hydrolysis on solubility and antioxidative properties of potato protein. It was used industrial potato fruit juice and potato fruit juice from tubers two varieties Sibu and Ornella. Isolates derived from heat coagulation are generally poorly soluble so their use is limited (only feeding purporses). This work describes positive effect of enzyme hydrolysis on solubility and antioxidative properties of potato protein isolates. For example, antio...

  11. The Effects of Zinc Application on Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum under Salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Askary

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effects of salinity and Zinc sulphate application on growth parameters, nutrient uptake and antioxidant enzyme activity of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum in a factorial experiment in completely randomized design with three replications were evaluated. Factors consisted of four salinity levels (0, 45, 90 and 120 mM NaCl and three Zinc sulphate levels (0, 5, and 10 μM. Results showed that salinity decreased fresh and dry weight of plants, Zn and K contents whereas increased the Na content and antioxidant activity by increasing NaCl level. Also, results showed that ZnSO4 had positive effect on growth parameters, Zn and K concentration and antioxidant activity but reduced Na and P concentration. Zinc treatment especially at 10 μM concentration in tomato under salt conditions increased growth indexes, potassium concentration, percent of Inhibition of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, catalase and superoxide dismutase activity and decreased sodium and phosphorus concentrations. The highest fresh and dry weight of plants and potassium uptake were measured in plants without salt stress with application of 10 μM ZnSO4 and the lowest on these indicator in plants under 120 mM NaCl without ZnSO4 application. Thus, it was concluded that Zinc could be improve performance and yield in tomato plants under salt stress conditions.

  12. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on digestive enzymes in radiation induced intestinal damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Mumtaz; Nanda, Neha; Bhatia, Alka; Akhtar, Reyhan; Mahmood, Safrun

    2013-12-01

    Intestinal mucosa, a rapidly proliferating tissue, is highly sensitive to radiation and undergoes apoptosis as a consequence of over generation of oxidative free radicals and the lack of the antioxidants. Thus the present study was designed to investigate the intestinal damage induced by radiation and to study if supplementation of the diet with antioxidant vitamins could ameliorate the intestinal damage and its digestive activity, as determined by the expression of various border enzymes. Swiss Albino rats (150-200 g body weight) were divided into six groups. Group I: Control untreated; Group II: Irradiated; Group III: Irradiated + vitamin A; Group IV: Irradiated + vitamin C; Group V: Irradiated + vitamin E; and Group VI: Irradiated + lycopene. Animals were exposed to whole body γ-radiation from (60)Co at the rate of 8 Gy for 15 min/rat. Intestinal morphology and changes in various digestive enzymes together with, DNA damage was studied in six groups and each group consisted of 18 animals. The gastrointestinal toxicity resulted in malabsorption, diarrhoea, weight loss, loss of appetite, abdominal haemorrhage and hair loss. The activities of sucrase and alkaline phosphatase were elevated and those of lactase, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase or tranferase (γ-GTP) were markedly reduced. Antioxidant vitamin A, C or E supplementations prevented changes in brush border enzyme activities as compared to lycopene administration in rat intestine by radiation exposure. Intestinal histology showed that the vitamin supplementation to irradiated rats minimized the intestinal damage in rats. These findings suggest that the epithelial lining of the intestine is highly sensitive to radiation exposure and supplementation of antioxidant vitamins is helpful in minimizing the intestinal damage and supplementation by vitamin E was most potent in ameliorating the intestinal aberrations.

  13. Fermented wheat aleurone induces enzymes involved in detoxification of carcinogens and in antioxidative defence in human colon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Katrin; Borowicki, Anke; Scharlau, Daniel; Glei, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Dietary fibre is fermented by the human gut flora resulting mainly in the formation of SCFA, for example, acetate, propionate and butyrate. SCFA, in particular butyrate, may be important for secondary cancer prevention by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cell growth of cancer cells, thereby inhibiting the promotion and/or progression of cancer. Furthermore, SCFA could also act on primary cancer prevention by activation of detoxifying and antioxidative enzymes. We investigated the effects of fermented wheat aleurone on the expression of genes involved in stress response and toxicity, activity of drug-metabolising enzymes and anti-genotoxic potential. Aleurone was digested and fermented in vitro to obtain samples that reflect the content of the colon. HT29 cells and colon epithelial stripes were incubated with the resulting fermentation supernatant fractions (fs) and effects on mRNA expression of CAT, GSTP1 and SULT2B1 and enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) were measured. Fermented aleurone was also used to study the protection against H2O2-induced DNA damage in HT29 cells. The fs of aleurone significantly induced the mRNA expression of CAT, GSTP1 and SULT2B1 (HT29) and GSTP1 (epithelial stripes), respectively. The enzyme activities of GST (HT29) and CAT (HT29, epithelial stripes) were also unambiguously increased (1.4- to 3.7-fold) by the fs of aleurone. DNA damage induced by H2O2 was significantly reduced by the fs of aleurone after 48 h, whereupon no difference was observed compared with the faeces control. In conclusion, fermented aleurone is able to act on primary prevention by inducing mRNA expression and the activity of enzymes involved in detoxification of carcinogens and antioxidative defence.

  14. Dietary selenium and prolonged exercise alter gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in equine skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S H; Johnson, S E; Bobel, J M; Warren, L K

    2016-07-01

    Untrained Thoroughbred horses (6 mares and 6 geldings; 11 yr [SE 1] and 565 kg [SE 11]) were used to evaluate antioxidant gene expression and enzyme activity in blood and skeletal muscle in response to prolonged exercise after receiving 2 levels of dietary selenium for 36 d: 0.1 (CON; = 6) or 0.3 mg/kg DM (SEL; = 6). Horses were individually fed 1.6% BW coastal bermudagrass hay, 0.4% BW whole oats, and a mineral/vitamin premix containing no Se. Sodium selenite was added to achieve either 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM in the total diet. On d 35, horses underwent 2 h of submaximal exercise in a free-stall exerciser. Blood samples were obtained before (d 0) and after 34 d of Se supplementation and on d 35 to 36 immediately after exercise and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Biopsies of the middle gluteal muscle were obtained on d 0, before exercise on d 34, and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Supplementation with Se above the NRC requirement (SEL) increased serum Se ( = 0.011) and muscle thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity ( = 0.051) but had no effect on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in plasma, red blood cell (RBC) lysate, or muscle in horses at rest. Serum creatine kinase activity increased ( Level of dietary Se had no overall effect on expression of , , , , , , or in muscle following exercise. The impact of prolonged exercise on the activities of antioxidant enzymes varied. Furthermore, changes in enzyme activity did not necessarily align with enzyme gene expression following exercise. A higher level of Se intake elevated Se status of untrained horses, increased GPx activity, and lessened lipid peroxidation following exercise, suggesting that Se may be beneficial for mitigating oxidative muscle damage and aiding in postexercise recovery.

  15. Changes of anti-oxidative enzymes and membrane peroxidation for soil water deficits among 10 wheat genotypes at seedling stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hong Bo; Liang, Zong Suo; Shao, Ming An; Wang, Bo Chu

    2005-05-10

    Drought is one of the major factors limiting crop production globally, with increasing global climate change making the situation more serious. Wheat is the staple food for more than 35% of world population, so wheat anti-drought physiology study is of importance to wheat production and biological breeding for the sake of coping with abiotic and biotic conditions. Much research is involved in this hot topic, but the pace of progress is not so large because of drought resistance being a multiple-gene-control quantitative character and wheat genome being larger (16,000 Mb). On the other hand, stress adaptive mechanisms are quite different, with stress degree, time course, materials, and experimental plots, thus increasing the complexity of the issue in question. Additionally, a little study is related to the whole life circle of wheat, which cannot provide a comprehensive understanding of its anti-drought machinery. We selected 10 kinds of wheat genotypes as materials, which have potential to be applied in practice, and measured relative change of anti-oxidative enzymes and membrane peroxidation through wheat whole growth-developmental circle (i.e. seedling, tillering and maturing). Here, we firstly reported the results of seedling stage as follows: (1) 10 wheat genotypes can be grouped into three kinds (A-C, respectively) according to their changing trend of the measured indices; (2) A performed better resistance drought under the condition of treatment level 1 (appropriate level), whose activities of anti-oxidative enzymes (POD, SOD, CAT) were higher and MDA lower and chlorophyll a+b higher; (3) B exhibited stronger anti-drought under treatment level 2 (light stress level), whose activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were higher, MDA lower and chlorophyll higher; (4) C expressed anti-drought to some extent under treatment level 3 (serious stress), whose activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were stronger, MDA lower and chlorophyll higher; (5) these results

  16. Effects of dietary zinc on gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins in hepatopancreas of abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenglong; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhong, Xiaoli

    2011-06-01

    The expression patterns of different genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins were investigated, in present study, by real-time quantitative PCR in the hepatopancreas of abalone Haliotis discus hannai fed with different levels of dietary zinc (6.69, 33.8, 710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) for 20 weeks. The antioxidant enzymes include Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase (CAT), mu-glutathione-s-transferase (mu-GST) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx). The results showed that the mRNA expression of these antioxidant enzymes increased and reached the maximum at the dietary zinc level of 33.8 mg/kg, and then dropped progressively. Expression levels of the heat shock proteins (HSP26, HSP70 and HSP90) firstly increased at 33.8 mg/kg dietary Zn level, and reached to the maximum at 710.6 mg/kg, then dropped at 3462.5 mg/kg (pantioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in hepatopancreas (plevels of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins, but excessive dietary Zn (710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) induces a high oxidative stress in abalone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression Profile of Antioxidant Enzymes in Hemocytes from Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Exposed to an Elevated Level of Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Miao, Yu-Tao; Xian, Jian-An; Qian, Kun; Wang, An-Li

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the expression level of antioxidant enzymes Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in hemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to copper by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that the mRNA expression of Cu, Zn-SOD increased to reach a peak at 6 h, then recovered to its normal level at 48 h. CAT expression level was significantly increased at 12 h and reached a peak at 24 h, but recovered to its normal level later. GPx expression level was significantly increased at 6 h and reached the peak at 12 h. GST expression level was significantly induced from 12 to 24 h and then dropped to its normal level at 48 h. These results indicated that antioxidant enzymes were inducible, possibly for removing excessive reactive oxygen species to protect prawn from oxidative stress.

  18. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity of maize plants under temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiancan; Song, Fengbin; Xu, Hongwen

    2010-06-01

    The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus etunicatum, on characteristics of growth, membrane lipid peroxidation, osmotic adjustment, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots of maize (Zea mays L.) plants was studied in pot culture under temperature stress. The maize plants were placed in a sand and soil mixture under normal temperature for 6 weeks and then exposed to five different temperature treatments (5 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 25 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 40 degrees C) for 1 week. AM symbiosis decreased membrane relative permeability and malondialdehyde content in leaves and roots. The contents of soluble sugar content and proline in roots were higher, but leaf proline content was lower in mycorrhizal than nonmycorrhizal plants. AM colonization increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase in leaves and roots. The results indicate that the AM fungus is capable of alleviating the damage caused by temperature stress on maize plants by reducing membrane lipid peroxidation and membrane permeability and increasing the accumulation of osmotic adjustment compounds and antioxidant enzyme activity. Consequently, arbuscular mycorrhiza formation highly enhanced the extreme temperature tolerance of maize plant, which increased host biomass and promoted plant growth.

  19. Adaptive Response Induced by Pre-Exposure to 915 MHz Radiofrequency: A Possible Role for Antioxidant Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, S M J; Mostafavi-Pour, Z; Daneshmand, M; Zal, F; Zare, R; Mosleh-Shirazi, M A

    2017-06-01

    Over the past few years, the rapid use of high frequency electromagnetic fields like mobile phones has raised global concerns about the negative health effects of its use. Adaptive response is the ability of a cell or tissue to better resist stress damage by prior exposure to a lesser amount of stress. This study aimed to assess whether radiofrequency radiation can induce adaptive response by changing the antioxidant balance. In order to assess RF-induced adaptive response in tissues, we evaluated the level of GSH and the activity of GR in liver. 50 rats were divided into 5 groups. Three groups were pre-exposed to 915 MHz RF radiation, 4 hours per day for one week at different powers, as low, medium and high. 24 hours after the last exposure to radiation, they were exposed to 4 Gy sublethal dose of gamma radiation and then sacrificed after 5 hours. Their livers were removed, washed and were kept at -80o C until used. Our finding showed that pre-exposure to 915 MHz radiofrequency radiation with specific power could induce adaptive response in liver by inducing changes in the activity and level of antioxidant enzymes. It can be concluded that pre-exposure to microwave radiation could increase the level of GSH and the activity of GR enzyme, although these increases were seen just in low power group, and the GR activity was indicated in medium power group. This increase protects tissue from oxidative damage induced by sublethal dose of gamma radiation.

  20. Effects of phosphorus fertilizer supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities in tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Taehyun; Oke, Moustapha; Schofield, Andrew; Paliyath, Gopinadhan

    2005-03-09

    The effects of soil and foliar phosphorus supplementation on the activities and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in tomato fruits were evaluated by determining enzyme activities and isoenzyme analysis. Both protein levels and enzyme activities varied depending on the variety and season. In general, phosphorus supplementation did not alter SOD, POX, and APX activities significantly;however, some treatments showed season- and stage-specific enhancement in activities as noticed with hydrophos and seniphos supplementation. Three different SOD isozymes were observed, and these isozymes showed very similar staining intensities in response to P application and during the three developmental stages studied. Two major isozymes of POX and two different APX isozymes were observed at all the developmental stages. The results suggest that antioxidant enzyme activities may be influenced by the availability of phosphorus, but are subject to considerable variation depending on the developmental stage and the season.

  1. Activity levels and expression of antioxidant enzymes in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in artificially aged rice seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guangkun; Xin, Xia; Song, Chao; Chen, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jinmei; Wu, Shuhua; Li, Ruifang; Liu, Xu; Lu, Xinxiong

    2014-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species are the main contributors to seed deterioration. In order to study scavenging systems for reactive oxygen species in aged seed, we performed analyses using western blotting, real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, high-performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant enzyme activity analyses in artificially aged rice seeds (Oryza sativa L. cv. wanhua no.11). Aging seeds by storing them at 50 °C for 1, 9, or 17 months increased the superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide levels and reduced the germination percentage from 99% to 92%, 55%, and 2%, respectively. The activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) did not change in aged seeds. In contrast, the activity levels of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) were significantly decreased in aged seeds, as were the expression of catalase and cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase protein. Transcript accumulation analysis showed that specific expression patterns were complex for each of the antioxidant enzyme types in the rice embryos. Overall, the expression of most genes was down-regulated, along with their protein expression. In addition, the reduction in the amount of ascorbate and glutathione was associated with the reduction in scavenging enzymes activity in aged rice embryos. Our data suggest that the depression of the antioxidant system, especially the reduction in the expression of CAT1, APX1 and MDHAR1, may be responsible for the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in artificially aged seed embryos, leading to a loss of seed vigor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Alteration of antioxidant enzymes and impairment of DNA in the SiO2 nanoparticles exposed zebra fish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, R; Kavitha, P; Kanipandian, N; Arun, S; Thirumurugan, R; Subramanian, P

    2013-07-01

    The incorporation of nanoparticles in industrial and biomedical applications has increased significantly in recent years, yet their hazardous and toxic effects have not been studied extensively. While standard toxicological test methods are generally capable of detecting the toxic effects, the choice of relevant methods for nanomaterials is still discussed. Among the various oxide nanomaterials, silica nanoparticles are widely used in biological applications that include nano-medicine. But studies on adverse effects of silica nanoparticle exposure to fish remain unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the oxidative toxic effects of silicon dioxide nanoparticles using fish model. The size of the SiO2 nanoparticles was between 68 and 100 nm which was confirmed by X-ray diffractometer, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The zebra fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (5 and 2.5 mg/L) of characterized SiO2 nanoparticles for a period of 7 days. After 7 days, SiO2 nanoparticle-treated fishes were sacrificed, and tissues such as liver, muscle and gill were dissected out for the analysis of antioxidant enzymes and DNA fragmentation. The DNA profiles were analysed in the tissues of zebra fish that treated with SiO2 nanoparticles. Tissues of fish from clean water were used as control, and DNA profiles were analysed. It is found that DNA from control tissues was intact, whereas the tissues treated with SiO2 were all fragmented. SiO2 nanoparticle-mediated antioxidant enzymes activities, such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH)-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and GSH, in the tissues of zebra fish were measured. The results revealed that alteration of antioxidant enzymes due to SiO2 nanoparticle can be considered as a biomarker to SiO2-mediated oxidative stress in biological samples.

  3. Roles of antioxidant enzymes in corpus luteum rescue from reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gubory, Kaïs H; Garrel, Catherine; Faure, Patrice; Sugino, Norihiro

    2012-12-01

    Progesterone produced by the corpus luteum (CL) regulates the synthesis of various endometrial proteins required for embryonic implantation and development. Compromised CL progesterone production is a potential risk factor for prenatal development. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play diverse roles in mammalian reproductive biology. ROS-induced oxidative damage and subsequent adverse developmental outcomes constitute important issues in reproductive medicine. The CL is considered to be highly exposed to locally produced ROS due to its high blood vasculature and steroidogenic activity. ROS-induced apoptotic cell death is involved in the mechanisms of CL regression that occurs at the end of the non-fertile cycle. Luteal ROS production and propagation depend upon several regulating factors, including luteal antioxidants, steroid hormones and cytokines, and their crosstalk. However, it is unknown which of these factors have the greatest contribution to the maintenance of CL integrity and function during the oestrous/menstrual cycle. There is evidence to suggest that antioxidants play important roles in CL rescue from luteolysis when pregnancy ensues. As luteal phase defect impacts fertility by preventing implantation and early conceptus development in livestock and humans, this review attempts to address the importance of ROS-scavenging antioxidant enzymes in the control of mammalian CL function and integrity. The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine organ that develops after ovulation from the ovulated follicle during each reproductive cycle. The main function of the CL is the production and secretion of progesterone which is necessary for embryonic implantation and development. Compromised CL progesterone production is a potential risk factor for prenatal development and pregnancy outcomes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are natural by-products of cellular respiration and metabolism, play diverse roles in mammalian reproductive biology. ROS

  4. Genetic polymorphism of antioxidant enzymes in eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic nasal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyigit, Abdulvahap; Keles, Erol; Etem, Ebru Onalan; Ozercan, Ibrahim; Akyol, Hatice; Sakallioglu, Oner; Karlidag, Turgut; Polat, Cahit; Kaygusuz, Irfan; Yalcin, Sinasi

    2017-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the paranasal sinuses, and its pathophysiology is not yet precisely known. It is suggested that oxygen free radicals play an important role in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis. This study aimed to identify genetic polymorphisms of superoxide dismutase (SOD 2), catalase (CAT), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzymes in eosinophilic CRSwNP and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP patients; the study also aimed to evaluate the effect of genetic polymorphism of antioxidant enzymes on CRSwNP etiopathogenesis. One hundred thirty patients, who received endoscopic sinus surgery due to CRSwNP, and 188 control individuals were included in this study. Nasal polyp tissues were divided into two groups histopathologically as eosinophilic CRSwNP and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP. Venous blood samples were taken from the patient and control groups. Polymorphisms in the Ala16Va1 gene, which is the most common variation of SOD-2 gene, and 21 A/T polymorphisms in catalase gene were evaluated with the restriction fragment length polymorphism method and -277 C/T polymorphism in the iNOS gene was evaluated with the DNA sequencing method. The GG genotype distribution for the (-277) A/G polymorphism in the iNOS gene was a statistically significant difference between eosinophilic CRSwNP and control groups (p  0.05). The TT genotype distribution for the A/T polymorphism in catalase gene at position -21 was statistically significant differences in eosinophilic CRSwNP and control groups (p levels, which are considered effective factors in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP, can occur due to genetic polymorphism of enzymes in the antioxidant system and genetic polymorphism of antioxidant enzymes in eosinophilic CRSwNP patients might contribute to the pathophysiology.

