WorldWideScience

Sample records for increased water contact

  1. Use of Atomic Oxygen for Increased Water Contact Angles of Various Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim; Berger, Lauren; Roberts, Lily

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of atomic oxygen (AO) exposure on the hydrophilicity of nine different polymers for biomedical applications. Atomic oxygen treatment can alter the chemistry and morphology of polymer surfaces, which may increase the adhesion and spreading of cells on Petri dishes and enhance implant growth. Therefore, nine different polymers were exposed to atomic oxygen and water-contact angle, or hydrophilicity, was measured after exposure. To determine whether hydrophilicity remains static after initial atomic oxygen exposure, or changes with higher fluence exposures, the contact angles between the polymer and water droplet placed on the polymer s surface were measured versus AO fluence. The polymers were exposed to atomic oxygen in a 100-W, 13.56-MHz radio frequency (RF) plasma asher, and the treatment was found to significantly alter the hydrophilicity of non-fluorinated polymers. Pristine samples were compared with samples that had been exposed to AO at various fluence levels. Minimum and maximum fluences for the ashing trials were set based on the effective AO erosion of a Kapton witness coupon in the asher. The time intervals for ashing were determined by finding the logarithmic values of the minimum and maximum fluences. The difference of these two values was divided by the desired number of intervals (ideally 10). The initial desired fluence was then multiplied by this result (2.37), as was each subsequent desired fluence. The flux in the asher was determined to be approximately 3.0 x 10(exp 15) atoms/sq cm/sec, and each polymer was exposed to a maximum fluence of 5.16 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm.

  2. Human water contact activities and associated urogenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is much evidence that peoples' behaviour affects agents, host, and the environment and that behaviour can also either increase or decrease the risk of a disease. This study was conducted in a schistosomiasis-endemic area of Nkalagu in order to observe the different water-contact activities capable of promoting ...

  3. Acanthamoeba keratitis and contact lens wear: static or increasing problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulks, Gary N

    2007-11-01

    The occurrence of Acanthamoeba keratitis is increasing in the United States because of an expanding population at risk of infection and sporadic outbreaks of infection. Such outbreaks are the result of lapses in contact lens wear and care and of alterations in water quality and water treatment procedures. Although improved techniques in diagnosis are available, better identification of infection alone does not explain an increase in the observed occurrence of the disease. Likewise, there does not appear to be an increase in the virulence or infectivity of the amoebae. Strategies for prevention, including patient education, improved decontaminating agents, maintenance of water treatment standards, and possible immunization of subjects at risk, are needed.

  4. Water hammers in direct contact heater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uffer, R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the causes and mitigation or prevention of water hammers occurring in direct contact heaters and their attached lines. These water hammers are generally caused by rapid pressure reductions in the heaters or by water lines not flowing full. Proper design and operating measures can prevent or mitigate water hammer occurrence. Water hammers often do not originate at the areas where damage is noted

  5. Direct contact heat transfer characteristics between melting alloy and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Izumi; Nishi, Yoshihisa; Furuya, Masahiro

    1995-01-01

    As a candidate for an innovative steam generator for fast breeder reactors, a heat exchanger with direct contact heat transfer between melting alloy and water was proposed. The evaluation of heat transfer characteristics of this heat exchanger is one of the research subjects for the design and development of the steam generator. In this study, the effect of the pressure on heat transfer characteristics and the required degree of superheating of melting alloy above water saturation temperature are evaluated during the direct contact heat transfer experiment by injecting water into Wood's alloy. In the experiment, the pressure, the temperature of the Wood's alloy, the flow rate of feed water, and the depth of the feed water injection point are varied as parameters. As a result of the experiment, the product of the degree of Wood's alloy superheating above water saturation temperature and the depth of the feed water injection point is constant for each pressure. This constant increases as the pressure rises. (author)

  6. Perspective-Taking Increases Willingness to Engage in Intergroup Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cynthia S.; Kenneth, Tai; Ku, Gillian; Galinsky, Adam D.

    2014-01-01

    The current research explored whether perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with stereotyped outgroup members. Across three studies, we find that perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with negatively-stereotyped targets. In Study 1, perspective-takers sat closer to, whereas stereotype suppressors sat further from, a hooligan compared to control participants. In Study 2, individual differences in perspective-taking tendencies predicted individuals' willingness to engage in contact with a hooligan, having effects above and beyond those of empathic concern. Finally, Study 3 demonstrated that perspective-taking's effects on intergroup contact extend to the target's group (i.e., another homeless man), but not to other outgroups (i.e., a man of African descent). Consistent with other perspective-taking research, our findings show that perspective-taking facilitates the creation of social bonds by increasing contact with stereotyped outgroup members. PMID:24465648

  7. Microbial contamination of contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water of contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstüntürk, Miray; Zeybek, Zuhal

    2012-11-01

    Contact lenses have been widely used as an alternative to spectacles both in developed and developing countries. However, under certain circumstances, adverse responses can occur during contact lens wear and several microorganisms--including bacteria, fungi, and free living amoebae--can cause several eye infections in wearers. Extended wear of contact lenses is the major risk factor of eye infections such as microbial keratitis, besides contaminated contact lens storage case, contaminated lens care solutions, and inaccurate contact lens handling. In this study, we collected contact lens storage case and domestic tap water samples from 50 asymptomatic contact lens wearers. We determined that total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 45 (90 %), Gram negative rod bacteria were isolated in 20 (40 %), Pseudomonas spp. were isolated in 2 (4 %) and fungi were isolated in 18 (36 %) out of 50 contact lens storage cases. Free living amoebae were not detected in investigated contact lens storage cases. At the same time, out of 50, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 34 (68 %), fungi were isolated in 15 (30 %) and free living amoebae were isolated in 15 (30 %) domestic tap water samples. No Gram-negative rod bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in investigated water samples. Two contact lens case samples and two tap water samples were excluded from the analysis for Pseudomonas spp. for technical reasons. According to our findings, inadequate contact lens maintenance during lens wear may result in the contamination of contact lens storage cases. This situation can lead to severe eye infections in contact lens wearers over time.

  8. Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination

  9. Increasing Northern Hemisphere water deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A monthly water-balance model is used with CRUTS3.1 gridded monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) data to examine changes in global water deficit (PET minus actual evapotranspiration) for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) for the years 1905 through 2009. Results show that NH deficit increased dramatically near the year 2000 during both the cool (October through March) and warm (April through September) seasons. The increase in water deficit near 2000 coincides with a substantial increase in NH temperature and PET. The most pronounced increases in deficit occurred for the latitudinal band from 0 to 40°N. These results indicate that global warming has increased the water deficit in the NH and that the increase since 2000 is unprecedented for the 1905 through 2009 period. Additionally, coincident with the increase in deficit near 2000, mean NH runoff also increased due to increases in P. We explain the apparent contradiction of concurrent increases in deficit and increases in runoff.

  10. Maternal allergic contact dermatitis causes increased asthma risk in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Robert H; Arredouani, Mohamed S; Fedulov, Alexey; Kobzik, Lester; Hubeau, Cedric

    2007-07-27

    Offspring of asthmatic mothers have increased risk of developing asthma, based on human epidemiologic data and experimental animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal allergy at non-pulmonary sites can increase asthma risk in offspring. BALB/c female mice received 2 topical applications of vehicle, dinitrochlorobenzene, or toluene diisocyanate before mating with untreated males. Dinitrochlorobenzene is a skin-sensitizer only and known to induce a Th1 response, while toluene diisocyanate is both a skin and respiratory sensitizer that causes a Th2 response. Both cause allergic contact dermatitis. Offspring underwent an intentionally suboptimal protocol of allergen sensitization and aerosol challenge, followed by evaluation of airway hyperresponsiveness, allergic airway inflammation, and cytokine production. Mothers were tested for allergic airway disease, evidence of dermatitis, cellularity of the draining lymph nodes, and systemic cytokine levels. The role of interleukin-4 was also explored using interleukin-4 deficient mice. Offspring of toluene diisocyanate but not dinitrochlorobenzene-treated mothers developed an asthmatic phenotype following allergen sensitization and challenge, seen as increased Penh values, airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage total cell counts and eosinophilia, and Th2 cytokine imbalance in the lung. Toluene diisocyanate treated interleukin-4 deficient mothers were able to transfer asthma risk to offspring. Mothers in both experimental groups developed allergic contact dermatitis, but not allergic airway disease. Maternal non-respiratory allergy (Th2-skewed dermatitis caused by toluene diisocyanate) can result in the maternal transmission of asthma risk in mice.

  11. Maternal allergic contact dermatitis causes increased asthma risk in offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobzik Lester

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Offspring of asthmatic mothers have increased risk of developing asthma, based on human epidemiologic data and experimental animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal allergy at non-pulmonary sites can increase asthma risk in offspring. Methods BALB/c female mice received 2 topical applications of vehicle, dinitrochlorobenzene, or toluene diisocyanate before mating with untreated males. Dinitrochlorobenzene is a skin-sensitizer only and known to induce a Th1 response, while toluene diisocyanate is both a skin and respiratory sensitizer that causes a Th2 response. Both cause allergic contact dermatitis. Offspring underwent an intentionally suboptimal protocol of allergen sensitization and aerosol challenge, followed by evaluation of airway hyperresponsiveness, allergic airway inflammation, and cytokine production. Mothers were tested for allergic airway disease, evidence of dermatitis, cellularity of the draining lymph nodes, and systemic cytokine levels. The role of interleukin-4 was also explored using interleukin-4 deficient mice. Results Offspring of toluene diisocyanate but not dinitrochlorobenzene-treated mothers developed an asthmatic phenotype following allergen sensitization and challenge, seen as increased Penh values, airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage total cell counts and eosinophilia, and Th2 cytokine imbalance in the lung. Toluene diisocyanate treated interleukin-4 deficient mothers were able to transfer asthma risk to offspring. Mothers in both experimental groups developed allergic contact dermatitis, but not allergic airway disease. Conclusion Maternal non-respiratory allergy (Th2-skewed dermatitis caused by toluene diisocyanate can result in the maternal transmission of asthma risk in mice.

  12. The Danger of Using Tap Water with Contact Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acanthamoeba is a microbe that is very common in tap water. It has two forms: the trophozoite and the cyst. These trophozoites and cysts can stick to the surface of your contact lenses and then infect your eye.

  13. Direct contact membrane distillation: Capability to desalt raw water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Boubakri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the potentialities of membrane distillation to desalt raw waters were investigated. The experiments were performed on a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD unit using a flat sheet polypropylene (PP membrane with a low pore size of 0.064 μm. The effect of relevant operating parameters such as transmembrane temperature difference, hydrodynamic conditions and ionic strength on permeate flux and conductivity was studied. The results indicated that a permeate flux increases with increasing transmembrane temperature difference and Reynolds number, and slightly decreases with increasing ionic strength. The permeate flux reached 4.24 L/m2 h at a temperature difference of 60 °C and Reynolds number of 3740 and ionic strength of 8.56 × 10−2 M. DCMD process using PP with low pore size membrane present a very low salt passage through the membrane which was not affected by feed concentration. DCMD process has been applied during a long period to desalt raw water without any pretreatment. For brackish water, the variation of permeate flux and conductivity were slightly changed as function of operating time. For seawater, the permeate flux decreased slightly and the permeate conductivity increased sharply in which a simple pretreatment step is recommended to ameliorate the performance of DCMD process.

  14. The role of domestic tap water in Acanthamoeba contamination in contact lens storage cases in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hae Jin

    2005-01-01

    A survey was carried out from August to December 2004 in Pusan, Korea to document the presence of free-living amoeba (FLA), including the genus Acanthamoeba, in both contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water. Acanthamoeba was isolated from 5 (4.2%) in 120 contact lens storage cases. Four house tap water samples from residents, whose contact lens storage cases had been contaminated by Acanthamoeba, were also found to be contaminated with Acanthamoeba. Therefore, the contamination rate of FLA and Acanthamoeba in domestic tap water was investigated in order to examine the role of domestic tap water in Acanthamoeba contamination of contact lens storage cases. FLA and Acanthamoeba were identified in 97 (46.8%) and 16 (7.7%) of the 207 domestic tap water samples, respectively. There were no significant differences between the contamination rates of FLA in tap water according to the filtration plant of origin. No FLA was detected in the tap water directly supplied by the water purification plants. Water storage tanks appear to promote FLA colonization, including Acanthamoeba, in domestic tap water. This increases the risk of Acanthamoeba contamination in contact lens storage cases as well as increasing the risk of Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:15951638

  15. Estimation Of Height Of Oil -Water Contact Above Free Water Level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An estimate of oil-water contact (OWC) and the understanding of the capillary behaviour of hydrocarbon reservoirs are vital for optimum reservoir characterization, hydrocarbon exploration and production. Hence, the height of oil-water contact above free water level for different rock types from some Niger Delta reservoirs ...

  16. Contact angles of wetting and water stability of soil structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, V. A.; Yaroslavtseva, N. V.; Yashin, M. A.; Frid, A. S.; Lazarev, V. I.; Tyugai, Z. N.; Milanovskiy, E. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    From the soddy-podzolic soils and typical chernozems of different texture and land use, dry 3-1 mm aggregates were isolated and sieved in water. As a result, water-stable aggregates and water-unstable particles composing dry 3-1 mm aggregates were obtained. These preparations were ground, and contact angles of wetting were determined by the static sessile drop method. The angles varied from 11° to 85°. In most cases, the values of the angles for the water-stable aggregates significantly exceeded those for the water-unstable components. In terms of carbon content in structural units, there was no correlation between these parameters. When analyzing the soil varieties separately, the significant positive correlation between the carbon content and contact angle of aggregates was revealed only for the loamy-clayey typical chernozem. Based on the multivariate analysis of variance, the value of contact wetting angle was shown to be determined by the structural units belonging to water-stable or water-unstable components of macroaggregates and by the land use type. In addition, along with these parameters, the texture has an indirect effect.

  17. The dangers of distilled water in contact lens maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, J E; Caffery, B E

    1988-03-01

    The reports of serious corneal infection associated with hydrogel lens wear prompted us to explore the level of sterility of the distilled water used by lens wearers in our practice. Fifty patients supplied samples of their partially-used distilled water for testing. Of the samples, 12% were found to be contaminated. Five samples of previously unopened distilled water were tested and no growth was found. We recommend that patients do not use distilled water for the care of hydrogel contact lenses. Rather, sterile unit dose or multi-dose (aerosol) nonpreserved, or preserved salines can be used.

  18. Contact angle of ethanol–water solutions on crystalline and mesoporous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, S J; Andrews, G T; Deacon, C G

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of contact angle of ethanol–water solutions were performed on crystalline silicon and on mesoporous silicon films with porosities up to ∼72%. Water contact angles of 44° and 76° were measured for untreated and HF-dipped crystalline silicon, respectively, consistent with previous studies. The contact angle for ethanol–water mixtures was found to decrease with increasing ethanol concentration for both untreated crystalline silicon and also for HF-dipped crystalline silicon up to an ethanol concentration of ∼80%; at higher concentrations the contact angle approached zero. Similar behaviour was observed on mesoporous silicon surfaces for ethanol concentrations ≲ 40%, above which the contact angle dropped abruptly to an immeasurably small value. This behaviour is attributed to a decrease in surface tension with increasing ethanol concentration. For all ethanol–water solutions, a minimum value of contact angle was observed at a porosity of ∼40%, above which it remained approximately constant. The behaviour of contact angle with porosity can be explained by a change in the Wenzel roughness parameter due to changes in the specific surface area of the film. (paper)

  19. Liquid-solid contact measurements using a surface thermocouple temperature probe in atmospheric pool boiling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.Y.W.; Chen, J.C.; Nelson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Objective was to apply the technique of using a microthermocouple flush-mounted at the boiling surface for the measurement of the local-surface-temperature history in film and transition boiling on high temperature surfaces. From this measurement direct liquid-solid contact in film and transition boiling regimes was observed. In pool boiling of saturated, distilled, deionized water on an aluminum-coated copper surface, the time-averaged, local-liquid-contact fraction increased with decreasing surface superheat. Average contact duration increased monotonically with decreasing surface superheat, while frequency of liquid contact reached a maximum of approx. 50 contacts/s at a surface superheat of approx. 100 K and decreased gradually to 30 contacts/s near the critical heat flux. The liquid-solid contact duration distribution was dominated by short contacts 4 ms at low surface superheats, passing through a relatively flat contact duration distribution at about 80 0 K. Results of this paper indicate that liquid-solid contacts may be the dominant mechanism for energy transfer in the transition boiling process

  20. Renewable water: Direct contact membrane distillation coupled with solar ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, Francisco; Ruskowitz, Jeffrey A.; Tyler, Scott W.; Childress, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental investigation of direct contact membrane distillation driven by solar ponds. • The DCMD/SGSP system treats ∼6 times the water flow treated by an AGMD/SGSP system. • Half of the energy extracted from the SGSP was used to transport water across the membrane. • Reducing heat losses through the DCMD/SGSP system would yield higher water fluxes. - Abstract: Desalination powered by renewable energy sources is an attractive solution to address the worldwide water-shortage problem without contributing significant to greenhouse gas emissions. A promising system for renewable energy desalination is the utilization of low-temperature direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) driven by a thermal solar energy system, such as a salt-gradient solar pond (SGSP). This investigation presents the first experimental study of fresh water production in a coupled DCMD/SGSP system. The objectives of this work are to determine the experimental fresh water production rates and the energetic requirements of the different components of the system. From the laboratory results, it was found that the coupled DCMD/SGSP system treats approximately six times the water flow treated by a similar system that consisted of an air–gap membrane distillation unit driven by an SGSP. In terms of the energetic requirements, approximately 70% of the heat extracted from the SGSP was utilized to drive thermal desalination and the rest was lost in different locations of the system. In the membrane module, only half of the useful heat was actually used to transport water across the membrane and the remainder was lost by conduction in the membrane. It was also found that by reducing heat losses throughout the system would yield higher water fluxes, pointing out the need to improve the efficiency throughout the DCMD/SGSP coupled system. Therefore, further investigation of membrane properties, insulation of the system, or optimal design of the solar pond must be addressed in

  1. Using Percentile Schedules to Increase Eye Contact in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott S.; Maynes, Natalee P.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS.…

  2. Recovery of the water content of hydrogel contact lenses after use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Josefa Velasco; Velasco, María José García

    2005-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the amount and time of water-content recovery of ionic contact lenses (Surevue and Acuvue) and non-ionic contact lenses (Soflens 38, Soflens 66 and Optima 38) when submerged in maintenance solution for 9 h. Using a hand-held refractometer, we measured the water content of the lenses upon removal from the eye, and after 15, 30, 45 min, 1, 2 and 9 h in soaking solution. Both ionic lenses presented pre-wear water content of 58%, while two of the non-ionic ones (Soflens 38 and Optima 38) registered 38.6% and the third (Soflens 66) had 66%. We found a significant increase (p 0.05) between ionic and non-ionic lenses, although the non-ionic lenses reached slightly higher water-content values at all the times studied. These results indicate that when the refractometer technique is used to measure water content, the lens types used in this study regain their initial water-content values after 9 h in soaking solution. These data indicate the time needed for hydrogel contact lenses to reach their maximum water content after removal from the eye and submersion in maintenance solution. By ensuring maximum water content and minimum reduction of oxygen for the cornea, the specialist can help avoid clinical signs and symptoms related to low water content in the lenses.

  3. Steady-State Diffusion of Water through Soft-Contact LensMaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasiero, Francesco; Krull, Florian; Radke, Clayton J.; Prausnitz, JohnM.

    2005-01-31

    Water transport through soft contact lenses (SCL) is important for acceptable performance on the human eye. Chemical-potential gradient-driven diffusion rates of water through soft-contact-lens materials are measured with an evaporation-cell technique. Water is evaporated from the bottom surface of a lens membrane by impinging air at controlled flow rate and humidity. The resulting weight loss of a water reservoir covering the top surface of the contact-lens material is recorded as a function of time. New results are reported for a conventional hydrogel material (SofLens{trademark} One Day, hilafilcon A, water content at saturation W{sub 10} = 70 weight %) and a silicone hydrogel material (PureVision{trademark}, balafilcon A, W{sub 10} = 36 %), with and without surface oxygen plasma treatment. Also, previously reported data for a conventional HEMA-SCL (W{sub 10} = 38 %) hydrogel are reexamined and compared with those for SofLens{trademark} One Day and PureVision{trademark} hydrogels. Measured steady-state water fluxes are largest for SofLens{trademark} One Day, followed by PureVision{trademark} and HEMA. In some cases, the measured steady-state water fluxes increase with rising relative air humidity. This increase, due to an apparent mass-transfer resistance at the surface (trapping skinning), is associated with formation of a glassy skin at the air/membrane interface when the relative humidity is below 55-75%. Steady-state water-fluxes are interpreted through an extended Maxwell-Stefan diffusion model for a mixture of species starkly different in size. Thermodynamic nonideality is considered through Flory-Rehner polymer-solution theory. Shrinking/swelling is self-consistently modeled by conservation of the total polymer mass. Fitted Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities increase significantly with water concentration in the contact lens.

  4. Rapid increase in contact allergy to Kathon CG in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannuksela, M

    1986-10-01

    In unselected eczema patients subjected to routine patch testing, the number with positive reactions to Kathon CG 100 ppm increased from none in 1983 to 0.7% in January-August 1985, and to 4.6% in September 1985 to March 1986. Repeated open application tests (ROAT) with creams containing 7-15 ppm of the isothiazolinones were positive in 12 of 24 patients tested. 2 of the ROAT-positive cases had negative patch tests to 100 ppm Kathon CG, but 1 was positive with 200 ppm. Atopic dermatitis, chronic hand dermatitis and lower leg dermatitis were the most common disorders in the positive patients. The cause of the rapid increase of Kathon CG allergy in Finland during the winter of 1985-1986 was the use of a popular moisturizing cream containing first 19 ppm, then 7 ppm of a mixture of 2 isothiazolinones (Euxyl K 100).

  5. 40 CFR 463.10 - Applicability; description of the contact cooling and heating water subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contact cooling and heating water subcategory. 463.10 Section 463.10 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Contact Cooling and Heating Water Subcategory § 463.10 Applicability; description of the contact cooling and heating water subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants from...

  6. Radiation influence on heterogenous processes in stainless steel contact with sea-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agayev, T.N.; Garibov, A.A.; Velibekova, G.Z.; Aliyev, A.Q.; Aliyev, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Austenitic stainless steel (s.s.) with Cr content 16 %, Ni - 15 % is widely used in nuclear reactors as construction material, for fuel cladding production and also is used in oil and gas production and transportation. They possess comparatively large section of slow neutron capture and as a result high corrosion resistance. In real exploitation condition of nuclear reactors s.s. are exposed to ionizing radiation influence in contact of different media. That's why during their corrosion and destruction processes the surface defect formation processes and further heterogenous processes with their participation are of great importance. The research results of mechanism during radiation-heterogenous processes in nuclear reactor stainless steel contact with sea-water under the influence of γ-radiation in temperature interval 300-1074 K are represented in the given work. Radiolytic processes in water are comprehensively studied and therefore it was taken as model system for dating the surface defects and secondary electrons emitted from metal. The same model system was applied also in sea-water radiolysis processes. It's been established that radiation processes in s.s. lead to molecular hydrogen yield increase and at T=300 K up to 6.5 molec./100 eV. With the temperature increase molecular hydrogen yield increase up to 25.3 molec./100 eV at T≤773 K. During the further temperature increase up to 1073 K radiation constituent of radiation-thermal process in comparison with thermal becomes unnoticeable and W T (H 2 )≅W p (H 2 ). The kinetics of oxide phase formation of investigated sample surface in the result of thermal and radiation-thermal processes in their contact with sea-water has been studied. At that it's been shown that radiation leads to protective oxidation process rate increase and promotes the beginning of stainless steel destruction oxidation in contact with sea-water. At T≥573 K insoluble oxide phase is formed on metal surface that promotes

  7. Evaluating a Tablet Application and Differential Reinforcement to Increase Eye Contact in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Tricia; Crosland, Kimberly; Miltenberger, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    We tested the effectiveness of a tablet application and differential reinforcement to increase eye contact in 3 children with autism. The application required the child to look at a picture of a person's face and identify the number displayed in the person's eyes. Eye contact was assessed immediately after training, 1 hr after training, and in a…

  8. In vitro adhesion of Acanthamoeba castellanii to soft contact lenses depends on water content and disinfection procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverey, Julia F; Fromme, Roland; Leippe, Matthias; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine

    2014-08-01

    To compare the potential of different soft contact lenses to be contaminated with Acanthamoeba castellanii as a function of material parameters and cleaning procedures. Different unworn soft hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lenses were incubated with human pathogenic A. castellanii. The adhesion of the acanthamoebae was investigated on the contact lenses and put into relation to their material parameters. The efficacy of a recommended contact lens cleaning procedure in reducing A. castellanii adhesion was investigated. We found that material parameters such as elastic modulus, silicone content, ionic properties and swelling do not influence the adhesion of acanthamoebae to soft contact lenses. A material parameter that influenced adhesion significantly was the water content of the lens. With increasing water content, the adhesion of acanthamoebae increased. By following the cleaning instructions of the manufacturer the contamination of the lenses with A. castellanii could be reduced to a minimum, as shown both on contact lenses and in control experiments. With this study we show that for the tested lenses, the adhesion of A. castellanii to contact lenses is independent of the silicone content of the lens, but depends nonlinearly on the water content of the lens. Furthermore, we demonstrate that applying proper lens cleaning procedures minimizes the risk of acanthamoebae adhesion to contact lenses. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation-heterogeneous processes on the surface of stainless steel in contact with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.; Agayev, T.N.; Velibekova, G.Z.; Ismayilov, Sh.S.; Aliyev, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Stainless steels are one of prevailing materials of nuclear power engineering. Under operating conditions in real systems they are exposed to influence of ionizing radiation in contact with various environments. Therefore in the processes of corrosion and destruction of stainless steels special significance takes on surface processes and subsequent heterogeneous processes with their participation. In this report the results of research of nuclear-heterogeneous processes regularities in contact with stainless steel of nuclear reactors with water under influence of γ-quanta in the temperature range 300-573 K are given. Radiolytic processes in water are investigated comprehensively and therefore it was taken as modelling system for titration of surface defects and secondary electrons, emitted from metal. It was determined, that radiation processes in stainless steel give rise to the increasing of energy output of molecular hydrogen at water radiolysis from 0.45 molecule/100 eV at pure water radiolysis at 296 K up to 3.4 molecule/100 eV at the presence of stainless steel at 300 K. With increase of temperature the output of molecular hydrogen increases up to 8.2 molecule/100 eV at 573 K. Processes of lattice damage in samples of stainless steel under influence of γ-rays were investigated by electrophysical method. Influence of γ-radiation on stainless steel in contact with water at temperatures T ≤ 423 K and initial values of radiation dose D ≤ 200 kGy given rise to the reduction of electrical resistivity of samples. At doses D≥200 kGy electrical resistivity is increased. Increase of temperature from 333 K up to 423 K lead to the reduction of dose value, at which the transition to resistance increase, from 200 kGy up to 100 kGy occurs. At T≥523 K insoluble oxide phase is formed on a surface of metal which give rise to the increase of electrical resistivity of stainless steel samples. Surface oxide film formed in contact of stainless steel + H 2 O

  10. A Practitioner Model for Increasing Eye Contact in Children With Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jennifer L; Rapp, John T; Mann, Kathryn R; McHugh, Catherine; Burji, Carla; Nuta, Raluca

    2017-05-01

    Although many teaching techniques for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require the instructor to gain the child's eye contact prior to delivering an instructional demand, the literature contains notably few procedures that reliably produce this outcome. To address this problem, we evaluated the effects of a sequential model for increasing eye contact in children with ASD. The model included the following phases: contingent praise only (for eye contact), contingent edibles plus praise, stimulus prompts plus contingent edibles and praise, contingent video and praise, schedule thinning, and maintenance evaluations for up to 2 years. Results indicated that the procedures increased eye contact for 20 participants (one additional participant did not require consequences). For 16 participants, praise (alone) was not sufficient to support eye contact; however, high levels of eye contact were typically maintained with these participants when therapists used combined schedules of intermittent edibles or video and continuous praise. We discuss some limitations of this model and directions for future research on increasing eye contact for children with ASD.

  11. In the eye of the beholder: eye contact increases resistance to persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances S; Minson, Julia A; Schöne, Maren; Heinrichs, Markus

    2013-11-01

    Popular belief holds that eye contact increases the success of persuasive communication, and prior research suggests that speakers who direct their gaze more toward their listeners are perceived as more persuasive. In contrast, we demonstrate that more eye contact between the listener and speaker during persuasive communication predicts less attitude change in the direction advocated. In Study 1, participants freely watched videos of speakers expressing various views on controversial sociopolitical issues. Greater direct gaze at the speaker's eyes was associated with less attitude change in the direction advocated by the speaker. In Study 2, we instructed participants to look at either the eyes or the mouths of speakers presenting arguments counter to participants' own attitudes. Intentionally maintaining direct eye contact led to less persuasion than did gazing at the mouth. These findings suggest that efforts at increasing eye contact may be counterproductive across a variety of persuasion contexts.

  12. Reliability of Blotting Techniques to Assess Contact Lens Water Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas, Pilar; López-Miguel, Alberto; Gómez, Alba; López-de la Rosa, Alberto; Fernández, Itziar; González-García, María J

    2018-02-15

    To determine the reliability of wet and modified dry blotting techniques used in the gravimetric method to assess contact lens (CL) water content (WC), the accuracy of both techniques in comparison with the nominal WC, and also their agreement. We evaluated hydrated and dry CL mass values and WC using the gravimetric method in 440 daily disposable CLs. Samples assessed corresponded to Dailies Total 1, Dailies AquaComfort Plus, 1-Day Acuvue TruEye, and Biotrue ONEday. Back vertex power ranged from +3.00 diopters (D) to -6.00 D. Within-subject coefficient of variation (CVw) and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated. Bland-Altman analysis was also performed. The modified dry blotting technique yielded significantly (P≤0.0001) higher hydrated CL mass values. The wet blotting technique provided significantly (P≤0.04) better consistency than the modified dry one. Values of CVw for wet and modified dry blotting techniques ranged from 1.2% to 2.1% and from 3.7% to 5.4%, respectively. As for dry CL mass values, CVw values were not significantly different (P≥0.05) between wet (range: 1.1%-1.9%) and dry (range: 1.0%-5.1%) blotting techniques, except for Dailies AquaComfort Plus (P=0.03). Bland-Altman analysis showed poor agreement between the techniques. The wet blotting technique yielded WC values close (around 1%) to nominal ones, in contrast to modified dry blotting technique (≥2.5%). The wet blotting technique is not only more reliable than the modified dry one when obtaining hydrated CL mass but also provides more accurate nominal WC measurements. Agreement between the techniques was poor.

  13. Biomechanical analysis of the contact phase in drop jumps performed in water and on dry land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ruschel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n1p41   Plyometric training in the aquatic environment has been used as way of reducing loads through the action of buoyancy. However, little is known about the biomechanical characteristics of plyometric exercises in water, which can assist in the prescription of training in this environment. This study aimed to analyze the vertical component of the ground reaction force and contact duration of drop jumps (DJ performed on land and at hip level water immersion. Participants were 22 male athletes (19.1 ± 3.7 years, who performed three maximum DJs in water and on dry land. Peak force and duration of braking and propulsion sub-phases of the DJ contact were analyzed with the use of two underwater force platforms, a 2-D waterproofed electrogoniometer, acquisition systems ADS2000-IP and TeleMyo 2400TG2, and a signal synchronizer. The effect of immersion was investigated through comparison tests for dependent samples (p <0.05. In water, the following results were observed: (a reduction of 41.8% (p <0.001, d = 2.24 and 23.8% (p <0.001, d = 1.50 of peak forces during braking and propulsion sub-phases respectively; and (b increase of 41.8% in the braking (p <0.001, d = 1.41 and 12.3% in the propulsion contact times (p = 0.006, d = 0.75. The aquatic environment can be an alternative when one aims to reduce the load during the DJ contact; however, the longer duration increasing of contact sub-phases in water at hip immersion may compromise the proper functioning of the stretch-shortening cycle in water.

  14. CONTACT ANGLE OF YUCCA MOUNTAIN WELDED TUFF WITH WATER AND BRINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Kalia

    2006-01-01

    A number of tests were performed to acquire contact angles between Yucca Mountain welded tuff from Topopah Springs Lower Lithophysal geologic unit and various brine solutions. The tests were performed on core disks received from Sample Management Facility (SMF), oven dried to a constant weight and the core disks vacuum saturated in: distilled water, J-13 water, calcium chloride brine and sodium chloride brine to constant weight. The contact angles were acquired from eight points on the surface of the core disks, four on rough surface, and four on polished surface. The contact angle was measured by placing a droplet of the test fluid, distilled water, J-13 water, calcium chloride brine and sodium chloride brine on the core disks. The objective of this test was to acquire contact angles as a potential input to estimating capillary forces in accumulated dust on the waste packages and drip shields slated for the proposed High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. It was noted that once the droplet contacts the test surface, it continues to spread hence the contact angle continues to decrease with elapsed time. The maximum observed angle was at time 0 or when the drop contacted the rock surface. The measured contact angle, in all cases has significant scatter. In general, the time zero contact angles for core disks saturated in sodium chloride brine were smaller than those saturated in calcium chloride brine, distilled water, and J-13 water. The contact angles for samples saturated in distilled water, J-13 water and calcium chloride brine at time zero were similar. There was slight difference between the observed contact angles for smooth and rough surface of the test samples. The contact angles for smooth surfaces were smaller than for the rough surfaces

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONTACT PRECIPITATION METHOD FOR APPROPRIATE DEFLUORIDATION OF WATER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of defluoridation of water by contact precipitation, where fluoride water is mixed with calcium and phosphate and brought in contact with bone char which is already saturated with fluoride. The process is studied in jar test, in manually stirred buckets...

  16. Efforts to Increase Social Contact in Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Analysing Individual Support Plans in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Aafke; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Most people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited social contact and it is unclear what is done to maintain or increase these contacts. Individual support planning (ISP) can be used in the systematic enhancement of social contacts. This study analyses the content of ISPs with respect to the social contacts of…

  17. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Reetz

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours, and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  18. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetz, Kathrin; Abbas, Zaheer; Costa, Ana Sofia; Gras, Vincent; Tiffin-Richards, Frances; Mirzazade, Shahram; Holschbach, Bernhard; Frank, Rolf Dario; Vassiliadou, Athina; Krüger, Thilo; Eitner, Frank; Gross, Theresa; Schulz, Jörg Bernhard; Floege, Jürgen; Shah, Nadim Jon

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD) on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours), and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  19. Fabrication of a silica aerogel and examination of its hydrophobic properties via contact angle and 3M water repellency tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazrouei-Sebdani, Z.; Javazmi, L.; Khoddami, A.; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, F.; Low, T.

    2017-05-01

    Aerogels are dry gels with a very high specific pore volume. Aerogels with increased hydrophobicity have significant potential to expand their use as lightweight materials. Considering its special nanostructure and exceptional properties, this paper focuses on the synthesis and hydrophobic evaluation of a silica aerogel. The structural properties were investigated by measuring density, SEM micrographs, and BET analyses. Also, the hydrophobic evaluation was carried out by measuring 3M water repellency and water/alcohol contact angle. The BET analysis showed successful synthesis of the nanoporous silica aerogel with a pore size of 24 nm and porosity of 89%. The synthesized aerogel showed 3M water repellency of 3 and water contact angle of 129.6°. Also, it is worth-mentioning that as the alcohol content of the drops in 3M water repellency test is increased, the drop contact angle is decreased due to its lower surface tension. Thus, the contact angle reaches the zero at 3M water repellency test number of 4 (water/alcohol 60/40).

  20. Domain nucleation in the contact layer at an interface of water and a polarizable substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevkunov, S. V.

    2013-10-01

    The growth of a molecular water film on the basic plane of a silver iodide monocrystal is studied through computer simulation. Decomposition into domains with spontaneous polarization is observed in the contact layer of the film at the interface with the substrate. The formation of domains is found to be sharply enhanced on a model substrate with the double polarizability of iodine ions; heteropolarization interactions caused by the formation of domain structures increase the film's coupling with the substrate. It is demonstrated that the vapor pressure needed for molecular film growth is reduced appreciably via heteropolarization interactions.

  1. Polyoxadiazole hollow fibers for produced water treatment by direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jingli

    2018-01-08

    Treatment of produced water in the petroleum industry has been a challenge worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the use of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) for this purpose, removing oil and dissolved elements and supplying clean water from waste. We synthesized fluorinated polyoxadiazole, a highly hydrophobic polymer, to fabricate hollow fiber membranes, which were optimized and tested for simulated produced water and real produced water treatment. The process performance was investigated under different operating parameters, such as feed temperature, feed flow velocity and length of the membrane module for 4 days. The results indicate that by increasing feed temperature and feed flow rate the vapor flux increases. The flux decreased with increasing the length of the module due to the decrease of the driving force along the module. The fouling behavior, which corresponds to flux decline and cleaning efficiency of the membrane, was studied. The performance of the fabricated hollow fiber membranes was demonstrated for the treatment of produced water, complying with the industrial reuse and discharge limits.

  2. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jacob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Simonsson, Carl; Johansen, Jeanne D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2010-07-01

    Vesicular systems, such as liposomes and ethosomes, are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to encapsulate ingredients, to protect ingredients from degradation, to increase bioavailability, and to improve cosmetic performance. Some reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic ingredients in vesicular carrier systems may increase their contact allergy elicitation potential in humans. However, no sensitization studies have been published. We formulated two model contact allergens (isoeugenol and dinitrochlorobenzene) in ethosomes and investigated the sensitization response using a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA). The results were compared with those for the same allergens in similar concentrations and vehicles without ethosomes. Both allergens encapsulated in 200-300 nm ethosomes showed increased sensitizing potency in the murine assay compared with the allergens in solution without ethosomes. Empty ethosomes were non-sensitizing according to LLNA. The clinical implications are so far uncertain, but increased allergenicity from ethosome-encapsulated topical product ingredients cannot be excluded.

  3. Observation of contact area of bubbles with heating surface in pool boiling of water under microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Kawamura, H.; Suzuki, M.; Takahashi, S.; Abe, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Burnout heat flux was measured in subcooled pool boiling of water under attached boiling bubbles on heating surface with bubble holding plate in ground experiment. A thin stainless flat plate was employed for heating surface. The experimental setup and the heating procedures were same as used in reduced gravity experiment performed by a parabolic flight of jet aircraft. Same burnout heat flux as in the reduced gravity was obtained by adjusting the clearance between the bubble holder and the heating surface. They were 100 ∝ 400 percent higher than the widely accepted existing theories. As extending heating time longer than the reduced gravity duration until burnout occurred, burnout heat flux decreased gradually and became a constant value calculated from the existing theories. In a result of observing contact area of boiling bubbles with transparent heating surface, the contact area was smaller in quick heating time than that in long time heating at same heat flux. The experimental results suggest in microgravity that liquid layer is remained between rapidly expanded bubbles and heating surface. In microgravity experiment by a drop shaft facility, contact area of bubbles with heating surface increased considerably at starting of microgravity. (orig.)

  4. Increased microbe-receptor contact in early life – approaching immune regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Katja Maria Bangsgaard; Hansen, Camilla H. F.; Krych, Lukasz

    The crucial colonization in early life educates immune receptors and cells of the body to form the immune system that we depend on during maintenance, disease, and repair. When regulatory mechanisms fail and the system itself becomes the cause of disease, we should look to the proposed early window...... of opportunity, where it may be possible to affect the developing immune system towards tolerance. We hypothesize that increased contact in early life between immune receptors and microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMP), like TLR-4 and LPS, favors a regulatory immune environment later in life. Dextran...... Sulphate Sodium interrupts the barrier function of the gut wall by shaving the mucus layer. In low doses it may have the desired contact-increasing effect without inducing colitis-related disease. Following low-dose DSS treatment in early life of BALB/c mice, we did a gene expression screening in ileum...

  5. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-09-15

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish.

  6. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish

  7. Water in contact with extended hydrophobic surfaces: Direct evidence of weak dewetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben René; Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Reitzel, Niels

    2003-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity measurements reveal a significant dewetting of a large hydrophobic paraffin surface floating on water. The dewetting phenomenon extends less than 15 Angstrom into the bulk water phase and results in an integrated density deficit of about one water molecule per 25-30 Angstrom(2......) of water in contact with the paraffin surface. The results are supported by molecular dynamics simulations and related to the hydrophobic effect....

  8. Contact studies of weak adhesive interactions in water with membrane enhanced surface acoustic wave analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, David Alan

    The measurement of weak adhesive energies has previously been difficult to obtain. To measure these energies, I designed a technique that uses the combined sensitivities of both a quartz crystal resonator and the inflation of an elastomeric polymer membrane. The surfaces of the quartz crystal and/or the membrane are modified with water swollen polymer brushes, which are used to eliminate nonspecific adhesion. These brushes are then end-modified with adhesive functional groups. An analysis is developed for the frequency response of a quartz crystal resonator as the membrane layer is placed in contact with the surface of these swollen brushes. The shear wave generated at the resonator surface couples into the membrane layer with an efficiency that is strongly dependent on the thickness of the swollen brush layer. The calculated shift decreases substantially for increases in the brush thickness of ten to twenty nanometers, giving a net frequency response that is extremely sensitive to the degree of swelling of the brush. An optimum capping layer thickness is determined by balancing the resonant frequency shift against dissipative effects that weaken the crystal resonance. Detailed calculations are presented for the specific case of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brushes swollen by water and capped by a poly(styrene-ethylene/butene-styrene) (SEBS) elastomeric, water-permeable membrane. These calculations show that the method is sensitive to the properties of the brush layer. This surface acoustic wave technique was coupled with an inflation method that enabled quantification of the adhesion between the membrane and the brush coated surface. This adhesive interaction is obtained from the contact angle made between the quartz and membrane surfaces and the tension on the membrane. An analysis of the membrane profile based on the numerical solution of the axisymmetric Laplace equation is developed and used to investigate both adhesive and non-adhesive situations with both an

  9. Contact with domestic dogs increases pathogen exposure in endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosie Woodroffe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases have contributed to the decline and local extinction of several wildlife species, including African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus. Mitigating such disease threats is challenging, partly because uncertainty about disease dynamics makes it difficult to identify the best management approaches. Serious impacts on susceptible populations most frequently occur when generalist pathogens are maintained within populations of abundant (often domestic "reservoir" hosts, and spill over into less abundant host species. If this is the case, disease control directed at the reservoir host might be most appropriate. However, pathogen transmission within threatened host populations may also be important, and may not be controllable by managing another host species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated interspecific and intraspecific transmission routes, by comparing African wild dogs' exposure to six canine pathogens with behavioural measures of their opportunities for contact with domestic dogs and with other wild dogs. Domestic dog contact was associated with exposure to canine parvovirus, Ehrlichia canis, Neospora caninum and perhaps rabies virus, but not with exposure to canine distemper virus or canine coronavirus. Contact with other wild dogs appeared not to increase the risk of exposure to any of the pathogens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings, combined with other data, suggest that management directed at domestic dogs might help to protect wild dog populations from rabies virus, but not from canine distemper virus. However, further analyses are needed to determine the management approaches--including no intervention--which are most appropriate for each pathogen.

  10. Proper water clarification increases oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J.; Entzminger, T.; Allenson, S.

    1986-04-01

    Declining oil prices, rising environmental concerns, and tighter profit margins have made field efficiency a major concern. Of particular interest to producers is the resulting quality of the clarified water and the current reliance on compounds containing metal salts, such as zinc. Traditional reverse emulsion breakers generally are based on heavy metal compounds. Many of these products are composed primarily of zinc chloride blends and often are quite effective in resolving emulsions and oil dispersions. Unfortunately, the metal usage has simultaneously caused producers significant problems because of oil dehydration and interface pad build-up. In addition, the increasing environmental scrutiny of heavy metal compounds has raised fears about the potential danger of the metals finding their way into water used by humans and farm animals. As a result, a new type of water clarification program has been developed using a different polymer technology that produces substantial cost efficiency. The program utilizes new, high molecular-weight polymers-which are totally organic and highly efficient at low dosages-that fuction as both coagulants and reverse emulsion breakers.

  11. The role of domestic tap water on Acanthamoeba keratitis in non-contact lens wearers and validation of laboratory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltas, Ismail Soner; Eroglu, Fadime; Erdem, Elif; Yagmur, Meltem; Tanır, Ferdi

    2015-09-01

    Acanthamoeba is increasingly recognized as an important cause of keratitis in non-contact lens wearers while contact lens wear is the leading risk factor for Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). It is unlikely that the Acanthamoeba colonization is a feature which is effective only in patient's homes with infectious keratitis since the organism has been isolated from domestic tap water. Two hundred and thirty-one (231) corneal scrapings were taken from infectious keratitis cases, and four contact lens solutions and domestic tap waters were taken from 22 out of 44 AK-diagnosed patient's homes. Microscopic examination, culture, PCR, real-time PCR and DNA sequencing analyses were used for AK-diagnosed samples. The real-time PCR was the most sensitive (100 %) one among the methods used in diagnosis of AK. The 44 (19.0 %) out of 231 corneal scrapings, 4/4 (100 %) contact lens solution and 11/22 (50 %) of domestic tap water samples were found to be positive by real-time PCR for Acanthamoeba. A. griffini (T3), A. castellanii (T4) and A. jacobsi (T15) genotypes were obtained from corneal scrapings, contact lens solutions and domestic tap water samples taken from the patient's homes diagnosed with AK. The isolation of Acanthamoeba containing 6/22 (27.3 %) A. griffini (T3), 14/22 (63.6 %) A. castellanii (T4) and 2/22 (9.1 %) A. jacobsi (T15) from the domestic tap water outlets of 22 of 44 (50 %) of patient's homes revealed that is a significant source of these organisms. A. griffini (T3) and A. jacobsi (T15) genotypes have not been determined from AK cases in Turkey previously. Thus, we conclude that Acanthamoeba keratitis is associated with exposition of patients who has ocular trauma or ocular surface disease to domestic tap water in endemic or potentially endemic countries.

  12. Modeling and simulation of water flow on containment walls with inhomogeneous contact angle distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amend, Katharina; Klein, Markus [Univ. der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany). Inst. for Numerical Methods in Aerospace Engineering

    2017-07-15

    The paper presents a three-dimensional numerical simulation for water running down inclined surfaces using OpenFOAM. This research project aims at developing a CFD model to describe the run down behavior of liquids and the resulting wash down of fission products on surfaces in the reactor containment. An empirical contact angle model with wetted history is introduced as well as a filtered randomized initial contact angle field. Simulation results are in good agreement with the experiments. Experimental Investigation on Passive.

  13. Mechanisms of Contact Electrification at Aluminum-Polytetrafluoroethylene and Polypropylene-Water

    KAUST Repository

    Nauruzbayeva, Jamilya

    2017-04-01

    Contact electrification refers to the transfer of electrical charges between two surfaces, similar and dissimilar, as they are brought into contact and separated; this phenomenon is also known as static electrification or triboelectrification. For example, everyone has experienced weak electrical shocks from metal doorknobs, wool and synthetic clothing on dry days. While contact electrification might appear insignificant, it plays a key role in numerous natural and industrial processes, including atmospheric lightning, accumulation of dust on solar panels, charging of liquids during pipetting and flow in the tubes, and fire hazards in granular media. Contact electrification at metal-metal interfaces is well understood in terms of transfer of electrons, but a comprehensive understanding of contact electrification at interfaces of electrical insulators, such as air, water, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polypropylene remains incomplete. In fact, a variety of mechanisms responsible for transfer of electrical charges during mechanical rubbing, slipping, sliding, or flow at interfaces have been proposed via: electrons, ions, protons, hydroxide ions from water, specific orientation of dipoles, mechanoradicals, cryptoelectrons, and transfer of material. We have noticed that the extent of contact electrification of solids in water is influenced by surface free energies, mobile ions, surface roughness, duration of contact, sliding speeds, and relative humidity. Herein, we present results of our experimental investigation of contact electrification at the following interfaces: (i) PTFE-aluminum in air and (ii) polypropylene-water interfaces. To identify the underlying mechanism, we started with various hypotheses and exploited a variety of experimental techniques to falsify most of them until we got an answer; our techniques included high-voltage power supply (0-10,000 V), Faraday cages, Kelvin probe force microscopy, electrodeposition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  14. Increased Case Notification through Active Case Finding of Tuberculosis among Household and Neighbourhood Contacts in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukushi Morishita

    Full Text Available Globally, there has been growing evidence that suggests the effectiveness of active case finding (ACF for tuberculosis (TB in high-risk populations. However, the evidence is still insufficient as to whether ACF increases case notification beyond what is reported in the routine passive case finding (PCF. In Cambodia, National TB Control Programme has conducted nationwide ACF with Xpert MTB/RIF that retrospectively targeted household and neighbourhood contacts alongside routine PCF. This study aims to investigate the impact of ACF on case notifications during and after the intervention period.Using a quasi-experimental cluster randomized design with intervention and control arms, we compared TB case notification during the one-year intervention period with historical baseline cases and trend-adjusted expected cases, and estimated additional cases notified during the intervention period (separately for Year 1 and Year 2 implementation. The proportion of change in case notification was compared between intervention and control districts for Year 1. The quarterly case notification data from all intervention districts were consolidated, aligning different implementation quarters, and separately analysed to explore the additionality. The effect of the intervention on the subsequent case notification during the post-intervention period was also assessed.In Year 1, as compared to expected cases, 1467 cases of all forms (18.5% and 330 bacteriologically-confirmed cases (9.6% were additionally notified in intervention districts, whereas case notification in control districts decreased by 2.4% and 2.3%, respectively. In Year 2, 2737 cases of all forms (44.3% and 793 bacteriologically-confirmed cases (38% were additionally notified as compared to expected cases. The proportions of increase in case notifications from baseline cases and expected cases to intervention period cases were consistently higher in intervention group than in control group. The

  15. Increased Case Notification through Active Case Finding of Tuberculosis among Household and Neighbourhood Contacts in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Fukushi; Eang, Mao Tan; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Globally, there has been growing evidence that suggests the effectiveness of active case finding (ACF) for tuberculosis (TB) in high-risk populations. However, the evidence is still insufficient as to whether ACF increases case notification beyond what is reported in the routine passive case finding (PCF). In Cambodia, National TB Control Programme has conducted nationwide ACF with Xpert MTB/RIF that retrospectively targeted household and neighbourhood contacts alongside routine PCF. This study aims to investigate the impact of ACF on case notifications during and after the intervention period. Using a quasi-experimental cluster randomized design with intervention and control arms, we compared TB case notification during the one-year intervention period with historical baseline cases and trend-adjusted expected cases, and estimated additional cases notified during the intervention period (separately for Year 1 and Year 2 implementation). The proportion of change in case notification was compared between intervention and control districts for Year 1. The quarterly case notification data from all intervention districts were consolidated, aligning different implementation quarters, and separately analysed to explore the additionality. The effect of the intervention on the subsequent case notification during the post-intervention period was also assessed. In Year 1, as compared to expected cases, 1467 cases of all forms (18.5%) and 330 bacteriologically-confirmed cases (9.6%) were additionally notified in intervention districts, whereas case notification in control districts decreased by 2.4% and 2.3%, respectively. In Year 2, 2737 cases of all forms (44.3%) and 793 bacteriologically-confirmed cases (38%) were additionally notified as compared to expected cases. The proportions of increase in case notifications from baseline cases and expected cases to intervention period cases were consistently higher in intervention group than in control group. The consolidated

  16. Wettability of supercritical carbon dioxide/water/quartz systems: simultaneous measurement of contact angle and interfacial tension at reservoir conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraji, Soheil; Goual, Lamia; Piri, Mohammad; Plancher, Henry

    2013-06-11

    Injection of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers is considered as a method of carbon sequestration. The efficiency of this process is dependent on the fluid-fluid and rock-fluid interactions inside the porous media. For instance, the final storage capacity and total amount of capillary-trapped CO2 inside an aquifer are affected by the interfacial tension between the fluids and the contact angle between the fluids and the rock mineral surface. A thorough study of these parameters and their variations with temperature and pressure will provide a better understanding of the carbon sequestration process and thus improve predictions of the sequestration efficiency. In this study, the controversial concept of wettability alteration of quartz surfaces in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) was investigated. A novel apparatus for measuring interfacial tension and contact angle at high temperatures and pressures based on Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis with no-Apex (ADSA-NA) method was developed and validated with a simple system. Densities, interfacial tensions, and dynamic contact angles of CO2/water/quartz systems were determined for a wide range of pressures and temperatures relevant to geological sequestration of CO2 in the subcritical and supercritical states. Image analysis was performed with ADSA-NA method that allows the determination of both interfacial tensions and contact angles with high accuracy. The results show that supercritical CO2 alters the wettability of quartz surface toward less water-wet conditions compared to subcritical CO2. Also we observed an increase in the water advancing contact angles with increasing temperature indicating less water-wet quartz surfaces at higher temperatures.

  17. Treatment of Simulated Coalbed Methane Produced Water Using Direct Contact Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Wan Cho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Expolitation of coalbed methane (CBM involves production of a massive amount saline water that needs to be properly managed for environmental protection. In this study, direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD was utilized for treatment of CBM-produced water to remove saline components in the water. Simulated CBM waters containing varying concentrations of NaCl (1, 20, and 500 mM and NaHCO3 (1 and 25 mM were used as feed solutions under two transmembrane temperatures (Δ40 and 60 °C. In short-term distillation (~360 min, DCMD systems showed good performance with nearly 100% removal of salts for all solutes concentrations at both temperatures. The permeate flux increased with the feed temperature, but at a given temperature, it remained fairly stable throughout the whole operation. A gradual decline in permeate flux was observed at Δ60 °C at high NaHCO3 concentration (25 mM. In long-term distillation (5400 min, the presence of 25 mM NaHCO3 further decreased the flux to 25%–35% of the initial value toward the end of the operation, likely due to membrane fouling by deposition of Ca-carbonate minerals on the pore openings. Furthermore, pore wetting by the scalants occurred at the end of the experiment, and it increased the distillate conducitivity to 110 µS·cm−1. The precipitates formed on the surface were dominantly CaCO3 crystals, identified as aragonite.

  18. Contact angle of water droplets in a high temperature, high pressure environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Hazuku, T.; Takamasa, T.; Takamori, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of surface wettability on a stainless plate in a high-temperature, high-pressure environment. Using a pressure vessel, we measured contact angles of water droplets at temperatures from 20 to 300 C. deg. and a constant pressure of 15 MPa, as an indicator of macroscopic surface wettability. Measured contact angles decreased with temperature below 250 C. deg., clustering around a straight line at temperatures below 120 C. deg. and around another line in the range from 120 to 250 C. deg.. At temperatures above 250 C. deg., on the other hand, the contact angles remained constant, independent of temperature, and contrary to the existing theoretical model, no highly hydrophilic condition or null contact angle condition was achieved. This result will enable more accurate assessment of heat transfer not only in steam pipes of a boiler but also in subchannel of a BWR-type reactor. (authors)

  19. Experimental Study on the Dynamic Performance of Water-Lubricated Rubber Bearings with Local Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ouyang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate dynamic characteristic coefficients of water-lubricated rubber bearings are necessary to research vibration of ship propulsion system. Due to mixed lubrication state of water-lubricated rubber bearings, normal test rig and identification method are not applicable. This paper establishes a test rig to simulate shaft misalignment and proposes an identification method for water-lubricated rubber bearings, which utilizes rotor unbalanced motion to produce self-excited force rather than artificial excitation. Dynamic performance tests under different conditions are operated. The results show that when rotational speed is less than 700 r/min, even if specific pressure is 0.05 MPa, it is difficult to form complete water film for the rubber bearing which was investigated, and contact friction and collision of the shaft and bearing are frequent. In the mixed lubrication, water film, rubber, and contact jointly determine dynamic characteristics of water-lubricated rubber bearings. The contact condition has a significant effect on the bearing stiffness, and water film friction damping has a significant effect on bearing damping. As for the particular investigated bearing, when rotational speed is in the range of 400~700 r/min and specific pressure is in the range of 0.03~0.07 MPa, bearing stiffness is in the range of 5.6~10.06 N/μm and bearing damping is in the range of 1.25~2.02 Ns/μm.

  20. Contact Angles of Water-repellent Porous Media Inferred by Tensiometer- TDR Probe Measurement Under Controlled Wetting and Drying Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subedi, Shaphal; Komatsu, Ken; Komatsu, Toshiko

    2013-01-01

    The time dependency of water repellency (WR) in hydrophobic porous media plays a crucial role for water infiltration processes after rainfall and for the long-term performance of capillary barrier systems. The contact angle (CA) of hydrophobic media normally decreases with continuous contact...... with water, eventually allowing water imbibition. However, the effect of the reduction in CA with soil-water contact time on the water retention function of hydrophobic media is not yet fully understood. In this study, water retention characteristics were measured using a hanging water column apparatus...... equipped with a mini-time domain reflectometry (TDR) coil probe under controlled wetting and drying in a water-repellent volcanic ash soil (VAS) and in sands coated with different hydrophobic agents. The contact angle (CA–SWRC) under imbibition was evaluated based on the inflection points on the water...

