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Sample records for increased serum iron

  1. INCREASING AND DECREASING PHASES OF FERRITIN AND HEMOSIDERIN IRON DETERMINED BY SERUM FERRITIN KINETICS

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    SAITO, HIROSHI; HAYASHI, HISAO; TOMITA, AKIHIRO; OHASHI, HARUHIKO; MAEDA, HIDEAKI; NAOE, TOMOKI

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We attempted to clarify the mechanism of the storage iron metabolism. A new program of serum ferritin kinetics was applied for studying the increasing and decreasing phases of ferritin and hemosiderin iron in iron addition and removal in patients with a normal level of iron stores or iron overload. The change of ferritin iron in response to iron addition and removal was rapid in the initial stage, but it was slow later. In contrast, the change of hemosiderin iron was slow in the initial stage, but it became rapid later. These changes of ferritin and hemosiderin iron suggest that the turnover of ferritin iron is preferential to that of hemosiderin iron, and that the initially existed ferritin iron is gradually replaced by the ferritin iron recovered by taking iron from hemosiderin in iron mobilization. The crossing of the increasing curves of ferritin and hemosiderin iron in iron addition indicates a switching of the principal storage iron from ferritin to hemosiderin. The crossing point shifted toward a higher storage iron level in the increase of iron deposition. Iron storing capacity can be increased not only by the transformation of ferritin into hemosiderin, but also by the expansion of cell space as seen by hepatomegaly in hereditary hemochromatosis. The amounts of hemosiderin iron exceeded ferritin iron in all 10 patients with chronic hepatitis C even though they had normal storage iron levels. This suggests it is difficult to store iron in the form of ferritin in chronic hepatitis C. PMID:24640177

  2. Iron overload alters glucose homeostasis, causes liver steatosis, and increases serum triacylglycerols in rats.

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    Silva, Maísa; Silva, Marcelo E; de Paula, Heberth; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of iron overload with a hyperlipidemic diet on the histologic feature of hepatic tissue, the lipid and glycemic serum profiles, and the markers of oxidative damage and stress in a rat model. Twenty-four male Fischer rats, purchased from Experimental Nutrition Laboratory, Federal University of Ouro Preto, were assigned to 4 equal groups, 2 were fed a standard cholesterol-free diet (group C or control and CI or control with iron) containing 8.0% soybean oil and 2 were fed a hyperlipidemic diet (group H or hyperlipidemic and HI or hyperlipidemic with iron) containing 1.0% cholesterol and 25.0% soybean oil. A total of 50 mg of iron was administered to rats in groups CI and HI in 5 equal doses (1 every 3 weeks for a 16-week period) by intraperitoneal injections of 0.1 mL of iron dextran solution (100 g Fe(2+)/L; Sigma, St Louis, Mo). The other rats in groups C and H were treated in a similar manner but with sterile saline (0.1 mL). Irrespective of the diet, iron excess enhanced serum triacylglycerols (P .05) were observed in paraoxonase activities or in serum levels of free or total sulfhydryl radicals, malondialdehyde, or total antioxidants. The findings suggest that iron excess in the rat probably modifies lipid metabolism and, as a consequence, alters glucose homeostasis and increases the level of serum triacylglycerols but not of cholesterol.

  3. Oral administration of lactoferrin increases hemoglobin and total serum iron in pregnant women.

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    Paesano, Rosalba; Torcia, Francesco; Berlutti, Francesca; Pacifici, Enrica; Ebano, Valeria; Moscarini, Massimo; Valenti, Piera

    2006-06-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during pregnancy continues to be of world-wide concern. IDA is a risk factor for preterm delivery and subsequent low birth weight, and possibly for poor neonatal health. Iron supplementation in pregnancy is a widely recommended practice, yet intervention programs have met with many controversies. In our study, 300 women at different trimesters of pregnancy were enrolled in a trial of oral administration of ferrous sulfate (520 mg once a day) or 30% iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin (bLf) (100 mg twice a day). Pregnant women refusing treatment represented the control group. In this group hemoglobin and total serum iron values measured after 30 d without treatment decreased significantly, especially in women at 18-31 weeks of pregnancy. In contrast, after 30 d of oral administration of bLf, hemoglobin and total serum iron values increased and to a greater extent than those observed in women treated orally for 30 d with ferrous sulfate, independently of the trimester of pregnancy. Unlike ferrous sulfate, bLf did not result in any side effects. These findings lead us to hypothesize that lactoferrin could influence iron homeostasis directly or through other proteins involved in iron transport out of the intestinal cells into the blood.

  4. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  5. Serum iron increases with acute induction of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 in mice.

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    Mostert, Volker; Nakayama, Akihiro; Austin, Lori M; Levander, Ximena A; Ferris, Christopher D; Hill, Kristina E; Burk, Raymond F

    2007-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is induced by oxidative stress and protects against oxidant injury. We examined the effect of rapid induction of hepatic HO-1 on serum iron level. Serum iron was approximately doubled within 6 h when HO-1 was induced by phenobarbital treatment of selenium-deficient mice. Blocking heme synthesis with diethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate (DDC) prevented the induction of HO-1 and the rise in serum iron. DDC did not block HO-1 induction by hemin. Inhibition of HO activity by tin protoporphyrin prevented a rise in serum iron that occurred following phorone treatment. These results indicate that heme synthesis or an exogenous source of heme is needed to allow induction of HO-1. Further, they link HO-1 induction with a rise in serum iron, suggesting that the iron resulting from catabolism of heme by HO-1 is released by the liver.

  6. Iron and Vitamin C Co-Supplementation Increased Serum Vitamin C Without Adverse Effect on Zinc Level in Iron Deficient Female Youth

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    Mohammad Reza Khoshfetrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron supplementation can decrease the absorption of zinc and influence other antioxidants levels such as vitamin C. This study aimed to investigate the effect of iron supplements alone and in combination with vitamin C on zinc and vitamin C status in iron deficient female students. Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trail, 60 iron deficient students were selected from 289 volunteers residing in dormitory. After matching, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: Group I (50 mg elemental iron supplements and Group II (50 mg elemental iron + 500 mg ascorbic acid. Serum ferritin, iron, serum zinc, and plasma vitamin C concentrations were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, spectrophotometer, atomic absorption spectrometer, and colorimeter, respectively after 6 and 12 weeks supplementation. Student′s t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance were applied to analyze the data using SPSS software. Results: Serum zinc levels had no significant differences between 2 groups at the baseline; however, its concentration decreased from 80.9 ± 4.2-68.9 ± 2.7 μg/dl to 81.2 ± 4.5-66.1 ± 2.9 μg/dl (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively after 6 weeks of supplementation. Continuous supplementation increased serum zinc concentration to baseline levels (79.0 ± 2.9 μg/dl; P < 0.01 in Group I and 70.5 ± 3.1 μg/dl in Group II following 12 weeks of supplementation. Plasma vitamin C increased from 3 ± 0/1-3.3 ± 0.2 mg/dl to 2.7 ± 0. 1-4.2 ± 0.2 mg/dl (P < 0.01 in Groups I and II, respectively. At the end of study, plasma vitamin C significantly increased from 3.3 ± 0.3-4.7 ± 0.3 (P < 0.01 to 4.2 ± 0.2-7.1 ± 0.2 (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Iron supplementation with and without vitamin C led to reduction in serum Zn in iron-deficient female students after 6 weeks. However, the decreasing trend stops after repletion of iron stores and Zn levels returned to the

  7. Serum bleomycin-detectable iron in patients with thalassemia major with normal range of serum iron.

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    Han,Khin Ei

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available "Free" iron, a potentially radical-generating low mass iron, and not found in normal human blood, was increased in the serum of blood-transfused thalassemia major patients seen in the Yangon General Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar (Burma. The low mass iron was detected by the bleomycin assay. Fifty-one blood samples were analyzed (from 28 males and 23 females. High "free" iron was detected in 47 sera samples from thalassemia patients. Serum ferritin, which reflects the body store iron, was higher than the normal range (10-200 ng/ml in 49 patients. On the other hand, serum iron of 39 sera samples fell within the normal range (50-150 micrograms/dl. Four were less than 50 micrograms/dl and eight were more than 150 micrograms/dl. Almost all the patients' sera of normal or higher serum iron level contained "free" iron. Thus, almost all the sera from thalassemic patients from Myanmar contain bleomycin-detectable iron, even when serum iron is within the normal range. In developing countries where undernutrition is prevalent (serum albumin in these patients was 3.6 +/- 0.4 g/dl, P < 0.0001 vs. control value of 4.0 - 4.8 g/dl, normal serum iron does not preclude the presence of free iron in the serum.

  8. Fortification Iron as Ferrous Sulfate Plus Ascorbic Acid Is More Rapidly Absorbed Than as Sodium Iron EDTA but Neither Increases Serum Nontransferrin-Bound Iron in Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troesch, B.; Egli, I.; Zeder, C.; Hurrell, R.F.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    The absorption profile of iron fortificants may be a determinant of their ability to generate nontransferrin-bound iron (NTBI) and, thus, their potential safety. Ferrous iron may be absorbed more rapidly than chelated ferric iron, but differences at the fortification level cannot be distinguished wi

  9. Iron supplementation is positively associated with increased serum ferritin levels in 9-month-old Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondolf, Ulla Holmboe; Tetens, Inge; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2013-01-01

    of fortified formula and follow-on formula (P = 0·001), and female sex (P milk intake and length of exclusive breast-feeding were negatively associated with Hb levels (P = 0·013 and P Serum ferritin levels were significantly higher (P ...·3) months of age. Blood samples were available from 278 infants. Overall, twenty infants (7·8 %) had Fe deficiency (serum ferritin serum ferritin Serum ferritin was positively associated with birth weight (P ... supplementation recommendation was significantly associated with increased serum ferritin and decreased levels of TfR indicating more favourable Fe status, compared to infants not following the recommendation....

  10. Increased risk of death from iron overload among 422 treated probands with HFE hemochromatosis and serum levels of ferritin greater than 1000 μg/L at diagnosis.

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    Barton, James C; Barton, J Clayborn; Acton, Ronald T; So, Jeffrey; Chan, Susanne; Adams, Paul C

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the risk of death from iron overload among treated hemochromatosis probands who were homozygous for HFE C282Y and had serum levels of ferritin greater than 1000 μg/L at diagnosis. We compared serum levels of ferritin at diagnosis and other conditions with the rate of iron overload-associated death using data from 2 cohorts of probands with hemochromatosis who were homozygous for HFE C282Y (an Alabama cohort, n = 294, 63.9% men and an Ontario cohort, n = 128, 68.8% men). We defined iron overload-associated causes of death as cirrhosis (including hepatic failure and primary liver cancer) caused by iron deposition and cardiomyopathy caused by myocardial siderosis. All probands received phlebotomy and other appropriate therapy. The mean survival times after diagnosis were 13.2 ± 7.3 y and 12.5 ± 8.3 y in Alabama and Ontario probands, respectively. Serum levels of ferritin greater than 1000 μg/L at diagnosis were observed in 30.1% and 47.7% of Alabama and Ontario probands, respectively. In logistic regressions of serum ferritin greater than 1000 μg/L, there were significant positive associations with male sex and cirrhosis in Alabama probands and with age, male sex, increased levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, and cirrhosis in Ontario probands. Of probands with serum levels of ferritin greater than 1000 μg/L at diagnosis, 17.9% of those from Alabama and 14.8% of those from Ontario died of iron overload. Among probands with serum levels of ferritin greater than 1000 μg/L, the relative risk of iron overload-associated death was 5.4 for the Alabama group (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-13.1; P = .0002) and 4.9 for the Ontario group (95% CI, 1.1-22.0; P = .0359). In hemochromatosis probands homozygous for HFE C282Y, serum levels of ferritin greater than 1000 μg/L at diagnosis were positively associated with male sex and cirrhosis. Even with treatment, the relative risk of death from iron overload was 5-fold greater in probands with

  11. Inequivalent contribution of the five tryptophan residues in the C-lobe of human serum transferrin to the fluorescence increase when iron is released.

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    James, Nicholas G; Byrne, Shaina L; Steere, Ashley N; Smith, Valerie C; MacGillivray, Ross T A; Mason, Anne B

    2009-04-07

    Human serum transferrin (hTF), with two Fe3+ binding lobes, transports iron into cells. Diferric hTF preferentially binds to a specific receptor (TFR) on the surface of cells, and the complex undergoes clathrin dependent receptor-mediated endocytosis. The clathrin-coated vesicle fuses with an endosome where the pH is lowered, facilitating iron release from hTF. On a biologically relevant time scale (2-3 min), the factors critical to iron release include pH, anions, a chelator, and the interaction of hTF with the TFR. Previous work, in which the increase in the intrinsic fluorescence signal was used to monitor iron release from the hTF/TFR complex, established that the TFR significantly enhances the rate of iron release from the C-lobe of hTF. In the current study, the role of the five C-lobe Trp residues in reporting the fluorescence change has been evaluated (+/-sTFR). Only four of the five recombinant Trp --> Phe mutants produced well. A single slow rate constant for iron release is found for the monoferric C-lobe (FeC hTF) and the four Trp mutants in the FeC hTF background. The three Trp residues equivalent to those in the N-lobe differed from the N-lobe and each other in their contributions to the fluorescent signal. Two rate constants are observed for the FeC hTF control and the four Trp mutants in complex with the TFR: k(obsC1) reports conformational changes in the C-lobe initiated by the TFR, and k(obsC2) is ascribed to iron release. Excitation at 295 nm (Trp only) and at 280 nm (Trp and Tyr) reveals interesting and significant differences in the rate constants for the complex.