  5. Increased lipid peroxidation in trained men after 2 weeks of antioxidant supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Manfred; Hofmann, Peter; Greilberger, Joachim F; Schwaberger, Guenther

    2009-08-01

    To assess the effects of an encapsulated antioxidant concentrate (EAC) and exercise on lipid peroxidation (LIPOX) and the plasma antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (Pl-GPx). Eight trained male cyclists (VO2max > 55 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, crossover study and undertook 4 cycle-ergometer bouts: 2 moderate exercise bouts over 90 min at 45% of individual VO2max and 2 strenuous exercise bouts at 75% of individual VO2max for 30 min. The first 2 exercise tests--1 moderate and 1 strenuous-were conducted after 4 weeks wash-out and after 12 and 14 days of EAC (107 IU vitamin E, 450 mg vitamin C, 36 mg beta-carotene, 100 microg selenium) or placebo treatment. After another 4 weeks wash-out, participants were given the opposite capsule treatment and repeated the 2 exercise tests. Physical exercise training was equal across the whole study period, and nutrition was standardized by a menu plan the week before the tests. Blood was collected before exercise, immediately postexercise, and 30 min and 60 min after each test. Plasma samples were analyzed for LIPOX marker malondialdehyde (MDA) and the antioxidant enzyme pl-GPx. MDA concentrations were significantly increased after EAC supplementation at rest before exercise and after moderate exercise (p .1). Pl-GPx concentrations decreased at all time points of measurement after EAC treatment (p < .05). The EAC induced an increase of LIPOX as indicated by MDA and decreased pl-GPx concentrations pre- and postexercise.

  6. Chemomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharali, Rupjyoti; Tabassum, Jawahira; Azad, Mohammed Rekibul Haque

    2003-01-01

    The modulatory effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg/kg bodyweight and 250 mg/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b(5) and Cytochrome p(450) ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 6-8 week old female Swiss albino mice. Further, the chemopreventive efficacy of the extract was evaluated in a two stage model of 7,12 - dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis. Significant increase (pMoringa oliefera drumstick extract against chemical carcinogenesis.

  7. Effects of Exogenous Silicon on Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Chloroplast of Cucumber Seedlings Under Excess Manganese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jian-peng; SHI Qing-hua; WANG Xiu-feng

    2009-01-01

    Effects of silicon on photosynthetic parameters and antioxidant enzymes of chloroplast in cucumber seedlings under excess Mn were studied. Compared with the control, excess Mn significantly inhibited net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance, as well as the maximum yield of the photosystem Ⅱ photochemical reactions (Fv/Fm) and the quantum yield of photosysytem Ⅱelectron transport(φPSⅡ),application of Si reversed the negative effects of excess Mn. In the further investigation, it was obtained that application of Si significantly increased the activities of enzymes related with ascorbate-glutathione cycle including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) in cucumber chloroplast under excess Mn, this could be responsible for the lower accumulation of H2O2 and lower lipid peroxidation of chloroplast induced by Mn, and resulted in keeping higher photosynthesis.

  8. Effect of norfloxacin and moxifloxacin on melanin synthesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beberok, Artur; Wrześniok, Dorota; Otręba, Michał; Miliński, Maciej; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Fluoroquinolone antibiotics provide broad-spectrum coverage for a number of infectious diseases, including respiratory as well as urinary tract infections. One of the important adverse effects of these drugs is phototoxicity which introduces a serious limitation to their use. To gain insight the molecular mechanisms underlying the fluoroquinolones-induced phototoxic side effects, the impact of two fluoroquinolone derivatives with different phototoxic potential, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin, on melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes HEMa-LP was determined. Both drugs induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 for these drugs was found to be 0.5 mM. Norfloxacin and moxifloxacin suppressed melanin biosynthesis; antibiotics were shown to inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity and to reduce melanin content in melanocytes. When comparing the both analyzed fluoroquinolones, it was observed that norfloxacin possesses greater inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity in melanocytes than moxifloxacin. The extent of oxidative stress in cells was assessed by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT, and GPx. It was observed that norfloxacin caused higher depletion of antioxidant status in melanocytes when compared with moxifloxacin. The obtained results give a new insight into the mechanisms of fluoroquinolones toxicity directed to pigmented tissues. Moreover, the presented differences in modulation of biochemical processes in melanocytes may be an explanation for various phototoxic activities of the analyzed fluoroquinolone derivatives in vivo.

  9. ErbB2 overexpression upregulates antioxidant enzymes, reduces basal levels of reactive oxygen species, and protects against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Frances; Das, Samarjit; Sysa-Shah, Polina; Sivakumaran, Vidhya; Stanley, Brian; Guo, Xin; Paolocci, Nazareno; Aon, Miguel A; Nagane, Masaki; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Steenbergen, Charles; Gabrielson, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Levels of the HER2/ErbB2 protein in the heart are upregulated in some women during breast cancer therapy, and these women are at high risk for developing heart dysfunction after sequential treatment with anti-ErbB2/trastuzumab or doxorubicin. Doxorubicin is known to increase oxidative stress in the heart, and thus we considered the possibility that ErbB2 protein influences the status of cardiac antioxidant defenses in cardiomyocytes. In this study, we measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiac mitochondria and whole hearts from mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of ErbB2 (ErbB2(tg)) and found that, compared with control mice, high levels of ErbB2 in myocardium result in lower levels of ROS in mitochondria (P = 0.0075) and whole hearts (P = 0.0381). Neonatal cardiomyocytes isolated from ErbB2(tg) hearts have lower ROS levels and less cellular death (P antioxidant enzyme levels and activities, we found that ErbB2(tg) hearts have increased levels of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) protein (P levels of two known GPx activators, c-Abl (P = 0.0284) and Arg (P antioxidant defenses and suggests a novel mechanism by which anticancer therapies involving ErbB2 antagonists can harm myocardial structure and function. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Renal antioxidant enzymes and glutathione redox status in leptin-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Anna; Wójcicka, Grazyna; Lowicka, Ewelina; Wojtak, Andrzej

    2008-12-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that leptin increases blood pressure (BP) in the rats through two oxidative stress-dependent mechanisms: stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) by H(2)O(2) and scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) by superoxide (O(2-.)). Herein, we examined if renal glutathione system and antioxidant enzymes determine the mechanism of prohypertensive effect of leptin. Leptin administered at 0.5 mg/kg/day for 4 or 8 days increased BP and renal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and reduced fractional sodium excretion; these effects were prevented by NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin. Superoxide scavenger, tempol, abolished the effect of leptin on BP and renal Na(+) pump in rats receiving leptin for 8 days, whereas ERK inhibitor, PD98059, was effective in animals treated with leptin for 4 days. Leptin administered for 4 days decreased glutathione (GSH) and increased glutathione disulfide (GSSG) in the kidney. In animals receiving leptin for 8 days GSH returned to normal level, which was accompanied by up-regulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS), a rate-limiting enzyme of the GSH biosynthetic pathway. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was increased in rats receiving leptin for 8 days. Cotreatment with gamma-GCS inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), accelerated, whereas GSH precursor, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), attenuated leptin-induced changes in gamma-GCS, SOD, and GPx. In addition, coadministration of BSO changed the mechanism of BP elevation from H(2)O(2)-ERK to (O(2-.))-NO dependent in animals receiving leptin for 4 days, whereas NAC had the opposite effect in rats treated with leptin for 8 days. These results suggest that initial change in GSH redox status induces decrease in SOD/GPx ratio, which results in greater amount of (O)2-.)) versus H(2)O(2) in later phase of leptin treatment, thus shifting the mechanism of BP elevation from H(2)O(2)-ERK to (O(2

  11. Dietary palm olein oil augments cardiac antioxidant enzymes and protects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, D; Sood, S; Thomas, M; Dinda, A K; Maulik, S K

    2005-11-01

    Wistar rats, 150-200 g, of either sex, were fed daily with commercial rat diet supplemented with palm olein oil in two doses (5% v/w (n = 16) and 10% v/w (n = 16) of diet) for 30 days. Control rats (n = 16) were fed with normal diet. On the 29(th) and 30(th) days, 8 rats from each group were administred isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, s.c., 24-h interval). On the 31(st) day, all rats were sacrificed and myocardial tissues were studied for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), antioxidant enzymes and light microscopic changes, along with the ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). A significant rise in myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and FRAP level were observed in rats fed with palm olein oil. Isoproterenol caused an increase in myocardial oxidative stress in control rats, as evidenced by an increase in myocardial TBARS level, reduction in FRAP and myocardial SOD, catalase and GPx activity, along with focal necrosis of cardiac muscle fibres on light microscopy. The rise in myocardial TBARS and depletion of SOD and catalase activity following isoproterenol administration were prevented in palm-olein-oil-supplemented diet-fed rats at both doses. Isoproterenol-induced myocardial light-microscopic changes were also prevented in the treated groups. The results suggest that dietary palm olein oil caused augmentation of myocardial antioxidant enzymes and protected against isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis and associated oxidative stress.

  12. The effect of extra virgin olive oil and soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kholy, Thanaa A; Abu Hilal, Mohammad; Al-Abbadi, Hatim Ali; Serafi, Abdulhalim Salim; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad K; Sobhy, Hanan M; Richardson, John R C

    2014-06-23

    We investigated the effect of extra virgin (EV) olive oil and genetically modified (GM) soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rodents. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and divided into four groups. The control group of rodents was fed basal ration only. The second group was given basal ration mixed with EV olive oil (30%). The third group was fed basal ration mixed with GM (15%), and the fourth group survived on a combination of EV olive oil, GM and the basal ration for 65 consecutive days. On day 65, blood samples were collected from each rat for antioxidant enzyme analysis. In the group fed on basal ration mixed with GM soyabean (15%), there was a significant increase in serum level of lipid peroxidation, while glutathione transferase decreased significantly. Interestingly, GM soyabean increased not only the percentage of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), but also the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to normochromatic erythrocytes (PEC/NEC); however, the amount of DNA and NCE were significantly decreased. Importantly, the combination of EV olive oil and GM soyabean significantly altered the tested parameters towards normal levels. This may suggest an important role for EV olive oil on rodents' organs and warrants further investigation in humans.

  13. Oxidative stress in cancer and fibrosis: Opportunity for therapeutic intervention with antioxidant compounds, enzymes, and nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingga Morry

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, mainly contributed by reactive oxygen species (ROS, has been implicated in pathogenesis of several diseases. We review two primary examples; fibrosis and cancer. In fibrosis, ROS promote activation and proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, activating TGF-β pathway in an autocrine manner. In cancer, ROS account for its genomic instability, resistance to apoptosis, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Importantly, ROS trigger cancer cell invasion through invadopodia formation as well as extravasation into a distant metastasis site. Use of antioxidant supplements, enzymes, and inhibitors for ROS-generating NADPH oxidases (NOX is a logical therapeutic intervention for fibrosis and cancer. We review such attempts, progress, and challenges. Lastly, we review how nanoparticles with inherent antioxidant activity can also be a promising therapeutic option, considering their additional feature as a delivery platform for drugs, genes, and imaging agents.

  14. A Comparative Study on Antioxidant System in Fish Hepatopancreas and Intestine Affected by Choline Deficiency: Different Change Patterns of Varied Antioxidant Enzyme Genes and Nrf2 Signaling Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The liver and intestine are susceptible to the oxidative damage which could result in several diseases. Choline deficiency induced oxidative damage in rat liver cells. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms responsible for choline deficiency-induced oxidative damage. Juvenile Jian carp were fed diets differing in choline content [165 (deficient group), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg/kg diet] respectively for 65 days. Oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme activities and related gene expressions in the hepatopancreas and intestine were measured. Choline deficiency decreased choline and phosphatidylcholine contents, and induced oxidative damage in both organs, as evidenced by increased levels of oxidative-stress markers (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), coupled with decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes [Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)]. However, choline deficiency increased glutathione contents in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Furthermore, dietary choline deficiency downregulated mRNA levels of MnSOD, GPx1b, GST-rho, mGST3 and Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1b) in the hepatopancreas, MnSOD, GPx1b, GPx4a, GPx4b, GST-rho, GST-theta, GST-mu, GST-alpha, GST-pi and GST-kappa in the intestine, as well as intestinal Nrf2 protein levels. In contrast, choline deficiency upregulated the mRNA levels of GPx4a, GPx4b, mGST1, mGST2, GST-theta, GST-mu, Keap1a and PKC in the hepatopancreas, mGST3, nuclear factor erythoid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Keap1a in the intestine, as well as hepatopancreatic Nrf2 protein levels. This study provides new evidence that choline deficiency-induced oxidative damage is associated with changes in the transcription of antioxidant enzyme and Nrf2/Keap1 signaling molecules in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Additionally, this study firstly

  15. Regulation of growth and antioxidant enzyme activities by 28-homobrassinolide in seedlings of Raphanus sativus L. under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indu; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2010-06-01

    28-Homobrassinolide (28-HBL), a brassinosteroid is reported to play significant role in diverse physiological processes. It induces a range of cellular and adaptive responses to a range of environmental stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential metal which alters various physiological processes and generates ROS, which can oxidize biological macromolecules and causes oxidative stress. This stress is generally overcome by the internal antioxidative defense system and stress shielding phytohormones. In this study, effect of 28-HBL was studied on growth and activities of antioxidant enzymes in known hyperaccumulator Raphanus sativus L. (radish) seedlings grown under cadmium (Cd) metal stress. To determine the influence of 28-HBL (0, 10-(11), 10-(9), 10-(7) M) in radish seedlings subjected to Cd (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mM) stress, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (APOX, CAT, GR, POD and SOD) were analyzed. In addition, length and biomass of radish seedlings was also recorded. Cd toxicity resulted in reduced length, biomass, protein content and activities of antioxidant enzymes. 28-HBL treatments lowered the Cd toxicity by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, biomass and seedling length. The present study thus suggests a possible role of 28-HBL in amelioration of metal stress by regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes in radish.

  16. Expression profile of oxidative and antioxidative stress enzymes based on ESTs approach of citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Peroni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants not only evolve but also reduce oxygen in photosynthesis. An inevitable consequence of this normal process is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Plants are adequately protected by the presence of multiple antioxidative enzymes in the cytosol and also in the different cell organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. Traditionally, ROS were considered to be only a toxic byproduct of aerobic metabolism. However, recently it has become apparent that plants actively produce these molecules which may control many different physiological processes such as abiotic and biotic stress response, pathogen defense and systemic signaling. The search results using the Citrus Genome Program in Brazil (CitEST for oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in Citrus Sinensis variety ‘Pera IAC’ indicated that the multiple ROS-scavenging enzymes were expressed throughout all citrus tissues. The analyses demonstrated the ubiquitous expression of metallothioneins, probably indicating a constitutive expression pattern. Oxalate oxidase has been identified as the most abundant expressed gene in developing fruits, which suggests a specific function in the ripening of citrus fruit. Moreover, infected leaves with Xylella fastidiosa and Leprosis citri showed a massive change in their ROS gene expression profile which may indicate that the suppression of ROS detoxifying mechanisms may be involved in the induction of the diseases.

  17. Metallothionein and antioxidant enzymes in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats treated with zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Valentina; Santon, Alessandro; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; D'Incà, Renata; Giannetto, Sabrina; Albergoni, Vincenzo; Irato, Paola

    2002-09-01

    The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat is a mutant animal model for Wilson's disease. It is known that an abnormal accumulation of Cu and Fe in the liver and low concentrations of both ceruloplasmin and Cu in the serum occur in these rats. The accumulation of Cu is explained by the defective expression of the Cu-transporting P-type ATPase gene, homologous to the gene for Wilson's disease (ATP7B). The aim of this work was to clarify the action mechanism of Zn, and to verify the role that this metal plays in LEC rats in short-term treatment experiments (1 and 2 weeks) on concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, metallothionein (MT), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (oh(8)dG) and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It is well known that Zn induces MT and has the ability to prevent redox-active metals, Cu and Fe, binding to and causing oxidative damage at active sites of Zn metalloenzymes and nonspecific binding sites on proteins. Zn administration reduces Cu and Fe transport from mucosal to serosal intestinal sides through competitive mechanisms. Our findings show that treatment with zinc acetate increases tissue Zn and MT contents and decreases Cu and Fe concentrations in the liver and kidneys, even if hepatic Zn and MT concentrations decrease with treatment period. Induction of MT synthesis by Zn contributes to the reduction in free radicals produced by Cu and Fe. We also observed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD)activity in liver decreases with treatment duration in association with the Cu and Fe liver decrease. However, the SOD activity in kidney increases in untreated rats at 2 weeks relative to those untreated for 1 week.