  1. The contribution of water contact behavior to the high Schistosoma mansoni Infection rates observed in the Senegal River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelma Foekje

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis is one of the major parasitic diseases in the world in terms of people infected and those at risk. Infection occurs through contact with water contaminated with larval forms of the parasite, which are released by freshwater snails and then penetrate the skin of people. Schistosomiasis infection and human water contact are thus essentially linked, and more knowledge about their relationship will help us to develop appropriate control measures. So far, only few studies have related water contact patterns to infection levels. Methods We have conducted detailed direct water contact observations in a village in Northern Senegal during the first years of a massive Schistosoma mansoni outbreak to determine the role of human water contact in the extent of the epidemic. We quantified water contact activities in terms of frequency and duration, and described how these vary with age and sex. Moreover, we assessed the relationship between water contact- and infection intensity patterns to further elucidate the contribution of exposure to the transmission of schistosomiasis. Results This resulted in over 120,000 recorded water contacts for 1651 subjects over 175 observation days. Bathing was the main activity, followed by household activities. Frequency and duration of water contact depended on age and sex rather than season. Water contacts peaked in adolescents, women spent almost twice as much time in the water as men, and water contacts were more intense in the afternoon than in the morning, with sex-specific intensity peaks. The average number of water contacts per person per day in this population was 0.42; the average time spent in the water per person per day was 4.3 minutes. Conclusions The observed patterns of water contact behavior are not unusual and have been described before in various other settings in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, water contact levels were not exceptionally high and thus cannot explain the

  2. Adsorption of natural surfactants present in sea waters at surfaces of minerals: contact angle measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Boniewicz-Szmyt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The wetting properties of solid mineral samples (by contact angles in original surfactant-containing sea water (Gulf of Gdańsk, Baltic were characterised under laboratory conditions on a large set (31 samples of well-classified stones of diverse hydrophobicity using the sessile drop (ADSA-P approach, captive bubble and inclined plate methods. An experimental relation between the static contact angle θeq and stone density ρ was obtained in the form θeq = Bρ + C, where B = 12.23 ± 0.92, C = - (19.17 ± 0.77, and r2 = 0.92. The histogram of θeq distribution for polished stone plates exhibited a multimodal feature indicating that the most abundant solid materials (hydrophilic in nature have contact angles θeq = 7.2, 10.7, 15.7 and 19.2º, which appear to be applicable to unspecified field stones as well. The contact angle, a pH-dependent quantity, appears to be a sensitive measure of stone grain size, e.g. granite. The captive bubble method gives reproducible results in studies of porous and highly hydrophilic surfaces such as stones and wood. The authors consider the adsorption of natural sea water surfactants on stone surfaces to be the process responsible for contact angle hysteresis. In the model, an equation was derived for determining the solid surface free energy from the liquid's surface tension γLV it also enabled the advancing θA and receding θR contact angles of this liquid to be calculated. Measurements of contact angle hysteresis Δθ (=θA - θR with surfactant-containing sea water and distilled water (reference on the same stone surfaces allowed the film pressure ΔΠ (1.22 to 8.80 mJ m-2, solid surface free energy ΔγS (-17.03 to -23.61 mJ m-2 and work done by spreading ΔWS (-1.23 to -11.52 mJ m-2 to be determined. The variability in these parameters is attributed to autophobing, an effect operative on a solid surface covered with an adsorptive layer of surfactants. The wetting behaviour of solid particles is of great

  3. Increased Cerebral Water Content in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Reetz, Kathrin; Abbas, Zaheer; Eitner, Frank; Gross, Theresa; Schulz, Jörg Bernhard; Floege, Jürgen; Shah, N. J.; Costa, Ana Sofia; Gras, Vincent; Tiffin-Richards, Frances; Mirzazade, Shahram; Holschbach, Bernhard; Frank, Rolf Dario; Vassiliadou, Athina; Krüger, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD) on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours), and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuro...

  4. [Airborne contact allergy provoked by kathon in water-based plastic paint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Diana; Hein, Hans Ole; Weismann, Kaare

    2002-04-29

    We describe two cases of airborne contact allergy to plastic paint containing Kathon. Two women with known kathon allergy, aged 33 and 50 years, developed severe dermatitis and systemic reactions after painting their homes with water-based plastic paint with Kathon as preservative. Both required treatment with systemic steroids. On return to their homes, the symptoms immediately recurred, and they were forced to stay away for several weeks afterwards. Patients allergic to Kathon should be informed of the risk of airborne contact allergy when exposed to paints preserved with Kathon.

  5. Acanthamoeba Species Keratitis in a Soft Contact Lens Wearer Molecularly Linked to Well Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mubareka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba species keratitis has been associated with soft contact lens wear. In the present report, an epidemiological link was established between the patient's isolate and well water from the home using molecular methods. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case in Canada where such a link has been established. Primary care practitioners and specialists, including ophthalmologists and infectious diseases specialists, must maintain a high degree of clinical suspicion in soft contact lens wearers with keratitis unresponsive to conventional topical and systemic treatment.

  6. Competitive adsorption of surfactants and hydrophilic silica particles at the oil-water interface: interfacial tension and contact angle studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichot, R; Spyropoulos, F; Norton, I T

    2012-07-01

    The effect of surfactants' type and concentration on the interfacial tension and contact angle in the presence of hydrophilic silica particles was investigated. Silica particles have been shown to have an antagonistic effect on interfacial tension and contact angle in the presence of both W/O and O/W surfactants. Silica particles, combined with W/O surfactant, have no effect on interfacial tension, which is only dictated by the surfactant concentration, while they strongly affect interfacial tension when combined with O/W surfactants. At low O/W surfactant, both particles and surfactant are adsorbed at the interface, modifying the interface structure. At higher concentration, interfacial tension is only dictated by the surfactant. By increasing the surfactant concentration, the contact angle that a drop of aqueous phase assumes on a glass substrate placed in oil media decreases or increases depending on whether the surfactant is of W/O or O/W type, respectively. This is due to the modification of the wettability of the glass by the oil or water induced by the surfactants. Regardless of the surfactant's type, the contact angle profile was dictated by both particles and surfactant at low surfactant concentration, whereas it is dictated by the surfactant only at high concentration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamics of Surface Reorganization of Poly(methyl methacrylate) in Contact with Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horinouchi, Ayanobu; Atarashi, Hironori; Fujii, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Keiji

    2013-03-01

    New tools for tailor-made diagnostics, such as DNA arrays and tips for micro-total-analysis systems, are generally made from polymers. In these applications, the polymer surface is in contact with a water phase. However, despite the importance of detailed knowledge of the fundamental interactions of polymer interfaces with liquids, such studies are very limited. As an initial benchmark for designing and constructing specialized biomedical surfaces containing polymer, aggregation states and dynamics of chains at the water interface should be systematically examined. We here apply time-resolved contact angle measurement to study the dynamics of the surface reorganization of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in contact with water. By doing the measurements at various temperatures, it is possible to discuss the surface dynamics of PMMA based on the apparent activation energy. Also, sum-frequency generation spectroscopy revealed that the surface reorganization involves the conformational changes in the main chain part as well as the side chains. Hence, the dynamics observed here may reflect the segmental motion at the outermost region of the PMMA film, in which water plays as a plasticizer.

  8. Further Evaluation of a Practitioner Model for Increasing Eye Contact in Children With Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, John T; Cook, Jennifer L; Nuta, Raluca; Balagot, Carissa; Crouchman, Kayla; Jenkins, Claire; Karim, Sidrah; Watters-Wybrow, Chelsea

    2018-02-01

    Cook et al. recently described a progressive model for teaching children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to provide eye contact with an instructor following a name call. The model included the following phases: contingent praise only, contingent edibles plus praise, stimulus prompts plus contingent edibles and praise, contingent video and praise, schedule thinning, generalization assessments, and maintenance evaluations. In the present study, we evaluated the extent to which modifications to the model were needed to train 15 children with ASD to engage in eye contact. Results show that 11 of 15 participants acquired eye contact with the progressive model; however, eight participants required one or more procedural modifications to the model to acquire eye contact. In addition, the four participants who did not acquire eye contact received one or more modifications. Results also show that participants who acquired eye contact with or without modifications continued to display high levels of the behavior during follow-up probes. We discuss directions for future research with and limitations of this progressive model.

  9. Biofilm formation on materials into contact with water: hygienic and technical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonadonna, L; Memoli, G.; Chiaretti, G.

    2008-01-01

    Biofilm formation in man-made water systems has a hygienic concern when it is considered that the continuous detachment of this structure in the water flow, condition representing a potential source of contamination of plumbing and a risk for health, allows also pathogen microorganisms to reach consumers. The trend of biofilm formation was evaluated through series of microbiological analyses performed, under controlled conditions, on pipes made of materials that come into contact with drinking water according to the Decree of Ministry of Health n. 174. The investigation showed that, respect to the other materials, the reticulated polyethylene allows to sustain higher microorganisms concentrations. This characteristic was also observed in biofilms developed in condition of water stagnation compared to biofilm risen on surfaces of pipes under water flow [it

  10. [Investigation of susceptibility of materials contacting with drinking water for microbial growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczotko, Maciej; Krogulska, Bozena; Krogulski, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Main purpose of this paper was to confirm of results obtained by new method based on bioluminescence technique for determination of susceptibility of materials contacting with drinking water were repeatable. Investigation was conducted during 8 weeks in dynamic conditions using continuous flow reactor UPE. Every week swabbes from tested materials were collected and level of ATP was examined. The results obtained from the surface of tested materials were repeatable and clearly approximate to those obtained from the surface of negative control material (stainless steel, low susceptibility for microbial growth). The level of the ATP on the surface of positive control material (paraffin, large susceptibility for microbial growth) was fifty times higher than that observed on other materials. Presented investigation was the main part of validation process, which in short time will serve to initiate system of complete assessment for materials contacting with drinking water according to Council Directives 89/106/EEC and 98/83/EC requirements.

  11. Research wetting and Leidenfrost effects on structured surfaces in contact with water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaziev, I. A.; Dedov, A. V.; Fedorovich, S. D.

    2017-11-01

    The influence of micro- and nanostructured surfaces on the boiling characteristics is introduced. The working surfaces were obtained by processing the samples with a laser, plasma, electron, or ion beam. Some of the samples were preliminarily coated with nanocarbonic materials. The morphology and the contact angle of wetting during interaction with water were studied for surfaces. A description of the apparatus for investigating the Leidenfrost temperature is introduced.

  12. Observation of fracture behavior of 3-D printed specimens under rolling contact fatigue in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizobe Koshiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer bearing was widely used in the corrosive conditions because of its high corrosion durability. The polymer bearing had been formed using molding and machining until the new 3-D printing method was developed. In this study, we performed the rolling contact fatigue tests of the 3-D printed specimens in water and observed the fracture behaviour of the specimens. We found that the surface cracks are related to both the rolling direction and the lamination directions.

  13. Effects of water chemistry and surface contact on the toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jun; Cheng, Jinping

    2017-07-01

    The growing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has created concerns about its potential impacts on natural microbial communities. In this study, the physicochemical properties of AgNPs and its toxicity on natural bacteria Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) were investigated in aqueous conditions. The characterization data showed that AgNPs highly aggregated in aqueous conditions, and the hydrodynamic diameter of AgNPs in aqueous conditions was larger than its primary size. The studied AgNPs was less toxic to B. subtilis in estuarine water as compared to that in Milli-Q water and artificial seawater, which might be due to the observed enhanced aggregation of AgNPs in estuarine water. The toxicity of AgNPs to B. subtilis was greatly reduced when their surface contact was blocked by a dialysis membrane. Scanning electron microscope images showed that exposure contact to AgNPs resulted in damage of the microbial cell wall and enhanced formation of fibrillar structures. These results suggest that particle-cell contact is largely responsible for the observed toxicity of AgNPs in B. subtilis. This study can help to understand the potential impacts of AgNPs to natural microbes, especially in the complex aquatic environments.

  14. Water droplet spreading and recoiling upon contact with thick-compact maltodextrin agglomerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraz-Torres, Lesvia Sofía; Quintanilla-Carvajal, María Ximena; Téllez-Medina, Darío I; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto; Alamilla-Beltrán, Liliana; Gutiérrez-López, Gustavo F

    2011-11-01

    The food and pharmaceutical industries handle a number of compounds in the form of agglomerates which must be put into contact with water for rehydration purposes. In this work, liquid-solid interaction between water and maltodextrin thick-compact agglomerates was studied at different constituent particle sizes for two compression forces (75 and 225 MPa). Rapid droplet spreading was observed which was similar in radius to the expected one for ideal, flat surfaces. Contact angle determinations reported oscillations of this parameter throughout the experiments, being indicative of droplet recoiling on top of the agglomerate. Recoiling was more frequent in samples obtained at 225 MPa for agglomerate formation. Agglomerates obtained at 75 MPa exhibited more penetration of the water. Competition between dissolution of maltodextrin and penetration of the water was, probably, the main mechanism involved in droplet recoiling. Micrographs of the wetting marks were characterized by means of image analysis and the measurements suggested more symmetry of the wetting mark at higher compression force. Differences found in the evaluated parameters for agglomerates were mainly due to compaction force used. No significant effect of particle size in recoiling, penetration of water into the agglomerate, surface texture and symmetry was observed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The association of drinking water treatment and distribution network disturbances with Health Call Centre contacts for gastrointestinal illness symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Annika; Axelsson, Gösta; Barregard, Lars; Ljungqvist, Jakob; Forsberg, Bertil; Bergstedt, Olof; Pettersson, Thomas J R

    2013-09-01

    There are relatively few studies on the association between disturbances in drinking water services and symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) illness. Health Call Centres data concerning GI illness may be a useful source of information. This study investigates if there is an increased frequency of contacts with the Health Call Centre (HCC) concerning gastrointestinal symptoms at times when there is a risk of impaired water quality due to disturbances at water works or the distribution network. The study was conducted in Gothenburg, a Swedish city with 0.5 million inhabitants with a surface water source of drinking water and two water works. All HCC contacts due to GI symptoms (diarrhoea, vomiting or abdominal pain) were recorded for a three-year period, including also sex, age, and geocoded location of residence. The number of contacts with the HCC in the affected geographical areas were recorded during eight periods of disturbances in the water works (e.g. short stops of chlorine dosing), six periods of large disturbances in the distribution network (e.g. pumping station failure or pipe breaks with major consequences), and 818 pipe break and leak repairs over a three-year period. For each period of disturbance the observed number of calls was compared with the number of calls during a control period without disturbances in the same geographical area. In total about 55, 000 calls to the HCC due to GI symptoms were recorded over the three-year period, 35 per 1000 inhabitants and year, but much higher (>200) for children water works or in the distribution network. Our results indicate that GI symptoms due to disturbances in water works or the distribution network are rare. The number of serious failures was, however limited, and further studies are needed to be able to assess the risk of GI illness in such cases. The technique of using geocoded HCC data together with geocoded records of disturbances in the drinking water network was feasible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  16. Responding to increased needs and demands for water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans M. Gregersen; William K. Easter; J. Edward de Steiguer

    2000-01-01

    The nature of the increased needs and demands for water relate to water quantity and quality, bringing in the dimensions of timing and location of water flows. Some key past international activities related to water and watershed policy are reviewed. The common threads that are shaping likely future responses relate to technical vs. institutional means of addressing...

  17. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Water Contact Angle of PVD Hard Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Sen; Cho, Ting-Pin

    2013-08-07

    Various PVD (physical vapor deposition) hard coatings including nitrides and metal-doped diamond-like carbons (Me-DLC) were applied in plastic injection and die-casting molds to improve wear resistance and reduce sticking. In this study, nitrides hcp-AlN (hexagonal close-packed AlN), Cr₂N, (CrAl)₂N) and Me-DLC (Si-DLC and Cr-DLC) coatings were prepared using a closed field unbalanced magnetron reactive sputtering system. The coatings were annealed in air for 2 h at various temperatures, after which the anti-sticking properties were assessed using water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The as-deposited hcp-AlN, Cr₂N and (CrAl)₂N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 119°, 106° and 101°. The as-deposited Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings exhibit hydrophilic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 74° and 88°. The annealed Cr₂N and (CrAl)₂N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior with higher WCAs, while the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings are hydrophilic. The increased WCA of the annealed Cr₂N and (CrAl)₂N coatings is related to their crystal structure and increased roughness. The decreased WCA of the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings is related to their crystal structures and has little correlation with roughness.

  18. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Water Contact Angle of PVD Hard Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Sen; Cho, Ting-Pin

    2013-01-01

    Various PVD (physical vapor deposition) hard coatings including nitrides and metal-doped diamond-like carbons (Me-DLC) were applied in plastic injection and die-casting molds to improve wear resistance and reduce sticking. In this study, nitrides hcp-AlN (hexagonal close-packed AlN), Cr2N, (CrAl)2N) and Me-DLC (Si-DLC and Cr-DLC) coatings were prepared using a closed field unbalanced magnetron reactive sputtering system. The coatings were annealed in air for 2 h at various temperatures, after which the anti-sticking properties were assessed using water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The as-deposited hcp-AlN, Cr2N and (CrAl)2N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 119°, 106° and 101°. The as-deposited Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings exhibit hydrophilic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 74° and 88°. The annealed Cr2N and (CrAl)2N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior with higher WCAs, while the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings are hydrophilic. The increased WCA of the annealed Cr2N and (CrAl)2N coatings is related to their crystal structure and increased roughness. The decreased WCA of the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings is related to their crystal structures and has little correlation with roughness. PMID:28811440

  19. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Water Contact Angle of PVD Hard Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Sen Yang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Various PVD (physical vapor deposition hard coatings including nitrides and metal-doped diamond-like carbons (Me-DLC were applied in plastic injection and die-casting molds to improve wear resistance and reduce sticking. In this study, nitrides hcp-AlN (hexagonal close-packed AlN, Cr2N, (CrAl2N and Me-DLC (Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings were prepared using a closed field unbalanced magnetron reactive sputtering system. The coatings were annealed in air for 2 h at various temperatures, after which the anti-sticking properties were assessed using water contact angle (WCA measurements. The as-deposited hcp-AlN, Cr2N and (CrAl2N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 119°, 106° and 101°. The as-deposited Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings exhibit hydrophilic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 74° and 88°. The annealed Cr2N and (CrAl2N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior with higher WCAs, while the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings are hydrophilic. The increased WCA of the annealed Cr2N and (CrAl2N coatings is related to their crystal structure and increased roughness. The decreased WCA of the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings is related to their crystal structures and has little correlation with roughness.

  20. Contact with poultry and animals increases risk of Campylobacter infections in adults of Ardabil province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ranjbar

    2017-04-01

    Detection of Campylobacter infections by PCR was more sensitive in adults. Investigation of Campylobacter prevalence in Ardabil showed this bacterium should be viewed as one of the possible pathogens in inflammatory diarrheal cases. People having habitual contact with animals should check the health of the animals regularly and not consume food from suspected sources.

  1. Water-contact patterns and schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural community in northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mota

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the influence of water-related human activities, contaminative behaviour, house location, education and socio-economic status on endemic Schistosoma mansoni infection. The study was conducted in a hilry non-irrigated area of rural northeast Brazil amongst a defined population of subsistence farmers, of whom 93% were infected by age 20. The area was mapped, water bodies were surveyed, and a detailed questionnaire was performed on each household. Infection was assessed by duplicate stool examinations using the sensitive Bell technique to quantify egg excretion. For each household, and index of intensity of infection was computed by grouping individual log-transformed egg counts as an age-sex adjusted Z score. Few households had a sanitary installation or a domestic water supply. However, neither water-contact nor contaminative behavior were indiscriminate. The people made considerable effort to defaecate far from a water source, to obtain household drinking water from the cleanest source, and to bathe only at certain sites where privacy is assured. Land ownership and literacy correlated poorly with the household index of intensity of infection. The key influence on infection status was the relative location of the house and snail-free or snail colonized water sources. In this area, a safe domestic water supply is the critical input needed to achieve definitive control of endemic Schistosomiasis.

  2. Experimental determination of thermal contact conductance between pressure and calandria tubes of Indian pressurised heavy water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dureja, A.K., E-mail: akdureja@barc.gov.in [Reactor Design & Development Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Pawaskar, D.N.; Seshu, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India); Sinha, S.K. [Reactor Design & Development Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Sinha, R.K. [Department of Atomic Energy, OYC, Near Gateway of India, Mumbai (India)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • We established an experimental facility to measure thermal contact conductance between disc shaped specimens. • We measured thermal contact conductance between Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tube (PT) material and Zr-4 calandria tube (CT) material. • We concluded that thermal contact conductance is a linear function of contact pressure for interface of PT and CT up to 10 MPa contact pressure. • We concluded that thermal contact conductance is a weak function of interface temperature. - Abstract: Thermal contact conductance (TCC) is one of the most important parameters in determining the temperature distribution in contacting structures. Thermal contact conductance between the contacting structures depends on the mechanical properties of underlying materials, thermo-physical properties of the interstitial fluid and surface condition of the structures coming in contact. During a postulated accident scenario of loss of coolant with coincident loss of emergency core cooling system in a tube type heavy water nuclear reactor, the pressure tube is expected to sag/balloon and come in contact with outer cooler calandria tube to dissipate away the heat generated to the moderator. The amount of heat thus transferred is a function of thermal contact conductance and the nature of contact between the two tubes. An experimental facility was designed, fabricated and commissioned to measure thermal contact conductance between pressure tube and calandria tube specimens. Experiments were conducted on disc shaped specimens under axial contact pressure in between mandrels. Experimental results of TCC and a linear correlation as a function of contact pressure have been reported in this paper.

  3. Increasing urban water self-sufficiency: New era, new challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Binning, Philip John; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    and 15 in-depth case studies, solutions used to increase water self-sufficiency in urban areas are analyzed. The main drivers for increased self-sufficiency were identified to be direct and indirect lack of water, constrained infrastructure, high quality water demands and commercial and institutional...... pressures. Case studies demonstrate increases in self-sufficiency ratios to as much as 80% with contributions from recycled water, seawater desalination and rainwater collection. The introduction of alternative water resources raises several challenges: energy requirements vary by more than a factor of ten...... amongst the alternative techniques, wastewater reclamation can lead to the appearance of trace contaminants in drinking water, and changes to the drinking water system can meet tough resistance from the public. Public water-supply managers aim to achieve a high level of reliability and stability. We...

  4. Salmonella species on meat contact surfaces and processing water in Sokoto main market and abattoir, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Oludayo Faleke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine Salmonella contamination of food contact surfaces and processing water in meat, fish and poultry processing units in Sokoto State, Nigeria. A total of 200 swab (100 from abattoir and 100 from poultry and fish markets and 60 processing water samples (30 from abattoir and 30 from poultry and fish markets were collected between May to August 2015. Cultural isolation, bio-typing and sero-grouping using Salmonella Sero-Quick Group Kit was conducted to analyse the samples. Seventy-five (75/260, 28.8 % of the total samples were positive to Salmonella by cultural isolation and bio-typing. Thirty (30/130; 23.1 % of samples collected in abattoir and 45 (45/130; 34.6 % of those collected from poultry and fish markets were positive for Salmonella respectively. Sero-groups D+Vi (Salmonella Typhi, B (Salmonella Paratyphi B, Salmonella Typhimurium and C (Salmonella Paratyphi C, Salmonella Cholerae suis were identified as the prevailing sero-groups in this study. Sero-group D+Vi has the highest prevalence (73.3 %; 55/75 from the positive bio-typing isolates. This study revealed the presence of contaminating and pathogenic Salmonella on food contact surfaces and processing water in the meat retail markets, indicating there is an urgent need to improve on the hygienic status of retail meat, poultry and fish markets.

  5. Water Reallocation - Increasing Opportunities for Cooperation, Administration and Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Marston, L.

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays utilizable water in many regions around the world has been allocated among the various users. Increasing demands and limited water supplies necessitates water reallocation given that the existing allocation is economically inefficient, socially unfair, and environmentally unsustainable. Water reallocation, a dynamic adaptation strategy to changing socioeconomic and environmental conditions, offers a flexible water management approach to mitigate water scarcity under changing socioeconomic, climatic, and environmental conditions. Water reallocation can be implemented via collective cooperation, administration, and/or market-based approaches. In spite of the numerous benefits of reallocating water between users, examples of successful water transfers are relatively sparse and the expected benefits are rarely met in full due to several complex impediments. This study discusses the key barriers to wider implementation of water reallocation based on overview of the current body of water reallocation literature. Many examples of water transfers from around the world illustrate both the benefits and challenges associated with reallocation. To overcome the obstacles for more effective reallocation, we propose an interdisciplinary approach to water reallocation that couples developments in the natural sciences and engineering disciplines with current water reallocation scholarship, which is predominately rooted in the social sciences. We conclude by calling for an integrated research platform that focuses on supporting both voluntary and nonvoluntary forms of water reallocation; however, a greater emphasis should be on nonmarket means of water transfer since it is more feasible for many regions where water rights are not well defined and institutional capacity is insufficient.

  6. Soil-water contact angle of some soils of the Russian Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, Galina; Tyugai, Zemfira; Milanovskiy, Evgeny; Shein, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Soil wettability affects the aggregate water resistance, the movement of moisture and dissolved substances, preferential flows, etc. There are many factors affecting the soil's wettability (the content of organic matter (OM), soil's mineralogical composition, particle size distribution), so it can reflect changes in the soil, including results of human impact. The quantitative characteristic of soil wettability is a contact angle (CA), its measurement is a new and difficult problem because of the complexity, heterogeneity and polydispersity of the object of investigation. The aim of this work is to study soil-water CA of some soils of the Russian Plane. MATERIALS AND METHODS The objects of study were sod-podzolic (Umbric Albeluvisols Abruptic, Eutric Podzoluvisols), grey forest non-podzolised (Greyic Phaeozems Albic, Haplic Greyzems), typical Chernozems (Voronic Chernozems pachic, Haplic Chernozems) - profiles under the forest and the arable land, and the chestnut (Haplic Kastanozems Chromic, Haplic Kastanozems) soils. The CA's determination was performed by a Drop Shape Analyzer DSA100 by the static sessile drop method. For all samples was determined the content of total and organic carbon (OC and TC) by dry combustion in oxygen flow. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION There is CA increasing from 85,1° (5 cm) to 40-45° (deeper, than 45 cm) in the sod-podzolic soil; OC content is changed at the same depths from 1,44 to 0.22%. We can see the similar picture in profiles of chernozems. In the forest profile the highest OC content and CA value are achieved on the surface of profile (6,41% and 78,1°), and by 90 cm these values are 1.9% and 50.2°. In the chernozem under the arable land the OC content is almost two times less and the profile is more wettable (from 50° to 19° at 5 and 100 cm). Corresponding with the OC content, the curve describing changes of CA in the profile of grey forest soil is S-shaped with peaks at 20 and 150 cm (81,3° and 70° respectively

  7. Friction and wear behaviour of 18 polymers in contact with steel in environments of air and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mens, J.W.M.; de Gee, A.W.J.

    1991-01-01

    18 polymers were characterized with respect to their friction and wear behaviour in contact with steel in environments of air and water. These were six unfilled materials, i.e. polyamide 66 (PA 66), polyoxymethylene (POM), polyethyleneterephthalate (PETP), polyetheretherketone (PEEK),

  8. Association of urogenital symptoms with history of water contact in young women in areas endemic for S. haematobium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galappaththi-Arachchige, Hashini Nilushika; Hegertun, Ingrid Elise Amlie; Holmen, Sigve

    2016-01-01

    Female genital schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Schistosoma haematobium. Infected females may suffer from symptoms mimicking sexually transmitted infections. We explored if self-reported history of unsafe water contact could be used as a simple predictor of genital...... schistosomiasis. In a cross-sectional study in rural South Africa, 883 sexually active women aged 16–22 years were included. Questions were asked about urogenital symptoms and water contact history. Urine samples were tested for S. haematobium ova. A score based on self-reported water contact was calculated...... associated with water contact included burning sensation in the genitals (p = 0.005), spot bleeding (p = 0.012), abnormal discharge smell (p = 0.018), bloody discharge (p = 0.020), genital ulcer (p = 0.038), red urine (p stress incontinence (p = 0.001) and lower abdominal pain (p = 0.028). In S...

  9. Modeling the Concentration of Volatile and Semivolatile Contaminants in Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) Product Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, Judith M; Bossa, Nathan; Rosen, David; Vardner, Jonathan T; Wiesner, Mark R

    2017-11-21

    Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) is an emerging water treatment technology that has high salt rejection; however, its commercialization potential for applications such as seawater desalination or industrial wastewater reuse may be limited by low rejection of volatile and semivolatile contaminants. In this manuscript, a contaminant concentration (CC) model describing the transport of volatile and semivolatile contaminants for DCMD systems was developed and validated using data from the bench-scale DCMD treatment of synthetic wastewaters. The DCMD tests showed that the more volatile contaminants (methyl-tert-butyl ether, acetone, pentanone, butanol, and hexanol) accumulated in the permeate collection stream at greater concentrations than in the feed stream. The validated CC model (average normalized root mean squared error ≤11.3%) was then used to evaluate the product water quality from the large-scale DCMD treatment of oil and gas produced waters. The modeled product water contaminant concentrations exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency limits for discharging to publicly owned treatment works. This indicated that DCMD treatment of produced waters may require additional processing to meet discharge requirements.

  10. A Comparison of Three Methods to Increase Scleral Contact Lens On-Eye Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticak, Anita; Marsack, Jason D; Koenig, Darren E; Ravikumar, Ayeswarya; Shi, Yue; Nguyen, Lan Chi; Applegate, Raymond A

    2015-11-01

    To quantify on-eye rotational and translational stability of three scleral contact lens stabilization methods and to model the variation in visual acuity when these movements occur in a wavefront-guided correction for highly aberrated eyes. Three lens stabilization methods were integrated into the posterior periphery of a scleral contact lens designed at the Visual Optics Institute. For comparison, a lens with no stabilization method (rotationally symmetric posterior periphery) was designed. The lenses were manufactured and lens movements were quantified on 8 eyes as the average SD of the observed translations and rotations over 60 min of wear. In addition, the predicted changes in acuity for five eyes with keratoconus wearing a simulated wavefront-guided correction (full correction through the fifth order) were modeled using the measured movements. For each lens design, no significant differences in the translation and rotation were found between left and right eyes, and lenses behaved similarly on all subjects. All three designs with peripheral stability modifications exhibited no statistically significant differences in translation and rotation distributions of lens movement and were statistically more stable than the spherical lens in rotation. When the measured movements were used to simulate variation in visual performance, the 3 lenses with integrated stability methods showed a predicted average loss in acuity from the perfectly aligned condition of approximately 0.06 logMAR (3 letters), compared with the loss of over 0.14 logMAR (7 letters) for the lens with the spherical periphery. All three stabilization methods provided superior stability, as compared with the spherical lens design. Simulations of the optical and visual performance suggest that all three stabilization designs can provide desirable results when used in the delivery of a wavefront-guided correction for a highly aberrated eye.

  11. A Comparision of Three Methods to Increase Scleral Contact Lens On-eye Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticak, Anita; Marsack, Jason D.; Koenig, Darren E.; Ravikumar, Ayeswarya; Shi, Yue; Nguyen, Lan Chi; Applegate, Raymond A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To: 1) quantify on-eye rotational and translational stability of three scleral contact lens stabilization methods and 2) model the variation in visual acuity when these movements occur in a wavefront-guided correction for highly aberrated eyes. Methods Three lens stabilization methods were integrated into the posterior periphery of a scleral contact lens designed at the Visual Optics Institute. For comparison, a lens with no stabilization method (rotationally symmetric posterior periphery) was designed. The lenses were manufactured and lens movements were quantified on eight eyes as the average standard deviation of the observed translations and rotations over 60 minutes of wear. In addition, the predicted changes in acuity for 5 eyes with keratoconus wearing a simulated wavefront-guided correction (full correction through the fifth order) were modeled using the measured movements. Results For each lens design, no significant differences in the translation and rotation were found between left and right eyes, and lenses behaved similarly on all subjects. All three designs with peripheral stability modifications exhibited no statistically significant differences in translation and rotation distributions of lens movement and were statistically more stable than the spherical lens in rotation. When the measured movements were used to simulate variation in visual performance, the three lenses with integrated stability methods showed a predicted average loss in acuity from the perfectly aligned condition of approximately 0.06 logMAR (3 letters), compared to the loss of over 0.14 logMAR (7 letters) for the lens with the spherical periphery. Conclusions All three stabilization methods provided superior stability, as compared to the spherical lens design. Simulations of the optical and visual performance suggest that all three stabilization designs can provide desirable results when utilized in the delivery of a wavefront-guided correction for a highly aberrated eye

  12. Drivers And Uncertainties Of Increasing Global Water Scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, L.; Pfister, S.

    2015-12-01

    Water scarcity threatens ecosystems and human health and hampers economic development. It generally depends on the ratio of water consumption to availability. We calculated global, spatially explicit water stress indices (WSIs) which describe the vulnerability to additional water consumption on a scale from 0 (low) to 1 (high) and compare them for the decades 1981-1990 and 2001-2010. Input data are obtained from a multi-model ensemble at a resolution of 0.5 degrees. The variability among the models was used to run 1000 Monte Carlo simulations (latin hypercube sampling) and to subsequently estimate uncertainties of the WSIs. Globally, a trend of increasing water scarcity can be observed, however, uncertainties are large. The probability that this trend is actually occurring is as low as 53%. The increase in WSIs is rather driven by higher water use than lower water availability. Water availability is only 40% likely to decrease whereas water consumption is 67% likely to increase. Independent from the trend, we are already living under water scarce conditions, which is reflected in a consumption-weighted average of monthly WSIs of 0.51 in the recent decade. Its coefficient of variation points with 0.8 to the high uncertainties entailed, which might still hide poor model performance where all models consistently over- or underestimate water availability or use. Especially in arid areas, models generally overestimate availability. Although we do not traverse the planetary boundary of freshwater use as global water availability is sufficient, local water scarcity might be high. Therefore the regionalized assessment of WSIs under uncertainty helps to focus on specific regions to optimise water consumption. These global results can also help to raise awareness of water scarcity, and to suggest relevant measures such as more water efficient technologies to international companies, which have to deal with complex and distributed supply chains (e.g. in food production).

  13. Tilting oil-water contact in the chalk of Tyra Field as interpreted from capillary pressure data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Rana, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    -trends from logs were compared with normalized water saturation depth-trends predicted from capillary pressure core data. The ten wells lie close to a SW–NE cross section of the field. For the gas–oil contact, a free contact measured in one well corresponds to a practically horizontal contact interpreted from...... of imbibition, where the free water level overlies an interval of residual oil, whereas in the eastern part of the field, the depth-wise trends in normalized water saturation correspond to a situation of drainage. The free water level apparently dips to the east due either to hydrodynamic action or to pressure......The Tyra Field in the central North Sea is located in Palaeogene and Upper Cretaceous chalk. It contains a natural gas zone underlain by an oil leg. Based on analysis of logs and core data from ten wells drilled prior to the field being put into production, normalized water saturation depth...

  14. Experimental and Analytical Study of Lead-Bismuth-Water Direct Contact Boiling Two-Phase Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitrian; Dostal, Vaclav; Takahashi, Minoru

    The characteristics of lead-bismuth(Pb-Bi)-water boiling two-phase flow were investigated experimentally and analytically using a Pb-Bi-water direct contact boiling two-phase flow loop. Pb-Bi flow rates and void fraction were measured in a vertical circular tube at conditions of system pressure 7MPa, liquid metal temperature 460°C and injected water temperature 220°C. The drift-flux model with the assumption that bubble sizes were dependent on the fluid surface tension and the density ratio of Pb-Bi to steam-water mixture was chosen and modified by the best fit to the measured void fraction. Pb-Bi flow rates were analytically estimated using balance condition between buoyancy force and pressure losses, where the buoyancy force was calculated from void fraction estimated using the modified drift-flux model. The deviation of the analytical results of the flow rates from the experimental ones was less than 10%.

  15. Durability of blended cements in contact with sulfate-bearing ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerden, S.L.; Majumdar, A.J.; Walton, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    In the concept of radioactive waste disposal developed in the UK (United Kingdom), OPC (ordinary portland cement) blended with pulverized fuel ash or ground granulated blastfurnace slag is being considered for encapsulation of waste forms, as a material for backfilling and sealing a repository, and for concrete in repository construction. This paper describes a laboratory study of the long term durability of such cements in contact with sulfate-bearing ground water under accelerated exposure conditions. Mineralogical analysis of the cements over the exposure period, carried out with the aid of scanning electron microscope observations and x-ray diffraction studies, provides an indication of the stability of cementitious phases exposed to an aggressive environment. It is shown that for intact cement blocks there is minimal interaction between cement and sulfate-bearing ground water. Sulfate minerals produced by the reaction are accommodated in voids in the cement with no adverse effect on the cement structure. However, crystallization of C-S-H and sulfate minerals along cracks in hardened cement specimens causes expansion of fracture surfaces resulting in a more accessible route for ground water intrusion and radionuclide migration. The reaction of cement with ground water is greatly accelerated by the use of powdered material. Ettringite formed in the reaction is found to be unstable under these conditions. The mineralogical assemblage after exposure for 1 year is calcite, hydrotalcite, C-S-H and quartz

  16. Potable water recovery from As, U, and F contaminated ground waters by direct contact membrane distillation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarlagadda, Saketa; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Camacho, Lucy Mar; Pinappu, Saireddy; Deng, Shuguang

    2011-09-15

    In this study, the feasibility of the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process to recover arsenic, uranium and fluoride contaminated saline ground waters was investigated. Two types of membranes (polypropylene, PP; and polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE) were tested to compare the permeate production rates and contaminant removal efficiencies. Several experiments were conducted to study the effect of salts, arsenic, fluoride and uranium concentrations (synthetic brackish water with salts: 1000-10,000 ppm; arsenic and uranium: 10-400 ppb; fluoride: 1-30 ppm) on the desalination efficiency. The effect of process variables such as feed flow rate, feed temperature and pore size was studied. The experimental results proved that the DCMD process is able to achieve over 99% rejection of the salts, arsenic, fluoride and uranium contaminants and produced a high quality permeate suitable for many beneficial uses. The ability to utilize the low grade heat sources makes the DCMD process a viable option to recover potable water from a variety of impaired ground waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Total water production capacity inversion phenomenon in multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation: A theoretical study

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-09-09

    The low thermal efficiency and low water production are among the major challenges that prevent membrane distillation (MD) process from being commercialized. In an effort to design an efficient multi-stage direct contact MD (DCMD) unit through mathematical simulation, a new phenomenon that we refer to as total water production capacity inversion (WPI) has been detected. It is represented by a decrease in the total water production beyond a number of stages or a certain module length. WPI phenomenon, which was confirmed by using two different mathematical models validated experimentally, was found to take place due to the decrease in water vapor flux across the membrane as well as the increase in heat loss by conduction as the membrane length increases. Therefore, WPI should be considered as a critical MD design-criterion, especially for large scale units. Investigations conducted for a simulated multi-stage DCMD process showed that inlet feed and permeate temperatures difference, feed and permeate flow rates, and feed salinity have different effects on WPI. The number of stages (or module length at constant width) that leads to a maximum water production has been determined for different operating parameters. Decreasing inlet feed and permeate temperatures difference, or inlet feed and permeate flow rates and increasing inlet feed temperature at constant temperature difference or inlet feed salinity cause the WPI to take place at lower number of stages. Even though the feed salinity affects negligibly the mean permeate flux, it was clearly shown that it can affect WPI. The results presented herein unveil a hidden phenomenon that is likely to occur during process scale-up procedures and should be considered by process engineers for a proper choice of system design and operating conditions.

  18. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2010-01-01

    Vesicular systems, such as liposomes and ethosomes, are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to encapsulate ingredients, to protect ingredients from degradation, to increase bioavailability, and to improve cosmetic performance. Some reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic...

  19. Increase of water resistance of ammonium nitrate explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkhair Mansurov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Developed a method of kapsulating of ammonium nitrate with liquid paraffin increase finding explosives in water for 60 minutes. Placing explosives in the plastic shell, the explosive was, as in standing or running water during the day. When conducting field tests failures were absent.

  20. Water deficit increases stilbene metabolism in Cabernet Sauvignon berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Decendit, Alain; Papastamoulis, Yorgos; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2011-01-12

    The impact of water deficit on stilbene biosynthesis in wine grape (Vitis vinifera) berries was investigated. Water deficit increased the accumulation of trans-piceid (the glycosylated form of resveratrol) by 5-fold in Cabernet Sauvignon berries but not in Chardonnay. Similarly, water deficit significantly increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in the biosynthesis of stilbene precursors in Cabernet Sauvignon. Increased expression of stilbene synthase, but not that of resveratrol-O-glycosyltransferase, resulted in increased trans-piceid concentrations. In contrast, the transcript abundance of the same genes declined in Chardonnay in response to water deficit. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the promoters of stilbene synthase genes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Pinot Noir. These polymorphisms resulted in eight changes within the predicted cis regulatory elements in Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. These results suggest that cultivar-specific molecular mechanisms might exist that control resveratrol biosynthesis in grapes.

  1. Case study on water based cellulose couplant in contact type ultrasonic testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivamurthy B.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the ultrasonic test performance of water based Methylcellulose couplant on steel is reported. The couplant used in the ultrasonic testing has an influence on the amplitude of the pulse echo signal. The ultrasonic energy which is transmitted from the transducer to the test material, through the couplant which is present in the interface. The amplitudes of back wall echo increases with increasing acoustic impedance of the couplant. In this research work couplant was prepared by using 0 to 50g of methylcellulose in steps of 10g in 250 ml of water. All five types of water based methylcellulose couplant were used for testing a standard stainless steel calibration U2 block. The effect on the amplitudes of back wall echoes was studied and best possible combination of water and methylcellulose are reported.

  2. Short-term organic carbon migration from polymeric materials in contact with chlorinated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Guannan; Wang, Yingying; Hammes, Frederik

    2018-02-01

    Polymeric materials are widely used in drinking water distribution systems. These materials could release organic carbon that supports bacterial growth. To date, the available migration assays for polymeric materials have not included the potential influence of chlorination on organic carbon migration behavior. Hence, we established a migration and growth potential protocol specifically for analysis of carbon migration from materials in contact with chlorinated drinking water. Four different materials were tested, including ethylene propylene dienemethylene (EPDM), poly-ethylene (PEX b and PEX c) and poly-butylene (PB). Chlorine consumption rates decreased gradually over time for EPDM, PEXc and PB. In contrast, no free chlorine was detected for PEXb at any time during the 7 migration cycles. Total organic carbon (TOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC) was evaluated in both chlorinated and non-chlorinated migrations. TOC concentrations for EPDM and PEXb in chlorinated migrations were significantly higher than non-chlorinated migrations. The AOC results showed pronounced differences among tested materials. AOC concentrations from chlorinated migration waters of EPDM and PB were higher compared to non-chlorinated migrations, whereas the opposite trend was observed for PEXb and PEXc. There was also a considerable difference between tested materials with regards to bacterial growth potential. The results revealed that the materials exposed to chlorine-influenced migration still exhibited a strong biofilm formation potential. The overall results suggested that the choice in material would make a considerable difference in chlorine consumption and carbon migration behavior in drinking water distribution systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Solid-Contact pH Sensor without CO2 Interference with a Superhydrophobic PEDOT-C14 as Solid Contact: The Ultimate "Water Layer" Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzinski, Marcin; Jarvis, Jennifer M; D'Orazio, Paul; Izadyar, Anahita; Pendley, Bradford D; Lindner, Ernő

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to find a conducting polymer-based solid contact (SC) for ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) that could become the ultimate, generally applicable SC, which in combination with all kinds of ion-selective membranes (ISMs) would match the performance characteristics of conventional ISEs. We present data collected with electrodes utilizing PEDOT-C 14 , a highly hydrophobic derivative of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, as SC and compare its performance characteristics with PEDOT-based SC ISEs. PEDOT-C 14 has not been used in SC ISEs previously. The PEDOT-C 14 -based solid contact (SC) ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) (H + , K + , and Na + ) have outstanding performance characteristics (theoretical response slope, short equilibration time, excellent potential stability, etc.). Most importantly, PEDOT-C 14 -based SC pH sensors have no CO 2 interference, an essential pH sensors property when aimed for whole-blood analysis. The superhydrophobic properties (water contact angle: 136 ± 5°) of the PEDOT-C 14 SC prevent the detachment of the ion-selective membrane (ISM) from its SC and the accumulation of an aqueous film between the ISM and the SC. The accumulation of an aqueous film between the ISM and its SC has a detrimental effect on the sensor performance. Although there is a test for the presence of an undesirable water layer, if the conditions for this test are not selected properly, it does not provide an unambiguous answer. On the other hand, recording the potential drifts of SC electrodes with pH-sensitive membranes in samples with different CO 2 levels can effectively prove the presence or absence of a water layer in a short time period.

  4. Increased Acid Dissociation at the Quartz/Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, Shivam; Lesnicki, Dominika; Sulpizi, Marialore

    2018-04-16

    As shown by a quite significant amount of literature, acids at the water surface tend to be "less" acid, meaning that their associated form is favored over the conjugated base. What happens at the solid/liquid interface? In the case of the silica/water interface, we show how the acidity of adsorbed molecules can instead increase. Using a free energy perturbation approach in combination with electronic structure-based molecular dynamics simulations, we show how the acidity of pyruvic acid at the quartz/water interface is increased by almost two units. Such increased acidity is the result of the specific microsolvation at the interface and, in particular, of the stabilization of the deprotonated form by the silanols on the quartz surface and the special interfacial water layer.

  5. Tests to characterize the behaviour of natural stone in contact with water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vielba Cuerpo, C.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental analysis of the stone behaviour in contact with water in the different construction uses. In any of these cases is analyse how the water penetrates into the material. As a result of the study the need of modification of the UNE test standards is concluded. It is proposed a procedure to determinate the material's properties and a method to compare and analyse the result obtained that keep into consideration the climate factors. The method have been applied to sandstone of Villamayor (Spain showing its utility in the analysis of the stone properties.

    Se expone la necesidad de revisión de las normas UNE de ensayo para la determinación del comportamiento frente al agua de las rocas porosas teniendo en cuenta las formas de exposición que suponen las distintas aplicaciones constructivas y los mecanismos de penetración del agua que en cada caso operan. Se propone para ello una sistemática de ensayos y un método comparado de análisis de resultados basado en la consideración de los factores climatológicos. La utilidad del método se ilustra con un ejemplo de aplicación al estudio de la Arenisca de Villamayor

  6. Do wave heights and water levels increase ocean lifeguard rescues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, William; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Quan, Linda

    2017-12-05

    To investigate the association of wave height and tidal water level changes with the frequency of ocean lifeguard rescues. All ocean lifeguard rescues recorded by Newport Beach Lifeguards in 2015 and 2016 were linked by time and location to weather and ocean variables contained in other historical databases. We performed separate multivariable analyses using mixed effects negative binomial regression to evaluate the total effects of wave height, mean water level (primarily set by tidal elevation), and rising vs. falling water level, on the frequency of ocean rescue in the study location, controlling for confounding variables. Newport Beach Lifeguards made 8046 rescues during the study period. In all areas of the beach, rescue frequency increased as waves got larger (IRR: 3.25; 95%CI: 2.91-3.79) but then decreased in large surf (IRR: 0.52; 95%CI: 0.37-0.73). In two sections of beach, lifeguards made more rescues during lower water levels, but in the third section of beach, made more rescues during higher water levels. Rescue frequency increased in two sections of beach with rising water levels, but did not in the other section. Wave height, water level, and water level direction were associated with rescue frequency, but the environmental factors included in the analysis did not fully account for most variation in rescue frequency. Other factors need to be evaluated to identify major determinants of rescue frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Transmission of Infectious Vibrio cholerae Through Drinking Water among the Household Contacts of Cholera Patients (CHoBI7 Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Rafique

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent cholera causes significant morbidity and mortality among the growing population of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are at >100 times higher risk of cholera during the week after the presentation of the index patient. Our prospective study investigated the mode of transmission of Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, in the households of cholera patients in Dhaka city. Of total 420 rectal swab samples analyzed from 84 household contacts and 330 water samples collected from 33 households, V. cholerae was isolated from 20%(17/84 of household contacts, 18%(6/33 of stored drinking water, and 27%(9/33 of source water samples. Phenotypic and molecular analyses results confirmed the V. cholerae isolates to be toxigenic and belonging to serogroup O1 biotype El Tor (ET possessing cholera toxin of classical biotype (altered ET. Phylogenetic analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE showed the V. cholerae isolates to be clonally linked, as >95% similarity was confirmed by sub-clustering patterns in the PFGE (NotI-based dendrogram. Mapping results showed cholera patients to be widely distributed across 25 police stations with the highest incidence in households near the major rivers and polluted water bodies. The data presented on the transmission of infectious V. cholerae within the household contacts of cholera patients through drinking water underscores the need for safe water to prevent spread of cholera and related deaths in Dhaka city.

  8. Increasing photovoltaic panel power through water cooling technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calebe Abrenhosa Matias

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a cooling apparatus using water in a commercial photovoltaic panel in order to analyze the increased efficiency through decreased operating temperature. The system enables the application of reuse water flow, at ambient temperature, on the front surface of PV panel and is composed of an inclined plane support, a perforated aluminum profile and a water gutter. A luminaire was specially developed to simulate the solar radiation over the module under test in a closed room, free from the influence of external climatic conditions, to carry out the repetition of the experiment in controlled situations. The panel was submitted to different rates of water flow. The best water flow rate was of 0.6 L/min and net energy of 77.41Wh. Gain of 22.69% compared to the panel without the cooling system.

  9. INCREASING EXTINGUISHING EFFECT OF WATER MIST BY ELEKTRIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Dvořák

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes extinguishing experiments to verify the possibility of increasing the fire-extinguishing efficiency of low-, medium- and high-pressure water mist by its charging by the electric field of high DC voltage. The experimental results confirmed the effects of the electrical voltage, the configuration of electrodes (anode, cathode, the volumetric water flow rate, water pressure and the type of mist nozzle. Higher fire-extinguishing effect of electrically-charged water mist was shown by a shorter extinguishing time, a smaller volume of water to extinguish the fire and a higher percentage of successful extinguishing attempts. Benefit: faster and more efficient fire-fighting with a smaller risk of injury of persons and smaller subsequent damage in the protected space.

  10. [Study of cytogenetic and cytotoxic effect of non-contact electrochemically-activated waters in the five organs of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sycheva, L P; Mikhaĭlova, R I; Beliaeva, N N; Zhurkov, V S; Iurchenko, V V; Savostikova, O N; Alekseeva, A V; Kribtsova, E K; Kovalenko, M A; Akhal'tseva, L V; Sheremet'eva, S M; Iurtseva, N A; Murav'eva, L V; Kamenetskaia, D B

    2014-01-01

    For the first time the multiorgan karyological analysis of five organs of rats was applied for the study of the cytogenetic and cytotoxic action of the four types of non-contact electrochemically activated water in the 30-days in vivo experiment. The effects of investigated waters were not detected in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes. "Anolyte" (ORP = -362 mV) did not have a negative effect on rats. "Catholyte-5" (ORP = +22 mV) and "Catholyte-25" (ORP = -60 mV) induced cytogenetic abnormalities in the bladder and fore stomach. The same catholytes and "Catholyte-40" (ORP = -10 mV) changed the proliferation indices: increased the mitotic index in the fore stomach epithelium and reduced the frequency of binucleated cells in the fore stomach, bladder and lungs. The increase in the rate of cells with cytogenetic abnormalities on the background of the promotion of mitotic activity can be considered as a manifestation of the negative effect, typical for catolytes, but the effect of each out of them has its own features.

  11. Increasing Water Temperature Triggers Dominance of Small Freshwater Plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasconi, Serena; Gall, Andrea; Winter, Katharina; Kainz, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Climate change scenarios predict that lake water temperatures will increase up to 4°C and rainfall events will become more intense and frequent by the end of this century. Concurrently, supply of humic substances from terrestrial runoff is expected to increase, resulting in darker watercolor ("brownification") of aquatic ecosystems. Using a multi-seasonal, low trophic state mesocosm experiment, we investigated how higher water temperature and brownification affect plankton community composition, phenology, and functioning. We tested the hypothesis that higher water temperature (+3°C) and brownification will, a) cause plankton community composition to shift toward small sized phytoplankton and cyanobacteria, and, b) extend the length of the growing season entailing higher phytoplankton production later in the season. We demonstrate that the 3°C increase of water temperature favored the growth of heterotrophic bacteria and small sized autotrophic picophytoplankton cells with significantly higher primary production during warmer fall periods. However, 3X darker water (effect of brownification) caused no significant changes in the plankton community composition or functioning relative to control conditions. Our findings reveal that increased temperature change plankton community structure by favoring smaller sized species proliferation (autotrophic phytoplankton and small size cladocerans), and increase primary productivity and community turnover. Finally, results of this multi-seasonal experiment suggest that warming by 3°C in aquatic ecosystems of low trophic state may cause planktonic food web functioning to become more dominated by fast growing, r-trait species (i.e., small sizes and rapid development).

  12. Increase of COP for heat transformer in water purification systems. Part I - Increasing heat source temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueiros, J.; Romero, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The integration of a water purification system in a heat transformer allows a fraction of heat obtained by the heat transformer to be recycled, increasing the heat source temperature. Consequently, the evaporator and generator temperatures are also increased. For any operating conditions, keeping the condenser and absorber temperatures and also the heat load to the evaporator and generator, a higher value of COP is obtained when only the evaporator and generator temperatures are increased. Simulation with proven software compares the performance of the modeling of an absorption heat transformer for water purification (AHTWP) operating with water/lithium bromide, as the working fluid-absorbent pair. Plots of enthalpy-based coefficients of performance (COP ET ) and the increase in the coefficient of performance (COP) are shown against absorber temperature for several thermodynamic operating conditions. The results showed that proposed (AHTWP) system is capable of increasing the original value of COP ET more than 120%, by recycling part of the energy from a water purification system. The proposed system allows to increase COP values from any experimental data for water purification or any other distillation system integrated to a heat transformer, regardless of the actual COP value and any working fluid-absorbent pair

  13. Wettability determination by contact angle measurements: hvbB coal-water system with injection of synthetic flue gas and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojai Kaveh, Narjes; Rudolph, E Susanne J; Wolf, Karl-Heinz A A; Ashrafizadeh, Seyed Nezameddin

    2011-12-01

    Geological sequestration of pure carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in coal is one of the methods to sequester CO(2). In addition, injection of CO(2) or flue gas into coal enhances coal bed methane production (ECBM). The success of this combined process depends strongly on the wetting behavior of the coal, which is function of coal rank, ash content, heterogeneity of the coal surface, pressure, temperature and composition of the gas. The wetting behavior can be evaluated from the contact angle of a gas bubble, CO(2) or flue gas, on a coal surface. In this study, contact angles of a synthetic flue gas, i.e. a 80/20 (mol%) N(2)/CO(2) mixture, and pure CO(2) on a Warndt Luisenthal (WL) coal have been determined using a modified pendant drop cell in a pressure range from atmospheric to 16 MPa and a constant temperature of 318 K. It was found that the contact angles of flue gas on WL coal were generally smaller than those of CO(2). The contact angle of CO(2) changes from water-wet to gas-wet by increasing pressure above 8.5 MPa while the one for the flue gas changes from water-wet to intermediate-wet by increasing pressure above 10 MPa. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Substantia Nigra Free Water Increases Longitudinally in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttuso, T; Bergsland, N; Hagemeier, J; Lichter, D G; Pasternak, O; Zivadinov, R

    2018-02-01

    Free water in the posterior substantia nigra obtained from a bi-tensor diffusion MR imaging model has been shown to significantly increase over 1- and 4-year periods in patients with early-stage idiopathic Parkinson disease compared with healthy controls, which suggests that posterior substantia nigra free water may be an idiopathic Parkinson disease progression biomarker. Due to the known temporal posterior-to-anterior substantia nigra degeneration in idiopathic Parkinson disease, we assessed longitudinal changes in free water in both the posterior and anterior substantia nigra in patients with later-stage idiopathic Parkinson disease and age-matched healthy controls for comparison. Nineteen subjects with idiopathic Parkinson disease and 19 age-matched healthy control subjects were assessed on the same 3T MR imaging scanner at baseline and after approximately 3 years. Baseline mean idiopathic Parkinson disease duration was 7.1 years. Both anterior and posterior substantia nigra free water showed significant intergroup differences at baseline ( P Parkinson disease versus healthy controls); however, only anterior substantia nigra free water showed significant longitudinal group × time interaction increases ( P = .021, idiopathic Parkinson disease versus healthy controls). There were no significant longitudinal group × time interaction differences found for conventional diffusion tensor imaging or free water-corrected DTI assessments in either the anterior or posterior substantia nigra. Results from this study provide further evidence supporting substantia nigra free water as a promising disease-progression biomarker in idiopathic Parkinson disease that may help to identify disease-modifying therapies if used in future clinical trials. Our novel finding of longitudinal increases in anterior but not posterior substantia nigra free water is potentially a result of the much longer disease duration of our cohort compared with previously studied cohorts and the known

  15. Optimizing water depth for wetland-dependent wildlife could increase wetland restoration success, water efficiency, and water security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Christopher P.; Conway, Courtney J.

    2015-01-01

    Securing water for wetland restoration efforts will be increasingly difficult as human populations demand more water and climate change alters the hydrologic cycle. Minimizing water use at a restoration site could help justify water use to competing users, thereby increasing future water security. Moreover, optimizing water depth for focal species will increase habitat quality and the probability that the restoration is successful. We developed and validated spatial habitat models to optimize water depth within wetland restoration projects along the lower Colorado River intended to benefit California black rails (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus). We observed a 358% increase in the number of black rails detected in the year after manipulating water depth to maximize the amount of predicted black rail habitat in two wetlands. The number of black rail detections in our restoration sites was similar to those at our reference site. Implementing the optimal water depth in each wetland decreased water use while simultaneously increasing habitat suitability for the focal species. Our results also provide experimental confirmation of past descriptive accounts of black rail habitat preferences and provide explicit water depth recommendations for future wetland restoration efforts for this species of conservation concern; maintain surface water depths between saturated soil and 100 mm. Efforts to optimize water depth in restored wetlands around the world would likely increase the success of wetland restorations for the focal species while simultaneously minimizing and justifying water use.

  16. Non-contact assessment of COD and turbidity concentrations in water using diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustsson, Jon; Akermann, Oliver; Barry, D Andrew; Rossi, Luca

    2014-08-01

    Water contamination is an important environmental concern underlining the need for reliable real-time information on contaminant concentrations in natural waters. Here, a new non-contact UV-Vis spectroscopic approach for monitoring contaminants in water, and especially wastewater, is proposed. Diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy was applied to measure simultaneously the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity (TUR) concentrations in water. The measurements were carried out in the wavelength range from 200-1100 nm. The measured spectra were analysed using partial-least-squares (PLS) regression. The correlation coefficient between the measured and the reference concentrations of COD and TUR in the water samples were R(2) = 0.85 and 0.96, respectively. These results highlight the potential of non-contact UV-Vis spectroscopy for the assessment of water contamination. A system built on the concept would be able to monitor wastewater pollution continuously, without the need for laborious sample collection and subsequent laboratory analysis. Furthermore, since no parts of the system are in contact with the wastewater stream the need for maintenance is minimised.

  17. Increased salinization of fresh water in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.S.; Groffman, P.M.; Likens, G.E.; Belt, K.T.; Stack, W.P.; Kelly, V.R.; Band, L.E.; Fisher, G.T.