  12. Increased serum hepcidin and alterations in blood iron parameters associated with asymptomatic P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mast, Q. de; Syafruddin, D.; Keijmel, S.; Riekerink, T.O.; Deky, O.; Asih, P.B.; Swinkels, D.W.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infections and anemia are highly prevalent conditions in tropical regions. We studied whether asymptomatic parasitemia induces hepcidin- and/or cytokine-mediated iron maldistribution and anemia. DESIGN AND METHODS: A group of 1197 Indonesian schoolchildren,

  13. Serum fibroblast growth factor 23, serum iron and bone mineral density in premenopausal women.

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    Imel, Erik A; Liu, Ziyue; McQueen, Amie K; Acton, Dena; Acton, Anthony; Padgett, Leah R; Peacock, Munro; Econs, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) circulates as active protein and inactive fragments. Low iron status increases FGF23 gene expression, and iron deficiency is common. We hypothesized that in healthy premenopausal women, serum iron influences C-terminal and intact FGF23 concentrations, and that iron and FGF23 associate with bone mineral density (BMD). Serum iron, iron binding capacity, percent iron saturation, phosphorus, and other biochemistries were measured in stored fasting samples from healthy premenopausal white (n=1898) and black women (n=994), age 20-55years. Serum C-terminal and intact FGF23 were measured in a subset (1631 white and 296 black women). BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femur neck. Serum phosphorus, calcium, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were lower in white women than black women (piron (piron. C-terminal FGF23 correlated inversely with iron (white women r=-0.134, piron iron predicted changes in C-terminal FGF23. Spine BMD correlated with iron negatively (r=-0.076, piron negatively (r=-0.119, piron did not relate to intact FGF23, but was inversely related to C-terminal FGF23. Intact FGF23 correlated with serum phosphorus. In weight-adjusted models, BMD was not related to intact FGF23, C-terminal FGF23 or iron. The influence of iron on FGF23 gene expression is not important in determining bone density in healthy premenopausal women.

  14. Assessing Iron Status: Beyond Serum Ferritin and Transferrin Saturation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jay B. Wish

    2006-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of multiple comorbidities among anemic patients with chronic kidney disease has made the use of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation more challenging in diagnosing iron deficiency...

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of Serum Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) in Iron Deficiency State.

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    Asif, Naveed; Ijaz, Aamir; Rafi, Tariq; Haroon, Zujaja Hina; Bashir, Saima; Ayyub, Muhammad

    2016-12-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of serum iron and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) in detection of iron deficiency. Descriptive, analytical study. Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, from January 2013 to October 2015. Data of 1,815 patients with results of serum iron, TIBC and ferritin from January 2013 to October 2015 was retrieved from Laboratory information System (LIMS) of AFIP. Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (STARD) guidelines were followed. Subjects of either gender, aged 1 - 68 years were included. Cases with raised serum ferritin levels (male > 336 ng/ml, female > 307 ng/ml) were excluded. Serum Ferritin was taken as gold standard with specificity of 99% and sensitivity of 80% at concentration of 30 ng/ml. Transferrin saturation was determined by dividing serum iron by TIBC and multiplying by 100. Out of 1,815 subjects, 931 (51.29%) were males and 884 (48.71%) were females. The median age of the patients were 29.1 years (Inter-quartile range, IQR 19.1). Taking ferritin as gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of serum iron was 63.5% and 38.6%, respectively; while that of TIBC was 64.5 % and 42.8%, respectively. Ferritin showed poor correlation with iron, TIBC and transferrin saturation. Serum iron and TIBC give no additional information in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia and these tests are redundant for the diagnosis of iron deficiency state, if serum ferritin is available.

  16. Decreased serum hepcidin concentration correlates with brain iron deposition in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis.

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    Dong Lin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Excessive brain iron accumulation contributes to cognitive impairments in hepatitis B virus (HBV-related cirrhotic patients. The underlying mechanism remains unclear. Hepcidin, a liver-produced, 25-aminoacid peptide, is the major regulator of systemic iron metabolism. Abnormal hepcidin level is a key factor in some body iron accumulation or deficiency disorders, especially in those associated with liver diseases. Our study was aimed to explore the relationship between brain iron content in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and serum hepcidin level. METHODS: Seventy HBV-related cirrhotic patients and forty age- sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Brain iron content was quantified by susceptibility weighted phase imaging technique. Serum hepcidin as well as serum iron, serum transferrin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation were tested in thirty cirrhotic patients and nineteen healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to investigate correlation between brain iron concentrations and serum hepcidin, or other iron parameters. RESULTS: Cirrhotic patients had increased brain iron accumulation compared to controls in the left red nuclear, the bilateral substantia nigra, the bilateral thalamus, the right caudate, and the right putamen. Cirrhotic patients had significantly decreased serum hepcidin concentration, as well as lower serum transferring level, lower total iron binding capacity and higher transferrin saturation, compared to controls. Serum hepcidin level negatively correlated with the iron content in the right caudate, while serum ferritin level positively correlated with the iron content in the bilateral putamen in cirrhotic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased serum hepcidin level correlated with excessive iron accumulation in the basal ganglia in HBV-related cirrhotic patients. Our results indicated that systemic iron overload underlined regional

  17. CORRELATION OF GALLSTONE FORMATION WITH SERUM IRON LEVELS

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    Rohini Bipin Bhadre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Gallstones are one of the most common problem associated with the gallbladder, affecting millions of people throughout the world. Bile is excreted from liver and gallbladder into Duodenum for digestion. After digestion, if the gallbladder is not emptied out completely, the Bile Juice that remains in the gallbladder can become too concentrated with cholesterol leading to gallstone formation. Cholesterol and calcium bilirubinate are the two main substances involved in gallstone formation. Gallstones derived from bile consists of mixture of cholesterol, bilirubin with or without calcium. Based on their chemical composition, gallstones found in the gallbladder are classified as cholesterol, pigmented or mixed stones. Iron deficiency has been shown to alter the activity of several hepatic enzymes, leading to increased gallbladder bile cholesterol saturation and promotion of cholesterol crystal formation. AIMS & OBJECTIVE Attempt to establish a correlation with gallstones and decreased serum iron levels. MATERIAL & METHODS This study was a prospective cohort study which included 100 consecutive patients with imaging studies suggestive of Cholelithiasis. The Gallstone surgically removed was crushed with mortar and pestle and then analysed for cholesterol, calcium, phosphate and bilirubin (pigment. Serum samples were analysed for Cholesterol, iron and iron binding capacity. RESULTS 86% patients had increased cholesterol levels (p=0.04 and 93% had decreased serum Iron levels (p=0.96. The most common type of gallstone was found to be Cholesterol type of gallstone followed by Mixed and Pigment gallstones. CONCLUSION Serum cholesterol levels were found to be raised in majority of the patients and serum iron was found to be low in these majority of the patients indicating iron deficiency may play a role in gallstone formation.

  18. Serum Iron, Haemoglobin and Serum Lipid Peroxidation in Neonates with Respiratory Disorders

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    Sushama P. Dhonde

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory disorders are the most common cause for higher morbidity and mortality rate in India. Higher oxygen concentration of extrauterine existence causes increased erythrocyte lysis lead to release of iron in neonates. Iron is known to catalyze the formation of Reactive oxygen species. Involvement of hemoglobin and iron in oxygen-mediated reactions stimulate us to study the role of these in neonates.Objectives :iTo estimate the concentration of Haemoglobin, serum iron, serum lipid peroxidation in neonates with respiratory disorders; and compare those with that of healthy controls. iiTo study the role of these parameters in neonates with respiratory disorders.Materials and Methods: Present study includes 50 neonates suffering from respiratory disorders and 50 healthy neonates as controls. Samples collected from these were used for the estimation of haemoglobin, serum iron, and serum lipid peroxidation.Observations: Significantly (p<0.001 increased levels of serum iron and lipid peroxidation were observed in neonates with respiratory disorders when compared those with control values. These levels were found significantly (p<0.001 higher in preterm than full-term neonates. Concentration of haemoglobin showed no significant difference in both groups.Conclusion: Exacerbation of oxidative stress in neonates with respiratory disorders may be due to hypoxia induced free radical generation, higher oxidative tendency of HbF and elevated iron. Premature neonates are probably unprepared for extra uterine life in an oxygen rich environment and due to this they are more prone to oxidative insult. Thus this study reveals the pro-oxidant role of HbF and iron, which enhances the oxidative stress in respiratory disorder.

  19. Effect of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense on serum iron levels in mice

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    Tahereh Setayesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The Magnetotactic bacteria Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense (MSR-1 mineralizes the magnetite (Fe3 O4 crystals and organizes a highly ordered intracellular structure, called the magnetosome. Iron transport system supports the biogenesis of magnetite. Although iron is an essential trace element for many metabolic pathways of the body, increase or decrease in iron will cause many diseases. Mice were infected by MSR-1 to study survival of bacteria in mice when injected by different routes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bacterial magnetite formation could take up Fe2+ ions from the blood an animal model.Materials and Methods: In this study, MSR-1 at a dose lower than LD50 in 200 μl volume of PBS buffer was injected as intravascular (i.v, peritoneal (i.p and subcutaneous (s.c in mice. Number of viable bacterial was determined in organs such as liver, spleen and lymph node by measuring colony-forming unit (CFU. Moreover, serum iron level was evaluated by using commercial kits.Results and Conclusion: According to CFU measurements, after 96 hours, mice can clear MSR-1 from their body with different routes of injection. We have also shown that MSR-1 bacteria can affect the blood iron level in mice. The serum iron level decreased from control level in the first 24 h after i.v injection (P < 0.05. Our research on optimizing the biological magnetic system is still continuing.

  20. Weekly supplementation with iron and vitamin A during pregnancy increases hemoglobin concentration but decreases serum ferritin concentration in Indonesian pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muslimatun, S.; Schmidt, M.K.; Schultink, W.; West, C.E.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Gross, R.; Muhilal,

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether weekly iron supplementation was as effective as the national daily iron supplementation program in Indonesia in improving iron status at near term in pregnancy. In addition, we examined whether weekly vitamin A and iron supplementation was more efficacious than weekly

  1. Weekly supplementation with iron and vitamin A during pregnancy increases hemoglobin concentration but decreases serum ferritin concentration in Indonesian pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muslimatun, S.; Schmidt, M.K.; Schultink, W.; West, C.E.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Gross, R.; Muhilal,

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether weekly iron supplementation was as effective as the national daily iron supplementation program in Indonesia in improving iron status at near term in pregnancy. In addition, we examined whether weekly vitamin A and iron supplementation was more efficacious than weekly supplem

  2. The effects of fat loss after bariatric surgery on inflammation, serum hepcidin, and iron absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cepeda-Lopez, Ana C.; Allende-Labastida, Javier; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Osendarp, Saskia J.M.; Herter-Aeberli, Isabelle; Moretti, Diego; Rodriguez-Lastra, Ramiro; Gonzalez-Salazar, Francisco; Villalpando, Salvador; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency is common in obese subjects. This may be due to an increase in serum hepcidin and a decrease in iron absorption from adiposity-related inflammation. Objective: We evaluated whether weight and fat loss in obese subjects would decrease inflammation and serum hepcidin and

  3. Serum transferrin receptor, serum ferritin and serum transferrin receptor-ferritin index in adults with iron deficiency anaemia.

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    Nadeem, Seema; Shah, Shahida; Iqbal, Touqueer; Iqbal, Zafar; Hanif, Ejaz

    2011-01-01

    Serum Ferritin (SF) and iron both show acute phase responses to inflammation, so iron may fall and ferritin rise independent of the marrow iron store. Bone marrow iron store has been considered the gold standard, but is invasive, painful and expensive and not suitable for everyone. Serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) which is the concentration of the soluble fragment of transferrin receptor in serum, is an important new haematological parameter. The ratio of sTfR to log SF is known as sTfR-SF index. This study was conducted to evaluate sTfR, Ferritin and sTfR-F Index in diagnosing and differentiating iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) from anaemia of chronic disease (ACD). One hundred and sixteen (116) adult subjects (80 anaemic and 36 controls) who already had their bone marrow examination done for various reasons were included in the study. sTfR, SF, and their index were measured and compared with bone marrow iron stores. Absence of iron stores denoted IDA whereas increased macrophage iron with decreased siderocytes and sideroblasts was diagnostic of ACD. Out of 80 anaemic patients, 47 were diagnosed as IDA while 33 were diagnosed as ACD. In case of IDA the diagnostic accuracy of index was 91.57%, sTfR had accuracy of 85.54% while SF had accuracy of 75.90%. In case of ACD, the diagnostic accuracy of sTfR was 91.30%, index 89.86%, while SF had accuracy of 79.71%. sTfR-SF index is a better parameter than sTfR or ferritin alone but should only be used when the results of these parameters seem altered or a bone marrow aspiration is mandatory for diagnosis of ACD. The estimation of sTfR or index may offer a simple non invasive method that may enable more accurate assessments of iron status in such patients.

  4. Quantitating Iron in Serum Ferritin by Use of ICP-MS

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    Smith, Scott M.; Gillman, Patricia L.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory method has been devised to enable measurement of the concentration of iron bound in ferritin from small samples of blood (serum). Derived partly from a prior method that depends on large samples of blood, this method involves the use of an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Ferritin is a complex of iron with the protein apoferritin. Heretofore, measurements of the concentration of serum ferritin (as distinguished from direct measurements of the concentration of iron in serum ferritin) have been used to assess iron stores in humans. Low levels of serum ferritin could indicate the first stage of iron depletion. High levels of serum ferritin could indicate high levels of iron (for example, in connection with hereditary hemochromatosis an iron-overload illness that is characterized by progressive organ damage and can be fatal). However, the picture is complicated: A high level of serum ferritin could also indicate stress and/or inflammation instead of (or in addition to) iron overload, and low serum iron concentration could indicate inflammation rather than iron deficiency. Only when concentrations of both serum iron and serum ferritin increase and decrease together can the patient s iron status be assessed accurately. Hence, in enabling accurate measurement of the iron content of serum ferritin, the present method can improve the diagnosis of the patient s iron status. The prior method of measuring the concentration of iron involves the use of an atomic-absorption spectrophotometer with a graphite furnace. The present method incorporates a modified version of the sample- preparation process of the prior method. First, ferritin is isolated; more specifically, it is immobilized by immunoprecipitation with rabbit antihuman polyclonal antibody bound to agarose beads. The ferritin is then separated from other iron-containing proteins and free iron by a series of centrifugation and wash steps. Next, the ferritin is digested with nitric acid

  5. Second international round robin for the quantification of serum non-transferrin-bound iron and labile plasma iron in patients with iron-overload disorders.