  18. Interactive effects of phosphorus and Pseudomonas putida on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) growth, nutrient uptake, antioxidant enzymes and organic acids exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israr, Dania; Mustafa, Ghulam; Khan, Khalid Saifullah; Shahzad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Niaz; Masood, Sajid

    2016-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability in alkaline soils of arid and semi-arid regions is a major constraint for decreased crop productivity. Use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may enhance plant growth through the increased plant antioxidation activity. Additionally, PGPR may increase nutrient uptake by plants as a result of induced root exudation and rhizosphere acidification. The current study was aimed to investigate combined effects of P and Pesudomonas putida (PGPR) on chickpea growth with reference to antioxidative enzymatic activity and root exudation mediated plant nutrient uptake, particularly P. Half of the seeds were soaked in PGPR solution, whereas others in sterile water and latter sown in soils. Plants were harvested 8 weeks after onset of experiment and analyzed for leaf nutrient contents, antioxidant enzymes activities and organic acids concentrations. Without PGPR, P application (+P) increased various plant growth attributes, plant uptake of P and Ca, soil pH, citric acid and oxalic acid concentrations, whereas decreased the leaf POD enzymatic activity as compared to the P-deficiency. PGPR supply both under -P and +P improved the plant growth, plant uptake of N, P, and K, antioxidative activity of SOD and POD enzymes and concentrations of organic acids, whereas reduced the rhizosphere soil pH. Growth enhancement by PGPR supply was related to higher plant antioxidation activity as well as nutrient uptake of chickpea including P as a result of root exudation mediated rhizosphere acidification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of ethylene on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity in Bermuda grass under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Chen, Ke; Amombo, Erick; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-04-01

    The phytohormone ethylene has been reported to mediate plant response to cold stress. However, it is still debated whether the effect of ethylene on plant response to cold stress is negative or positive. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of ethylene in the cold resistance of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L).Pers.). Under control (warm) condition, there was no obvious effect of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or the antagonist Ag(+) of ethylene signaling on electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Under cold stress conditions, ACC-treated plant leaves had a greater level of EL and MDA than the untreated leaves. However, the EL and MDA values were lower in the Ag(+) regime versus the untreated. In addition, after 3 days of cold treatment, ACC remarkably reduced the content of soluble protein and also altered antioxidant enzyme activity. Under control (warm) condition, there was no significant effect of ACC on the performance of photosystem II (PS II) as monitored by chlorophyll α fluorescence transients. However, under cold stress, ACC inhibited the performance of PS II. Under cold condition, ACC remarkably reduced the performance index for energy conservation from excitation to the reduction of intersystem electron acceptors (PI(ABS)), the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP0), the quantum yield of electron transport flux from Q(A) to Q(B) (φE0), and the efficiency/probability of electron transport (ΨE0). Simultaneously, ACC increased the values of specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) and dissipation (DI0/RC) after 3 days of cold treatment. Additionally, under cold condition, exogenous ACC altered the expressions of several related genes implicated in the induction of cold tolerance (LEA, SOD, POD-1 and CBF1, EIN3-1, and EIN3-2). The present study thus suggests that ethylene affects the cold tolerance of Bermuda grass by impacting the antioxidant system

  20. Brown propolis attenuates cerebral ischemia-induced oxidative damage via affecting antioxidant enzyme system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazmandegan, Gholamreza; Boroushaki, Mohammad Taher; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Ayoobi, Fatemeh; Hakimizadeh, Elham; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in ischemic brain injury. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are the enzymes underlying the endogenous antioxidant mechanisms affected by stroke and are considered as oxidative stress biomarkers. Brown propolis (BP) is a bioactive natural product with a set of biological activities that in turn may differ depending on the area from which the substance is originated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of water-extracted brown propolis (WEBPs), from two regions of Iran, against cerebral ischemia-induced oxidative injury in a mouse model of stroke. Experimentally, the chemical characterization and total polyphenol content were determined using GC/MS and Folin-Ciocalteu assay respectively. Seventy-two adult male mice were randomly divided into the surgical sham group, control group (treated with vehicle), and four groups of WEBPs-treated animals. The WEBPs were administered at the doses of 100 and 200mg/kg IP, during four different time points. Oxidative stress biomarkers (SOD and GPx activity, SOD/GPx ratio), lipid peroxidation (LPO) index (malondialdehyde content) and infarct volume were measured 48h post stroke. Behavioral tests were evaluated 24 and 48h after stroke. WEBPs treatment resulted in significant restoration of antioxidant enzymes activity and a subsequent decrease in LPO as well as the infarct volume compared to the control group. Sensory-motor impairment and neurological deficits were improved significantly as well. These results indicate that Iranian BP confers neuroprotection on the stroke-induced neuronal damage via an antioxidant mechanism which seems to be mediated by the endogenous antioxidant system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of cold-hardening on compatible solutes and antioxidant enzyme activities related to freezing tolerance in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-juan; CHEN Yu-zhen; LIU Mei-qin; LU Cun-fu

    2008-01-01

    Cold acclimation is associated with many metabolic changes that lead to an increase of freezing tolerance. In order to investigate the biochemical process of cold acclimation in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, seedlings were acclimated at 2℃ under 16-h photoperiod (150 μmol·m-2·s-1 photosynthetically active radiation) for 14 d. Freezing tolerance in seedlings increased after 14 d of cold-hardening. Contents of protein, proline and solute carbohydrate in cotyledon increased after cold acclimation. Patterns of isozymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were investigated. The activities of SOD, peroxidase and PPO in cold acclimated plants were increased during cold-hardening. We deduced that compatible solutes and antioxidant enzymes play important roles in development of freezing tolerance during cold acclimation in this evergreen woody plant.

  2. Metabolite profile, antioxidant capacity, and inhibition of digestive enzymes in infusions of peppermint (Mentha piperita) grown under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Pérez, Marely G; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria Elizabeth; Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2014-12-10

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita) infusions represent an important source of antioxidants, which can be enhanced by inducing abiotic stress in plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of drought stress on peppermint cultivation as well as the metabolite profile, antioxidant capacity, and inhibition of digestive enzymes of resulting infusions. At 45 days after planting, irrigation was suppressed until 85 (control), 65, 35, 24, and 12% soil moisture (SM) was reached. The results showed that 35, 24, and 12% SM decreased fresh (20%) and dry (5%) weight. The 35 and 24% SM treatments significantly increased total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as antioxidant capacity. Coumaric acid, quercetin, luteolin, and naringenin were detected only in some drought treatments; however, in these infusions, fewer amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids were identified. The 24 and 12% SM treatments slightly improved inhibition of pancreatic lipase and α-amylase activity. Therefore, induction of moderate water stress in peppermint is recommended to enhance its biological properties.

  3. Immunohistochemical localization of the antioxidant enzymes biliverdin reductase and heme oxygenase-2 in human and pig gastric fundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpaert, Erwin E; Timmermans, Jean Pierre; Lefebvre, Romain A

    2002-04-01

    The intrinsic antioxidant capacities of the bile pigments biliverdin and bilirubin are increasingly recognized since both heme degradation products can exert beneficial cytoprotective effects due to their scavenging of oxygen free radicals and interaction with antioxidant vitamins. Several studies have been published on the localization of the carbon monoxide producing enzyme heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2), which concomitantly generates biliverdin; histochemical data on the distribution of biliverdin reductase (BVR), converting biliverdin to bilirubin, are still very scarce in large mammals including humans. The present study revealed by means of immunohistochemistry the presence of BVR and HO-2 in mucosal epithelial cells and in the endothelium of intramural vessels of both human and porcine gastric fundus. In addition, co-labeling with the specific neural marker protein-gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) demonstrated that both BVR and HO-2 were present in all intrinsic nerve cell bodies of both submucous and myenteric plexuses, while double labeling with c-Kit antibody confirmed their presence in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Our results substantiate the hypothesis that BVR, through the production of the potent antioxidant bilirubin, might be an essential component of normal physiologic gastrointestinal defense in man and pig.

  4. Trace elements and activity of antioxidative enzymes in Cistus ladanifer L. growing on an abandoned mine area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika S; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Nabais, Cristina; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2009-10-01

    The Mediterranean shrub Cistus ladanifer grows naturally in São Domingos (Portugal), an abandoned copper mine. High levels of trace elements in plants can generate oxidative stress increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare As, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations and the activity of the soluble and cell wall ionically bounded forms of the enzymes catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in leaves of C. ladanifer, collected in spring and summer, growing on São Domingos mine and on a non-contaminated area (Pomarão). São Domingos soils showed high total concentrations of As (2.6 g kg(-1)) and Pb (7.3 g kg(-1)) however the available fraction represented less than 1.5% of the total. C. ladanifer population from mine showed tolerance to Pb and Zn, which attain in leaves concentrations considered toxic for plants. The enzymatic activity of catalase, peroxidise and superoxide dismutase varied with plant populations and seasons, although with no particular trend, being specific to each trace element and enzyme cell localization. Catalase activity was evenly distributed between the soluble and ionically bounded forms, whereas the ionically bounded form of peroxidase predominated relatively to total activity, and the opposite was observed for superoxide dismutase. Spring and summer leaves from the two areas presented enzymatic activities in both fractions except to peroxidase soluble activities in leaves collected in summer. C. ladanifer enzymatic activity seems to be related with the co-existence of different stress factors (trace elements concentration, temperature, UV radiation and drought). The survival and growth of this species on contaminated mining soils is due to the presence of effective antioxidant enzyme-based defence systems.

  5. Selenium ameliorates arsenic induced oxidative stress through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and thiols in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Rana Pratap; Singh, Pradyumna Kumar; Awasthi, Surabhi; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of rice is a major problem for South-East Asia. In the present study, the effect of selenium (Se) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants exposed to As was studied in hydroponic culture. Arsenic accumulation, plant growth, thiolic ligands and antioxidative enzyme activities were assayed after single (As and Se) and simultaneous supplementations (As + Se). The results indicated that the presence of Se (25 µM) decreased As accumulation by threefold in roots and twofold in shoots as compared to single As (25 µM) exposed plants. Arsenic induced oxidative stress in roots and shoots was significantly ameliorated by Se supplementation. The observed positive response was found associated with the increased activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx; EC 1.11.1.9) and induced levels of non-protein thiols (NPTs), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) in As + Se exposed plants as compared to single As treatment. Selenium supplementation modulated the thiol metabolism enzymes viz., γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS; EC 6.3.2.2), glutathione-S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS; EC 2.3.2.15). Gene expression analysis of several metalloid responsive genes (LOX, SOD and MATE) showed upregulation during As stress, however, significant downregulation during As + Se exposure as compared to single As treatment. Gene expressions of enzymes of antioxidant and GSH and PC biosynthetic systems, such as APX, CAT, GPx, γ-ECS and PCS were found to be significantly positively correlated with their enzyme activities. The findings suggested that Se supplementation could be an effective strategy to reduce As accumulation and toxicity in rice plants.

  6. Expression of Apoptotic and Antioxidant Enzyme Genes in Sheep Oocytes and In Vitro Produced Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashish; Reddy, Ippala Janardhan; Gupta, Paluru Subramanyam Parameswara; Mondal, Sukanta

    2017-01-02

    The present study was to find out the expression pattern and relative expression level of apoptotic (Bcl2, Bax, Casp3, and PCNA) and antioxidant enzyme [(GPx, Cu/Zn-SOD (SOD1) and Mn-SOD (SOD2)] genes in sheep oocytes and developing embryos produced in vitro by conventional RT-PCR and real time qPCR, respectively. Different developmental stages of embryos were produced in vitro from oocytes collected from local slaughter house ovaries. RT-PCR amplicons showed expression of Bcl2 and PCNA in all stages except at morula. In contrast Bax and Casp3 were expressed in all stages. GPx and SOD1 were expressed in all stages but SOD2 was not expressed in 8-16 cells, although expressed in the remaining stages. The qPCR analysis reflected that Bcl2 expression was significantly (P vitro matured oocytes. Higher upregulated expression (P vitro matured oocyte. PCNA expression was highest at blastocyst and least expression was at morula. GPx was expressed significantly highest in matured oocytes and least expression was at zygote. SOD1 was expressed significantly highest at 8-16 cells and least expression was at zygote. Expression of SOD2 was least among all the antioxidant enzymes but significantly higher expression of SOD2 was in immature oocyte; however, least expression was at 8-16 cells. It can be concluded from the study that the sheep embryos produced in vitro are highly sensitive to culture condition, which alters the expression level of apoptotic and antioxidant enzyme genes.

  7. Responses of antioxidant enzymes to cold and high light are not correlated to freezing tolerance in natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distelbarth, H; Nägele, T; Heyer, A G

    2013-11-01

    Low temperatures and high light cause imbalances in primary and secondary reactions of photosynthesis, and thus can result in oxidative stress. Plants employ a range of low-molecular weight antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes to prevent oxidative damage, and antioxidant defence is considered an important component of stress tolerance. To figure out whether oxidative stress and antioxidant defence are key factors defining the different cold acclimation capacities of natural accessions of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we investigated hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) production, antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation during a time course of cold treatment and exposure to high light in four differentially cold-tolerant natural accessions of Arabidopsis (C24, Nd, Rsch, Te) that span the European distribution range of the species. All accessions except Rsch (from Russia) had elevated H2 O2 in the cold, indicating that production of reactive oxygen species is part of the cold response in Arabidopsis. Glutathione reductase activity increased in all but Rsch, while ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were unchanged and catalase decreased in all but Rsch. Under high light, the Scandinavian accession Te had elevated levels of H2 O2 . Te appeared most sensitive to oxidative stress, having higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the cold and under high light, while only high light caused elevated MDA in the other accessions. Although the most freezing-tolerant, Te had the highest sensitivity to oxidative stress. No correlation was found between freezing tolerance and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the four accessions investigated, arguing against a key role for antioxidant defence in the differential cold acclimation capacities of Arabidopsis accessions. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in yeast cells after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Park, Ji Young; Ryu, Tae Ho; Roh, Chang Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    Ionizing radiation induces water radiolysis, which generates highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause apoptosis and cell damage. When exposed to ionizing radiation, cells activates ROS scavenging detoxifying enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase. SOD scavenges superoxide radicals by catalyzing the conversion of two of these radicals into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. The hydrogen peroxide formed by superoxide dismutase and by other processes is scavenged by catalase, a ubiquitous heme protein that catalyzes the dismutation of hydrogen peroxide into water and molecular oxygen. Yeast has two catalase and three GPx proteins. The biochemical function of GPx is to reduce lipid-hydroperoxides to their corresponding alcohols and to reduce free hydrogen peroxide to water. N-acetylL-cysteine (NAC) having a thiol, a precursor for glutathione (GSH), is known as one of the antioxidants. NAC prevents the depletion of GSH by radiation, increases the production of GSH, and improves enzymes activity and alkaline phosphatase. In this study, the role of NAC as an antioxidant and a radioprotector was examined on cell survival, transcriptional level, and protein level. through observing viability of cells, analyzing the gene expression of antioxidant enzyme, measuring the SOD activity and intracellular GSH levels in yeast W303-1A strain The cell viability of haploid S. cerevisiae W303-1A strain was reduced significantly at the low dose (10∼30 Gy). The half-lethal dose of the strain was about 20 Gy. The CFU assay result confirmed that NAC could not rescue the cells from radiation-induced death. When irradiated with 100 Gy, an increase in the transcriptional expression was observed in the antioxicant genes. The expression of these genes decreased by treatment of NAC in irradiated cells. NAC decline SOD activity and intracellular GSH levels. The present study shows that NAC can directly scavenge

  9. Effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in Pacific cod Gadus microcephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Shi, Xuehui; Liu, Yifan; Yu, Daode; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus. Sperm motility and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (Gr), and lipid peroxidation (measured via malondialdehyde (MDA) content) were determined after the milt was stored at 4°C for 12 h, cryopreserved without cryoprotectant in 12% propylene glycol (PG), cryopreserved in 12% PG+0.1 mol/L trehalose, or cryopreserved in 12% PG spermatozoa but centrifuged to decant the supernatant prior to cryopreservation (only sperm cells were cryopreserved). After chilled storage or cryopreservation, the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were reduced in sperm cells and increased in seminal plasma in almost all treatments; sperm motility parameters were also decreased. However, the addition of trehalose into the cryoprotectant could significantly improve the postthaw sperm quality as revealed by the sperm average path velocity. This improvement might be attributed to the function of trehalose in scavenging reactive oxygen species. Chilled storage and cryopreservation had significant effects on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod.

  10. Attenuation of stress induced memory deficits by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in rats: Role of antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emad, Shaista; Qadeer, Sara; Sadaf, Sana; Batool, Zehra; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira

    2017-04-01

    Repeated stress paradigms have been shown to cause devastating alterations on memory functions. Stress is linked with inflammation. Psychological and certain physical stressors could lead to neuroinflammation. Inflammatory process may occur by release of mediators and stimulate the production of prostaglandins through cyclooxygenase (COX). Treatment with COX inhibitors, which restrain prostaglandin production, has enhanced memory in a number of neuroinflammatory states showing a potential function for raised prostaglandins in these memory shortfalls. In the present study, potential therapeutic effects of indomethacin and diclofenac sodium on memory in both unrestraint and restraint rats were observed. Two components, long term memory and short term memory were examined by Morris water maze (MWM) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively. The present study also demonstrated the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of antioxidant enzymes along with the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Results of MWM and EPM showed significant effects of drugs in both unrestraint and restraint rats as escape latency and transfer latency, in respective behavioral models were decreased as compared to that of control. This study also showed NSAIDs administration decreased LPO and increased antioxidant enzymes activity and decreased AChE activity in rats exposed to repeated stress. In conclusion this study suggests a therapeutic potential of indomethacin and diclofenac against repeated stress-induced memory deficits. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  11. Testicular toxicity in cannabis extract treated mice: association with oxidative stress and role of antioxidant enzyme systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Tapas K; Das, Nildari S

    2010-02-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of cannabis extract at low doses (total doses ranging from 40 mg to 60 mg per mouse) induced adverse effect on testes and oxidative stress. At low doses, there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in testicular lipid content, but the effects were significantly less at higher doses and at the withdrawal of cannabis treatment (recovery dose). There was a marked decrease in antioxidant enzyme profiles (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and glutathione content at low doses, but these effects were higher at higher dose and at withdrawal of the treatment (recovery effect). Histology revealed significant shrinkage of tubular diameter and detrimental changes in seminiferous epithelium of testis with resulting lowered serum testosterone and pituitary gonadotropins (follicular stimulating [FSH] and luteinizing hormones [LH]) levels at low doses. But at higher doses and particularly at withdrawal of the treatment, regression of various germ cell layers of testes through the revival of testosterone hormone and pituitary gonadotropins (FSH and LH) were observed, indicating that recovery effects on testes became operative possibly through the corrective measure of endogenous testicular antioxidant enzymes profiles and pituitary gonadotropins hormones feedback mechanisms.