    2005-01-01

    Chloride concentrations are increasing at a rate that threatens the availability of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Increases in roadways and deicer use are now salinizing fresh waters, degrading habitat for aquatic organisms, and impacting large supplies of drinking water for humans throughout the region. We observed chloride concentrations of up to 25% of the concentration of seawater in streams of Maryland, New York, and New Hampshire during winters, and chloride concentrations remaining up to 100 times greater than unimpacted forest streams during summers. Mean annual chloride concentration increased as a function of impervious surface and exceeded tolerance for freshwater life in suburban and urban watersheds. Our analysis shows that if salinity were to continue to increase at its present rate due to changes in impervious surface coverage and current management practices, many surface waters in the northeastern United States would not be potable for human consumption and would become toxic to freshwater life within the next century. ?? 2005 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  18. Contact angle measurement - a reliable supportive method for screening water-resistance of ultraviolet-protecting products in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagens, R; Mann, T; Schreiner, V; Barlag, H G; Wenck, H; Wittern, K-P; Mei, W

    2007-08-01

    Substantivity of sunscreen formulations is affected by the wash-out rate of ultraviolet-absorber and -reflector compounds in water. Water-resistance of sunscreen formulations is currently determined according to a standardized European Cosmetic Toiletry and Perfumery Association (COLIPA) protocol, encompassing the determination of a minimal erythemal dose before and after a defined immersion step in water. It can be supposed that the higher the wettability of a treated skin area, the higher is the wash-out rate of sunscreen compounds. This present report addresses the validity of determining the wettability of treated skin alone as a measure for the water-resistance of sunscreen products. The report addresses the robustness, accuracy and congruence of a recently developed wettability test, based on the measurement of the contact angle (CA) of a sessile water drop on treated skin areas. Contact angle data of 66 sunscreen formulations are compared with the corresponding results of 81 water-resistance tests, using the sun protection factor (SPF)/immersion/SPF method. Sunscreen products tested by the CA method were applied to the skin of the volar forearm of test subjects at a defined dose and drying-time, using a standardized application and recording device. Contact angles between a sessile water drop and skin were recorded by a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera and subjected to automatic contour analysis. Taking the SPF/immersion/SPF method as gold standard, accuracy parameters of the CA method were determined. By using an appropriate cut-off level of CAs, the CA method has a specificity and positive-predictive value of 100%, and turns out to be a reliable screening method to identify water-resistant formulations. Based on our findings, those formulations that give CAs above 30 degrees may be categorized water-proof without further testing by the COLIPA water-resistance method.

  19. Increasing Water Temperature Triggers Dominance of Small Freshwater Plankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Rasconi

    Full Text Available Climate change scenarios predict that lake water temperatures will increase up to 4°C and rainfall events will become more intense and frequent by the end of this century. Concurrently, supply of humic substances from terrestrial runoff is expected to increase, resulting in darker watercolor ("brownification" of aquatic ecosystems. Using a multi-seasonal, low trophic state mesocosm experiment, we investigated how higher water temperature and brownification affect plankton community composition, phenology, and functioning. We tested the hypothesis that higher water temperature (+3°C and brownification will, a cause plankton community composition to shift toward small sized phytoplankton and cyanobacteria, and, b extend the length of the growing season entailing higher phytoplankton production later in the season. We demonstrate that the 3°C increase of water temperature favored the growth of heterotrophic bacteria and small sized autotrophic picophytoplankton cells with significantly higher primary production during warmer fall periods. However, 3X darker water (effect of brownification caused no significant changes in the plankton community composition or functioning relative to control conditions. Our findings reveal that increased temperature change plankton community structure by favoring smaller sized species proliferation (autotrophic phytoplankton and small size cladocerans, and increase primary productivity and community turnover. Finally, results of this multi-seasonal experiment suggest that warming by 3°C in aquatic ecosystems of low trophic state may cause planktonic food web functioning to become more dominated by fast growing, r-trait species (i.e., small sizes and rapid development.

  20. [Impact of self-efficacy on behaviors of contacting infested water among middle school students in Hubei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min-Jin, Peng; Han, Xiao; Jin, Shen; Meng-Ting, Gao; Shi-Yue, Li; Hong, Yan

    2016-01-20

    To explore the impact of self-efficacy on the behavior of contacting schistosome cercarial infested water among middle school students. In the transmission control area and endemic control area of the schistosomiasis endemic regions in Hubei Province, a total of 3 204 middle school students were selected through the stratified cluster random sampling method and investigated by questionnaires. The incidence rates of contacting infested water with Oncomelania hupensis snails during the past 3 and 12 months among the middle school students were 11.4% (364/3 204) and 14.8% (474/3 204) respectively, while those of contacting indefinite infested water during the past 3 and 12 months were 23.8% (762/3 204) and 28.0% (898/3 204) respectively. The awareness rate of schistosomiasis prevention and control knowledge was 82.1% (2 631/3 204). There were "knowledge-practice separation"in the prevention and control of schistosomiasis among the middle school students. The correlation analysis and Logistic regression analysis showed that the self-efficacy of schistosomiasis protective behavior of middle school students was a protective factor for contacting with infested water, with the adjusted odds ratio values of 0.882, 0.886, 0.914 and 0.927. Self-efficacy of schistosomiasis protective behavior is a protective factor for contacting with infested water among middle school students, and improving their self-efficacy may be an effective strategy to settle the problem of"knowledge-practice separation".

  1. Improving Water Sustainability and Food Security through Increased Crop Water Productivity in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luxon Nhamo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture accounts for most of the renewable freshwater resource withdrawals in Malawi, yet food insecurity and water scarcity remain as major challenges. Despite Malawi’s vast water resources, climate change, coupled with increasing population and urbanisation are contributing to increasing water scarcity. Improving crop water productivity has been identified as a possible solution to water and food insecurity, by producing more food with less water, that is, to produce “more crop per drop”. This study evaluated crop water productivity from 2000 to 2013 by assessing crop evapotranspiration, crop production and agricultural gross domestic product (Ag GDP contribution for Malawi. Improvements in crop water productivity were evidenced through improved crop production and productivity. These improvements were supported by increased irrigated area, along with improved agronomic practices. Crop water productivity increased by 33% overall from 2000 to 2013, resulting in an increase in maize production from 1.2 million metric tons to 3.6 million metric tons, translating to an average food surplus of 1.1 million metric tons. These developments have contributed to sustainable improved food and nutrition security in Malawi, which also avails more water for ecosystem functions and other competing economic sectors.

  2. The role of water in the molecular structure and properties of soft contact lenses and surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Patrizia; Simoni, Rosa

    1992-06-01

    The role played by water in the molecular structure and properties of commercial soft contact lenses (hydrogels) based on poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA) or poly vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was investigated by means of vibrational spectroscopy and thermal analyses. The results of this study show that the materials having the greatest water percentage have elastic properties closer to those of the ocular tissues with which they come into contact. Water interacts by hydrogen bonding with the hydrophilic groups present in the polymers, and the strength of this interaction depends on the type of hydrophilic group involved. Moreover, in the case of PVP materials, water also modifies the conformation of the hydrophobic groups. The arrangement of surface water molecules can explain the different adhesion capability of Staphilococcus aureus on this type of lens depending on the water content. In connection with this, a simple model is presented. The water molecules present in the hydrogel structures completely exchange with those of the biological environment. A quantitative analytical method for evaluating the amount of water in commercial lenses by means of Raman spectroscopy is reported.

  3. Improvements in crop water productivity increase water sustainability and food security—a global analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauman, Kate A; Foley, Jonathan A; Siebert, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation consumes more water than any other human activity, and thus the challenges of water sustainability and food security are closely linked. To evaluate how water resources are used for food production, we examined global patterns of water productivity—food produced (kcal) per unit of water (l) consumed. We document considerable variability in crop water productivity globally, not only across different climatic zones but also within climatic zones. The least water productive systems are disproportionate freshwater consumers. On precipitation-limited croplands, we found that ∼40% of water consumption goes to production of just 20% of food calories. Because in many cases crop water productivity is well below optimal levels, in many cases farmers have substantial opportunities to improve water productivity. To demonstrate the potential impact of management interventions, we calculated that raising crop water productivity in precipitation-limited regions to the 20th percentile of productivity would increase annual production on rainfed cropland by enough to provide food for an estimated 110 million people, and water consumption on irrigated cropland would be reduced enough to meet the annual domestic water demands of nearly 1.4 billion people. (letter)

  4. Wettability-Water/brine Film Thickness Relationship and the Effect of Supercritical CO2 Pre-contact for CO2/brine/mineral Systems under Geologic CO2 Sequestration Conditions: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Song, Y.; Li, W.

    2016-12-01

    Injection CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the main options for geologic carbon sequestration (GCS). A successful GCS in saline aquifers requires full knowledge about CO2/brine/mineral systems under sequestration conditions to reduce uncertainties during subsurface storage of CO2. Adsorbed water film thickness and wettability on mineral surfaces are two key characteristics for CO2/brine/mineral systems. Wettability and water/brine film thickness have been measured experimentally and predicted by molecular simulation (MD) studies. However, these studies only consider the films apart from contact angles. Investigations on wettability for CO2/brine/mineral systems only consider contact angles without measurements on film thickness. The relationship between film thicknesses with water contact angles is open to questions. In this paper, MD simulations have been performed to investigate the interrelationship between water film thicknesses and water contact angles. Three silica surfaces with different silanol group number densities (Q3, Q3-50%, Q3/Q4) were selected to represent silica surfaces with different wettabilities. We found that as water contact angle increases, the film thickness decreases. We also studied the effect of CO2-mineral pre-contact and found that: on Q3 surface, if a CO2 bubble was pre-contacted with the surface, it can remain on the surface without forming a water film; however, if a CO2 bubble was placed certain distances away from the surface, it formed a water film. Wettability analysis revealed that on the same surface, water contact angle was larger when there was no water film. These findings show that on some silica surfaces, water film may be destroyed by supercritical CO2 even the silica surfaces are hydrophilic. A water film rupture mechanism was propsed for CO2 adhesion on mineral surfaces [Wang (2013) Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 11858; Zhang (2016) Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 10.1021/acs.estlett.5b00359]. The rupture of water film

  5. Indirect contact freeze water desalination for an ice maker machine - CFD simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Harith; Al-Dadah, Raya; Mahmoud, Saad

    2017-11-01

    To offer for potable water shortages, sea water desalination is a potential solution for the global rising demand for fresh water. The latent heat of fusion is about one-seventh the latent heat of vaporisation, thus indicating the benefit of lower energy consumption for the freeze desalination process. Limited literature is reported on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) on freeze desalination. Therefore, analysing and investigating thermodynamic processes are easily conducted by the powerful tool of CFD. A single unit of ice formation in an ice maker machine was modelled using ANSYS Fluent software three-dimensionally. Energy, species transport and solidification/melting modules were used in building the CFD model. Parametric analysis was conducted using the established CFD model to predict the effects of freezing temperature and the geometry of the ice maker machine; on ice production and the freezing time. Lower freezing temperatures allowed more ice production and faster freezing. Increasing the diameter and the length of the freezing tube enabled more ice to be produced.

  6. Skin hydration and transepidermal water loss in patients with a history of sulfur mustard contact: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Seyyed Masoud; Keshavarz, Saeed; Sadr, Bardia; Shohrati, Majid; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Farsinejad, Khalil; Rashighi-Firouzabadi, Mehdi; Zartab, Hamed; Firooz, Alireza

    2009-08-01

    Skin lesions are among the most common complications of contact with sulfur mustard. This study was aimed to measure skin water content and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in patients with a history of sulfur mustard contact. Three hundred ten male participants were included in this study: 87 (28.1%) sulfur mustard-exposed patients with current skin lesions (group 1), 71 (22.9%) sulfur mustard-exposed patients without skin lesions (group 2), 78 (25.2%) patients with dermatitis (group 3) and 74 (23.8%) normal controls (group 4) The water content and TEWL of skin was measured at four different locations of the body: forehead, suprasternal, palm and dorsum of hand. Nonparametric statistical tests (Kruskal-Wallis) were used to compare the four groups, and P sulfur mustard-exposed participants or non-exposed participants with dermatitis (P sulfur mustard contact than in non-injured participants (P sulfur mustard agent can alter biophysical properties of the skin--especially the function of stratum corneum as a barrier to water loss-several years after exposure.

  7. Water-contact patterns and risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural village of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA Antônio Augusto Moura da

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mansoni in the Serrano village, municipality of Cururupu, state of Maranhão, Brazil, is a widely spread disease. The PECE (Program for the Control of Schistosomiasis, undertaken since 1979 has reduced the prevalence of S. mansoni infection and the hepatosplenic form of the disease. Nevertheless piped water is available in 84% of the households, prevalence remains above 20%. In order to identify other risk factors responsible for the persistence of high prevalence levels, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in a systematic sample of 294 people of varying ages. Socioeconomic, environmental and demographic variables, and water contact patterns were investigated. Fecal samples were collected and analyzed by the Kato-Katz technique. Prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 24.1%, higher among males (35.5% and between 10-19 years of age (36.6%. The risk factors identified in the univariable analysis were water contacts for vegetable extraction (Risk Ratio - RR = 2.92, crossing streams (RR = 2.55, bathing (RR = 2.35, fishing (RR = 2.19, hunting (RR = 2.17, cattle breeding (RR = 2.04, manioc culture (RR = 1.90 and leisure (RR = 1.56. After controlling for confounding variables by proportional hazards model the risks remained higher for males, vegetable extraction, bathing in rivers and water contact in rivers or in periodically inundated parts of riverine woodland (swamplands

  8. The Effect of Clear Paints, Nanozycofil and Nanozycosil on Water Absorption and Contact Angle of Poplar Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Gholamian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of nano-zycosil, nano-zycofil, acid catalyzed lacquer and nitrocellulose lacquer and polyester on improving the water absorption and contact angle of wood was investigated. Some boards were prepared from the sapwood of poplar (P.nigra. They were dried based  on T6E3 schedule and some specimens were cut according to EN 927-5 standard (20 × 70 × 150 mm.  They were coated and immersed with the nano particles and clear paints.  The clear paint- and nanoparticles-coated samples were dried in laboratory environment and in an oven at the temperatures of 1032°c, respectively. After drying process, the water absorption of the samples was measured after 2, 24, 72, 168 h immersion. The contact angle of samples was measured after 1 and 10 seconds. The results revealed that the pattern of water absorption for the paints and nanoparticles is different. The samples coated with combined acid catalyzed lacquers and nitrocellulose lacquers and those coated with nanozycosil had the highest resistance to water absorption. The greatest contact angle was observed for the samples coated by nanozycosil.

  9. Climate and ET: Does Plant Water Requirements Increase during Droughts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipps, G.

    2015-12-01

    Municipalities, engineering consultants and State agencies use reference evapotranspiration (ETo) data (directly and indirectly) for long-term water planning, for designing hydraulic structures, and for establishing regulatory guidance and conservation programs intended to reduce water waste. The use ETo data for agricultural and landscape irrigation scheduling is becoming more common in Texas as ETo-based controllers and automation technologies become more affordable. Until recently, most ETo data has been available as monthly values averaged over many years. Today, automated weather stations and irrigation controllers equipped with specialized instrumentation allow for real-time ETo measurements. With the expected rise in global warming and increased frequency of extreme climate variability in the coming decades, conservation and efficient use of water resources is essential and must make use of the most accurate and representative data available. 2011 marked the driest year on record in the State of Texas. Compounding the lack of rainfall was record heat during the Summer of 2011. An analysis of real time ETo (reference evapotranspiration) data in Texas found that ET was 30 to 50% higher than historic averages during the 2011 Summer. The implications are quite serious, as most current water planning and drought contingency plans do not take into consideration increases in ET during such periods, and irrigation planning and capacity sizing are based on historic averages of consumptive use. This paper examines the relationship between ET and climate during this extreme climatic event. While the solar radiation was near normal levels, temperature and wind was much higher and dew points much lower than norms. The variability and statistical difference between average monthly ETo data and daily, monthly and seasonal ETo measurements (from 2006 to 2014) for selected weather stations of the Texas ET Network. This study will also examine the suitability of using average

  10. Is Copper Immune to Corrosion When in Contact With Water and Aqueous Solutions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Digby D.; Sharifi-Asl, Samin

    2011-03-01

    Objectives The aim of this project has been to increase knowledge and to contribute to the research community in the area of copper corrosion in a repository environment. For SSM, the most important subject is to provide better conditions for a science based evaluation of a repository for spent nuclear fuel. In this respect, this project aimed at conducting a comprehensive theoretical study on corrosion of copper in repository environment based on an expected composition of dissolved species in the groundwater in the Forsmark area. In addition the thermodynamic immunity of copper in pure anoxic water has been especially addressed as this was one of the initial conditions made by SKB for selecting copper as canister material. Results The authors have shown, in so-called corrosion Domain Diagrams, that copper in a thermodynamic sense can be considered as immune in pure anoxic water (without dissolved oxygen) only under certain conditions. It is shown that copper will corrode in pure anoxic water with very low concentrations of [Cu + ] and very low partial pressures of hydrogen gas. At higher concentrations of [Cu + ] and partial pressures of hydrogen, copper is found to be thermodynamically immune and will not corrode. The rate of copper corrosion in the repository water environment will thus depend on the transport of corrosion products away from the copper surface or the transport of corroding species to the copper surface. The degree to which this affects the corrosion of copper canisters in the repository environment has not been further studied. Still, the result shows that copper cannot be considered as thermodynamically immune in the presence of pure anoxic water, this implicate that one of SKB:s initial conditions for selecting copper as a canister material can be questioned. To what degree this may influence the corrosion of copper canisters in the repository environment still needs to be investigated. Of other species present in the water at repository

  11. The influence of increased temperature of waters from Cernavoda NPP on underground water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbasoiu, Eugen Constantin; Marinov, Anca Mariana; Moraru, Carina Nicoleta; Rizescu, Gheorghe

    1997-01-01

    The operation of Cernavoda NPP implies the change of thermal regime of waters in the Danube-Black Sea channel zone. The Danube water is used to cool the NPP systems before being delivered into channel and used in irrigations. The temperature increase of water in Cernavoda NPP installations is between 7 and 12 deg. C. The negative effects of this warming are: 1. limitation of water use for irrigations; 2. occurrence and persistence of fog in channel area; 3. thermal pollution of underground waters and limitation of underground potable water supply. The paper presents a general approach of thermal pollution problems of an aquifer and a mathematical model of forecasting the underground water temperature variation in Danube-Black Sea channel area. (authors)

  12. Mean force potential of interaction between Na+ and Cl- ions in planar nanopores in contact with water under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevkunov, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    The mean force potential (MFP) of interaction between counterions Na+ and Cl- in a planar nanopore with structureless hydrophobic walls is calculated via computer simulation under the condition that the nanopore is in contact with water at an external pressure that exceeds the saturation pressure but remains insufficient to fill the nanopore with water. For a nanopore with a liquid phase, the MFP dependence on the interionic distance indicates the dissociation of an ion pair into two hydrated ions in a nanopore that is not completely filled with water. Fluctuations in the number of water molecules drawn into the interionic space decisively influence the dissociation. The attraction between counterions, averaged over thermal fluctuations, depends largely on the pore width and grows as the shielding of the ions' electric field by water molecules in a narrow pore diminishes. The contributions from energy and entropy to the free energy of hydration are analyzed.

  13. Compounding Impacts of Climate Change and Increased Human Water Withdrawal on Urmia Lake Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alborzi, A.; Moftakhari, H.; Azaranfar, A.; Mallakpour, I.; Ashraf, B.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, climate change and increase in human water withdrawal, combined, have caused ecological degradation in several terminal lakes worldwide. Among them, the shallow and hyper-saline Urmia Lake in Iran has experienced about 6 meters drawdown in lake level and 80% reduction in surface area. Here, we assess the imposed stress on Urmia Basin's water availability and Lake's ecological condition in response to coupled climate change and human-induced water withdrawal. A generalized river basin decision support system model consisting network flow is developed to simulate the basin-lake interactions under a wide range of scenarios. This model explicitly includes water management infrastructure, reservoirs, and irrigation and municipal water use. Studied scenarios represent a wide range of historic climate and water use scenarios including a historical baseline, future increase in water demand, and also improved water efficiency. In this presentation, we show the lake's water level, as a measure of lake's ecological health, under the compounding effects of the climate condition (top-down) and water use (bottom-up) scenarios. This method illustrates what combinations lead to failure in meeting the lake's ecological level.

  14. Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoplatelets with Excellent Tribological Properties under High Contact Pressure as Water-Based Lubricant Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongdong; Liu, Yuhong; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Bibo; Xu, Sailong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    High efficient and sustainable utilization of water-based lubricant is essential for saving energy. In this paper, a kind of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets is synthesized and well dispersed in water due to the surface modification with oleylamine. The excellent tribological properties of the oleylamine-modified Ni-Al LDH (NiAl-LDH/OAm) nanoplatelets as water-based lubricant additives are evaluated by the tribological tests in an aqueous environment. The modified LDH nanoplatelets are found to not only reduce the friction but also enhance the wear resistance, compared with the water-based cutting fluid and lubricants containing other particle additives. By adding 0.5 wt% LDH nanoplatelets, under 1.5 GPa initial contact pressure, the friction coefficient, scar diameter, depth and width of the wear track dramatically decrease by 83.1%, 43.2%, 88.5% and 59.5%, respectively. It is considered that the sufficiently small size and the excellent dispersion of NiAl-LDH/OAm nanoplatelets in water are the key factors, so as to make them enter the contact area, form a lubricating film and prevent direct collision of asperity peaks. Our investigations demonstrate that the LDH nanoplatelet as a water-based lubricant additive has a great potential value in industrial application. PMID:26951794

  15. Assessment of microbial growth on the surface of materials in contact with water intended for human consumption using ATP method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczotko, Maciej; Krogulski, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Elaboration of an assessment method for plumbing materials contacting drinking water was the main purpose of this study. The investigation was conducted in 8 week cycles in dynamic conditions using a continuous flow reactor. Microbial growth was measured indirectly by a bioluminescence technique (ATP assay). Every week swabs from the surface of tested materials (polypropylene and different types of polyethylene), from the domestic market were collected and the level of bioluminescence was examined. The results obtained from the surface of tested materials were repeatable and clearly approximated those obtained from the surface of a negative control (stainless steel, low susceptibility for microbial growth). The level of bioluminescence (ATP) on the surface of positive control (paraffin, high susceptibility for microbial growth) was many times higher than that observed on other materials. The presented investigation was the main part of a validation process, which in short time will serve to initiate a complete assessment system for organic materials contacting drinking water.

  16. How increased extreme precipitation under future climate change affects plant water stress and water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eekhout, Joris P. C.; Hunink, Johannes E.; de Vente, Joris

    2017-04-01

    For many areas worldwide, increased rainfall intensity and frequency of extreme weather events are projected for the coming century. This will have effect on water security and soil erosion in large parts of the world. Here we present a detailed catchment-scale study, arguing that global and regional studies may be insufficiently accurate to describe actual impacts on the redistribution of water and the consequences for soil erosion. We applied a hydrological model, including infiltration excess surface runoff, coupled with an erosion model. The model was applied to 1 reference and 4 future climate scenarios (2 periods and 2 Representative Concentration Pathways), consisting of an ensemble of 9 Regional Climate Models. The climatic input for the future scenarios was bias-corrected using quantile mapping. Our results show a significant increase of plant water stress, reservoir inflow, soil erosion and reservoir sedimentation in all 4 future scenarios. Hence, a redistribution of water is expected, where agriculture may shift from rainfed to irrigated crops as a result of decreasing soil moisture and increased reservoir inflow. At the same time, reservoir sedimentation increases and threatens long-term sustainability of water storage and water security. Our results emphasize the role infiltration excess surface runoff and bias-correction methods play in the quantification of the impact of increased intense precipitation on water availability and soil erosion at the catchment scale.

  17. Improvement in fuel utilization in pressurized heavy water reactors due to increased heavy water purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), the reactivity of the reactor and, consequently, the discharge burnup of the fuel depend on the isotopic purity of the heavy water used in the reactor. The optimal purity of heavy water used in PHWRs, in turn, depends on the cost of fabricated uranium fuel and on the incremental cost incurred in improving the heavy water purity. The physics and economics aspects of the desirability of increasing the heavy water purity in PHWRs in India were first examined in 1978. With the cost data available at that time, it was found that improving the heavy water purity from 99.80% to 99.95% was economically attractive. The same problem is reinvestigated with current cost data. Even now, there is sufficient incentive to improve the isotopic purity of heavy water used in PHWRs. Admittedly, the economic advantage that can be derived depends on the cost of the fabricated fuel. Nevertheless, irrespective of the economics, there is also a fairly substantial saving in natural uranium. That the increase in the heavy water purity is to be maintained only in the low-pressure moderator system, and not in the high-pressure coolant system, makes the option of achieving higher fuel burnup with higher heavy water purity feasible

  18. Increasing water productivity enhances water saving for date palm cultivation in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasseen Al-Mulla

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The total amount of water consumption needed to irrigate the cultivated lands in the Sultanate Oman is 1487 Mm3. There are 7.6 million date palm trees currently planted in the farms in Oman covering an area of 23241 hectares or 35% of total agricultural area in the Sultanate in addition to 0.9 million palm trees planted in homes or for landscaping in public parks and beside the roads. Hence, among all cultivated crops in Oman, date palms are the major water consuming plants. They consume 558 Mm3 that is 38% of total irrigation water and 31% of groundwater recharge that suffers an annual water deficit estimated at 316 Mm3. These findings framed the main objectives of this study: (1 to describe the current status of date palm tree cultivation in the Sultanate; (2 to suggest solutions to reduce high consumption of water while improve dates production; and (3 to explore how irrigation water can be saved through increasing water productivity through alternative date palm cultivation and irrigation practices. The water saving recommendation in this study was based on the collected from different sources in addition to the investigation on the water loss during irrigation practices. We found that it is possible to save a total of 396 Mm3 of irrigation water by for instance reducing the cultivation of low quality/value date palm varieties and switching to modern over traditional irrigation systems. It is also important to determine the quality and value of the date palm cultivars to be planted in the proposed reduced area which will then contribute to an  increased financial return for the farmers and thus to the country through increasing the water productivity by 64% of these new plots.

  19. Contact lens surface by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jung Hyuck; Lee, Suk Ju; Hwang, Kwang Ha; Jeon Jin

    2011-01-01

    Contact lens materials needs good biocompatibility, high refractive index, high optical transparency, high water content etc. Surface treat method by using plasma and radiation can modify the physical and/or chemical properties of the contact lens surface. Radiation technology such as electron beam irradiation can apply to polymerization reaction and enhance the functionality of the polymer.The purpose of this study is to modify of contact lens surface by using Eb irradiation technology. Electron beam was irradiated to the contact lens surface which was synthesized thermal polymerization method and commercial contact lens to modify physical and chemical properties. Ft-IR, XP, UV-vis spectrophotometer, water content, oxygen trans-metastability were used to characterize the surface state, physicochemical, and optical property of the contact lens treated with Eb. The water content and oxygen transmissibility of the contact lens treated with Eb were increased due to increase in the hydrophilic group such as O-C=O and OH group on the contact lens surface which could be produced by possible reaction between carbon and oxygen during the Eb irradiation. All of the lenses showed the high optical transmittance above 90%. In this case of B/Es, TES, Ti contact lens, the optical transmittance decreased about 5% with increasing Eb dose in the wavelength of UV-B region. The contact lens modified by Eb irradiation could improve the physical properties of the contact lens such as water content and oxygen transmissibility

  20. Increased self-diffusion of brain water in normal aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O

    1994-01-01

    With magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, brain water self-diffusion was measured in 17 healthy volunteers 22-76 (mean, 44.6) years old. The calculated values for the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) ranged from 0.58 x 10(-9) to 1.23 x 10(-9) m2/sec in cerebral white matter. A significant...... correlation was found between the ADC in white matter and age (r = .7069, P age. The increased ADC in white matter may be caused...... by an increase in the extracellular volume due to age-dependent neuronal degeneration or to changes in myelination. These findings have implications for future clinical investigations with diffusion MR imaging techniques in patients with neurologic diseases, and stress the importance of having an age...

  1. Carrier-selective p- and n-contacts for efficient and stable photocatalytic water reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bae, Dowon; Pedersen, Thomas; Seger, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The successful realization of carrier-selective contacts for crystalline silicon (c-Si) based device for pho-tocatalytic hydrogen production has been demonstrated. The proposed TiO2protected carrier-selectivecontacts resemble a metal-oxide-semiconductor configuration, including a highly-doped nan...

  2. Piercing the water surface with a blade: Singularities of the contact line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alimov, Mars M. [Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Kornev, Konstantin G. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    An external meniscus on a narrow blade with a slit-like cross section is studied using the hodograph formulation of the Laplace nonlinear equation of capillarity. On narrow blades, the menisci are mostly shaped by the wetting and capillary forces; gravity plays a secondary role. To describe a meniscus in this asymptotic case, the model of Alimov and Kornev [“Meniscus on a shaped fibre: Singularities and hodograph formulation,” Proc. R. Soc. A 470, 20140113 (2014)] has been employed. It is shown that at the sharp edges of the blade, the contact line makes a jump. In the wetting case, the contact line sitting at each side of the blade is lifted above the points where the meniscus first meets the blade edges. In the non-wetting case, the contact line is lowered below these points. The contours of the constant height emanating from the blade edges generate unusual singularities with infinite curvatures at some points at the blade edges. The meniscus forms a unique surface made of two mirror-symmetric sheets fused together. Each sheet is supported by the contact line sitting at each side of the blade.

  3. Piercing the water surface with a blade: Singularities of the contact line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimov, Mars M.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2016-01-01

    An external meniscus on a narrow blade with a slit-like cross section is studied using the hodograph formulation of the Laplace nonlinear equation of capillarity. On narrow blades, the menisci are mostly shaped by the wetting and capillary forces; gravity plays a secondary role. To describe a meniscus in this asymptotic case, the model of Alimov and Kornev [“Meniscus on a shaped fibre: Singularities and hodograph formulation,” Proc. R. Soc. A 470, 20140113 (2014)] has been employed. It is shown that at the sharp edges of the blade, the contact line makes a jump. In the wetting case, the contact line sitting at each side of the blade is lifted above the points where the meniscus first meets the blade edges. In the non-wetting case, the contact line is lowered below these points. The contours of the constant height emanating from the blade edges generate unusual singularities with infinite curvatures at some points at the blade edges. The meniscus forms a unique surface made of two mirror-symmetric sheets fused together. Each sheet is supported by the contact line sitting at each side of the blade

  4. Water and nitrogen use efficiency under limited water supply for maize to increase land productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciun, I.; Craciun, M.

    1995-01-01

    As drought is the main environmental factor limiting productivity, the study of plant response to water deficit has been one of the major research topics. The increasing of maize evapotranspiration ET does not always mean the increase of efficiency because, the brightest ET value does not always mean the highest grain yield value, AS the result of the mechanisms relating to the grain yield and ET which are far from simple. The rain amount and distribution during the reproductive stage is the main meteorological factor in flouncing yield. In our study 1991, the high soil moisture content determines a reduction of maize grain yield, in the wet years due to excess of water under irrigation conditions which normally limits root development as a result of insufficient oxygen for transpiration and lac ha of nitrate formation, the yield response to water deficit of different hybrids is of major importance in production planing. The available water supply would be directed towards fully meeting requirements of the hybrids with the higher K sub y over the restricted area and for the hybrids with a lower K sub y, the overall production will increase by extending the area under irrigation, without fully meeting water requirement provided water deficit do not exceed critical values.1 tab; 9 figs (Author)

  5. Rolling Contact Fatigue and Static Compression Deformation of UHMWPE thrust bearing in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inagaki Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the rolling contact fatigue tests were performed in order to investigate the effect of thrust load on life of UHMWPE bearings. Furthermore, the static compression tests were performed in order to investigate the effect of static load on deformation. It was found that thrust load controls limitations of the bearings, and the deformation by the static load is not the main reason of the adhesion failure.

  6. Can the water content of highly compacted bentonite be increased by applying a high water pressure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Kasbohm, J.

    2001-10-01

    A great many laboratory investigations have shown that the water uptake in highly compacted MX-80 clay takes place by diffusion at low external pressure. It means that wetting of the clay buffer in the deposition holes of a KBS-3 repository is very slow if the water pressure is low and that complete water saturation can take several tens of years if the initial degree of water saturation of the buffer clay and the ability of the rock to give off water are low. It has therefore been asked whether injection of water can raise the degree of water saturation and if a high water pressure in the nearfield can have the same effect. The present report describes attempts to moisten highly compacted blocks of MX-80 clay with a dry density of 1510 kg/m 3 by injecting water under a pressure of 650 kPa through a perforated injection pipe for 3 and 20 minutes, respectively. The interpretation was made by determining the water content of a number of samples located at different distances from the pipe. An attempt to interpret the pattern of distribution of injected uranium acetate solution showed that the channels into which the solution went became closed in a few minutes and that dispersion in the homogenized clay gave low U-concentrations. The result was that the water content increased from about 9 to about 11-12 % within a distance of about 1 centimeter from the injection pipe and to slightly more than 9 % at a distance of about 4-5 cm almost independently of the injection time. Complete water saturation corresponds to a water content of about 30 % and the wetting effect was hence small from a practical point of view. By use of microstructural models it can be shown that injected water enters only the widest channels that remain after the compaction and that these channels are quickly closed by expansion of the hydrating surrounding clay. Part of the particles that are thereby released become transported by the flowing water and cause clogging of the channels, which is

  7. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired powerplants, conventional oil and gas extraction, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. W...

  8. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired power plants, conventional oil and gas extraction, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. ...

  9. A theoretical model of virtual water trade under increasing water scarcity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Lotte; Pande, Saket

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes a virtual water trade model to obtain a better understanding of how hydro-climatic change affects societies through changes in virtual water trade. In previous studies it has been shown that global trade patterns can be influenced by water scarcity and vice-versa. The extent to which this relationship holds is still a topic under discussion. With the model introduced in this paper, the dynamics behind these trade patterns are further explored. First, a model is constructed of a society suffering from an increase in water scarcity. This model is shown to be capable of replicating patterns of technological, population, production and consumption per capita changes. In order to incorporate the effects of globalization and trade, the model has been extended to a toy model of virtual water trade between two societies. The two societies are represented by overlapping generations models. The individuals of each generation provide the labour needed for the production of the composite goods. In addition to this labour, water and technology are also incorporated as factors of production. There are two goods being produced; one is labour intensive and the other water intensive. Trade emerges from the principle of comparative advantage, with differences in labour-abundance and water resources availability between the two societies. Using this model of two societies interconnected by trade, it is examined how trade of water-intensive commodities alters under changing scarcity conditions. In particular we explore the conditions under which trade emerges, and to what extent. Furthermore, we present the conditions for the sustainable development within these two societies.

  10. Modeling and experimental study of oil/water contact angle on biomimetic micro-parallel-patterned self-cleaning surfaces of selected alloys used in water industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickelsen, Simin; Moghadam, Afsaneh Dorri, E-mail: afsaneh@uwm.edu; Ferguson, J.B.; Rohatgi, Pradeep

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Wetting behavior of four metallic materials as a function of surface roughness has been studied. • A model to predict the abrasive particle size and water/oil contact angles relationship is proposed. • Active wetting regime is determined in different materials using the proposed model. - Abstract: In the present study, the wetting behavior of surfaces of various common metallic materials used in the water industry including C84400 brass, commercially pure aluminum (99.0% pure), Nickle–Molybdenum alloy (Hastelloy C22), and 316 Stainless Steel prepared by mechanical abrasion and contact angles of several materials after mechanical abrasion were measured. A model to estimate roughness factor, R{sub f}, and fraction of solid/oil interface, ƒ{sub so}, for surfaces prepared by mechanical abrasion is proposed based on the assumption that abrasive particles acting on a metallic surface would result in scratches parallel to each other and each scratch would have a semi-round cross-section. The model geometrically describes the relation between sandpaper particle size and water/oil contact angle predicted by both the Wenzel and Cassie–Baxter contact type, which can then be used for comparison with experimental data to find which regime is active. Results show that brass and Hastelloy followed Cassie–Baxter behavior, aluminum followed Wenzel behavior and stainless steel exhibited a transition from Wenzel to Cassie–Baxter. Microstructural studies have also been done to rule out effects beyond the Wenzel and Cassie–Baxter theories such as size of structural details.

  11. Spontaneous imbibition of water and determination of effective contact angles in the Eagle Ford Shale Formation using neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiStefano, Victoria H.; Cheshire, Michael C.; McFarlane, Joanna; Kolbus, Lindsay M.; Hale, Richard E.; Perfect, Edmund; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Santodonato, Louis J.; Hussey, Daniel S.; Jacobson, David L.; LaManna, Jacob M.; Bingham, Philip R.; Starchenko, Vitaliy; Anovitz, Lawrence M.

    2017-10-01

    Understanding of fundamental processes and prediction of optimal parameters during the horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing process results in economically effective improvement of oil and natural gas extraction. Although, the modern analytical and computational models can capture fracture growth, there is a lack of experimental data on spontaneous imbibition and wettability in oil and gas reservoirs for the validation of further model development. In this work, we used neutron imaging to measure the spontaneous imbibition of water into fractures of Eagle Ford Shale with known geometries and fracture orientations. An analytical solution for a set of nonlinear second-order differential equations was applied to the measured imbibition data to determine effective contact angles. The analytical solution fit the measured imbibition data reasonably well and determined effective contact angles were slightly higher than static contact angles due to effects of in-situ changes in velocity, surface roughness, and heterogeneity of mineral surfaces on the fracture surface. Additionally, small fracture widths may have retarded imbibition and affected model fits, which suggests that average fracture widths are not satisfactory for modeling imbibition in natural systems.

  12. Increasing stability of water-soluble PQQ glucose dehydrogenase by increasing hydrophobic interaction at dimeric interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferri Stefano

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water-soluble quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase (PQQGDH-B from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus has a great potential for application as a glucose sensor constituent. Because this enzyme shows no activity in its monomeric form, correct quaternary structure is essential for the formation of active enzyme. We have previously reported on the increasing of the stability of PQQGDH-B by preventing the subunit dissociation. Previous studies were based on decreasing the entropy of quaternary structure dissociation but not on increasing the interaction between the two subunits. We therefore attempted to introduce a hydrophobic interaction in the dimeric interface to increase the stability of PQQGDH-B. Results Amino acid residues Asn340 and Tyr418 face each other at the dimer interface of PQQGDH-B, however no interaction exists between their side chains. We simultaneously substituted Asn340 to Phe and Tyr418 to Phe or Ile, to create the two mutants Asn340Phe/Tyr418Phe and Asn340Phe/Tyr418Ile. Furthermore, residues Leu280, Val282 and Val342 form a hydrophobic region that faces, on the other subunit, residues Thr416 and Thr417, again without any specific interaction. We simultaneously substituted Thr416 and Thr417 to Val, to create the mutant Thr416Val/Thr417Val. The temperatures resulting in lose of half of the initial activity of the constructed mutants were increased by 3–4°C higher over wild type. All mutants showed 2-fold higher thermal stability at 55°C than the wild-type enzyme, without decreasing their catalytic activities. From the 3D models of all the mutant enzymes, the predicted binding energies were found to be significantly greater that in the wild-type enzyme, consistent with the increases in thermal stabilities. Conclusions We have achieved via site-directed mutagenesis the improvement of the thermal stability of PQQGDH-B by increasing the dimer interface interaction. Through rational design based on the quaternary

  13. Water Table Control for Increasing Yield and Saving Water in Cranberry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Pelletier

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Water table control has been successfully tested to improve the sustainability of water management in cranberry production. In the province of Québec (Canada, three sites were investigated to determine the optimum water table depth below soil surface (WTD using three criteria: (1 increasing yield without decreasing fruit quality; (2 minimizing the amount of water needed by the sprinkler system; and (3 avoiding hypoxic stresses in the rhizosphere. Our results show that the final yield, the berry sugar content, the total number of berries, the number of berries per upright, and the fruit set were maximized when the WTD was 60 cm. Sprinkler water savings of 77% were obtained where the WTD was shallower than 66 cm. In order to avoid hypoxic conditions due to poor drainage, the water level in the canals surrounding the beds should be lowered to 80 cm when a rainfall or a frost protection irrigation is anticipated. All sides of a block of beds must be surrounded by canals to ensure a uniform WTD and to avoid lateral hydraulic gradients that could cause peripheral seepage losses.

  14. Efficacy of detergent and water versus bleach for disinfection of direct contact ophthalmic lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Ashkan M; Gregori, Ninel Z; Surapaneni, Krishna; Miller, Darlene

    2014-06-01

    Although manufacturers recommend cleaning ophthalmic lenses with detergent and water and then with a specific disinfectant, disinfectants are rarely used in ophthalmic practices. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of detergent and water versus that of bleach, a recommended disinfectant, to eliminate common ocular bacteria and viruses from ophthalmic lenses. Three bacterial strains (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium straitum, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 2 viral strains (adenovirus and herpes simplex virus [HSV] type-1) were individually inoculated onto 20 gonioscopy and laser lenses. The lenses were washed with detergent and water and then disinfected with 10% bleach. All the lenses were cultured after inoculation, after washing with detergent and water, and after disinfecting with the bleach. Bacterial cultures in thioglycollate broth were observed for 3 weeks, and viral cultures were observed for 2 weeks. The presence of viruses was also detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All 20 lenses inoculated with S. epidermidis, C. straitum, adenovirus, and HSV-1 showed growth after inoculation but no growth after washing with detergent/water and after disinfecting with the bleach. All lenses showed positive HSV and adenovirus PCR results after inoculation and negative PCR results after washing with detergent/water and after disinfecting with bleach. All methicillin-resistant S. aureus-contaminated lenses showed growth after inoculation and no growth after washing with detergent and water. However, 1 lens showed positive growth after disinfecting with bleach. Cleaning with detergent and water seemed to effectively eliminate bacteria and viruses from the surface of contaminated ophthalmic lenses. Further studies are warranted to design practical disinfection protocols that minimize lens damage.

  15. Increasing operational life of brush-contact device in the turbine generator due to using lubricating molybdenum disulphide brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, A. I.; Fominykh, A. A.; Nikulin, S. V.; Prokoshev, D. K.; Legoti, A. B.; Timina, N. V.

    2018-01-01

    A way of reducing irregular current distribution in multi-brush systems of sliding current transfer with its wear reduction due to installing lubricating molybdenum disulphide brushes on slip rings to ensure a greasing nano-sized cover on the slip ring surface is proposed. The authors give the results of industrial tests estimated on the performance effectiveness of lubricating brushes on slip rings of the TBB-320-2UZ-type turbine generator. The results showed that the lubricating brushes reduce a) the wear of 6110 OM+M and EG2AF+M brushes by 1.2 and 2.1 times respectively, b) current distribution irregularity in parallel operating brushes due to stabilizing the contact arc, and c) the temperature of the electrical brush-contact device due to the friction reduction in brushes.

  16. Managing Southeastern US Forests for Increased Water Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S.; Kaplan, D. A.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Cohen, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Forested lands influence watershed hydrology by affecting water quantity and quality in surface and groundwater systems, making them potentially effective tools for regional water resource planning. In this study, we quantified water use and water yield by pine forests under varying silvicultural management (e.g., high density plantation, thinning, and prescribed burning). Daily forest water use (evapotranspiration, ET) was estimated using continuously monitored soil-moisture in the root-zone at six sites across Florida (USA), each with six plots ranging in forest leaf-area index (LAI). Plots included stands with different rotational ages (from clear-cut to mature pine plantations) and those restored to more historical conditions. Estimated ET relative to potential ET (PET) was strongly associated with LAI, root-zone soil-moisture status, and site hydroclimate; these factors explained 85% of the variation in the ET:PET ratio. Annual water yield (Yw) calculated from these ET estimates and a simple water balance differed significantly among sites and plots (ranging from -0.12 cm/yr to > 100 cm/yr), demonstrating substantive influence of management regimes. LAI strongly influenced Yw in all sites, and a general linear model with forest attributes (LAI and groundcover), hydroclimate, and site characteristics explained >90% of variation in observed Yw. These results can be used to predict water yield changes under different management and climate scenarios and may be useful in the development of payment for ecosystem services approaches that identify water as an important product of forest best management practices.

  17. Effect of water desorption on the rheology and dynamic response of human hair to a non-contact impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamart, J; Djaghloul, M; Bergheau, J M; Zahouani, H

    2015-06-01

    Human hair is a non-homogeneous complex material made of keratin fibers oriented along the longitudinal axis which offer anisotropic mechanical properties. Nowadays, it is possible to measure the mechanical properties of hairs with the classical tests, but most often, these tests are destructive and make hard to measure the influence of some external factors or treatments on the behavior of a same hair fiber. In the current paper, vibrations induced by a non-contact impact have been utilized as a representative response of the mechanical behavior of hair. The characteristics of the vibratory response allow measuring the variation in the mechanical properties and the instantaneous effect of an external factor on the properties of a same sample. First, load relaxation tests have been performed on hair samples after moisturization and for different times of an air-drying process in order to characterize the change in the visco-elastic behavior of hair during the water desorption. Other hair samples have been tested with our non-contact impact and vibration technique in order to observe the change in the vibratory response during the water desorption. The vibratory response has then been correlated to the mechanical properties of the hair fiber. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Correct contact lens hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümle, S; Kaercher, T; Khaireddin, R

    2013-06-01

    Although contact lenses have long been established in ophthalmology, practical aspects of handling contact lenses is becoming increasingly less important in the clinical training as specialist for ophthalmology. Simultaneously, for many reasons injuries due to wearing contact lenses are increasing. In order to correct this discrepancy, information on contact lenses and practical experience with them must be substantially increased from a medical perspective. This review article deals with the most important aspects for prevention of complications, i.e. contact lens hygiene.

  19. Research notes : the pH of water in contact with fresh concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Fresh concrete can significantly change the pH of water. To study the impacts, the pH of a few drilled shaft pours on Bear Creek near Zigzag (US Highway 26, MP 42.6) were monitored in order to aid discussion on future similar work. The concrete was p...

  20. A theoretical and experimental study of turbulent thermal conductivity of water in direct contact condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, G.P.; Cumo, M.; D'Annibale, F.; Farello, G.E.; Focardi, G.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation related to the interaction between saturated and superheated steam in quasi-stagnant conditions, and subcooled water in horizontal flow within a rectangular duct test section is presented. A mathematical model for the description of the phenomenon has been developed and tested with the experimental data. The comparison is acceptable and well within the uncertainty band of the experimental measurements

  1. Analysis of heat transfer in the water meniscus at the tip-sample contact in scanning thermal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assy, Ali; Lefèvre, Stéphane; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Gomès, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of local nanometer-scale thermal measurements are difficult to achieve because heat flux may be transferred from the heated sensor to the cold sample through various elusive mixed thermal channels. This paper addresses one of these channels, the water meniscus at the nano-contact between a heated atomic force microscopy probe and a hydrophilic sample. This heat transfer mechanism is found to depend strongly on the probe temperature. The analysis of the pull-off forces as a function of temperature indicates that the water film almost vanishes above a probe mean temperature between 120 and 150 ºC. In particular, a methodology that allows for correlating the thermal conductance of the water meniscus to the capillary forces is applied. In the case of the standard scanning thermal microscopy Wollaston probe, values of this thermal conductance show that the water meniscus mechanism is not dominant in the thermal interaction between the probe and the sample, regardless of probe temperature. (fast track communication)

  2. Experimental determination and chemical modelling of radiolytic processes at the spent fuel/water interface. Long contact time experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the last experimental and modelling results of a research programme that started in 1995, corresponding in that case to the long contact time experiments. The aim of this programme has been to understand the processes that control the radiolytic generation of oxidants and reductants at the spent fuel water interface and their consequences for spent fuel stability and radionuclide release. The results of this work have been reported in different papers and technical reports during the last decade. In this series, well controlled dissolution experiments of PWR Ringhals spent fuel fragments in an initially anoxic closed system and by using different solution compositions have been carried out, the experiments have been opened after a long time period (between 1.5 and 3 years), samples have been taken and gas and solution analyses have been performed. The results indicate the following: Hydrogen and oxygen concentrations follow the same trend, an initial increase of the concentration of both compounds with time until they reach a steady state that indicates an overall balance of all the radiolytic species generated in the system. Hydrogen peroxide data show in general an initial decrease with time until it reaches a steady state for a given solution composition. This confirms the overall balance of the generated radiolytic species. The experimental data shows that uranium dissolution is controlled by the oxidation of the UO 2 matrix in 10 mM bicarbonate solutions while in the rest of the tests carried out at lower or in the absence of carbonate, uranium in the aqueous phase is governed by the precipitation of schoepite. These processes control the co-dissolution of most of the analysed radionuclides, including Sr, Cs, Mo, Tc and Np while not a clear dependency is found for Pu, Y, and Nd suggesting that other processes are governing the concentration of these radionuclides in the aqueous phase. Kinetic modelling has been performed with data from experiments

  3. Corrosion studies with high burnup light water reactor fuel. Release of nuclides into simulated groundwater during accumulated contact time of up to two years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicky, Hans-Urs (Zwicky Consulting GmbH, Remigen (Switzerland)); Low, Jeanett; Ekeroth, Ella (Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    pellet surface than the bulk of the pellet in leaching experiments. Thus, formation of oxidising species and radicals by radiolysis is expected to be disproportionately high as well. Therefore, when discussing high burnup fuel dissolution, the effect of the increased radiation field with burnup, as well as of the influence of the smaller grain size and increased porosity at the rim are mentioned as factors which contribute to increased dissolution rates. A third factor, increased fission product and actinide doping with burnup, has been discussed extensively in connection with increased resistance to air oxidation of the fuel. Samples from four different fuel rods, all operated in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR), are used in the new series of corrosion experiments. They cover a burnup range from 58 to 75 MWd/kgU. The nuclide inventory of all four samples was determined by means of a combination of experimental nuclide analysis and sample specific modelling calculations. More than 40 different nuclides were analysed by isotope dilution analysis using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), as well as other ICP-MS and gamma spectrometric methods. The content of roughly all fission products and actinides was also calculated separately for each sample. The experiments are performed under oxidising conditions in synthetic groundwater at ambient temperature. In order to make results as comparable as possible to those of the Series 11 experiments, the same procedure and the same leachant is used. At least nine consecutive contact periods of one and three weeks and two, three, six and twelve months are planned. The present report covers the first five contact periods up to a cumulative contact time of one year for all four samples and in addition the sixth period up to a cumulative contact time of two years for two of the samples. The samples, kept in position by a platinum wire spiral, are exposed to synthetic groundwater in a Pyrex flask. After the contact

  4. Drag Moderation by the Melting of an Ice Surface in Contact with Water

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2015-07-24

    We report measurements of the effects of a melting ice surface on the hydrodynamic drag of ice-shell-metal-core spheres free falling in water at a Reynolds of number Re∼2×104–3×105 and demonstrate that the melting surface induces the early onset of the drag crisis, thus reducing the hydrodynamic drag by more than 50%. Direct visualization of the flow pattern demonstrates the key role of surface melting. Our observations support the hypothesis that the drag reduction is due to the disturbance of the viscous boundary layer by the mass transfer from the melting ice surface.

  5. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O. Falkinham

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators.

  6. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkinham, Joseph O; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc

    2015-06-09

    Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators.

  7. Increase in acidifying water in the western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Di; Chen, Liqi; Chen, Baoshan; Gao, Zhongyong; Zhong, Wenli; Feely, Richard A.; Anderson, Leif G.; Sun, Heng; Chen, Jianfang; Chen, Min; Zhan, Liyang; Zhang, Yuanhui; Cai, Wei-Jun

    2017-02-01

    The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the ocean decreases seawater pH and carbonate mineral aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), a process known as Ocean Acidification (OA). This can be detrimental to marine organisms and ecosystems. The Arctic Ocean is particularly sensitive to climate change and aragonite is expected to become undersaturated (Ωarag Pacific Winter Water transport, driven by an anomalous circulation pattern and sea-ice retreat, is primarily responsible for the expansion, although local carbon recycling and anthropogenic CO2 uptake have also contributed. These results indicate more rapid acidification is occurring in the Arctic Ocean than the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, with the western Arctic Ocean the first open-ocean region with large-scale expansion of `acidified’ water directly observed in the upper water column.

  8. Evaporation reduction in stock tanks for increasing water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. A.; Issac, V. C.

    1990-11-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of shading and floating materials in reducing evaporation from a free water surface. White polyethene sheet used for shading the water surface reduced evaporation by 91% and cost Rs.2.54 (US0.15) per 10001. Floating materials evaluated were polyethene sheet, foam rubber sheet, polystyrene sheet, bamboo, and Sacchrum munja. Evaporation reduction for a 19-month test period ranged from 37% for S. munja to 82% for polystyrene sheet. Foam rubber sheet, polyethene sheet and bamboo reduced evaporation by 74, 66 and 53%, respectively. The polystyrene sheet and polyethene sheet covers were the most economical, saving water at a cost of Rs.3.07 (US0.19) and Rs.4.44 (US$0.27) per 10001, respectively.

  9. Direct-contact condensers for open-cycle OTEC applications: Model validation with fresh water experiments for structured packings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.; Parsons, B.K.; Althof, J.A.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of the reported work was to develop analytical methods for evaluating the design and performance of advanced high-performance heat exchangers for use in open-cycle thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. This report describes the progress made on validating a one-dimensional, steady-state analytical computer of fresh water experiments. The condenser model represents the state of the art in direct-contact heat exchange for condensation for OC-OTEC applications. This is expected to provide a basis for optimizing OC-OTEC plant configurations. Using the model, we examined two condenser geometries, a cocurrent and a countercurrent configuration. This report provides detailed validation results for important condenser parameters for cocurrent and countercurrent flows. Based on the comparisons and uncertainty overlap between the experimental data and predictions, the model is shown to predict critical condenser performance parameters with an uncertainty acceptable for general engineering design and performance evaluations. 33 refs., 69 figs., 38 tabs.

  10. Biomass production and potential water stress increase with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The choice of planting density and tree genotype are basic decisions when establishing a forest stand. Understanding the interaction between planting density and genotype, and their relationship with biomass production and potential water stress, is crucial as forest managers are faced with a changing climate. However ...

  11. Solving the water crisis: Increase supplies or improve management ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... As Brooks explains in Water:Local-level Management, recently published by Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC), large-scale, ... And these projects frequently incite a justifiable fear and resistance. ... However, these can be changed when people see the value in change. Any new ...

  12. Endogenous technological and population change under increasing water scarcity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pande, S.; Ertsen, M.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-01-01

    While the proposed model is a rather simple model of a coupled human–water system, it is shown to be capable of replicating patterns of technological, population, production and consumption per capita changes. The model demonstrates that technological change may indeed ameliorate the effects of

  13. Implementing the 40 Gallon Challenge to Increase Water Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Mary Carol; Bauske, Ellen; Pugliese, Paul; Kolich, Heather; Boellstorff, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The 40 Gallon Challenge is an easy-to-use, comprehensive indoor and outdoor water conservation educational tool. It can be used nationwide and easily incorporated into existing educational programs. Promotional materials and pledge cards are available on the 40 Gallon Challenge website and can be modified by educators. The website displays data…

  14. Exponential increase of publications related to soil water repellency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Soil water repellency is much more wide-spread than formerly thought. During the last decades, it has been a topic of study for soil scientists and hydrologists in at least 21 States of the USA, in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, Congo, Nepal, India, Hong Kong, Taiwan,

  15. Influence of frame inelasticity on poroviscoelastic reflections from a gas-water contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rui; Chesnokov, Evgeny; Brown, Raymon

    2016-01-01

    As a natural extension of Biot theory, poroviscoelasticity is more comprehensive. The only difference between them is frame inelasticity, which influences wave dispersion, attenuation, reflection, and transmission. Hence we compute the influence, which uses the data of typical sand with gas and water saturation in the Gulf of Mexico with four values of frame inelasticity. The graphically illustrated results show that frame inelasticity has a small influence on the dispersion of P1- and S-waves and almost no influence on the dispersion of P2-wave. The frame inelasticity's influence on the P1- and S-wave attenuation is substantial with only a relatively small impact on the P2-wave attenuation. In some frequency and incident-angle ranges, frame inelasticity's influence on the reflection and transmission coefficients is considerable.

  16. Evolution of surface area-to-volume ratio for a water meniscus evaporating between contacting silica spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, R E; Burns, S E

    2010-03-01

    An experimental investigation was performed under isothermal conditions to quantify the rate of evaporation of water from a receding pendular meniscus connecting two silica spheres. Optically based measurements were used to determine the relevant meniscus dimensions, and the meniscus was modeled using a toroidal approximation. The rate of change of meniscus surface area and volume was then predicted using mathematical modeling software. The results demonstrated that once the meniscus transitioned from a relatively flat surface to one with an increasing radius of curvature, the rate of change of the ratio of surface area-to-volume was relatively constant over the range of water contents that were observable using the optical investigation techniques implemented in this study. Comparison of the flux of water from the meniscus surface demonstrated that the evaporation of bound water was four orders of magnitude slower than evaporation from a free water surface. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Process and Reason of the Change of Oil-Water Contact of Shahejie Formation in BZ25-1 Oilfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, F.; Liu, J.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the influence of Neo-tectonic movement, the Shahejie reservoirs in Bohai Bay Basin has undergone late-stage transformation and adjustment, causing the oil-water contact to change. Through studying the changing history of oil-water contact, we can better restore petroleum accumulation process and analyze oil distribution pattern. Based on reservoir geochemistry theory and drilling and logging data, grains with oil inclusion was analyzed, and oil-bearing property, organic extracts and biomarkers was used to determine the present and paleo-oil water contact of Shahejie formation in BZ25-1 oilfield. It suggested that the paleo and present oil-water contact in Shahejie formation locates in different depth, and that Shahejie formation has gone through three petroleum charging stages and has also undergone reservoir adjustment. The POWC(paleo-oil-water contact) of E2S2 reservoirs in BZ25-1-5 well and E2S2 reservoirs in BZ25-1-3 well is lower than OWC(present oil-water contact) at least for 9m and at most for 400m, but the POWC of E2S3 reservoirs in BZ25-1-5 well is higher than OWC at least for 20m and at most for 27.5m. The petroleum accumulation process and the reason for oil-water contact adjustment were studied based on burial history, petroleum generation history, fault re-activation rate and petroleum charging history. It suggested that the three petroleum charging stages are Mid-Miocene(11.5Ma), Late Miocene-Pliocene(6.5-3.5Ma) and Quaternary(2.5Ma-present), among which the second~third charging episode is seen as the major petroleum accumulation stage. The re-activeted faults in several different periods not only served as preferential path for petroleum vertical migration, but also caused petroleum leakage through faults. The petroleum leakage mainly occurred in Neo-tectonic movement period(after 3.5Ma), during which petroleum vertically leaked through re-activated faults and migrated to shallow reservoirs or spilled over surface, meanwhile due to constant

  18. Intergroup Contact: Using Storytelling to Increase Awareness of Lesbian and Gay Older Adults in Long-Term Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelts, Michael D; Galambos, Colleen

    2017-01-01

    Due to societally imposed stigmatization, lesbian and gay (LG) older adults fear and prolong accessing long-term care (LTC) even though they need LTC at higher rates. Interventions that decrease negative attitudes toward LG older adults among LTC staff are a first step in addressing this problem. In this study, the influence of intergroup contact (IGC) on LTC staff members' attitudes toward LG was explored through the use of storytelling as a training mechanism. An embedded mixed-method approach was employed to collect and analyze responses of 60 LTC staff who participated in a storytelling event. Participants completed pretests, posttests, and participated in audio-recorded group discussions. The findings showed that storytelling had a significant (p =0.001) and positive effect (d =0.57) on participants attitudes toward LG. Qualitative analysis revealed 90 codes, 13 process codes, and 4 themes: making meaning of stories, seeking understanding, application to LTC setting, and debating. When guided by IGC theory, storytelling has potential for positively influencing attitudes of LTC staff members toward LG older adults. There is a need for longitudinal work to further test this model.