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    de Swart, Louise; Hendriks, Jan C M; van der Vorm, Lisa N; Cabantchik, Z Ioav; Evans, Patricia J; Hod, Eldad A; Brittenham, Gary M; Furman, Yael; Wojczyk, Boguslaw; Janssen, Mirian C H; Porter, John B; Mattijssen, Vera E J M; Biemond, Bart J; MacKenzie, Marius A; Origa, Raffaella; Galanello, Renzo; Hider, Robert C; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2016-01-01

    Non-transferrin-bound iron and its labile (redox active) plasma iron component are thought to be potentially toxic forms of iron originally identified in the serum of patients with iron overload. We compared ten worldwide leading assays (6 for non-transferrin-bound iron and 4 for labile plasma iron) as part of an international inter-laboratory study. Serum samples from 60 patients with four different iron-overload disorders in various treatment phases were coded and sent in duplicate for analysis to five different laboratories worldwide. Some laboratories provided multiple assays. Overall, highest assay levels were observed for patients with untreated hereditary hemochromatosis and β-thalassemia intermedia, patients with transfusion-dependent myelodysplastic syndromes and patients with transfusion-dependent and chelated β-thalassemia major. Absolute levels differed considerably between assays and were lower for labile plasma iron than for non-transferrin-bound iron. Four assays also reported negative values. Assays were reproducible with high between-sample and low within-sample variation. Assays correlated and correlations were highest within the group of non-transferrin-bound iron assays and within that of labile plasma iron assays. Increased transferrin saturation, but not ferritin, was a good indicator of the presence of forms of circulating non-transferrin-bound iron. The possibility of using non-transferrin-bound iron and labile plasma iron measures as clinical indicators of overt iron overload and/or of treatment efficacy would largely depend on the rigorous validation and standardization of assays.

  6. SERUM LEVELS OF COPPER AND IRON IN DENGUE FEVER

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    Rajendiran SOUNDRAVALLY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The role of trace elements in dengue virulence is not yet known. The present study assessed the serum levels of two micronutrients, copper and iron, in cases of dengue fever. The study involved 96 patients of whom 48 had either severe or non-severe forms of dengue (with and without warning signs, and the remaining 48 were patients with other febrile illnesses (OFI, used as controls. Serum levels of copper and iron were evaluated at admission and by the time of defervescence using commercially available kits. At admission, no difference in the level of serum copper was observed between cases and controls. In the group of dengue cases, the copper level was found to be significantly decreased in severe and non-severe cases with warning signs, compared to non-severe cases without warning signs. In contrast, by the time of defervescence the copper level was found to be increased in all dengue cases compared to OFI controls, but no difference was observed among dengue cases. Unlike OFI controls, dengue cases showed an increasing pattern of copper levels from admission until defervescence. On the other hand, no such significant differences were observed in the serum level of iron in the clinical groups, except for a decreased iron level found in severe cases, compared to non-severe dengue without warning signs. The results show that copper is associated with dengue severity and this finding emphasizes the need to investigate the involvement of trace elements in disease severity so as to improve the prognosis of dengue.

  7. Relation between Serum Ferritin and Iron Parameters with Preeclampsia

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    Robabeh Taheripanah

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Preeclampsia is one of the most important complications of pregnancy that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between serum iron status and ferritin with pre-eclampsia. Materials and Methods: This case control study evaluated 33 preeclamptic patients and 33 normal pregnant women before parturition in Imam Hossein hospital, from March 2003 till March 2004. Anemia, diabetes and multiple pregnancies were excluded from the study. Blood samples were taken before delivery and patients with HELLP syndrome were considered separately.  Data were analyzed using the SPSS software and P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. T-test, chi-square and Fisher exact test were used.  Results: The mean of serum iron level in case and control group was 79.9±32.4µg/dl and 88.6±40.8 µg/dl, respectively (NS. TIBC was 443.4±55.0 µmol/l and 383.7±63.6 µmol/l in normal patients and preeclamptics respectively (P = 0.002. Mean serum ferritin was 32.1±16.2 ng/dl in control group and 123.8±46.1 ng/dl in preeclamptics (P<0.001. No meaningful relation was observed between hematocrit, ferritin and iron. Conclusions: Ferritin increases and TIBC decreases in preeclampsia regardless of hepatic function. It seems that elevated serum ferritin (as an oxidative stress can accelerate vascular damage. So, routine iron supplementation in preeclamptic women is questationable.

  8. Serum Hepcidin Levels, Iron Dyshomeostasis and Cognitive Loss in Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Sternberg, Zohara; Hu, Zihua; Sternberg, Daniel; Waseh, Shayan; Quinn, Joseph F.; Wild, Katharine; Jeffrey, Kaye; Zhao, Lin; Garrick, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study examined the status of the master iron regulatory peptide, hepcidin, and peripheral related iron parameters in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment patients, and evaluated the relationship between iron dyshomeostasis and amyloid-beta (Aβ), cognitive assessment tests, neuroimaging and clinical data. Frozen serum samples from the Oregon Tissue Bank were used to measure serum levels of hepcidin, ferritin, Aβ40, Aβ42 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum transferrin levels were determined indirectly as total iron binding capacity, serum iron was measured and the percent saturation of transferrin calculated. The study variables were correlated with the patients’ existing cognitive assessment tests, neuroimaging, and clinical data. Hepcidin, and iron-related proteins tended to be higher in AD patients than controls, reaching statistical significance for ferritin, whereas Aβ40, Aβ42 serum levels tended to be lower. Patients with pure AD had three times higher serum hepcidin levels than controls; gender differences in hepcidin and iron-related proteins were observed. Patient stratification based on clinical dementia rating-sum of boxes revealed significantly higher levels of iron and iron-related proteins in AD patients in the upper 50% as compared to controls, suggesting that iron dyshomeostasis worsens as cognitive impairment increases. Unlike Aβ peptides, iron and iron-related proteins showed significant association with cognitive assessment tests, neuroimaging, and clinical data. Hepcidin and iron-related proteins comprise a group of serum biomarkers that relate to AD diagnosis and AD disease progression. Future studies should determine whether strategies targeted to diminishing hepcidin synthesis/secretion and improving iron homeostasis could have a beneficial impact on AD progression. PMID:28400987

  9. Serum transferrin receptors in detection of iron deficiency in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusia, U; Flowers, C; Madan, N; Agarwal, N; Sood, S K; Sikka, M

    1999-08-01

    A prospective hospital-based study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of serum transferrin receptors in the detection of iron deficiency in pregnant women. The iron status of 100 pregnant women with single uncomplicated term pregnancies in the first stage of labor was established using standard laboratory measures. These included complete hemogram, red cell indices, serum iron, percent transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin. In addition, serum transferrin receptor (STFR) was estimated. The results of 81 women with complete laboratory profiles were analyzed. Thirty-five (43.2%) women were anemic (hemoglobin <11 g/dl). Hemoglobin (Hb) showed a significant correlation with MCH, MCHC, serum iron, and percent transferrin saturation, suggesting that the anemia was likely to be due to iron deficiency. The mean STFR level was 18.05+/-9.9 mg/l in the anemic women and was significantly raised (p<0.001) compared with that of the nonanemic women. STFR correlated significantly with Hb (p<0.001), MCH (p<0.05), MCHC (p<0.01), serum iron (p<0.01), and percent transferrin saturation (p<0.01) and also showed a highly significant correlation with the degree of anemia. Serum ferritin in these women did not correlate with Hb, and only 54.4% of the women had levels <12 ng/ml, which does not reflect the true prevalence of iron deficiency. Serum transferrin receptor estimation is thus a useful measure for detecting iron deficiency in pregnancy.

  10. Dietary iron intake and serum ferritin concentration in 213 patients homozygous for the HFEC282Y hemochromatosis mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Victor R Gordeuk; Laura Lovato; Barton, James C.; Mara Vitolins; Gordon McLaren; Acton, Ronald T; Christine McLaren; Harris, Emily L.; Mark Speechley; Eckfeldt, John H.; Sharmin Diaz; Phyliss Sholinsky; Paul Adams

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HFEC282Y homozygotes have an increased risk for developing increased iron stores and related disorders. It is controversial whether dietary iron restrictions should be recommended to such individuals. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether dietary iron content influences iron stores in HFEC282Y homozygotes as assessed by serum ferritin concentration. DES...

  11. Heritability of serum iron, ferritin and transferrin saturation in a genetically isolated population, the Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.T. Njajou (Omer); B.Z. Alizadeh (Behrooz); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); B.A. Oostra (Ben); D.W. Swinkels (Dorine); C.M. van Duijn (Cock)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Iron has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various disorders. Mutations in the HFE gene are associated with an increase in serum iron parameters. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability in serum iron parameters explained by HFE. Methods: Ninety families

  12. Heritability of serum iron, ferritin and transferrin saturation in a genetically isolated population, the Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF) Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Njajou, O.T.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Zillikens, M.C.; Pols, H.A.; Oostra, B.A.; Swinkels, D.W.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2006-01-01

    Background: Iron has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various disorders. Mutations in the HFE gene are associated with an increase in serum iron parameters. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability in serum iron parameters explained by HFE. Methods: Ninety families (980 subjects)

  13. Effects of Iron Supplementation and Activity on Serum Iron Depletion and Hemoglobin Levels in Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooter, G. Rankin; Mowbray, Kathy W.

    1978-01-01

    Research revealed that a four-month basketball training program did not significantly alter serum iron, total iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, and percent saturation levels in female basketball athletes. (JD)

  14. Colorimetry and constant-potential coulometry determinations of transferrin-bound iron, total iron-binding capacity, and total iron in serum containing iron-dextran, with use of sodium dithionite and alumina columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J C; Alexander, N M

    1990-10-01

    After the parenteral administration of iron-dextran (imferon), the increased total iron concentrations in serum can be determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and by colorimetric methods involving sodium dithionite, which reductively dissociates iron from the dextran complex. We report that constant-potential coulometry detects only about 55-70% of dextran-bound iron before dithionite reduction and variable amounts after reaction with the reducing agent. In addition, we have developed a procedure for determining transferrin-bound iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), total iron, and dextran-bound iron with the Kodak Ektachem colorimetric system. In determining total serum iron, the sample is first mixed with sodium dithionite, which rapidly dissociates all dextran-bound iron, but does not remove iron from either transferrin or hemoglobin. After the mixture is applied to an Ektachem slide, transferrin-bound iron is released at pH 4 and is detected together with the iron previously bound to dextran. TIBC is determined by mixing serum with ferric citrate in moderate excess and filtering through a small alumina (Al2O3) column, which binds excess free iron and iron-dextran; the iron in the column eluate represents the TIBC. Transferrin-bound iron is determined by applying diluted serum without added ferric citrate to an alumina column and measuring the iron in the column eluate. Dextran-bound iron is equivalent to the difference between total and transferrin-bound iron. Using this method, we found that transferrin iron-binding sites are saturated in vitro by excess iron-dextran less efficiently than by ferric citrate.

  15. Dietary iron intake and serum ferritin concentration in 213 patients homozygous for the HFEC282Y hemochromatosis mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeuk, Victor R; Lovato, Laura; Barton, James; Vitolins, Mara; McLaren, Gordon; Acton, Ronald; McLaren, Christine; Harris, Emily; Speechley, Mark; Eckfeldt, John H; Diaz, Sharmin; Sholinsky, Phyliss; Adams, Paul

    2012-06-01

    HFEC282Y homozygotes have an increased risk for developing increased iron stores and related disorders. It is controversial whether dietary iron restrictions should be recommended to such individuals. To determine whether dietary iron content influences iron stores in HFEC282Y homozygotes as assessed by serum ferritin concentration. Serum ferritin concentration was measured and a dietary iron questionnaire was completed as part of the evaluation of 213 HFEC282Y homozygotes who were identified through screening of >100,000 primary care patients at five HEmochromatosis and IRon Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study Field Centers in the United States and Canada. No significant relationships between serum ferritin concentration and dietary heme iron content, dietary nonheme iron content or reports of supplemental iron use were found. These results do not support recommending dietary heme or nonheme iron restrictions for HFEC282Y homozygotes diagnosed through screening in North America.

  16. Attenuation of serum ferritin and iron burden by intake of antioxidants in beta thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Sonali S; Sarkar, Purnima Dey; Suryakar, Adinath N; Padalkar, Ramchandra K; Ghone, Rahul A; Patil, Sangita M; Hundekar, Prakash S

    2013-01-01

    It has been anticipated that iron and ferritin burden in patients with beta thalassemia major is associated with enhanced free radical formation and blemished antioxidant defense system. The goal of study was to scrutinize impact of serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin and erythrocyte catalase in patients with beta thalassemia major. 140 beta thalassemia major patients were studied before and after supplementation of antioxidants for one month, and status was compared with 140 age and sex matched healthy controls. A significant elevation was found in the levels of serum iron and ferritin (P serum TIBC concentration increased marginally while iron and ferritin were decreased marginally (P > 0.05) when compared with controls and baselines values. Beta thalassemia major children receive multiple blood transfusions, and are at risk of secondary iron overload induced oxidative stress. These effects may be help to minimize with supplementation of antioxidants.