  12. Changes of Proline Content,Activity,and Active Isoforms of Antioxidative Enzymes in Two Alfalfa Cultivars Under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-shan; HAN Jian-guo

    2009-01-01

    The plants of two alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.)cultivars differing in salt tolerance were subjected to three salt treatments,70,140,and 210 mM NaCl for 7 days.Root,shoot,and leaf growths were inhibited by increased salt treatments in both cultivars,and at 140 and 210 mM salt treatments,Zhongmu 1 had significantly higher root,shoot,and leaf dry weights per plant than Defi.The malondialdehyde(MDA)accumulation in Defi was considerably greater than in Zhongmu 1,indicating a higher degree of lipid peroxidation at 140 and 210 mM salt treatments.The changes in the activity and active isoforms of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase(SOD,EC 1.15.1.1),catalase(CAT,EC 1.11.1.6),peroxidase(POD,EC 1.11.1.7),and ascorbate peroxidase(APOX,EC 1.11.1.11),accumulation of free proline,and rate of lipid peroxidation in leaves of two alfalfa cultivars were also investigated.After stress,the activity and active isoforms of antioxidative enzymes were altered and the extent of alteration varied between the cultivar Deft and Zhongmu 1.The proline accumulation in Defi was considerably greater than in Zhongmu 1 at 210 mM salt treatment.This indicated that proline accumulation may be the result,instead of the cause,of salt tolerance.

  13. Antioxidant enzyme polymorphisms and neuropsychological outcomes in medulloblastoma survivors: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackett, Julienne; Krull, Kevin R; Scheurer, Michael E; Liu, Wei; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Stovall, Marilyn; Merchant, Thomas E; Packer, Roger J; Robison, Leslie L; Okcu, M Fatih

    2012-08-01

    Psychological or neurocognitive impairment is often seen in medulloblastoma survivors after craniospinal radiation; however, significant variability in outcomes exists. This study investigated the role of antioxidant enzyme polymorphisms in moderating this outcome and hypothesized that patients who had polymorphisms associated with lower antioxidant enzyme function would have a higher occurrence of impairment. From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort, 109 medulloblastoma survivors and 143 siblings were identified who completed the CCSS Neurocognitive Questionnaire (NCQ) and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) and who provided buccal DNA samples. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allelic discrimination was used for SOD2 (rs4880), GPX1 (rs1050450), and GSTP1 (rs1695 and rs1138272) genotyping and PCR for GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions. Outcomes on NCQ and BSI-18 subscale scores were examined in association with genotypes and clinical factors, including age at diagnosis, sex, and radiation dose, using univariate and multivariate analysis of variance. Patients survivors across multiple domains, suggesting that this genotype may predispose patients for increased emotional late effects.

  14. Comparison of antioxidant enzyme activities and DNA damage in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes exposed to vanadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Muhammad; Mushtaq, Muhammad Adnan; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Yousaf, Balal; Ashraf, Muhammad; Shuanglian, Xiong; Rizwan, Muhammad; Mehmood, Sajid; Tu, Shuxin

    2016-10-01

    The present study was done to elucidate the effects of vanadium (V) on photosynthetic pigments, membrane damage, antioxidant enzymes, protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity in the following chickpea genotypes: C-44 (tolerant) and Balkasar (sensitive). Changes in these parameters were strikingly dependent on levels of V, at 60 and 120 mg V L(-1) induced DNA damage in Balkasar only, while photosynthetic pigments and protein were decreased from 15 to 120 mg V L(-1) and membrane was also damaged. It was shown that photosynthetic pigments and protein production declined from 15 to 120 mg V L(-1) and the membrane was also damaged, while DNA damage was not observed at any level of V stress in C-44. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) were increased in both genotypes of chickpea against V stress; however, more activities were observed in C-44 than Balkasar. The results suggest that DNA damage in sensitive genotypes can be triggered due to exposure of higher vanadium.

  15. Allantoin Increases Cadmium Tolerance in Arabidopsis via Activation of Antioxidant Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourimand, Maryam; Todd, Christopher D

    2016-12-01

    Plants apply various molecular, physiological and morphological strategies in response to undesirable environmental conditions. One of the possible responses which may contribute to surviving stressful conditions is the accumulation of ureides. Ureides are recognized as important nitrogen-rich compounds involved in recycling nitrogen in plants to support growth and reproduction. Amongst them, allantoin not only serves as a transportable nitrogen-rich compound, but has also been suggested to protect plants from abiotic stresses via minimizing oxidative damage. This work focuses on the effect of cadmium (Cd) on ureide metabolism in Arabidopsis, in order to clarify the potential role of allantoin in plant tolerance to heavy metals. In response to Cd treatment, allantoin levels increase in Arabidopsis thaliana, ecotype Col-0, due to reduced allantoinase (ALN) gene expression and enzyme activity. This coincides with increases in uricase (UO) transcripts. UO and ALN encode the enzymes for the production and degradation of allantoin, respectively. ALN-negative aln-3 Arabidopsis mutants with elevated allantoin levels demonstrate resistance to soil-applied CdCl2, up to 1,500 μM. Although aln-3 mutants take up and store more Cd within their leaf tissue, they contain less damaging superoxide radicals. The protective mechanism of aln-3 mutants appears to involve enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Tamarind seed coat extract restores reactive oxygen species through attenuation of glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme expression in human skin fibroblasts in response to oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oranuch Nakchat; Nonthaneth Nalinratana; Duangdeun Meksuriyen; Sunanta Pongsamart

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role and mechanism of tamarind seed coat extract (TSCE) on normal human skin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells under normal and oxidative stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Methods:Tamarind seed coats were extracted with boiling water and then partitioned with ethyl acetate before the cell analysis. Effect of TSCE on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) level, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase activity including antioxidant protein expression was investigated. Results: TSCE significantly attenuated intracellular ROS in the absence and presence of H2O2 by increasing GSH level. In the absence of H2O2, TSCE significantly enhanced SOD and catalase activity but did not affected on GPx. Meanwhile, TSCE significantly increased the protein expression of SOD and GPx in H2O2-treated cells. Conclusions: TSCE exhibited antioxidant activities by scavenging ROS, attenuating GSH level that could protect human skin fibroblast cells from oxidative stress. Our results highlight the antioxidant mechanism of tamarind seed coat through an antioxidant enzyme system, the extract potentially benefits for health food and cosmeceutical application of tamarind seed coat.

  17. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ... and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with that of healthy controls ... Conclusion: Early management through an antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle ...

  18. Brassinolide alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant activity of cowpea plants (Vigna sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mashad, Ali Abdel Aziz; Mohamed, Heba Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in Vigna sinensis plants. Plant salt stress tolerance requires the activation of complex metabolic activities including antioxidative pathways, especially reactive oxygen species and scavenging systems within the cells which can contribute to continued growth under water stress. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of brassinolide in enhancing tolerance of cowpea plants to salt stress (NaCl). Treatment with 0.05 ppm brassinolide as foliar spray mitigated salt stress by inducing enzyme activities responsible for antioxidation, e.g., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and detoxification as well as by elevating contents of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and glutathione. On the other hand, total soluble proteins decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations in comparison with control plants. However, lipid peroxidation increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl. In addition to, the high concentrations of NaCl (100 and 150 mM) decreased total phenol of cowpea plants as being compared with control plants. SDS-PAGE of protein revealed that NaCl treatments alone or in combination with 0.05 ppm brassinolide were associated with the disappearance of some bands or appearance of unique ones in cowpea plants. Electrophoretic studies of α-esterase, β-esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and superoxide dismutase isoenzymes showed wide variations in their intensities and densities among all treatments.

  19. Effect of tea catechins on regulation of antioxidant enzyme expression in H2O2-induced skeletal muscle cells of goat in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rong-Zhen; Zhou, Dao-Wei; Tan, Chuan-Yan; Tan, Zhi-Liang; Han, Xue-Feng; Zhou, Chuan-She; Tang, Shao-Xun

    2011-10-26

    Skeletal muscle cells (SMCs) of goats were stress induced with 1 mM H(2)O(2) in the absence or presence of 0.5, 5, and 50 μg/mL tea catechins (TCs) incubation. Cells were harvested at 48 h postincubation with TCs to investigate the effects of TCs on cell proliferation, cell membrane integrity, antioxidant enzyme activities, and antioxidant enzyme genes and protein expression levels. Results showed that H(2)O(2) induction inhibited cell proliferation with or without TC incubation; moreover, the inhibition effect was enhanced in the presence of TCs (P levels of CAT, CuZn-SOD, and GPx (P levels were increased by different concentrations of TC incubation, and this tendency was basically consistent with corresponding protein expression levels. The GPx mRNA expression level increased with a low concentration of TCs but decreased with concentrations greater than 5 μg/mL of TCs, whereas GPx protein expression in all TC-incubated groups was lower than in the control treatment. The current findings imply that TCs had an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and enhanced damage to the cell membrane integrity, but TCs affected antioxidant status in SMCs by modulating antioxidant enzyme activities at mRNA and protein expression levels.

  20. Effect of butachlor on antioxidant enzyme status and lipid peroxidation in fresh water African catfish, (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farombi, E O; Ajimoko, Y R; Adelowo, O A

    2008-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of butachlor, a widely used herbicide, on antioxidant enzyme system and lipid peroxidation formation in African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of butachlor 1, 2, 2.5 ppm and sacrificed 24hrs after treatment. A significant increase in malondialdehyde formation was observed in the liver, kidney, gills and heart of the fish following exposure to different concentrations of butachlor. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased in the liver and kidney but decreased in the gills and heart in a concentration-dependent pattern. Glutathione level and glutathione-Stransferase activities increased (Pbutachlor. The results suggest that butachlor induced oxidative stress in the various tissues of the fish particularly in the kidney and as such the organ may be subjected to severe oxidative toxicity due to depressed glutathione detoxification system.

  1. Combined Effects of Excess Mn and Low pH on Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Enzymes in Cucumber Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Qing-hua; ZHU Zhu-jun; LI Juan; QIAN Qiong-qiu

    2006-01-01

    The effects of excess Mn on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in cucumber roots under different pH (pH 4.5 and 6.5) were studied. The results indicated that lipid peroxidation was increasingly serious with the increased concentration of Mn, especially under low pH. As a result, the growth of cucumber roots and shoots was significantly inhibited. CAT was sensitive to excess Mn, and its activity significantly decreased under excess Mn and low pH, while activities of GPX, APX, DHAR and GR increased under low pH and to some extent under excess Mn, which indicated their important roles in scavenging reactive oxygen in tolerance to low pH and excess Mn of cucumber roots.

  2. Effect of Subacute Exposure of Wrightia tinctoria Bark Extract on Hematological, Biochemical and Antioxidant Enzyme Parameters of Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papiya Bigoniya

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of sub-acute administration of W. tinctoria bark extract on some haematological, biochemical, histological and antioxidant enzyme status of rat liver and kidney following 21 and 45 days treatment. The animals were observed for gross physiological and behavioural responses, food and water intake and body weight changes. Free radical scavenging activity and histopathology was done on liver and kidney samples. W. tinctoria showed significant hemopoiesis with increase in body weight signifying anabolic effect. It significantly reduced serum SGOT level and increased glucose levels. W. tinctoria caused increased SOD activity of liver along with catalase of both liver and kidney and decreased liver peroxidase (P< 0.001. These features indicate that W. tinctoria upto 1000 mg/kg daily dose is safe and has potential to be consumed for long time in management of various diseases.

  3. THERMOSTABILITY OF ANTIOXIDANT AND DETERIORATIVE ENZYMES FROM SOURSOP AND CASHEW APPLE JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA CRISTINA RABELO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aimed to evaluate the thermostability of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase - SOD, catalase - CAT and ascorbate peroxidase - APX and deteriorative (guaiacol peroxidase - G-POD, polyphenoloxidase - PPO, pectin-methylesterase - PME and polygalacturonase - PG enzymes from soursop and cashew apple juices. Juices were prepared homogenizing ripe fruit pulps and submitting to different thermal treatments (55, 65, 75, 85 and 95°C for different time period (1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min then enzymatic activities were evaluated. The treatments at 55°C for soursop juice and at 75°C for cashew apple juice presented the best results, considering the low residual activities for deteriorative enzymes and the retained activity of SOD. Our results suggest appropriate technological condition to thermal processing from soursop and cashew apple juice whereby ensuring quality beyond their functionality.

  4. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliahmat, Nor Syahida; Noor, Mohd Razman Mohd; Yusof, Wan Junizam Wan; Makpol, Suzana; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris. One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old), middle-aged (12 months old), and old (18 months old). Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil) and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight), tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg), and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg). The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level. Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments. We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes activity during aging.

  5. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Syahida Aliahmat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris. METHOD: One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old, middle-aged (12 months old, and old (18 months old. Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight, tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg, and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg. The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level. RESULTS: Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments. CONCLUSION: We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes

  6. Effects of Water-Borne Mercury and Cadmium Exposure on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Mangrove Red Snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Feng Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of waterborne cadmium (Cd2+ and mercury (Hg2+ both separately and in combination on the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity in Lutjanus argentimaculatus was investigated. The fish was exposed for 3, 7 and 15 days respectively to Cd2+, Hg2+ and the mixture of both. Exposure to Cd2+ was done at three different concentrations viz 1, 5 and 100 μg/L .The fish was exposed to Hg2+ at 0.2,0.5 and 10 μg/L. Further L. argentimaculatus was also exposed to a mixture containing 5 μg/L Cd2+ and 0.5 μg/L Hg2+. The results showed increased levels of antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT and Peroxidase (POD (p<0.05 both in hepatic and branchial tissues. The level of Malonialdehyde (MDA which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation also showed significant increase (p<0.05. Further, antioxidant enzymes and MDA could not fall down to normal levels even after 15 days of release to clean sea water in all the treatments tested. However, the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the fishes exposed to mixture containing both Cd2+ and Hg2+ did not showed remarkable raise as when treated separately. The study indicated that the increase of antioxidant enzymes activity and MDA need to be considered carefully as pollution indicators as their values do not conform well to the corresponding metal ion concentrations, in view of co-effects of metals.

  7. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the up-regulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited fivefold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both messenger RNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 proteins were up-regulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea-supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126, which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical Composition and Enzymes Inhibitory, Brine Shrimp Larvae Toxicity, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Caloplaca biatorina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Valadbeigi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background This study evaluated the brine shrimp larvae toxicity and enzymes inhibitory especially anti-diabetic potential of Caloplaca biatorina via in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase using the methanol extracts. Also aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase enzymes inhibitory, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activities of the species were determined. Methods In this experimental study, different concentrations of the extracts (0.2, 5.0, 1 and 1.5 mg/mL were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the percentage of enzyme inhibitory activity and IC50 was calculated. Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts. The toxicity of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. High-performance liquid chromatography and Thin-layer chromatography analysis were evaluated. The data were analyzed by SPSS V.21 software. Results Parietin, Emodin, 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl-6- methoxy-9.10-anthracenedione and Rhein were identified. The extract showed strong α-glucosidase, aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities with IC50 value of 17.12, 40.09 and 11.02 µg/mL respectively. Also methanol extract displayed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging and brine shrimp toxicity (IC50 = 91.11 properties. Conclusions The result obtained suggests that the C. biatorina extract can be classified as non-toxic. Also, it revealed the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of the lichen.

  9. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J H; Kang, S N; Shin, D; Shim, K S

    2015-01-01

    One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP) in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP), antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol), 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP), 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP), and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP). Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05). Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05). These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.

  10. Effects of copper on induction of thiol-compounds and antioxidant enzymes by the fruiting body of Oudemansiella radicata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Juan; Qin, Chuixin; Shu, Xueqin; Chen, Rong; Song, Haihai; Li, Qiao; Xu, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Oudemansiella radicata has been found to have ability to tolerate and accumulate heavy metals. In this study, to know about the metal tolerance and detoxification strategy of O. radicata, the tolerance responses in both cap and stipe of the fruiting body, including the copper content, the changes of thiol compounds production and antioxidant enzymes activities, caused by various copper stress (150-600 mg kg(-1)) during 2-6 days were investigated. Results showed that Cu content in the fruiting bodies increased with the increasing Cu concentrations and growing time, which was higher in cap than that in stipe. For thiols contents, the maximum level was in the sample at 300 mg kg(-1) Cu after 2 d both in cap and stipe, in accordance with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities. Guaicol peroxidase (POD) activities reached maximum at 150 mg kg(-1) Cu after 4 d and 6 d, respectively in cap and stipe, while the maximum of catalase (CAT) activities was recorded at 300 and 600 mg kg(-1) Cu after 4 d in the cap and stipe, respectively. As a whole, low concentration of Cu stimulated the production of thiols and activated the antioxidant enzymes activities in the fruiting body of O. radicata after 2/4 d, while high-level Cu decreased the thiols production and enzymes activities after 4/6 d. Furthermore, the cap was more sensitive than the stipe to Cu exposure. Different indicators showed different responses to copper accumulation and the different fruiting part (cap and stipe) of O. radicata had ability to response the oxidative stress caused by Cu. Considering the metal accumulation and its own detoxification with short growing time, mushroom might have the potential to be used as bio-accumulator to deal with Cu exposure in the Cu-contaminated farmland soil.

  11. Serum prolidase activity, oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzyme levels in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirinççi, Necip; Kaba, Mehmet; Geçit, İlhan; Güneş, Mustafa; Yüksel, Mehmet Bilgehan; Tanık, Serhat; Arslan, Ayşe; Demir, Halit

    2016-02-01

    Prolidase is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family. It plays a vital role in collagen turnover, matrix remodeling, and cell growth. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including cancers. Oxidative stress can cause tumor angiogenesis and may be carcinogenic. However, the relationship between antioxidant capacity and various cancers has been researched in several clinical trials. In our study, we aimed to identify serum prolidase activity, oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzyme levels in patients with renal tumors and to evaluate their relationships with each other. A total of 37 male patients with renal cell cancer and with a mean age of 56.28 ± 3.1 were included in the study. The control group comprising 36 male patients (mean age 56.31 ± 2.9) was randomly selected among the volunteers. Serum samples for measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and prolidase levels were kept at -20°C until they were used. Serum prolidase activity and MDA levels were significantly higher in renal cancer patients than in controls (all, p levels were significantly lower (p antioxidant levels in renal cancer. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from alfalfa and its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopu; Dong, Xiaofang; Tong, Jianming

    2013-11-01

    In this present study, an efficient complex enzyme-assisted extraction technology was developed and optimized to extract polysaccharides from alfalfa using four factors at five levels central composite rotatable response surface design (CCRD). The experimental data was fitted to a second order polynomial equation with high coefficient of determination values (R(2)>0.95). The results of statistical analysis showed that the linear and quadratic terms of these four variables had significant effects (Penzyme concentration of 2.5%, 2.0%, 3.0% (weight of alfalfa) of cellulase, papain and pectase, extraction temperature 52.7 °C, extraction pH 3.87, ratio of water to raw material 78.92 mL/g and extraction time 2.73 h. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental extraction yield of alfalfa polysaccharides was 5.05 ± 0.02%, which was well matched with the value (5.09%) predicted by the CCRD model. Moreover, evaluation of the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from alfalfa in vitro suggested that the polysaccharides had good antioxidant effect, especially scavenging activity for hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical, which indicated that the polysaccharides from alfalfa may be explored as a novel natural antioxidant.