  19. Managing the Increasing Water Footprint of Hydraulic Fracturing in the Bakken Play, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R; Reedy, Robert C; Male, Frank; Hove, Michael

    2016-09-20

    The water footprint of oil production, including water used for hydraulic fracturing (HF) and flowback-produced (FP) water, is increasingly important in terms of HF water sourcing and FP water management. Here, we evaluate trends in HF water use relative to supplies and FP water relative to disposal using well by well analysis in the Bakken Play. HF water use per well increased by ∼6 times from 2005-2014, totaling 24.5 × 10(9) gal (93 × 10(9) L) for ∼10 140 wells. Water supplies expanded to meet increased demand, including access of up to ∼33 × 10(9) gal/year (125 × 10(9) L/year) from Lake Sakakawea, expanding pipeline infrastructure by hundreds of miles and allowing water transfers from irrigation. The projected inventory of ∼60 000 future wells should require an additional ∼11 times more HF water. Cumulative FP water has been managed by disposal into an increasing number (277 to 479) of salt water disposal wells. FP water is projected to increase by ∼10 times during the play lifetime (∼40 years). Disposal of FP water into deeper geologic units should be considered because of reported overpressuring of parts of the Dakota Group. The long time series shows how policies have increased water supplies for HF and highlights potential issues related to FP water management.

  20. Non-Thermal Plasma in Contact with Water: The Origin of Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbanev, Yury; O'Connell, Deborah; Chechik, Victor

    2016-03-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to its potential for biomedical applications. Determining the mechanism of the formation of reactive species in liquid treated with plasma is thus of paramount importance for both fundamental and applied research. In this work, the origin of reactive species in plasma-treated aqueous solutions was investigated by using spin-trapping, hydrogen and oxygen isotopic labelling and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The species originating from molecules in the liquid phase and those introduced with the feed gas were differentiated by EPR and 1 H NMR analysis of liquid samples. The effects of water vapour and oxygen admixtures in the feed gas were investigated. All the reactive species detected in the liquid samples were shown to be formed largely in the plasma gas phase. It is suggested that hydrogen peroxide (determined by UV/Vis analysis) is formed primarily in the plasma tube, whereas the radical species ⋅OOH, ⋅OH and ⋅H are proposed to originate from the region between the plasma nozzle and the liquid sample. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  1. Unsealed Tubewells Lead to Increased Fecal Contamination of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappett, Peter S. K.; McKay, Larry D.; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E.; Alam, Md. J.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Ferguson, Andrew S.; Culligan, Patricia J.; Serre, Marc L.; Emch, Michael; Ahmed, Kazi M.; Sayler, Gary S.; van Geen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is underlain by shallow aquifers in which millions of drinking water wells are emplaced without annular seals. Fecal contamination has been widely detected in private tubewells. To evaluate the impact of well construction on microbial water quality 35 private tubewells (11 with intact cement platforms, 19 without) and 17 monitoring wells (11 with the annulus sealed with cement, 6 unsealed) were monitored for cultured E. coli over 18 months. Additionally, two “snap shot” sampling events were performed on a subset of wells during late-dry and early-wet seasons, wherein the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) E. coli, Bacteroidales and the pathogenicity genes eltA (ETEC E. coli), ipaH (Shigella) and 40/41 hexon (adenovirus) were detected using qPCR. No difference in E. coli detection frequency was found between tubewells with and without platforms. Unsealed private wells, however, contained cultured E. coli more frequently and higher concentrations of FIB than sealed monitoring wells (p<0.05), suggestive of rapid downward flow along unsealed annuli. As a group the pathogens ETEC, Shigella and adenovirus were detected more frequently (10/22) during the wet season than the dry season (2/20). This suggests proper sealing of private tubewell annuli may lead to substantial improvements in microbial drinking water quality. PMID:23165714

  2. Effect of enzyme concentration, addition of water and incubation time on increase in yield of starch from potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Nandan; Agrawal, U S; Deka, Sankar C

    2014-05-01

    Enzymatic treatment process for starch extraction from potato was investigated using cellulase enzyme and compared with conventional process. The effects of three parameters, cellulase enzyme concentration, incubation time and addition of water were evaluated for increase in starch yield as compared to the conventional process i.e., without using enzyme. A two-level full factorial design was used to study the process. The results indicated that all the main parameters and their interactions are statistically significant. Enzyme concentration and incubation time had a positive effect on the increase in starch yield while addition of water had a negative effect. The increase in starch yield ranged from 1.9% at low enzyme concentration and incubation time and high addition of water to a maximum of 70% increase from conventional process in starch yield was achieved when enzyme concentration and incubation time were high and addition of water was low suggesting water present in the ground potato meal is sufficient for access to the enzyme with in the slurry ensuring adequate contact with the substrate.

  3. Dynamics of the contact salty water candy-water in water-bearing slabs submissive intensive salt water operation; Dinamica del contacto agua dulce-agua salada en acuiferos costeros sometidos a explotacion intensiva de agua salada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joreto, S.; Pulido-Bosch, A.; Sanchez-Martos, F.; Frances, I.; Gisbert, J.

    2008-07-01

    The behaviour of coastal aquifers that are subject to abstraction is well-studied. what is not yet assessed is the behaviour of coastal aquifers subject to seawater abstractions. The proliferation in recent years of desalination plants along the southeastern Spanish coast, in addition to the plants yet to be planned and/or constructed, has led us to focus on the processes associated with this unusual disturbance of the coastal systems. the pseudo-natural equilibrium in the aquifer between the fresh and the saltwater was established by means of periodic measurements of water temperature and conductivity in observation wells that are slotted over the whole water column, and continuous monitoring of water level, temperature and conductivity over a network of boreholes that are slotted over the lengths corresponding to each of the water levels (fresh, interface and slat). The recent partial-commissioning of the desalination plant serving the city of Almeria has also enabled assessment of the immediate response of the aquifer to intensive abstraction of seawater, as well as observation of the response of the fresh water-salt water contact, which is becoming deeper and very well-defined. The spatio-temporal evolution of these parameters will be crucial in formulating a hypothesis to understand the behaviour of the interface under these unprecedented conditions. (Author)

  4. The use of contact angle measurements to estimate the adhesion propensity of calcium carbonate to solid substrates in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargir, Sameer; Dunn, Steve; Jefferson, Bruce; Macadam, Jitka; Parsons, Simon

    2009-01-01

    We have studied a series of solids using contact angle measurements; stainless steel, gold, aluminium, titanium nitride and PTFE that are frequently used in domestic water environments. It was found the influence of electron-donor (γ - ) and electron-acceptor (γ + ) free energies on material scaling rate was dominated by water wetting angles, providing materials exhibit an average roughness below 100 nm. The γ - component had the greatest influence on theoretical adhesion, while γ LW , (Lifshitz-van der Waals) γ + and γ AB (acid-base) had little effect. From the materials analysed, amorphous carbon coatings were least adhesive, while 'kettle coating' and highly roughened steel the most adhesive. The size and distribution of asperities also influenced the polar free energies and subsequent adhesion due to fluctuations in the wetting angle. The results obtained indicate works of adhesion can be used as a complementary technique with Lewis acid-base theory to deliver useful information about the propensity of scale to deposit on solids.

  5. Effect of hydraulic retention time on ABR tail water treatment by contact oxidation process under low oxygen condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaolong; Shi, Chunhong; Wang, Zhenbao; Jiang, Kai

    2018-02-01

    Biological contact oxidation process of low dissolved oxygen was applied to the treatment of ABR tail water, which were pretreatment effluent for Island sewage. The reactor was built and filled with polyurethane suspension filler as carrier for biofilm growth in laboratory. The dissolved oxygen in the reactor is kept at 1.3-1.8mg/L to distinguish between traditional method which is 2.5-3.5mg/L. Influence of hydraulic retention time(HRT) on ABR tail water treatment by the process was studied. Results show that the system has good effect on removal of COD and TN under this condition. When HRT is among 4h to 12h, the removal rate of COD can be maintained at 80-90%.From period 1 to period 3, the removal rate of NH4 +N and TN at the end of each period can be recovered to a higher level, and the average removal rate after stabilization is 99% and 67% respectively which can come up to first grade of the national standard GB18918-2002. It is remarkable that when HRT is 4h, the removal rate of NH4 +-N and TN showed a significant decrease trend, the concentration of effluent was 14.79mg/L and 19.5mg/L, respectively.

  6. Contoured in-shoe foot orthoses increase mid-foot plantar contact area when compared with a flat insert during cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousie, Jaquelin A; Blanch, Peter; McPoil, Thomas G; Vicenzino, Bill

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effect of contouring of an in-shoe foot orthosis on plantar contact area and surface pressure, as well as perceived comfort and support at the foot-orthosis interface during stationary cycling. A randomised, repeated measures control study. Twelve cyclists performed steady-state seated cycling at a cadence of 90 rpm using a contoured orthosis and a flat insert of similar hardness. Contact area (CA) and plantar mean pressure (PP) were measured using the PEDAR® system, determined for seven discrete plantar regions and represented as the percentage of the total CA and PP respectively (CA% and PP%). Perceived comfort and support were rated using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The contoured orthosis produced a significantly greater CA% at the medial midfoot (p=0.001) and lateral midfoot (p=0.009) with a standardised mean difference (SMD) of 1.3 and 0.9 respectively. The contoured orthosis also produced a significantly greater PP% at the hallux (p=0.003) compared to the flat insert with a SMD of 1.1. There was a small non-significant effect (SMDfoot by increasing contact area as well as a perception of greater support at the midfoot while increasing relative pressure through the hallux when compared to a flat insert during stationary cycling. No difference in perceived comfort was noted. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Increasing water productivity of irrigated crops under limited water supply at field scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vazifedoust, M.; Dam, van J.C.; Feddes, R.A.; Feizi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Borkhar district is located in an and to semi-arid region in Iran and regularly faces widespread drought. Given current water scarcity, the limited available water should be used as efficient and productive as possible. To explore on-farm strategies which result in higher economic gains and water

  8. College Cafeteria Signage Increases Water Intake but Water Position on the Soda Dispenser Encourages More Soda Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuclard, Astrid Linn; Park-Mroch, Jennifer; O'Shea, Amy M J; Wansink, Brian; Irvin, Jill; Laroche, Helena H

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of improved water location visibility and water dispenser position on the soda dispenser on undergraduate students' beverage choices. Two focus groups with pilot intervention surveys before and after, adding a small sign above the soda dispensers' water button for 6 weeks in a large US university's all-you-can-eat, prepaid dining hall (measured with chi-square tests and logistic and ordinal logistic regression). Focus groups included 15 students. Survey participants included 357 students before and 301 after the intervention. After the intervention, more students reported ever having drunk water with the meal (66.4% to 77.0%; P = .003) and water consumption frequency increased (P = .005). Postintervention, the odds of drinking water increased by 1.57. Preference for other drinks was the main reason for not drinking water. A total of 59% of students had ever changed their preference from water to soda. The clear indication of the water's location increased students' reported water consumption. Further investigation is needed into how a non-independent water dispenser influences students' beverage choice. Clearly labeled, independent water dispensers are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  9. Avoiding toxicity from water-borne contaminants in hemodialysis: new challenges in an era of increased demand for water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Richard A

    2011-05-01

    Water is necessary for all hemodialysis treatments. However, drinking water contains a range of substances that are toxic to patients on hemodialysis. Thus, all dialysis facilities are equipped with a water treatment system that removes those substances from the water before it is used to prepare dialysate. Increased demand for water and ever-evolving drinking water regulations are leading to changes in drinking water quality that may compromise the ability of typical dialysis water treatment systems to adequately remove substances that are known to be toxic or to deal with unexpected increases in other substances of unknown toxicity. In addition to these external challenges to dialysis water quality, the growing recognition that microbial contaminants in dialysate contribute to long-term morbidity has led to more stringent microbiological quality standards for dialysate and a consequent need to control biofilm formation in the fluid pathways involved in dialysate preparation. Avoiding toxicity from water contaminants in this dynamic environment requires a comprehensive approach to water treatment, including flexibility regarding the choice of water treatment processes, close communication with the suppliers of drinking water, and an emphasis on training technicians responsible for monitoring and maintaining all aspects of the fluid handling systems. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Entropy Assessment on Direct Contact Condensation of Subsonic Steam Jets in a Water Tank through Numerical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article analyzes the dissipation characteristics of the direct contact condensation (DCC phenomenon that occurs when steam is injected into a water tank at a subsonic speed using a new modeling approach for the entropy generation over the calculation domain. The developed entropy assessment model is based on the local equilibrium hypothesis of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The fluid flow and heat transfer processes are investigated numerically. To describe the condensation and evaporation process at the vapor-liquid interface, a phase change model originated from the kinetic theory of gas is implemented with the mixture model for multiphase flow in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD code ANSYS-FLUENT. The CFD predictions agree well with the published works, which indicates the phase change model combined with the mixture model is a promising way to simulate the DCC phenomenon. In addition, three clear stages as initial stage, developing stage and oscillatory stage are discriminated from both the thermal-hydraulic results and the entropy generation information. During different stages, different proportion of the entropy generation rate owing to heat transfer, viscous direct dissipation, turbulent dissipation and inner phase change in total entropy generation rate is estimated, which is favorable to deeper understanding the irreversibility of DCC phenomenon, designing and optimizing the equipment involved in the process.

  11. Lundep, a sand fly salivary endonuclease increases Leishmania parasite survival in neutrophils and inhibits XIIa contact activation in human plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza C Chagas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the host's first line of defense against infections, and their extracellular traps (NET were recently shown to kill Leishmania parasites. Here we report a NET-destroying molecule (Lundep from the salivary glands of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Previous analysis of the sialotranscriptome of Lu. longipalpis showed the potential presence of an endonuclease. Indeed, not only was the cloned cDNA (Lundep shown to encode a highly active ss- and dsDNAse, but also the same activity was demonstrated to be secreted by salivary glands of female Lu. longipalpis. Lundep hydrolyzes both ss- and dsDNA with little sequence specificity with a calculated DNase activity of 300000 Kunitz units per mg of protein. Disruption of PMA (phorbol 12 myristate 13 acetate- or parasite-induced NETs by treatment with recombinant Lundep or salivary gland homogenates increases parasite survival in neutrophils. Furthermore, co-injection of recombinant Lundep with metacyclic promastigotes significantly exacerbates Leishmania infection in mice when compared with PBS alone or inactive (mutagenized Lundep. We hypothesize that Lundep helps the parasite to establish an infection by allowing it to escape from the leishmanicidal activity of NETs early after inoculation. Lundep may also assist blood meal intake by lowering the local viscosity caused by the release of host DNA and as an anticoagulant by inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of coagulation.

  12. Increase of COP for heat transformer in water purification systems. Part II - Without increasing heat source temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, R.J.; Siqueiros, J.; Huicochea, A.

    2007-01-01

    The integration of a water purification system allows a heat transformer to increase the actual coefficient of performance, by the reduction of the amount of heat supplied by unit of heat. A new defined COP called COP WP is proposed for the present system, which considers the fraction of heat recycled. Simulation with proven software compares the performance of the modeling of an absorption heat transformer for water purification (AHTWP) operating with water/lithium bromide, as working fluid-absorbent pair. Plots of enthalpy-based coefficients of performance (COP ET ) and water purification coefficient of performance (COP WP ) are shown against absorber temperature for several thermodynamic operating conditions. The results showed that the proposed (AHTWP) system is capable of increasing the original value of COP ET up to 1.6 times its original value by recycling energy from a water purification system. The proposed COP WP allows increments for COP values from any experimental data for water purification or for any other distillation system integrated to a heat transformer, regardless of actual COP A value or working fluid-absorbent pair

  13. Technologies for hydrogen production based on direct contact of gaseous hydrocarbons and evaporated water with Molten Pb or Pb-Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulevich, A. V.; Martynov, P. N.; Gulevsky, V. A.; Ulyanov, V. V.

    2007-01-01

    hydrogen (at t≥500 degree C). A valuable product is formed in this process - powdery carbon readily removable from the reaction zone owing to a large density difference of carbon vs. liquid metal. 3. The oxidation conversion of hydrocarbons (at t≥500 degree C). Hydrogen and CO 2 , hydrogen and synthetic gas (H 2 and CO mixture) can be obtained as end products. This process develops more effectively compared to the traditional vapor conversion. The increase of conversion effectiveness is caused by the new processes not employed before: hydrocarbon oxidation by oxides present in the reaction zone as dissolved in the melt and in solid phase; co-oxidation of hydrocarbons by evaporated water and HLMC oxides. As a result of enhanced effectiveness of oxidation conversion, the conditions for its fulfillment can be considerably simplified - the working pressure, as well as the process temperature can be decreased to the level at which it becomes possible to use structural materials, equipment, and appropriate measures for the employment of technology with coolants that have been developed and substantiated for operation in circuits with Pb and Pb-Bi coolants. The dimensions of 'direct contact' devices for hydrogen production can be very small. Therefore, they can find application both in large-scale hydrogen production, and in small-size (remote) sources of hydrogen

  14. Biosurfactant as an Enhancer of Geologic Carbon Storage: Microbial Modification of Interfacial Tension and Contact Angle in Carbon dioxide/Water/Quartz Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyung Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Injecting and storing of carbon dioxide (CO2 in deep geologic formations is considered as one of the promising approaches for geologic carbon storage. Microbial wettability alteration of injected CO2 is expected to occur naturally by microorganisms indigenous to the geologic formation or microorganisms intentionally introduced to increase CO2 storage capacity in the target reservoirs. The question as to the extent of microbial CO2 wettability alteration under reservoir conditions still warrants further investigation. This study investigated the effect of a lipopeptide biosurfactant—surfactin, on interfacial tension (IFT reduction and contact angle alteration in CO2/water/quartz systems under a laboratory setup simulating in situ reservoir conditions. The temporal shifts in the IFT and the contact angle among CO2, brine, and quartz were monitored for different CO2 phases (3 MPa, 30°C for gaseous CO2; 10 MPa, 28°C for liquid CO2; 10 MPa, 37°C for supercritical CO2 upon cultivation of Bacillus subtilis strain ATCC6633 with induced surfactin secretion activity. Due to the secreted surfactin, the IFT between CO2 and brine decreased: from 49.5 to 30 mN/m, by ∼39% for gaseous CO2; from 28.5 to 13 mN/m, by 54% for liquid CO2; and from 32.5 to 18.5 mN/m, by ∼43% for supercritical CO2, respectively. The contact angle of a CO2 droplet on a quartz disk in brine increased: from 20.5° to 23.2°, by 1.16 times for gaseous CO2; from 18.4° to 61.8°, by 3.36 times for liquid CO2; and from 35.5° to 47.7°, by 1.34 times for supercritical CO2, respectively. With the microbially altered CO2 wettability, improvement in sweep efficiency of injected and displaced CO2 was evaluated using 2-D pore network model simulations; again the increment in sweep efficiency was the greatest in liquid CO2 phase due to the largest reduction in capillary factor. This result provides novel insights as to the role of naturally occurring biosurfactants in CO2 storage and

  15. Patterns of intestinal schistosomiasis among mothers and young children from Lake Albert, Uganda: water contact and social networks inferred from wearable global positioning system dataloggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Edmund Y W; Sousa-Figueiredo, José C; Betson, Martha; Byalero, Chris; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Stothard, J Russell

    2012-11-01

    The establishment of a national control programme (NCP) in Uganda has led to routine treatment of intestinal schistosomiasis with praziquantel in the communities along Lake Albert. However, because regular water contact remains a way of life for these populations, re-infection continues to mitigate the sustainability of the chemotherapy-based programme. A six-month longitudinal study was conducted in one Lake Albert community with the aim of characterizing water contact exposure and infection among mothers and their young preschool-aged children as the latter are not yet formally included within the NCP. At baseline the cohort of 37 mothers, 36 preschool-aged children had infection prevalences of 62% and 67%, respectively, which diminished to 20% and 29%, respectively, at the 6-month post-treatment follow-up. The subjects wore global positioning system (GPS) datalogging devices over a 3-day period shortly after baseline, allowing for the estimation of time spent at the lakeshore as an exposure metric, which was found to be associated with prevalence at follow-up (OR = 2.1, P = 0.01 for both mothers and young children and odds ratio (OR) = 4.4, P = 0.01 for young children alone). A social network of interpersonal interactions was also derived from the GPS data, and the exposures were positively associated both with the number and duration of peer interaction, suggesting the importance of socio-cultural factors associated with water contact behaviour. The findings illustrate reduction in both prevalence and intensity of infection in this community after treatment as well as remarkably high rates of water contact exposure and re-infection, particularly among younger children. We believe that this should now be formally considered within NCP, which may benefit from more in-depth ethnographic exploration of factors related to water contact as this should provide new opportunities for sustaining control.

  16. Equivalences between refractive index and equilibrium water content of conventional and silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses from automated and manual refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Méijome, José M; López-Alemany, Antonio; Lira, Madalena; Almeida, José B; Oliveira, M Elisabete C D Real; Parafita, Manuel A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop mathematical relationships that allow obtaining equilibrium water content and refractive index of conventional and silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses from refractive index measures obtained with automated refractometry or equilibrium water content measures derived from manual refractometry, respectively. Twelve HEMA-based hydrogels of different hydration and four siloxane-based polymers were assayed. A manual refractometer and a digital refractometer were used. Polynomial models obtained from the sucrose curves of equilibrium water content against refractive index and vice-versa were used either considering the whole range of sucrose concentrations (16-100% equilibrium water content) or a range confined to the equilibrium water content of current soft contact lenses (approximately 20-80% equilibrium water content). Values of equilibrium water content measured with the Atago N-2E and those derived from the refractive index measurement with CLR 12-70 by the applications of sucrose-based models displayed a strong linear correlation (r2 = 0.978). The same correlations were obtained when the models are applied to obtain refractive index values from the Atago N-2E and compared with those (values) given by the CLR 12-70 (r2 = 0.978). No significantly different results are obtained between models derived from the whole range of the sucrose solution or the model limited to the normal range of soft contact lens hydration. Present results will have implications for future experimental and clinical research regarding normal hydration and dehydration experiments with hydrogel polymers, and particularly in the field of contact lenses. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Environmental Impact of the Contact and Sonoma Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creek Watersheds, Sonoma County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Contact and Sonoma mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the western part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Sonoma County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek, which is a tributary to Little Sulphur Creek. The Contact Hg mine produced about 1,000 flasks of Hg, and the Sonoma mine produced considerably less. Waste rock and tailings eroded from the Contact and Sonoma mines have contributed Hg-enriched mine waste material to the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and other geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Contact and Sonoma mines and in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report is made in response to the USBLM request, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Contact and Sonoma mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Contact and Sonoma mines that was initiated on April 20 during a storm event, and on June 19, 2001. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota in a pond and tributaries that drain from the mine area was completed on April 1, 2003. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in tributaries and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

  18. [Use of social marketing to increase water consumption among school-age children in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriedo, Ángela; Bonvecchio, Anabelle; López, Nancy; Morales, Maricruz; Mena, Carmen; Théodore, Florence L; Irizarry, Laura

    2013-01-01

    To increase water consumption in school children in Mexico City through a social marketing intervention. Cluster quasi-experimental design. Intervention of three months in schools, including water provision and designed based on social marketing. Reported changes in attitude, knowledge and behavior were compared pre and post intervention. Children of the intervention group (n=116) increased in 38% (171 ml) water consumption during school time, control group (n=167) decreased its consumption in 21% (140 ml) (pmarketing and environmental modifications were effective on increasing water consumption among children, strategy that might contribute to mitigate childhood obesity.

  19. Salicaceae Endophytes Modulate Stomatal Behavior and Increase Water Use Efficiency in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungmin Rho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial and yeast endophytes isolated from the Salicaceae family have been shown to promote growth and alleviate stress in plants from different taxa. To determine the physiological pathways through which endophytes affect plant water relations, we investigated leaf water potential, whole-plant water use, and stomatal responses of rice plants to Salicaceae endophyte inoculation under CO2 enrichment and water deficit. Daytime stomatal conductance and stomatal density were lower in inoculated plants compared to controls. Leaf ABA concentrations increased with endophyte inoculation. As a result, transpirational water use decreased significantly with endophyte inoculation while biomass did not change or slightly increased. This response led to a significant increase in cumulative water use efficiency at harvest. Different endophyte strains produced the same results in host plant water relations and stomatal responses. These stomatal responses were also observed under elevated CO2 conditions, and the increase in water use efficiency was more pronounced under water deficit conditions. The effect on water use efficiency was positively correlated with daily light integrals across different experiments. Our results provide insights on the physiological mechanisms of plant-endophyte interactions involving plant water relations and stomatal functions.

  20. Multiple Josephson contact interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappe, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    The interferometer (quantum interference between two parallel contacts) displays a mid connector and contacts of the same size, or contacts at which the middle one is twice the size as the other two, or a double connector and three contacts by which the middle contact carries twice the current as the other two. Also there can be provided interferometers with three and four contacts as well as with symmetrical double current connectors and the same largest Josephson current through all contacts. Because all contacts display the same phase state in the voltage free switching state, the amplification property can be increased and current dissipation can be decreased in a way that logic circuits with high integration degree and high switching velocities can be designed. (DG) [de

  1. [Contact lens care and maintenance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, L

    2017-04-01

    All contact lenses with replacement schedules longer than daily must be maintained. At each step of their use, the lenses may be contaminated. Contact lens solutions perform the essential functions of cleaning, decontaminating and preserving the lenses to prevent infectious problems and improve wearing comfort. Contact lens contamination essentially comes from hands, cleaning solutions, cases, water and the environment. The pathogenic microorganisms are mainly Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and amoebae. Contact lens deposits may or may not have an organic origin. Their presence increases the risk of infection because they serve as a nutrient matrix for microbes, and they are responsible for wearing discomfort. Contact lens solutions differ in their composition, their mechanism of action and the concentration of the various agents. To prescribe the best lens care system to each wearer and for each material, it is necessary to be very familiar with them. Maintenance is the main cause of discomfort with contact lenses, either through improper use, solution-material incompatibility, or a reaction of the wearer to the components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Using aerated gravel-packed contact bed and constructed wetland system for polluted river water purification: A case study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. L.; Tu, Y. T.; Chiang, P. C.; Chen, S. H.; Kao, C. M.

    2015-06-01

    The Ju-Liao Stream is one of the most contaminated streams in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. A constructed wetland (CW) system was built in 2010 for polluted stream water purification and ecosystem improvement. An aerated gravel-packed contact bed (CB) system was built in 2011 and part of the stream water was treated by the CB before discharging to the CW. The influent rates of the CW and CB were approximately 5570 and 900 m3/d, respectively. The CW contained one free-water surface basin planted with emergent wetland plants, followed by the plug-flow channel-shaped free-water surface basin planted with emergent and floating wetland plants. The mean measured hydraulic loading rate (HLR), hydraulic retention time (HRT), water depth, and total volume of wetland system were 1.7 m/d, 0.68 d, 0.7 m, and 4400 m3, respectively. The aeration zone of the CB system had a dimension of 24 m (L) × 8 m (W) × 3 m (H), which was filled with gravels (average diameter = 5 cm) with a porosity of 0.4, and the aeration rate was 7.8 m3/min. Results show that the CB system was able to remove 69% of suspended solid (SS), 86% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and 58% of total nitrogen (TN). Up to 82% of BOD and 27% of TN could be removed in the CW system. Removal efficiency of SS was affected by the growth of chlorophyll a in the CW system due to the growth of algae. The observed first-order decay rates (k) for BOD and TN in CB were 9.3 and 4.2 1/d, and the k values for BOD and TN removal in CW were 2.5 and 0.45 1/d. The high pollutant removal efficiencies in the CB system indicate that the system could enhance the organic and nutrient removal through the biological processes effectively. Sediments contained high total organic matter (1.9-4.5%), sediment total nitrogen (6.4-10.1 g/kg), sediment total phosphorus (0.59-0.94 g/kg), and sediment oxygen demand (0.9-4.1 g O2/m2 d). The organic and nutrient-abundant sediments resulted in reduced conditions (oxidation-reduction potential measurements

  3. Contact Lens Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tap and distilled water have been associated with Acanthamoeba keratitis, a corneal infection that is resistant to ... to: Advice for Patients With Soft Contact Lenses: Acanthamoeba Keratitis Infections Related to Complete® MoisturePlus Multi Purpose ...

  4. Design of the Brine Evaporation Bag for Increased Water Recovery in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Anna L.; Delzeit, Lance D.

    2015-01-01

    The existing water recovery system on the International Space Station (ISS) is limited to 75% reclamation; consequently, long duration space missions are currently unfeasible due to the large quantity of water necessary to sustain the crew. The Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) is a proposed system to supplement the existing water recovery system aboard the ISS that can to increase water recovery to 99%. The largest barrier to high water recovery is mineral scaling inside the water recovery equipment, which leads to equipment failure; therefore, some water must remain to keep the minerals dissolved. This waste stream is liquid brine containing salts, acids, organics, and water. The BEB is designed to recover this remaining water while protecting the equipment from scale. The BEB consists of a sealed bag containing a hydrophobic membrane that allows water vapor and gas to pass through. It is operated under vacuum, heated, and continuously filled with brine to boil away the water. The water vapor is recovered and the solids are contained inside the bag for disposal. The BEB can dry the brine to a solid block. Ongoing work includes improving the design of the BEB and the evaporator to prevent leaks, maximize the rate of water removal, and minimize energy use and weight. Additional testing will determine whether designs are heat- or mass-transfer limited and the optimal water recovery rate.

  5. Increasing water productivity enhances water saving for date palm cultivation in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Yasseen Al-Mulla; H. M Al-Gheilani

    2018-01-01

    The total amount of water consumption needed to irrigate the cultivated lands in the Sultanate Oman is 1487 Mm3. There are 7.6 million date palm trees currently planted in the farms in Oman covering an area of 23241 hectares or 35% of total agricultural area in the Sultanate in addition to 0.9 million palm trees planted in homes or for landscaping in public parks and beside the roads. Hence, among all cultivated crops in Oman, date palms are the major water consuming plants. They consume 558 ...

  6. Morphological plasticity of root growth under mild water stress increases water use efficiency without reducing yield in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Zhang, Yulong; Sun, Zhanxiang; Zheng, Jiaming; Bai, Wei; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Yang; Feng, Liangshan; Feng, Chen; Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Ning; Evers, Jochem B.; Zhang, Lizhen

    2017-08-01

    A large yield gap exists in rain-fed maize (Zea mays L.) production in semi-arid regions, mainly caused by frequent droughts halfway through the crop-growing period due to uneven distribution of rainfall. It is questionable whether irrigation systems are economically required in such a region since the total amount of rainfall does generally meet crop requirements. This study aimed to quantitatively determine the effects of water stress from jointing to grain filling on root and shoot growth and the consequences for maize grain yield, above- and below-ground dry matter, water uptake (WU) and water use efficiency (WUE). Pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with a mobile rain shelter to achieve conditions of no, mild or severe water stress. Maize yield was not affected by mild water stress over 2 years, while severe stress reduced yield by 56 %. Both water stress levels decreased root biomass slightly but shoot biomass substantially. Mild water stress decreased root length but increased root diameter, resulting in no effect on root surface area. Due to the morphological plasticity in root growth and the increase in root / shoot ratio, WU under water stress was decreased, and overall WUE for both above-ground dry matter and grain yield increased. Our results demonstrate that an irrigation system might be not economically and ecologically necessary because the frequently occurring mild water stress did not reduce crop yield much. The study helps us to understand crop responses to water stress during a critical water-sensitive period (middle of the crop-growing season) and to mitigate drought risk in dry-land agriculture.

  7. Topography of the Deuteronilus contact on Mars: Evidence for an ancient water/mud ocean and long-wavelength topographic readjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Erkeling, G.; Hiesinger, H.; Bernhardt, H.; Reiss, D.

    2017-09-01

    VBF emplacement. The surface of the VBF-like Isidis Planitia unit is distinctly younger, ∼3.50 ± 0.01 Ga, which suggests that this unit formed independently. Neither volcanic nor glacial modes of emplacement are consistent with the topographic configuration and the shape of the Deuteronilus contact within both the northern plains and in Isidis Planitia. The broad flooding and formation of extensive water/mud reservoirs remains to be the most plausible mode of formation of the VBF in the northern plains and the VBF-like unit on the floor of the Isidis basin.

  8. Preparation of a durable superhydrophobic membrane by electrospinning poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) mixed with epoxy-siloxane modified SiO2 nanoparticles: a possible route to superhydrophobic surfaces with low water sliding angle and high water contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Li, Yapeng; Fei, Xiaoliang; Sun, Mingda; Zhang, Chaoqun; Li, Yaoxian; Yang, Qingbiao; Hong, Xia

    2011-07-15

    A durable superhydrophobic surface with low water sliding angle (SA) and high water contact angle (CA) was obtained by electrospinning poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) which was mixed with epoxy-siloxane modified SiO(2) nanoparticles. To increase the roughness, modified SiO(2) nanoparticles were introduced into PVDF precursor solution. Then in the electrospinning process, nano-sized SiO(2) particles irregularly inlayed (it could also be regard as self-assembly) in the surface of the micro-sized PVDF mini-islands so as to form a dual-scale structure. This structure was responsible for the superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning property. In addition, epoxy-siloxane copolymer was used to modify the surface of SiO(2) nanoparticles so that the SiO(2) nanoparticles could stick to the surface of the micro-sized PVDF mini-islands. Through the underwater immersion test, the SiO(2) nanoparticles cannot be separated from PVDF easily so as to achieve the effect of durability. We chiefly explore the surface wettability and the relationship between the mass ratio of modified SiO(2) nanoparticles/PVDF and the CA, SA of electrospun mat. As the content of modified SiO(2) nanoparticles increased, the value of CA increased, ranging from 145.6° to 161.2°, and the water SA decreased to 2.17°, apparently indicating that the membrane we fabricated has a perfect effect of superhydrophobicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimating Hydrologic and Ecological Responses to Increased Climate Variability using Water Year Type Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Water management frameworks that were designed assuming stationary climate conditions will be increasingly difficult to implement in non-stationary climates, presenting a barrier to climate change adaptation and efficient water management for people and ecosystems. Hydrologic indices, or water year classification systems as they are also called, categorize streamflow by year type, such as wet, dry, or normal, compared to historical averages. Numerical thresholds separate water year types, often set by weighted winter and spring runoff volume for rivers. Year type classification is tied to water resources planning, helping to answer the question of whether there is 'enough' water, and water allocations to competing water uses are typically adjusted based on water year type. Hydrologic indices were developed for Utah's Bear, Weber, and Jordan-Provo rivers using long-term reconstructed streamflow from tree-ring data (~1500 to present). Tree-ring data have considerably more variability than measured streamflow from the 20th Century, indicating droughts and wet periods could be longer, more intense, and of greater magnitude than more recent records suggest. Tree-ring reconstructed streamflow is also a promising surrogate to represent increasing future hydroclimatic variability. The Bear, Weber, and Jordan-Provo rivers make up approximately 95% of the streamflow to the Great Salt Lake and supply water to the Salt Lake City, Ogden, and Logan metropolitan areas. The frequency of water year types changes with increased hydroclimatic variability represented in tree-ring reconstructed streamflow when historical year type thresholds or historical year type distributions are maintained. In turn, this affects allocations to urban, agricultural, and environmental water uses, and highlights potential adaptation strategies for watershed-scale water resources management with increased climate variability from climate change.

  10. Increased salt consumption induces body water conservation and decreases fluid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakova, Natalia; Kitada, Kento; Lerchl, Kathrin; Dahlmann, Anke; Birukov, Anna; Daub, Steffen; Kopp, Christoph; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Zhang, Yahua; Beck, Luis; Johannes, Bernd; Marton, Adriana; Müller, Dominik N; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2017-05-01

    The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant. We studied the effect of salt-driven changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid urinary excretion on day-to-day osmolyte and water balance. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake increased urine osmolyte excretion, but reduced free-water clearance, indicating endogenous free water accrual by urine concentration. The resulting endogenous water surplus reduced fluid intake at the 12-g/d salt intake level. Across all 3 levels of salt intake, half-weekly and weekly rhythmical mineralocorticoid release promoted free water reabsorption via the renal concentration mechanism. Mineralocorticoid-coupled increases in free water reabsorption were counterbalanced by rhythmical glucocorticoid release, with excretion of endogenous osmolyte and water surplus by relative urine dilution. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake decreased the level of rhythmical mineralocorticoid release and elevated rhythmical glucocorticoid release. The projected effect of salt-driven hormone rhythm modulation corresponded well with the measured decrease in water intake and an increase in urine volume with surplus osmolyte excretion. Humans regulate osmolyte and water balance by rhythmical mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid release, endogenous accrual of surplus body water, and precise surplus excretion. Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology/DLR; the Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research; the NIH; the American Heart Association (AHA); the Renal Research Institute; and the TOYOBO Biotechnology Foundation. Food products were donated by APETITO

  11. A tool to increase information-processing capacity for consumer water meter data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz E. Jacobs

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water service providers invoice most South African urban consumers for the water they use every month. A secure treasury system generates water invoices at municipalities’ financial departments. Information about the water usage of customers initially comes from reading the water meters, usually located in gardens near the front boundaries of properties. Until as recently as 1990, the main purpose of the water meter readings was to generate invoices for water usage. There are various treasury systems for this purpose.Objective: The objective of this research article was to describe the development of Swift, a locally developed software tool for analysing water meter data from an information management perspective, which engineers in the water field generally use, and to assess critically the influence of Swift on published research and industry. This article focuses on water usage and the challenge of data interchange and extraction as issues that various industries face.Method: This article presents the first detailed report on Swift. It uses a detailed knowledge review and presents and summarises the findings chronologically.Results: The water meter data flow path used to be quite simple. The risk of breaches in confidentiality was limited. Technological advances over the years have led to additional knowledge coming from the same water meter readings with subsequent research outputs. However, there are also complicated data flow paths and increased risks. Users have used Swift to analyse more than two million consumers’ water meter readings to date. Studies have culminated in 10 peer-reviewed journal articles using the data. Seven of them were in the last five years.Conclusion: Swift-based data was the basis of various research studies in the past decade. Practical guidelines in the civil engineering fraternity for estimating water use in South Africa have incorporated knowledge from these studies. Developments after 1995 have

  12. Increasing water cycle extremes in California and in relation to ENSO cycle under global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Wang, S-Y Simon; Gillies, Robert R.; Kravitz, Ben; Hipps, Lawrence; Rasch, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the winter of 2013–2014, California has experienced its most severe drought in recorded history, causing statewide water stress, severe economic loss and an extraordinary increase in wildfires. Identifying the effects of global warming on regional water cycle extremes, such as the ongoing drought in California, remains a challenge. Here we analyse large-ensemble and multi-model simulations that project the future of water cycle extremes in California as well as to understand those assoc...

  13. Hydric "Costs" of Reproduction: Pregnancy Increases Evaporative Water Loss in the Snake Vipera aspis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourdais, Olivier; Dupoué, Andréaz; Guillon, Michaël; Guiller, Gaëtan; Michaud, Bruno; DeNardo, Dale F

    Water constraints can mediate evolutionary conflict either among individuals (e.g., parent-offspring conflict, sexual conflict) or within an individual (e.g., cost of reproduction). During pregnancy, water is of particular importance because the female provides all water needed for embryonic development and experiences important maternal shifts in behavior and physiology that, together, can compromise female water balance if water availability is limited. We examined the effect of pregnancy on evaporative water loss and microhabitat selection in a viviparous snake, the aspic viper. We found that both physiological (increased metabolism and body temperature) and morphological (body distension) changes contribute to an increased evaporative water loss in pregnant females. We also found that pregnant females in the wild select warmer and moister basking locations than nonreproductive females, likely to mitigate the conflict between thermal needs and water loss. Water resources likely induce significant reproductive constraints across diverse taxa and thus warrant further consideration in ecological research. From an evolutionary perspective, water constraints during reproduction may contribute to shaping reproductive effort.

  14. Increasing the technical and economic performance of wind diesel systems by including fresh water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P.

    1996-01-01

    In many remote regions of the world there is a lack of both electricity and potable water. In order to increase the standard of living and thus maintain the population both power and water have to be supplied at reasonable prices. A good option at many of these places are wind diesel systems...

  15. Reducing ventilation requirements in semi-closed greenhouses increases water use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsoulas, N.; Sapounas, A.; Zwart, de H.F.; Dieleman, J.A.; Stanghellini, C.

    2015-01-01

    We explore an under-appreciated side effect of semi-closed greenhouses: the ability to recover transpired water, thereby increasing water use efficiency. Semi-closed greenhouses are fit with cooling equipment, to limit natural ventilation requirements for temperature and humidity control. We assess

  16. Land and water use practices intended to increase water productivity in arid and semi-arid zones. Application to Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshadiev, Mirzokhid; Fleskens, Luuk; van Dam, Jos; Pulatov, Alim

    2017-04-01

    Water demand increases as more food is required to meet population growth and higher living standards. In addition, climate change is expected to further exacerbate water scarcity in already dry areas where irrigation is most needed. In the water scarce areas, the key strategy to meet demand of growing food production and water use is increase of water productivity (WP) based on best land and water use practices. A literature review will be conducted to study promising land and water use practices that increase water productivity in arid and semi-arid zones, with a special focus on Uzbekistan. In addition to literature review we will conduct interviews with local farmers and land and water management experts. However, due to time constraints and difficult to access grey literature, the review paper cannot cover all promising land and water use practices that have been used in Uzbekistan. We selected the following promising practices: a) conventional furrow irrigation; b) deficit irrigation; c) drip/sprinkle irrigation, and d) rain-fed with supplemental irrigation. The preliminary findings of the literature review show that in Uzbekistan in case of conventional furrow irrigation the WP range of cotton was 0.32-0.89, and of wheat 0.44-1.77 (kg m3). By applying deficit irrigation practices, WP values of cotton can be 0-25% higher (0.32-1.11 kg m3), and of wheat 114-400% higher (2.20-3.78 kg m3). However, deficit irrigation practices for potato's need to be managed carefully to reach higher WP, and might even negatively effect WP, showing a range of 0.85-7.04 compared to conventional furrow irrigation 4.02-4.81 (kg m3). Important to mention that drip irrigation practice can highly contribute to increase WP of cotton by 156-91 % (0.82-1.70 kg m3) compared to furrow irrigation. Also, rain-fed cultivation with supplemental irrigation result is anticipated and will be included in the presentation and full version of paper. In summary, the review of current land and water

  17. Gelation of Oil upon Contact with Water: A Bioinspired Scheme for the Self-Repair of Oil Leaks from Underwater Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyuntaek; Yaraghi, Nicholas; Raghavan, Srinivasa R

    2015-05-19

    Molecular organogelators convert oils into gels by forming self-assembled fibrous networks. Here, we demonstrate that such gelation can be activated by contacting the oil with an immiscible solvent (water). Our gelator is dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS), which forms a low-viscosity sol when added to toluene containing a small amount of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Upon contact with water, DMSO partitions into the water, activating gelation of DBS in the toluene. The gel grows from the oil/water interface and slowly envelops the oil phase. We have exploited this effect for the self-repair of oil leaks from underwater tubes. When a DBS/toluene/DMSO solution flows through the tube, it forms a gel selectively at the leak point, thereby plugging the leak and restoring flow. Our approach is reminiscent of wound-sealing via blood-clotting: there also, inactive gelators in blood are activated at the wound site into a fibrous network, thereby plugging the wound and restoring blood flow.

  18. Contact arc metal cutting (CAMC), a young cutting technique has matured. Successful use under water in the demolition of the Karlsruhe multipurpose research reactor (MFZR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanke, D.; Bienia, H.; Loeb, A.; Thoma, M.; Eisenmann, B.; Prechtl, E.; Suessdorf, W.; Kremer, G.; Ruemenapp, T.

    2006-01-01

    Dismantling radiologically burdened large components is among the most complex and difficult jobs in the demolition of nuclear installations. The technologies used and their safe operation play a key role in demolition. Dismantling highly activated components as a rule requires shielding by water. As a consequence, the techniques employed must be designed for use under water. A variety of technologies are available for these applications. One established mechanical cutting method is water abrasive suspension jet cutting (WASS). Because of the small cutting nozzle employed, this highly flexible cutting technique can be used nearly anywhere together with different guiding systems. In the course of disassembly under water of the MZFR, plasma cutting has been found to be a reliable and efficient technique for remote operation. Contact arc metal cutting is a thermal cutting technique allowing all electrically conducting materials, including those with claddings, to be cut nearly irrespective of their component geometries. The methods, technology, possible uses, and practical operation of contact arc metal cutting in the demolition of the MZFR are covered in this article. (orig.)

  19. Innovation: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Ruth Hoskins Editor University of KwaZulu-Natal, Information Studies Programme Email: hoskinsr@ukzn.ac.za. Support Contact. Gita Ramdass Email: ramdass@ukzn.ac.za. ISSN: 1025-8892. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  20. Climate change would increase the water intensity of irrigated corn ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Faus, Rosa; Folberth, Christian; Liu, Junguo; Jaffe, Amy M; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2013-06-04

    Changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, temperature, and precipitation affect plant growth and evapotranspiration. However, the interactive effects of these factors are relatively unexplored, and it is important to consider their combined effects at geographic and temporal scales that are relevant to policymaking. Accordingly, we estimate how climate change would affect water requirements for irrigated corn ethanol production in key regions of the U.S. over a 40 year horizon. We used the geographic-information-system-based environmental policy integrated climate (GEPIC) model, coupled with temperature and precipitation predictions from five different general circulation models and atmospheric CO2 concentrations from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 emission scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, to estimate changes in water requirements and yields for corn ethanol. Simulations infer that climate change would increase the evaporative water consumption of the 15 billion gallons per year of corn ethanol needed to comply with the Energy Independency and Security Act by 10%, from 94 to 102 trillion liters/year (tly), and the irrigation water consumption by 19%, from 10.22 to 12.18 tly. Furthermore, on average, irrigation rates would increase by 9%, while corn yields would decrease by 7%, even when the projected increased irrigation requirements were met. In the irrigation-intensive High Plains, this implies increased pressure for the stressed Ogallala Aquifer, which provides water to seven states and irrigates one-fourth of the grain produced in the U.S. In the Corn Belt and Great Lakes region, where more rainfall is projected, higher water requirements could be related to less frequent rainfall, suggesting a need for additional water catchment capacity. The projected increases in water intensity (i.e., the liters of water required during feedstock cultivation to produce 1 L of corn ethanol) because of climate change highlight the need

  1. Increased self-diffusion of brain water in hydrocephalus measured by MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Thomsen, C; Gjerris, F

    1994-01-01

    We used MR imaging to measure the apparent brain water self-diffusion in 5 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), in 2 patients with high pressure hydrocephalus (HPH), and in 8 age-matched controls. In all patients with NPH significant elevations of the apparent diffusion coefficients...... white matter, and in one patient reexamined one year after surgery, ADCs were unchanged in nearly all brain regions. The increased ADC values in hydrocephalus patients may be caused by factors such as changes in myelin-associated bound water, increased Virchow-Robin spaces, and increased extracellular...... brain water fraction. For further studies of brain water diffusion in hydrocephalus patients, echo-planar imaging techniques with imaging times of a few seconds may be valuable....

  2. California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina richardii) Bites and Contact Abrasions in Open-Water Swimmers: A Series of 11 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuckton, Thomas J; Simeone, Claire A; Phelps, Roger T

    2015-12-01

    To review cases of bites and contact abrasions in open-water swimmers from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii). Open-water swimmers from a San Francisco swimming club were questioned about encounters with pinnipeds (seals and sea lions) that resulted in bites or contact abrasions. When possible, wounds were documented with photographs. Medical follow-up and treatment complications were also reviewed. From October 2011 to December 2014, 11 swimmers reported bites by a sea lion (n = 1), harbor seal (n = 7), or unidentified pinniped (n = 3). Ten of the encounters occurred in San Francisco Bay; 1 occurred in the Eld Inlet, in Puget Sound, near Olympia, WA. None of the swimmers were wearing wetsuits. All bites involved the lower extremities; skin was broken in 4 of 11 bites and antibiotics were prescribed in 3 cases. One swimmer, who was bitten by a harbor seal, also had claw scratches. A treatment failure occurred with amoxicillin/clavulanate in another swimmer who was bitten by an unidentified pinniped; the wound healed subsequently with doxycycline, suggesting an infection with Mycoplasma spp. There were no long-lasting consequences from any of the bites. The majority of cases occurred at low tide, and bumping of the swimmer by the animal before or after a bite was common, but no clear tide or attack pattern was identified. Bites and contact abrasions from sea lions and harbor seals are reported infrequently in open-water swimmers and typically involve the lower extremities. Because of the risk of Mycoplasma infection, treatment with a tetracycline is recommended in pinniped bites with signs of infection or serious trauma. Attempting to touch or pet sea lions or seals is inadvisable and prohibited by the Marine Mammal Protection Act. Swimmers should leave the water as soon as possible after a bite or encounter. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modelling of Cavitation of Wash-Out Water, Ammonia Water, Ammonia Water with Increased Content Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulphide, Tar Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef DOBEŠ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to design and implement a procedure of numerical modelling of cavitation of working mixtures: wash-out water, ammonia water, ammonia water with an increased content of hydrogen sulphide and ammonia, tar condensate. The numeric modelling is designed in the program Ansys Fluent using Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model. The issue of these liquids modelling can be solved by the cavitation simulation of water admixtures. Working fluids contain the following main ingredients: water, ammonia, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. Subsequently, a comparison of the amount of water vapor (reference liquid and given fluid vapor is executed. The Schnerr-Sauer model is chosen because of good results in previous simulations for water cavitation. As a geometry is selected Laval nozzle. Modelled liquid mixtures are used in the petrochemical industry, as a filling for fluid circuits where cavitation may occur and therefore the research is needed.

  4. Long-term increase in forest water-use efficiency observed across ecosystem carbon flux networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Trevor; Bohrer, Gil; Dragoni, Danilo; Hollinger, David; Munger, James W.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Richardson, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere through photo- synthesis, a process that is accompanied by the loss of water vapour from leaves. The ratio of water loss to carbon gain, or water-use efficiency, is a key characteristic of ecosystem function that is central to the global cycles of water, energy and carbon. Here we analyse direct, long-term measurements of whole-ecosystem carbon and water exchange. We find a substantial increase in water-use efficiency in temperate and boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere over the past two decades. We systematically assess various competing hypotheses to explain this trend, and find that the observed increase is most consistent with a strong CO2 fertilization effect. The results suggest a partial closure of stomata - small pores on the leaf surface that regulate gas exchange - to maintain a near- constant concentration of CO2 inside the leaf even under continually increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. The observed increase in forest water-use efficiency is larger than that predicted by existing theory and 13 terrestrial biosphere models. The increase is associated with trends of increasing ecosystem-level photosynthesis and net carbon uptake, and decreasing evapotranspiration. Our findings demonstrate the utility of maintaining long-term eddy-covariance flux measurement sites. The results suggest a shift in the carbon- and water-based economics of terrestrial vegetation, which may require a reassessment of the role of stomatal control in regulating interactions between forests and climate change, and a re-evaluation of coupled vegetation-climate models.

  5. 15N-edited Three-Dimensional NOESY-HMQC with Water Flipback: Enhancement of Weak Labile 1H Resonances of Protein Side Chains Contacting DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruschus, James M.; Ferretti, James A.

    1998-11-01

    Two pulse sequences are described that employ a modified water flipback technique to enhance the signal intensity of weak side chain resonances at the protein-DNA interface of the vnd/NK-2 homeodomain/DNA complex in an15N-edited three-dimensional NOESY-HMQC spectrum. The pulse sequences presented employ water flipback pulses at the beginning of the NOESY mixing time, optimizing the direct NOE transfer of magnetization from the water to the protein by maximizing thez-component of the water magnetization. In one of the pulse sequences, radiation damping during the the indirect1H and15N evolution times is suppressed. A modified version of the WATERGATE water suppression technique is employed during the HMQC portion of the experiment. The signal enhancement is demonstrated for the resonances of the side chain amide of Asn51, an invariant homeodomain residue whose contact with the DNA is critical for binding. An ancillary advantage of the experiment is the ability to observe NOE transfer of magnetization from water. The information present in the water resonance plane of the three-dimensional spectrum is illustrated in a comparison with the corresponding HMQC spectrum of the protein/DNA complex.

  6. A tool to increase information-processing capacity for consumer water meter data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz E. Jacobs

    2012-06-01

    Objective: The objective of this research article was to describe the development of Swift, a locally developed software tool for analysing water meter data from an information management perspective, which engineers in the water field generally use, and to assess critically the influence of Swift on published research and industry. This article focuses on water usage and the challenge of data interchange and extraction as issues that various industries face. Method: This article presents the first detailed report on Swift. It uses a detailed knowledge review and presents and summarises the findings chronologically. Results: The water meter data flow path used to be quite simple. The risk of breaches in confidentiality was limited. Technological advances over the years have led to additional knowledge coming from the same water meter readings with subsequent research outputs. However, there are also complicated data flow paths and increased risks. Users have used Swift to analyse more than two million consumers’ water meter readings to date. Studies have culminated in 10 peer-reviewed journal articles using the data. Seven of them were in the last five years. Conclusion: Swift-based data was the basis of various research studies in the past decade. Practical guidelines in the civil engineering fraternity for estimating water use in South Africa have incorporated knowledge from these studies. Developments after 1995 have increased the information processing capacity for water meter data.

  7. How Conjunctive Use of Surface and Ground Water could Increase Resiliency in US?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, L.; Rising, J. A.; Russo, T. A.; Troy, T. J.; Lall, U.; Allaire, M.

    2016-12-01

    evaluation of stresses on water resources. We explore in particular geographic and temporal trends in function of user-types to develop a better understanding of the dynamics at play. We conclude with a comparison between the optimization results and current water use to identify potential solutions to increase resiliency.

  8. Water cycle dynamic increases resilience of vegetation under higher atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemordant, L. A.; Gentine, P.; Stéfanon, M.; Drobinski, P. J.; Fatichi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Plant stomata couple the energy, water and carbon cycles. Photosynthesis requires stomata to open to take up carbon dioxide. In the process water vapor is released as transpiration. As atmospheric CO2 concentration rises, for the same amount of CO2 uptake, less water vapor is transpired, translating into higher water use efficiency. Reduced water vapor losses will increase soil water storage if the leaf area coverage remains similar. This will in turn alter the surface energy partitioning: more heat will be dissipated as sensible heat flux, resulting in possibly higher surface temperatures. In contrast with this common hypothesis, our study shows that the water saved during the growing season by increased WUE can be mobilized by the vegetation and help reduce the maximum temperature of mid-latitude heat waves. The large scale meteorological conditions of 2003 are the basis of four regional model simulations coupling an atmospheric model to a surface model. We performed two simulations with respectively 2003 (CTL) and 2100 (FUT) atmospheric CO2 applied to both the atmospheric and surface models. A third (RAD) and a fourth (FER) simulations are run with 2100 CO2 concentration applied to respectively the atmospheric model only and the surface model only. RAD investigates the impact of the radiative forcing, and FER the response to vegetation CO2 fertilization. Our results show that the water saved through higher water use efficiency during the growing season enabled by higher atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations helps the vegetation to cope during severe heat and dryness conditions in the summer of mid-latitude climate. These results demonstrate that consideration of the vegetation carbon cycle is essential to model the seasonal water cycle dynamic and land-atmosphere interactions, and enhance the accuracy of the model outputs especially for extreme events. They also have important implications for the future of agriculture, water resources management, ecosystems

  9. Physiological mechanisms contributing to increased water-use efficiency in winter wheat under organic fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Wang, Shiwen; Chen, Wei; Li, Hongbing; Deng, Xiping

    2017-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of resource utilization has received increasing research attention in recent years. In this study, we explored the potential physiological mechanisms underlying improved grain yield and water-use efficiency of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) following organic fertilizer application. Two wheat cultivars, ChangHan58 (CH58) and XiNong9871 (XN9871), were grown under the same nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate (urea-N, CK; and manure plus urea-N, M) and under two watering regimes (WW, well-watered; and WS, water stress) imposed after anthesis. The M fertilizer treatment had a higher Pn and lower gs and Tr than CK under both water conditions, in particular, it significantly increased WRC and Ψw, and decreased EWLR and MDA under WS. Also, the M treatment increased post-anthesis N uptake by 81.4 and 16.4% under WS and WW, thus increasing post-anthesis photosynthetic capacity and delaying leaf senescence. Consequently, the M treatment increased post-anthesis DM accumulation under WS and WW by 51.5 and 29.6%, WUEB by 44.5 and 50.9%, grain number per plant by 11.5 and 12.2% and 1000-grain weight by 7.3 and 3.6%, respectively, compared with CK. The grain yield under M treatment increased by 23 and 15%, and water use efficiency (WUEg) by 25 and 23%, respectively. The increased WUE under organic fertilizer treatment was due to elevated photosynthesis and decreased Tr and gs. Our results suggest that the organic fertilizer treatment enabled plants to use water more efficiently under drought stress.