  17. Dietary Iron Intake and Serum Interleukin-6 Levels of Obese Children With and Without Iron Deficiency

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    Lanang Sidiartha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency is more common in obese children. Low dietary iron intake and inflammation are suspected as the cause. This study investigates the dietary iron intake and serum IL-6 levels relationship with the obese children iron status. Methods: Seventy obese children were recruited. Dietary iron intake was calculated using three days’ food record. Serum IL-6 was measured using sandwich ELISA. Iron deficiency was confirmed if iron serum <60 mcg/dl and/or saturation of transferrin <20%. Independent t-test was used to analyze the mean difference of the dietary iron intake between the with and without iron deficiency groups, α=0.05. And, Mann-Whitney for the median difference of the serum IL-6 between the two groups. Results: Forty-six subjects (65.7% had iron deficiency. Dietary iron intake of the with and without iron deficiency groups were 6.8 mg (SD 3.3 and 6.6 mg (SD 3.8, respectively (p>0.05. The interleukin-6 was 2.7 pg/ml (0.3-16.8 and 1.7 pg/ml (0.8-4.9, respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion: Iron deficiency in obese children was high. It was not associated with low dietary iron intake, but associated with inflammation.

  18. Serum ferritin concentrations in Africans with low dietary iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Victor M; Mvundura, Elisha; Khumalo, Hlosukwazi; Gangaidzo, Innocent T; Saungweme, Thokozile; Nouraie, Mehdi; Rouault, Tracey A; Gomo, Zvenyika A R; Gordeuk, Victor R

    2009-11-01

    In the setting of high dietary, several studies have provided evidence for a strong effect of both high dietary iron and an unidentified genetic locus on iron stores in Africans. To investigate whether these effects are discernible in the setting of low dietary iron, serum ferritin concentrations were measured in 194 Zimbabwean men >30 years of age and 299 postmenopausal women who consumed a non-iron-fortified diet and who did not drink iron-rich traditional beer or other alcoholic beverages. Comparisons were made with non-alcohol drinking African-Americans studied in the third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES III) who consume an iron-fortified diet. As stratified by age and sex, serum ferritin concentrations were significantly lower in the 493 Zimbabweans studied than in 1,380 comparable African-Americans (P serum ferritin concentrations not associated with evidence of inflammation or hepatic dysfunction. These data suggest that mild serum ferritin concentration elevations may occur among Zimbabweans not exposed to high dietary iron and that iron fortification of the diet may have substantial effects on serum ferritin concentration.

  19. Serum Iron and Ferritin Levels in Patients with Vitiligo

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    Ayşe Tülin Mansur

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: In recent years, the role of oxidative stress in vitiligo has been widely investigated. Iron and ferritin have important roles in inflammation and oxidative reactions. However, up to date, there are very limited studies on iron metabolism in patients with vitiligo. In this study, we aimed to investigate serum iron and ferritin levels in patients with localized and generalized vitiligo in comparison with a control group.Material and Method: The study groups comprised 68 patients with vitiligo who did not receive systemic treatment or phototherapy in the preceding month, and 72 age- and sex-matched patients with skin disorders other than vitiligo including tinea pedis, melanocytic nevi, and keratoses. Blood samples for serum iron and ferritin levels were obtained before breakfast, after verbal informed consent.Results: No statistically significant differences were found between vitilligo patients and control population with regard to serum levels of iron and ferritin (p=0.478, p=0.307. Patients with localized and generalized vitiligo were also similar for these parameters (p=0.054, p=0.867. Moreover, serum levels of iron and ferritin did not show any significant correlation with disease duration (p=0.382, p=0.485. Conclusion: Our results showed that serum iron and ferritin levels were similar in patients with vitiligo and control subjects. Further studies determining the skin levels of iron and ferritin may elucidate the probable role of these molecules in vitiligo.

  20. Serum levels of iron in Sør-Varanger, Northern Norway--an iron mining municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderstad, Ann R; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Dahl, Inger Marie S; Ingebretsen, Ole Christian; Lund, Eiliv

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate iron status in a population with a high proportion of miners in the northernmost part of Norway. Cross-sectional, population-based study performed in order to investigate possible health effects of pollution in the population living on both sides of the Norwegian-Russian border. All individuals living in the community of Sør-Varanger were invited for screening in 1994. In 2000, blood samples from 2949 participants (response rate 66.8 %), age range 30-69 years, were defrosted. S-ferritin and transferrin saturation were analysed in samples from 1548 women and 1401 men. About 30 % (n = 893) were employed in the iron mining industry, 476 of whom were miners and 417 had other tasks in the company. Type and duration of employment and time since last day of work at the company were used as indicators of exposure. Both s-ferritin levels and transferrin saturation were higher in men than in women. S-ferritin increased with increasing age in women, while the opposite was true for men. Iron deficiency occurred with higher frequencies in women (16 %) than in men (4 %). Iron overload was uncommon in both sexes. Adjustment for smoking and self-reported pulmonary diseases did not show any effect on iron levels. Miners had non-significant higher mean s-ferritin and transferrin saturation than non-miners. Neither duration, nor time since employment in the mine, had any impact on iron status. Our analyses did not show any associations between being a miner in the iron mining industry and serum iron levels compared to the general population.

  1. Evaluation and association of serum iron and ferritin levels in children with dental caries

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    N S Venkatesh Babu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency anemia accounts for 90% of all types of anemia in the world. Although the prevalence has declined in recent years, it remains an important pediatric public health problem. Iron deficiency has also been associated with dental caries. It impairs salivary gland function causing reduced salivary secretion and buffering capacity leading to increased caries activity. Aim: The aim of the study is to explore an association between dental caries and serum levels of iron and ferritin in children aged 3–12 years. Subjectsand Methods: The study group included 120 children, hospitalized for uncomplicated medical problems. Blood reports were evaluated to determine serum iron and ferritin levels. Dental caries experience was assessed using deft index. Statistical Analysis Used: The collected data were tabulated and analyzed using Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Out of 120 children, 38 children showed low serum iron levels of which 31 children had dental caries and nine out of 15 children in the high serum iron level group showed dental caries. High ferritin levels were seen in three children among which two children were caries-free and only one child had a low ferritin level who also had a positive deft score. Conclusion: Based on the results, it was concluded that there is an inverse association between serum iron levels and dental caries whereas there is no association between serum ferritin levels and dental caries.

  2. [Serum iron and serum copper balance in the early diagnosis of metastases of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllgens, P; Kuhne-Velte, H J; Franke-Lompa, C

    1980-02-01

    In a study made in the follow-up clinic on 684 patients with mammary carcinoma it was found that there were 64 cases of local recurrence and 244 cases of distant metastases. In both groups the serum iron and the serum copper balance in blood tests, in relation to the clinical proof of local recurrence and/or distant metastases, was investigated. It was found that there were 43.7% pathological serum iron and serum copper findings with local recurrences and 62.7% with distant metastases. The drift apart tendency of the blood serum values in patients with distant metastases could be proved in 78.7% of the cases and in 77.5% of the cases before any clinical proof. Thus, these observations allow the statement that the blood serum iron and serum copper imbalance in blood tests is of very real value in the early diagnosis of distant metastases.

  3. A combination of serum iron, ferritin and transferrin predicts outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Hu, Rong; Zhang, Chao; Qian, Christopher; Luo, Qian-Qian; Yung, Wing-Ho; Ke, Ya; Feng, Hua; Qian, Zhong-Ming

    2016-02-22

    Association of a high-serum ferritin with poor outcome showed that iron might play a detrimental role in the brain after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Here, we investigated changes in serum iron, ferritin, transferrin (Tf) and ceruloplasmin (CP) in patients with ICH (n = 100) at day 1 (admission), 3, 7, 14 and 21 and those in control subjects (n = 75). The hematoma and edema volumes were also determined in ICH-patients on admission and at day 3. The Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of 59 patients was ≥3 (poor outcome) and 41 Serum ferritin was significantly higher and serum iron and Tf markedly lower in patients with poor-outcome than the corresponding values in patients with good-outcome at day 1 to 7 and those in the controls. There was a significant positive correlation between serum ferritin and relative edema volume or ratio at day 1 and 3 and hematoma volume at day 1 (n = 28), and a negative correlation between serum iron or Tf and hematoma volume at day 1 (n = 100). We concluded that not only increased serum ferritin but also reduced serum iron and Tf are associated with outcome as well as hematoma volume.

  4. Obesity modulate serum hepcidin and treatment outcome of iron deficiency anemia in children: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanad, Mohammed; Osman, Mohammed; Gharib, Amal

    2011-07-19

    Recently, hepcidin expression in adipose tissue has been described and shown to be increased in patients with severe obesity. We tried to assess the effect of obesity on hepcidin serum levels and treatment outcome of iron deficiency anemia in children. This was a case control study included 70 children with iron deficiency anemia "IDA" (35 obese and 35 non-obese) and 30 healthy non-obese children with comparable age and sex(control group). Parameters of iron status (Serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation) and serum hepcidin levels were assessed initially and after 3 months of oral iron therapy for IDA. Compared to the control group, serum hepcidin was significantly lower in non-obese children with IDA(p children with IDA (p children with IDA after 3 months of iron therapy (P children showed non-significant change in hepcidin level after iron therapy (p > 0.05). Although hepcidin showed significant positive correlations with Hb, serum iron and transferrin saturation in non-obese children with IDA, it showed significant negative correlations with Hb, serum iron and transferrin saturation in obese children with IDA (P iron therapy in childhood iron deficiency anemia.

  5. Serum ferritin and serum iron changes after cross-country and roller ski endurance races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattini, A; Schena, F; Guidi, G C

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the variations induced in iron status parameters by four endurance races of different lengths. A comprehensive group of 48 healthy, non-iron deficient, endurance athletes were evaluated before and after four different cross-country and roller ski races: I = Skirollonga, roller ski race for individuals (n = 10), mean duration (MD) = 1 h 48 min; II = Marcialonga, cross-country ski race for individuals (n = 9) MD = 3 h 10 min; III = 12-h of Caldonazzo (Trento-Italy) roller ski relay race (n = 13) MD = 12 h; IV = 24-h of Pinzolo (Trento-Italy) cross-country ski relay race (n = 16) MD = 24 h. In the relays the MD includes both exercise and recovery times. Blood samples were taken before and after every race for the determination of the following haematological parameters: red blood count, haemoglobin, and packed cell volume, serum iron concentration [SI], serum ferritin concentration [FERR] and total iron binding capacity (TIBC). The results showed a constant significant increase of [FERR] after the races (+44.9% in I, +50.5% in II, +51.2% in III and +36.5% in IV, P less than 0.01) while [SI] increased only in the first two races (+28.2% in I and +19.7% in II, P less than 0.01) and showed a remarkable decrease in the longer races (-46.1% in III and -39% in IV, P less than 0.01). The TIBC increased in all the races (except II) to the same extent (range 10%-12%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Serum Iron Levels and the Risk of Parkinson Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gögele, Martin; Lill, Christina M.; Bertram, Lars; Do, Chuong B.; Eriksson, Nicholas; Foroud, Tatiana; Myers, Richard H.; Nalls, Michael; Keller, Margaux F.; Benyamin, Beben; Whitfield, John B.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Thompson, John R.; Minelli, Cosetta

    2013-01-01

    Background Although levels of iron are known to be increased in the brains of patients with Parkinson disease (PD), epidemiological evidence on a possible effect of iron blood levels on PD risk is inconclusive, with effects reported in opposite directions. Epidemiological studies suffer from problems of confounding and reverse causation, and mendelian randomization (MR) represents an alternative approach to provide unconfounded estimates of the effects of biomarkers on disease. We performed a MR study where genes known to modify iron levels were used as instruments to estimate the effect of iron on PD risk, based on estimates of the genetic effects on both iron and PD obtained from the largest sample meta-analyzed to date. Methods and Findings We used as instrumental variables three genetic variants influencing iron levels, HFE rs1800562, HFE rs1799945, and TMPRSS6 rs855791. Estimates of their effect on serum iron were based on a recent genome-wide meta-analysis of 21,567 individuals, while estimates of their effect on PD risk were obtained through meta-analysis of genome-wide and candidate gene studies with 20,809 PD cases and 88,892 controls. Separate MR estimates of the effect of iron on PD were obtained for each variant and pooled by meta-analysis. We investigated heterogeneity across the three estimates as an indication of possible pleiotropy and found no evidence of it. The combined MR estimate showed a statistically significant protective effect of iron, with a relative risk reduction for PD of 3% (95% CI 1%–6%; p = 0.001) per 10 µg/dl increase in serum iron. Conclusions Our study suggests that increased iron levels are causally associated with a decreased risk of developing PD. Further studies are needed to understand the pathophysiological mechanism of action of serum iron on PD risk before recommendations can be made. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23750121

  7. Oral Zinc Supplementation Decreases the Serum Iron Concentration in Healthy Schoolchildren: A Pilot Study

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    Naira Josele Neves de Brito

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group, and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group. Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001. However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001 and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia.

  8. Second international round robin for the quantification of serum non-transferrin-bound iron and labile plasma iron in patients with iron-overload disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, L. de; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Vorm, L.N. van der; Cabantchik, Z.I.; Evans, P.J.; Hod, E.A.; Brittenham, G.M.; Furman, Y.; Wojczyk, B.; Janssen, M.C.H.; Porter, J.B.; Mattijssen, V.E.; Biemond, B.J.; MacKenzie, M.A.; Origa, R.; Galanello, R.; Hider, R.C.; Swinkels, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    Non-transferrin-bound iron and its labile (redox active) plasma iron component are thought to be potentially toxic forms of iron originally identified in the serum of patients with iron overload. We compared ten worldwide leading assays (6 for non-transferrin-bound iron and 4 for labile plasma iron)

  9. [Evaluation of serum iron in hemodialysis patients and its variation due to the difference of blood sampling time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yasutoshi; Ozawa, Yasuaki; Imafuku, Yuji; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2011-11-01

    Diurnal variations in serum iron concentration were examined to investigate the influence of sampling time in hemodialysis (HD) patients and healthy subjects. The serum iron concentration and TIBC of HD patients decreased significantly (pserum ferritin concentration of HD patients increased significantly (piron transport system: under such condition intracellural iron transition out into peripheral blood stream is low in HD patients. Serum iron concentration in samples collected in the evening decreased significantly both in HD patients (pserum iron concentration reveal almost similar decrement in both groups. In HD patients, serum iron concentration of the blood samples collected on the third day morning after HD and second day morning after HD was examined to see the influence from changes of circulating plasma volume. The serum iron concentration and Hct value in the second day sampling increased significantly compared to the third day sampling (pserum iron concentration corrected by Hct in the second day sampling increased significantly (pserum iron concentration vary in sampling time in HD patients as well as in healthy subjects. We also deduct that there may be other factors concerning changes in circulating plasma volume.