  13. AtROS1 overexpression provides evidence for epigenetic regulation of genes encoding enzymes of flavonoid biosynthesis and antioxidant pathways during salt stress in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Poonam; Mahajan, Monika; Vishwakarma, Ajay K; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    In plants, epigenetic changes have been identified as regulators of developmental events during normal growth as well as environmental stress exposures. Flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways play a significant role in plant defence during their exposure to environmental cues. The aim of this study was to unravel whether genes encoding enzymes of flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways are under epigenetic regulation, particularly DNA methylation, during salt stress. For this, a repressor of silencing from Arabidopsis, AtROS1, was overexpressed in transgenic tobacco. Generated transgenics were evaluated to examine the influence of AtROS1 on methylation status of promoters as well as on coding regions of genes encoding enzymes of flavonoids biosynthesis and antioxidant pathways. Overexpression of AtROS1 increases the demethylation levels of both promoters as well as coding regions of genes encoding chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, flavonol synthase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, and glutathione S-transferase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase of the antioxidant pathway during control conditions. The level of demethylation was further increased at promoters as well as coding regions of these genes during salt-stress conditions. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing AtROS1 showed tolerance to salt stress that could have been due to the higher expression levels of the genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways. This is the first comprehensive study documenting the epigenetic regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways during salt-stress exposure of plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Antioxidant enzyme activities in different genders and tissues of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ran; ZHANG Shicui; WANG Changfa; PANG Qiuxiang

    2007-01-01

    Information regarding antioxidant enzymes in amphioxus remains lacking, and this study was carried out to examine the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in different genders and tissues of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense.Results show that (1) CuZn-SOD, CAT and GPX activities in the whole amphioxus B. belcheri tsingtauense were basically at the same levels in male and female amphioxus, whereas both T-SOD and Mn-SOD activities in male amphioxus were significantly higher than that in the female (P<0.05); (2) The testis had significantly higher T-SOD and CuZn-SOD activities than the ovary (P<0.05); (3) CuZn-SOD activity was undetectable in the guts of male and female amphioxus; (4) For both male and female amphioxus, the activities of CAT and GPX in the gonads including testis and ovary were the lowest (P<0.05)among the tissues examined; (5) The gut and gill had the same level GPX activities while the gut had a higher CAT activity; (6) There was no clear difference in CAT and GPX activities in the corresponding tissues between male and female amphioxus. The study on SOD, CAT and GPX activities in different genders and tissues of the protochordate provides data for future comparison of amphioxus antioxidant enzymes with those of invertebrates and vertebrates.

  15. Different Gene Expression and Activity Pattern of Antioxidant Enzymes in Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Edyta; Jablonowski, Zbigniew; Tomasik, Bartlomiej; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Jablonska, Ewa; Konecki, Tomasz; Fendler, Wojciech; Sosnowski, Marek; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Reszka, Edyta

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role in and contribution of antioxidant enzymes to bladder cancer (BC) etiology and recurrence after transurethral resection (TUR). We enrolled 40 patients with BC who underwent TUR and 100 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The analysis was performed at diagnosis and recurrence, taking into account the time of recurrence. Gene expression of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) was determined in peripheral blood leukocytes. The activity of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) was examined in plasma, and GPX1 and copper-zinc containing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in erythrocytes. SOD2 and GPX1 expression and GPX1 and SOD1 activity were significantly higher in patients at diagnosis of BC in comparison to controls. In patients who had recurrence earlier than 1 year from TUR, CAT and SOD2 expression was lower (at diagnosis p=0.024 and p=0.434, at recurrence p=0.022 and p=0.010), while the GPX1 and GPX3 activity was higher (at diagnosis p=0.242 and p=0.394, at recurrence p=0.019 and p=0.025) compared to patients with recurrence after 1 year from TUR. This study revealed that the gene expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes are elevated in blood of patients with BC, although a low expression of CAT might contribute to the recurrence of BC, in early prognosis.

  16. The Effects of UV Exposure on the Antioxidant Enzyme Systems of Anemones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. CAPARKAYA

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px which are housekeeping enzymes protect cells from harmful side effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Anemonia sulcata var. smaragdina andAnemonia rustica are widely distributed along the Turkish coastlines of Aegean Sea. Recent studies showed that the environmental stresses such as elevated temperature, ultraviolet light, pathogen infection and decreased salinity might cause well known bleaching effects in Anemonia species. The effect of UV-light on antioxidant enzyme activities such as SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, protein levels and secondary pigments were determined in A. sulcata var. smaragdina and A. rustica. SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities, protein levels and secondary pigments of these morphotypes were observed in both tentacles and columns separately. According to studies on bleaching, the elevated UV radiation may cause this bleaching event as a stress factor. However, in the present study no bleaching event was observed in anemone samples even they are exposed to 5 hours UV-exposure. Moreover, UV exposure did not change antioxidant systems remarkably. However, many investigations are still needed for obtaining the complete picture of the effects of UV-light on cellular pathways of cnidarian–algal symbiosis.

  17. Lycopene activates antioxidant enzymes and nuclear transcription factor systems in heat-stressed broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, K; Orhan, C; Tuzcu, M; Sahin, N; Hayirli, A; Bilgili, S; Kucuk, O

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lycopene supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status, and muscle nuclear transcription factor [Kelch like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)] expressions in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress (HS). A total of 180 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned randomly to one of 2×3 factorially arranged treatments: two housing temperatures (22°C for 24 h/d; thermoneutral, TN or 34°C for 8 h/d HS) and three dietary lycopene levels (0, 200, or 400 mg/kg). Each treatment consisted of three replicates of 10 birds. Birds were reared to 42 d of age. Heat stress caused reductions in feed intake and weight gain by 12.2 and 20.7% and increased feed efficiency by 10.8% (Plycopene level improved performance in both environments. Birds reared under the HS environment had lower serum and muscle lycopene concentration (0.34 vs. 0.50 μg/mL and 2.80 vs. 2.13 μg/g), activities of superoxide dismutase (151 vs. 126 U/mL and 131 vs. 155 U/mg protein), glutathione peroxidase (184 vs. 154 U/mL and 1.39 vs. 1.74 U/mg protein), and higher malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (0.53 vs. 0.83 μg/mL and 0.78 vs. 0.45 μg/ mg protein) than birds reared under the TN environment. Changes in levels of lycopene and MDA and activities of enzymes in serum and muscle varied by the environmental temperature as dietary lycopene level increased. Moreover, increasing dietary lycopene level suppressed muscle Keap1 expression and enhanced muscle Nrf2 expression, which had increased by 150% and decreased by 40%, respectively in response to HS. In conclusion, lycopene supplementation alleviates adverse effects of HS on performance through modulating expressions of stress-related nuclear transcription factors.

  18. ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY AMONG ORPHANS INFECTED WITH INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PATHUM THANI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahittikorn, Aongart; Prasertbun, Rapeepan; Mori, Hirotake; Popruk, Supaluk

    2014-11-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections can negatively impact growth and nutrition in children. The infections can induce oxidative stress, resulting in a variety of illnesses. We measured antioxidant enzyme levels in orphan children infected with intestinal parasites to investigate the influence of nutritional status on antioxidant enzymes. This cross sectional study was conducted at an orphanage in Thailand. Stool samples were obtained from each subject and examined for intestinal parasites. Anthropometric measurements, complete blood count and biochemical parameters, including serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels, were obtained from studied subjects. One hundred twenty-eight children were included in the study. Intestinal parasites were found on microscopic examination of the stools in 36.7% (47/128); 18% (23/128) had a mixed parasite infection. Intestinal protozoa were found in 34.4% of subjects and intestinal helminthes were found in 2.3%. The median GPx level in children infected with intestinal parasites (2.3 ng/ml) was significantly lower than in non-infected children (7.7 ng/ml) (p parasites, 2) non-pathogenic parasites and 3) no intestinal parasite infection, GPx levels differed significantly among three groups (2.2 ng/ml, 2.4 ng/ml and 7.7 ng/ml, respectively) (p parasites (107.2 ng/ml) was significantly higher than in underweight children infected with non-pathogenic parasites (68.6 ng/ml) and without intestinal parasite infections (72.2 ng/ml). The present study identified two key findings: low GPx levels in children with intestinal parasitic infections, and the potential impact of malnutrition on some antioxidants.

  19. Antioxidant enzyme activities are affected by salt content and temperature and influence muscle lipid oxidation during dry-salted bacon processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guofeng; He, Lichao; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Jianhao; Ma, Meihu

    2013-12-01

    Fresh pork bacon belly was used as material and manufactured into dry-salted bacon through salting and drying-ripening. During processing both oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme stability were evaluated by assessing peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and their correlations were also analysed. The results showed that all antioxidant enzyme activities decreased (pbacon processing, antioxidant enzymes could effectively control lipid oxidation.

  20. Respiratory syncytial virus infection down-regulates antioxidant enzyme expression by triggering deacetylation-proteasomal degradation of Nrf2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaravelli, Narayana; Tian, Bing; Ivanciuc, Teodora; Mautemps, Nicholas; Brasier, Allan R; Garofalo, Roberto P; Casola, Antonella

    2015-11-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral acute respiratory tract infections and hospitalizations in children, for which no vaccine or treatment is available. RSV infection in cells, mice, and children leads to rapid generation of reactive oxygen species, which are associated with oxidative stress and lung damage, due to a significant decrease in the expression of airway antioxidant enzymes (AOEs). Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of RSV-induced lung disease, as antioxidants ameliorate clinical disease and inflammation in vivo. The aim of this study is to investigate the unknown mechanism(s) of virus-induced inhibition of AOE expression. RSV infection is shown to induce a progressive reduction in nuclear and total cellular levels of the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), resulting in decreased binding to endogenous AOE gene promoters and decreased AOE expression. RSV induces Nrf2 deacetylation and degradation via the proteasome pathway in vitro and in vivo. Histone deacetylase and proteasome inhibitors block Nrf2 degradation and increase Nrf2 binding to AOE endogenous promoters, resulting in increased AOE expression. Known inducers of Nrf2 are able to increase Nrf2 activation and subsequent AOE expression during RSV infection in vitro and in vivo, with significant amelioration of oxidative stress. This is the first study to investigate the mechanism(s) of virus-induced inhibition of AOE expression. RSV-induced inhibition of Nrf2 activation, due to deacetylation and proteasomal degradation, could be targeted for therapeutic intervention aimed to increase airway antioxidant capacity during infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Curcumin Induces Nrf2 Nuclear Translocation and Prevents Glomerular Hypertension, Hyperfiltration, Oxidant Stress, and the Decrease in Antioxidant Enzymes in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilia Tapia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal injury resulting from renal ablation induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6NX is associated with oxidant stress, glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, and impaired Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. The purpose of this work was to know if the bifunctional antioxidant curcumin may induce nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and prevents 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress, renal injury, decrease in antioxidant enzymes, and glomerular hypertension and hyperfiltration. Four groups of rats were studied: (1 control, (2 5/6NX, (3 5/6NX +CUR, and (4 CUR (n=8–10. Curcumin was given by gavage to NX5/6 +CUR and CUR groups (60 mg/kg/day starting seven days before surgery. Rats were studied 30 days after NX5/6 or sham surgery. Curcumin attenuated 5/6NX-induced proteinuria, systemic and glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, glomerular sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, interstitial inflammation, and increase in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. This protective effect was associated with enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and with prevention of 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that the protective effect of curcumin against 5/6NX-induced glomerular and systemic hypertension, hyperfiltration, renal dysfunction, and renal injury was associated with the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the prevention of both oxidant stress and the decrease of antioxidant enzymes.

  2. Curcumin induces Nrf2 nuclear translocation and prevents glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, oxidant stress, and the decrease in antioxidant enzymes in 5/6 nephrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Edilia; Soto, Virgilia; Ortiz-Vega, Karla Mariana; Zarco-Márquez, Guillermo; Molina-Jijón, Eduardo; Cristóbal-García, Magdalena; Santamaría, José; García-Niño, Wylly Ramsés; Correa, Francisco; Zazueta, Cecilia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2012-01-01

    Renal injury resulting from renal ablation induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6NX) is associated with oxidant stress, glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, and impaired Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. The purpose of this work was to know if the bifunctional antioxidant curcumin may induce nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and prevents 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress, renal injury, decrease in antioxidant enzymes, and glomerular hypertension and hyperfiltration. Four groups of rats were studied: (1) control, (2) 5/6NX, (3) 5/6NX +CUR, and (4) CUR (n = 8-10). Curcumin was given by gavage to NX5/6 +CUR and CUR groups (60 mg/kg/day) starting seven days before surgery. Rats were studied 30 days after NX5/6 or sham surgery. Curcumin attenuated 5/6NX-induced proteinuria, systemic and glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, glomerular sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, interstitial inflammation, and increase in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. This protective effect was associated with enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and with prevention of 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that the protective effect of curcumin against 5/6NX-induced glomerular and systemic hypertension, hyperfiltration, renal dysfunction, and renal injury was associated with the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the prevention of both oxidant stress and the decrease of antioxidant enzymes.

  3. Effect of 4-methylpyrazole on antioxidant enzyme status and lipid peroxidation in the liver of rats after exposure to ethylene glycol and ethyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeld, Karina; Zielińska-Psuja, Barbara; Przystanowicz, Jędrzej; Kowalówka-Zawieja, Joanna; Orłowski, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the conducted studies was to evaluate the effect of 4-methylpyrazole, increasingly used in detoxifying treatments after ethylene glycol poisoning, on the activity of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation formation in the liver of rats after experimental co-exposure to ethylene glycol and ethyl alcohol. The trials were conducted on adult male Wistar rats. Ethylene glycol (EG) at the dose of 3.83 g/kg bw and ethyl alcohol (EA) at the dose of 1 g/kg bw were administered po, and 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) at the dose of 0.01 g/kg bw was administered ip. Parameters of antioxidant balance were evaluated in hepatic cytosol, including the activity of the following enzymes: glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and lipid peroxidation level (TBARS). The results suggest that evaluation of the effects of administrated 4-MP after co-exposure to EG and EA in the liver revealed statistically significant changes on antioxidant enzyme system and malondialdehyde formation. The changes in biomarkers activity indicate a greater production of free radicals which exceeds the capability of antioxidant system, appearing with oxidative stress in the group of animals treated by 4-MP combined with EG and EA.

  4. Effect of Commiphora mukul gum resin on hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in pancreas and heart of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramesh B; Karuna R; Sreenivasa Reddy S; Haritha K; Sai Mangala D; Sasi Bhusana Rao B; Saralakumari D

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the antioxidant efficacy of Commiphora mukul (C. mukul) gum resin ethanolic extract in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: The male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each: Control group (C), CM-treated control group (C+CMEE), Diabetic control group (D), CM- treated diabetic group (D+CMEE). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg/ bwt). After being confirmed the diabetic rats were treated with C. mukul gum resin ethanolic extract (CMEE) for 60 days. The biochemical estimations like antioxidant, oxidative stress marker enzymes and hepatic marker enzymes of tissues were performed. Results: The diabetic rats showed increased level of enzymatic activities aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) in liver and kidney and oxidative markers like lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein oxidation (PO) in pancreas and heart. Antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly decreased in the pancreas and heart compared to control group. Administration of CMEE (200 mg/kg bw) to diabetic rats for 60 days significantly reversed the above parameters towards normalcy. Conclusions: In conclusion, our data indicate the preventive role of C. mukul against STZ-induced diabetic oxidative stress; hence this plant could be used as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and/or management of diabetes and aggravated antioxidant status.

  5. Effect of Tai Chi exercise on DNA damage, antioxidant enzymes, and oxidative stress in middle-age adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, J A; Aini, A H Noor; Musalmah, M; Anum, M Y Yasmin; Nazaimoon, W M Wan; Ngah, W Z Wan

    2009-01-01

    The biochemical mechanisms involving oxidative stress to explain the relationship between exercise and healthy aging are still unclear. Tai Chi participants and matched sedentary volunteers age 45 and above were enrolled. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities; levels of DNA damage using the comet assay; and malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced glycation end products (AGE) were determined at 0, 6, and 12 months. Tai Chi subjects had decreased normal and increased mildly damaged DNA with elevated GPx activity after 6 months (n=25). Plasma MDA and AGE concentrations decreased significantly after 12 months (n=15) accompanied by increased SOD activity. This may be attributed to the hormesis effect, whereby mild induction of oxidative stress at the first 6 months of exercise resulted in stimulation of antioxidant defenses. These parameters were unchanged in the sedentary subjects in the first 6 months (n=27) except for elevated SOD activity. After 12 months, the sedentary subjects (n=17) had decreased normal DNA and increased severely damaged DNA with unaltered MDA and AGE levels while SOD and GPx activities were significantly elevated. Regular Tai Chi exercise stimulated endogenous antioxidant enzymes and reduced oxidative damage markers.

  6. Hydrolysates of sheep cheese whey as a source of bioactive peptides with antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Ana Paula Folmer; Daroit, Daniel Joner; Fontoura, Roberta; Meira, Stela Maris Meister; Segalin, Jeferson; Brandelli, Adriano

    2014-11-01

    Enzymatic proteolysis may be employed to release bioactive peptides, which have been investigated for potential benefits from both technological and human health perspectives. In this study, sheep cheese whey (SCW) was hydrolyzed with a protease preparation from Bacillus sp. P7, and the hydrolysates were evaluated for antioxidant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities. Soluble protein and free amino acids increased during hydrolysis of SCW for up to 4h. Antioxidant activity of hydrolysates, evaluated by the 2,2'azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging method, increased 3.2-fold from 0 h (15.9%) to 6h of hydrolysis (51.3%). Maximum Fe(2+) chelation was reached in 3h hydrolysates, and the reducing power peaked at 1h of hydrolysis, representing 6.2 and 2.1-fold increase, respectively, when compared to that of non-hydrolyzed SCW. ACE inhibition by SCW (12%) was improved through hydrolysis, reaching maximal values (55% inhibition) in 4h, although 42% inhibition was already observed after 1h hydrolysis. The peptide LAFNPTQLEGQCHV, derived from β-lactoglobulin, was identified from 4-h hydrolysates. Such a biotechnological approach might be an interesting strategy for SCW processing, potentially contributing to the management and valorization of this abundant dairy byproduct.