  10. How to meet the increasing demands of water, food and energy in the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haiyun; Chen, Ji; Sivakumar, Bellie; Peart, Mervyn

    2017-04-01

    Regarded as a driving force in water, food and energy demands, the world's population has been increasing rapidly since the beginning of the 20th century. According to the medium-growth projection scenario of the United Nations, the world's population will reach 9.5 billion by 2050. In response to the continuously growing population during this century, water, food and energy demands have also been increasing rapidly, and social problems (e.g., water, food, and energy shortages) will be most likely to occur, especially if no proper management strategies are adopted. Then, how to meet the increasing demands of water, food and energy in the future? This study focuses on the sustainable developments of population, water, food, energy and dams, and the significances of this study can be concluded as follows: First, we reveal the close association between dams and social development through analysing the related data for the period 1960-2010, and argue that construction of additional large dams will have to be considered as one of the best available options to meet the increasing water, food and energy demands in the future. We conduct the projections of global water, food and energy consumptions and dam development for the period 2010-2050, and the results show that, compared to 2010, the total water, food and energy consumptions in 2050 will increase by 20%, 34% and 37%, respectively. Moreover, it is projected that additional 4,340 dams will be constructed by 2050 all over the world. Second, we analyse the current situation of global water scarcity based on the related data representing water resources availability (per capita available water resources), dam development (the number of dams), and the level of economic development (per capita gross domestic product). At the global scale, water scarcity exists in more than 70% of the countries around the world, including 43 countries suffering from economic water scarcity and 129 countries suffering from physical water

  11. Increasing Water System Efficiency with Ultrafiltration Pre-treatment in Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majamaa, Katariina; Suarez, Javier; Gasia Eduard

    2012-09-01

    Water demineralization with reverse osmosis (RO) membranes has a long and successful history in water treatment for power plants. As the industry strives for more efficient, reliable and compact water systems, pressurized hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (UF) has become an increasingly appealing pre-treatment technology. Compared to conventional, non- membrane based pretreatments, ultrafiltration offers higher efficiency in the removal of suspended solids, microorganisms and colloidal matter, which are all common causes for operational challenges experienced in the RO systems. In addition, UF is more capable of handling varying feed water qualities and removes the risk of particle carry-over often seen with conventional filtration techniques. Ultrafiltration is a suitable treatment technology for various water types from surface waters to wastewater, and the more fluctuating or challenging the feed water source is, the better the benefits of UF are seen compared to conventional pretreatments. Regardless of the feed water type, ultrafiltration sustains a constant supply of high quality feed water to downstream RO, allowing a more compact and cost efficient RO system design with improved operational reliability. A detailed focus on the design and operational aspects and experiences of two plants is provided. These examples demonstrate both economical UF operation and tangible impact of RO process improvement. Experience from these plants can be leveraged to new projects. (authors)

  12. Regenerating degraded soils and increasing water use efficiency on vegetable farms in Uruguay through ecological intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alliaume, F.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigated alternative soil management strategies for vegetable crop systems and their hypothesized effects on increasing systems resilience by sequestering soil carbon, increasing the efficiency of water use, and reducing erosion. The goal was to contribute knowledge on and tools

  13. Increased brain water self-diffusion in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Sørensen, P S; Thomsen, C

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate changes in brain water diffusion in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. METHODS: A motion-compensated MR pulse sequence was used to create diffusion maps of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in 12 patients fulfilling conventional diagnostic criteria...... gray matter, the basal nuclei, the internal capsule, or the corpus callosum. Four of 7 patients with increased ADC in subcortical white matter also had increased ADC within gray matter. CONCLUSION: Measurement of diffusion coefficients in vivo demonstrated increased local water mobility within...

  14. Physiological mechanisms contributing to the increased water-use efficiency in winter wheat under deficit irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qingwu; Zhu, Zixi; Musick, Jack T; Stewart, B A; Dusek, Donald A

    2006-02-01

    Deficit irrigation in winter wheat has been practiced in the areas with limited irrigation water resources. The objectives of this study were to (i) understand the physiological basis for determinations of grain yield and water-use efficiency in grain yield (WUE) under deficit irrigation; and (ii) investigate the effect of deficit irrigation on dry matter accumulation and remobilization of pre-anthesis carbon reserves during grain filling. A field experiment was conducted in the Southern High Plains of the USA and winter wheat (cv. TAM 202) was grown on Pullman clay loam soil (fine mixed thermic Torretic Paleustoll). Treatments consisted of rain-fed, deficit irrigation from jointing to the middle of grain filling, and full irrigation. The physiological measurements included leaf water potential, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and leaf area index. The rain-fed treatment had the lowest seasonal evapotranspiration (ET), biomass, grain yield, harvest index (HI) and WUE as a result of moderate to severe water stress from jointing to grain filling. Irrigation application increased seasonal ET, and ET increased as irrigation frequency increased. The seasonal ET increased 20% in one-irrigation treatments between jointing and anthesis, 32-46% in two-irrigation treatments, and 67% in three- and full irrigation treatments. Plant biomass, grain yield, HI and WUE increased as the result of increased ET. The increased yield under irrigation was mainly contributed by the increased number of spikes, and seeds per square meter and per spike. Among the irrigation treatments, grain yield increased significantly but the WUE increased slightly as irrigation frequency increased. The increased WUE under deficit irrigation was contributed by increased HI. Water stress during grain filling reduced Pn and Gs, and accelerated leaf senescence. However, the water stress during grain filling induced remobilization of pre-anthesis carbon reserves to grains, and the

  15. Characterizing hydrophobicity of amino acid side chains in a protein environment via measuring contact angle of a water nanodroplet on planar peptide network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Gao, Yurui; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng; Li, Lei; Francisco, Joseph S; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-11-15

    Hydrophobicity of macroscopic planar surface is conventionally characterized by the contact angle of water droplets. However, this engineering measurement cannot be directly extended to surfaces of proteins, due to the nanometer scale of amino acids and inherent nonplanar structures. To measure the hydrophobicity of side chains of proteins quantitatively, numerous parameters were developed to characterize behavior of hydrophobic solvation. However, consistency among these parameters is not always apparent. Herein, we demonstrate an alternative way of characterizing hydrophobicity of amino acid side chains in a protein environment by constructing a monolayer of amino acids (i.e., artificial planar peptide network) according to the primary and the β-sheet secondary structures of protein so that the conventional engineering measurement of the contact angle of a water droplet can be brought to bear. Using molecular dynamics simulations, contact angles θ of a water nanodroplet on the planar peptide network, together with excess chemical potentials of purely repulsive methane-sized Weeks-Chandler-Andersen solute, are computed. All of the 20 types of amino acids and the corresponding planar peptide networks are studied. Expectedly, all of the planar peptide networks with nonpolar amino acids are hydrophobic due to θ [Formula: see text] 90°, whereas all of the planar peptide networks of the polar and charged amino acids are hydrophilic due to θ [Formula: see text] 90°. Planar peptide networks of the charged amino acids exhibit complete-wetting behavior due to θ [Formula: see text] 0°. This computational approach for characterization of hydrophobicity can be extended to artificial planar networks of other soft matter.

  16. Water-balance response of Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867) tadpoles to graduated increase in environmental osmolarity

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari,L.; de la Torre,FR.; Salibián,A.

    2010-01-01

    The water balance and the upper limit of osmotic tolerance of premetamorphic Rhinella arenarum larvae (Gosner's stage 26) was evaluated after semistatic incubation in electrolyte (NaCl) and non-electrolyte (mannitol) media following a protocol of progressively increased osmotic pressure. Wet and dry weights were measured to calculate the water content as a derived variable indicative of the hydric balance. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate and integrated multivariate analysi...

  17. Increased self-diffusion of brain water in hydrocephalus measured by MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Thomsen, C; Gjerris, F

    1994-01-01

    We used MR imaging to measure the apparent brain water self-diffusion in 5 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), in 2 patients with high pressure hydrocephalus (HPH), and in 8 age-matched controls. In all patients with NPH significant elevations of the apparent diffusion coefficients...... (ADC) of brain water were found within periventricular white matter, in the corpus callosum, in the internal capsule, within cortical gray matter, and in cerebrospinal fluid, whereas normal ADCs were found within the basal ganglia. In 2 patients with HPH elevated ADCs were found most prominently within...... white matter, and in one patient reexamined one year after surgery, ADCs were unchanged in nearly all brain regions. The increased ADC values in hydrocephalus patients may be caused by factors such as changes in myelin-associated bound water, increased Virchow-Robin spaces, and increased extracellular...

  18. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan GholamReza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  19. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Moghbel, Masumeh; Grab, Stefan

    2012-12-12

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  20. Opportunities and constraints for improved water resources management under increasing hydrological extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Increased occurrence of extreme climate events is one of the most damaging consequences of global climate change today and in the future. Estimating the impacts of such extreme events on global and regional water resources is therefore crucial for quantifying increasing risks from climate change. The quest for water security has been a struggle throughout human history. Only in recent years has the scale of this quest moved beyond the local, to the national and regional scales and to the planet itself. Absent or unreliable water supply, sanitation and irrigation services, unmitigated floods and droughts, and degraded water environments severely impact half of the planet's population. The scale and complexity of the water challenges faced by society, particularly but not only in the world's poorest regions, are now recognized, as is the imperative of overcoming these challenges for a stable and equitable world. IIASA's Water Futures and Solutions Initiative (WFAS) is an unprecedented inter-disciplinary scientific initiative to identify robust and adaptive portfolios of optional solutions across different economic sectors, including agriculture, energy and industry, and to test these solution-portfolios with multi-model ensembles of hydrologic and sector models to obtain a clearer picture of the trade-offs, risks, and opportunities. The results of WFaS scenarios and models provide a basis for long-term strategic planning of water resource development under changing environments and increasing climate extremes. And given the complexity of the water system, WFaS uniquely provides policy makers with optional sets of solutions that work together and that can be easily adapted as circumstances change in the future. As WFaS progresses, it will establish a network involving information exchange, mutual learning and horizontal cooperation across teams of researchers, public and private decision makers and practitioners exploring solutions at regional, national and local

  1. Silicon improves salt tolerance by increasing root water uptake in Cucumis sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Xing; Xu, Xuan-Bin; Hu, Yan-Hong; Han, Wei-Hua; Yin, Jun-Liang; Li, Huan-Li; Gong, Hai-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Silicon enhances root water uptake in salt-stressed cucumber plants through up-regulating aquaporin gene expression. Osmotic adjustment is a genotype-dependent mechanism for silicon-enhanced water uptake in plants. Silicon can alleviate salt stress in plants. However, the mechanism is still not fully understood, and the possible role of silicon in alleviating salt-induced osmotic stress and the underlying mechanism still remain to be investigated. In this study, the effects of silicon (0.3 mM) on Na accumulation, water uptake, and transport were investigated in two cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivars ('JinYou 1' and 'JinChun 5') under salt stress (75 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited the plant growth and photosynthesis and decreased leaf transpiration and water content, while added silicon ameliorated these negative effects. Silicon addition only slightly decreased the shoot Na levels per dry weight in 'JinYou 1' but not in 'JinChun 5' after 10 days of stress. Silicon addition reduced stress-induced decreases in root hydraulic conductivity and/or leaf-specific conductivity. Expressions of main plasma membrane aquaporin genes in roots were increased by added silicon, and the involvement of aquaporins in water uptake was supported by application of aquaporin inhibitor and restorative. Besides, silicon application decreased the root xylem osmotic potential and increased root soluble sugar levels in 'JinYou 1.' Our results suggest that silicon can improve salt tolerance of cucumber plants through enhancing root water uptake, and silicon-mediated up-regulation of aquaporin gene expression may in part contribute to the increase in water uptake. In addition, osmotic adjustment may be a genotype-dependent mechanism for silicon-enhanced water uptake in plants.

  2. Assessment of microbial infection risks posed by ingestion of water during domestic water use and full-contact recreation in a mid-southern African region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available expressed in water quality guidelines, while Salmonella counts were calculated to give the probable infection risk (P-I). Ingestion was based on intake volumes compiled for the various water uses. E coli occurred in numbers <1 06 in the surface waters, while...

  3. Water Loss Due to Increasing Planted Vegetation over the Badain Jaran Desert, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunhe Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water resources play a vital role in ecosystem stability, human survival, and social development in drylands. Human activities, such as afforestation and irrigation, have had a large impact on the water cycle and vegetation in drylands over recent years. The Badain Jaran Desert (BJD is one of the driest regions in China with increasing human activities, yet the connection between human management and the ecohydrology of this area remains largely unclear. In this study, we firstly investigated the ecohydrological dynamics and their relationship across different spatial scales over the BJD, using multi-source observational data from 2001 to 2014, including: total water storage anomaly (TWSA from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, lake extent from Landsat, and precipitation from in situ meteorological stations. We further studied the response of the local hydrological conditions to large scale vegetation and climatic dynamics, also conducting a change analysis of water levels over four selected lakes within the BJD region from 2011. To normalize the effect of inter-annual variations of precipitation on vegetation, we also employed a relationship between annual average NDVI and annual precipitation, or modified rain-use efficiency, termed the RUEmo. A focus of this study is to understand the impact of the increasing planted vegetation on local ecohydrological systems over the BJD region. Results showed that vegetation increases were largely found to be confined to the areas intensely influenced by human activities, such as croplands and urban areas. With precipitation patterns remaining stable during the study period, there was a significant increasing trend in vegetation greenness per unit of rainfall, or RUEmo over the BJD, while at the same time, total water storage as measured by satellites has been continually decreasing since

  4. Deuterium content of water increases depression susceptibility: the potential role of a serotonin-related mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Tatyana; Evans, Matthew; Chernopiatko, Anton; Couch, Yvonne; Costa-Nunes, João; Cespuglio, Raymond; Chesson, Lesley; Vignisse, Julie; Steinbusch, Harry W; Anthony, Daniel C; Pomytkin, Igor; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2015-01-15

    Environmental factors can significantly affect disease prevalence, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. The ratio of deuterium to protium in water shows substantial geographical variation, which could affect disease susceptibility. Thus the link between deuterium content of water and depression was investigated, both epidemiologically, and in a mouse model of chronic mild stress. We performed a correlation analysis between deuterium content of tap water and rates of depression in regions of the USA. Next, we used a 10-day chronic stress paradigm to test whether 2-week deuterium-depleted water treatment (91 ppm) affects depressive-like behavior and hippocampal SERT. The effect of deuterium-depletion on sleep electrophysiology was also evaluated in naïve mice. There was a geographic correlation between a content of deuterium and the prevalence of depression across the USA. In the chronic stress model, depressive-like features were reduced in mice fed with deuterium-depleted water, and SERT expression was decreased in mice treated with deuterium-treated water compared with regular water. Five days of predator stress also suppressed proliferation in the dentate gyrus; this effect was attenuated in mice fed with deuterium-depleted water. Finally, in naïve mice, deuterium-depleted water treatment increased EEG indices of wakefulness, and decreased duration of REM sleep, phenomena that have been shown to result from the administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). Our data suggest that the deuterium content of water may influence the incidence of affective disorder-related pathophysiology and major depression, which might be mediated by the serotoninergic mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Degradation of Remazol Red in batik dye waste water by contact glow discharge electrolysis method using NaOH and NaCl electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksono, Nelson; Putri, Dita Amelia; Suminar, Dian Ratna

    2017-03-01

    Contact Glow Discharge Electrolysis (CGDE) method is one of Plasma Electrolysis technology which has been approved to degrade organic waste water because it is very productive in producing hydroxyl radical. This study aims to degrade Remazol Red by CGDE method and evaluate important parameters that have influent in degradation process of Remazol Red in Batik dye waste water in batch system. The kind of electrolyte (acid and base) and the addition of metal ion such as Fe2+ have affected Remazol Red degradation percentage. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra were used to monitor the degradation process. The result of study showed that percentage degradation was 99.97% which obtained by using NaCl 0.02 M with addition Fe2+ 20 ppm, applied voltage 700 volt, anode depth 0.5 cm, initial concentration of Remazol Red 250 ppm and the temperature of solutions was maintained 50-60 ˚C.

  6. Electrical guidance efficiency of downstream-migrating juvenile Sea Lamprey decreases with increasing water velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehls, Scott M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Haro, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of a vertically oriented field of pulsed direct current (VEPDC) created by an array of vertical electrodes for guiding downstream-moving juvenile Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus to a bypass channel in an artificial flume at water velocities of 10–50 cm/s. Sea Lampreys were more likely to be captured in the bypass channel than in other sections of the flume regardless of electric field status (on or off) or water velocity. Additionally, Sea Lampreys were more likely to be captured in the bypass channel when the VEPDC was active; however, an interaction between the effects of VEPDC and water velocity was observed, as the likelihood of capture decreased with increases in water velocity. The distribution of Sea Lampreys shifted from right to left across the width of the flume toward the bypass channel when the VEPDC was active at water velocities less than 25 cm/s. The VEPDC appeared to have no effect on Sea Lamprey distribution in the flume at water velocities greater than 25 cm/s. We also conducted separate tests to determine the threshold at which Sea Lampreys would become paralyzed. Individuals were paralyzed at a mean power density of 37.0 µW/cm3. Future research should investigate the ability of juvenile Sea Lampreys to detect electric fields and their specific behavioral responses to electric field characteristics so as to optimize the use of this technology as a nonphysical guidance tool across variable water velocities.

  7. Increased self-diffusion of brain water in hydrocephalus measured by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gideon, P.; Thomsen, C.; Gjerris, F.; Soerensen, P.S.; Henriksen, O.

    1994-01-01

    We used MR imaging to measure the apparent brain water self-diffusion in 5 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), in 2 patients with high pressure hydrocephalus (HPH), and in 8 agematched controls. In all patients with NPH significant elevations of the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) of brain water were found within periventricular white matter, in the corpus callosum, in the internal capsule, within cortical gray matter, and in cerebrospinal fluid, whereas normal ADCs were found within the basal ganglia. In 2 patients with HPH elevated ADCs were found most prominently within white matter and in one patient reexamined one year after surgery. ADCs were unchanged in nearly all brain regions. The increased ADC values in hydrocephalus patients may be caused by factors such as changes in myelin-associated bound water, increased Virchow-Robin spaces, and increased extracellular brain water fraction. For further studies of brain water diffusion in hydrocephalus patients, echo-planar imaging techniques with imaging times of a few seconds may be valuable. (orig.)

  8. Does Improved Water Access Increase Child School Attendance? A Quasi-Experimental Approach From Rural Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Y.; Cook, J.

    2012-12-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of improved water access on child school attendance using two years of primary panel data from a quasi-experimental study in Oromiya, Ethiopia. A predominant form of child labor in rural poor households in least developed countries is water collection. Girls are often the primary water collectors for households, and because of the time intensive nature of water collection improved water access may allow for time to be reallocated to schooling (Rosen and Vincent 1999; Nankhuni and Findeis 2004). Understanding how improved water access may increase schooling for girls has important development policy implications. Indeed, abundant research on returns to education suggests increased schooling for girls is tied to improved future child and maternal health, economic opportunities, and lower fertility rates (Handa 1996; Schultz 1998; Michaelowa 2000). The literature to date finds that improved water access leads to increased schooling; however, there still exists a clear gap in the literature for understanding this relationship for two reasons. First, only four studies have directly examined the relationship between improved water access and schooling in sub-Saharan Africa, and analyses have been limited due to the use of cross-sectional data and research designs (Nankhuni and Findeis 2004; Koolwal and Van de Walle 2010; Ndiritu and Nyangan 2011; Nauges and Strand 2011). Indeed, only two studies have attempted to control for the endogenous nature of water access. Second, all studies use a binary school enrollment indicator from household surveys, which may suffer from response bias and may be an imperfect measure for actual schooling. Respondents may feel pressured to report that their children are enrolled in school if, like in Ethiopia, there are compulsory education laws. This may result in an overestimation of school enrollment. In addition, most children from rural poor households combine work and school, and a binary indicator does

  9. Mediterranean agriculture: More efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in future irrigation water requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Shi, Sinan; von Bloh, Werner; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. Our research shows that, at present, Mediterranean region could save 35% of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops (1). Also under climate change, more efficient irrigation is of vital importance for counteracting increases in irrigation water requirements. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 18% from climate change alone by the end of the century if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Population growth increases these numbers to 22% and 74%, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and population growth. Both subregions would need around 35% more water than today if they could afford some degree of modernization of irrigation and conveyance systems and benefit from the CO2-fertilization effect (1). However, in some scenarios (in this case as combinations of climate change, irrigation technology, influence of population growth and CO2-fertilization effect) water scarcity may constrain the supply of the irrigation water needed in future in Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain (1). In this study, vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL ("Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land") after a

  10. Implications of Increasing Forest Density and Vegetation Water Demand on Drought Impacts in California Montane Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksa, P. C.; Safeeq, M.; Dymond, S.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation density has been increasing over the past 30 years at mid-elevation southern Sierra mixed-conifer catchments and northern California coastal conifer catchments, as shown from Landsat mean annual values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Forest vegetation in these regions is being maintained or even increased during the recent drought, despite record low precipitation levels statewide and heavy tree mortality at lower elevation Sierra pine-dominated forests. The increase in vegetation density suggests an increase in forest water use, exacerbating the effects of the drought on runoff and water supply. Between 1984 and 2015, mean annual NDVI increased in the southern Sierra from 0.47 to 0.56 (+19%) in the Providence Creek basin (1730-2115m elevation) and from 0.53 to 0.62 (+17%) in Bull Creek basin (2145-2490m), while NDVI increased along the northern California coast from 0.75 to 0.88 (+17%) in the Caspar Creek basin (40-300m). Previous research has shown an exponential relationship exists between NDVI and measured annual evapotranspiration (ET), indicating even greater increases in ET than NDVI over the three decades. This increase in vegetation has also led to more competition for plant available water, and can be used to explain the large tree mortality occurring in the pine forests at lower elevations, which did not occur during previous drought periods. Preliminary results of a hydro-ecological model, RHESSys, suggest intensive vegetation treatments in these regions can reduce evapotranspiration and modify the catchment-scale water balance. Forest management strategies for implementation of thinning and fuels treatments to reduce forest density may be effective in limiting vegetation mortality during future drought events.

  11. Low-dielectric layer increases nanosecond electric discharges in distilled water

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Hamdan; Min Suk Cha

    2016-01-01

    Electric discharge in liquids is an emerging field of research, and is involved into various environmental applications (water purification, fuel reforming, nanomaterial synthesis, etc.). Increasing the treatment efficiency with simultaneous decreasing of the energy consumption are the main goals of today’s research. Here we present an experimental study of nanosecond discharge i...

  12. Contact angles and their hysteresis as a measure of liquid-solid adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrand, C W

    2004-05-11

    The wetting behavior of a series of aliphatic polyamides was examined. Polyamides and polyethylene were molded against glass to produce smooth surfaces. After cleaning, chemical composition of the surfaces was verified with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Advancing and receding contact angles were measured from small sessile water drops. Contact angles decreased with amide content while contact angle hysteresis increased. Wetting free energies calculated from contact angles were equal to those from dewetting, suggesting that contact angle hysteresis did not arise from surface anomalies, but from hydrogen bonding between water and the amide groups in the polyamide surfaces.

  13. Spectroscopic Observation of Water-Mediated Deformation of the CARBOXYLATE-M2+ (M= Mg, Ca) Contact Ion Pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Patrick J.; DePalma, Joseph W.; Johnson, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The binding of alkaline earth dications to the biologically relevant carboxylate ligand has previously been studied using vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy of the air-water interface, infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy of clusters, and DFT methods. These results suggest the presence of both monodentate and bidentate binding motifs of the M2+ ions to the cayboxyl head groups depending on the extent of solvation. We revisit these systems using vibrational predissociation spectroscopy to measure the gas-phase vibrational spectra of the D2-tagged microhydrated [MgOAc(H2O)n=1-5]+ and [CaOAc(H2O)n=1-6]+ clusters. The spectra show that [MgOAc(H2O)n]+ switches from bidentate to monodentate binding promptly at n = 5, while [CaOAc(H2O)n]+ retains its bidentate attachment such that the sixth water molecule initiates the second solvation shell. The difference in binding behavior between these two divalent metal ions is analyzed in the context of the local acidity of the solvent water molecules and the strength of the metal-carboxylate and metal-water interactions. This cluster study provides insight into the chemical physics underlying the unique and surprising impacts of Mg2+ and Ca2+ on the chemistry mediated by sea spray aerosols. Funding for this work was provided by the NSF's Center for Aerosol Impacts on Climate and the Environment.

  14. Measurement of reactive species generated by dielectric barrier discharge in direct contact with water in different atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Vesna V.; Dojčinović, Biljana P.; Jović, Milica; Roglić, Goran M.; Obradović, Bratislav M.; Kuraica, Milorad M.

    2017-04-01

    The formation of hydroxyl radical and long-living chemical species (H2O2, O3, \\text{NO}3- and \\text{NO}2- ) generated in the liquid phase of a water falling film dielectric barrier discharge in dependence on the gas atmosphere (air, nitrogen, oxygen, argon and helium) was studied. The chemical molecular probe dimethyl sulfoxide was employed for quantification of ˙OH, and the influence of hydroxyl radical scavenging on formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species was investigated. In addition to liquid analysis, plasma diagnostics was applied to indicate possible reaction pathways of plasma-liquid interaction. The highest ˙OH production rate of 1.19  ×  10-5 mol l-1 s-1 was found when water was treated in oxygen, with a yield of 2.75  ×  10-2 molecules of ˙OH per 100 eV. Formation of hydrogen peroxide in air, nitrogen and argon discharges is determined by recombination reaction of hydroxyl radicals, reaching the highest yield of about 0.7 g kWh-1 when distilled water was treated in argon discharge. Ozone formation was dominant in oxygen and air discharges. Strong acidification along with formation of reactive nitrogen species was detected in water treated in air and nitrogen discharges.

  15. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in irrigation water requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2015-08-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are accounted for, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL after a large development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitude of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, being the increases most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (2 °C global warming combined with full CO2-fertilization effect, and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and

  16. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The development of scanning probe techniques, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy [1], has often been touted as the catalyst for the surge in activity and progress in nanoscale science and technology. Images of nanoscale structural detail have served as an invaluable investigative resource and continue to fascinate with the fantastical reality of an intricate nether world existing all around us, but hidden from view of the naked eye by a disparity in scale. As is so often the case, the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope heralded far more than just a useful new apparatus, it demonstrated the scope for exploiting the subtleties of electronic contact. The shrinking of electronic devices has been a driving force for research into molecular electronics, in which an understanding of the nature of electronic contact at junctions is crucial. In response, the number of experimental techniques in molecular electronics has increased rapidly in recent years. Scanning tunnelling microscopes have been used to study electron transfer through molecular films on a conducting substrate, and the need to monitor the contact force of scanning tunnelling electrodes led to the use of atomic force microscopy probes coated in a conducting layer as studied by Cui and colleagues in Arizona [2]. In this issue a collaboration of researchers at Delft University and Leiden University in the Netherlands report a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport, which will enable thorough studies of molecular transport in the future [3]. Scanning probes can also be used to pattern surfaces, such as through spatially-localized Suzuki and Heck reactions in chemical scanning probe lithography. Mechanistic aspects of spatially confined Suzuki and Heck chemistry are also reported in this issue by researchers in Oxford [4]. All these developments in molecular electronics fabrication and characterization provide alternative

  17. Silicon Application Increases Drought Tolerance of Kentucky Bluegrass by Improving Plant Water Relations and Morphophysiological Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Saud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress encumbers the growth of turfgrass principally by disrupting the plant-water relations and physiological functions. The present study was carried out to appraise the role of silicon (Si in improving the drought tolerance in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.. Drought stress and four levels (0, 200, 400, and 800 mg L−1 of Si (Na2SiO3·9H2O were imposed after 2 months old plants cultured under glasshouse conditions. Drought stress was found to decrease the photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, leaf water content, relative growth rate, water use efficiency, and turf quality, but to increase in the root/shoot and leaf carbon/nitrogen ratio. Such physiological interferences, disturbances in plant water relations, and visually noticeable growth reductions in Kentucky bluegrass were significantly alleviated by the addition of Si after drought stress. For example, Si application at 400 mg L−1 significantly increased the net photosynthesis by 44%, leaf water contents by 33%, leaf green color by 42%, and turf quality by 44% after 20 days of drought stress. Si application proved beneficial in improving the performance of Kentucky bluegrass in the present study suggesting that manipulation of endogenous Si through genetic or biotechnological means may result in the development of drought resistance in grasses.

  18. Silicon application increases drought tolerance of kentucky bluegrass by improving plant water relations and morphophysiological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saud, Shah; Li, Xin; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Lu; Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Sadiq, Arooj; Chen, Yajun

    2014-01-01

    Drought stress encumbers the growth of turfgrass principally by disrupting the plant-water relations and physiological functions. The present study was carried out to appraise the role of silicon (Si) in improving the drought tolerance in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Drought stress and four levels (0, 200, 400, and 800 mg L(-1)) of Si (Na2SiO3·9H2O) were imposed after 2 months old plants cultured under glasshouse conditions. Drought stress was found to decrease the photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, leaf water content, relative growth rate, water use efficiency, and turf quality, but to increase in the root/shoot and leaf carbon/nitrogen ratio. Such physiological interferences, disturbances in plant water relations, and visually noticeable growth reductions in Kentucky bluegrass were significantly alleviated by the addition of Si after drought stress. For example, Si application at 400 mg L(-1) significantly increased the net photosynthesis by 44%, leaf water contents by 33%, leaf green color by 42%, and turf quality by 44% after 20 days of drought stress. Si application proved beneficial in improving the performance of Kentucky bluegrass in the present study suggesting that manipulation of endogenous Si through genetic or biotechnological means may result in the development of drought resistance in grasses.

  19. Plant functional diversity increases grassland productivity-related water vapor fluxes: an Ecotron and modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcu, Alexandru; Eugster, Werner; Bachmann, Dörte; Guderle, Marcus; Roscher, Christiane; Gockele, Annette; Landais, Damien; Ravel, Olivier; Gessler, Arthur; Lange, Markus; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Roy, Jacques; Hildebrandt, Anke; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-08-01

    The impact of species richness and functional diversity of plants on ecosystem water vapor fluxes has been little investigated. To address this knowledge gap, we combined a lysimeter setup in a controlled environment facility (Ecotron) with large ecosystem samples/monoliths originating from a long-term biodiversity experiment (The Jena Experiment) and a modeling approach. Our goals were (1) quantifying the impact of plant species richness (four vs. 16 species) on day- and nighttime ecosystem water vapor fluxes; (2) partitioning ecosystem evapotranspiration into evaporation and plant transpiration using the Shuttleworth and Wallace (SW) energy partitioning model; and (3) identifying the most parsimonious predictors of water vapor fluxes using plant functional-trait-based metrics such as functional diversity and community weighted means. Daytime measured and modeled evapotranspiration were significantly higher in the higher plant diversity treatment, suggesting increased water acquisition. The SW model suggests that, at low plant species richness, a higher proportion of the available energy was diverted to evaporation (a non-productive flux), while, at higher species richness, the proportion of ecosystem transpiration (a productivity-related water flux) increased. While it is well established that LAI controls ecosystem transpiration, here we also identified that the diversity of leaf nitrogen concentration among species in a community is a consistent predictor of ecosystem water vapor fluxes during daytime. The results provide evidence that, at the peak of the growing season, higher leaf area index (LAI) and lower percentage of bare ground at high plant diversity diverts more of the available water to transpiration, a flux closely coupled with photosynthesis and productivity. Higher rates of transpiration presumably contribute to the positive effect of diversity on productivity. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Increasing water cycle extremes in California and in relation to ENSO cycle under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Wang, S-Y Simon; Gillies, Robert R; Kravitz, Ben; Hipps, Lawrence; Rasch, Philip J

    2015-10-21

    Since the winter of 2013-2014, California has experienced its most severe drought in recorded history, causing statewide water stress, severe economic loss and an extraordinary increase in wildfires. Identifying the effects of global warming on regional water cycle extremes, such as the ongoing drought in California, remains a challenge. Here we analyse large-ensemble and multi-model simulations that project the future of water cycle extremes in California as well as to understand those associations that pertain to changing climate oscillations under global warming. Both intense drought and excessive flooding are projected to increase by at least 50% towards the end of the twenty-first century; this projected increase in water cycle extremes is associated with a strengthened relation to El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO)--in particular, extreme El Niño and La Niña events that modulate California's climate not only through its warm and cold phases but also its precursor patterns.

  1. Increasing water cycle extremes in California and in relation to ENSO cycle under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Wang, S-Y Simon; Gillies, Robert R.; Kravitz, Ben; Hipps, Lawrence; Rasch, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the winter of 2013–2014, California has experienced its most severe drought in recorded history, causing statewide water stress, severe economic loss and an extraordinary increase in wildfires. Identifying the effects of global warming on regional water cycle extremes, such as the ongoing drought in California, remains a challenge. Here we analyse large-ensemble and multi-model simulations that project the future of water cycle extremes in California as well as to understand those associations that pertain to changing climate oscillations under global warming. Both intense drought and excessive flooding are projected to increase by at least 50% towards the end of the twenty-first century; this projected increase in water cycle extremes is associated with a strengthened relation to El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO)—in particular, extreme El Niño and La Niña events that modulate California's climate not only through its warm and cold phases but also its precursor patterns. PMID:26487088

  2. Volcano and Ship Tracks Indicate Excessive Aerosol-Induced Cloud Water Increases in a Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Velle; Christensen, Matthew; Gassó, Santiago; Bellouin, Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol-cloud interaction is the most uncertain mechanism of anthropogenic radiative forcing of Earth's climate, and aerosol-induced cloud water changes are particularly poorly constrained in climate models. By combining satellite retrievals of volcano and ship tracks in stratocumulus clouds, we compile a unique observational data set and confirm that liquid water path (LWP) responses to aerosols are bidirectional, and on average the increases in LWP are closely compensated by the decreases. Moreover, the meteorological parameters controlling the LWP responses are strikingly similar between the volcano and ship tracks. In stark contrast to observations, there are substantial unidirectional increases in LWP in the Hadley Centre climate model, because the model accounts only for the decreased precipitation efficiency and not for the enhanced entrainment drying. If the LWP increases in the model were compensated by the decreases as the observations suggest, its indirect aerosol radiative forcing in stratocumulus regions would decrease by 45%.

  3. Non-contact quantification of laser micro-impulse in water by atomic force microscopy and its application for biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiroh

    2011-12-01

    We developed a local force measurement system of a femtosecond laser-induced impulsive force, which is due to shock and stress waves generated by focusing an intense femtosecond laser into water with a highly numerical aperture objective lens. In this system, the force localized in micron-sized region was detected by bending movement of a cantilever of atomic force microscope (AFM). Here we calculated the bending movement of the AFM cantilever when the femtosecond laser is focused in water at the vicinity of the cantilever and the impulsive force is loaded on the cantilever. From the result, a method to estimate the total of the impulsive force at the laser focal point was suggested and applied to estimate intercellular adhesion strength.

  4. Trailing edge devices to improve performance and increase lifetime of wind-electric water pumping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vick, B.D.; Clark, R.N. [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Bushland, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Trailing edge flaps were applied to the blades of a 10 kW wind turbine used for water pumping to try to improve the performance and decrease the structural fatigue on the wind turbine. Most small wind turbines (10 kW and below) use furling (rotor turns out of wind similar to a mechanical windmill) to protect the wind turbine from overspeed during high winds. Some small wind turbines, however, do not furl soon enough to keep the wind turbine from being off line part of the time in moderately high wind speeds (10 - 16 m/s). As a result, the load is disconnected and no water is pumped at moderately high wind speeds. When the turbine is offline, the frequency increases rapidly often causing excessive vibration of the wind turbine and tower components. The furling wind speed could possibly be decreased by increasing the offset between the tower centerline and the rotor centerline, but would be a major and potentially expensive retrofit. Trailing edge flaps (TEF) were used as a quick inexpensive method to try to reduce the furling wind speed and increase the on time by reducing the rotor RPM. One TEF configuration improved the water pumping performance at moderately high wind speeds, but degraded the pumping performance at low wind speeds which resulted in little change in daily water volume. The other TEF configuration differed very little from the no flap configuration. Both TEF configurations however, reduced the rotor RPM in high wind conditions. The TEF, did not reduce the rotor RPM by lowering the furling wind speed as hoped, but apparently did so by increasing the drag which also reduced the volume of water pumped at the lower wind speeds. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Increased sugarcane water productivity in Brazil avoids land use change and related environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpare, F. V.; Galdos, M. V.; Kolln, O.; Gava, G.; Franco, H.; Trivelin, P.

    2012-12-01

    Fábio V. Scarparea, Marcelo V. Galdosa, Oriel T. Kollna, Glauber J.C. Gavab, Henrique J. Francoa, Paulo C.O. Trivelinc a Laboratório Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do Bioetanol - CTBE/CNPEM, C.P. 6170, Campinas, SP, 13083-970, Brazil. E-mail: fabio.scarpare@bioetanol.org.br b APTA - Polo Centro Oeste. Rod. SP 304, km 304, CP 66, Jaú, SP, 17201-970, Brazil. c Laboratório de Isótopos Estáveis, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, CENA/USP, C.P. 9, Piracicaba, SP, 13418-900, Brazil. Increasing crop water productivity is a key factor where water is scarce compared with land and other resources. A widespread method for water use assessment is the water productivity (WP) approach which is the ratio between biomass production per unit of water utilized. WP is useful to evaluate water utilization and to identify where and when water can be saved in an irrigation system. Traditionally, field experiments are conducted to quantify and evaluate water management practices in irrigation systems. This field trial was conducted in Jaú - São Paulo State (Lat 22.17° S, Long 48.32° W) during first and second ratoon cycles. Four treatments were appraised; rainfed only (R0); rainfed + 150 kg ha-1 of N (RN); irrigation only (I0) and irrigation + 150 kg ha-1 of N (IN). The subsurface drip irrigation was carried out considering the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) to restore 100% of evapotranspired water. The irrigation frequency was considered the water supply to the soil by precipitation and the atmospheric demand for sugarcane ETc, with a maximum soil storage capacity of 70 mm. Our results point that the WP in irrigated condition was 13% higher than rainfed field whereas for N application, WP reached even higher values, 40%. WP among all treatments showed better results for IN (~28 kg mm-1) followed by RN (~23 kg mm-1); I0 (~16 kg mm-1) and R0 (~15 kg mm-1). Those results are in agreement with some studies which suggest high synergy between water and nitrogen for the

  6. Increase in hippocampal water diffusion and volume during experimental pneumococcal meningitis is aggravated by bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon G; Brandt, Christian T; Leib, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    of experimental pneumococcal meningitis, 2) to explore the influence of accompanying bacteremia on hippocampal water distribution and volume, 3) and to correlate these findings to the extent of apoptosis in the hippocampus. METHODS: Experimental meningitis in rats was induced by intracisternal injection of live......-pneumococcal antibodies (n = 14). T2 and diffusion weighted MR images were used to analyze changes in hippocampus volume and water diffusion (ADC). The results were correlated to ADC of the cortex, to ventricular volume, and to the extent of hippocampal apoptosis. RESULTS: Both ADC and the volume of hippocampus were...... and the volume and size of brain ventricles were positively correlated (Spearman Rank, p  0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In experimental meningitis increase in volume and water diffusion of the hippocampus are significantly...

  7. Mechanical Contact Experiments and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, P; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical contact is studied under dynamic development by means of a combined numerical and experimental investigation. The experiments are designed to allow dynamical development of non-planar contact areas with significant expansion in all three directions as the load is increased. Different....... The overall investigation serves for testing and validating the numerical implementation of the mechanical contact, which is one of the main contributions to a system intended for 3D simulation of resistance welding. Correct modelling of contact between parts to be welded, as well as contact with electrodes......, is crucial for satisfactory modelling of the resistance welding process. The resistance heating at the contact interfaces depends on both contact area and pressure, and as the contact areas develop dynamically, the presented tests are relevant for assessing the validity and accuracy of the mechanical contact...

  8. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) reduce evaporation and increase soil water retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W.; Zeng, S.; LaManna, J.; Bais, H.; Jin, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Enhancement of plant drought stress tolerance by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been increasingly documented in the literature. However, most studies to date have focused on PGPR-root/plant interactions; very little is known about PGPR's role in mediating physiochemical and hydrological changes in the rhizospheric soil that may impact plant drought stress tolerance. Our study seeks to advance mechanistic understanding of PGPR- mediated biophysical changes in the rhizospheric soil that may contribute to plant drought stress tolerance in addition to plant responses. In this study, we measured soil water retention characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, and water evaporation in soils with various textures (i.e., pure sand, sandy soil, and loam) as influenced by a PGPR (Bacillus subtilis strain UD1022) using the instrument HYPROP©. All PGPR-treated soils held more water, had reduced conductivity, and reduced evaporation rate compared to their corresponding controls. While changes in evaporation behavior, i.e., the transition from Stage I to Stage II, due to PGPR addition, occurred in all soils, they differed with soil texture: PGPR prolonged Stage I (but at lower evaporation rate than control) in the pure sand while the bacteria shortened Stage I in the other two soils. These results indicate that PGPR affects evaporation by modifying soil capillarity and wettability that control liquid phase continuity and capillary forces that sustain Stage I evaporation. SEM images show that PGPR promoted aggregation in the pure sand due to EPS production and biofilm formation. On the other hand, modification of soil wettability by EPS/biofilm thus water phase continuity and capillary driving forces likely dominated the PGPR effects in the other two soils. These findings improve our understanding of rhizosphere functions and have implications in developing biotechnologies using PGPR to increase soil water retention, which would help sustain agricultural production

  9. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqi Wang

    Full Text Available The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage, one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure stands under W0, those for W1 and W2 were 80% and 85%, respectively. Over 75% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments got greater biomass than the mean of the pure stands under the three irrigation conditions. Cultivar mixture cropping cost more water than pure stands under W0 and W1, whereas the water consumption under W2 decreased by 5.9%-6.8% as compared with pure stands. Approximately 90% of cultivar mixtures showed an increase of 5.4%-34.5% in WUE as compared with the mean of the pure stands, and about 75% of cultivar mixtures had 0.8%-28.5% higher WUE than the better pure stands under W0. Similarly, there were a majority of mixture cropping treatments with higher WUE than the mean and the better one of the pure stands under W1 and W2. On the whole, proper cultivar mixture cropping could increase yield and WUE, and a higher increase in WUE occurred under limited irrigation condition.

  10. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqi; Zhang, Yinghua; Ji, Wei; Yu, Peng; Wang, Bin; Li, Jinpeng; Han, Meikun; Xu, Xuexin; Wang, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage), one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation) and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis) conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure stands under W0, those for W1 and W2 were 80% and 85%, respectively. Over 75% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments got greater biomass than the mean of the pure stands under the three irrigation conditions. Cultivar mixture cropping cost more water than pure stands under W0 and W1, whereas the water consumption under W2 decreased by 5.9%-6.8% as compared with pure stands. Approximately 90% of cultivar mixtures showed an increase of 5.4%-34.5% in WUE as compared with the mean of the pure stands, and about 75% of cultivar mixtures had 0.8%-28.5% higher WUE than the better pure stands under W0. Similarly, there were a majority of mixture cropping treatments with higher WUE than the mean and the better one of the pure stands under W1 and W2. On the whole, proper cultivar mixture cropping could increase yield and WUE, and a higher increase in WUE occurred under limited irrigation condition.

  11. Contact hysteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggish, M S; Barbot, J

    1983-06-01

    In 1907 innovations in optics and illumination made by Maximilian Nitze were applied to hysteroscopy by Charles David, who wrote a treatise of hysteroscopy. David improved illumination by placing an electric incandescent bulb at the intrauterine end of his endoscope and also sealed the distal end of the tube with a piece of glass. The history of the contact endoscope that the authors personally used is connected to the invention by Vulmiere (1952) of a revolutionary illumination process in endoscopy--the "cold light" process. The components of cold light consist of a powerful external light source that is transmitted via a special optical guide into the endometrial cavity. The 1st application of his principle (1963) was an optical trochar contained in a metallic sheath. This simple endoscope was perfected, and in 1973 Barbot and Parent, in France, began to use it to examine the uterine cavity. Discussion focuses on methods, instrumentation, method for examination (grasping the instrument, setup, light source, anesthesia, dilatation, technique, and normal endometrium); cervical neoplasia; nonneoplastic lesions of the endometrium (endometrial polyp, submucous myoma, endometrial hyperplasia); intrauterine device localization; neoplastic lesions of the endometrium; precursors (adenocarcinoma); hysteroscopy in pregnancy (embryoscopy, hydatidiform mole, postpartum hemorrhage, incomplete abortion, spontaneous abortion, induced abortions, and amnioscopy); and examinations of children and infants. The contact endoscope must make light contact with the structure to be viewed. The principles of contact endoscopy depend on an interpretation of color, contour, vascular pattern, and a sense of touch. These are computed together and a diagnosis is made on the basis of previously learned clinical pathologic correlations. The contact endoscope is composed of 3 parts: an optical guide; a cylindric chamber that collects and traps ambient light; and a magnifying eyepiece. The phase of

  12. Contacts to semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tove, P.A.

    1975-08-01

    Contacts to semiconductors play an important role in most semiconductor devices. These devices range from microelectronics to power components, from high-sensitivity light or radiation detectors to light-emitting of microwave-generating components. Silicon is the dominating material but compound semiconductors are increasing in importance. The following survey is an attempt to classify contact properties and the physical mechanisms involved, as well as fabrication methods and methods of investigation. The main interest is in metal-semiconductor type contacts where a few basic concepts are dealt with in some detail. (Auth.)

  13. Increased food production and reduced water use through optimized crop distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Seveso, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-12-01

    Growing demand for agricultural commodities for food, fuel and other uses is expected to be met through an intensification of production on lands that are currently under cultivation. Intensification typically entails investments in modern technology — such as irrigation or fertilizers — and increases in cropping frequency in regions suitable for multiple growing seasons. Here we combine a process-based crop water model with maps of spatially interpolated yields for 14 major food crops to identify potential differences in food production and water use between current and optimized crop distributions. We find that the current distribution of crops around the world neither attains maximum production nor minimum water use. We identify possible alternative configurations of the agricultural landscape that, by reshaping the global distribution of crops within current rainfed and irrigated croplands based on total water consumption, would feed an additional 825 million people while reducing the consumptive use of rainwater and irrigation water by 14% and 12%, respectively. Such an optimization process does not entail a loss of crop diversity, cropland expansion or impacts on nutrient and feed availability. It also does not necessarily invoke massive investments in modern technology that in many regions would require a switch from smallholder farming to large-scale commercial agriculture with important impacts on rural livelihoods.

  14. Magnesium absorption from mineral water decreases with increasing quantities of magnesium per serving in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Eri; Tai, Hideyuki; Uozumi, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Koji; Matsui, Tohru

    2012-01-01

    It is hypothesized that magnesium (Mg) absorption from mineral water is affected by the concentration of Mg in the water, the consumption pattern, and the volume consumed per serving. The present study examined the effect of serving volume and consumption pattern of artificial mineral water (AMW) and Mg concentration on Mg absorption in rats. Magnesium in AMW was labeled with magnesium-25 as a tracer. Each group consisted of 6 or 7 rats. In experiment 1, the rats received 1 mL of AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L at 4 times, 400 mg Mg/L twice, or 800 mg Mg/L at 1 time. In experiment 2, the rats received 1 mL of AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L or 0.25 mL of AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L at 4 times or 1 mL of AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L at 1 time. The absorption of Mg decreased with increasing Mg concentrations in the same serving volume of AMW with different serving frequencies. When the AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L was portioned into 4 servings, Mg absorption increased to the level of absorption in the group exposed to AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L served at the same frequency. These results suggest that the Mg concentration and the volume of AMW do not affect Mg absorption per se, but Mg absorption from AMW decreases when the amount of Mg in each serving is increased. Thus, frequent consumption is preferable for mineral water rich in Mg when the total consumption of mineral water is the same. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Contextualizing Intergroup Contact: Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter Frølund

    2015-01-01

    This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. We expand on previous efforts of social psychologists by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among......,000 individuals confirms that the ability of intergroup contact to reduce antiforeigner sentiment increases when political parties focus intensively on immigration issues and cultural differences. Specifically, both workplace contact and interethnic friendship become more effective in reducing antiforeigner...

  16. THERMAL CONDUCTANCE IN AQUATIC BIRDS IN RELATION TO THE DEGREE OF WATER CONTACT, BODY-MASS, AND BODY-FAT - ENERGETIC IMPLICATIONS OF LIVING IN A STRONG COOLING ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, J; VANEERDEN, MR

    1995-01-01

    Thermal conductance of carcasses of 14 aquatic bird species was determined by the warming constant technique. The effect on thermal conductance of body mass, age sex, fat deposits, and the degree of contact with water were studied. Only body mass and the degree of submergence in water had an effect.

  17. Transient pool boiling heat transfer due to increasing heat inputs in subcooled water at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, K. [Kobe Univ. of Mercantile Marine (Japan); Shiotsu, M.; Sakurai, A. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Understanding of transient boiling phenomenon caused by increasing heat inputs in subcooled water at high pressures is necessary to predict correctly a severe accident due to a power burst in a water-cooled nuclear reactor. Transient maximum heat fluxes, q{sub max}, on a 1.2 mm diameter horizontal cylinder in a pool of saturated and subcooled water for exponential heat inputs, q{sub o}e{sup t/T}, with periods, {tau}, ranging from about 2 ms to 20 s at pressures from atmospheric up to 2063 kPa for water subcoolings from 0 to about 80 K were measured to obtain the extended data base to investigate the effect of high subcoolings on steady-state and transient maximum heat fluxes, q{sub max}. Two main mechanisms of q{sub max} exist depending on the exponential periods at low subcoolings. One is due to the time lag of the hydrodynamic instability which starts at steady-state maximum heat flux on fully developed nucleate boiling (FDNB), and the other is due to the heterogenous spontaneous nucleations (HSN) in flooded cavities which coexist with vapor bubbles growing up from active cavities. The shortest period corresponding to the maximum q{sub max} for long period range belonging to the former mechanism becomes longer and the q{sub max}mechanism for long period range shifts to that due the HSN on FDNB with the increase of subcooling and pressure. The longest period corresponding to the minimum q{sub max} for the short period range belonging to the latter mechanism becomes shorter with the increase in saturated pressure. On the contrary, the longest period becomes longer with the increase in subcooling at high pressures. Correlations for steady-state and transient maximum heat fluxes were presented for a wide range of pressure and subcooling.

  18. Pinon-juniper reduction increases soil water availability of the resource growth pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Roundy; Kert Young; Nathan Cline; April Hulet; Richard F. Miller; Robin J. Tausch; Jeanne C. Chambers; Ben Rau

    2014-01-01

    Managers reduce piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) trees that are encroaching on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities to lower fuel loads and increase cover of desirable understory species. All plant species in these communities depend on soil water held at > −1.5 MPa matric potential in the upper 0.3 m of soil for nutrient...

  19. Low water conductivity increases the effects of copper on the serum parameters in fish (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canli, Esin G; Canli, Mustafa

    2015-03-01

    The conductivity is largely determined by ion levels in water, predominant ion being Ca(2+) in the freshwaters. For this reason, the effects of copper were evaluated as a matter of conductivity of exposure media in the present study. Thus, freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to copper in differing conductivities (77, 163 and 330 μS/cm), using acute (0.3 μM, 3 d) and chronic (0.03 μM, 30 d) exposure protocols. Following the exposure serum parameters of fish were measured. Data showed that there was no significant alteration (P>0.05) in serum parameters of control fish. However, activities of ALP, ALT and AST decreased significantly at the lower conductivities in chronic copper exposure, but not in acute ones. Protein levels did not differ significantly in any of the exposure conditions. However, Cu exposure at the lowest conductivity sharply increased the levels of glucose in the acute exposure, while there was no significant difference in the chronic exposure. Cholesterol levels decreased only at the lower conductivities in chronic exposure, but increased in acute exposure. Similarly, triglyceride levels increased in acute exposures and decreased in chronic exposures at the lowest conductivity. There was no change in Na(+) levels, while there was an increase in K(+) levels and a decrease in Ca(2+) level at the lowest conductivity of acute exposures. However, Cl(-) levels generally decreased at the higher conductivities of chronic exposures. There was a strong negative relationship between significant altered serum parameters and water conductivity. In conclusion, this study showed that copper exposure of fish at lower conductivities caused more toxicities, indicating the protective effect of calcium ions against copper toxicity. Data suggest that conductivity of water may be used in the evaluation of metal data from different waters with different chemical characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Response of fish to different simulated rates of water temperature increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Tuckfield, R.C.

    1992-08-01

    We initiated this study to define the limits of effluent-temperature rate increases during reactor restart, which will help minimize fish kills. We constructed an apparatus for exposing fish to various temperature-increase regimens and conducted two experiments based on information from system tests and scoping runs. In the rate experiment, we acclimated the fish to 20{degree}C, and then raised the temperature to 40{degree}C at varying rates. Because scoping runs and literature suggested that acclimation temperature may affect temperature-related mortality, we conducted an acclimation experiment. We acclimated the fish to various temperatures, then raised the temperatures to 39--40{degree}C at a rate of 2{degree}C every 12 hours. Based on the analysis of the data, we recommend temperature-increase rates during reactor restart of 2.5{degree}C every nine hours if ambient water temperatures are over 20{degree}C. If water temperatures are at or below 20{degree}C, we recommend temperature-increase rates of 2.5{degree}C every 12 hours. No regulation of temperature is required after effluent temperatures reach 40{degree}C. We recommend further studies, including expanded testing with the simulation system and behavioral and bioenergetic investigations that may further refine acceptable rates of effluent-temperature increases.

  1. Increased contribution of wheat nocturnal transpiration to daily water use under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claverie, Elodie; Meunier, Félicien; Javaux, Mathieu; Sadok, Walid

    2018-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that in crops, nocturnal water use could represent 30% of daytime water consumption, particularly in semi-arid and arid areas. This raises the questions of whether nocturnal transpiration rates (TR N ) are (1) less influenced by drought than daytime TR (TR D ), (2) increased by higher nocturnal vapor pressure deficit (VPD N ), which prevails in such environments and (3) involved in crop drought tolerance. In this investigation, we addressed those questions by subjecting two wheat genotypes differing in drought tolerance to progressive soil drying under two long-term VPD N regimes imposed under naturally fluctuating conditions. A first goal was to characterize the response curves of whole-plant TR N and TR N /TR D ratios to progressive soil drying. A second goal was to examine the effect of VPD N increase on TR N response to soil drying and on 13 other developmental traits. The study revealed that under drought, TR N was not responsive to progressive soil drying and - intriguingly - that TR N seemingly increased with drought under high VPD N consistently for the drought-sensitive genotype. Because TR D was concomitantly decreasing with progressive drought, this resulted in TR N representing up to 70% of TR D at the end of the drydown. In addition, under drought, VPD N increase was found not to influence traits such as leaf area or stomata density. Overall, those findings indicate that TR N contribution to daily water use under drought might be much higher than previously thought, that it is controlled by specific mechanisms and that decreasing TR N under drought might be a valuable trait for improving drought tolerance. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. Prolonging contact lens wear and making contact lens wear safer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulks, Gary N

    2006-02-01

    To summarize the present status of safety and efficacy of contact lens wear. Literature review. Ovid Medline searches were performed on records from 1966 through 2005 using keywords: keratitis, contact lens complications, extended-wear contact lenses, and silicone-hydrogel contact lenses. Patients desire comfort, clarity of vision, and prolonged contact lens wear when contact lenses are used to correct refractive error. Practitioners desire patient satisfaction but also require maintenance of the integrity of the eye and no complications that jeopardize vision or health of the eye. Improvements in the oxygen permeability of the contact lens materials, design of the contact lens and its surface, and solutions for the maintenance of the lens have reduced but not eliminated the risks of infection, inflammation, and conjunctival papillary reaction associated with contact lens wear. The lessons of past and recent history suggest that patient education and practitioner participation in the management of contact lens wear continue to be critical factors for patient satisfaction and safety in the extended wear of contact lenses. The availability of highly oxygen permeable contact lenses has increased the tolerance and safety of extended contact lens wear, but patient instruction and education in proper use and care of lenses is required and caution is advised.

  3. Increasing Gas Bubble Escape Rate for Water Splitting with Nonwoven Stainless Steel Fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Huang, Xiaolei; Jiang, Songshan; Li, Meng; Zhang, Kai; Yan, Ying; Zhang, Huiping; Xue, Jun Min

    2017-11-22

    Water electrolysis has been considered as one of the most efficient approaches to produce renewable energy, although efficient removal of gas bubbles during the process is still challenging, which has been proved to be critical and can further promote electrocatalytic water splitting. Herein, a novel strategy is developed to increase gas bubble escape rate for water splitting by using nonwoven stainless steel fabrics (NWSSFs) as the conductive substrate decorated with flakelike iron nickel-layered double hydroxide (FeNi LDH) nanostructures. The as-prepared FeNi LDH@NWSSF electrode shows a much faster escape rate of gas bubbles as compared to that of other commonly used three-dimensional porous catalytic electrodes, and the maximum dragging force for a bubble releasing between NWSSF channels is only one-seventh of the dragging force within nickel foam channels. As a result, it exhibits excellent electrocatalytic performance for both oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), with low overpotentials of 210 and 110 mV at the current density of 10 mA cm -2 in 1 M KOH for OER and HER, respectively. There is almost no current drop after a long-time durability test. In addition, its performance for full water splitting is superior to that of the previously reported catalysts, with a voltage of 1.56 V at current density of 10 mA cm -2 .

  4. Selective capture of water using microporous adsorbents to increase the lifetime of lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Eng-Poh; Delmotte, Luc; Mintova, Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Long live lubricants: The selective capture of water from lubricants using nanosized microporous aluminophosphate (AEI) and aluminosilicate materials was studied. Nearly 98 % of the moisture was removed from the lubricating oil under ambient conditions, resulting in a significant improvement in the lubricating service lifetime. Moreover, both the lubricant and the microporous sorbents can be recovered and reused.The selective capture of water from lubricants using nanosized microporous aluminophosphate and aluminosilicate materials was studied with an aim to increase the lifetime of the lubricating mineral oil. The amount of water present in oxidized lubricating oil before and after treatment with microporous materials was studied by FTIR spectroscopy and determined quantitatively using the Karl Fischer titration method. Nanosized aluminophosphate revealed a high selectivity for water without adsorbing other additives, in contrast to nanosized aluminosilicates which also adsorb polar oxidation products and ionic additives. About 98 % of the initial moisture could be removed from the lubricating oil under ambient conditions, resulting in a significant improvement in the lubricating service lifetime. Moreover, no by-products are formed during the process and both the lubricant and the sorbents can be recovered and reused, thus the method is environmentally friendly.