  10. Transformation rate between ferritin and hemosiderin assayed by serum ferritin kinetics in patients with normal iron stores and iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hisao

    2015-11-01

    Ferritin iron, hemosiderin iron, total iron stores and transformation rate were determined by serum ferritin kinetics. The transformation rate between ferritin and hemosiderin is motivated by the potential difference between them. The transformer determines transformation rate according to the potential difference in iron mobilization and deposition. The correlations between transformation rate and iron stores were studied in 11 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), 1 patent with treated iron deficiency anemia (TIDA), 9 patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) and 4 patients with transfusion-dependent anemia (TD). The power regression curve of approximation showed an inverse correlation between transformation rate and ferritin iron, hemosiderin iron in part and total iron stores in HH. Such an inverse correlation between transformation rate and iron stores implies that the larger the amount of iron stores, the smaller the transformation of iron stores. On the other hand, a minimal inverse correlation between transformation rate and ferritin iron and no correlation between transformation rate and hemosiderin iron or total iron stores in CHC indicate the derangement of storage iron metabolism in the cells with CHC. Radio-iron fixation on the iron storing tissue in iron overload was larger than that in normal subjects by ferrokinetics. This is consistent with the inverse correlation between transformation rate and total iron stores in HH. The characteristics of iron turnover between ferritin and hemosiderin were disclosed from the correlation between transformation rate and ferritin iron, hemosiderin iron or total iron stores.

  11. Factors influencing measurement of serum iron concentration in dogs: diurnal variation and hyperferritinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Kanai, Kazutaka; Ito, Naoyuki; Hoshi, Fumio; Orino, Koichi; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Higuchi, Seiichi

    2013-12-30

    We evaluated diurnal variation and hyperferritinemia as factors that influence the values of serum iron concentration in dogs, using the International Committee for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH) colorimetric method. Serum iron levels were significantly higher in the morning than in the evening in 6 clinically healthy beagle dogs, and the maximum decrease in serum iron concentration was 47.3%. Moreover, the change in serum iron concentrations in 22 clinical canine cases with various serum ferritin levels was evaluated by immunoprecipitation of ferritin. The rate of decline in the serum iron concentrations positively correlated with serum ferritin levels (r=0.48, P=0.024). These results show that it is necessary to consider the sampling time and serum ferritin level for accurate interpretation of serum iron concentrations in dogs.

  12. Oral zinc supplementation decreases the serum iron concentration in healthy schoolchildren: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; Rocha, Érika Dantas; de Araújo Silva, Alfredo; Costa, João Batista Sousa; França, Mardone Cavalcante; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Brandão-Neto, José

    2014-09-04

    The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group), and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia.

  13. Transformation rate between ferritin and hemosiderin assayed by serum ferritin kinetics in patients with normal iron stores and iron overload

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ferritin iron, hemosiderin iron, total iron stores and transformation rate were determined by serum ferritin kinetics. The transformation rate between ferritin and hemosiderin is motivated by the potential difference between them. The transformer determines transformation rate according to the potential difference in iron mobilization and deposition. The correlations between transformation rate and iron stores were studied in 11 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), 1 patent with ...

  14. Serum ferritin concentration predicts hepatic fibrosis better than hepatic iron concentration in human HFE-Haemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Marnie J; Crawford, Darrell H G; Wockner, Leesa F; Powell, Lawrie W; Ramm, Grant A

    2017-09-01

    Ferritin is purported to have proinflammatory and profibrogenic effects on hepatic stellate cells. Thus, rather than acting as a passive indicator of hepatic iron concentration (HIC) in haemochromatosis, ferritin may directly influence fibrosis. This study evaluated whether serum ferritin is a better predictor of hepatic fibrosis compared to variables previously associated with increased fibrosis risk in haemochromatosis. We identified 291 C282Y HFE-homozygous patients who had undergone liver biopsy for histological fibrosis staging and measurement of HIC. Ordinal logistic regression determined the best model for fibrosis stage not including serum ferritin. Then, serum ferritin was introduced into this model to assess whether the predictive power of the model was significantly increased and to evaluate the effect on other predictors of fibrosis. Ordinal logistic regression analyses without serum ferritin demonstrated that log HIC (OR 2.89; P serum ferritin in multivariate analysis substantially improved the predictive power of the model (χ(2 ) = 37.15; P serum ferritin in this model rendered the effects of HIC, gender, alcohol and steatosis to non-significance. In haemochromatosis, serum ferritin is a better predictor of fibrosis stage than HIC, gender, steatosis and alcohol. These data support a hypothesis that ferritin may play a role in fibrosis rather than simply acting as a passive indicator of iron storage. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Hypoxemia increases serum interleukin-6 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, T; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Poulsen, T D

    1997-01-01

    Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL) 1 beta, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined in ten healthy men at sea level and during four days of altitude hypoxia (4350m above sea level). The mean (SD) arterial blood...... oxygen saturations were 78.6 (7.3)%, 82.4 (4.9)%, and 83.4 (5.3)% in the first, second, and third days at altitude, respectively. A symptom score of acute mountain sickness (AMS) revealed that the subjects had mostly light symptoms of AMS. Mean serum IL-6 increased from 1.36 (1.04) pg x ml(-1) at sea...

  16. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers;

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  17. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity in patients with iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedikbasi, Asuman; Akalin, Nilgul; Gunaldi, Meral; Yilmaz, Deniz; Mert, Meral; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Soylu, Aliye; Karakaya, Pinar; Kumbasar, Abdulbaki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In this study we aimed to detect paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) activity in iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and to compare it with healthy controls by observing the change after iron therapy. Material and methods In this study, 50 adult patients with IDA and 40 healthy subjects were enrolled. All patients were analyzed at the beginning and after treatment according to laboratory assessments. Results Mean paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in the iron deficiency anemia group were significantly lower than mean activities of the control group (102.4 ±19.2 U/l and 163.3 ±13.68 U/l, respectively and 157.3 ±26.4 U/l and 256.1 ±24.6 U/l, respectively; p = 0.0001 for both). Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities significantly increased after treatment for IDA (143.2 ±13.9 and 197.6 ±27.9 U/l, respectively, p = 0.0001). Mean activities after treatment with iron were significantly lower than mean activities in the control group (p = 0.002; p = 0.0001 respectively). Conclusions Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in patients with IDA significantly increased after treatment with iron therapy. In adults IDA may also be one of the factors associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:27478448

  18. Evaluation of iron status in lemurs by analysis of serum iron and ferritin concentrations, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cathy V; Junge, Randall E; Stalis, Ilse H

    2008-02-15

    To assess serum iron and ferritin concentrations, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation as indicators of iron metabolic status in 3 genera of lemurs and determine whether these variables are useful for screening for iron overload. Cross-sectional study. 11 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 11 black lemurs (Eulemur macaco macaco), and 11 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra). Blood samples were collected weekly for 3 weeks and assayed for serum iron and ferritin concentrations and total iron-binding capacity. Liver biopsy specimens were evaluated histologically and assayed for total iron, nonheme iron, and trace mineral concentrations. Deposition of iron was scored on Prussian blue-stained slides. Hepatic iron content ranged from 497 to 12,800 Pg/g dry weight (median, 2,165 Pg/g). Differences were seen in mean hepatic iron content across genera, with ruffed lemurs having the highest concentrations and ring-tailed lemurs having the lowest. Iron accumulation in the liver was mild, and cellular pathologic changes associated with iron storage disease were not detected in any lemur. Ferritin concentration was the only variable that correlated significantly with hepatic iron content in all 3 genera of lemurs; however, both transferrin saturation and serum iron concentration were correlated with hepatic iron concentration in ring-tailed and ruffed lemurs. Serum ferritin concentration was the only variable that was consistently correlated with hepatic iron content in all 3 genera. Mean hepatic iron content varied across genera, suggesting that the propensity for lemurs to develop iron overload in captivity may vary across taxa.

  19. Serum transferrin receptor levels in the evaluation of iron deficiency in the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusia, U; Flowers, C; Madan, N; Agarwal, N; Sood, S K; Sikka, M

    1996-10-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major global problem. Early onset of iron deficiency in developing countries makes it imperative to identify iron deficiency in neonates. Most conventional laboratory parameters of iron status fail to distinguish neonates with iron deficient erythropoiesis. Serum transferrin receptor (STFR) levels are a recent sensitive measure of iron deficiency and the present study was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of cord serum transferrin receptors in identifying iron deficient erythropoiesis in neonates. A complete hemogram, red cell indices, iron profile: serum iron (SI), percent transferrin saturation (TS%) and serum ferritin (SF) was carried out in 100 full-term neonates and their mothers at parturition. Cord and maternal STFR levels were estimated using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Anemic women had a significantly lower SI, their TS% and high STFR levels suggesting that iron deficiency was responsible for the anemia. In the neonates of iron deficient mothers, cord SI, TS% and cord ferritin were not significantly different from those of neonates born to non-anemic mothers. Cord STFR level correlated well with hemoglobin (Hb) and laboratory parameters of iron status, and its level was significantly higher in neonates born to anemic mothers than in those born to non-anemic mothers. It was the only laboratory parameter to differentiate between neonates born to anemic and non-anemic mothers. Therefore, STFR is a sensitive index of iron status in neonates and identifies neonates with iron deficient erythropoiesis.

  20. Serum transferrin receptor concentration indicates increased erythropoiesis in Kenyan children with asymptomatic malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, H; West, C E; Ndeto, P; Burema, J; Beguin, Y; Kok, F J

    2001-12-01

    Serum transferrin receptor concentrations indicate both erythropoietic activity and the deficit of functional iron in the erythron. In contrast with serum ferritin concentrations, serum transferrin receptor concentrations are not or are only marginally influenced by the inflammatory response to infection. We assessed iron status and examined the relation between serum transferrin receptor concentrations and malaria in children aged 2-36 mo who were asymptomatic for malaria. This was a community-based cluster survey (n = 318). Prevalences of malaria, anemia (hemoglobin concentration serum ferritin concentration Malaria was associated with lower mean hemoglobin concentrations (92.7 compared with 104.1 g/L; P = 0.0001) and higher geometric mean serum concentrations of transferrin receptor (11.4 compared with 7.8 mg/L; P = 0.005), ferritin (21.6 compared with 11.9 microg/L; P = 0.05), and C-reactive protein (12.5 compared with 6.8 mg/L; P = 0.004). There was no evidence for an association between serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and transferrin receptor. Children with malaria had higher serum transferrin receptor concentrations than expected for the degree of anemia, even after adjustment for inflammation indicated by serum C-reactive protein concentration quartiles (P = 0.02). Our findings are consistent with the notion that malaria-induced hemolysis is accompanied by increased erythropoiesis. Serum transferrin receptor concentration is not useful for detecting iron deficiency in individuals with malaria. Individuals with high concentrations of serum C-reactive protein or similar acute phase reactants should be excluded from analysis if serum ferritin concentrations malaria-endemic areas.

  1. Increased serum prolactin in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Korkmaz, Sevda; Ustundag, Bilal; Ozkan, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Although there is an important interaction between serotonergic system, prolactin and suicidal behavior, and impulsivity, no investigation examined the prolactin values in borderline personality disorder in which suicidal behavior and impulsivity are core symptom dimensions. In this context, in the present investigation, we planned to measure serum prolactin levels in the patients with borderline personality disorder. The study comprised 15 patients with borderline personality disorder and 15 healthy controls. Prolactin values were measured in both patients and control subjects. The patients had abnormally higher mean value of prolactin compared to those of healthy controls (48.66 ± 36.48 mg/dl for patients vs. 15.20 ± 7.81 mg/dl for healthy controls). There was no correlation between prolactin values and any demographic variables for both the patients and control subjects. In conclusion, our present results suggest that prolactin values increased in the patients with borderline personality disorder and are required to be replicated by more comprehensive and detailed further studies to decipher the exact roles of prolactin increase.

  2. Serum transferrin receptor concentration indicates increased erythropoiesis in Kenyan children with asymptomatic malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, H.; West, C.E.; Ndeto, P.; Burema, J.; Benguin, Y.; Kok, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Serum transferrin receptor concentrations indicate both erythropoietic activity and the deficit of functional iron in the erythron. In contrast with serum ferritin concentrations, serum transferrin receptor concentrations are not or are only marginally influenced by the inflammatory

  3. Oily fish increases iron bioavailability of a phytate rich meal in young iron deficient women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Sarriá, Beatriz; Carbajal, Angeles; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Roe, Mark A; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2008-02-01

    Iron deficiency is a major health problem worldwide, and is associated with diets of low iron bioavailability. Non-heme iron absorption is modulated by dietary constituents, one of which is the so-called "meat factor", present in meat, fish (oily and lean) and poultry, which is an important enhancer of iron absorption in humans. Food processing also affects iron bioavailability. To evaluate the effect of consuming sous vide cooked salmon fish on non-heme iron bioavailability from a bean meal, rich in phytate, in iron-deficient women. Randomized crossover trial in 21 young women with low iron stores (ferritin Sous vide cooked salmon fish increases iron absorption from a high phytate bean meal in humans.