  7. Effects of heat acclimation on photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities, and gene expression in orchardgrass under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin Xin; Huang, Lin Kai; Zhang, Xin Quan; Li, Zhou; Peng, Yan

    2014-09-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of heat acclimation on enzymatic activity, transcription levels, the photosynthesis processes associated with thermostability in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.).The stomatal conductance (Gs), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and transpiration rates (Tr) of both heat-acclimated (HA) and non-acclimated (NA) plants were drastically reduced during heat treatment [using a 5-day heat stress treatment (38/30 °C ‒ day/night) followed by a 3-day recovery under control conditions (25/20 °C ‒ day/night), in order to consolidate the second cycle was permitted]. Water use efficiency increased more steeply in the HA (4.9 times) versus the NA (1.8 times) plants, and the intercellular CO2 concentration decreased gently in NA (10.9%) and HA (25.3%) plants after 20 d of treatments compared to 0 days'. Furthermore, heat-acclimated plants were able to maintain significant activity levels of superoxide disumutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and transcription levels of genes encoding these enzymes; in addition, HA plants displayed lower malondialdehyde content and lower electrolyte leakage than NA plants. These results suggest that maintenance of activity and transcription levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as photosynthesis are associated with variable thermostability in HA and NA plants. This likely occurs through cellular membrane stabilization and improvements in water use efficiency in the photosynthetic process during heat stress. The association between antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression, both of which may vary with genetic variation in heat tolerance, is important to further understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to heat tolerance.

  8. Genetic variability in chronic irradiated plant populations - Polymorphism and activity of antioxidant enzymes in chronic irradiated plant populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, Polina Y.; Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: The gene pool of natural population is constantly changing in order to provide the greatest fitness at this time. Ability of population to adapt to changing environmental conditions depends on genetic polymorphism of traits which are operates by selection. Chronic stress exposure can change amount or structure intra-population variability. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the relationships between genetic polymorphism and stress factors, such as radiation exposure. This studies my assist in the development of new bio-indication methods. Materials and methods: Studying sites: Bryansk region is the most contaminated region of Russia as a result of Chernobyl accident. The initial activity by {sup 137}Cs on this territory reached 1 MBq/m{sup 2} above surface. Our study conducted in several districts of Bryansk region, which are characterized the most dose rate. Experimental sites similar to climate characteristics, stand of trees is homogeneous, pine trees take up a significant part of phytocenosis. Heavy metals content in soils and cones be within background. Dose rates vary from 0.14 to 130 mGy/year. Object: Pinus sylvestris L.,the dominant tree species in North European and Asian boreal forests. Scots pine has a long maturation period (18-20 month), which means that significant DNA damage may accumulate in the undifferentiated stem cells, even at low doses (or dose rates) during exposure to low concentrations of contaminants Isozyme analysis: We evaluated isozyme polymorphism of three antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, glutatione reductase and glutatione peroxidase. Analysis of enzymes activities: We chose key enzymes of antioxidant system for this experiment: superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase. Results and conclusions: We estimated frequency of each allele in reference and experimental populations. based It was showed that frequency of rare alleles increase in chronic irradiated populations, i.e. increase the sampling variance

  9. Effect of different methods of hypoxic exercise training on free radical oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity in the rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, JIE; WANG, YUXIA

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different modes of hypoxic exercise training on free radical production and antioxidant enzyme activity in the brain of rats were investigated in this study. A total of 40 healthy 2-month-old male Wister rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups according to different training modes. Endurance training sessions were performed for 5 weeks under different normoxic (atmospheric pressure ~632 mmHg, altitude ~1,500 m) and hypoxic conditions (atmospheric pressure ~493 mmHg, altitude ~3,500 m) at the same relative intensity. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activity and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the brain were evaluated by spectrophotometric analysis. Compared to the low-training low (LL) group, the SOD activity was significantly increased by 68.73, 54.28 and 304.02% in the high-training high (HH), high-training low (HL) and high-exercise high-training low (HHL) groups, respectively. However, no obvious change was observed for the low-training high (LH) group. In comparison to the LL group, the GSH-Px activity was found to be significantly higher in the HH, HL, LH and HHL groups. Similarly, in comparison to the LL group, the CAT activity exhibited a significant increase in the HH, HL, LH and HHL groups. Compared to the LL group, the MDA content was significantly increased in the HH, HL and HHL groups, although no significant difference was detected for the LH group. Following exhaustive exercise, the antioxidant enzyme activities in the rat brains were immediately improved in all the hypoxia modes. Moreover, the free radical production was increased after all the modes of hypoxic exercise training, with the LH mode being the only exception. PMID:24649054

  10. [THE EFFECT OF DIETARY RESTRICTION DURING DEVELOPMENT OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER ON THE ACTIVITY OF ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM ENZYMES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabuga, O G; Koliada, A K; Kukharskyy, V M; Bazhynova, A I; Vaiserman, A M

    2015-01-01

    In the previous study we demonstrated that dietary restriction only at the development stage of Drosophila melanogaster may impact the life span of adult flies. It was important that we didn't use qualitative (restriction of proteins or other macro- or microelements) and not a calorie restriction as well, but quantitative dietary restriction that was the proportional reduction of all food components in the larval medium. In the situations when the larvae were reared in the medium types, that contained protein and carbohydrate components in concentrations of 90-10% of food components compared to the standard one (100%), the males were characterised with the significant increase in the maximum life span. The average life span was also increased, but only in those male individuals that developed in the medium types, that contained 50% and 60% of food components compared to controls. Such an effect we haven't detected in the female flies. To study the biochemical changes associated with the physiological effects we have determined the activity of the antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. In the male flies the 50% dietary restriction implemented during the development has led to the significant increase in a SOD and catalase activity. Also the flies of both sexes reared in the medium with the 50% of food components have been characterised with the reduction in the accumulation of glycation end products. According to these results, we suggest that the changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes may play a role in the increase of the flies life span caused by the dietary restriction during the development.

  11. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora) Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Raheleh Ghanbari; Mohammad Zarei; Afshin Ebrahimpour; Azizah Abdul-Hamid; Amin Ismail; Nazamid Saari

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora) hydrolysates,...

  12. Acute liver failure in rats activates glutamine-glutamate cycle but declines antioxidant enzymes to induce oxidative stress in cerebral cortex and cerebellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Liver dysfunction led hyperammonemia (HA causes a nervous system disorder; hepatic encephalopathy (HE. In the brain, ammonia induced glutamate-excitotoxicity and oxidative stress are considered to play important roles in the pathogenesis of HE. The brain ammonia metabolism and antioxidant enzymes constitute the main components of this mechanism; however, need to be defined in a suitable animal model. This study was aimed to examine this aspect in the rats with acute liver failure (ALF. METHODS: ALF in the rats was induced by intraperitoneal administration of 300 mg thioacetamide/Kg. b.w up to 2 days. Glutamine synthetase (GS and glutaminase (GA, the two brain ammonia metabolizing enzymes vis a vis ammonia and glutamate levels and profiles of all the antioxidant enzymes vis a vis oxidative stress markers were measured in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of the control and the ALF rats. RESULTS: The ALF rats showed significantly increased levels of ammonia in the blood (HA but little changes in the cortex and cerebellum. This was consistent with the activation of the GS-GA cycle and static levels of glutamate in these brain regions. However, significantly increased levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl contents were consistent with the reduced levels of all the antioxidant enzymes in both the brain regions of these ALF rats. CONCLUSION: ALF activates the GS-GA cycle to metabolize excess ammonia and thereby, maintains static levels of ammonia and glutamate in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Moreover, ALF induces oxidative stress by reducing the levels of all the antioxidant enzymes which is likely to play important role, independent of glutamate levels, in the pathogenesis of acute HE.

  13. Dose-response effects of lycopene on selected drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S. T.; Daneshvar, B.

    2000-01-01

    to be affected by prior. lycopene exposure. The level of PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver or colon was likewise not affected by lycopene at any dose. Overall, the present study provides evidence that lycopene administered in the diet of young female rats exerts minor modifying effects toward antioxidant and drug-metabolizing...... enzymes involved in the protection against oxidative stress and cancer. The fact that these enzymatic activities are induced at all of these very low plasma levels, could be taken to suggest that modulation of antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes map indeed be relevant to humans, which in general......The administration of lycopene to female rats at doses ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 g/kg b.w, per day for 2 weeks was found to alter the drug-metabolizing capacity and antioxidant status of the exposed animals. An investigation of four cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes revealed that benzyloxyresorufin...

  14. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in blood platelets in different types of renal replacement therapy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępniewska, Joanna; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Cecerska-Heryć, Elżbieta; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Malinowska-Jędraszczyk, Alicja; Marchelek-Myśliwiec, Małgorzata; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

    2016-04-01

    The changes in redox status characterise physiological platelet activation. Increased oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease (CKD) associated with uremic toxicity and procedures of renal replacement therapy leads to the impairment of antioxidant properties of platelets. It may contribute to thrombosis and cardiovascular complications increasing morbidity and mortality among the CKD patients. The object of the research was to assess the influence of conservative treatment, peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis on platelet prooxidative-antioxidative balance. The examined group consisted of 122 patients: 37 on regular haemodialysis (HD), 23 on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 62 on conservative treatment with CKD stages 3-5 (CKD3-5). The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione transpherase (GST) in platelets were obtained using kinetic methods. The spectrophotometric method established the concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH). SOD activity in PD differs significantly from CKD3-5 (4.96 vs 1.66; p activity assessed in PD and CKD3-5 was significantly different from HD (0.82 and 0.8 vs 0.52 before and 0.35 after HD, respectively). GST activity reached the highest value in PD (1.62), and it was significantly different from CKD3-5 (0.23) and HD before haemodialysis (0.11). During haemodialysis therapy, there was a considerable increase in GST activity (0.11 vs 0.3; p = 0.02) and decrease in SOD activity (from 3.41 to 2.27; p = 0.01). The highest GSH concentrations were obtained in CKD3-5 and differ significantly from HD (4.12 vs 2.01; p = 0.02). The type of treatment, age and duration of renal replacement therapy determined significant changes in platelet antioxidative enzymes activities and concentration of GSH, which may enhance the thrombotic complications. PD is associated with lower platelet oxidative stress.

  15. Influence of Piper betle on hepatic marker enzymes and tissue antioxidant status in ethanol-treated Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, R; Prakasam, A; Ramesh, B; Pugalendi, K V

    2002-01-01

    Piper betle L. is a commonly used masticatory in Asia. This study was carried out to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of P. betle, using ethanol intoxication as a model of hepatotoxic and oxidative damage. Ethanol-treated rats exhibited elevation of hepatic marker enzymes and disturbances in antioxidant defense when compared with normal rats. Oral administration of P. betle extract (100, 200, or 300 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days significantly (P betle extract (300 mg/kg body weight) was most effective. The results were comparable with the known hepatoprotective drug, silymarin. These results indicate that P. betle could afford a significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect.

  16. Exogenous calcium induces tolerance to atrazine stress in Pennisetum seedlings and promotes photosynthetic activity, antioxidant enzymes and psbA gene transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinle, Kehinde Olajide; Jiang, Zhao; Ma, Bingbing; Li, Jinmei; Chen, Yukun; Ur-Rehman, Khalil; Shahla, Andleeb; Zhang, Ying

    2016-10-01

    Calcium (Ca) has been reported to lessen oxidative damages in plants by upregulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes. However, atrazine mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction by Ca is limited. This study therefore investigated the effect of exogenously applied Ca on ROS, antioxidants activity and gene transcripts, the D1 protein (psbA gene), and chlorophyll contents in Pennisetum seedlings pre-treated with atrazine. Atrazine toxicity increased ROS production and enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase APX, peroxidase POD, Superoxide dismutase SOD, glutathione-S-transferase GST); but decreased antioxidants (APX, POD, and Cu/Zn SOD) and psbA gene transcripts. Atrazine also decreased the chlorophyll contents, but increased chlorophyll (a/b) ratio. Contrarily, Ca application to atrazine pre-treated seedlings lowered the harmful effects of atrazine by reducing ROS levels, but enhancing the accumulation of total chlorophyll contents. Ca-protected seedlings in the presence of atrazine manifested reduced APX and POD activity, whereas SOD and GST activity was further increased with Ca application. Antioxidant gene transcripts that were down-regulated by atrazine toxicity were up-regulated with the application of Ca. Calcium application also resulted in up-regulation of the D1 protein. In conclusion, ability of calcium to reverse atrazine-induced oxidative damage and calcium regulatory role on GST in Pennisetum was presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The copper tolerance strategies and the role of antioxidative enzymes in three plant species grown on copper mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boojar, Massod Mashhadi Akbar; Goodarzi, Faranak

    2007-05-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the strategies and the status of antioxidant enzyme activities involved in three plant species tolerance against Cu-toxicity in copper mine. The following methods were used for evaluations in three wild type species; Datura stramonium, Malva sylvestris and Chenopodium ambrosioides. The level of chlorophyll and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) by spectrometry, malondialdehyde (MDA) and dityrosine by HPLC and the levels of Cu in tissues and soils by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Analysis showed that total and available copper were at toxic levels for plants growing on contaminated soil (zone 1). However, there were not any visual and conspicuous symptoms of Cu toxicity in plant species. Among three species, excess copper was transferred only into the D. stramonium and C. ambrosioides tissues. The C. ambrosioides accumulated Cu in roots and then in leaves, in which the leaves chloroplasts stored Cu around two times of vacuoles. In D. stramonium most of Cu was accumulated in leaves in which the storage rate in vacuoles and chloroplasts were 42% and 8%, respectively. In zone 1, the chlorophyll levels increased significantly in leaves of C. ambrosioides with respect to the same plant growing on uncontaminated soil (zone 2). There was insignificant decrease in chlorophyll content of D. stramonium leaves, collected from zone 1 with respect to zone 2. The D. stramonium and C. ambrosioides in zone 1, both revealed significant increase in their tissues antioxidant enzyme activities in comparison with the same samples of zone 2. There was significant elevation in oxidative damage biomarkers; MDA and dityrosine, when the aerial parts of D. stramonium in zone 1 were compared with the same parts of zone 2. We concluded that there were different tolerance strategies in studied plant species that protected them against copper toxicity. In M. sylvestris, exclusion of Cu from

  18. Effects of glufosinate on antioxidant enzymes, subcellular structure, and gene expression in the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Haifeng; Chen Wei; Sheng, G. Daniel; Xu Xiaoyan; Liu Weiping [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Fu Zhengwei [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)], E-mail: azwfu2003@yahoo.com.cn

    2008-07-30

    Greater exposure to herbicide increases the likelihood of harmful effects in humans and the environment. Glufosinate, a non-selective herbicide, inhibits glutamine synthetase (GS) and thus blocks ammonium assimilation in plants. In the present study, the aquatic unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris was chosen to assess the effects of acute glufosinate toxicity. We observed physiological changes during 12-96 h of exposure, and gene transcription during 6-48 h of exposure. Exposure to glufosinate increased malondialdehyde content by up to 2.73 times compared with the control, suggesting that there was some oxidative damage. Electron microscopy also showed that there were some chloroplast abnormalities in response to glufosinate. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) also increased markedly in the presence of glufosinate. Maximum activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were 2.90, 2.91, and 2.48 times that of the control, respectively. These elevated activities may help alleviate oxidative damage. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL. The results showed that glufosinate reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes after 12 h exposure. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to glufosinate exposure were 38%, 16% and 43% of those of the control, respectively. Our results demonstrate that glufosinate affects the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts chloroplast ultrastructure, and reduces transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. vulgaris.

  19. An active lifestyle induces positive antioxidant enzyme modulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of overweight/obese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinha, Juliano Boufleur; De Carvalho, Nélson Rodrigues; Steckling, Flávia Mariel; De Vargas, Liziane Da Silva; Courtes, Aline Alves; Stefanello, Sílvio Terra; Martins, Caroline Curry; Bresciani, Guilherme; Dos Santos, Daniela Lopes; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an active lifestyle on mitochondrial functioning, viability, bioenergetics, and redox status markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of overweight/ obese postmenopausal women. We performed a cross-sectional study with postmenopausal women aged 45–64 years and body mass index N 25 kg/m2, divided into physically active (n = 23) and sedentary (n = 12) groups. Mitochondria functioning and viability, bioenergetics and redox status parameters were assessed in PBMC with spectrophotometric and fluorometric assays. No differences were found in the enzyme activity of complexes I and II of the electron transport chain (ETC), mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity, methyl-tetrazolium reduction levels and reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione levels between the groups. However, the physically active group presented higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (P= 0.04) and increased catalase (CAT) (P= 0.029), total (P= 0.011) and cytosolic SOD (CuZnSOD) (P= 0.009) activities. An active lifestyle that includes aerobic exercise for at least 30 min, three times per week may improve antioxidant enzyme activities in PBMC in overweight/obese postmenopausal women, without changes in the activity of the ETC enzymes. However, this low intensity physical activity is not able to induce relevant mitochondrial adaptations.

  20. Effects of progesterone application on antioxidant enzyme activities and K+/Na+ ratio in bean seeds exposed to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Serkan; Genisel, Mucip; Turk, Hulya; Gorcek, Zeynep

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of progesterone, a mammalian sex hormone, on germination of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds exposed to salt stress. The exogenous addition of 10(-6), 10(-8) and 10(-10) M progesterone to the stressing media in which bean seeds were germinated in combination with the salt (100 mM NaCl) stressor induced significant protective changes in the germination and early growth parameters. The mitigating effect of progesterone was evaluated by the measurement of radicle and plumule lengths, activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT). In addition, it is the first study that exhibited changes in K/Na ratio. The obtained results showed that progesterone application stimulated germination and growth of salt-stressed seeds. Similarly, it stimulated significantly SOD, POX and CAT activities compared to both control and salt control. Salt stress significantly increased the lipid peroxidation compared to the control seeds. However, parallel to the increase in antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by progesterone application. The best stimulatory effects on investigated parameters were recorded at 10(-8) M progesterone-applied seeds. On the other hand, salt stress reduced remarkably K/Na ratio by 50% in radicle and by 80% in plumule. However, progesterone application significantly mitigated the reduction in K/Na ratio. These findings clearly demonstrate that progesterone has a positive role in moderate detrimental effects induced by salt.