  5. Water volume reduction increases eutrophication risk in tropical semi-arid reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Nascimento da Rocha Junior

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Global patterns of temperature and precipitation have significantly changed over the last century and nearly all predictions point to even greater changes by the end of 2100. Long periods of drought in semi-arid regions generally reduce reservoirs and lakes water level, increasing the nutrients concentrations in the water. Our principal hypothesis is that water volume reduction, driven by prolonged droughts, will increase reservoirs susceptibility to eutrophication and accordingly an increase in trophic state. To test this hypothesis, we used a comparative analysis of ecosystems in a space-for-time substitution approach, in a Brazilian semi-arid region, to predict the consequences of reservoirs water volume reduction on key limnological variables. Methods We sampled 16 reservoirs located in two sub-basins with contrasting rainfall regimes, inserted on Piranhas-Açu watershed. The Seridó River basin (SB is dry and the Piancó River basin (SB is humid, with annual mean precipitation of 500 and 700 mm, respectively. Linear regressions analyzes were performed to assess whether the percentage of maximum volume stored (%MVS is a good predictor for total phosphorus (TP, total nitrogen (TN and chlorophyll-a (CHLA. In addition, a two factorial analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA was performed to test for period (dry, very dry and extremely dry, basin (SB and PB and their interactions effects on TP, TN, CHLA, conductivity, turbidity, and Secchi depth. Results The results showed a reduction in the reservoirs %MVS both for PB and SB regions. At the extremely dry period, all reservoirs were classified as eutrophic, but TP concentrations reached much higher values in SB than in PB. The linear regressions analyses showed that the TP and TN were negatively related to %MVS during all periods sampled. The two-way ANOVA showed that there were significant basin and period effects on TP, TN, Secchi depth and turbidity, whereas for CHLA and conductivity

  6. Acute non-contact anterior cruciate ligament tears are associated with relatively increased vastus medialis to semimembranosus cross-sectional area ratio: a case-control retrospective MR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieschhoff, Ged G.; Mandell, Jacob C.; Czuczman, Gregory J.; Nikac, Violeta; Shah, Nehal; Smith, Stacy E. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Hamstring muscle deficiency is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vastus medialis to semimembranosus cross-sectional area (VM:SM CSA) ratio on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with ACL tears compared to controls. One hundred knee MRIs of acute ACL tear patients and 100 age-, sex-, and side-matched controls were included. Mechanism of injury, contact versus non-contact, was determined for each ACL tear subject. The VM:SM CSA was measured on individual axial slices with a novel method using image-processing software. One reader measured all 200 knees and the second reader measured 50 knees at random to assess inter-reader variability. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to evaluate for correlation between readers. T-tests were performed to evaluate for differences in VM:SM CSA ratios between the ACL tear group and control group. The ICC for agreement between the two readers was 0.991 (95% confidence interval 0.984-0.995). Acute ACL tear patients have an increased VM:SM CSA ratio compared to controls (1.44 vs. 1.28; p = 0.005). Non-contact acute ACL tear patients have an increased VM:SM CSA ratio compared to controls (1.48 vs. 1.20; p = 0.003), whereas contact acute ACL tear patients do not (1.23 vs. 1.26; p = 0.762). Acute non-contact ACL tears are associated with increased VM:SM CSA ratios, which may imply a relative deficiency in hamstring strength. This study also demonstrates a novel method of measuring the relative CSA of muscles on MRI. (orig.)

  7. Increasing Gas Hydrate Formation Temperature for Desalination of High Salinity Produced Water with Secondary Guests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jong-Ho; Seol, Yongkoo

    2013-10-07

    We suggest a new gas hydrate-based desalination process using water-immiscible hydrate formers; cyclopentane (CP) and cyclohexane (CH) as secondary hydrate guests to alleviate temperature requirements for hydrate formation. The hydrate formation reactions were carried out in an isobaric condition of 3.1 MPa to find the upper temperature limit of CO2 hydrate formation. Simulated produced water (8.95 wt % salinity) mixed with the hydrate formers shows an increased upper temperature limit from -2 °C for simple CO2 hydrate to 16 and 7 °C for double (CO2 + CP) and (CO2 + CH) hydrates, respectively. The resulting conversion rate to double hydrate turned out to be similar to that with simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Hydrate formation rates (Rf) for the double hydrates with CP and CH are shown to be 22 and 16 times higher, respectively, than that of the simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Such mild hydrate formation temperature and fast formation kinetics indicate increased energy efficiency of the double hydrate system for the desalination process. Dissociated water from the hydrates shows greater than 90% salt removal efficiency for the hydrates with the secondary guests, which is also improved from about 70% salt removal efficiency for the simple hydrates.

  8. Increasing Water Use Efficiency Comes at a Cost for Norway Spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja G M Sanders

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi in trees is an indication of the ratio of carbon assimilation to the rate of transpiration. It is generally assumed that it is a response to water availability. In agricultural research, the question of drought tolerance by increased WUEi has been well studied. In general, the increase is a trade-off for productivity and is therefore not desired. For forest trees, this question is less clearly understood. Using stable carbon isotopes derived from tree rings combined with productivity as the product of the annual growth increment and annual density measurements, we compared the change in WUEi over a 15 year period. While WUEi increased over this period, the productivity decreased, causing an opposing trend. The gradient of the correlation between WUEi and productivity varies between provenances and sites. Counterintuitively, the populations at the drier site showed low WUEi values at the beginning of the investigation. Slopes vary with the provenance from Poland showing the least decline in productivity. In general, we found that a decline in productivity aligned with an increase in WUEi.

  9. Enhanced water use efficiency in global terrestrial ecosystems under increasing aerosol loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaoliang; Chen, Min; Liu, Yaling; Miralles, Diego G.; Wang, Faming

    2017-05-01

    Aerosols play a crucial role in the climate system, affecting incoming radiation and cloud formation. Based on a modelling framework that couples ecosystem processes with the atmospheric transfer of radiation, we analyze the effect of aerosols on surface incoming radiation, gross primary productivity (GPP), water losses from ecosystems through evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE, defined as GPP/ET) for 2003–2010 and validate them at global FLUXNET sites. The total diffuse radiation increases under relatively low or intermediate aerosol loadings, but decreases under more polluted conditions. We find that aerosol-induced changes in GPP depend on leaf area index, aerosol loading and cloudiness. Specifically, low and moderate aerosol loadings cause increases in GPP for all plant types, while heavy aerosol loadings result in enhancement (decrease) in GPP for dense (sparse) vegetation. On the other hand, ET is mainly negatively affected by aerosol loadings due to the reduction in total incoming radiation. Finally, WUE shows a consistent rise in all plant types under increasing aerosol loadings. Overall, the simulated daily WUE compares well with observations at 43 eddy-covariance tower sites (R2=0.84 and RMSE=0.01gC (kg H2O)-1) with better performance at forest sites. In addition to the increasing portions of diffuse light, the rise in WUE is also favored by the reduction in radiation- and heat-stress caused by the aerosols, especially for wet and hot climates.

  10. It is possible to increase by over thirty per cent the Nile Water availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2011-01-01

    The population of the Nile catchment is presently 250 Million and will probably reach 400 Million in 2040. The catchment includes two parts of about same population but with a very different climate. - The upstream rainy part (most of this area is in Ethiopia, Uganda and South Sudan). - The downstream dry part i.e North Sudan and Egypt. The available water from the Nile runoff is evaluated as average as 72 Billion m 3 /year; it is quite totally coming from the upstream part and used in the downstream part. For their development the upstream populations (including also part of Tanzania, Kenya, Congo, Rwanda and Burundi) are now requiring a significant share of the run off generated from local rains when Egypt and North Sudan claim historic rights on the Nile Waters. The best way to avoid conflicts is to increase the water availability for keeping in Egypt and North Sudan at least the water volume presently used and to allow to upstream countries the water resources necessary for their development, possibly in the range of 100 m 3 / year / capita in 2030 or 2040. The average total runoff of the Nile is in fact close to 140 Billion m 3 / year but over 40 Billion evaporate in the South Sudan Swamps and 15 Billion in the reservoirs of Aswan and Northern Sudan. A solution for reducing by half these two main losses is presented in this paper: it is based upon a concrete knowledge of the local very specific data and upon a successful experience of adapted technical solutions

  11. Low-dielectric layer increases nanosecond electric discharges in distilled water

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad

    2016-10-24

    Electric discharge in liquids is an emerging field of research, and is involved into various environmental applications (water purification, fuel reforming, nanomaterial synthesis, etc.). Increasing the treatment efficiency with simultaneous decreasing of the energy consumption are the main goals of today’s research. Here we present an experimental study of nanosecond discharge in distilled water covered by a layer of dielectric material. We demonstrate through this paper that the discharge efficiency can be improved by changing the interface position regarding the anode tip. The efficiency increase is due to the increase of the discharge probability as well as the plasma volume. The understanding of the experimental results is brought and strengthened by simulating the electric field distribution, using Comsol Multiphysics software. Because the dielectric permittivity (ε) is discontinuous at the interface, the electric field is enhanced by a factor that depends on the relative value of ε of the two liquids. The present result is very promising in future: opportunities for potential applications as well as fundamental studies for discharges in liquid.

  12. Low-dielectric layer increases nanosecond electric discharges in distilled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min Suk

    2016-10-01

    Electric discharge in liquids is an emerging field of research, and is involved into various environmental applications (water purification, fuel reforming, nanomaterial synthesis, etc.). Increasing the treatment efficiency with simultaneous decreasing of the energy consumption are the main goals of today's research. Here we present an experimental study of nanosecond discharge in distilled water covered by a layer of dielectric material. We demonstrate through this paper that the discharge efficiency can be improved by changing the interface position regarding the anode tip. The efficiency increase is due to the increase of the discharge probability as well as the plasma volume. The understanding of the experimental results is brought and strengthened by simulating the electric field distribution, using Comsol Multiphysics software. Because the dielectric permittivity ( ɛ ) is discontinuous at the interface, the electric field is enhanced by a factor that depends on the relative value of ɛ of the two liquids. The present result is very promising in future: opportunities for potential applications as well as fundamental studies for discharges in liquid.

  13. Low-dielectric layer increases nanosecond electric discharges in distilled water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hamdan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Electric discharge in liquids is an emerging field of research, and is involved into various environmental applications (water purification, fuel reforming, nanomaterial synthesis, etc.. Increasing the treatment efficiency with simultaneous decreasing of the energy consumption are the main goals of today’s research. Here we present an experimental study of nanosecond discharge in distilled water covered by a layer of dielectric material. We demonstrate through this paper that the discharge efficiency can be improved by changing the interface position regarding the anode tip. The efficiency increase is due to the increase of the discharge probability as well as the plasma volume. The understanding of the experimental results is brought and strengthened by simulating the electric field distribution, using Comsol Multiphysics software. Because the dielectric permittivity ( ε is discontinuous at the interface, the electric field is enhanced by a factor that depends on the relative value of ε of the two liquids. The present result is very promising in future: opportunities for potential applications as well as fundamental studies for discharges in liquid.

  14. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  15. Increased Water Retention in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes at Elevated Temperatures Assisted by Capillary Condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, M.J.; Downing, K.H.; Jackson, A.; Gomez, E.D.; Minor, A.M.; Cookson, D.; Weber, A.Z.; Balsara, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    We establish a new systematic methodology for controlling the water retention of polymer electrolyte membranes. Block copolymer membranes comprising hydrophilic phases with widths ranging from 2 to 5 nm become wetter as the temperature of the surrounding air is increased at constant relative humidity. The widths of the moist hydrophilic phases were measured by cryogenic electron microscopy experiments performed on humid membranes. Simple calculations suggest that capillary condensation is important at these length scales. The correlation between moisture content and proton conductivity of the membranes is demonstrated.

  16. Extending 'Contact Tracing' into the Community within a 50-Metre Radius of an Index Tuberculosis Patient Using Xpert MTB/RIF in Urban, Pakistan: Did It Increase Case Detection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Fatima

    Full Text Available Currently, only 62% of incident tuberculosis (TB cases are reported to the national programme in Pakistan. Several innovative interventions are being recommended to detect the remaining 'missed' TB cases. One such intervention involved expanding contact investigation to the community using the Xpert MTB/RIF test.This was a before and after intervention study involving retrospective record review. Passive case finding and household contact investigation was routinely done in the pre-intervention period July 2011-June 2013. Four districts with a high concentration of slums were selected as intervention areas; Lahore, Rawalpindi, Faisalabad and Islamabad. Here, in the intervention period, July 2013-June 2015, contact investigation beyond household was conducted: all people staying within a radius of 50 metres (using Geographical Information System from the household of smear positive TB patients were screened for tuberculosis. Those with presumptive TB were investigated using smear microscopy and the Xpert MTB/RIF test was performed on smear negative patients. All the diagnosed TB patients were linked to TB treatment and care.A total of 783043 contacts were screened for tuberculosis: 23741(3.0% presumptive TB patients were identified of whom, 4710 (19.8% all forms and 4084(17.2% bacteriologically confirmed TB patients were detected. The contribution of Xpert MTB/RIF to bacteriologically confirmed TB patients was 7.6%. The yield among investigated presumptive child TB patients was 5.1%. The overall yield of all forms TB patients among investigated was 22.3% among household and 19.1% in close community. The intervention contributed an increase of case detection of bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis by 6.8% and all forms TB patients by 7.9%.Community contact investigation beyond household not only detected additional TB patients but also increased TB case detection. However, further long term assessments and cost-effectiveness studies are

  17. Fire increases carbon fluxes from inland waters of the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, P. J.; Bristol, E. M.; Dabrowski, J. S.; Jimmie, J. A.; Melton, S.; Navarro-Perez, E.; Peter, D. L.; Sae-lim, N.; Holmes, R. M.; Natali, S.; Schade, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change across high-latitude regions is expected to alter the hydrology and biogeochemistry of arctic environments, significantly impacting ecosystem C cycling and landscape scale C budgets. Fire represents one manifestation of arctic climate change with the number, extent and intensity of fires projected to increase over upcoming decades. The Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta (YKD), Alaska, experienced unprecedented tundra fires in 2015 when more than 250 km2 underwent burn. In this study, we examined the effects of the 2015 YKD fire upon aquatic and terrestrial C fluxes, and investigated potential mechanisms causing changes to C-cycling. Field work was conducted during summer months (July-Sept) over two years, complimented with aerobic and anaerobic laboratory incubations. Burning of the terrestrial organic layer caused dramatic changes to soil moisture, the proportion of organic versus mineral soils near the land surface, and average active layer depth. Fire caused increased C fluxes (particularly CH4) from re-wet soils relative to unburnt soils, suggesting an interaction exists between fire history and soil moisture. Higher C fluxes from saturated ponds and fens across the landscape provided additional support for this theory. Pore-water chemistry in burnt catchments contained higher inorganic nutrient concentrations, specifically nitrogen, potentially driven by changing soil sorption processes and/ or infiltration rates. Organic matter delivery to inland waters within burns contained DOC of lower apparent molecular weight and aromaticity relative to unburnt waters (inferred from optical measures), and waters typically had higher temperatures, pH and dissolved mineral content. Lake and low-lying pond CO2 and CH4 emissions were consistently higher in burn catchment regions, with three to four-fold higher C emission rates. Our study indicates that fire may promote aquatic and terrestrial pathways for C loss and that these enhanced emissions may persist for years

  18. Increasing water vapor transport to the Greenland Ice Sheet revealed using self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Kyle S.; Ramseyer, Craig A.; Rosen, Joshua J.; Mote, Thomas L.; Muthyala, Rohi

    2016-09-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass in recent decades, with an acceleration in mass loss since 2000. In this study, we apply a self-organizing map classification to integrated vapor transport data from the ERA-Interim reanalysis to determine if these GrIS mass loss trends are linked to increases in moisture transport to Greenland. We find that "moist" days (i.e., days featuring anomalously intense water vapor transport to Greenland) were significantly more common during 2000-2015 compared to 1979-1994. Furthermore, the two most intense GrIS melt seasons during the last 36 years were either preceded by a record percentage of moist winter days (2010) or occurred during a summer with a record frequency of moist days (2012). We hypothesize that moisture transport events alter the GrIS energy budget by increasing downwelling longwave radiation and turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent energy.

  19. Aerobic Exercise Training Increases Muscle Water Content in Obese Middle-Age Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Sanchez-Roncero, Alicia; Fernández-Elías, Valentin Emilio

    2016-01-01

    L⁻¹·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) metabolic syndrome men completed a 4-month aerobic cycling training program. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were collected before and 72 h after the completion of the last training bout. Water content, total protein, glycogen concentration, and citrate synthase activity were measured in biopsy tissue......PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to determine whether muscle water content (H2Omuscle) expands with training in deconditioned middle-age men and the effects of this expansion in other muscle metabolites. METHODS: Eighteen obese (BMI = 33 ± 3 kg⁻¹·m⁻²) untrained (V˙O2peak = 29 ± 7 m.......011), whereas muscle protein concentration decreased 11% (145 ± 15 to 129 ± 13 g·kg⁻¹ ww, P = 0.007). Citrate synthase activity (proxy for mitochondrial density) increased by 31% (17 ± 5 to 22 ± 5 mmol·min⁻¹·kg⁻¹ ww, P = 0.024). Muscle glycogen concentration increased by 14% (22 ± 7 to 25 ± 7 g·kg⁻¹ ww...

  20. Biochar amendment to coarse sandy subsoil improves root growth and increases water retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben; Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Crop yields and yield potentials on Danish coarse sandy soils are strongly limited due to restricted root growth and poor water and nutrient retention. We investigated if biochar amendment to subsoil can improve root development in barley and significantly increase soil water retention. Spring...... barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Anakin) was grown in soil columns (diameter: 30 cm) prepared with 25 cm topsoil, 75 cm biochar-amended subsoil, and 30 cm un-amended subsoil lowermost placed on an impervious surface. Low-temperature gasification straw-biochar (at 0, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 wt%) and slow...... pyrolysis hardwood-biochar (at 2 wt%) were investigated. One wt% can be scaled up to 102 Mg/ha of char. After full irrigation and drainage, the in-situ moisture content at 30-80 cm depth increased linearly (R2 = 0.99) with straw-biochar content at a rate corresponding to 0.029 m3/m3/%. The lab determined...

  1. Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan: Additional Water Quality Projects May be Needed and Could Increase Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... Because water is key to restoring the ecosystem, one of the initiative's major goals is 'getting the water right'-or improving the quality, quantity, timing, and distribution of water in the ecosystem...

  2. Contact Lens Related Corneal Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, KY; Agarwal, P

    2010-01-01

    A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are: overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. Th...

  3. Increases in the annual range of soil water storage at northern middle and high latitudes under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Ying; Lan, Chia-Wei; Lo, Min-Hui; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2015-05-01

    Soil water storage is a fundamental signal in the land hydrological cycle and changes in soil moisture can affect regional climate. In this study, we used simulations from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 archives to investigate changes in the annual range of soil water storage under global warming at northern middle and high latitudes. Results show that future warming could lead to significant declines in snowfall, and a corresponding lack of snowmelt water recharge to the soil, which makes soil water less available during spring and summer. Conversely, more precipitation as rainfall results in higher recharge to soil water during its accumulating season. Thus, the wettest month of soil water gets wetter, and the driest month gets drier, resulting in an increase of the annual range and suggesting that stronger heterogeneity in global water distribution (changing extremes) could occur under global warming; this has implications for water management and water security under a changing climate.

  4. Increasing efficiency in ethanol production: Water footprint and economic productivity of sugarcane ethanol under nine different water regimes in north-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chico

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production in Brazil has grown by 219% between 2001 and 2012, increasing the use of land and water resources. In the semi-arid north-eastern Brazil, irrigation is the main way for improving sugarcane production. This study aimed at quantifying water consumed in ethanol production from sugarcane in this region using the water footprint (WF indicator and complementing it with an evaluation of the water apparent productivity (WAP. This way we were able to provide a measure of the crop´s physical and economic water productivity using, respectively, the WF and WAP concepts. We studied sugarcane cultivation under nine different water regimes, including rainfed and full irrigation. Data from a mill of the state of Alagoas for three production seasons were used. Irrigation influenced sugarcane yield increasing total profit per hectare and economic water productivity. Full irrigation showed the lowest WF, 1229 litres of water per litre of ethanol (L/L, whereas rainfed production showed the highest WF, 1646 L/L. However, the lower WF in full irrigation as compared to the rest of the water regimes implied the use of higher volumes of blue water per cultivated hectare. Lower water regimes yielded the lowest economic productivity, 0.72 US$/m3 for rainfed production as compared to 1.11 US$/m3 for full irrigation. Since economic revenues are increased with higher water regimes, there are incentives for the development of these higher water regimes. This will lead to higher general crop water and economic productivity at field level, as green water is replaced by blue water consumption.

  5. Development of a nanostructured lipid carrier formulation for increasing photo-stability and water solubility of Phenylethyl Resorcinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hengfeng; Liu, Guoqing; Huang, Yiqing; Li, Yan; Xia, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The Phenylethyl Resorcinol loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (PR-NLC) was developed by hot high-pressure homogenization method. The freshly prepared PR-NLC showed a spherical morphology under transmission electron microscope, and the particle size was 218.3 ± 9.2 nm. The value of the zeta potential of PR-NLC decreased from -30.2 ± 1.9 mV to -64.9 ± 1.3 mV when the dilution times reach 10. The loading amount of PR encapsulated in NLC was 2.94 ± 0.03%, and the average entrapment efficiencies of PR-NLC determinated by size exclusion chromatography and ultrafiltration were 90.2 ± 0.6% and 98.3 ± 0.3%. Lyophilization was proved feasible for the storage of NLC dispersion. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) was exploited to investigate the possible drug-lipid complex formation. Advancements in water solubility of PR were demonstrated by NLC using a contact angle measurement. The hemolysis percentage of the NLC was less than 1.3% in a certain range of concentration. In 90 days' storage, 88.6 ± 2.8% of PR remained unchanged in PR-NLC under natural daylight. In vitro release studies revealed a sustained drug release, and in vitro penetration studies showed an increase of retention amount of PR in the skin, when applying PR-NLC. Therefore, the NLC might be a potential delivery vehicle in cosmetic dermal products.

  6. Development of a nanostructured lipid carrier formulation for increasing photo-stability and water solubility of Phenylethyl Resorcinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hengfeng; Liu, Guoqing; Huang, Yiqing; Li, Yan; Xia, Qiang, E-mail: xiaq@seu.edu.cn

    2014-01-01

    The Phenylethyl Resorcinol loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (PR-NLC) was developed by hot high-pressure homogenization method. The freshly prepared PR-NLC showed a spherical morphology under transmission electron microscope, and the particle size was 218.3 ± 9.2 nm. The value of the zeta potential of PR-NLC decreased from −30.2 ± 1.9 mV to −64.9 ± 1.3 mV when the dilution times reach 10. The loading amount of PR encapsulated in NLC was 2.94 ± 0.03%, and the average entrapment efficiencies of PR-NLC determinated by size exclusion chromatography and ultrafiltration were 90.2 ± 0.6% and 98.3 ± 0.3%. Lyophilization was proved feasible for the storage of NLC dispersion. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) was exploited to investigate the possible drug–lipid complex formation. Advancements in water solubility of PR were demonstrated by NLC using a contact angle measurement. The hemolysis percentage of the NLC was less than 1.3% in a certain range of concentration. In 90 days’ storage, 88.6 ± 2.8% of PR remained unchanged in PR-NLC under natural daylight. In vitro release studies revealed a sustained drug release, and in vitro penetration studies showed an increase of retention amount of PR in the skin, when applying PR-NLC. Therefore, the NLC might be a potential delivery vehicle in cosmetic dermal products.

  7. Percutaneous penetration characteristics and release kinetics of contact allergens encapsulated in ethosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2011-01-01

    Formulation of the contact allergens dinitrochlorobenzene and isoeugenol in ethanolic liposomes (ethosomes) increases their sensitizing properties in the local lymph node assay compared with an ethanol-water formulation of the allergens. Likewise, isoeugenol and methyldibromo-glutaronitrile formu...

  8. Increased ambient air temperature alters the severity of soil water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, Geertje; Sinclair, Kat; Hallin, Ingrid; Doerr, Stefan; Urbanek, Emilia; Quinn, Gerry; Matthews, Peter; Dudley, Ed; Francis, Lewis; Gazze, S. Andrea; Whalley, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Soil repellency, the inability of soils to wet readily, has detrimental environmental impacts such as increased runoff, erosion and flooding, reduced biomass production, inefficient use of irrigation water and preferential leaching of pollutants. Its impacts may exacerbate (summer) flood risks associated with more extreme drought and precipitation events. In this study we have tested the hypothesis that transitions between hydrophobic and hydrophilic soil particle surface characteristics, in conjunction with soil structural properties, strongly influence the hydrological behaviour of UK soils under current and predicted UK climatic conditions. We have addressed the hypothesis by applying different ambient air temperatures under controlled conditions to simulate the effect of predicted UK climatic conditions on the wettability of soils prone to develop repellency at different severities. Three UK silt-loam soils under permanent vegetation were selected for controlled soil perturbation studies. The soils were chosen based on the severity of hydrophobicity that can be achieved in the field: severe to extreme (Cefn Bryn, Gower, Wales), intermediate to severe (National Botanical Garden, Wales), and subcritical (Park Grass, Rothamsted Research near London). The latter is already highly characterised so was also used as a control. Soils were fully saturated with water and then allowed to dry out gradually upon exposure to controlled laboratory conditions. Soils were allowed to adapt for a few hours to a new temperature prior to initiation of the controlled experiments. Soil wettability was determined at highly regular intervals by measuring water droplet penetration times. Samples were collected at four time points: fully wettable, just prior to and after the critical soil moisture concentrations (CSC), and upon reaching air dryness (to constant weight), for further (ultra)metaproteomic and nanomechanical studies to allow integration of bulk soil characterisations with

  9. Gastric Bypass Increases Ethanol and Water Consumption in Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Panayotis K.; Subrize, Mike; Delis, Foteini; Cooney, Robert N.; Culnan, Derek; Sun, Mingjie; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Hajnal, Andras

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is an effective treatment for morbid obesity. Increased alcohol abuse after RYGB resulted in recommendations to exclude patients with alcohol abuse histories from RYGB. The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of a RYGB on ethanol intake in diet-induced obese rats (high-fat diet). Methods Animals underwent RYGB and were habituated along with their sham-operated obese controls and with lean rats to increasing concentrations of ethanol in a two-bottle choice paradigm. Results RYGB rats’ daily consumption of ethanol averaged 2 g/kg at 2% habituation and 3.8 g/kg at 4% habituation, twice as much as sham-operated obese controls and 50% more than normal-diet lean controls. Obese controls drank on average 1 g/kg of ethanol (2 and 4%), significantly less (50%) than lean controls. RYGB rats when given higher ethanol concentrations (6 and 8%) or no ethanol drank significantly more water than lean and obese controls (66 and 100% respectively) and their enhanced total fluid intake was associated with increased food intake, which was significantly higher than in lean (66% more calories; food + alcohol) and obese controls (44% more calories). The lower alcohol intake in the obese controls than in the lean rats suggests that obesity may interfere with alcohol’s rewarding effects and RYGB may remove this protective effect. Conclusions The overall enhancement of consummatory behaviors (both ethanol and water) suggests that RYGB may facilitate alcohol consumption, which in vulnerable individuals could lead to abuse and addiction. PMID:22976430

  10. Increasing water productivity, nitrogen economy, and grain yield of rice by water saving irrigation and fertilizer-N management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Omar; Hussain, Saddam; Rizwan, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Bashir, Saqib; Lin, Lirong; Mehmood, Sajid; Imran, Muhammad; Yaseen, Rizwan; Lu, Guoan

    2018-03-29

    The looming water resources worldwide necessitate the development of water-saving technologies in rice production. An open greenhouse experiment was conducted on rice during the summer season of 2016 at Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China, in order to study the influence of irrigation methods and nitrogen (N) inputs on water productivity, N economy, and grain yield of rice. Two irrigation methods, viz. conventional irrigation (CI) and "thin-shallow-moist-dry" irrigation (TSMDI), and three levels of nitrogen, viz. 0 kg N ha -1 (N 0 ), 90 kg N ha -1 (N 1 ), and 180 kg N ha -1 (N 2 ), were examined with three replications. Study data indicated that no significant water by nitrogen interaction on grain yield, biomass, water productivity, N uptake, NUE, and fertilizer N balance was observed. Results revealed that TSMDI method showed significantly higher water productivity and irrigation water applications were reduced by 17.49% in TSMDI compared to CI. Thus, TSMDI enhanced root growth and offered significantly greater water saving along with getting more grain yield compared to CI. Nitrogen tracer ( 15 N) technique accurately assessed the absorption and distribution of added N in the soil crop environment and divulge higher nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) influenced by TSMDI. At the same N inputs, the TSMDI was the optimal method to minimize nitrogen leaching loss by decreasing water leakage about 18.63%, which are beneficial for the ecological environment.

  11. Increase in forest water-use efficiency as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevor F. Keenan; David Y. Hollinger; Gil Boher; Danilo Dragoni; J. William Munger; Hans Peter. Schmid

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis, a process that is accompanied by the loss of water vapour from leaves. The ratio of water loss to carbon gain, or water-use efficiency, is a key characteristic of ecosystem function that is central to the global cycles of water, energy and carbon. Here we analyse direct,...

  12. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water in Soccer Players: a Deuterium Oxide Dilution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, R; Rosa, F T; Pfrimer, K; Ferrioli, E; Jordao, A A; Freitas, E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in total body water (TBW) in soccer athletes using a deuterium oxide dilution method and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) formulas after 7 days of creatine supplementation. In a double-blind controlled manner, 13 healthy (under-20) soccer players were divided randomly in 2 supplementation groups: Placebo (Pla, n=6) and creatine supplementation (CR, n=7). Before and after the supplementation period (0.3 g/kg/d during 7 days), TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution and BIA methods. 7 days of creatine supplementation lead to a large increase in TBW (2.3±1.0 L) determined by deuterium oxide dilution, and a small but significant increase in total body weight (1.0±0.4 kg) in Cr group compared to Pla. The Pla group did not experience any significant changes in TBW or body weight. Although 5 of 6 BIA equations were sensitive to determine TBW changes induced by creatine supplementation, the Kushner et al. 16 method presented the best concordance levels when compared to deuterium dilution method. In conclusion, 7-days of creatine supplementation increased TBW determined by deuterium oxide dilution or BIA formulas. BIA can be useful to determine TBW changes promoted by creatine supplementation in soccer athletes, with special concern for formula choice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Baking loss of bread with special emphasis on increasing water holding capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoki, D; Deka, S C

    2010-01-01

    Potato flour (PF), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and honey were used as baking agents and their effects on baking loss and sensory quality were studied. PF at 1, 2 and 4% levels decreased baking loss followed by HPMC and honey. Water absorption was substantially high with the HPMC (70.8-80.8%) and PF (61.7-71.7%) compared to honey and normal standard bread. PF incorporation increased shelf-life (6-7 days) as compared to HPMC and honey. HPMC incorporated bread had higher moisture content (36.8-38.0%) followed by PF (34.5-35.8%) and honey (34.7%). The ash content was in the order of PF (1%) > honey (4%) > PF (2%) > normal bread > HPMC (0.5 g) > PF (4%) > HPMC (1 g) > HPMC (1.5 g). PF incorporated bread had sensorily highest acceptance followed by HPMC and honey.

  14. Inhibition of the aquaporin 3 water channel increases the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M; Bokaee, S; Davies, J; Harrington, K J; Pandha, H

    2009-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are intrinsic membrane proteins that facilitate selective water and small solute movement across the plasma membrane. In this study, we investigate the role of inhibiting AQPs in sensitising prostate cancer cells to cryotherapy. PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells were cooled to 0, −5 and −10°C. The expression of AQP3 in response to freezing was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT–qPCR) and western blot analysis. Aquaporins were inhibited using mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplex, and cell survival was assessed using a colorimetric assay. There was a significant increase in AQP3 expression in response to freezing. Cells treated with AQP3 siRNA were more sensitive to cryoinjury compared with control cells (Pcryotherapy. PMID:19513079

  15. Energy Consumption Analysis of Particle Crushing on Structural Contact Surface under High Pressure Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Junkun; Guo, Jiaqi

    2017-12-01

    The experimental study on the energy relationship between the coarse sand with different water content and the concrete interface with different hardness and roughness is carried out, through the high stress direct shear apparatus. Experimental results show that the growth rate of shear energy dissipation of sand - structure contact surface is slowing down with the increase of roughness, even negative; The shear energy dissipation of concrete with different hardness decreases first and then increases with the increase of water content, The crushing energy consumption is the lowest when water content is 16%; The shear energy dissipation at different moisture content increases with the increase of the contact strength of concrete structure.

  16. Metal-Semiconductor Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, D. I.

    Metal-semiconductor contacts display a range of electrical characteristics from strongly rectifying to ohmic, each having its own applications. The rectifying properties of metal points on metallic sulphides were used extensively as detectors in early radio experiments, while during the second world war the rectifying point contact diode became important as a frequency detector and low level microwave radar detector [1]. Since 1945 the development of metal semiconductor contacts has been stimulated by the intense activity in the field of semiconductor physics and has remained vital in the ohmic connection of semiconductor devices with the outside world. The developments in surface science and the increased use of Schottky barriers in microelectronics has lead to much research with the aim of obtaining a full understanding of the physics of barrier formation and of current transport across the metal-semiconductor interface. Large gain spin electronic devices are possible with appropriate designs by incorporating ferromagnetic layers with semiconductors such as silicon [2]. This inevitably leads to metal-semiconductor contacts, and the impact of such junctions on the device must be considered. In this section we aim to look simply at the physical models that can be used to understand the electrical properties that can arise from these contacts, and then briefly discuss how deviations of these models can occur in practical junctions.

  17. Modeling Air Temperature/Water Temperature Relations Along a Small Mountain Stream Under Increasing Urban Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedders, E. R.; Anderson, W. P., Jr.; Hengst, A. M.; Gu, C.

    2017-12-01

    greater. This indicates a possible tipping point in the stream temperature-water temperature relationship at which increased urbanization overpowers increasing stream thermal inertia.

  18. Emotional Satisfaction of Customer Contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Güngör, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    For marketing and customer services researchers and professionals who are interested in customer contacts, customer satisfaction and loyalty issues. Contact centers are playing a pivotal role in customer services of the 21st century. Nevertheless, despite their growing importance and presence, contact centers are increasingly becoming the center for customer frustration, and frequently associated with negative comments in the media. Therefore, this research explores the Emotional, Cognitive, ...

  19. Exponential increase of signal crayfish in running waters in Sweden – due to illegal introductions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohman P.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Sweden has only one indigenous species of crayfish, the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus, Fabricius. There has been a steady decline of noble crayfish populations in Sweden since 1907, mainly due to the crayfish plague. To substitute the noble crayfish fishery lost, the Swedish government launched a large-scale introduction of the signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana. Today, the signal crayfish is regarded as a chronic carrier of the crayfish plague, and an expansion of the species may seriously threaten the noble crayfish. This paper examines the decrease of noble crayfish populations, and the concurrent expansion of signal crayfish in running waters. Data from the Swedish Electrofishing RegiSter (SERS was used. We found that in 1980–1984 the noble crayfish occurred in 4.5% of the studied river sections. In 2008–2009 the occurrences had decreased to 1.9%. In contrast, the signal crayfish had increased in occurrence, from 0.2% (1980–1984 to 11.8% in (2008–2009. We studied the number of stocking permits for signal crayfish introductions, and the available signal crayfish population from the open fishery in Lake Vättern, as possible causes of this expansion. A negative correlation between stocking permits and increased occurrence in streams, and a positive correlation between the availability of crayfish in Lake Vättern and the occurrence in streams was found. This suggests that the expansion of signal crayfish may be due to illegal introductions, further endangering the endemic noble crayfish.

  20. Grab a Cup, Fill It Up! An Intervention to Promote the Convenience of Drinking Water and Increase Student Water Consumption During School Lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortmaker, Steven L.; Carter, Jill E.; Howe, M. Caitlin W.; Reiner, Jennifer F.; Cradock, Angie L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a low-cost strategy for schools to improve the convenience and appeal of drinking water. Methods. We conducted a group-randomized, controlled trial in 10 Boston, Massachusetts, schools in April through June 2013 to test a cafeteria-based intervention. Signage promoting water and disposable cups were installed near water sources. Mixed linear regression models adjusting for clustering evaluated the intervention impact on average student water consumption over 359 lunch periods. Results. The percentage of students in intervention schools observed drinking water during lunch nearly doubled from baseline to follow-up compared with controls (+9.4%; P < .001). The intervention was associated with a 0.58-ounce increase in water intake across all students (P < .001). Without cups, children were observed drinking 2.4 (SE = 0.08) ounces of water from fountains; with cups, 5.2 (SE = 0.2) ounces. The percentage of intervention students observed with sugar-sweetened beverages declined (–3.3%; P < .005). Conclusions. The current default of providing water through drinking fountains in cafeterias results in low water consumption. This study shows that an inexpensive intervention to improve drinking water’s convenience by providing cups can increase student water consumption. PMID:26180950

  1. The Role of Political Action and Media in Increasing Public Awareness of Water Scarcity: Combined Effects on Water Use Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, K.; Roby, N.; Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N.

    2016-12-01

    In the midst of California's current drought, authorities have enacted widespread initiatives aimed at coping with water scarcity, for example the first mandatory statewide urban water use reductions in 2015. But to what extent have these measures resulted in decreased water consumption? To answer this question, our research examines the impact of political actions on water use by using media as a proxy. News media outlets have heavily covered the progression of the California drought, and this outreach has played an important role in disseminating information and raising public awareness. To our knowledge, the relationship between political action/media coverage and water use has yet to be examined. In this study, we extract the number of articles related to the term "California Drought" from six widely-read national and statewide newspapers from 2005 to 2015. We study the relationship between media and monthly urban water use at the utility level using multivariate panel regression and principal components analysis to examine how media interacts with other modes of influence such as climate, price, and the state of the economy and how populations of different socio-demographics are affected by media outreach. We also use daily household-level water use readings from recently installed Automated Meter Infrastructure (AMI) in one utility to examine the relationship on a finer spatiotemporal scale. Using a policy timeline, Google search rates, and newspaper article trends confirms the relationship between political actions, public awareness, and media outreach. Preliminary modeling indicates that media plays a significant role in altering water use patterns for residential customers and in utilities with specific local characteristics.

  2. Variations in Os isotope ratios of pyrrhotite as a result of water-rock and magma-rock interaction: Constraints from Virginia Formation-Duluth Complex contact zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Curtis D.; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi

    2010-08-01

    Os isotope ratios in pyrrhotite-bearing pelitic rocks of the ˜1.85 Ga Virginia Formation are variable, with perturbations linked to the emplacement of the ˜1.1 Ga Duluth Complex. Pyrrhotite in footwall rocks of the contact aureole show evidence for a mixing event at 1.1 Ga involving a low 187Os/ 188Os fluid. However, because rocks with perturbed pyrrhotite Os isotope ratios occur 1½ km or more from the Duluth Complex, the fluid is unlikely to have been of magmatic origin. Fluid inclusions in layer-parallel quartz veins provide evidence of the involvement of a boiling fluid at temperatures between ˜300 and 400 °C. Analyses of fluid inclusions via LA-ICP-MS show that the fluids contain up to 1.7 wt% Na, 1.1 wt% K, 4330 ppm Fe, 2275 ppm Zn, and 415 ppm Mg. The veins also contain pyrite or pyrrhotite, plus minor amounts of chalcopyrite, bornite, pentlandite, and sphalerite. The Re-Os isotopic ratios of pyrite from the veins indicate that they crystallized from low 187Os/ 188Os fluids (pyrite to pyrrhotite, and where time-integrated water-rock ratios in the aureole were high enough to provide a supply of Os. Troctolitic and gabbroic rocks of the Partridge River Intrusion, Duluth Complex, are characterized by Os isotope ratios that are indicative of variable degrees of crustal contamination ( γOs values of ˜0-543). Xenoliths of carbonaceous and sulfidic pelitic rocks of the Virginia Formation found in the igneous rocks provide evidence that Os was released by organic matter and pyrite in the sedimentary rocks and assimilated by mantle-derived magma. However, residual pyrrhotite produced as a result of pyrite breakdown in the xenoliths is characterized by 187Os/ 188Os ratios that are much lower than anticipated and similar to those of pyrrhotite in the contact aureole. The Os exchange and addition shown by pyrrhotite in the xenoliths highlight an unusual cycle of Re-Os liberation during devolatilization, kerogen maturation, and pyrite to pyrrhotite conversion

  3. Radioiodine enrichment of large-volume water samples in order to increase the sensitivity of detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, H.

    1981-01-01

    The method can be employed in the decontamination of water and waste water, separating the I from acid solution at silvered activated carbon. It was tested as an enrichment method in radioecological investigations of the I-131 contents in surface and ground water. (DG) [de

  4. The increasing importance of atmospheric demand for ecosystem water and carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly A. Novick; Darren L. Ficklin; Paul C. Stoy; Christopher A. Williams; Gil Bohrer; Andrew C. Oishi; Shirley A. Papuga; Peter D. Blanken; Asko Noormets; Benjamin N. Sulman; Russell L. Scott; Lixin Wang; Richard P. Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Soil moisture supply and atmospheric demand for water independently limit-and profoundly affect-vegetation productivity and water use during periods of hydrologic stress1-4. Disentangling the impact of these two drivers on ecosystem carbon and water cycling is difficult because they are often correlated, and experimental tools for manipulating...

  5. Formative Research to Design a Promotional Campaign to Increase Drinking Water among Central American Latino Youth in an Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Nicole; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Elkins, Allison; Rivera, Ivonne; Evans, W Douglas; Edberg, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Latinos consume more sugary drinks and less water than other demographic groups. Our objective was to understand beverage choice motivations and test promotional concepts that can encourage Central American Latino urban youth to drink more water. Two rounds of focus group discussions were conducted (n = 10 focus groups, 61 participants, 6-18 years old). Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using inductive and deductive coding approaches. Youth motivations for drinking water were shaped by level of thirst, weather, energy, and perceptions of health benefits. Youth were discouraged from drinking water due to its taste and perceptions of the safety and cleanliness of tap water. Youth beverage preference depended on what their friends were drinking. Availability of water versus other beverages at home and other settings influenced their choice. Promotional materials that included mixed language, informative messages about the benefits of drinking water, and celebrities or athletes who were active, energized, and drinking water were preferred. A promotional campaign to increase water consumption among these Latino youth should include bicultural messages to underscore the power of water to quench true thirst, highlight the health benefits of drinking water, and address the safety of tap water.

  6. L-proline increases survival of tilapias infected by Streptococcus agalactiae in higher water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xian-Liang; Han, Yi; Ren, Shi-Tong; Ma, Yan-Mei; Li, Hui; Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2015-05-01

    Streptococcosis causes massive tilapia kills, which results in heavy economic losses of tilapia farming industry. Out of the Streptococcosis, Streptococcus agalactiae is the major pathogen. The bacterium causes higher mortality of tilapias in higher than lower temperatures. However, effect of temperature on metabolic regulation which is related to the mortality is largely unknown. The present study showed 50% and 70% mortality of tilapias cultured in 25 °C and 30 °C, respectively, in comparison with no death in 20 °C following infection caused by S. agalactiae. Then, GC/MS based metabolomics was used to investigate a global metabolic response of tilapia liver to the two higher water temperatures compared to 20 °C. Thirty-six and forty-five varied abundance of metabolites were identified in livers of tilapias cultured at 25 °C and 30 °C, respectively. More decreasing abundance of amino acids and increasing abundance of carbohydrates were detected in 30 °C than 25 °C groups. On the other hand, out of the pathways enriched, the first five biggest impact pathways belong to amino acid metabolism. Decreasing abundance of l-proline was identified as a crucial biomarker for indexing higher water temperature and a potential modulator to reduce the high death. This was validated by engineering injection or oral addition of l-proline. Exogenous l-proline led to elevated amino acid metabolism, which contributes to the elevated survivals. Our findings provide a potential metabolic modulator for controlling the disease, and shed some light on host metabolic prevention to infectious diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Moving droplets : The measurement of contact lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelma, C.; Franken, M.J.Z.; Kim, H.; Westerweel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Contact lines are the locations where a gas, liquid and a solid meet. From everyday experience we know that such contact lines can be mobile, for example in the case of a water droplet sliding over a glass surface. However, the continuum description of the flow towards or away from a contact line

  8. Extracellular Water Excess and Increased Self-Reported Fatigue in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangvoraphonkchai, Kamonwan; Davenport, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Hemodialysis patients (HD) commonly report fatigue. Muscle wasting (sarcopenia) and extracellular water (ECW) excess have been reported to be associated with fatigue in other conditions. We wished to determine whether muscle loss and ECW excess were associated with fatigue in HD patients. Patients completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQ-9) and recorded their post-dialysis recovery time. Sessional dialysis data were recorded along with pre- and post-dialysis multi-frequency bioimpedance assessments (MFBIA). One hundred and ten patients, median age 64 (52-79) years, 67% male, 35% diabetic completed questionnaires and had pre- and post-HD MFBIAs. Median total MFI score was 60 (48-72), with the physical domain having the highest score. Modal (30.8%) recovery time post-dialysis was 1-4 h. Of the participants, 35% and 34% had increased BDI-II and PHQ-9 scores, respectively. Total MFI score was associated with increased BDI-II (>16) (standardized (Std) β 0.54, P 10) scores (Std β 0.49, P  8 h (Std β 0.26, P = 0.001), post dialysis mean arterial pressure (MAP) (Std β -0.19, P = 0.02), and muscle wasting (Std β -0.15, P = 0.05). Self-reported fatigue in HD patients is associated with self-reported depression, but also dialysis-related factors including increased ECW post HD, low MAP, and longer recovery times. Patients with reduced muscle mass were less likely to report fatigue, possibly accepting physical limitations. As such, interventions to reduce fluid overload and improve dialysis experience may help improve fatigue. © 2018 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  9. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 is an increasing cause of disease in people with no livestock contact in Denmark, 1999 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.; Petersen, A.; Sørum, M.

    2015-01-01

    a serious public health challenge in countries with intensive livestock production. To retrace the history of human colonisation and infection with MRSA CC398-IIa in Denmark, we conducted a nationwide, retrospective study of MRSA isolates collected from 1999 to 2011. Among 7,429 MRSA isolates screened, we...... identified 416 MRSA CC398-IIa isolates. Of these, 148 were from people with infections, including 51 from patients reporting no livestock exposure. The first cases of MRSA CC398-IIa infection in Denmark occurred in 2004. Subsequently, the incidence of MRSA CC398-IIa infection showed a linear annual increase...

  10. Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) resin increases water demands and reduces energy availability in desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Antonio M; Dearing, M Denise; Karasov, William H

    2004-07-01

    Although many plant secondary compounds are known to have serious consequences for herbivores, the costs of processing them are generally unknown. Two potential costs of ingestion and detoxification of secondary compounds are elevation of the minimum drinking water requirement and excretion of energetically expensive metabolites (i.e., glucuronides) in the urine. To address these impacts, we studied the costs of ingestion of resin from creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) on desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida). The following hypotheses were tested: ingestion of creosote resin by woodrats (1) increases minimum water requirement and (2) reduces energy available by increasing fecal and urinary energy losses. We tested the first hypothesis, by measuring the minimum water requirement of woodrats fed a control diet with and without creosote resin. Drinking water was given in decreasing amounts until woodrats could no longer maintain constant body mass. In two separate experiments, the minimum drinking water requirement of woodrats fed resin was higher than that of controls by 18-30% (about 1-1.7 ml/d). We tested several potential mechanisms of increased water loss associated with the increase in water requirement. The rate of fecal water loss was higher in woodrats consuming resin. Neither urinary water nor evaporative water loss was affected by ingestion of resin. Hypothesis 2 was tested by measuring energy fluxes of woodrats consuming control vs. resin-treated diets. Woodrats on a resin diet had higher urinary energy losses and, thus, metabolized a lower proportion of the dietary energy than did woodrats on control diet. Fecal energy excretion was not affected by resin. The excretion of glucuronic acid represented almost half of the energy lost as a consequence of resin ingestion. The increased water requirement and energy losses of woodrats consuming a diet with resin could have notable ecological consequences.

  11. [Computers and contact dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooms-Goossens, A

    1989-01-01

    A computerized database with the complete composition of pharmaceutical products and some cosmetics helps the patient with an allergic contact dermatitis reaction to avoid his specific allergens. Together with a database with patient information (12000 cases) this product, file serves as the basis for an expert system that assists the dermatologist during his every day clinical practice. The use of the computer in the field of contact dermatitis has gained much interest in the course of the last decade. In fact, the computer can be a particularly helpful tool in: 1. The storage of large amounts of data that can help to identify the patient's allergen microenvironment: --literature: articles related to contact dermatitis problems; --product information such as, for example, the composition of pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and industrial materials; --the dermatologist: the filling in of a standardized anamnesis from also helps to assure that relevant clinical data is not overlooked. 2. The diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis: on the basis of all these data stored, an expert system can be developed to provide targeted information to assist the physician with the anamnesis of a new patient. Depending on the profile of the patient, several factors that could be at the source of the contact dermatitis, such as the patient's profession, hobbies, and use of pharmaceutical products and cosmetics, can be considered, thus increasing the efficiency of the allergological examination considerably. 3. Research in contact dermatitis: --The data can be used for epidemiological analyses in behalf of the patients, the medical profession, the industry, and the authorities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Lead concentration increase in the hepatic and gill soluble fractions of European chub (Squalius cephalus)-an indicator of increased Pb exposure from the river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragun, Zrinka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Strižak, Zeljka; Raspor, Biserka

    2012-07-01

    To examine if chronic exposure of feral fish to elevated Pb concentrations in the river water (up to 1 μg L(-1)), which are still lower than European recommendations for dissolved Pb in surface waters (7.2 μg L(-1); EPCEU (Official J L 348:84, 2008)), would result in Pb accumulation in selected fish tissues. Lead concentrations were determined by use of HR ICP-MS in the gill and hepatic soluble fractions of European chub (Squalius cephalus) caught in the Sutla River (Croatia-Slovenia). At the site with increased dissolved Pb in the river water, soluble gill Pb levels (17.3 μg L(-1)) were approximately 20 times higher compared to uncontaminated sites (0.85 μg L(-1)), whereas the ratio between contaminated (18.1 μg L(-1)) and uncontaminated sites (1.17 μg L(-1)) was lower for liver (15.5). Physiological variability of basal Pb concentrations in soluble gill and hepatic fractions associated to fish size, condition, sex, or age was not observed, excluding the possibility that Pb increase in chub tissues at contaminated site could be the consequence of studied biotic parameters. However, in both tissues of Pb-exposed specimens, females accumulated somewhat more Pb than males, making female chubs potentially more susceptible to possible toxic effects. The fact that Pb increase in gill and hepatic soluble fractions of the European chub was not caused by biotic factors and was spatially restricted to one site with increased dissolved Pb concentration in the river water points to the applicability of this parameter as early indicator of Pb exposure in monitoring of natural waters.

  13. Incubating rainbow trout in soft water increased their later sensitivity to cadmium and zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Hennessy, Daniel P.; Dillon, Frank S.

    2010-01-01

    Water hardness is well known to affect the toxicity of some metals; however, reports on the influence of hardness during incubation or acclimation on later toxicity to metals have been conflicting. We incubated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) near the confluence of two streams, one with soft water and one with very-soft water (average incubation hardnesses of about 21 and 11 mg/L as CaCO3, respectively). After developing to the swim-up stage, the fish were exposed for 96-h to a mixture of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in water with a hardness of 27 mg/L as CaCO3. The fish incubated in the higher hardness water were about two times more resistant than the fish incubated in the extremely soft water. This difference was similar or greater than the difference that would have been predicted by criteria hardness equations had the fish been tested in the different acclimation waters. We think it is plausible that the energy demands for fish to maintain homeostasis in the lower hardness water make the fish more sensitive to metals that inhibit ionoregulation such as Cd and Zn. We suggest that if important decisions were to be based upon test results, assumptions of adequate hardness acclimation should be carefully considered and short acclimation periods avoided. If practical, incubating rainbow trout in the control waters to be tested may reduce uncertainties in the possible influences of differing rearing water hardness on the test results.

  14. Effect of SiO{sub 2} addition on photocatalytic activity, water contact angle and mechanical stability of visible light activated TiO{sub 2} thin films applied on stainless steel by a sol gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, Mansour [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saghafian, Hasan, E-mail: Saghafian@iust.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for High Strength Alloys Technology (CEHSAT), Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golestani-Fard, Farhad [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16845-195, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Barati, Nastaran; Khanahmadi, Amirhossein [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Adding SiO{sub 2} to N doped TiO{sub 2} films increased the band gap energy of the films. • SiO{sub 2} addition encouraged crack formation in N doped TiO{sub 2} thin films. • Addition of SiO{sub 2} weakened visible light activity and hydrophilicity of TiO{sub 2} films. • All films passed nanoscratch testing without detachment from the substrates. • Results propose using non-silica films on steel for application in visible light. - Abstract: Nanostructured N doped TiO{sub 2}/20%SiO{sub 2} thin films were developed on steel surface via sol gel method using a painting airbrush. Thin films then were calcined at various temperatures in a range of 400–600 °C. The effect of SiO{sub 2} addition on phase composition and microstructural evolution of N doped TiO{sub 2} films were studied using XRD and FESEM. Optical properties, visible light photocatalytic activity, hydrophilic behavior, and mechanical behavior of the films were also investigated by DRS, methylene blue degradation, water contact angle measurements, and nanoscratch testing. Results indicated that the band gap energy of N doped TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} was increased from 2.93 to 3.09 eV. Crack formation during calcination was also significantly promoted in the composite films. All composite films demonstrated weaker visible light photocatalytic activities and lower mechanical stability in comparison with N doped TiO{sub 2} films. Moreover, the N doped TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} film calcined at 600 °C showed undesirable hydrophilic behavior with a water contact angle of 57° after 31 h of visible light irradiation. Outcomes of the present study reveal some different results to previous reports on TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} films. In general, we believe the differences in substrate material as well as application in visible light are the main reasons for the above mentioned contradiction.

  15. Fluorescence spectroscopy for field surveillance of THM formation precursors to increase sustainable drinking water treatment for the water industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutter, Marc; Cooper, Pat; Wyness, Adam; Allan, Richard; Weir, Paul; Frogbrook, Zoe; Haffey, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of the composition and diversity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters is improving rapidly with techniques such as fluorescence spectroscopy. For the water industry issues of the reaction of DOM and different processes used to reduce microbial contamination in water for public supply are a pressing concern. A range of processes can be used but the common disinfection by free chlorine can react with DOM to produce a group of substances referred to as disinfection by-products (DBPs) that have been linked to health concerns. Hence, management at water treatment works aims to remove DOM prior to the disinfection reaction or change the treatment method. Both are costly financially and in terms of process chemical, such as coagulents that work variably with different DOM forms. Hence, enabling methods of catchment management, which have long been associated with tackling other forms of pollution (e.g. N, P) through source-pathway-receptor concepts, are options for the water industry where catchment raw water source management is a possible sustainable addition to conventional treatment. This presentation looks at the requirements and ongoing work to inform source water management options using bench-top fluorescence excitation-emission spectroscopy and hand-held sensors to detect DBP precursors, namely trihalomethanes (THMs), in complex multi-source environments. We start by introducing the forms of DOM discernible in the fluorescence excitation-emission matrix, how these have been ascribed to different compounds by previous studies and what wavelengths are available for in-situ detection. We then discuss methodology issues for sample storage and standard materials. Then we draw on results from a national set of Scottish catchments and a small catchment study to evaluate relationships between THM compounds from standard assay and GC-MS detection against spectral DOM surrogates, including catchment hydrochemical and spatial data covariates

  16. Understanding why the volume of suboxic waters does not increase over centuries of global warming in an Earth System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gnanadesikan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is expected to reduce oxygen solubility and vertical exchange in the ocean, changes which would be expected to result in an increase in the volume of hypoxic waters. A simulation made with a full Earth System model with dynamical atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and biogeochemical cycling (the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's Earth System Model 2.1 shows that this holds true if the condition for hypoxia is set relatively high. However, the volume of the most hypoxic (i.e., suboxic waters does not increase under global warming, as these waters actually become more oxygenated. We show that the rise in dissolved oxygen in the tropical Pacific is associated with a drop in ventilation time. A term-by-term analysis within the least oxygenated waters shows an increased supply of dissolved oxygen due to lateral diffusion compensating an increase in remineralization within these highly hypoxic waters. This lateral diffusive flux is the result of an increase of ventilation along the Chilean coast, as a drying of the region under global warming opens up a region of wintertime convection in our model. The results highlight the potential sensitivity of suboxic waters to changes in subtropical ventilation as well as the importance of constraining lateral eddy transport of dissolved oxygen in such waters.

  17. Lower-energy neutron sources for increasing the sensitivity of nuclear gages for measuring the water content of bulk materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    The sensitivity of a gage using a nuclear source for measuring the water content of bulk materials, such as plastic concrete, is increased by use of a lithium or fluorine neutron nuclear source. 3 figures

  18. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 is an increasing cause of disease in people with no livestock contact in Denmark, 1999 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jesper; Petersen, Andreas; Sørum, Marit; Stegger, Marc; van Alphen, Lieke; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Knudsen, Lisbet Krause; Larsen, Lars Stehr; Feingold, Beth; Price, Lance Bradley; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Skov, Robert Leo

    2015-01-01

    Livestock constitutes a potential reservoir of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates belonging to a recently derived lineage within clonal complex 398 (MRSA CC398-IIa). Since its discovery in the early 2000s, this lineage has become a major cause of human disease in Europe, posing a serious public health challenge in countries with intensive livestock production. To retrace the history of human colonisation and infection with MRSA CC398-IIa in Denmark, we conducted a nationwide, retrospective study of MRSA isolates collected from 1999 to 2011. Among 7,429 MRSA isolates screened, we identified 416 MRSA CC398-IIa isolates. Of these, 148 were from people with infections, including 51 from patients reporting no livestock exposure. The first cases of MRSA CC398-IIa infection in Denmark occurred in 2004. Subsequently, the incidence of MRSA CC398-IIa infection showed a linear annual increase of 66% from 2004 to 2011 (from 0.09 to 1.1 per 100,000 person-years). There were clear temporal and spatial relationships between MRSA CC398-IIa-infected patients with and without livestock exposure. These findings suggest substantial dissemination of MRSA CC398-IIa from livestock or livestock workers into the Danish community and underscore the need for strategies to control its spread both on and off the farm.