  4. Liver congestion in heart failure contributes to inappropriately increased serum hepcidin despite anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yukako; Hanawa, Haruo; Jiao, Shuang; Hayashi, Yuka; Yoshida, Kaori; Suzuki, Tomoyasu; Kashimura, Takeshi; Obata, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Komei; Watanabe, Tohru; Minamino, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Hepcidin is a key regulator of mammalian iron metabolism and mainly produced by the liver. Hepcidin excess causes iron deficiency and anemia by inhibiting iron absorption from the intestine and iron release from macrophage stores. Anemia is frequently complicated with heart failure. In heart failure patients, the most frequent histologic appearance of liver is congestion. However, it remains unclear whether liver congestion associated with heart failure influences hepcidin production, thereby contributing to anemia and functional iron deficiency. In this study, we investigated this relationship in clinical and basic studies. In clinical studies of consecutive heart failure patients (n = 320), anemia was a common comorbidity (41%). In heart failure patients without active infection and ongoing cancer (n = 30), log-serum hepcidin concentration of patients with liver congestion was higher than those without liver congestion (p = 0.0316). Moreover, in heart failure patients with liver congestion (n = 19), the anemia was associated with the higher serum hepcidin concentrations, which is a type of anemia characterized by induction of hepcidin. Subsequently, we produced a rat model of heart failure with liver congestion by injecting monocrotaline that causes pulmonary hypertension. The monocrotaline-treated rats displayed liver congestion with increase of hepcidin expression at 4 weeks after monocrotaline injection, followed by anemia and functional iron deficiency observed at 5 weeks. We conclude that liver congestion induces hepcidin production, which may result in anemia and functional iron deficiency in some patients with heart failure.

  5. Pre-Altitude Serum Ferritin Levels and Daily Oral Iron Supplement Dose Mediate Iron Parameter and Hemoglobin Mass Responses to Altitude Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Govus

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of daily oral iron supplementation on changes in hemoglobin mass (Hbmass and iron parameters after 2-4 weeks of moderate altitude exposure.Hematological data collected from 178 athletes (98 males, 80 females exposed to moderate altitude (1,350-3,000 m were analysed using linear regression to determine how altitude exposure combined with oral iron supplementation influenced Hbmass, total iron incorporation (TII and blood iron parameters [ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT].Altitude exposure (mean ± s: 21 ± 3 days increased Hbmass by 1.1% [-0.4, 2.6], 3.3% [1.7, 4.8], and 4.0% [2.0, 6.1] from pre-altitude levels in athletes who ingested nil, 105 mg and 210 mg respectively, of oral iron supplement daily. Serum ferritin levels decreased by -33.2% [-46.9, -15.9] and 13.8% [-32.2, 9.7] from pre-altitude levels in athletes who supplemented with nil and 105 mg of oral iron supplement daily, but increased by 36.8% [1.3, 84.8] in athletes supplemented with 210 mg of oral iron daily. Finally, athletes who ingested either 105 mg or 210 mg of oral iron supplement daily had a greater TII compared with non-supplemented athletes (0 versus 105 mg: effect size (d = -1.88 [-2.56, -1.17]; 0 versus 210 mg: effect size (d = -2.87 [-3.88, -1.66].Oral iron supplementation during 2-4 weeks of moderate altitude exposure may enhance Hbmass production and assist the maintenance of iron balance in some athletes with low pre-altitude iron stores.

  6. Increased serum hepcidin levels in subjects with the metabolic syndrome: a population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Martinelli

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of hepcidin, the key iron regulatory hormone, has changed our view of iron metabolism, which in turn is long known to be linked with insulin resistant states, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS. Serum ferritin levels are often elevated in MetS (Dysmetabolic hyperferritinemia--DHF, and are sometimes associated with a true mild-to-moderate hepatic iron overload (dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome--DIOS. However, the pathophysiological link between iron and MetS remains unclear. This study was aimed to investigate, for the first time, the relationship between MetS and hepcidin at population level. We measured serum hepcidin levels by Mass Spectrometry in 1,391 subjects from the Val Borbera population, and evaluated their relationship with classical MetS features. Hepcidin levels increased significantly and linearly with increasing number of MetS features, paralleling the trend of serum ferritin. In multivariate models adjusted for relevant variables including age, C-Reactive Protein, and the HFE C282Y mutation, ferritin was the only significant independent predictor of hepcidin in males, while in females MetS was also independently associated with hepcidin. Overall, these data indicate that the fundamental iron regulatory feedback is preserved in MetS, i.e. that hepcidin tends to progressively increase in response to the increase of iron stores. Due to recently discovered pleiotropic effects of hepcidin, this may worsen insulin resistance and contribute to the cardiovascular complications of MetS.

  7. Serum iron level, ferritin and total iron binding capacity level among nonpregnant women with and without melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Behrangi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melasma is a common acquired disorder characterized by symmetric, hyperpigmented patches with an irregular outline, occurring most commonly on the face. It is most prevalent among young to middle-aged women. Although iron overload affects skin pigmentation, effect of iron deficiency on skin is not clear. So, we evaluated serum iron level, ferritin and total iron binding capacity (TIBC level among nonpregnant women with and without melasma. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional case study was conducted in 2012 at university dermatologic department on 33 nonpregnant women with melasma (case and 33 nonpregnant women without melasma (control. Serum iron level, TIBC and ferritin in the two groups was measured and compared. Results: Serum iron level was lower in the case group (85 ± 11 in comparison with control group (102 ± 9, but the difference was not significant (P: 0.9. Mean TIBC and Ferritin were higher in the case group (TIBC: 329.4 ± 29, ferritin: 6 ± 18 than the control group (TIBC: 329.3 ± 29, ferritin: 33 ± 6 without significant difference. Conclusion: Although the serum iron level was lower in nonpregnant women with mealsma, it was not significant compared with those without melasma.

  8. Serum iron level, ferritin and total iron binding capacity level among nonpregnant women with and without melasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrangi, Elham; Baniasadi, Farzaneh; Esmaeeli, Shooka; Hedayat, Kosar; Goodarzi, Azade; Azizian, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Melasma is a common acquired disorder characterized by symmetric, hyperpigmented patches with an irregular outline, occurring most commonly on the face. It is most prevalent among young to middle-aged women. Although iron overload affects skin pigmentation, effect of iron deficiency on skin is not clear. So, we evaluated serum iron level, ferritin and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) level among nonpregnant women with and without melasma. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional case study was conducted in 2012 at university dermatologic department on 33 nonpregnant women with melasma (case) and 33 nonpregnant women without melasma (control). Serum iron level, TIBC and ferritin in the two groups was measured and compared. Results: Serum iron level was lower in the case group (85 ± 11) in comparison with control group (102 ± 9), but the difference was not significant (P: 0.9). Mean TIBC and Ferritin were higher in the case group (TIBC: 329.4 ± 29, ferritin: 6 ± 18) than the control group (TIBC: 329.3 ± 29, ferritin: 33 ± 6) without significant difference. Conclusion: Although the serum iron level was lower in nonpregnant women with mealsma, it was not significant compared with those without melasma. PMID:26109976

  9. Estimating iron overload in patients with suspected liver disease and elevated serum ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippà, Pietro E; Boucsein, Irena; Adams, Heiner; Krayenbuehl, Pierre-Alexandre

    2014-10-01

    Iron status evaluation in patients with suspected liver disease and elevated serum ferritin is often challenging because hyperferritinemia does not always indicate iron overload. A reliable approach to estimate iron overload without exposing the patient to unnecessary investigations would help the clinician to identify patients who may take advantage of iron-removal therapy. We analyzed all liver biopsies, including measurement of hepatic iron concentration, performed at the University Hospital Zurich from 1997 to 2010 to identify clinical and laboratory predictors of iron overload in patients with elevated serum ferritin (n = 147). Hyperferritinemia was predictive of iron overload only in patients with a high level of serum ferritin (>2000 μg/L). In patients with moderate hyperferritinemia, liver transaminases inversely correlated with hepatic iron concentration. A combination of both parameters expressed as ferritin/aspartate transaminase ratio was highly predictive of tissue iron overload (sensitivity 83.3%, specificity 78.6%). Receiver operating characteristic analysis resulted in an area under the curve of 0.83. We established a simple and reliable method to correctly estimate iron overload in patients with suspected liver disease and elevated serum ferritin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between Serum Iron Profile and Blood Groups among the Voluntary Blood Donors of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M M; Adnan, S D; Karim, S; Al-Mamun, M A; Faruki, M A; Islam, K; Nandy, S

    2016-04-01

    Blood donation results in a substantial iron loss and subsequent mobilization from body stores. Chronic iron deficiency is a well-recognized complication of regular blood donation. The present study conducted to compare the level of serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and percentage transferrin saturation in different ABO and Rhesus type blood groups among the voluntary blood donors of Bangladesh. The present prospective study included 100 healthy voluntary donors attending at Department of Blood Transfusion, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka between the periods of July 2013 to Jun 2014. From each donor 10mL venous blood sample was taken and divided into heparinized and non-heparinized tubes for determination of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin by standard laboratory methods. Percentage of transferrin saturation (TS) calculated from serum iron and TIBC. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) software and comparisons between groups were made using student's t-test and one way ANOVA. In the present study mean±SD of age of the respondents was 27.2±6.5 years with a range of 18 to 49 years and 81.0% were male and 19.0% were female. Among the donors 18.0% had blood group A, 35.0% had blood group B, 14.0% had blood group AB and 33.0% had blood group O. Among the donors 91.0% had rhesus positive and 9.0% had rhesus negative. Donors with blood group O had lowest haemoglobin, serum iron and transferring saturation levels. Donors with blood group A had highest TIBC level. Donors with blood group B had lowest serum ferritin level. An independent samples 't' test showed statistically significant difference in serum ferritin and percentage transferrin saturation between blood group AB and blood group O and in percentage transferrin saturation between blood group B and blood group O. One way ANOVA showed that there is no significant difference in haemoglobin, serum iron, serum

  11. Risk of Oxidative Damage to Bone from Increased Iron Stores During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Iron stores are increased secondary to neocytolysis of red blood cells and a high dietary intake of iron during space flight. This raises concerns about the risk of excess iron causing oxidative damage in many tissues, including bone. Biomarkers of iron status, oxidative damage, and bone resorption during space flight were analyzed for 23 (16 M/7 F) International Space Station crewmembers as part of the Nutrition SMO project. Up to 5 in-flight blood samples and 24-h urine pools were collected over the course of the 4-6 month missions. Serum iron increased slightly during space flight and was decreased at landing (P diet (45 mg iron (ferric citrate)/kg diet) for 3 wk and then assigned to one of four groups: adequate iron (Fe) diet/no radiation, adequate Fe diet/ radiation, moderately high Fe diet (650 mg Fe (ferric citrate)/kg diet)/no radiation, and moderately high Fe diet/radiation. Animals remained on the assigned diet for 4 wk. Starting on day 14 of experimental diet treatment, animals were exposed to a fractionated dose (0.375 Gy) of Cs-137 every other day (3 Gy total dose). On day 29 (24 h after last radiation exposure), animals were euthanized. Oxidative stress markers in the liver, bone, eyes, and serum were assessed. There was evidence that the iron diet contributed to DNA damage as well as radiation exposure in the liver, eyes, and bone. Together, the results suggest that increased iron stores do constitute a risk factor for oxidative damage and bone resorption, during space flight and on Earth. Funded by the Human Health and Countermeasures Element of the NASA Human Research Program.

  12. Intravenous iron for the treatment of fatigue in nonanemic, premenopausal women with low serum ferritin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayenbuehl, Pierre-Alexandre; Battegay, Edouard; Breymann, Christian; Furrer, Joerg; Schulthess, Georg

    2011-09-22

    This is the first study to investigate the efficacy of intravenous iron in treating fatigue in nonanemic patients with low serum ferritin concentration. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, 90 premenopausal women presenting with fatigue, serum ferritin ≤ 50 ng/mL, and hemoglobin ≥ 120 g/L were randomized to receive either 800 mg of intravenous iron (III)-hydroxide sucrose or intravenous placebo. Fatigue and serum iron status were assessed at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks. Median fatigue at baseline was 4.5 (on a 0-10 scale). Fatigue decreased during the initial 6 weeks by 1.1 in the iron group compared with 0.7 in the placebo group (P = .07). Efficacy of iron was bound to depleted iron stores: In patients with baseline serum ferritin ≤ 15 ng/mL, fatigue decreased by 1.8 in the iron group compared with 0.4 in the placebo group (P = .005), and 82% of iron-treated compared with 47% of placebo-treated patients reported improved fatigue (P = .03). Drug-associated adverse events were observed in 21% of iron-treated patients and in 7% of placebo-treated patients (P = .05); none of these events was serious. Intravenous administration of iron improved fatigue in iron-deficient, nonanemic women with a good safety and tolerability profile. The efficacy of intravenous iron was bound to a serum ferritin concentration ≤ 15 ng/mL. This study was registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Register (www.isrctn.org) as ISRCTN78430425.

  13. EVALUATION OF SERUM FERRITIN AND SERUM IRON IN FREE-RANGING BLACK RHINOCEROS (DICEROS BICORNIS) AS A TOOL TO UNDERSTAND FACTORS AFFECTING IRON-OVERLOAD DISORDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele; Chavey, Patricia Sue; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Doering, Alyssa; Buss, Peter; Olea-Popelka, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    Iron overload disorder (IOD) is a significant health issue for captive black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis ). Measurement of serum ferritin with a validated rhinoceros ferritin ELISA has been used extensively to detect animals in U.S. zoos that are at risk of developing IOD. However, there is limited information on serum ferritin levels in free-ranging black rhinoceros using this same assay. Serum ferritin, iron, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were determined in 194 black rhinoceros from southern Africa. Mean ferritin in free-ranging black rhinoceros (290.54 ±247.4 ng/ml) was significantly higher than in free-ranging white rhinoceros (64.0 ± 102.4 ng/ml) sampled in this study from Kruger National Park, South Africa. However, there were no significant differences between genders or age groups. Ferritin values varied with geographical location of the black rhinoceros, although this was not clinically significant. Serum iron values were also higher in black rhinoceros (40.4 ± 19.1 μmol/L) compared to white rhinoceros (29.7 ± 10.7 μmol/L). There was no association between ferritin and GGT. This study provides serum ferritin, iron, and GGT values from free-ranging black rhinoceros that can be used for as comparative target values for captive animals.