  1. Silicon Mitigates Salinity Stress by Regulating the Physiology, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Protein Expression in Capsicum annuum 'Bugwang'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Silicon- (Si-) induced salinity stress resistance was demonstrated at physiological and proteomic levels in Capsicum annuum for the first time. Seedlings of C. annuum were hydroponically treated with NaCl (50 mM) with or without Si (1.8 mM) for 15 days. The results illustrated that saline conditions significantly reduced plant growth and biomass and photosynthetic parameters and increased the electrolyte leakage potential, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide level. However, supplementation of Si allowed the plants to recover from salinity stress by improving their physiology and photosynthesis. During salinity stress, Si prevented oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplementation recovered the nutrient imbalance that had occurred during salinity stress. Additionally, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) revealed that Si treatment upregulated the accumulation of proteins involved in several metabolic processes, particularly those associated with nucleotide binding and transferase activity. Moreover, Si modulated the expression of vital proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated nucleosome pathway and carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, the results illustrate that Si application induced resistance against salinity stress in C. annuum by regulating the physiology, antioxidant metabolism, and protein expression.

  2. Pressure-related effects of hyperbaric oxygen exposure on oxidation products and antioxidant enzymes in the rat lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to provide comprehensive information on the relationship between clinically used hyperbaric oxygen (HBO protocols and its oxidative effects. In order to enlighten this issue, we investigated the effects of various HBO pressure modalities on oxidant and antioxidant parameters in the rat lung. Methods: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups. Group 1 was used as control. Groups 2 to 6 were subjected to 100% oxygen at a pressure of 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 ATA (atmosphere absolute respectively for 2 hours. The lungs were taken immediately after exposure. Oxidation products of lipids (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS and proteins (carbonyl formation, PCO, and antioxidant enzyme levels (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT, glutathione peroxidase, GSH-Px were determined. Results: TBARS, PCO, SOD and CAT levels increased concordantly with pressure. Significant change of TBARS levels started from 100% oxygen exposure at 1 ATA (normobaric, but PCO and CAT levels were affected first after 1.5, and SOD activity after 2 ATA. A significant correlation exists between exposure pressure and oxidative parameters. GSH-Px activity was not affected significantly. Conclusion: The oxidative effect of HBO in rat lung presents a positive correlation with increasing exposure pressure. [J Exp Integr Med 2011; 1(1: 37-42

  3. Effects of oxygenated or hydrogenated water on growth performance, blood parameters, and antioxidant enzyme activity of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, D; Cho, E S R; Bang, H-T; Shim, K S

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of providing oxygenated and hydrogenated water on the growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and immunoglobulin concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activity of broiler chickens. In our investigation, 144 Ross × Ross broiler chicks were randomly allotted to three different treatment groups with four replicates (treatment × replicate × bird = 3 × 4 × 12). All chicks were given one of the following types of water for five weeks: tap water (CON), hydrogenated water (HNW), and oxygenated water (ONW). ONW supplementation increased the final body weight and weight gain and also improved both feed intake and feed conversion of broiler chickens as compared to those of CON broiler chickens (P  0.05). Both oxygenated and hydrogenated water supplementation significantly improved the antioxidant effects (P oxygen and/or hydrogen enhancement of drinking water. These results indicate that oxygen enhancement of drinking water may be recommended to improve growth performance by increasing immunoglobulins mainly IgG and IgM. © Crown copyright 2016.

  4. Effect of curcumin on LDL oxidation in vitro, and lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in cholesterol fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Mohamedain M; Zhou, Qi; Kummerow, Fred A

    2011-11-01

    In this study we examined the antioxidant effect of curcumin on lipid oxidation in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, curcumin at 5 microgM concentration completely prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by CuS0(4), indicating that curcumin is an effective antioxidant in vitro. In vivo, feeding a pure cholesterol (PC)-rich diet to rabbits significantly increased the plasma and liver lipids as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels. Addition of curcumin to the PC diet did not show any effect on either plasma lipid and TBARS or liver lipids. Liver TBARS tended to decrease but that decrease was not significant. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was significantly decreased while catalase activity was significantly increased in rabbits fed a PC diet. The addition of curcumin to a PC diet did not show any significant effect on erythrocyte enzyme activities compared to the rabbits fed a PC diet. The liver GSH-Px and catalase activities were significantly decreased in rabbits fed a PC diet, but the addition of curcumin to the PC diet enhanced the liver GSH-Px activity, which became nonsignificantly different from the control group. These results were discussed considering that curcumin may not be well absorbed and it did not reach a level high enough in vivo to overcome the severe hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress produced by the PC-rich diet.

  5. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid. The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain, with an optimum condition of: (1 ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2 concentration of substrate, 4%; (3 reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4 pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01 under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen.

  6. Analysis of the Relationship between Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Polymorphisms and Their Activity in Post-Traumatic Gonarthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vnukov, V V; Panina, S B; Milyutina, N P; Krolevets, I V; Zabrodin, M A

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of polymorphisms of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes SOD1 (G7958A), SOD2 (T58C), CAT (C-262T), and GSTP1 (Ile105Val) in 93 patients with post-traumatic gonarthrosis showed that GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism is often associated with heterozygous mutation in catalase gene CAT C-262T. In gonarthrosis, catalase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with CT genotype of the C-262T locus of CAT gene more than 2-fold surpassed that in CC genotype and more than 50% surpassed the normal. Changes in the balance of activity of antioxidant enzymes can affect viability of mononuclear cells.

  7. Chromate tolerance and accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris L.: role of antioxidant enzymes and biochemical changes in detoxification of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, U N; Singh, N K; Upadhyay, A K; Verma, S

    2013-05-01

    A concentration-dependent increase in activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase) and carotenoid, MDA level have been observed in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris following chromium exposure at different concentrations (0.01-100 μg ml(-1)). Simultaneously, decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll and protein contents was observed. In case of ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase a bell shaped dose response was evident, however, lipid peroxidation followed a linear relationship along with catalase activity, which could be used as biomarker of Cr toxicity and played important role in providing tolerance and subsequently, high accumulation potential of chromium in C. vulgaris. In present investigation, the green alga C. vulgaris respond better under chromium stress in terms of tolerance, growth and metal accumulating potential at higher concentration of Cr (VI) which could be employed in decontamination of chromium for environmental cleanup.

  8. Effects of High Temperature on Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipid Peroxidation in Flag Leaves of Wheat During Grain Filling Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ping; GUO Wen-shan; PU Han-chun; FENG Chao-nian; ZHU Xin-kai; PENG Yong-xin

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the phytotron, the effects of high temperature (daily average temperature 25, 30, 35 and 40℃, respectively) on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in flag leaves of wheat at 50% relative air moisture during grain fastest fillingstage [19-21 days after anthesis (DAA)] were studied. The wheat cultivars tested were Yangmai 9 with weak-gluten and Yangmai 12 with medium-gluten. Compared with 25℃, the higher the temperature was, the higher was the MDA content in flag leaves, while lower were the SOD, POD, and CAT activities. SOD and CAT activities in Yangmai 12 appeared to be more sensitive to high temperature than that in Yangmai 9. But POD activity in Yangmai 12 was less sensitive to high temperature. MDA content in Yangmai 12 was higher than that in Yangmai 9. The 1 000-grain weight declined with increase in temperature.

  9. Antioxidant effects of the sarsaparilla via scavenging of reactive oxygen species and induction of antioxidant enzymes in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Tae-mi; Kim, Jeong Hee; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight causes distinct changes in collagenous skin tissues as a result of the breakdown of collagen, a major component of the extracellular matrix. UV irradiation downregulates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-elimination pathways, thereby promoting the production of ROS, which are implicated in skin aging. Smilax glabra Roxb (sarsaparilla) has been used in folk medicine because of its many effects. However, no study on the protective effects of sarsaparilla root (SR) on human dermal fibroblasts has been reported previously. Here, we investigated the protective effect of SR against oxidative stress in dermal fibroblasts. SR significantly inhibited oxidative damage and skin-aging factor via mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Also, SR decreased Ca(2+) and ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential, dysfunction, and increased glutathione, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase and heme oxygenase-1. These results demonstrate that SR can protect dermal fibroblasts against UVB-induced skin aging via antioxidant effects.

  10. The activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway in HepG2 hepatoma cells by phytochemicals and subsequent modulation of phase II and antioxidant enzyme expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajka-Kuźniak, Violetta; Paluszczak, Jarosław; Szaefer, Hanna; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that naturally occurring phytochemicals, indole-3-carbinol, phenethyl isothiocyanate, protocatechuic acid, and tannic acid increased the activity and protein level of hepatic phase II enzymes in animal models. In order to further explore the mechanism of this activity, we investigated the effect of these compounds on the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated transcription in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Treatment with all the tested compounds resulted in the translocation from the cytosol and nuclear accumulation of active phosphorylated Nrf2. Furthermore, phenethyl isothiocyanate and indole-3-carbinol increased the transcript and protein levels of GSTA, GSTP, GSTM, GSTT, and NQO1. On the other hand, protocatechuic and tannic acids enhanced only the expression of GSTA, GSTM, and GSTT. The expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes CAT, SOD, GR, and GPx was increased after the treatment with all the tested phytochemicals. These results indicate that isothiocyanates/indoles and protocatechuic and tannic acids induce phase II and antioxidant gene expression in HepG2 cells through the Nrf2-Keap1-ARE signaling pathway. Moreover, the results of this study confirmed that the degradation products of glucosinolates are more effective inducers of phase II and antioxidant enzymes than protocatechuic and tannic acids.

  11. Activity of antioxidant enzymes and physiological responses in ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii, exposed to thermal and osmotic stress: effects on hemolymph and biochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Myung In; Choi, Cheol Young

    2010-01-01

    Changes in water temperature and salinity are responsible for a variety of physiological stress responses in aquatic organisms. Stress induced by these factors was recently associated with enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which caused oxidative damage. In the present study, we investigated the time-related effects of changes in water temperature and salinity on mRNA expression and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the gills and digestive glands of the ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii. To investigate physiological responses, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), lysozyme activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), and alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) were measured in the hemolymph. Water temperature and salinity changes significantly increased antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activity in the digestive glands and gills in a time-dependent manner. H(2)O(2) concentrations increased significantly in the high-temperature and hyposalinity treatments. LPO, AspAT and AlaAT levels also increased significantly in a time-dependent manner, while lysozyme activity decreased. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in ark shells exposed to changes in water temperature and salinity.

  12. Effect of cadmium on phenolic compounds, antioxidant enzyme activity and oxidative stress in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) plantlets grown in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manquián-Cerda, K; Escudey, M; Zúñiga, G; Arancibia-Miranda, N; Molina, M; Cruces, E

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd(2+)) can affect plant growth due to its mobility and toxicity. We evaluated the effects of Cd(2+) on the production of phenolic compounds and antioxidant response of Vaccinium corymbosum L. Plantlets were exposed to Cd(2+) at 50 and 100µM for 7, 14 and 21 days. Accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the antioxidant enzyme SOD was determined. The profile of phenolic compounds was evaluated using LC-MS. The antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test (FRAP). Cd(2+) increased the content of MDA, with the highest increase at 14 days. The presence of Cd(2+) resulted in changes in phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compound found in blueberry plantlets was chlorogenic acid, whose abundance increased with the addition of Cd(2+) to the medium. The changes in the composition of phenolic compounds showed a positive correlation with the antioxidant activity measured using FRAP. Our results suggest that blueberry plantlets produced phenolic compounds with reducing capacity as a selective mechanism triggered by the highest activity of Cd(2+).

  13. Increased Antioxidant Quality Versus Lower Quantity Of High Density Lipoprotein In Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Ozgur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of every human disease. To understand its possible role in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, we measured the overall oxidative status of patients with BPH and the serum activity of the high density lipoprotein (HDL-related antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase 1 (PON1 and arylesterase (ARE.

  14. Cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles on antioxidant enzyme activities and mRNA expression in the cocultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Veerappan, Muthuviveganandavel; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-02-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the dose-dependent effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on antioxidant enzyme activities and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in the cocultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. Coculturing experiments are 3D and more reliable compared to mono-culture (2D) experiment. Even though, there are several studies on ZnO nanoparticle-mediated cytotoxicity, but there are no studies on the effect of ZnO nanoparticle on antioxidant enzyme activities and mRNA expression in the cocultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. A cytotoxicity assay was carried out to determine the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on the C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cell viability. At higher concentration of ZnO nanoparticles, C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells almost die. ZnO nanoparticles increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in a dose-dependent manner in the C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. In addition, ZnO nanoparticles increased antioxidant enzyme activities and their mRNA expression in the C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. In conclusion, the present study showed that ZnO nanoparticles increased oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activities, and their mRNA expression in the cocultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells.

  15. Fenofibrate exerts protective effects against gentamicin-induced toxicity in cochlear hair cells by activating antioxidant enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Channy; Ji, Hye-Min; Kim, Se-Jin; Kil, Sung-Hee; Lee, Joon No; Kwak, Seongae; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Park, Raekil

    2017-01-01

    Fenofibrate, an activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), has been shown to protect the kidneys and brain cells from oxidative stress; however, its role in preventing hearing loss has not been reported to date, at least to the best of our knowledge. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effects of fenofibrate against gentamicin (GM)-induced ototoxicity. We found that the auditory brainstem response threshold which was increased by GM was significantly reduced by pre-treatment with fenofibrate in rats. In cochlear explants, the disruption of hair cell layers by GM was also markedly attenuated by pre-treatment with fenofibrate. In addition, fenofibrate almost completely abolished GM-induced reactive oxygen species generation, which seemed to be mediated at least in part by the restoration of the expression of PPAR-α-dependent antioxidant enzymes, including catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1. Of note, fenofibrate markedly increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) which was also induced to a certain degree by GM alone. The induced expression of HO-1 by fenofibrate appeared to be essential for mediating the protective effects of fenofibrate, as the inhibition of HO-1 activity significantly diminished the protective effects of fenofibrate against the GM-mediated death of sensory hair cells in cochlea explant culture, as well as in zebrafish neuromasts. These results suggest that fenofibrate protects sensory hair cells from GM-induced toxicity by upregulating PPAR-α-dependent antioxidant enzymes, including HO-1. Our results provide insight into the preventive therapy for hearing loss caused by aminoglycoside antibiotics. PMID:28290603

  16. Effects of iron on growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, bound extracellular polymeric substances and microcystin production of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Xun; Wang, Peifang; Chen, Bin; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin; Yang, Yangyang

    2016-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms have occurred in various water bodies during recent decades and made serious health hazards to plants, animals and humans. Iron is an important micronutrient for algal growth and recently, the concentration of which has increased remarkably in freshwaters. In this paper, the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 was cultivated under non-iron (0μM), iron-limited (10μM) and iron-replete (100μM) conditions to investigate the effects of iron on growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, EPS and microcystin production. The results showed that algal cell density and chlorophyll-a content were maximal at the highest iron concentration. Antioxidant enzymes activity increased notably under all three conditions in the early stage of experiment, of which the SOD activity recovered soon from oxidative stress in 10μM group. The productions of some protein-like substances and humic acid-like substances of bound EPS were inhibited in iron-containing groups in the early stage of experiment while promoted after the adaptation period of Microcystis aeruginosa. Iron addition is a factor affecting the formation of cyanobacterial blooms through its impact on the content of LB-EPS and the composition of TB-EPS. The intracellular MC-LR concentration and the productivity potential of MC-LR were the lowest in 0μM group and highest in 10μM group. No obvious extracellular release of MC-LR was observed during the cultivation time. Therefore, iron addition can promote the physiological activities of M. aeruginosa, but a greater harm could be brought into environment under iron-limited (10μM) condition than under iron-replete (100μM) condition.

  17. Effect of Cadmium Stress on the Growth, Antioxidative Enzymes and Lipid Peroxidation in Two Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Plant Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Feng-tao; QI Jian-min; ZHANG Gao-yang; LIN Li-hui; FANG Ping-ping; TAO Ai-fen; XU Jian-tang

    2013-01-01

    The effects of cadmium stress on the growth, antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in two kenaf plants, Fuhong 991 and ZM412, were analysed under control (0.5-strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution) or five levels of cadmium stress (0.5-strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution containing different concentrations of Cd2+). The leaves and roots of control and cadmium-stressed plants were harvested after 3 wk. At the same Cd concentration, the Cd tolerance index of Fuhong 991 was higher than that of ZM412, indicating that Fuhong 991 may be more tolerant to Cd than ZM412. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activity (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities fluctuated in the leaves of the Cd-stressed plants compared to the control, whereas the glutathione reductase activity (GR) was much larger than the control for Fuhong 991, ensuring that sufficient quantities of GSH were available to respond to the cadmium stress. In comparison to the control, the dynamic tendency of the SOD, CAT and POD activities in roots of the Cd-stressed plants all increased and then declined, but the POD activity of Fuhong 991 remained nearly unchanged at all of the stress levels. The increase in the enzyme activities demonstrated that Fuhong 991 was more tolerant to cadmium than ZM 412. The lipid peroxidation was enhanced only in the leaves of Cd-stressed ZM 412. These findings indicated that antioxidative activities may play important roles in Cd-stressed Fuhong 991 and ZM 412 and that the leaf and root cell membranes of Fuhong 991 have a greater stability than those of ZM 412. For pollution monitoring purposes, the GR activity in the roots and leaves may serve as a biomarker of Cd for Fuhong 991, whereas lipid peroxidation may serve as biomarker for ZM 412.