  19. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 is an increasing cause of disease in people with no livestock contact in Denmark, 1999 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J; Petersen, A; Sørum, M; Stegger, M; van Alphen, L; Valentiner-Branth, P; Knudsen, LK; Larsen, LS; Feingold, B; Price, LB; Andersen, PS; Larsen, AR; Skov, RL

    2016-01-01

    Livestock constitutes a potential reservoir of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates belonging to a recently derived lineage within clonal complex 398 (MRSA CC398-IIa). Since its discovery in the early 2000s, this lineage has become a major cause of human disease in Europe, posing a serious public health challenge in countries with intensive livestock production. To retrace the history of human colonisation and infection with MRSA CC398-IIa in Denmark, we conducted a nationwide, retrospective study of MRSA isolates collected from 1999 to 2011. Among 7,429 MRSA isolates screened, we identified 416 MRSA CC398-IIa isolates. Of these, 148 were from people with infections, including 51 from patients reporting no livestock exposure. The first cases of MRSA CC398-IIa infection in Denmark occurred in 2004. Subsequently, the incidence of MRSA CC398-IIa infection showed a linear annual increase of 66% from 2004 to 2011 (from 0.09 to 1.1 per 100,000 person-years). There were clear temporal and spatial relationships between MRSA CC398-IIa-infected patients with and without livestock exposure. These findings suggest substantial dissemination of MRSA CC398-IIa from livestock or livestock workers into the Danish community and underscore the need for strategies to control its spread both on and off the farm. PMID:26535590

  20. Leaf water storage increases with salinity and aridity in the mangrove Avicennia marina: integration of leaf structure, osmotic adjustment and access to multiple water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa T; Meir, Patrick; Sack, Lawren; Evans, John R; Oliveira, Rafael S; Ball, Marilyn C

    2017-08-01

    Leaf structure and water relations were studied in a temperate population of Avicennia marina subsp. australasica along a natural salinity gradient [28 to 49 parts per thousand (ppt)] and compared with two subspecies grown naturally in similar soil salinities to those of subsp. australasica but under different climates: subsp. eucalyptifolia (salinity 30 ppt, wet tropics) and subsp. marina (salinity 46 ppt, arid tropics). Leaf thickness, leaf dry mass per area and water content increased with salinity and aridity. Turgor loss point declined with increase in soil salinity, driven mainly by differences in osmotic potential at full turgor. Nevertheless, a high modulus of elasticity (ε) contributed to maintenance of high cell hydration at turgor loss point. Despite similarity among leaves in leaf water storage capacitance, total leaf water storage increased with increasing salinity and aridity. The time that stored water alone could sustain an evaporation rate of 1 mmol m -2  s -1 ranged from 77 to 126 min from subspecies eucalyptifolia to ssp. marina, respectively. Achieving full leaf hydration or turgor would require water from sources other than the roots, emphasizing the importance of multiple water sources to growth and survival of Avicennia marina across gradients in salinity and aridity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Reproductive acclimation to increased water temperature in a tropical reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Donelson

    Full Text Available Understanding the capacity of organisms to cope with projected global warming through acclimation and adaptation is critical to predicting their likely future persistence. While recent research has shown that developmental acclimation of metabolic attributes to ocean warming is possible, our understanding of the plasticity of key fitness-associated traits, such as reproductive performance, is lacking. We show that while the reproductive ability of a tropical reef fish is highly sensitive to increases in water temperature, reproductive capacity at +1.5°C above present-day was improved to match fish maintained at present-day temperatures when fish complete their development at the higher temperature. However, reproductive acclimation was not observed in fish reared at +3.0°C warmer than present-day, suggesting limitations to the acclimation possible within one generation. Surprisingly, the improvements seen in reproduction were not predicted by the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance hypothesis. Specifically, pairs reared at +1.5°C, which showed the greatest capacity for reproductive acclimation, exhibited no acclimation of metabolic attributes. Conversely, pairs reared at +3.0°C, which exhibited acclimation in resting metabolic rate, demonstrated little capacity for reproductive acclimation. Our study suggests that understanding the acclimation capacity of reproductive performance will be critically important to predicting the impacts of climate change on biological systems.

  2. White-nose syndrome increases torpid metabolic rate and evaporative water loss in hibernating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Liam P; Mayberry, Heather W; Willis, Craig K R

    2017-12-01

    Fungal diseases of wildlife typically manifest as superficial skin infections but can have devastating consequences for host physiology and survival. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal skin disease that has killed millions of hibernating bats in North America since 2007. Infection with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans causes bats to rewarm too often during hibernation, but the cause of increased arousal rates remains unknown. On the basis of data from studies of captive and free-living bats, two mechanistic models have been proposed to explain disease processes in WNS. Key predictions of both models are that WNS-affected bats will show 1 ) higher metabolic rates during torpor (TMR) and 2 ) higher rates of evaporative water loss (EWL). We collected bats from a WNS-negative hibernaculum, inoculated one group with P. destructans , and sham-inoculated a second group as controls. After 4 mo of hibernation, TMR and EWL were measured using respirometry. Both predictions were supported, and our data suggest that infected bats were more affected by variation in ambient humidity than controls. Furthermore, disease severity, as indicated by the area of the wing with UV fluorescence, was positively correlated with EWL, but not TMR. Our results provide the first direct evidence that heightened energy expenditure during torpor and higher EWL independently contribute to WNS pathophysiology, with implications for the design of potential treatments for the disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, A.; Porter, A. L.; Alenciks, E.; Frazier, K.; Best, A. A.; Fraley, S. M.; Fraley, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n = 1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n = 8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks’ body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P = 0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P = 0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health. PMID:26769272

  4. Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H; Warner, Nathaniel R; Down, Adrian; Poreda, Robert J; Osborn, Stephen G; Zhao, Kaiguang; Karr, Jonathan D

    2013-07-09

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are transforming energy production, but their potential environmental effects remain controversial. We analyzed 141 drinking water wells across the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province of northeastern Pennsylvania, examining natural gas concentrations and isotopic signatures with proximity to shale gas wells. Methane was detected in 82% of drinking water samples, with average concentrations six times higher for homes drinking water contaminated with stray gases.

  5. Receding contact lines: from sliding drops to immersion lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, K.G.; Peters, I.R.; Evangelista, F.; Riepen, M.; Daerr, A.; Limat, L.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2011-01-01

    Instabilities of receding contact lines often occur through the formation of a corner with a very sharp tip. These dewetting structures also appear in the technology of Immersion Lithography, where water is put between the lens and the silicon wafer to increase the optical resolution. In this paper

  6. Precision contact level gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, M.; Pilat, M.; Stulik, P.

    1977-01-01

    Equipment was developed measuring the heavy water level in the TR-0 reactor core within an accuracy of several hundredths of a millimeter in a range of around 3.5 m and at a temperature of up to 90 degC. The equipment uses a vibrating needle contact as a high sensitivity level gauge and a servomechanical system with a motion screw carrying the gauge for monitoring and measuring the level in the desired range. The advantage of the unique level gauge consists in that that the transducer converts the measured level position to an electric signal, ie., pulse width, with high sensitivity and without hysteresis. (Kr)

  7. Rhizosphere wettability decreases with root age: A problem or a strategy to increase water uptake of young roots?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eCarminati

    2013-08-01

    increase the water upt

  8. Exponentially Increased Thermal Resistance of Salmonella spp. and Enterococcus faecium at Reduced Water Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuxiang; Tang, Juming; Tadapaneni, Ravi Kiran; Yang, Ren; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2018-04-15

    Salmonella spp. exhibit prolonged survivability and high tolerance to heat in low-moisture foods. The reported thermal resistance parameters of Salmonella spp. in low-moisture foods appear to be unpredictable due to various unknown factors. We report here that temperature-dependent water activity (a w, treatment temperature ) plays an important role in the sharply increased thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT 30 and its potential surrogate Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354. In our study, silicon dioxide granules, as carriers, were separately inoculated with these two microorganisms and were heated at 80°C with controlled relative humidity between 18 and 72% (resulting in corresponding a w,80°C values for bacteria between 0.18 and 0.72) in custom-designed test cells. The inactivation kinetics of both microorganisms fitted a log-linear model ( R 2 , 0.83 to 0.97). Reductions in the a w,80°C values of bacterial cells exponentially increased the D 80°C (the time needed to achieve a 1-log reduction in a bacterial population at 80°C) values for S Enteritidis and E. faecium on silicon dioxide. The log-linear relationship between the D 80°C values for each strain in silicon dioxide and its a w,80°C values was also verified for organic wheat flour. E. faecium showed consistently higher D 80°C values than S Enteritidis over the a w,80°C range tested. The estimated z aw (the change in a w,80°C needed to change D 80°C by 1 log) values of S Enteritidis and E. faecium were 0.31 and 0.28, respectively. This study provides insight into the interpretation of Salmonella thermal resistance that could guide the development and validation of thermal processing of low-moisture foods. IMPORTANCE In this paper, we established that the thermal resistance of the pathogen S Enteritidis and its surrogate Enterococcus faecium , as reflected by D values at 80°C, increases sharply with decreasing relative humidity in the environment. The log

  9. Combined effects of fretting and pollutant particles on the contact resistance of the electrical connectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Kong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Usually, when electrical connectors operate in vibration environments, fretting will be produced at the contact interfaces. In addition, serious environmental pollution particles will affect contact resistance of the connectors. The fretting will worsen the reliability of connectors with the pollutant particles. The combined effects of fretting and quartz particles on the contact resistance of the gold plating connectors are studied with a fretting test system. The results show that the frequencies have obvious effect on the contact resistance. The higher the frequency, the higher the contact resistance is. The quartz particles cause serious wear of gold plating, which make the nickel and copper layer exposed quickly to increase the contact resistance. Especially in high humidity environments, water supply certain adhesion function and make quartz particles easy to insert or cover the contact surfaces, and even cause opening resistance.

  10. Predicting Impacts of Increased CO2 and Climate Change on the Water Cycle and Water Quality in the Semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Gallant, Alisa L.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO3–N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO2, precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO2 concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO3–N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO3–N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin.

  11. A comparative study of water-steam distillation with water-bubble distillation techniques to increase the quality of patchouli essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Noor; Yandi, Nefri; Hermawati, Julianto, Tatang Shabur

    2017-03-01

    A comparative study of the quality of patchouli oil using Water-Steam Distillation (WSD) and Water Bubble Distillation (WBD) techniques has been studied. The raw materials were Patchouli plants from Samigaluh village, Kulon Progo district, Yogyakarta. This study is aimed to compare two distillation techniques in order to find out the optimal distillation technique to increase the content of patchouli alcohol (patchoulol) and the quality of patchouli oil. Pretreatment such as withering, drying, size reduction and light fermentation were intended to increase the yield. One kilogramm of patchouli was moisturized with 500 mL of aquadest. The light fermentation process was carried out for 20 hours in a dark container. Fermented patchouli was extracted for 6 hours using Water-Steam and Water Bubble Distillation techniques. Physical and chemical properties test of patchouli oil were performed using SNI standard No. SNI-06-2385-2006 and the chemical composition of patchouli oil was analysed by GC-MS. As the results, the higher yield oil is obtained using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 5.9% versus 2.4%. Spesific gravity, refractive index and acid number of patchouli oil in Water-Steam Distillation results did not meet the SNI standard, i.e. 0.991; 1.623 and 13.19, while the Water Bubble Distillation met the standard, i.e. 0.955; 1.510 and 6.61. The patchoulol content using Water Bubble Distillation technique is 61.53%, significant higher than those using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 38.24%. Thus, Water Bubble Distillation promises a potential technique to increase the content of patchoulol in the patchouli oil.

  12. Symbiosis with AMF and leaf Pisupply increases water deficit tolerance of woody species from seasonal dry tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosi, Gabriella; Barros, Vanessa A; Oliveira, Marciel T; Santos, Mariana; Ramos, Diego G; Maia, Leonor C; Santos, Mauro G

    2016-12-01

    In seasonal dry tropical forests, plants are subjected to severe water deficit, and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) or inorganic phosphorus supply (P i ) can mitigate the effects of water deficit. This study aimed to assess the physiological performance of Poincianella pyramidalis subjected to water deficit in combination with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and leaf inorganic phosphorus (P i ) supply. The experiment was conducted in a factorial arrangement of 2 water levels (+H 2 O and -H 2 O), 2 AMF levels (+AMF and -AMF) and 2P i levels (+P i and -P i ). Leaf primary metabolism, dry shoot biomass and leaf mineral nutrients were evaluated. Inoculated AMF plants under well-watered and drought conditions had higher photosynthesis and higher shoot biomass. Under drought, AMF, P i or AMF+P i plants showed metabolic improvements in photosynthesis, leaf biochemistry and higher biomass compared to the plants under water deficit without AMF or P i . After rehydration, those plants submitted to drought with AMF, P i or AMF+P i showed a faster recovery of photosynthesis compared to treatment under water deficit without AMF or P i . However, plants under the drought condition with AMF showed a higher net photosynthesis rate. These findings suggest that AMF, P i or AMF+P i increase the drought tolerance in P. pyramidalis, and AMF associations under well-watered conditions increase shoot biomass and, under drought, promoted faster recovery of photosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Increasing Block Tariffs in an Arid Developing Country: A Discrete/Continuous Choice Model of Residential Water Demand in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Klassert

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arid developing countries face growing challenges from water scarcity, which are exacerbated by deficient piped water supply infrastructures. Increasing block tariffs (IBTs, charging higher rates with increasing water consumption, can potentially reconcile cost recovery to finance these infrastructures with an equitable and affordable sharing of the cost burden. A firm understanding of the impacts of varying prices and socio-economic conditions on residential water demand is necessary for designing IBTs that promote these objectives. Consistently estimating water demand under an IBT requires a discrete/continuous choice (DCC model. Despite this, few econometric studies of arid developing countries have applied this state-of-the-art approach. This paper applies a DCC model to estimate residential water demand under IBTs in the severely water-stressed country of Jordan, using 15,811 country-wide household-level observations from five years up to 2013. We extend Hewitt and Hanemann’s original DCC formulation in order to accommodate IBTs featuring a linearly progressive tariff block. We then use the resulting demand function to assess Jordan’s 2013 IBTs and alternative IBT designs. Under the estimated price elasticities, very few IBT designs achieve a full recovery of the financial costs of water provision, but we still identify a potential to improve cost recovery and affordability.

  14. Increasing water intake influences hunger and food preference, but does not reliably suppress energy intake in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Naomi J; Belous, Ilona V; Temple, Jennifer L

    2018-04-17

    Increasing water intake is often purported to reduce energy intake, and is recommended as a weight loss strategy. The few experimental studies that have been conducted to verify these claims have examined the impact of a single pre-load of water before a meal. Although correlational data indicate a relationship between hydration, energy intake, and weight status, there is very little experimental research in this area. The current studies examined the hypothesis that elevated hydration, through increased water intake, would suppress energy intake. In Experiment 1, participants (n = 49) were asked to consume either one, two, or three 500 ml bottles of water throughout the morning before a lunch buffet in the laboratory. When participants categorized as normal weight drank three bottles of water they consumed less energy at lunch, but there was no effect on participants categorized as overweight or obese. In addition, increased water intake suppressed liking of food items in all participants and hunger in females. A follow-up study (n = 45) was conducted to test if four bottles of water throughout the morning would result in a similar energy suppression in participants categorized as overweight or obese. Surprisingly, in the second experiment, there was no effect of water intake on energy intake at lunch in any of the conditions. There was, however, a similar suppression of hunger and food liking. In conclusion, increasing water intake throughout the morning only suppressed energy intake in individuals categorized as normal weight under certain circumstances, and had no effect on individuals categorized as overweight/obese. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Water deficit in field-grown Gossypium hirsutum primarily limits net photosynthesis by decreasing stomatal conductance, increasing photorespiration, and increasing the ratio of dark respiration to gross photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastain, Daryl R; Snider, John L; Collins, Guy D; Perry, Calvin D; Whitaker, Jared; Byrd, Seth A

    2014-11-01

    Much effort has been expended to improve irrigation efficiency and drought tolerance of agronomic crops; however, a clear understanding of the physiological mechanisms that interact to decrease source strength and drive yield loss has not been attained. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms contributing to inhibition of net carbon assimilation under drought stress, three cultivars of Gossypium hirsutum were grown in the field under contrasting irrigation regimes during the 2012 and 2013 growing season near Camilla, Georgia, USA. Physiological measurements were conducted on three sample dates during each growing season (providing a broad range of plant water status) and included, predawn and midday leaf water potential (ΨPD and ΨMD), gross and net photosynthesis, dark respiration, photorespiration, and chlorophyll a fluorescence. End-of-season lint yield was also determined. ΨPD ranged from -0.31 to -0.95MPa, and ΨMD ranged from -1.02 to -2.67MPa, depending upon irrigation regime and sample date. G. hirsutum responded to water deficit by decreasing stomatal conductance, increasing photorespiration, and increasing the ratio of dark respiration to gross photosynthesis, thereby limiting PN and decreasing lint yield (lint yield declines observed during the 2012 growing season only). Conversely, even extreme water deficit, causing a 54% decline in PN, did not negatively affect actual quantum yield, maximum quantum yield, or photosynthetic electron transport. It is concluded that PN is primarily limited in drought-stressed G. hirsutum by decreased stomatal conductance, along with increases in respiratory and photorespiratory carbon losses, not inhibition or down-regulation of electron transport through photosystem II. It is further concluded that ΨPD is a reliable indicator of drought stress and the need for irrigation in field-grown cotton. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Predicting impacts of increased CO2 and climate change on the water cycle and water quality in the semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Gallant, Alisa L.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO 2 concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 –N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO 2 , precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO 2 concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO 3 –N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO 3 –N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin. - Highlights: ► We used a modified version of SWAT to more accurately simulate the effects of CO 2 . ► Our sensitivity analysis indicated this basin is very responsive to climate change. ► Downscaled GCM outputs showed decreased precipitation and increased temperature. ► There may be large

  17. Predicting impacts of increased CO{sub 2} and climate change on the water cycle and water quality in the semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yiping, E-mail: ywu@usgs.gov [ASRC Research and Technology Solutions, contractor to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, SD 57198 (United States); Liu, Shuguang, E-mail: sliu@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, SD 57198 (United States); Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Gallant, Alisa L., E-mail: gallant@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, SD 57198 (United States); Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO{sub 2}, precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO{sub 2} concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO{sub 3}-N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO{sub 3}-N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used a modified version of SWAT to more accurately simulate the effects of CO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our sensitivity analysis indicated this basin is very responsive to climate change. Black

  18. Increasing water solubility with decreasing droplet size limits the use of water NMR diffusometry in submicron W/O-emulsion droplet size analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcaen, Mathieu; De Neve, Lorenz; Vermeir, Lien; Courtin, Timothee; Dewettinck, Koen; Sinnaeve, Davy; Van der Meeren, Paul

    2018-03-15

    Water droplet size analysis of water-in-oil emulsions using water NMR diffusometry yielded values that were, from a certain shear intensity onwards, independent from the shear which was used during production. It was assumed that the constant water droplet size, obtained for samples prepared at higher shear, were only apparent droplet diameters. Considering the well-known increased solubility of the dispersed phase in the continuous phase at smaller droplet sizes, it is hypothesized that water diffusion in the oil phase was responsible for the fact that apparent rather than real sizes were obtained. W/O-emulsions, prepared with a varying shear intensity, were characterized using dynamic light scattering, light microscopy, T 2 -relaxometry and PFG-NMR diffusometry. The latter measurements were conducted on both a low- and a high-resolution device and was based on either water (LR- and HR-NMR) or a water-soluble marker (HR-NMR). Low-resolution PFG-NMR is incapable of accurately determining the droplet size of W/O-emulsions containing (sub)micron sized droplets. On the other hand, using high-resolution PFG-NMR diffusometry and the addition of an oil insoluble marker to the water phase, the application window could be extended towards smaller droplet sizes. Finally, it was shown that T 2 -relaxometry was capable of detecting differences in droplet size between (sub)micron sized W/O-emulsions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non-Prescription Contact Lens Laura: Vision ... Robyn: Blurry Vision and Daily Eye Drops After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  2. Organic-inorganic interactions at oil-water contacts: quantitative retracing of processes controlling the CO2 occurrence in Norwegian oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berk, Wolfgang; Schulz, Hans-Martin

    2010-05-01

    Crude oil quality in reservoirs can be modified by degradation processes at oil-water contacts (OWC). Mineral phase assemblages, composition of coexisting pore water, and type and amount of hydrocarbon degradation products (HDP) are controlling factors in complex hydrogeochemical processes in hydrocarbon-bearing siliciclastic reservoirs, which have undergone different degrees of biodegradation. Moreover, the composition of coexisting gas (particularly CO2 partial pressure) results from different pathways of hydrogeochemical equilibration. In a first step we analysed recent and palaeo-OWCs in the Heidrun field. Anaerobic decomposition of oil components at the OWC resulted in the release of methane and carbon dioxide and subsequent dissolution of feldspars (anorthite and adularia) leading to the formation of secondary kaolinite and carbonate phases. Less intensively degraded hydrocarbons co-occur with calcite, whereas strongly degraded hydrocarbons co-occur with solid solution carbonate phase (siderite, magnesite, calcite) enriched in δ13C. To test such processes quantitatively in a second step, CO2 equilibria and mass transfers induced by organic-inorganic interactions have been hydrogeochemically modelled in different semi-generic scenarios with data from the Norwegian continental shelf (acc. Smith & Ehrenberg 1989). The model is based on chemical thermodynamics and includes irreversible reactions representing hydrolytic disproportionation of hydrocarbons according to Seewald's (2006) overall reaction (1a) which is additionally applied in our modelling work in an extended form including acetic acid (1b): (1) R-CH2-CH2-CH3 + 4H2O -> R + 2CO2 + CH4 + 5H2, (2) R-CH2-CH2-CH3 + 4H2O -> R + 1.9CO2 + 0.1CH3COOH + 0.9CH4 + 5H2. Equilibrating mineral assemblages (different feldspar types, quartz, kaolinite, calcite) are based on the observed primary reservoir composition at 72 °C. Modelled equilibration and coupled mass transfer were triggered by the addition and reaction

  3. Herbivorous snails can increase water clarity by stimulating growth of benthic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Taylor, William D; Rudstam, Lars G

    2017-11-01

    Eutrophication in shallow lakes is characterized by a switch from benthic to pelagic dominance of primary productivity that leads to turbid water, while benthification is characterized by a shift in primary production from the pelagic zone to the benthos associated with clear water. A 12-week mesocosm experiment tested the hypothesis that the herbivorous snail Bellamya aeruginosa stimulates the growth of pelagic algae through grazing on benthic algae and through accelerating nutrient release from sediment. A tube-microcosm experiment using 32 P-PO 4 as a tracer tested the effects of the snails on the release of sediment phosphorus (P). The mesocosm experiment recorded greater total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and a higher ratio of TN:TP in the overlying water, and a higher light intensity and biomass of benthic algae as measured by chlorophyll a (Chl a) in the snail treatment than in the control. Concentrations of total phosphorus (TP), total suspended solids (TSSs), and inorganic suspended solids (ISSs) in the overlying water were lower in the snail treatment than in the control, though no significant difference in Chl a of pelagic algae between the snail treatment and control was observed. In the microcosm experiment, 32 P activity in the overlying water was higher in the snail treatment than in the control, indicating that snails accelerated P release from the sediment. Our interpretation of these results is that snails enhanced growth of benthic algae and thereby improved water clarity despite grazing on the benthic algae and enhancing P release from the sediment. The rehabilitation of native snail populations may therefore enhance the recovery of eutrophic shallow lakes to a clear water state by stimulating growth of benthic algae.

  4. Contact Graph Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  5. More efficient irrigation may compensate for increases in irrigation water requirements due to climate change in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Shi, Sinan; von Bloh, Werner; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. We will present a recently published study1 that estimates the current level of water demand for Mediterranean agriculture and simulates the potential impacts of climate change, population growth and transitions to water-saving irrigation and conveyance technologies. The results indicate that, at present, Mediterranean region could save 35% of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems, with large differences in the saving potentials across countries. Under climate change, more efficient irrigation is of vital importance for counteracting increases in irrigation water requirements. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 18% from climate change alone by the end of the century if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Population growth increases these numbers to 22% and 74%, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean. Both the Eastern and the Southern Mediterranean would need around 35% more water than today if they could afford some degree of modernization of irrigation and conveyance systems and benefit from the CO2-fertilization effect. However, in some scenarios water scarcity may constrain the supply of the irrigation water needed in future in Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain. In this study, vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL ("Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land") after a large development2 that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops.

  6. Contact allergy to lanolin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransen, Marloes; Overgaard, Line E K; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lanolin has been tested as lanolin alcohols (30% pet.) in baseline patch test series since 1969, and this has shown clinically relevant allergic contact dermatitis cases. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the temporal development of lanolin allergy (i.e. positive reaction to lanolin alcohols...... and/or Amerchol™ L-101), and the association between contact allergy to lanolin and patient characteristics from the MOAHLFA index. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of consecutively patch tested dermatitis patients (n = 9577) between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2015 with lanolin...... alcohols 30% pet. and Amerchol™ L-101 50% pet. was performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of lanolin allergy increased from 0.45% in 2004 to 1.81% in 2015. In age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analyses, weak, significant associations were found between atopic dermatitis and lanolin and lanolin alcohols allergy...

  7. Essential fatty acid supplemented diet increases renal excretion of prostaglandin E and water in essential fatty acid deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.

    1981-01-01

    housed in metabolic cages once a week for a 24-hr period. Urinary excretion of prostaglandin E (PGE) was estimated by radioimmunoassay. Throughout a period of 12 weeks (weeks 13-24) water consumption increased ca. 60%, and urine output and PGE excretion decreased ca. 45% and 70%, respectively, in the EFA......-deficient rats. Feeding EFA-supplemented diet to the EFA-deficient rats for 3 weeks decreased the water consumption and raised the urine output to that observed in the controls. However, the urine output was corrected within 1 day whereas the water consumption was not corrected until the second measurement 8...

  8. Biochar increased water holding capacity but accelerated organic carbon leaching from a sloping farmland soil in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Honglan; Tang, Xiangyu; Guan, Zhuo; Reid, Brian J; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Ok, Yong Sik; Sun, Hui

    2016-01-01

    A hydrologically contained field study, to assess biochar (produced from mixed crop straws) influence upon soil hydraulic properties and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leaching, was conducted on a loamy soil (entisol). The soil, noted for its low plant-available water and low soil organic matter, is the most important arable soil type in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River catchment, China. Pore size distribution characterization (by N2 adsorption, mercury intrusion, and water retention) showed that the biochar had a tri-modal pore size distribution. This included pores with diameters in the range of 0.1-10 μm that can retain plant-available water. Comparison of soil water retention curves between the control (0) and the biochar plots (16 t ha(-1) on dry weight basis) demonstrated biochar amendment to increase soil water holding capacity. However, significant increases in DOC concentration of soil pore water in both the plough layer and the undisturbed subsoil layer were observed in the biochar-amended plots. An increased loss of DOC relative to the control was observed upon rainfall events. Measurements of excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence indicated the DOC increment originated primarily from the organic carbon pool in the soil that became more soluble following biochar incorporation.

  9. Reorganization of water utilities - regionalization, an opportunity to increase their efficiency A comparative literature - Albania Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Naqellari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the study and analysis of factors affecting the need for reorganization of entities engaged in water supply services. From this perspective, the research seeks to identify international practices made in this regard and how they can be adapted to water utilities in Albania. The objective of this paper is to show that regionalization of water utilities is a successful development direction not only of studied literature but also practice in Albania. The study is based on sources of information taken from primary and secondary sources. The selected method for collecting and processing information from primary sources is the empirical method through direct surveys and questionnaires, whereas from secondary sources is descriptive and analytical method. As secondary sources, we are consulted and referred to academic resources, such as articles, books, studies and reports carried out and published by national organizations, local and foreign companies in this field.

  10. Increased insight in microbial processes in rapid sandfilters in drinking water treatment (DW BIOFILTERS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Gülay, Arda; Lee, Carson

    2012-01-01

    investigated by deep sequencing. This will also contribute to a verification of whether the selected qPCR probes include all important groups. Filters from three water works have been sampled and are currently being processed to investigate depth profiles and horizontal variation in filters. Assays...... been established at Islevbro Water Works (operated by Copenhagen Energy) with material from the full-scale afterfilter. After validation that the pilot plant is mimicking the full scale filter, it will be used to investigate processes at larger scales such as backwashing procedures and effect......The aim of this research project is to improve our knowledge on biological rapid sand filters as they are present in thousands groundwater based water works. This includes molecular investigations of the microorganisms responsible for the individual processes (e.g. nitrification); and detailed...

  11. Microdroplet evaporation with a forced pinned contact line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Kevin; Putnam, Shawn A

    2014-09-02

    Experimental and numerical investigations of water microdroplet evaporation on heated, laser patterned polymer substrates are reported. The study is focused on both (i) controlling a droplet's contact line dynamics during evaporation to identifying how the contact line influences evaporative heat transfer and (ii) validating numerical simulations with experimental data. Droplets are formed on the polymer surface using a bottom-up methodology, where a computer-controlled syringe pump feeds water through a 200 μm diameter fluid channel within the heated polymer substrate. This methodology facilitates precise control of the droplet's growth rate, size, and inlet temperature. In addition to this microchannel supply line, the substrate surfaces are laser patterned with a moatlike trench around the fluid-channel outlet, adding additional control of the droplet's contact line motion, area, and contact angle. In comparison to evaporation on a nonpatterned polymer surface, the laser patterned trench increases contact line pinning time by ∼60% of the droplet's lifetime. Numerical simulations of diffusion controlled evaporation are compared the experimental data with a pinned contact line. These diffusion based simulations consistently over predict the droplet's evaporation rate. In efforts to improve this model, a temperature distribution along the droplet's liquid-vapor interface is imposed to account for the concentration distribution of saturated vapor along the interface, which yields improved predictions within 2-4% of the experimental data throughout the droplet's lifetime on heated substrates.

  12. Rhizosphere wettability decreases with root age: a problem or a strategy to increase water uptake of young roots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminati, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    As plant roots take up water and the soil dries, water depletion is expected to occur in the vicinity of roots, the so called rhizosphere. However, recent experiments showed that the rhizosphere of lupines was wetter than the bulk soil during the drying period. Surprisingly, the rhizosphere remained temporarily dry after irrigation. Such water dynamics in the rhizosphere can be explained by the drying/wetting dynamics of mucilage exuded by roots. The capacity of mucilage to hold large volumes of water at negative water potential may favor root water uptake. However, mucilage hydrophobicity after drying may temporarily limit the local water uptake after irrigation. The effects of such rhizosphere dynamics are not yet understood. In particular, it is not known how the rhizosphere dynamics vary along roots and as a function of soil water content. My hypothesis was that the rewetting rate of the rhizosphere is primarily function of root age. Neutron radiography was used to monitor how the rhizosphere water dynamics vary along the root systems of lupines during drying/wetting cycles of different duration. The radiographs showed a fast and almost immediate rewetting of the rhizosphere of the distal root segments, in contrast to a slow rewetting of the rhizosphere of the proximal segments. The rewetting rate of the rhizosphere was not function of the water content before irrigation, but it was function of time. It is concluded that rhizosphere hydrophobicity is not uniform along roots, but it covers only the older and proximal root segments, while the young root segments are hydraulically well-connected to the soil. I included these rhizosphere dynamics in a microscopic model of root water uptake. In the model, the relation between water content and water potential in the rhizosphere is not unique and it varies over time, and the rewetting rate of the rhizosphere decreases with time. The rhisosphere variability seems an optimal adaptation strategy to increase the water

  13. Deteriorations of pulmonary function, elevated carbon monoxide levels and increased oxidative stress amongst water-pipe smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Karaduman Yalcin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A water pipe (hookah is a tobacco smoking tool which is thought to be more harmless than a cigarette, and there are no adequate studies about its hazards to health. Water-pipe smoking is threatening health of the youth in the world today. The objective of this study has been to investigate the carbon monoxide (CO levels in breath, examine the changes in pulmonary function tests (PFT and to assess the change of the oxidative stress parameters in blood after smoking a water pipe. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional analytical study that has included 50 volunteers who smoke a water pipe and the control group of 50 volunteers who smoke neither a cigarette nor a water pipe. Carbon monoxide levels were measured in the breath and pulmonary function tests (PFTs were performed before and after smoking a water pipe. Blood samples were taken from either the volunteer control group or water-pipe smokers group after smoking a water pipe for the purpose of evaluation of the parameters of oxidative stress. Results: Carbon monoxide values were measured to be 8.08±7.4 ppm and 28.08±16.5 ppm before and after smoking a water pipe, respectively. This increment was found statistically significant. There were also significant reductions in PFTs after smoking a water pipe. Total oxidative status (TOS, total antioxidant status (TAS and oxidative stress index (OSI were found prominently higher after smoking a water pipe for the group of water-pipe smokers than for the control group. Conclusions: This study has shown that water-pipe smoking leads to deterioration in pulmonary function and increases oxidative stress. To the best of our knowledge this study is the only one that has shown the effect of water-pipe smoking on oxidative stress. More studies must be planned to show the side effects of water-pipe habit and protective policies should be planned especially for young people in Europe. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5:731

  14. Trout density and health in a stream with variable water temperatures and trace element concentrations: does a cold-water source attract trout to increased metal exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D.D.; Farag, A.M.; Hogstr, C.; MacConnell, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    A history of hard-rock mining has resulted in elevated concentrations of heavy metals in Prickly Pear Creek (MT. USA). Remediation has improved water quality; however, dissolved zinc and cadmium concentrations still exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria. Physical habitat, salmonid density, fish health, and water quality were assessed, and metal concentrations in fish tissues, biofilm, and macroinvertebrates were determined to evaluate the existing condition in the watershed. Cadmium, zinc, and lead concentrations in fish tissues, biofilm, and invertebrates were significantly greater than those at the upstream reference site and an experimental site farther downstream of the confluence. Fish densities were greatest, and habitat quality for trout was better, downstream of the confluence, where water temperatures were relatively cool (16??C). Measures of fish health (tissue metal residues, histology, metallothionein concentrations, and necropsies), however, indicate that the health of trout at this site was negatively affected. Trout were in colder but more contaminated water and were subjected to increased trace element exposures and associated health effects. Maximum water temperatures in Prickly Pear Creek were significantly lower directly below Spring Creek (16??C) compared to those at an experimental site 10 km downstream (26??C). Trout will avoid dissolved metals at concentrations below those measured in Prickly Pear Creek; however, our results suggest that the preference of trout to use cool water temperatures may supersede behaviors to avoid heavy metals. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  15. SDI increases water use efficiency of grain crops in the Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the semi-arid Southern High Plains, nearly all irrigation water is derived from the declining High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer. As well capacities likewise decline, one tactic for continued irrigation is to install subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems with zones sized to accommodate the limited...

  16. Straw gasification biochar increases plant available water capacity and plant growth in coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types needs further reserach. A pot experiment with spring barley...

  17. Hand immersion in cold water alleviating physiological strain and increasing tolerance to uncompensable heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomenok, Gennadi A; Hadid, Amir; Preiss-Bloom, Orahn; Yanovich, Ran; Erlich, Tomer; Ron-Tal, Osnat; Peled, Amir; Epstein, Yoram; Moran, Daniel S

    2008-09-01

    The current study examines the use of hand immersion in cold water to alleviate physiological strain caused by exercising in a hot climate while wearing NBC protective garments. Seventeen heat acclimated subjects wearing a semi-permeable NBC protective garment and a light bulletproof vest were exposed to a 125 min exercise-heat stress (35 degrees C, 50% RH; 5 km/h, 5% incline). The heat stress exposure routine included 5 min rest in the chamber followed by two 50:10 min work-rest cycles. During the control trial (CO), there was no intervention, whilst in the intervention condition the subjects immersed their hands and forearms in a 10 degrees C water bath (HI). The results demonstrated that hand immersion in cold water significantly reduced physiological strain. In the CO exposure during the first and second resting periods, the average rectal temperature (T (re)) practically did not decrease. With hand immersion, the mean (SD) T (re) decreased by 0.45 (0.05 degrees C) and 0.48 degrees C (0.06 degrees C) during the first and second rest periods respectively (P immersion in cold water for 10 min is an effective method for decreasing the physiological strain caused by exercising under heat stress while wearing NBC protective garments. The method is convenient, simple, and allows longer working periods in hot or contaminated areas with shorter resting periods.

  18. INCREASED MORTALITY ASSOCIATED WITH WELL-WATER EXPOSURE IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a retrospective mortality and morbidity study in the Inner Mongolia region of China to evaluate health effects associated with arsenic exposure. The village we studied has been affected by arsenic contaminated well water since the 1980s. A complete census of the vil...

  19. Guided design of heating and cooling mains for lower water and energy consumption and increased efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available can allow reaching significant savings. It is also known from power generation and from the bulk chemicals production that the cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results...

  20. High-Elevation Sierra Nevada Conifers Reveal Increasing Reliance on Snow Water with Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepley, K. S.; Meko, D. M.; Touchan, R.; Shamir, E.; Graham, R.

    2017-12-01

    Snowpack in the Sierra Nevada Mountains accounts for around one third of California's water supply. Melting snow can provide water into dry summer months characteristic of the region's Mediterranean climate. As climate changes, understanding patterns of snowpack, snowmelt, and biological response are critical in this region of agricultural, recreational, and ecological value. Tree rings can act as proxy records to inform scientists and resource managers of past climate variability where instrumental data is unavailable. Here we investigate relationships between tree rings of high-elevation, snow-adapted conifer trees (Tsuga mertensiana, Abies magnifica) and April 1st snow-water equivalent (SWE) in the northern Sierra Nevada Mountains. The 1st principal component of 29 highly correlated regional SWE time series was modeled using multiple linear regression of four tree-ring chronologies including two lagged chronologies. Split-period verification analysis of this model revealed poor predictive skill in the early half (1929 - 1966) of the calibration period (1929 - 2003). Further analysis revealed a significant (p time. Snow water is becoming a more limiting resource to tree growth as average temperatures rise and the hydrologic regime shifts. These results highlight the need for resource managers and policy makers to consider that biological response to climate is not static.

  1. Knowledge and attitudes about sports-related dental injuries and mouthguard use in young athletes in four different contact sports: water polo, karate, taekwondo and handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galic, Tea; Kuncic, Domagoj; Poklepovic Pericic, Tina; Galic, Ivan; Mihanovic, Frane; Bozic, Josko; Herceg, Mark

    2018-03-11

    The increasing popularity of participating in sports activities among children and adolescents has increased the risk of sports-retaled orofacial and dental injuries. Therefore, it is important to establish efficient preventive strategies regarding sports-related dental trauma The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of sports-related dental injuries in young athletes and to compare the frequency of such injuries between high-risk and medium-risk sports, along with assessing athletes' attitudes and habits regarding mouthguard use. A total of 229 young athletes from four different sports (water polo (n=59), karate (n=58), taekwondo (n=57) and handball (n=55), participated in this study. A standardized questionnaire about the frequency of orofacial and dental injuries was used. Questions were also asked about athletes' habits related to mouthguard use. Mean age of the participants was 12.9±3.2 years and the average time of playing experience was 4.8±3.1 years. Orofacial injury had been experienced by 58 athletes (25.3%), while 31 athletes (13.5%) suffered dental injury. Higher rate of dental injuries was observed in water polo (18.6%), karate (17.2%) and handball (21.8%) than in taekwondo (3.5%) (P=0.035). Most participants were aware of mouthguards for dental trauma prevention and considered them efficient for preventing dental injuries during sports activities, but only 94 (41%) used them. There was a statistically significant difference in the use of mouthguards between taekwondo (73.7%) and karate (70.7%) players compared to handball (14.5%) and water polo players (5.1%) (Pmartial art sport. Therefore, the classification of sports according to the risk of dental trauma should be reconsidered. It would be beneficial to make wearing a mouthguard mandatory in all high-risk sports, as well as in those with medium-risk for dental injuries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  2. Potential of Soil Amendments (Biochar and Gypsum in increasing Water Use Efficiency of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniqa eBatool

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Water being an essential component for plant growth and development, its scarcity poses serious threat to crops around the world. Climate changes and global warming are increasing the temperature of earth hence becoming an ultimate cause of water scarcity. It is need of the day to use potential soil amendments that could increase the plants’ resistance under such situations. Biochar and gypsum were used in the present study to improve the water use efficiency and growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Lady’s Finger. A six weeks experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Stress treatments were applied after thirty days of sowing. Plant height, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency were determined weekly under stressed (60% field capacity and non-stressed (100% field capacity conditions. Stomatal conductance and transpiration rate decreased and reached near to zero in stressed plants. Stressed plants also showed resistance to water stress upto five weeks and gradually perished at sixth week. On the other hand, water use efficiency improved in stressed plants containing biochar and gypsum as compared to untreated plants. Biochar alone is a better strategy to promote plant growth and WUE specifically of Abelmoschus esculentus, compared to its application in combination with gypsum.

  3. Water vapor increase in the northern hemispheric lower stratosphere by the Asian monsoon anticyclone observed during TACTS campaign in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, Christian; Vogel, Bärbel; Hoor, Peter; Günther, Gebhard; Krämer, Martina; Müller, Rolf; Müller, Stephan; Riese, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Water vapor plays a key role in determining the radiative balance in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) and thus the climate of the Earth (Forster and Shine, 2002; Riese et al., 2012). Therefore a detailed knowledge about transport pathways and exchange processes between troposphere and stratosphere is required to understand the variability of water vapor in this region. The Asian monsoon anticyclone caused by deep convection over and India and east Asia is able to transport air masses from the troposphere into the nothern extra-tropical stratosphere (Müller et al. 2016, Vogel et al. 2016). These air masses contain pollution but also higher amounts of water vapor. An increase in water vapor of about 0.5 ppmv in the extra-tropical stratosphere above a potential temperature of 380 K was detected between August and September 2012 by in-situ instrumentation above the European northern hemisphere during the HALO aircraft mission TACTS. Here, we investigated the origin of this water vapor increase with the help of the 3D Lagrangian chemistry transport model CLaMS (McKenna et al., 2002). We can assign an origin of the moist air masses in the Asian region (North and South India and East China) with the help of model origin tracers. Additionally, back trajectories of these air masses with enriched water vapor are used to differentiate between transport from the Asia monsoon anticyclone and the upwelling of moister air in the tropics particularly from the Pacific and Southeast Asia.

  4. Will building new reservoirs always help increase the water supply reliability? - insight from a modeling-based global study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Y.; Tian, F.; Yigzaw, W.; Hejazi, M. I.; Li, H. Y.; Turner, S. W. D.; Vernon, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    More and more reservoirs are being build or planned in order to help meet the increasing water demand all over the world. However, is building new reservoirs always helpful to water supply? To address this question, the river routing module of Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) has been extended with a simple yet physical-based reservoir scheme accounting for irrigation, flood control and hydropower operations at each individual reservoir. The new GCAM river routing model has been applied over the global domain with the runoff inputs from the Variable Infiltration Capacity Model. The simulated streamflow is validated at 150 global river basins where the observed streamflow data are available. The model performance has been significantly improved at 77 basins and worsened at 35 basins. To facilitate the analysis of additional reservoir storage impacts at the basin level, a lumped version of GCAM reservoir model has been developed, representing a single lumped reservoir at each river basin which has the regulation capacity of all reservoir combined. A Sequent Peak Analysis is used to estimate how much additional reservoir storage is required to satisfy the current water demand. For basins with water deficit, the water supply reliability can be improved with additional storage. However, there is a threshold storage value at each basin beyond which the reliability stops increasing, suggesting that building new reservoirs will not help better relieve the water stress. Findings in the research can be helpful to the future planning and management of new reservoirs.

  5. [Acanthamoeba isolation from contact lens solution of contact lens wearers without keratitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, R; Ishibashi, Y; Hommura, S; Ishii, K

    1994-05-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis seems to be associated with wearing contact lenses. As controls, we surveyed contact lens wearers without keratitis. Contact lens solutions of 93 persons were examined in order to identify risk factors for contamination by Acanthamoeba. Therefore, the contact lens disinfection system and storage schedules were studied in each case. Acanthamoeba organisms were isolated from 4 specimens (4.3%). The incidence of Acanthamoeba was higher in specimens of soft contact lens solution than in those of hard contact lens solution, and all the Acanthamoeba positive cases had been using tap water.

  6. Modeling caspian sea water level oscilLations Under Diffrent Scenarioes of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GholamReza Roshan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in thecoastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was stimulated. Variations in environmentalparameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, tmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for bothpast (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software(version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17ºC per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increasedby ca. +36 mm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64ºC and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin,temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78ºC and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels projectfuture water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  7. Moderate wetting and drying increases rice yield and reduces water use, grain arsenic level, and methane emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchang Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the major challenge of increasing rice production to feed a growing population under increasing water scarcity, many water-saving regimes have been introduced in irrigated rice, such as an aerobic rice system, non-flooded mulching cultivation, and alternate wetting and drying (AWD. These regimes could substantially enhance water use efficiency (WUE by reducing irrigation water. However, such enhancements greatly compromise grain yield. Recent work has shown that moderate AWD, in which photosynthesis is not severely inhibited and plants can rehydrate overnight during the soil drying period, or plants are rewatered at a soil water potential of −10 to −15 kPa, or midday leaf potential is approximately −0.60 to −0.80 MPa, or the water table is maintained at 10 to 15 cm below the soil surface, could increase not only WUE but also grain yield. Increases in grain yield WUE under moderate AWD are due mainly to reduced redundant vegetative growth; improved canopy structure and root growth; elevated hormonal levels, in particular increases in abscisic acid levels during soil drying and cytokinin levels during rewatering; and enhanced carbon remobilization from vegetative tissues to grain. Moderate AWD could also improve rice quality, including reductions in grain arsenic accumulation, and reduce methane emissions from paddies. Adoption of moderate AWD with an appropriate nitrogen application rate may exert a synergistic effect on grain yield and result in higher WUE and nitrogen use efficiency. Further research is needed to understand root–soil interaction and evaluate the long-term effects of moderate AWD on sustainable agriculture.

  8. Study of the separation of strontium from solutions which imitate natural waters of increased mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, A.M.; Voitko, I.N.; Glushchenko, L.V.; Mitrofanova, O.G.; Zyryanova, N.P.

    1976-01-01

    It has been shown by experiments on synthetically prepared solutions that it is possible to separate strontium and calcium by carbonate precipitation from the larger part of the magnesium accompanying them in natural high mineral waters. In this way the residual content of strontium is reduced to a value of 40-50 mg/liter and, under conditions of removing CO 2 from the solution, to 5-10 mg/liter. The high ionic strength of the solution prevented a more complete precipitation of strontium. Magnesium may be isolated from the filtrate after precipitation of the calcium-strontium mixture. The possibility has been shown of isolating strontium from the mixture of carbonates by means of pyrolysis at 1100-1200 0 and the selective solution of SrO in hot water

  9. WEXA: exergy analysis for increasing the efficiency of air/water heat pumps - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasser, L.; Wellig, B.; Hilfiker, K.

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study at the made by the Engineering and Architecture department at the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts. The subject of the WEXA study (Waermepumpen-Exergie-Analyse - heat pump exergy analysis) is the analysis of the operation of air/water heat-pumps using exergy analysis methods. The basic thermodynamics of heating systems using heat-pumps is discussed. The exergy analyses and exergy balances for the various components and processes of an air/water heat-pump are presented and discussed. Comparisons are presented for heat-pumps with on/off and continuous control systems for their compressors and fans. The paper is concluded with a collection of appendices on the subject.

  10. Increased water deficit decreases Douglas fir growth throughout western US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restaino, Christina M; Peterson, David L.; Littell, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Changes in tree growth rates can affect tree mortality and forest feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. As air temperature increases, evaporative demand also increases, increasing effective drought in forest ecosystems. Using a spatially comprehensive network of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) chronologies from 122 locations that experience distinctly different climate in the western United States, we show that increased temperature decreases growth via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) across all latitudes. Under an ensemble of global circulation models, we project an increase in both the mean VPD associated with the lowest growth extremes and the probability of exceeding these VPD values. As temperature continues to increase in future decades, we can expect deficit-related stress to increase and consequently Douglas-fir growth to decrease throughout its US range.

  11. Soil warming increased whole-tree water use of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Grams, Thorsten E.E.; Matysssek, Rainer; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The study quantified the effect of soil warming on sap flow density (Qs) of Pinus cembra at treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps. To enhance soil temperature we installed a transparent roof construction above the forest floor around six trees. Six other trees served as controls in the absence of any manipulation. Roofing enhanced growing season mean soil temperature by 1.6, 1.3, and 1.0 °C at 5, 10, and 20 cm soil depth, respectively, while soil water availability was not affected. Sap flow density (using Granier-type thermal dissipation probes) and environmental parameters were monitored throughout three growing seasons. During the first year of treatment, no warming effect was detected on Qs. However, soil warming caused Qs to increase significantly by 11 and 19% above levels in control trees during the second and third year, respectively. This effect appeared to result from warming-induced root production, a reduction in viscosity and perhaps an increase also in root hydraulic conductivity. Hardly affected were leaf-level net CO2 uptake rate and conductance for water vapor, so that water-use efficiency stayed unchanged as confirmed by needle δ13C analysis. We conclude that tree water loss will increase with soil warming, which may alter the water balance within the treeline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps in a future warming environment. PMID:25737326

  12. Increasing dissolved organic carbon concentrations in northern boreal lakes: Implications for lake water transparency and thermal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Kristin E.; Theodore, Nora; Gawley, William G.; Ellsworth, Alan C.; Saros, Jasmine E.

    2017-05-01

    We evaluated trends in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated changes in water transparency and epilimnion thickness to better understand the implications of regional increases in DOC concentration in lakes. Long-term monitoring of a suite of physical, chemical, and biological data from six to 12 lakes in Acadia National Park in Maine was paired with high-frequency sensor monitoring of one lake as a model system. Water transparency declined across study sites since 1995 as DOC increased and chlorophyll remained stable, suggesting that this was not a signal of increased eutrophication. As clarity declined, some lakes experienced reduced epilimnion thickness. The degree to which transparency changed across the lakes was dependent on DOC concentration, with a larger decline in transparency occurring in clear water lakes (-0.3 m yr-1) than brown water lakes (-0.1 m yr-1). DOC concentration was an important explanatory variable for reduced epilimnion thickness in short-term sensor measurements. A regional decline in water transparency across all lakes and reduction in epilimnion thickness in a limited number of systems appeared to be acting as a sentinel for changes in atmospheric deposition and regional weather that modified the delivery of DOC from the watershed.

  13. A NOVEL CONCEPT FOR REDUCING WATER USAGE AND INCREASING EFFICIENCY IN POWER GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiao-Hung Chiang; Guy Weismantel

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the project is to apply a unique ice thermal storage (ITS) technology to cooling the intake air to gas turbines used for power generation. In Phase I, the work includes theoretical analysis, computer simulation, engineering design and cost evaluation of this novel ITS technology. The study includes two typical gas turbines (an industrial and an aeroderivative type gas turbine) operated at two different geographic locations: Phoenix, AZ and Houston, TX. Simulation runs are performed to generate data for both power output (KW) and heat rate (Btu/KWh) as well as water recovery (acre ft/yr) in terms of intake air temperature and humidity based on weather data and turbine performance curves. Preliminary engineering design of a typical equipment arrangement for turbine inlet air-cooling operation using the ITS system is presented. A cost analysis has been performed to demonstrate the market viability of the ITS technology. When the ITS technology is applied to gas turbines, a net power gain up to 40% and a heat rate reduction as much as 7% can be achieved. In addition, a significant amount of water can be recovered (up to 200 acre-ft of water per year for a 50 MW turbine). The total cost saving is estimated to be $500,000/yr for a 50 MW gas turbine generator. These results have clearly demonstrated that the use of ITS technology to cool the intake-air to gas turbines is an efficient and cost effective means to improve the overall performance of its power generation capacity with an important added benefit of water recovery in power plant operation. Thus, further development of ITS technology for commercial applications in power generation, particularly in coal-based IGCC power plants is warranted.

  14. Water sustainability of large cities in the United States from the perspectives of population increase, anthropogenic activities, and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigzaw, Wondmagegn; Hossain, Faisal

    2016-12-01

    Balancing water demand and supply with depleting sources and increasing demand needs a multi-dimensional approach given the pace at which the world is urbanizing. This study selected the contiguous United States (CONUS), 42 specific cities and their river basins to determine: Which basins and cities are more susceptible to increased water shortage? Population, water use, hydrologic model and climate model data from CMIP5 were used. Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios: RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6, and RCP8.5 represented different climate change conditions. Period 1 (1950-2004) showed that more areas are affected by monthly runoff and streamflow than annual averages. In some cases, significant decreasing trends in water availability were observed during the summer (June-July-August) and spring (March-April-May) seasons. The second period (2005-2049) indicated an annual increasing trend (more water available) with higher intensity for the RCP6 scenario. Summer and spring showed areas of decreasing trend (less water available) for RCP4.5 and RCP6. Period 3 (2050-2099) exhibited a decreasing trend for the RCP2.6 (Western and Central CONUS, Great Lakes, and FL), RCP4.5 (Southwest CONUS), RCP6 (Western United States), and Central CONUS (RCP8.5). The Mississippi River has a mixed sensitivity to future climate change. The Central Valley of California, Los Angeles, Phoenix, and Tucson can face further challenges as the Colorado River becomes depleted. Seawater desalination and inter-basin water transfer can be considered in future and present policies and structural developments. The West, Southeastern Coast, and FL may consider desalination, while the West and Central CONUS can use the Mississippi for inter-basin transfer.

  15. Individual and combined effects of water quality and empty bed contact time on As(V) removal by a fixed-bed iron oxide adsorber: implication for silicate precoating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Masakazu; Young, Thomas M; Fukushi, Keisuke; Green, Peter G; Darby, Jeannie L

    2012-10-15

    The individual and combined effects of changes in water quality (i.e. pH, initial concentrations of arsenate (As(V)) and competing ions) and empty bed contact time (EBCT) on As(V) removal performance of a fixed-bed adsorber (FBA) packed with a nanostructured goethite-based granular porous adsorbent were systematically studied under environmentally relevant conditions. Rapid small scale column tests (RSSCTs) were extensively conducted at different EBCTs with synthetic waters in which pH and the concentrations of competing ions (phosphate, silicate, and vanadate) were controlled. In the absence of the competing ions, the effects of initial As(V) concentration, pH, and EBCT on As(V) breakthrough curves were successfully predicted by the homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM) with adsorption isotherms predicted by the extended triple layer model (ETLM). The interference effects of silicate and phosphate on As(V) removal were strongly influenced by pH, their concentrations, and EBCT. In the presence of silicate (≤21 mg/L as Si), a longer EBCT surprisingly resulted in worse As(V) removal performance. We suggest this is because silicate, which normally exists at much higher concentration and moves more quickly through the bed than As(V), occupies or blocks adsorption sites on the media and interferes with later As(V) adsorption. Here, an alternative operating scheme of a FBA for As(V) removal is proposed to mitigate the silicate preloading. Silicate showed a strong competing effect to As(V) under the tested conditions. However, as the phosphate concentration increased, its interference effect dominated that of silicate. High phosphate concentration (>100 μg/L as P), as experienced in some regions, resulted in immediate As(V) breakthrough. In contrast to the observation in the presence of silicate, longer EBCT resulted in improved As(V) removal performance in the presence of phosphate. Vanadate was found to compete with As(V) as strongly as phosphate. This study

  16. Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Impact to the Environment: Effect of Sea Water Temperature Increase on Plankton Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjahaja, I P; Pujadi; Supriharyono; Aviati, N; Ruswahyun; Busono, H

    1996-01-01

    Research to study the effect of sea water temperature increase on plankton population had been carried out to predict nuclear power plant impact to the environment. Plankton collected from Jepara waters, Muria Peninsula, was grown on growth medium i.e. sea water enriched with silicate fertilizer. Plankton growth was maintained at temperature varied from 34oC to 46oC and the amount of plankton individu was counted twice a day until it was reduced about 95%. The results showed that the reduction of amount of plankton individu occurred on the medium with temperature above the ambient temperature (34oC). The rate of reduction is linear to the temperature increase. There is no plankton survived at temperature above 40oC for more than 24 hours

  17. Influence of the dissolution of increasing quantities of CO2 in the sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitou, J.

    2007-03-01

    By the increase of carbon dioxide quantity in the atmosphere, the acidity of the ocean, which absorbs a part of this CO 2 , will increase. This acidity level is going to modify the shells and calcareous bases formation of many sea species. The author details the principle of the acidity evolution by the CO 2 increase, the consequences on the ocean fauna and the impacts for the humans. (A.L.B.)

  18. Surface properties of dental polymers: measurements of contact angles, roughness and fluoride release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Namen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Earlier studies on some dental materials measured roughness and/or contact angles or fluoride release separately. In the present study, five dental polymers were investigated to ascertain their contact angles, wettability, roughness, and fluoride release in dry or wet conditions. METHODS: Samples for 5 materials were prepared and stored dry or wet in deionized water pH 6.8. Samples were submitted to finishing/polishing procedures, and the measurements in Goniometer, roughness (µm and fluoride analysis RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Except for the Ariston pHc, all the materials displayed high contact angles when measured with water, showing hydrophobic characteristics. Roughness changed the contact angles, especially those of Ariston (α < 0.05. Fluoride did not modify the contact angles, but increased the roughness of the finished material.

  19. Decreased toxicity of aluminium when the ionic strength increases in water; Blir aluminium mindre toksisk naar ionestyrken i vannet oeker?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstad, E.W. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper evaluates the acute mortality of fish caused by the toxicity of aluminium in water. The evaluation is based on the polymerization hypothesis. According to the author, the level of toxicity decreases when the concentration and charge of ions increase. The paper presents the preliminary results from the executed experiment. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Nitric oxide increases tolerance responses to moderate water deficit in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata bean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Prados, Lucas Martins; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Magalhaes, Jose Ronaldo; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-07-01

    Drought stress is one of the most intensively studied and widespread constraints, and nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule involved in the mediation of abiotic stresses in plants. We demonstrated that a sprayed solution of NO from donor sodium nitroprusside increased drought stress tolerance responses in both sensitive (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tolerant (Vigna unguiculata) beans. In intact plants subjected to halting irrigation, NO increased the leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance in both species. After cutting leaf discs and washing them, NO induced increased electrolyte leakage, which was more evident in the tolerant species. These leaf discs were then subjected to different water deficits, simulating moderate and severe drought stress conditions through polyethylene glycol solutions. NO supplied at moderate drought stress revealed a reduced membrane injury index in sensitive species. In hydrated discs and at this level of water deficit, NO increased the electron transport rate in both species, and a reduction of these rates was observed at severe stress levels. Taken together, it can be shown that NO has an effective role in ameliorating drought stress effects, activating tolerance responses at moderate water deficit levels and in both bean species which present differential drought tolerance.