  14. Serum ferritin as a marker of potential biochemical iron overload in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Schena, Federico; Franchini, Massimo; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2005-09-01

    Beyond hematological manipulation, iron supplementation therapy is commonplace in athletes to counterbalance physiological or pathologic anemia and to prevent physiologic dysfunction. However, misuse of iron therapy, occasionally resulting in iron overload, is not free from metabolic risks. We planned to measure baseline serum ferritin concentration in sedentary individual and athletes. The Institute of Clinical Biochemistry of the Verona University. PARTICIPANTS Serum ferritin was measured in 60 male healthy sedentary controls, 80 amateur road cyclists, 42 male professional cross-country skiers, and 88 professional male road cyclists. The biochemical iron overload was ascertained by measuring baseline serum ferritin concentration as a reliable approach that mirrors the total body iron content. The concentration of serum ferritin in healthy controls was 112 +/- 78 ng/mL, whereas that of amateur cyclists, professional skiers, and professional cyclists was 127 +/- 76 ng/mL (P = 0.185), 183 +/- 130 ng/mL (P = 0.001), and 332 +/- 218 ng/mL (P concentrations of serum ferritin, whereas the concentration of amateur cyclists was comparable to that of healthy sedentary controls. Professional endurance athletes have serum ferritin concentrations that are 2-fold to 3-fold higher than those of matched sedentary individuals and amateur athletes, exceeding the threshold for the diagnosis of biochemical iron overload and unveiling potential metabolic risks.

  15. Serum iron metabolism and erythropoiesis in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome not receiving RBC transfusions

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Rui; Gale, Robert Peter; Zhu, Guoqing; Xu, Zefeng; Qin, Tiejun; Zhang, Yue; Huang, Gang; Li, Bing; Fang, Liwei; Zhang, Hongli; Pan, Lijuan; Hu, Naibo; Qu, Shiqiang; Xiao, Zhijian

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of hepcidin, a key iron regulating hormone, is important in the pathogenesis of iron overload in patients with myelodysplatic syndrome (MDS). However, most studies of hepcidin levels are complicated by concomitant RBC transfusions. To evaluate the relationship between iron metabolism and erythropoiesis, we measured serum levels of hepcidin, growth-differentiation factor-15 (GDF15) and other markers of erythropoiesis in 107 subjects with MDS not receiving RBC transfusions. Patien...

  16. Body iron and individual prophylaxis in pregnancy-should the iron dose be adjusted according to serum  ferritin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, KE; Bergholt, T

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate iron prophylaxis in pregnant women from the individual aspect, i.e. according to serum ferritin levels at the beginning of pregnancy, and to assess which dose of iron would be adequate to prevent iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) during pregnancy...... ferritin, serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), haemoglobin] were recorded at 18, 32 and 39 weeks gestation and 8 weeks postpartum. Body iron was calculated using the serum sTfR/serum ferritin ratio. ID was defined by serum ferritin serum...... ferritin serum ferritin levels at inclusion; 50.7% had ferritin 70 microg/l. At 32 weeks, women with ferritin 30 microg/l had an ID frequency of: 20-mg group 20...

  17. Association of serum levels of iron, copper, and zinc, and inflammatory markers with bacteriological sputum conversion during tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Milena Lima de; Ramalho, Daniela Maria de Paula; Delogo, Karina Neves; Miranda, Pryscila Fernandes Campino; Mesquita, Eliene Denites Duarte; de Melo Guedes de Oliveira, Hedi Marinho; Netto, Antônio Ruffino; Dos Anjos, Marcelino José; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; de Oliveira, Martha Maria

    2014-08-01

    Iron, copper, and zinc are key micronutrients that play an important role in the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between serum levels of those micronutrients, inflammatory markers, and the smear and culture conversion of M. tuberculosis during 60 days of tuberculosis treatment. Seventy-five male patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (mean age, 40.0 ± 10.7 years) were evaluated at baseline and again at 30 and 60 days of tuberculosis treatment. Serum levels of iron, copper, zinc, albumin, globulin, C-reactive protein, and hemoglobin, and smear and cultures for M. tuberculosis in sputum samples were analyzed. Compared to healthy subjects, at baseline, patients with PTB had lower serum iron levels, higher copper levels and copper/zinc ratio, and similar zinc levels. During the tuberculosis treatment, no significant changes in the serum levels of iron, zinc, and copper/zinc were observed. Lower serum copper levels were associated with bacteriological conversion in tuberculosis treatment (tuberculosis-negative) at 30 days but not at 60 days (tuberculosis-positive). C-reactive protein levels and the C-reactive protein/albumin ratio were lower in tuberculosis-negative patients than in tuberculosis-positive patients at 30 and 60 days after treatment. Albumin and hemoglobin levels and the albumin/globulin ratio in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis increased during the study period, regardless of the bacteriological results. High serum globulin levels did not change among pulmonary tuberculosis patients during the study. Serum copper levels and the C-reactive protein/albumin ratio may be important parameters to evaluate the persistence of non-conversion after 60 days of tuberculosis treatment, and they may serve as predictors for relapse after successful treatment.

  18. Serum hepcidin is significantly associated with iron absorption from food and supplemental sources in healthy young woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepcidin is a key regulator of iron homeostasis, but to date no studies have examined the effect of hepcidin on iron absorption in humans. Our objective was to assess relations between both serum hepcidin and serum prohepcidin with nonheme-iron absorption in the presence and absence of food with the...

  19. [Increase of serum procalcitonin levels during a neuroleptic malignant syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabot, B; Pautas, E; Gatey, M; Perivier, S; Mahieux, F; Pinquier, C; Hausfater, P

    2009-01-01

    When fever occurs in a patient treated with a neuroleptic, the diagnosis of a neuroleptic malignant syndrome is difficult to differentiate to that of an infectious event. Among inflammation biomarkers of inflammation, serum procalcitonin levels increase both quickly and specifically during a bacterial infection. We report the first case of a neuroleptic malignant syndrome associated with a significant increase of serum procalcitonin levels, without concomitant septic syndrome. The neuroleptic malignant syndrome might be a non-infectious clinical situation associated with an increased serum procalcitonin concentration.

  20. INCREASE OF EFFICIENCY OF MODIFIERS FOR GRAY CAST-IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established that for the purpose of increase of modifying efficiency of the melt from gray cast iron it is possible to use mechanically alloyed aluminum powder with superdispersed particles of aluminum and graphite oxide.

  1. [Increased serum PIVKA-II levels in hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, M; Takeda, K; Ohara, E; Nishimori, Y; Hisahara, T; Nishida, M; Sugiura, T

    2001-11-01

    PIVKA-II has been practically used as a tumor marker of hepatocellular carcinoma. On the other hand, increased serum PIVKA-II concentration was reported in a Japanese patient who had hyperthyroidism without liver diseases. To evaluate whether thyroid hormone is related with serum PIVKA-II, we examined serum PIVKA-II concentrations in patients with various thyroid diseases. Eight patients with Hashimoto disease, 24 patients with Graves' disease, and 8 healthy subjects were studied. There was no significant difference of serum PIVKA-II levels among the three groups. However, serum PIVKA-II concentrations(mean +/- SD mAU/ml) in hyperthyroidism(37 +/- 27) were significantly higher than those in hypothyroidism(16 +/- 9) and normal controls(12 +/- 4) (p PIVKA-II concentrations decreased in accordance with the decrease of serum FT4 concentrations. Our data indicate that serum PIVKA-II concentration was increased in patients with hyperthyroidism, but further in vivo studies are necessary to clarify the mechanism related to increased serum PIVKA-II by thyroid hormone.

  2. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  3. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  4. Serum hepcidin levels in Helicobacter pylori-infected children with iron-deficiency anemia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Seham F A; Esh, Asmaa M H

    2013-11-01

    Recently, hepcidin, an antimicrobial-like peptide hormone, has evolved as the master regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin integrates signals from diverse physiological inputs, forming a key connection between iron trafficking and response to infection. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether Helicobacter pylori infection modulates serum hepcidin level and response to oral iron therapy in children with iron-deficiency anemia. This was a case-control study including 60 children with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA; 30 H. pylori infected and 30 H. pylori noninfected) and 30 healthy children with comparable age and gender as the control group. Iron parameters including serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation and serum hepcidin levels were assessed initially and after 3 months of oral iron therapy for IDA. Compared to the control group, serum hepcidin was significantly lower in H. pylori-noninfected children with IDA (P iron therapy (P iron therapy (P > 0.05). Although hepcidin showed significant positive correlations with serum ferritin, hemoglobin (Hb), iron, and transferrin saturation in noninfected children with IDA (P iron, and transferrin saturation in H. pylori-infected children with IDA (P iron therapy in children with iron-deficiency anemia.

  5. THE WEAR RESISTANCE INCREASE OF CHROMIUM CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Ilyushenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the tests on the wear resistance of chromium cast irons of different compositions obtained in sand forms. It has been shown that increase of the wear resistance and mechanical properties of the cast iron is possible to obtain using the casting in metal molds. A further increase in wear resistance of parts produced in metal molds is possible by changing the technological parameters of casting and alloying by titanium.

  6. The distribution of iron between the metal-binding sites of transferrin human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J; Moreton, K

    1980-02-01

    The Makey & Seal [(1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 453, 250--256] method of polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in buffer containing 6 M-urea was used to determine the distribution of iron between the N-terminal and C-terminal iron-binding sites of transferrin in human serum. In fresh serum the two sites are unequally occupied; there is preferential occupation of the N-terminal site. On incubation of the serum at 37 degrees C the preference of iron for the N-terminal site becomes more marked. On storage of serum at -15 degrees C the iron distribution changes so that there is a marked preference for the C-terminal site. Dialysis of serum against buffer at pH 7.4 also causes iron to be bound much more strongly by the C-terminal than by the N-terminal site. The original preference for the N-terminal site can be resroted to the dialysed serum by addition of the diffusible fraction.

  7. Prevalence of HFE mutations and relation to serum iron status in patients with chronic hepatitis C and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsung-Jung Lin; Chih-Lin Lin; Chaur-Shine Wang; Shu-O Liu; Li-Ying Liao

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence of the two mutations, C282Y and H63D of HFE gene, in healthy subjects, patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Taiwan and to explore the contribution of the HFE mutation on serum iron stores in CHC and NAFLD groups.METHODS: We examined C282Y and H63D mutations of HFE gene in 125 healthy subjects, 29 patients with CHC,and 33 patients with NAFLD. The serum iron markers,including ferritin, iron, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC),were assessed in all patients.RESULTS: All of the healthy subjects and patients were free from C282Y mutation. The prevalence of H63D heterozygosity was 4/125 (3.20%) in healthy subjects, 2/29(6.90%) in CHC group, and 1/33 (3.03%) in NAFLD group.The healthy subjects showed no significant difference in the prevalence of H63D mutation as compared with the CHC or NAFLD group. Increased serum iron store was found in 34.48% of CHC patients and 36.36% of NAFLD patients.In three patients of H63D heterozygosity, only one CHC patient had increased serum iron store. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of HFE mutations between patients with increased serum iron store and those without in CHC or NAFLD group.CONCLUSION: The HFE mutations may not contribute to iron accumulation in the CHC or NAFLD group even when serum iron overload is observed in more than one-third of these patients in Taiwan.

  8. Rapidly Escalating Hepcidin and Associated Serum Iron Starvation Are Features of the Acute Response to Typhoid Infection in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, Thomas C.; Blohmke, Christoph J.; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Waddington, Claire S.; Jones, Claire; Sturges, Pamela; Webster, Craig; Drakesmith, Hal; Pollard, Andrew J.; Armitage, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Iron is a key pathogenic determinant of many infectious diseases. Hepcidin, the hormone responsible for governing systemic iron homeostasis, is widely hypothesized to represent a key component of nutritional immunity through regulating the accessibility of iron to invading microorganisms during infection. However, the deployment of hepcidin in human bacterial infections remains poorly characterized. Typhoid fever is a globally significant, human-restricted bacterial infection, but understanding of its pathogenesis, especially during the critical early phases, likewise is poorly understood. Here, we investigate alterations in hepcidin and iron/inflammatory indices following experimental human typhoid challenge. Methodology/Principal Findings Fifty study participants were challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and monitored for evidence of typhoid fever. Serum hepcidin, ferritin, serum iron parameters, C-reactive protein (CRP), and plasma IL-6 and TNF-alpha concentrations were measured during the 14 days following challenge. We found that hepcidin concentrations were markedly higher during acute typhoid infection than at baseline. Hepcidin elevations mirrored the kinetics of fever, and were accompanied by profound hypoferremia, increased CRP and ferritin, despite only modest elevations in IL-6 and TNF-alpha in some individuals. During inflammation, the extent of hepcidin upregulation associated with the degree of hypoferremia. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that strong hepcidin upregulation and hypoferremia, coincident with fever and systemic inflammation, are hallmarks of the early innate response to acute typhoid infection. We hypothesize that hepcidin-mediated iron redistribution into macrophages may contribute to S. Typhi pathogenesis by increasing iron availability for macrophage-tropic bacteria, and that targeting macrophage iron retention may represent a strategy for limiting infections with macrophage-tropic pathogens such as S

  9. Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease Are Associated with Decreased Serum Selenium Concentrations and Increased Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Aguilar-Tablada, Teresa; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Quesada Granados, Javier; Samaniego Sánchez, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José Ángel; Nogueras-Lopez, Flor

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and associated oxidative stress is increasing. The antioxidant mineral selenium (Se) was measured in serum samples from 106 IBD patients (53 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 53 with Crohn's disease (CD)) and from 30 healthy controls. Serum Se concentrations were significantly lower in UC and CD patients than in healthy controls (p disease and the length of time since onset (p serum Se and cardiovascular status was observed in CD than in UC patients. An adequate nutritional Se status is important in IBD patients to minimize the cardiovascular risk associated with increased inflammation biomarkers, especially in undernourished CD patients, and is also related to an improved nutritional and body iron status.