  18. Jasmonic acid Modulates the Physio-Biochemical Attributes, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Gene Expression in Glycine max under Nickel Toxicity

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    Geetika eSirhindi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study, we evaluated the effects of Jasmonic acid (JA on physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression in soybean (Glycine max L. plants subjected to nickel (Ni stress. Ni stress decreases the shoot and root length and chlorophyll content by 37.23%, 38.31% and 39.21% respectively over the control. However, application of JA was found to improve the chlorophyll content and growth of Ni-stressed seedlings in terms of root and shoot length. Plants supplemented with Jasmonate restores the chlorophyll fluorescence, which was disturbed by Ni stress. The present study demonstrated increase in proline, glycinebetaine, total protein and total soluble sugar (TSS by 33.09%, 51.26%, 22.58% and 49.15% respectively under Ni toxicity as compared to control. Supplementation of JA to Ni stressed plants further enhanced the above parameters. Ni stress increases hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 by 68.49%, lipid peroxidation (MDA by 50.57% and NADPH oxidase by 50.92% over the control. Supplementation of JA minimizes the accumulation of H2O2, MDA and NADPH oxidase, which helps in stabilization of biomolecules. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX increases by 40.04%, 28.22%, 48.53% and 56.79% respectively over the control in Ni treated seedlings and further enhancement in the antioxidant activity was observed by the application of JA. Ni treated soybean seedlings showed increase in expression of Fe-SOD by 77.62%, CAT by 15.25%, POD by 58.33% and APX by 80.58% over the control. Nevertheless, application of JA further enhanced the expression of the above genes in the present study. Our results signified that Ni stress caused negative impacts on soybean seedlings, but, co-application of JA facilitate the seedlings to combat the detrimental effects of Ni through enhanced osmolytes and osmoprotectants, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression.

  19. Effects of fluoride on germination, early growth and antioxidant enzyme activities of legume plant species Prosopis juliflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Poonam; Khan, Suphiya; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Sharma, Vinay

    2013-03-01

    Prosopis juliflora (Mimosoideae) is a fast growing and drought resistant tree of semi-arid region of India where fluoride (F) toxicity is a common problem. In the present investigations this species was fluoride tested to check their capacity as bioindicator plant and its efficiency to accumulate. To achieve this aim, P. juliflora seedlings grown in hydroponic culture containing different concentrations of F were analyzed for germination percentage together with some biochemical parameters viz, antioxidant enzyme activities, total chlorophyll and accumulation of F in different plant parts. After 15 days of treatment, root growth (r = -0.928, p < 0.01), shoot growth (r = -0.976, p < 0.01), vigor index (r = -0.984, p < 0.01) were in decreasing trend with increasing concentration of NaF. Both catalase (3.2 folds) and peroxidase (2.7 folds) enzymes activity increased with increase in F concentration. Plant accumulated larger portion of the F in the roots (1024.63 microg g(-1) d.wt.) followed by shoot (492.30 microg g(-1) d.wt.). As P. juliflora did not show any morphological changes (marginal and tip chlorosis of leaf portions, necrosis and together these features are referred to as leaf "tip-burn") therefore, this species may be used as suitable bioindicator species for potentially F affected areas. Further, higher accumulation of F in roots indicates that P. juliflora is a suitable species for the removal of F in phytoremediation purposes.

  20. EFFECT OF PESTICIDES ON RAT (Rattus norvegicus ERYTHROCYTES ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN VITRO

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    Jasna Friščić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the last century, maximum in herbicide production was achieved. Growing use of herbicides initiated the need for continuous evaluation of damaging effects of herbicides on human health and environment. Paraquat is the trade name for N,N′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride and one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Although mechanism of paraquat toxicity remains undefined, a great portion of toxicity is attributed to the process of redox cycling. In this research, rat erythrocytes were exposed to various paraquat concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.25 mM. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activity, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined, and also the activity of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase. Obtained results show damaging effects of paraquat on erythrocytes due to oxidative stress.

  1. Selenium and zinc protect brain mitochondrial antioxidants and electron transport chain enzymes following postnatal protein malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Olusegun L; Adenuga, Gbenga A; Sandhir, Rajat

    2016-05-01

    Selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) are trace elements required for optimal brain functions. Thus, the role of Se and Zn against protein malnutrition induced oxidative stress on mitochondrial antioxidants and electron transport chain (ETC) enzymes from rats' brain were investigated. Normal protein (NP) and low protein (LP) rats were fed with diets containing 16% and 5% casein respectively for a period of 10weeks. Then the rats were supplemented with Se and Zn at a concentration of 0.15mgL(-1) and 227mgL(-1) in drinking water for 3weeks after which the rats were sacrificed. The results obtained from the study showed significant (pmalnutrition induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intracellular Oxidant Activity, Antioxidant Enzyme Defense System, and Cell Senescence in Fibroblasts with Trisomy 21

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    Víctor Rodríguez-Sureda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Down’s syndrome (DS is characterized by a complex phenotype associated with chronic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Overexpression of genes on chromosome-21 is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of the major phenotypic features of DS, such as premature aging. Using cultured fibroblasts with trisomy 21 (T21F, this study aimed to ascertain whether an imbalance exists in activities, mRNA, and protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, glutathione-peroxidase, and catalase during the cell replication process in vitro. T21F had high SOD1 expression and activity which led to an interenzymatic imbalance in the antioxidant defense system, accentuated with replicative senescence. Intracellular ROS production and oxidized protein levels were significantly higher in T21F compared with control cells; furthermore, a significant decline in intracellular ATP content was detected in T21F. Cell senescence was found to appear prematurely in DS cells as shown by SA-β-Gal assay and p21 assessment, though not apoptosis, as neither p53 nor the proapoptotic proteins cytochrome c and caspase 9 were altered in T21F. These novel findings would point to a deleterious role of oxidatively modified molecules in early cell senescence of T21F, thereby linking replicative and stress-induced senescence in cultured cells to premature aging in DS.

  3. Coffee component 3-caffeoylquinic acid increases antioxidant capacity but not polyphenol content in experimental cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Crespo, Silvia; Trejo-Gabriel-Galan, Jose M; Cavia-Saiz, Monica; Muñiz, Pilar

    2012-05-01

    Although coffee has antioxidant capacity, it is not known which of its bioactive compounds is responsible for it, nor has it been analyzed in experimental cerebral infarction. We studied the effect one of its compounds, 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), at doses of 4, 25 and 100 μg on plasma antioxidant capacity and plasma polyphenol content, measuring the differences before and after inducing a cerebral infarction in an experimental rat model. We compared them with 3-caffeoylquinic-free controls. The increase in total antioxidant capacity was only higher than in controls in 3-CQA treated animals with the highest dose. This increase in antioxidant capacity was not due to an increase in polyphenols. No differences between the experimental and control group were found regarding polyphenol content and cerebral infarction volume. In conclusion, this increase in antioxidant capacity in the group that received the highest dose of 3-CQA was not able to reduce experimental cerebral infarction.

  4. Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of traditional medicinal plants: Potential application in the management of hyperglycemia

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    Gulati Vandana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Indian and Australian medicinal plant extracts were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activities were also assessed. Methods The evaluation of enzyme inhibitory activity of seven Australian aboriginal medicinal plants and five Indian Ayurvedic plants was carried out against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring (i the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH and 2, 2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS and (ii ferric reducing power. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also determined. Results Of the twelve plant extracts evaluated, the highest inhibitory activity against both α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes was exerted by Santalum spicatum and Pterocarpus marsupium with IC50 values of 5.43 μg/ml and 0.9 μg/ml, respectively, and 5.16 μg/ml and 1.06 μg/ml, respectively. However, the extracts of Acacia ligulata (IC50 = 1.01 μg/ml, Beyeria leshnaultii (0.39 μg/ml, Mucuna pruriens (0.8 μg/ml and Boerhaavia diffusa (1.72 μg/ml exhibited considerable activity against α-glucosidase enzyme only. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent in extracts of Acacia kempeana, Acacia ligulata followed by Euphorbia drummondii against both DPPH and ABTS. The reducing power was more pronounced in Euphorbia drummondii and Pterocarpus marsupium extracts. The phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 0.42 to 30.27 μg/mg equivalent of gallic acid and 0.51 to 32.94 μg/mg equivalent of quercetin, respectively, in all plant extracts. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between total flavonoids and total phenolics was 0.796. Conclusion The results obtained in this study showed that most of the plant extracts

  5. Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of traditional medicinal plants: Potential application in the management of hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional Indian and Australian medicinal plant extracts were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activities were also assessed. Methods The evaluation of enzyme inhibitory activity of seven Australian aboriginal medicinal plants and five Indian Ayurvedic plants was carried out against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring (i) the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and (ii) ferric reducing power. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also determined. Results Of the twelve plant extracts evaluated, the highest inhibitory activity against both α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes was exerted by Santalum spicatum and Pterocarpus marsupium with IC50 values of 5.43 μg/ml and 0.9 μg/ml, respectively, and 5.16 μg/ml and 1.06 μg/ml, respectively. However, the extracts of Acacia ligulata (IC50 = 1.01 μg/ml), Beyeria leshnaultii (0.39 μg/ml), Mucuna pruriens (0.8 μg/ml) and Boerhaavia diffusa (1.72 μg/ml) exhibited considerable activity against α-glucosidase enzyme only. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent in extracts of Acacia kempeana, Acacia ligulata followed by Euphorbia drummondii against both DPPH and ABTS. The reducing power was more pronounced in Euphorbia drummondii and Pterocarpus marsupium extracts. The phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 0.42 to 30.27 μg/mg equivalent of gallic acid and 0.51 to 32.94 μg/mg equivalent of quercetin, respectively, in all plant extracts. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between total flavonoids and total phenolics was 0.796. Conclusion The results obtained in this study showed that most of the plant extracts have good potential

  6. Potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on cellular microstructure, mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Feng; Liu, Lei; Gong, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of trifloxystrobin that one strobilurin used widely in the world as an effective fungicidal agent to control Asian soybean rust on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. We determined the potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on C. vulgaris, and found median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) value 255.58 (95% confidence interval, 207.81-330.29)μgL(-1). In addition, the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk at different concentrations by electron microscopy. In the study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL, and one energy gene, ATPs. The results showed that trifloxystrobin reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes and enhanced expression of ATPs after 48 and 96 h. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to trifloxystrobin exposure were 58%, 79% and 60% of those of the control, respectively. For the potential toxic influences, trifloxystrobin could decrease the soluble protein and total antioxidant contents (T-AOC), and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity with a gradual concentration-response relationship. Overall, the present study demonstrated that trifloxystrobin could affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts photosynthesis in C. vulgaris, and damage cellular structure.

  7. Amelioration of Altered Serum, Liver, and Kidney Antioxidant Enzymes Activities by Sodium Selenite in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Hassan Ahmadvand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of sodium selenite on serum, liver, and kidney antioxidant enzymes activities in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Methods: Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into four groups; Group one as control, Group two as sham-treated with sodium selenite by 1 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p. injections daily, Group three as diabetic untreated, and Group four as diabetic treated with sodium selenite by 1 mg/kg i.p. injections daily . Diabetes was induced in the third and fourth groups by subcutaneous alloxan injections. After eight weeks the animals were euthanized and livers and kidneys were immediately removed and used fresh or kept frozen until analysis. Before the rats were killed blood samples were also collected to measure glutathione peroxidase (GPX and catalase (CAT activities in sera. Results: Glutathione peroxidase and CAT activities serum, liver, and kidney were all significantly less in the diabetic rats than in the controls. Sodium selenite treatment of the diabetic rats resulted in significant increases in GPX activity in the kidneys and livers, and CAT activity in the sera and livers. Conclusions: Our results indicate that sodium selenite might be a potent antioxidant that exerts beneficial effects on both GPX and CAT activities in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

  8. Effects of Waterlogging on Photosynthesis and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Six Barley Genotypes with Different Waterlogging Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yu-ping; WEI Kang; CHEN Jin-xin; ZHOU Mei-xue; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2005-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study genotypic difference in the effect of waterlogging on photosynthesis, chlorophyll content and antioxidative enzyme activities in barley. Waterlogging caused a rapid decline in net photosynthetic rate (Ph) and stomatal conductance (gs), and little change in chlorophyll content during early days of the treatment. A dramatic increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in waterlogged plants in the early days of the experiment was found, indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress in barley plants exposed to waterlogging. There was a highly significant difference in the changed extent of all these parameters among genotypes.Franklin and Yongjiahong Liuleng Damai, which were relatively sensitive to waterlogging in terms of growth, photosynthesis and chlorophyll content, accumulated much more MDA than the other two relatively tolerant genotypes (93-3143 and QS).After removal of waterlogging, the genotypic difference became much greater in recovering of these examined parameters.Yongjiahong Liuleng Damai showed higher recovery, while Franklin only recovered to 50% of the control at the 14 day after waterlogging removal. It may be concluded that it is the difference in anti-oxidative stress caused by waterlogging that account for the major difference in photosynthesis among barley genotypes.

  9. EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON ERYTHROCYTE ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF THEIR COFACTORS

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    M. Zahraie

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains numerous compounds, many ‎of which are oxidants and capable of producing free radical and enhancing ‎the oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the erythrocyte antioxidative enzyme activities and the plasma ‎concentration of their cofactors. ‎Sixty eight healthy men were enrolled, 32 of whom had never smoked and 36 had smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day for ‎at least one year. Hemolysate superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and ‎catalase (CAT activities were measured using spectrophotometer. Plasma copper, zinc and selenium concentrations were determined ‎using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma iron concentration was determined by colorimetric ‎method. We found that erythrocyte Cu-Zn SOD activity was significantly higher in tobacco smokers ‎compared with non-smokers (1294 ± 206.7 U/gHb in smokers vs. 1121.6 ± 237.8 U/gHb in non-‎smokers, P < 0.01. While plasma selenium concentration was significantly lower in tobacco ‎smokers (62.7±14.8 μg/L in smokers vs. 92.1 ± 17.5 μg/L in non-smokers, P < 0.01, there were no significant ‎differences in erythrocyte GSH-Px and CAT activities and plasma copper, zinc and iron concentrations between the two groups. ‎It seems that cigarette smoking can alter antioxidative enzymes activity and plasma concentration of some trace elements.

  10. Tamarind seed coat extract restores reactive oxygen species through attenuation of glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme expression in human skin fibroblasts in response to oxidative stress

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    Oranuch Nakchat

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: TSCE exhibited antioxidant activities by scavenging ROS, attenuating GSH level that could protect human skin fibroblast cells from oxidative stress. Our results highlight the antioxidant mechanism of tamarind seed coat through an antioxidant enzyme system, the extract potentially benefits for health food and cosmeceutical application of tamarind seed coat.

  11. Nickel-induced changes in lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzymes, and metal accumulation in Lemna gibba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Dilek Demirezen; Parlak, Kadiriye Uruç

    2011-09-01

    In this study, an experiment was carried out to study the process of stress adaptation in Lemna gibba grown under nickel stress (0-20 mg Ni L(-1)). The results showed that Ni concentrations in plants increased with increasing Ni supply levels and reached a maximum of 142.82 mg.kg1 DW at 0.5 mg x L(-1) Ni treatments. The level of photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, Chi b, and total Chl) and soluble proteins increased upon exposure to high Ni concentrations. At the same time, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased with increasing Ni concentration. These results suggested an alleviation of stress that was presumably the results of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) which generally increased linearly with increasing Ni levels. In addition, the proline content in L. gibba increased with increasing nickel levels. Our present work concluded that Lemna gibba has a high level of nickel tolerance and accumulation. We also found that moderate nickel treatment (0.05-5 mg x L(-1)) alleviated oxidative stress in plants, while the addition of higher amounts of nickel (10-20 mg x L(-1)) could cause an increasing generation of ROS, which was effectively scavenged by the antioxidative system. Therefore, L. gibba may be used as a phytoremediator in moderately polluted aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Germinating Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seedlings Attenuated Selenite-Induced Toxicity by Activating the Antioxidant Enzymes and Mediating the Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Zhang, Hong; Lai, Furao; Wu, Hui

    2016-02-17

    Selenite can enhance the selenium nutrition level of crops, but excessive selenite may be toxic to plant growth. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the role of selenite in production and detoxification of oxidative toxicity, peanut seedlings were developed with sodium selenite (0, 3, and 6 mg/L). The effects of selenite on antioxidant capacity, transcript levels of antioxidant enzyme genes, and enzyme activities in hypocotyl were investigated. The CuZn-SOD, GSH-Px, GST, and APX gene expression levels and their enzyme activities in selenite treatments were 1.0-3.6-fold of the control. Selenite also significantly increased the glutathione and ascorbate concentrations by mediating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and the selenite-induced hydrogen peroxide may act as a second messenger in the signaling pathways. This work has revealed a complex antioxidative response to selenite in peanut seedling. Understanding these mechanisms may help future research in increasing selenite tolerance and selenium accumulation in peanut and other crops.

  13. Changes in non Protein Thiols, some Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Ultrastructural Alteration in Radish Plant (Raphanus sativus L. Grown under Lead Toxicity

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    Hossam Saad EL-BELTAGI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty days old radish plants (Raphanus sativus L. were exposed to different regimes of lead stress as Pb(NO32 at the following concentrations 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 250 and 500 ppm. The possible generation of oxidative stress, antioxidant metabolism and changes in the chloroplast and cell membrane ultrastructure were investigated. Greater loss of the photosynthetic pigments (Chl. a, Chl. b and total carotenoids were observed especially under 500 ppm lead (Pb. The accumulation of lead in roots and leaves of plant were measured and the results showed that lead accumulation increased with increasing of the metal treatment concentration. An increasing trend was observed in levels of ascorbate and decreasing trend in glutathione. Also, the antioxidant enzymes, viz., guaiacol peroxidase (GPX ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and glutathione S-transferase (GST showed significant variation with the increase in lead stress compared to control (untreated plants. The rapid inducibility of some of these enzymes is useful early and sensitive indicators of heavy metal toxicity. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed an increase in the isoenzymes profile of CAT in both leaves and roots. While POD isoenzymes bands prominently increased in leaves and slightly decreased in roots at the higher Pb concentration in the growth media. The ultrastructural studies at selected concentrations; 100 and 500 ppm of Pb showed distortion of the structure and cell membranes in roots. Therefore, the changes in the levels of some antioxidants may play an important role against oxidative injury.

  14. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delles, Rebecca M.; Xiong, Youling L.; True, Alma D.; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:24879706

  15. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delles, Rebecca M; Xiong, Youling L; True, Alma D; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A

    2014-06-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Antioxidative properties and inhibition of key enzymes relevant to type-2 diabetes and hypertension by essential oils from black pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on α -amylase, α -glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe(2+)-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on α -amylase, α -glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH∗, NO∗, and ABTS∗ and chelated Fe(2+). α -Pinene, β -pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited α -amylase, α -glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of α -glucosidase than α -amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of α -amylase, α -glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension.

  17. Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayantan, D; Shardendu

    2013-09-01

    Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity ca