  1. Water-pipe smoke condensate increases the internalization of Mycobacterium Bovis of type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Alipoor, Shamila D.; Movassaghi, Masoud; Varahram, Mohammad; Ghorbani, Jahangir; Folkerts, Gert; Garssen, Johan; Adcock, Ian M

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem, and there is an association between tobacco smoke and TB. Water pipe smoking has become an increasing problem not only in Middle Eastern countries but also globally because users consider it as safer than cigarettes. The presence of

  2. Contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios; Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Andrade, Ana Regina Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative found in cosmetic and industrial products. Contact dermatitis caused by either methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI or Kathon CG) or MI has shown increasing frequency. The latter is preferably detected through epicutaneous testing with aqueous MI 2000 ppm, which is not included in the Brazilian standard tray. We describe a series of 23 patients tested using it and our standard tray. A case with negative reaction to MCI/MI and positive to MI is emphasized. PMID:26734880

  3. Salt stabilizer for preventing chlorine depletion and increasing shelf-life of potable water - A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, E. J.; Edgerley, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Proposed concept, based on law of mass action uses addition of salt to increase chlorine ions produced in sodium hydrochlorite solutions, thereby increasing solution shelf-life. This technique is not costly. Usefulness will be determined by acceptability of salt in product undergoing long shelf-life.

  4. Reliability growth of thin film resistors contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugin A. N.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Necessity of resistive layer growth under the contact and in the contact zone of resistive element is shown in order to reduce peak values of current flow and power dissipation in the contact of thin film resistor, thereby to increase the resistor stability to parametric and catastrophic failures.

  5. More Yield with Less Water: Increasing Water Use Efficiency by Capitalizing on the Adaptation of Native Shrubs in the Sudano-Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogie, Nathaniel; Bayala, Roger; Diedhiou, Ibrahima; Dick, Richard; Ghezzehei, Teamrat

    2016-04-01

    A changing climate along with human and animal population pressure can have a devastating effect on crop yields and food security in the Sudano-Sahel. Agricultural solutions to address soil degradation and crop water stress are needed to combat this increasingly difficult situation. Significant differences in crop success have been observed in peanut and millet grown in association with two native evergreen shrubs Piliostigma reticulatum, and Guiera senegalensis at the sites of Nioro du Rip and Keur Matar, respectively. We investigate how farmers can increase crop productivity by capitalizing on the evolutionary adaptation of native shrubs to the harsh Sudano-Sahelian environment as well as the physical mechanisms at work in the system that can lead to more robust yields. Research plots at Keur Matar Arame with no fertilizer added were monitored in 2013 using two soil moisture sensor networks at depths of 10, 20, 40, 60, 100, 200, and 300cm. Cropping season water use total calculated based on beginning and end of season soil moisture and seasonal precipitation data revealed that crop-only plot used 411±32 mm of water, and the crop and shrub plot used 439±42 mm of water. Taking into account the quantity of crop biomass produced and neglecting the shrub biomass produced, the crop and shrub plot had a water use efficiency of 1.60 kg ha-1 mm-1 and the crop only plot had 0.269 kg ha-1 mm-1. Water status was measured three times throughout the season on millet leaves and revealed no significant trends. Handheld NDVI readings revealed significantly higher NDVI values in crop and shrub plots at all measurement dates. These findings build on work that was completed in 2004 at the site, but further increases in crop yields have been shown. Increasing water use efficiency by over 500% can be a great advantage in years of limited water availability such as 2013. Using even the limited resources that farmers possess, this agroforestry technique can be expanded over wide

  6. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate for increases in irrigation water requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2016-03-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are taken into account, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land) after an extensive development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries such as Syria, Egypt and Turkey have a higher savings potential than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume on average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitudes of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, the increases being most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole may face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (4 and 18 % with 2 °C global warming combined with the full CO2-fertilization effect and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the southern and eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have a large water saving potential, especially in the eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to

  7. Increasing the reliability of electric energy supply to consumers in ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barta, Ioan; Hanes, Marian . E-mail electrica@romag.ro

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This work aims at achieving an analysis of time evolution of the status of electrical installations, their performances and reliability, at describing the refurbishment measures adopted, at assessing the efficiency of these measures and also to suggest solutions for improving the reliability in the electric energy supply of ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant. The analysis started from the original design, the manner the electrical installations were mounted, the technological level of this equipment and gives an evaluation of the deficiencies and the evolution of incidents occurred during the operation period. On the basis of the experience gathered one advances new items for equipment renewing and refurbishment of electric installations which together with the existing ones would ensure an electric energy supply more secure and efficient, leading directly to a more safe and efficient operation of the ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant. In this work the incidents of electric energy nature which occurred are analyzed, the equipment which generated events identified and measures to solve these problems proposed

  8. Design of high-pressure direct contact heater for promising power supply units: Experimental substantiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, E. V.; Shvarts, A. L.; Turkin, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The results of experimental studies of superheated steam condensation on feed water jets in a highpressure, direct-contact heat exchanger are presented. Direct contact feed water heater (DCFWH) can be used in a dual-flow diagram of a steam-power unit with ultrasupercritical steam parameters (35 MPa, 700/720°C). The direct contact feed water heater is included in the flow diagram of the II circuit in a promising power unit; it provides feed water heating to 340°C in all maintenance and emergency operation modes of the unit. The reliability of the high-pressure direct contact heater operation in this flow diagram is of major importance in relation to the danger of lead solidification in the tube space of the steam generator. Technical requirements to the design of the high-pressure direct contact heater for increasing the heat exchange efficiency are formulated based on the results of earlier studies with steam-water mixture as the heating medium. The results of studies of superheated steam condensation on jets presented in this study testify that feed water is additionally heated to the required temperature at the output of the installation. The influence of initial feed water parameters (outflow velocity and temperature) on the jet heating length is elucidated. The numerical approximation of the experimental data for determination of the jet heating length in the nominal and partial power unit loads is obtained. The results of the calculations are used to simplify the design of the water-supplying element for the direct contact feed water heater. The proposed design of direct contact feed water heater is characterized by simplicity and low metal intensity, which provides the installation reliability at the considered pressure level due to the minimum number of structural elements.

  9. Climate change and the impact of increased rainfall variability on sediment transport and catchment scale water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, G. R.; Willgoose, G. R.; Cohen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Recently there has been recognition that changing climate will affect rainfall and storm patterns with research directed to examine how the global hydrological cycle will respond to climate change. This study investigates the effect of different rainfall patterns on erosion and resultant water quality for a well studied tropical monsoonal catchment that is undisturbed by Europeans in the Northern Territory, Australia. Water quality has a large affect on a range of aquatic flora and fauna and a significant change in sediment could have impacts on the aquatic ecosystems. There have been several studies of the effect of climate change on rainfall patterns in the study area with projections indicating a significant increase in storm activity. Therefore it is important that the impact of this variability be assessed in terms of catchment hydrology, sediment transport and water quality. Here a numerical model of erosion and hydrology (CAESAR) is used to assess several different rainfall scenarios over a 1000 year modelled period. The results show that that increased rainfall amount and intensity increases sediment transport rates but predicted water quality was variable and non-linear but within the range of measured field data for the catchment and region. Therefore an assessment of sediment transport and water quality is a significant and complex issue that requires further understandings of the role of biophysical feedbacks such as vegetation as well as the role of humans in managing landscapes (i.e. controlled and uncontrolled fire). The study provides a robust methodology for assessing the impact of enhanced climate variability on sediment transport and water quality.

  10. Impact of O3or O3/H2O2treatment via a membrane contacting system on the composition and characteristics of the natural organic matter of surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Stylianos K; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A; Ernst, Mathias; Zouboulis, Anastasios I

    2017-06-27

    The present study aims to evaluate changes in the structure-composition of natural organic matter (NOM) that occur after the application of bubbleless ozonation or peroxone treatment of surface waters. The oxidation experiments (using 0.5-2 mg O3/mg DOC, or 2:1 O 3 :H 2 O 2 molar ratio) were performed in a continuous mode, using a tubular ceramic membrane contactor. Fluorescence spectroscopy (emission-excitation matrix) and liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) were mainly used for the detailed DOC characterization. In brief, the application of single ozonation resulted to high reduction of humic-like peak fluorescence intensities (50-85%) and also to the formation of two new peaks in the region of protein-like components. The co-addition of H 2 O 2 did not present the anticipated increase in the reduction of fluorescence intensity; however, it resulted to the further oxidation of protein-like fluorophores. LC-OCD measurements confirmed the decrease of average molecular weight of NOM during ozone treatment, due to the gradual degradation of biopolymers (14-23%) and humic substances (11-17%) towards building blocks and low molecular weight (LMW) neutrals. Advanced oxidation process (AOP) treatment by the mixture O 3 /H 2 O 2 resulted in the simultaneous decrease of building blocks and LMW neutral concentrations. Conventional batch ozonation and AOP experiments were conducted using ozone-saturated solutions to investigate the effect of different contacting patterns. The results revealed that the different reaction pathways followed during bubbleless and conventional batch experiments may also influence the formation of NOM oxidation intermediates.

  11. Correlated Increase of High Ocean Waves and Winds in the Ice-Free Waters of the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseda, Takuji; Webb, Adrean; Sato, Kazutoshi; Inoue, Jun; Kohout, Alison; Penrose, Bill; Penrose, Scott

    2018-03-14

    The long-term trend of extreme ocean waves in the emerging ice-free waters of the summer Arctic is studied using ERA-Interim wave reanalysis, with validation by two drifting wave buoys deployed in summer 2016. The 38-year-long reanalysis dataset reveals an increase in the expected largest significant wave height from 2.3 m to 3.1 m in the ice-free water from the Laptev to the Beaufort Seas during October. The trend is highly correlated with the expected increase in highest wind speed from 12.0 m/s to 14.2 m/s over the ice-free ocean, and less so with the extent of the ice-free water. Since the storms in this area did not strengthen throughout the analysis period, the increase in the expected largest significant wave height follows from the enhanced probability of storms in ice-free waters, which is pertinent to the estimation of extreme sea conditions along the Northern Sea Route.

  12. Reduction of corrosion products in water coolant - basic way of increase in efficiency and improvement of ecological safety of NPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Corrosion of oxidated steel in water with additives of inhibitors or oxygen was considered. It is shown that preliminary oxidation of steel makes possible declining concentration of inhibitors or oxygen. Experiments demonstrate possibilities of the neutral-oxygen water regime for supply of the effective protection. Corrosion resistance of steel may be increased in many times through correct aqua-chemical regimes. Also concentration of corrosion products may be decreased in many times in coolant and their activation in neutron flux of nuclear reactor, amount of radioisotopes [ru

  13. Increasing a Community's Knowledge about Drought, Watershed Ecosystems, and Water Quality Through Educational Activities Added to Coastal Cleanup Day Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, R.; Allen, L.; Cole, P.; Rho, C.

    2016-12-01

    International Coastal Cleanup Day, held each September, is an effective campaign to bring volunteers together to clean trash from beaches and waterways and document results. Over 500,000 participants cleared over 9 million pounds of trash in 2015. To build on the enthusiasm for this event, the city of Livermore, California's Water Resource Department, the Livermore Valley Joint Unified School District, Livermore Area Recreation and Parks Department created a water education program to embed within the city's Coastal Cleanup Day events. Goals of the education program are to increase awareness of the local watershed and its geographic reach, impacts of climate change and drought on local water supplies, pollution sources and impacts of local pollution on the ocean, positive impacts of a recent plastic bag ban, water quality assessment, and action steps citizens can take to support a healthy watershed. Volunteers collect and test water samples (when water is in the creek) using modified GLOBE and World Water Monitoring Day protocols. Test results are uploaded to the World Water Monitoring Day site and documented on the program web site. Volunteers report that they did not know about watersheds, impacts of local pollution, and water quality components before the education program. Volunteers are encouraged to adopt a creek spot for one year, and continue to collect and document trash. High school and middle school science classes added the water quality testing into curriculum, and regularly visit creek sites to clean the spots and monitor habitats. Each year for the past five years, about 300 volunteers have worked on creek clean-up events, 20 have adopted creek sites, and collected over 4,000 gallons of trash annually. As a result of these efforts, sites have been downgraded from a trash hot spot of concern. Strategies will be shared to expand an established (or start a new) Coastal Cleanup Day event into a successful watershed and climate awareness citizen science

  14. Remediation of incomplete nitrification and capacity increase of biofilters at different drinking water treatment plants through copper dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Florian B; Nielsen, Peter Borch; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2018-04-01

    Drinking water treatment plants based on groundwater may suffer from incomplete ammonium removal, which deteriorates drinking water quality and constrains water utilities in the operation of their plants. Ammonium is normally removed through nitrification in biological granular media filters, and recent studies have demonstrated that dosing of copper can stimulate the removal of ammonium. Here, we investigated if copper dosing could generically improve ammonium removal of biofilters, at treatment plants with different characteristics. Copper was dosed at ≤1.5 μg Cu/L to biofilters at 10 groundwater treatment plants, all of which had displayed several years of incomplete nitrification. Plants exceeded the Danish national water quality standard of 0.05 mg NH 4 + /L by a factor of 2-12. Within only 2-3 weeks of dosing, ammonium removal rates increased significantly (up to 150%). Nitrification was fully established, with ammonium effluent concentrations of <0.01 mg NH 4 + -N/L at most plants, regardless of the differences in raw water chemistry, ammonium loading rates, filter design and operation, or treatment plant configuration. However, for filters without primary filtration, it took longer time to reach complete ammonium removal than for filters receiving prefiltered water, likely due to sorption of copper to iron oxides, at plants without prefiltration. With complete ammonium removal, we subjected two plants to short-term loading rate upshifts, to examine the filters' ability to cope with loading rate variations. After 2 months of dosing and an average loading rate of 1.0 g NH 4 + -N/m 3 filter material/h, the loading rate was upshifted by 50%. Yet, a filter managed to completely remove all the influent ammonium, showing that with copper dosing the filter had extra capacity to remove ammonium even beyond its normal loading rates. Depth sampling revealed that the ammonium removal rate of the filter's upper 10 cm increased more than 7-fold from 0.67 to

  15. Impact of Increased Corn Production on Ground Water Quality and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we use a complex coupled modeling system to assess the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater. In particular, we show how the models provide new information on the drivers of contamination in groundwater, and then relate pollutant concentration change...

  16. Nordic project food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ågot; Tesdal Håland, Julie; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    countries have had a limited focus on the FCM area with the exception of Denmark and Finland. The aim of the project was therefore to control establishments producing, importing or using plastic food contact materials as well as to increase the knowledge of the inspectors performing these controls......Denmark, Finland, Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway and Sweden have in 2013––2015 conducted a Nordic project on food contact materials. Food contact materials are used in all stages of food production and can be a general source of contamination. The food safety authorities in most of the Nordic....... The focus of the inspections was to control the declaration of compliance (DoC) for plastic food contact materials. The requirement for a Doc is mandatory in order to ensure that the FCM complies with the legislation. In addition some products were analyzed for phthalates....

  17. Irrigation of Solanum lycopersicum L. with magnetically treated water increases antioxidant properties of its tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, A E Ferrer; Leite, G O; Rocha, J B T

    2013-09-01

    Antioxidant effects of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) have been studied and an association between dietary intake of tomatoes and lowered risk of cancer, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases has been suggested. Here we used magnetically treated water (MTW; 0.03-0.15 T), which promotes better germination and productivity in tomatoes, and we investigated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic (10-400 μg/ml) extracts of S. lycopersicum as potential antioxidant against 10 μM Fe(II)-induced thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) in liver and brain homogenates from rats. The ethanolic extracts from magnetically treated plants were more effective than aqueous extracts in preventing TBARS formation in brain and liver. The protective effects of ethanolic extract can be associated with antioxidants (polyphenols and flavonoids), lycopene and other lipophilic components found in the extract. In effect, magnetically treated plants had higher content of polyphenolic and flavonoid compounds than nontreated plants and they can be a better source of antioxidants than nontreated plants. Consequently, MTW can be used to produce functional foods with high contents of antioxidant components and may have better beneficial health effects than traditionally produced foods.

  18. Soil warming increased whole-tree water use of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Grams, Thorsten E E; Matyssek, Rainer; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    This study quantified the effect of soil warming on sap flow density (Qs) of Pinus cembra L. at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps. To enhance soil temperature we installed a transparent roof construction above the forest floor around six trees. Six other trees served as controls in the absence of any manipulation. Roofing enhanced growing season mean soil temperature by 1.6, 1.3 and 1.0 °C at 5, 10 and 20 cm soil depth, respectively, while soil water availability was not affected. Sap flow density (using Granier-type thermal dissipation probes) and environmental parameters were monitored throughout three growing seasons. During the first year of treatment, no warming effect was detected on Qs. However, soil warming caused Qs to increase significantly by 11 and 19% above levels in control trees during the second and third year, respectively. This effect appeared to result from warming-induced root production, a reduction in viscosity and perhaps an increase also in root hydraulic conductivity. Hardly affected were leaf-level net CO2 uptake rate and conductance for water vapour, so that water-use efficiency stayed unchanged as confirmed by needle δ(13)C analysis. We conclude that tree water loss will increase with soil warming, which may alter the water balance within the treeline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps in a future warming environment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Busting the Baby Teeth Myth and Increasing Children's Consumption of Tap Water: Building Public Will for Children's Oral Health in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Wyatt C; Bailey, William; Braun, Patricia A; Weiss, Karl; Heichelbech, James

    2017-01-01

    Can a multifaceted statewide communications campaign motivate behavior change in low-income Colorado families to limit children's fruit juice consumption and increase children's consumption of tap water to prevent tooth decay? Caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting 40% of kindergartners and 55% of third graders in Colorado. Frequent consumption of 100% fruit juice is linked to childhood caries. The purpose of this campaign, "Cavities Get Around," was to motivate families to limit children's fruit juice consumption and increase consumption of tap water to protect baby teeth from caries, while also building public will for children's oral health. The campaign included targeted media, promotores/organizers, and family education. We focused on fruit juice because audience research showed many families view fruit juice as healthy, and it is also a common beverage among young children up to age of 6 years. We also focused on low-socioeconomic status families because data show higher childhood tooth decay rates in this population. To evaluate progress, we conducted identical pre- and post-surveys, each of 600 random low-income parents contacted by landline, mobile telephone, and Internet, allowing for comparative data. Significant progress was achieved compared to 2014 baseline results. Findings from a November 2015 statewide survey of parents included the following: (1) 22-point increase from 2014 in percentage of children regularly drinking tap water (from 41 to 63%). (2) 29-point decrease from 2014 in percentage of respondents who considered fruit juice consumption important to their child's health and nutritional needs (from 72 to 43%). (3) 19-point reduction in fruit juice consumption among young children (from 66% in 2014 to 47% in 2015). (4) 6-point reduction in percentage of parents considering baby teeth "less important" than adult teeth (from 21% in 2014 to 15% in 2015). The campaign also played a role in new state rules prohibiting

  20. Busting the Baby Teeth Myth and Increasing Children’s Consumption of Tap Water: Building Public Will for Children’s Oral Health in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt C. Hornsby

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available QuestionCan a multifaceted statewide communications campaign motivate behavior change in low-income Colorado families to limit children’s fruit juice consumption and increase children’s consumption of tap water to prevent tooth decay?PurposeCaries is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting 40% of kindergartners and 55% of third graders in Colorado. Frequent consumption of 100% fruit juice is linked to childhood caries. The purpose of this campaign, “Cavities Get Around,” was to motivate families to limit children’s fruit juice consumption and increase consumption of tap water to protect baby teeth from caries, while also building public will for children’s oral health.MethodsThe campaign included targeted media, promotores/organizers, and family education. We focused on fruit juice because audience research showed many families view fruit juice as healthy, and it is also a common beverage among young children up to age of 6 years. We also focused on low-socioeconomic status families because data show higher childhood tooth decay rates in this population. To evaluate progress, we conducted identical pre- and post-surveys, each of 600 random low-income parents contacted by landline, mobile telephone, and Internet, allowing for comparative data.ResultsSignificant progress was achieved compared to 2014 baseline results. Findings from a November 2015 statewide survey of parents included the following: (1 22-point increase from 2014 in percentage of children regularly drinking tap water (from 41 to 63%. (2 29-point decrease from 2014 in percentage of respondents who considered fruit juice consumption important to their child’s health and nutritional needs (from 72 to 43%. (3 19-point reduction in fruit juice consumption among young children (from 66% in 2014 to 47% in 2015. (4 6-point reduction in percentage of parents considering baby teeth “less important” than adult teeth (from 21% in 2014 to 15% in 2015. The

  1. Potential of soil amendments (Biochar and Gypsum) in increasing water use efficiency of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Aniqa; Taj, Samia; Rashid, Audil; Khalid, Azeem; Qadeer, Samia; Saleem, Aansa R; Ghufran, Muhammad A

    2015-01-01

    Water being an essential component for plant growth and development, its scarcity poses serious threat to crops around the world. Climate changes and global warming are increasing the temperature of earth hence becoming an ultimate cause of water scarcity. It is need of the day to use potential soil amendments that could increase the plants' resistance under such situations. Biochar and gypsum were used in the present study to improve the water use efficiency (WUE) and growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Lady's Finger). A 6 weeks experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Stress treatments were applied after 30 days of sowing. Plant height, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance and WUE were determined weekly under stressed [60% field capacity (F.C.)] and non-stressed (100% F.C.) conditions. Stomatal conductance and Tr decreased and reached near to zero in stressed plants. Stressed plants also showed resistance to water stress upto 5 weeks and gradually perished at sixth week. On the other hand, WUE improved in stressed plants containing biochar and gypsum as compared to untreated plants. Biochar alone is a better strategy to promote plant growth and WUE specifically of A. esculentus, compared to its application in combination with gypsum.

  2. Rational Water and Nitrogen Management Improves Root Growth, Increases Yield and Maintains Water Use Efficiency of Cotton under Mulch Drip Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to optimize water-nitrogen (N applications to increase seed cotton yield and water use efficiency (WUE under a mulch drip irrigation system. This study evaluated the effects of four water regimes [moderate drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the boll-opening stage (W1, deficit drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the flowering stage and sufficient drip irrigation thereafter (W2, pre-sowing and moderate drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the boll-opening stage (W3, pre-sowing and deficit drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the flowering stage and sufficient drip irrigation thereafter (W4] and N fertilizer at a rate of 520 kg ha-1 in two dressing ratios [7:3 (N1, 2:8 (N2] on cotton root morpho-physiological attributes, yield, WUE and the relationship between root distribution and dry matter production. Previous investigations have shown a strong correlation between root activity and water consumption in the 40–120 cm soil layer. The W3 and especially W4 treatments significantly increased root length density (RLD, root volume density (RVD, root mass density (RMD, and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer. Cotton RLD, RVD, RMD was decreased by 13.1, 13.3, and 20.8%, respectively, in N2 compared with N1 at 70 days after planting (DAP in the 0–40 cm soil layer. However, root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer at 140 DAP was 31.6% higher in N2 than that in N1. Total RMD, RLD and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil were significantly and positively correlated with shoot dry weight. RLD and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer was highest in the W4N2 treatments. Therefore increased water consumption in the deep soil layers resulted in increased shoot dry weight, seed cotton yield and WUE. Our data can be used to develop a water-N management strategy for optimal cotton yield and high WUE.

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in a pair of colored contact lenses, Laura Butler of Parkersburg, W.Va., had "extreme pain in ... to wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left ...

  7. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... the lenses. Never share contact lenses with another person. Get follow up exams with your eye care ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... popping touch. But colored contact lenses are popular year-round, not just at Halloween. But few know the ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals Harmful to Eyes Four Ways Over- ... without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. "Many of ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals Harmful to Eyes Four Ways Over-the-Counter Costume Contact Lenses Can ... was in severe pain and on medication for four weeks, and couldn't see well enough to ...

  12. Corporate Consumer Contact API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data in the Corporate Consumer Contact API is based on the content you can find in the Corporate Consumer Contact listing in the Consumer Action Handbook (PDF)....

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lens because they can be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, ... Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals Harmful to Eyes ...

  15. Contact Us about Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to contact EPA for more information on asbestos, including state and regional contacts, EPA’s Asbestos Abatement/Management Ombudsman and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Assistance Information Service (TSCA Hotline).

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... an ophthalmologist — an eye medical doctor — who will measure each eye and talk to you about proper ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription. Follow the contact lens care directions for cleaning, disinfecting, and wearing the lenses. Never share contact ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  20. Increasing oxygen radicals and water temperature select for toxic Microcystis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Dziallas

    Full Text Available Pronounced rises in frequency of toxic cyanobacterial blooms are recently observed worldwide, particularly when temperatures increase. Different strains of cyanobacterial species vary in their potential to produce toxins but driving forces are still obscure. Our study examines effects of hydrogen peroxide on toxic and non-toxic (including a non-toxic mutant strains of M. aeruginosa. Here we show that hydrogen peroxide diminishes chlorophyll a content and growth of cyanobacteria and that this reduction is significantly lower for toxic than for non-toxic strains. This indicates that microcystins protect from detrimental effects of oxygen radicals. Incubation of toxic and non-toxic strains of M. aeruginosa with other bacteria or without (axenic at three temperatures (20, 26 and 32°C reveals a shift toward toxic strains at higher temperatures. In parallel to increases in abundance of toxic (i.e. toxin gene possessing strains and their actual toxin expression, concentrations of microcystins rise with temperature, when amounts of radicals are expected to be enhanced. Field samples from three continents support the influence of radicals and temperature on toxic potential of M. aeruginosa. Our results imply that global warming will significantly increase toxic potential and toxicity of cyanobacterial blooms which has strong implications for socio-economical assessments of global change.

  1. Adaptive Capacity Mapping of Semarang Offshore Territory by the Increasing of Water Level and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifan Ridlo Suhelm

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tidal inundation, flood and land subsidence are the problems faced by Semarang city related to climate change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC predicted the increase of sea level rise 18-59 cm during 1990-2100 while the temperature increase 0,6°C to 4°C during the same period. The Semarang coastal city was highly vulnerable to sea level rise and it increased with two factors, topography and land subsidence. The purpose of this study was to map the adaptive capacity of coastal areas in the face of the threat of disasters caused by climate change. The parameters used are Network Number, Employee based educational background, Source Main Livelihoods, Health Facilities, and Infrastructure Road. Adaptive capacity of regions classified into 3 (three classes, namely low, medium and high. The results of the study showed that most of the coastal area of Semarang have adaptive capacities ranging from low to moderate, while the village with low capacity totaling 58 villages (58.62% of the total coastal district in the city of Semarang.

  2. Comparison of extravascular lung water volume with radiographic findings in dogs with experimentally increased permeability pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, A.; Okumura, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Hagio, M.; Fujinaga, T.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between extravascular lung water volume (ELWV) and chest radiographical findings was studied in general-anesthetized beagles. The dogs were experimentally injected with oleic acid to increase pulmonary vascular permeability. When the ELWV value in the dogs increased more than approximately 37% from the control value, their chest radiographs began to show signs of pulmonary edema. At this time, the chest X-ray density increased to 10% above the control level. PaO2 decreased, and PaCO2 increased after the administration of oleic acid. This clearly showed that the pulmonary gas exchange function was reduced following increasing ELWV. This comparison showed that probably the thermal-sodium double indicator dilution measurement of ELWV can detect slight hyperpermeability pulmonary edema that does not show on chest radiographs. The chest radiograph was therefore not suitable for the detection of slight pulmonary edema, because it did not show any changes in the early stages in hyperpermeability pulmonary edema

  3. Contact lens in keratoconus

    OpenAIRE

    Rathi, Varsha M; Mandathara, Preeji S; Dumpati, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the En...

  4. Differential changes in production measures for an estuarine-resident sparid in deep and shallow waters following increases in hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Alan; Hall, Norman G.; Hesp, S. Alex; Potter, Ian C.

    2018-03-01

    This study determined how productivity measures for a fish species in different water depths of an estuary changed in response to the increase in hypoxia in deep waters, which had previously been shown to occur between 1993-95 and 2007-11. Annual data on length and age compositions, body mass, growth, abundance, biomass, production and production to biomass ratio (P/B) were thus determined for the estuarine-resident Acanthopagrus butcheri in nearshore shallow (fish typically reside. Annual densities, biomass and production in shallow waters of fish m-2, 2-4 g m-2 and ∼2 g m-2 y-1 in the earlier period were far lower than the 0.1-0.2 fish m-2, 8-15 g m-2 and 5-10 g m-2 y-1 in the later period, whereas the reverse trend occurred in deep waters, with values of 6-9 fish net-1, 2000-3900 g net-1, 900-1700 g net-1 y-1 in the earlier period vs fish net-1, ∼110 g net-1 and 27-45 g net-1 y-1 in the later period. Within the later period, and in contrast to the trends with annual abundance and biomass, the production in shallow waters was least during 2008/09, rather than greatest, reflecting the slow growth in that particularly cool year. The presence of substantial aggregations of both small and large fish in shallow waters accounts for the abundance, biomass and production in those waters increasing between those periods and thus, through a density-dependent effect, provide a basis for the overall reduction in growth. In marked contrast to the trends with the other three production measures, annual production to biomass ratios (P/B) in shallow waters in the two years in the earlier period, and in three of the four years of the later period, fell within the same range, i.e. 0.6-0.9 y-1, but was only 0.2 y-1 in 2008/09, reflecting the poor growth in that year. This emphasises the need to obtain data on P/B for a number of years when considering the implications of the typical P/B for a species in an estuary, in which environmental conditions and the growth of a species

  5. Microbial contamination of soft contact lenses & accessories in asymptomatic contact lens users

    OpenAIRE

    Deeksha V Thakur; Ujjwala N Gaikwad

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: With increasing use of soft contact lenses the incidence of contact lens induced infections is also increasing. This study was aimed to assess the knowledge of new and existing contact lens users about the risk of microbial contamination associated with improper use and maintenance of contact lenses, type of microbial flora involved and their potential to cause ophthalmic infections. Methods: Four samples each from 50 participants (n=200) were collected from the l...

  6. Ten days of simulated live high:train low altitude training increases Hbmass in elite water polo players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Clark, Sally A; Polglaze, Ted; McFadden, Greg; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    Water polo requires high aerobic power to meet the demands of match play. Live high:train low (LHTL) may enhance aerobic capacity at sea level. Before the Olympics, the Australian women's water polo team utilised LHTL in an attempt to enhance aerobic fitness. Over 6 months, 11 players completed three normobaric LHTL exposures (block 1:11 days at 3000 m; block 2+3:9 days at 2500 m, 11 days normoxia, 10 days at 2800 m). Haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) was measured through carbon monoxide-rebreathing. Before each block, the relationship between Hbmass and water polo-specific aerobic fitness was investigated using the Multistage Shuttle Swim Test (MSST). Effect size statistics were adopted with likely, highly likely and almost certainly results being >75%, >95%, >99%, respectively. A Pearson product moment correlation was used to characterise the association between pooled data of Hbmass and MSST. Hbmass (mean ± SD, pre 721 ± 66 g) likely increased after block 1 and almost certainly after block 2+3 (% change; 90% confidence limits: block 1: 3.7%; 1.3-6.2%, block 2+3: 4.5%; 3.8-5.1%) and the net effect was almost certainly higher after block 2+3 than before block 1 (pre) by 8.5%; 7.3-9.7%. There was a very large correlation between Hbmass (g/kg) and MSST score (r=0.73). LHTL exposures of <2 weeks induced approximately 4% increase in Hbmass of water polo players. Extra Hbmass may increase aerobic power, but since match performance is nuanced by many factors it is impossible to ascertain whether the increased Hbmass contributed to Australia's Bronze medal.

  7. Effect of enzyme concentration, addition of water and incubation time on increase in yield of starch from potato

    OpenAIRE

    Sit, Nandan; Agrawal, U. S.; Deka, Sankar C.

    2011-01-01

    Enzymatic treatment process for starch extraction from potato was investigated using cellulase enzyme and compared with conventional process. The effects of three parameters, cellulase enzyme concentration, incubation time and addition of water were evaluated for increase in starch yield as compared to the conventional process i.e., without using enzyme. A two-level full factorial design was used to study the process. The results indicated that all the main parameters and their interactions a...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ...

  9. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact ... After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter ...

  11. Hydrogenation of passivated contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, William; Yuan, Hao-Chih; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Pauls; Page, Matthew R.

    2018-03-06

    Methods of hydrogenation of passivated contacts using materials having hydrogen impurities are provided. An example method includes applying, to a passivated contact, a layer of a material, the material containing hydrogen impurities. The method further includes subsequently annealing the material and subsequently removing the material from the passivated contact.

  12. Investigation of the behavior of VOCs in ground water across fine- and coarse-grained geological contacts using a medium-scale physical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.; Chiarappa, M.L.

    1998-03-01

    One of the serious impediments to the remediation of ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is that the VOCs are retarded with respect to the movement of the ground water. Although the processes that result in VOC retardation are poorly understood, we have developed a conceptual model that includes several retarding mechanisms. These include adsorption to inorganic surfaces, absorption to organic carbon, and diffusion into areas of immobile waters. This project was designed to evaluate the relative contributions of these mechanisms; by improving our understanding, we hope to inspire new remediation technologies or approaches. Our project consisted of a series of column experiments designed to measure the retardation, in different geological media, of four common ground water VOCs (chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) which have differing physical and chemical characteristics. It also included a series of diffusion parameters that constrain the model, we compared the data from these experiments to the output of a computational model.

  13. Marine Bioinspired Underwater Contact Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Sean K; Sodano, Antonio; Cunningham, Dylan J; Huang, Sharon S; Zalicki, Piotr J; Shin, Seunghan; Ahn, B Kollbe

    2016-05-09

    Marine mussels and barnacles are sessile biofouling organisms that adhere to a number of surfaces in wet environments and maintain remarkably strong bonds. Previous synthetic approaches to mimic biological wet adhesive properties have focused mainly on the catechol moiety, present in mussel foot proteins (mfps), and especially rich in the interfacial mfps, for example, mfp-3 and -5, found at the interface between the mussel plaque and substrate. Barnacles, however, do not use Dopa for their wet adhesion, but are instead rich in noncatecholic aromatic residues. Due to this anomaly, we were intrigued to study the initial contact adhesion properties of copolymerized acrylate films containing the key functionalities of barnacle cement proteins and interfacial mfps, for example, aromatic (catecholic or noncatecholic), cationic, anionic, and nonpolar residues. The initial wet contact adhesion of the copolymers was measured using a probe tack testing apparatus with a flat-punch contact geometry. The wet contact adhesion of an optimized, bioinspired copolymer film was ∼15.0 N/cm(2) in deionized water and ∼9.0 N/cm(2) in artificial seawater, up to 150 times greater than commercial pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) tapes (∼0.1 N/cm(2)). Furthermore, maximum wet contact adhesion was obtained at ∼pH 7, suggesting viability for biomedical applications.

  14. Increased ventilation of Antarctic deep water during the warm mid-Pliocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongshi; Nisancioglu, Kerim H; Ninnemann, Ulysses S

    2013-01-01

    The mid-Pliocene warm period is a recent warm geological period that shares similarities with predictions of future climate. It is generally held the mid-Pliocene Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation must have been stronger, to explain a weak Atlantic meridional δ(13)C gradient and large northern high-latitude warming. However, climate models do not simulate such stronger Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, when forced with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions. Proxy reconstructions allow for an alternative scenario that the weak δ(13)C gradient can be explained by increased ventilation and reduced stratification in the Southern Ocean. Here this alternative scenario is supported by simulations with the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM-L), which simulate an intensified and slightly poleward shifted wind field off Antarctica, giving enhanced ventilation and reduced stratification in the Southern Ocean. Our findings challenge the prevailing theory and show how increased Southern Ocean ventilation can reconcile existing model-data discrepancies about Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation while explaining fundamental ocean features.

  15. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles increase sensitivity in the next generation of the water flea Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Seitz, Frank; Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Schulz, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The nanoparticle industry is expected to become a trillion dollar business in the near future. Therefore, the unintentional introduction of nanoparticles into the environment is increasingly likely. However, currently applied risk-assessment practices require further adaptation to accommodate the intrinsic nature of engineered nanoparticles. Combining a chronic flow-through exposure system with subsequent acute toxicity tests for the standard test organism Daphnia magna, we found that juvenile offspring of adults that were previously exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles exhibit a significantly increased sensitivity to titanium dioxide nanoparticles compared with the offspring of unexposed adults, as displayed by lower 96 h-EC(50) values. This observation is particularly remarkable because adults exhibited no differences among treatments in terms of typically assessed endpoints, such as sensitivity, number of offspring, or energy reserves. Hence, the present study suggests that ecotoxicological research requires further development to include the assessment of the environmental risks of nanoparticles for the next and hence not directly exposed generation, which is currently not included in standard test protocols.

  16. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles increase sensitivity in the next generation of the water flea Daphnia magna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Bundschuh

    Full Text Available The nanoparticle industry is expected to become a trillion dollar business in the near future. Therefore, the unintentional introduction of nanoparticles into the environment is increasingly likely. However, currently applied risk-assessment practices require further adaptation to accommodate the intrinsic nature of engineered nanoparticles. Combining a chronic flow-through exposure system with subsequent acute toxicity tests for the standard test organism Daphnia magna, we found that juvenile offspring of adults that were previously exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles exhibit a significantly increased sensitivity to titanium dioxide nanoparticles compared with the offspring of unexposed adults, as displayed by lower 96 h-EC(50 values. This observation is particularly remarkable because adults exhibited no differences among treatments in terms of typically assessed endpoints, such as sensitivity, number of offspring, or energy reserves. Hence, the present study suggests that ecotoxicological research requires further development to include the assessment of the environmental risks of nanoparticles for the next and hence not directly exposed generation, which is currently not included in standard test protocols.

  17. Cellular changes in the skin of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) after short-term exposure to increased water temperature: Part 2: Experiments with Rhine water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iger, I.; Jenner, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to show that salmonides in a simulated cooling water outlet area of an electric power plant along the river Rhine do not experience long-term or permanent negative consequences of their presence in the heated water. Laboratory experiments were carried out with 'test trouts'. The water in which the trouts were kept was heated up from 9C to 16C in 30 minutes. The temperature of 16C was maintained for 3 hours. After the heating up skin samples were taken at different periods for 35 days. Histochemical and electron microscopic investigations were carried out. The short term increase of the water temperature clearly effected the ultrastructure of the fish. The changes in the epidermis did not recover within 35 days. It is suggested that a number of the found cellular reactions can be used as indicators for environmental stress. These reactions concern the production of lysosomes and the migration of macrophages in the epidermis. No serious effects as skin decomposition and an excess of mucous secretion were found

  18. Water protection measures and community involvement increase sustainability of uranium mining in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, Miklos

    2015-01-01

    The stage is set for uranium mining in the United Republic of Tanzania, following recent changes to the country’s regulatory framework that brought it in line with IAEA recommendations. Environmental considerations and the involvement of the local community in monitoring the licensing process and future operations will contribute to the sustainability of the project, said Tanzanian officials and IAEA experts. Tanzania, which has identified uranium resources of about 60 000 tonnes, looks to begin mining in 2016 in order to exploit its uranium deposits as part of the country’s plans to increase the contribution of the mining sector from 3.3% of the gross domestic product in 2013 to 10% by the end of the decade. With its gold and diamond reserves nearing depletion, the country is shifting its focus to uranium.

  19. Does the evidence about health risks associated with nitrate ingestion warrant an increase of the nitrate standard for drinking water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Hans J M; Ward, Mary H; Benjamin, Nigel; de Kok, Theo M

    2006-09-21

    Several authors have suggested that it is safe to raise the health standard for nitrate in drinking water, and save money on measures associated with nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The major argument has been that the epidemiologic evidence for acute and chronic health effects related to drinking water nitrate at concentrations near the health standard is inconclusive. With respect to the chronic effects, the argument was motivated by the absence of evidence for adverse health effects related to ingestion of nitrate from dietary sources. An interdisciplinary discussion of these arguments led to three important observations. First, there have been only a few well-designed epidemiologic studies that evaluated ingestion of nitrate in drinking water and risk of specific cancers or adverse reproductive outcomes among potentially susceptible subgroups likely to have elevated endogenous nitrosation. Positive associations have been observed for some but not all health outcomes evaluated. Second, the epidemiologic studies of cancer do not support an association between ingestion of dietary nitrate (vegetables) and an increased risk of cancer, because intake of dietary nitrate is associated with intake of antioxidants and other beneficial phytochemicals. Third, 2-3 % of the population in Western Europe and the US could be exposed to nitrate levels in drinking water exceeding the WHO standard of 50 mg/l nitrate, particularly those living in rural areas. The health losses due to this exposure cannot be estimated. Therefore, we conclude that it is not possible to weigh the costs and benefits from changing the nitrate standard for drinking water and groundwater resources by considering the potential consequences for human health and by considering the potential savings due to reduced costs for nitrate removal and prevention of nitrate pollution.

  20. Synergizing green and gray infrastructures to increase water supply resilience in the Brazos River basin in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H.; Yamazaki, D.; Finley, T.; Bohn, T. J.; Low, G.; Sabo, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Water infrastructure lies at the heart of the challenges and opportunities of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). Green infrastructure (e.g., wetlands restoration) presents an alternative to its hard-path counterpart - gray infrastructure, which often has external, economic and unmeasured ecological costs. But the science framework to prioritize green infrastructure buildout is nascent. In this study, we addressed this gap in Brazos River basin in Texas, in the context of corporate decisions to secure water supplies for various water stewardship objectives. We developed a physically-based tool to quantify the potential for wetland restoration to restore desired flows (hydrology), and a financial framework for comparing its cost-benefit with heightening an existing dam (conservation finance). Our framework has three components. First, we harnessed a topographic index (HAND) to identify the potential wetlands sites. Second, we coupled a land surface model (VIC) with a hydrodynamic model (CaMa-Flood) to investigate the effects of wetland size, location, and vegetation on hydrology. Finally, we estimated the net present value, indirect rate of return and payback period for green (wetlands) vs. gray (reservoir expansion) infrastructure. We found wetlands have more substantial impact on peak flow than baseflow. Interestingly, wetlands can improve baseflow reliability but not directly except with the largest (>400 km2) projects. Peak flow reduction volumes of wetlands if used as credits towards reservoir flood-control storage provide adequate conservation storage to deliver guaranteed reliability of baseflow. Hence, the synergy of existing dams with newly created wetlands offers a promising natural solution to increase water supply resilience, while green projects also generate revenue compared to their gray counterparts. This study demonstrates the possibility of using innovative engineering design to synergize green and gray infrastructures to convert water

  1. Does the evidence about health risks associated with nitrate ingestion warrant an increase of the nitrate standard for drinking water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Nigel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several authors have suggested that it is safe to raise the health standard for nitrate in drinking water, and save money on measures associated with nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The major argument has been that the epidemiologic evidence for acute and chronic health effects related to drinking water nitrate at concentrations near the health standard is inconclusive. With respect to the chronic effects, the argument was motivated by the absence of evidence for adverse health effects related to ingestion of nitrate from dietary sources. An interdisciplinary discussion of these arguments led to three important observations. First, there have been only a few well-designed epidemiologic studies that evaluated ingestion of nitrate in drinking water and risk of specific cancers or adverse reproductive outcomes among potentially susceptible subgroups likely to have elevated endogenous nitrosation. Positive associations have been observed for some but not all health outcomes evaluated. Second, the epidemiologic studies of cancer do not support an association between ingestion of dietary nitrate (vegetables and an increased risk of cancer, because intake of dietary nitrate is associated with intake of antioxidants and other beneficial phytochemicals. Third, 2–3 % of the population in Western Europe and the US could be exposed to nitrate levels in drinking water exceeding the WHO standard of 50 mg/l nitrate, particularly those living in rural areas. The health losses due to this exposure cannot be estimated. Therefore, we conclude that it is not possible to weigh the costs and benefits from changing the nitrate standard for drinking water and groundwater resources by considering the potential consequences for human health and by considering the potential savings due to reduced costs for nitrate removal and prevention of nitrate pollution.

  2. [Contact allergy to henna tattoos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkjer, Bjarte; Stangeland, Katarina Zak; Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer

    2011-03-18

    Tattoos with henna colours have become very popular and the prevalence of contact allergy seems to increase. This is a short review article based on our own clinical experience and literature identified through a search in PubMed with the words "henna", "paraphenylendiamin" and "allergic contact dermatitis." A case report is included. It is well documented that many experience skin reactions after henna tattoos. The cause is almost always contact allergy to the azo compound paraphenylendiamin, which is added to speed up the process and make the colour darker. Most people, including children, get henna tattoos during vacations in Asia or the Mediterranean. Established contact allergy is permanent. Many hair-colour products contain paraphenylendiamin, and persons with contact allergy against the product may develop a very strong contact allergic eczema by use of such substances. Acute reactions are treated with local cortisone products, or with systemic steroids. Cross reaction to substances with a similar chemical structure may occur. Tattoos with paraphenylendiamin-containing henna colours should be avoided.

  3. Contact lens in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha M Rathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL, hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL.

  4. Contact lens in keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Varsha M; Mandathara, Preeji S; Dumpati, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL. PMID:23925325

  5. Percutaneous penetration characteristics and release kinetics of contact allergens encapsulated in ethosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2011-01-01

    Formulation of the contact allergens dinitrochlorobenzene and isoeugenol in ethanolic liposomes (ethosomes) increases their sensitizing properties in the local lymph node assay compared with an ethanol-water formulation of the allergens. Likewise, isoeugenol and methyldibromo-glutaronitrile formu......-glutaronitrile formulated in ethosomes enhanced the patch test reactions in sensitized human volunteers. The relationship between the percutaneous penetration/absorption and sensitization/elicitation phases of contact allergy is not well elucidated....

  6. Contact allergy to colophony : Clinical and experimental studies with emphasis on clinical relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Färm, Gunilla

    1997-01-01

    Colophony - also called rosin - is a material obtained from coniferous trees. It is used widely in many products, particularly because of its good tachifying properties. Colophony is also used in paper sizing to increase water resistance. Colophony may cause contact allergy, and around 5% of Swedish dermatitis patients show allergic reactions to colophony at patch testing. There are many case reports of colophony in different products causing contact dermatitis. Often, h...

  7. The physiological responses of Vallisneria natans to epiphytic algae with the increase of N and P concentrations in water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu-Zhi; Wang, Jin-Qi; Gao, Yong-Xia; Xie, Xue-Jian

    2015-06-01

    To reveal the mechanism of submerged plants decline in progressively eutrophicated freshwaters, physiological responses of Vallisneria natans to epiphytic algae were studied in simulation lab by measuring plant physiological indexes of chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity based on a 2 × 4 factorial design with two epiphytic conditions (with epiphytic algae and without) and four levels of N and P concentrations in water (N-P[mg.L(-1)]: 0.5, 0.05; 2.5, 0.25; 4.5, 0.45; 12.5, 1.25). Compared with control (non-presence of epiphytic algae), chlorophyll contents of V. natans were significantly decreased (p algae under any concentrations of N and P in water bodies. While the presence of epiphytic algae induced peroxidation of membrane lipids, MDA contents of V. natans had significantly increased (p algae in the treatments of T2 and T3 in the whole culture process by comparing with control, sometimes reaching an extremely significant level (p algae (p algae on chlorophyll content and SOD activity in the leaves of V. natans were increased at first and then decreased with the concentrations of N and P in water, and MDA content became higher with the increase of N and P. concentrations. Repeated measurement data testing showed that the effects of epiphytic algae on the chlorophyll content and MDA content and SOD activity were significant, respectively (p algae were combining with effects of concentrations of N and P (p algae directly produced adverse effects on physiology of V. natans and epiphytic algal biomass were positively correlated with nutrient available in the water column.

  8. Mouth-watering words: Articulatory inductions of eating-like mouth movements increase perceived food palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Boecker, Lea

    2016-04-01

    We explored the impact of consonantal articulation direction of names for foods on expected palatability for these foods (total N = 256). Dishes (Experiments 1-2) and food items (Experiment 3) were labeled with names whose consonants either wandered from the front to the back of the mouth (inward, e.g., PASOKI) or from the back to the front of the mouth (outward; e.g., KASOPI). Because inward (outward) wandering consonant sequences trigger eating-like (expectoration-like) mouth movements, dishes and foods were rated higher in palatability when they bore an inward compared to an outward wandering name. This effect occurred already under silent reading and for hungry and satiated participants alike. As a boundary condition, this articulation effect did occur when also additional visual information on the product was given (Experiment 3), but vanished when this visual information was too vivid and rich in competing palatability cues (Experiment 2). Future marketing can exploit this effect by increasing the appeal of food products by using inward wandering brand names, that is, names that start with the lips and end in the throat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased Power in Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell: Facilitated Mass Transfer via a Water-Layer Anode Embedded in Sediment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Seok Lee

    Full Text Available We report a methodology for enhancing the mass transfer at the anode electrode of sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs, by employing a fabric baffle to create a separate water-layer for installing the anode electrode in sediment. The maximum power in an SMFC with the anode installed in the separate water-layer (SMFC-wFB was improved by factor of 6.6 compared to an SMFC having the anode embedded in the sediment (SMFC-woFB. The maximum current density in the SMFC-wFB was also 3.9 times higher (220.46 mA/m2 than for the SMFC-woFB. We found that the increased performance in the SMFC-wFB was due to the improved mass transfer rate of organic matter obtained by employing the water-layer during anode installation in the sediment layer. Acetate injection tests revealed that the SMFC-wFB could be applied to natural water bodies in which there is frequent organic contamination, based on the acetate flux from the cathode to the anode.

  10. Increased Power in Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell: Facilitated Mass Transfer via a Water-Layer Anode Embedded in Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoo Seok; An, Junyeong; Kim, Bongkyu; Park, HyunJun; Kim, Jisu; Chang, In Seop

    2015-01-01

    We report a methodology for enhancing the mass transfer at the anode electrode of sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs), by employing a fabric baffle to create a separate water-layer for installing the anode electrode in sediment. The maximum power in an SMFC with the anode installed in the separate water-layer (SMFC-wFB) was improved by factor of 6.6 compared to an SMFC having the anode embedded in the sediment (SMFC-woFB). The maximum current density in the SMFC-wFB was also 3.9 times higher (220.46 mA/m2) than for the SMFC-woFB. We found that the increased performance in the SMFC-wFB was due to the improved mass transfer rate of organic matter obtained by employing the water-layer during anode installation in the sediment layer. Acetate injection tests revealed that the SMFC-wFB could be applied to natural water bodies in which there is frequent organic contamination, based on the acetate flux from the cathode to the anode.

  11. Influence of the presence of carbon dioxide on chemical composition of water in contact with mining waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cempa-Balewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays post mining areas are often reclaimed and used housing areas, sports areas and recreational areas. Mining waste weathering is a significant factor influencing the condition of the surrounding water and soil environment. It is necessary then to evaluate susceptibility of the waste to weathering in given conditions and predict the rate of the processes. The paper presents initial results of an experimental study evaluating the influence of the presence of CO2 on the composition of leachate obtained when mining waste is exposed to water. The results of the experiments confirm the importance of the oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of carbonate minerals in changing the pH of water interacting with the waste.

  12. Changing Waters: Are Climate-Driven Changes in Discharge Regimes Increasing Eutrophication Risk in the Great Lakes Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, the Great Lakes Basin (GLB) has experienced increasing precipitation, warming temperatures, and earlier spring thaws. During this same period, the region has been plagued by problems of water quality, with Lake Erie, in particular, experiencing a re-emergence of major eutrophication events, including an increased incidence of Harmful Algal Blooms. Although the prevailing paradigm is that eutrophication of inland waters is directly correlated with total phosphorus (P) inputs, recent decades have seen a decrease in the total P being delivered to the lakes from contributing watersheds. This apparent disconnect between inputs and outputs, i.e. decreasing P inputs but increased eutrophication, has led some to speculate that loading of total P is an insufficient metric of eutrophication risk and that increasing ratios of soluble reactive P (SRP) in relation to the total P (TP) entering inland water bodies may be a more important driver of algal growth. We hypothesize that changes in seasonal discharge patterns may be contributing to changes in the forms of P being delivered to the lakes, potentially due to changes in delivery pathways-for example surface pathways are more dominant in spring snowmelt, while shallow subsurface and tile pathways are more dominant during winter freeze-thaw events. To test this hypothesis, we have utilized data from more than 200 gaging stations across the GLB to explore the influences of climate and changing hydrologic patterns on biogeochemical processing and transport within the GLB. More specifically, we have asked the following questions: 1) How are discharge patterns changing across the GLB? 2) Are SRP:TP ratios increasing in subwatersheds of the GLB, and what are the spatial patterns in these changes? 3) Are climate-related changes in seasonality, e.g. earlier snowmelt, decreasing snowfall, longer growing seasons, linked to increased ratios of bioavailable P? Our results suggest that changes in precipitation as well

  13. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  14. Designing Programme Implementation Strategies to Increase the Adoption and Use of Biosand Water Filters in Rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy K.K. Ngai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost household water treatment systems are innovations designed to improve the quality of drinking water at the point of use. This study investigates how an NGO can design appropriate programme strategies in order to increase the adoption and sustained use of household sand filters in rural India. A system dynamics computer model was developed and used to assess 18 potential programme strategies for their effectiveness in increasing filter use at two and ten years into the future, under seven scenarios of how the external context may plausibly evolve. The results showed that the optimal choice of strategy is influenced by the macroeconomic situation, donor funding, presence of alternative options, and the evaluation time frame. The analysis also revealed some key programme management challenges, including the trade-off between optimising short- or long-term gains, and counter-intuitive results, such as higher subsidy fund allocation leading to fewer filter distribution, and technology advances leading to fewer sales. This study outlines how an NGO can choose effective strategies in consideration of complex system interactions. This study demonstrated that small NGOs can dramatically increase their programme outcomes without necessarily increasing operational budget.

  15. Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015 in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested during the last five-year period. As expected, fragrance materials, preservatives, and hair dyes were the most frequent culprits, but a great variety of other allergenic ingredients were involved as well. This underlines the need of additional and extensive patch testing with the patient’s products used and their ingredients.

  16. Nature Contacts: Employee Wellness in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trau, Deborah; Keenan, Kimberly A; Goforth, Meggan; Large, Vernon

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to ascertain the amount of outdoor, indoor, and indirect nature contact exposures hospital employees have in a workweek. Hospital employees have been found particularly vulnerable to work-related stress. Increasing the nature contact exposure for hospital employees can reduce perceived stress; stress-related health behaviors; and stress-related health outcomes from outdoor, indoor, and indirect exposures to nature. Staff on the fourth floor postsurgical unit of a large hospital (N = 42) were ask to participate in an employee questionnaire "nature contact questionnaire". This 16-item nature environment questionnaire measures the amount and types of nature contact exposures employees have during a workweek. Majority of employees reported few, if any, nature contact exposures, specifically in the area of outdoor nature contacts with limited indoor and indirect contacts. These results indicated that employees on the fourth floor postsurgical floor have limited ability to reduce stress through nature contact exposures which could impact their perceived levels of work stress and stress-related behaviors and health outcomes. Nature contact exposures are both a relatively easy and an inexpensive way to improve employee stress. These findings indicate limitations to employees' exposure to nature contacts. Healthcare environments would benefit from a concerted effort to provide increased outdoor, indoor, and indirect nature contact exposures for employees. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Increasing Aridity is Enhancing Silver Fir (Abies Alba Mill). Water Stress in its South-Western Distribution Limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, M. [Department of Geology, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroeminkatu 2, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Andreu, L.; Bosch, O.; Gutierrez, E. [Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal, 645, Barcelona, 08028, Catalonia (Spain); Camarero, J.J. [Unidad de Recursos Forestales, Centro de Investigacion Agroalimentaria, Gobierno de Aragon, Apdo. 727, Zaragoza, 50080, Aragon (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    Tree populations located at the geographical distribution limit of the species may provide valuable information about the response of tree growth to climate warming across climatic gradients. Dendroclimatic information was extracted from a network of 10 silver-fir (Abies alba) populations in the south-western distribution limit of the species (Pyrenees, NE Iberian Peninsula). Ring-width chronologies were built for five stands sampled in mesic sites from the Main Range in the Pyrenees, and for five forests located in the southern Peripheral Ranges where summer drought is more pronounced. The radial growth of silver-fir in this region is constrained by water stress during the summer previous to growth, as suggested by the negative relationship with previous September temperature and, to a lesser degree, by a positive relationship with previous end of summer precipitation. Climatic data showed a warming trend since the 1970s across the Pyrenees, with more severe summer droughts. The recent warming changed the climate-growth relationships, causing higher growth synchrony among sites, and a higher year-to-year growth variation, especially in the southernmost forests. Moving-interval response functions suggested an increasing water-stress effect on radial growth during the last half of the 20th century. The growth period under water stress has extended from summer up to early autumn. Forests located in the southern Peripheral Ranges experienced a more intense water stress, as seen in a shift of their response to precipitation and temperature. The Main-Range sites mainly showed a response to warming. The intensification of water-stress during the late 20th century might affect the future growth performance of the highly-fragmented A. alba populations in the southwestern distribution limit of the species.

  18. Determination of the solvent density profiles across mesopores of silica-C18 bonded phases in contact with acetonitrile/water mixtures: A semi-empirical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice

    2015-09-04

    The local volume fractions of water, acetonitrile, and C18-bonded chains across the 96Åmesopores of 5μm Symmetry particles were determined semi-empirically. The semi-empirical approach was based on previous molecular dynamics studies, which provided relevant mathematical expressions for the density profiles of C18 chains and water molecules, and on minor disturbance experiments, which measured the excess amount of acetonitrile adsorbed in the pores of Symmetry-C18 particles. The pore walls of the Symmetry-C18 material were in thermodynamic equilibrium with a series of binary mixtures of water and acetonitrile. The results show that C18 chains are mostly solvated by acetonitrile molecules, water is excluded from the C18-bonded layer, and acetonitrile concentrates across a 15-25Åthick interface region between the C18 layer and the bulk phase. These actual density profiles are expected to have a direct impact on the retention behaviour of charged, polar, and neutral analytes in RPLC. They also provide clues to predict the local mobility of analytes inside the pores and a sound physico-chemical description of the phenomenon of surface diffusion observed in RPLC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Water and organic synthesis: a focus on the in-water and on-water border. Reversal of the in-water Breslow hydrophobic enhancement of the normal endo-effect on crossing to on-water conditions for Huisgen cycloadditions with increasingly insoluble organic liquid and solid 2π-dipolarophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Richard N; Coyne, Anthony G; Cunningham, William J; Moloney, Eamon M

    2013-04-05

    Measurements of the endo/exo product ratios for Huisgen cycloadditions with a series of vinyl ketones, alkyl acrylates, and substituted styrenes as dipolarophiles with phthalazinium and pyridazinium dicyanomethanide 1,3-dipoles in acetonitrile and water show that as the reactions change from in-water (large hydrophobic enhancement of endo-products) to on-water, the hydrophobic enhancement of the endo-products is reduced and partially reversed (relative to acetonitrile). An expected increase of the endo-effect with increasing hydrophobic character of the dipolarophile is overcome by decreasing water solubility causing changeover to on-water conditions. On-water reactions do not show increased cycloaddition endo-effects (relative to organic solvents) as do in-water reactions.