  10. Binding of serum ferritin to concanavalin A in patients with iron overload and with chronic liver disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, R. W.; Gorman, A; Laulicht, M; Hussain, M A; Sherlock, S; Hoffbrand, A V

    1982-01-01

    Total serum ferritin and the proportion of serum ferritin binding to concanavalin A (glycosylated ferritin) was measured in 18 healthy volunteers and in 84 patients, eight with primary haemochromatosis, 43 with beta-thalassaemia major and secondary iron overload and 33 with chronic liver diseases without iron overload. The total serum ferritin was either equally or even more closely related than either the non-binding or the concanavalin A binding ferritin, to the liver iron concentration in ...

  11. Effects of various anesthesia maintenance on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane, desflurane and propofol maintenances on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde, and glutathion peroxidase measurements, and antioxidant capacity. METHODS: 60 patients scheduled for unilateral lower extremity surgery which would be performed with tourniquet under general anesthesia were divided into three groups. Blood samples were collected to determine the baseline serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase. Anesthesia was induced using 2-2.5 mg kg-1 propofol, 1 mg kg-1 lidocaine and 0.6 mg kg-1 rocuronium. In the maintenance of anesthesia, under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:N2O 4 L min-1, 1 MAC sevoflorane was administered to Group S and 1 MAC desflurane to Group D; and under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:air 4 L min-1 6 mg kg h-1 propofol and 1 µg kg h-1 fentanyl infusion were administered to Group P. At postoperative blood specimens were collected again. RESULTS: It was observed that only in Group S and P, levels of MDA decreased at postoperative 48th hour; levels of glutathion peroxidase increased in comparison to the baseline values. Selenium levels decreased in Group S and Group P, zinc levels decreased in Group P, and iron levels decreased in all three groups, and copper levels did not change in any groups in the postoperative period. CONCLUSION: According to the markers of malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase, it was concluded that maintenance of general anesthesia using propofol and sevoflurane activated the antioxidant system against oxidative stress and using desflurane had no effects on oxidative stress and antioxidant system.

  12. [Effects of various anesthesia maintenance on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron and antioxidant capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Mehmet; Ayoglu, Hilal; Okyay, Dilek; Ayoglu, Ferruh; Gür, Abdullah; Can, Murat; Yurtlu, Serhan; Hancı, Volkan; Küçükosman, Gamze; Turan, Işıl

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane, desflurane and propofol maintenances on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde, and glutathion peroxidase measurements, and antioxidant capacity. 60 patients scheduled for unilateral lower extremity surgery which would be performed with tourniquet under general anesthesia were divided into three groups. Blood samples were collected to determine the baseline serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase. Anesthesia was induced using 2-2.5mgkg(-1) propofol, 1mgkg(-1) lidocaine and 0.6mgkg(-1) rocuronium. In the maintenance of anesthesia, under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:N2O 4Lmin(-1), 1 MAC sevoflorane was administered to Group S and 1 MAC desflurane to Group D; and under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:air 4Lmin(-1) 6mgkgh(-1) propofol and 1μgkgh(-1) fentanyl infusion were administered to Group P. At postoperative blood specimens were collected again. It was observed that only in Group S and P, levels of MDA decreased at postoperative 48th hour; levels of glutathion peroxidase increased in comparison to the baseline values. Selenium levels decreased in Group S and Group P, zinc levels decreased in Group P, and iron levels decreased in all three groups, and copper levels did not change in any groups in the postoperative period. According to the markers of malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase, it was concluded that maintenance of general anesthesia using propofol and sevoflurane activated the antioxidant system against oxidative stress and using desflurane had no effects on oxidative stress and antioxidant system. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Serum iron and A(2)DS(2) score in stroke-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, You; Liu, Xue-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Juan; Yu, Jing; Yin, Shao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of serum biomarkers such as iron, procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and A(2)DS(2) scores at hospital admission to predict the onset and severity of stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP), 101 patients with acute stroke were selected and divided into the control and SAP group. Compared with control group, no significant differences were discovered in age, sex, vascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia, chronic lung disease of SAP group, while a significantly higher level was found in incidence of dysphagia, NIHSS score, A(2)DS(2) score, CURB-65 score, serum iron, serum ferritin, PCT and CRP (P DS(2) score and CURB-65 score had relatively high values in the SAP prediction (all P 0.5). When combined ferritin, PCT, and A(2)DS(2) scores and other indicators with CRP for SAP prediction, the model had a larger area under the curve (AUC) and higher specificity than individual prediction models. Spearman regression analysis presented that serum iron, serum ferritin and A(2)DS(2) score were highly correlated with CURB-65 score (P DS(2) score measured at admission were effective indicators in SAP prediction which could be used for SAP screening and severity prediction. Besides, the specificity in SAP prediction could be improved when Serum iron and A(2)DS(2) score combined with CRP.

  14. Effect of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on serum levels of calcium, iron and liver enzymes in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatollah Asemi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Consumption of probiotic yogurt among pregnant women resulted in maintaining serum calcium levels compared with the conventional yogurt; however, it could not affect serum iron, ALT and AST levels.

  15. Comparative Study of Serum Copper, Iron, Magnesium, and Zinc in Type 2 Diabetes-Associated Proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farah Aziz; Al Jameil, Noura; Arjumand, Sadia; Khan, Mohammad Fareed; Tabassum, Hajera; Alenzi, Naif; Hijazy, Sereen; Alenzi, Samyah; Subaie, Sahar; Fatima, Sabiha

    2015-12-01

    Trace element (TE) disturbances are well noted in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its associated complications. In present study, the effect of proteinuria on serum copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) in T2DM patients with and without proteinuria was seen. Total subjects were aged between 30 and 90 years; 73 had proteinuria, 76 had T2DM with proteinuria, 76 had T2DM, and 75 were controls. Serum Cu(II), Fe(III), Mg(II), and Zn(II) were assayed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Urinary albumin estimation was performed by turbidimetric method. Other biochemical parameters were analyzed by ROCHE Module COBAS 6000 analyzer. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at Pproteinuria on TE. Serum Cu(II) level was increased in T2DM patients with proteinuria while Fe(III) was found elevated in T2DM (Pproteinuria, T2DM with proteinuria, and T2DM (Pproteinuria group and T2DM group (Pproteinuria group. Mg(II) was negatively linked with ACR Pproteinuria, T2DM with proteinuria, and T2DM group. TE were observed more disturbed in T2DM with proteinuria group, thus considered to be the part of T2DM routine checkup and restricts the disease towards its progression.

  16. Application of a sensitive and specific reagent for the determination of serum iron to the Bayer DAX48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiss, J D; Yang, W C; Harake, B; Capellari, E; Kretch, C; Eisenbrey, A B; Zak, B

    1997-09-01

    We describe a modification of a previously described serum iron procedure applied to the Bayer DAX48 (Bayer Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY) automated chemistry analyzer. The iron-ligand used in this assay, 2-(5-nitro-2-pyridylazo)-5-(N-propyl-N-sulfopropylamine) phenol (nitro-PAPS), has a molar absorptivity of 94,000 L mol(-1) cm(-1), which is three to four times more sensitive than the more commonly used ligands. The increased sensitivity of the iron-ligand complex facilitates modification of a Ferene S method that requires a smaller sample volume while it maintains the precision of the assay. Because the reagent does not contain ascorbate, the "onboard" stability has been increased to more than 4 weeks. The reagent seems to be quite insensitive to icterus and hemolysis. Furthermore, the interference of turbidity caused by triglycerides, abnormal proteins, or fibrinogen, present in samples from patients undergoing anticoagulant therapy, seems to have been eliminated.

  17. [Restless legs syndrome in patients with high serum ferritin and normal iron levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraita-Adrados, Rosa; Duque-Ramírez, Luis G; Vela-Bueno, Antonio

    2011-10-01

    To document the association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and high ferritin levels in five patients. The five patients were male, mean age: 59 years (range: 36-73 years). The patients were referred for RLS (two of them blood donors), in two cases associated with obstructive sleep apnea. Patients underwent a video-PSG recording. Serum iron and serum ferritin were determined. All patients fulfilled the clinical criteria for RLS: leg paresthesias associated with an urge to move, motor restless-ness, worsening of symptoms during the evening and night, and partial relief with activity, difficulty falling asleep, and presence of nocturnal awakenings due to RLS. Neurological examination, EEGs, EMGs and MRIs were normal. Video-PSGs recordings showed a disturbed and fragmented sleep with a reduction in total sleep time, low sleep efficiency, respiratory abnormalities with an apnea-hipopnea index > 10/h in two cases, and in all of them a periodic leg movements index > 5/h. The serum iron levels were within the normal range in all cases, whereas those in serum ferritin levels were high. To our knowledge the association of normal serum iron with high serum ferritin levels in patients diagnosed clinically and polygraphically as having RLS with periodic leg movements has not been described before. The notion of an involvement of a dopaminergic mechanism in the pathophysiology of RLS is supported by the decrease in the values of serum ferritin concentration observed in one patient during follow-up while being treated with dopaminergic agents.

  18. Serum Prohepcidin Levels in Helicobacter Pylori Infected Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sun-Young; Song, Eun Young; Yun, Yeo Min; Yoon, So Young; Cho, Yo Han; Kim, Sung-Yong; Lee, Mark Hong

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection appears to subvert the human iron regulatory mechanism and thus upregulates hepcidin, resulting in unexplained iron-deficiency anemia (IDA). We evaluated serum prohepcidin levels before and after eradication of H. pylori in IDA patients to assess whether it plays a role in IDA related to H. pylori infection. Methods Subjects diagnosed with unexplained IDA underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy to confirm H. pylori i...

  19. The Role of Serum Copper and Iron in Oral Submucous Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Master Luquman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a chronic insidious disease of multifactorial etiology. The habit of chewing arecanut is thought to be one of the most important etiologic factors. Copper and iron are elements in the human body that form part of important enzymes. We estimated the serum copper and iron in patients with OSMF as well as normal controls and discuss the role of these elements in the etiology of OSMF.

  20. Association of insulin resistance with serum ferritin and aminotransferases-iron hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jean; Karnchanasorn, Rudruidee; Ou, Horng-Yih; Feng, Wei; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chiu, Ken C; Samoa, Raynald

    2015-11-20

    To investigate the relationship of iron indices with diabetes mellitus (DM) in those without hemochromatosis. This cross-sectional study examined data collected during the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Only those who fasted properly and were not anemic with transferrin saturation concentrations. Indices of iron metabolism were examined in the presence or absence of DM. We examined the relationship of insulin sensitivity and beta cell function with serum ferritin concentration. The influence of C-reactive protein and liver enzymes was also investigated. Serum ferritin concentration was significantly higher in diabetic subjects (P = 0.0001 to iron supplement (P = 0.03 to serum ferritin concentration was negatively associated with insulin sensitivity (P = 0.05 to 0.00001), but not with beta cell function. The alanine aminotransferase was correlated with serum ferritin concentration (P = 0.02 to iron-associated insulin resistance. As most of diabetes is type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance is a cardinal feature of type 2 diabetes, disordered iron metabolism could play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes through its effect on liver function.

  1. Relationship of Iron Deficiency and Serum Ferritin Levels with Pulmonary Hypertension: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowich, Matthew; Elston, Beth; Evans, Samuel K; Wu, Wen-Chih; Choudhary, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency is prevalent in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), but whether iron deficiency or ferritin levels are associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH) in the general population is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data on iron deficiency (exposure), and PH (pulmonary artery systolic pressure>40mmHg on echocardiogram) (outcome) on subjects with complete data on exposures and outcomes as well as covariates (n = 2,800) enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study, a longitudinal prospective observational cohort study of heart disease in African-Americans from Jackson, Mississippi. Iron deficiency was defined as a serum ferritin level ferritin (Females ≤ 47ng/mL; > 47ng/mL- 95ng/mL; > 95ng/mL- 171ng/mL; > 171ng/mL; Males ≤ 110ng/mL; > 110ng/mL- 182ng/mL; > 182ng/mL- 294ng/mL; > 294ng/mL), using the same modeling technique with the lowest quartile as the referent. Median pulmonary artery systolic pressure was 27mmHg (interquartile range 23-31mmHg) in the study cohort. 147 subjects (5.2%) had PH and 140 (5.0%) had iron deficiency. However, of the 147 subjects with PH, only 4 were also iron deficient. The crude PH PR was 0.5 (95% CI 0.2-1.4) in iron-deficiency compared to non-deficient. In analysis by quartiles of ferritin, adjusting for age and sex, there was no evidence of association with PH in quartiles 2 (PR 1.1, 95% CI 0.7-1.6), 3 (PR 0.8, 95% CI 0.5-1.3), or 4 (PR 0.8, 95% CI 0.5-1.2) compared with quartile 1 (referent group, PR 1). Further analyses of the relationship between PH and ferritin as a log-transformed continuous variable or by quartiles of serum iron showed similar results. In the Jackson Heart Study, the prevalence of PH was similar in iron-deficient and non-iron deficient subjects. There was no evidence of association between ferritin (or serum iron) levels and PH. Iron deficiency has been associated with IPAH, a rare disorder. However, in a large community-based sample of African-Americans, there was no

  2. Role of Serum Iron in the Activation of Lipid Peroxidation in Critical Conditions

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    Yu. P. Orlov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four critically ill patients due to generalized purulent peritonitis, pancreatonecrosis, thermal skin injuries, and severe poisoning by acetic acid were examined. The general regularities of the effect of high serum iron concentrations on the health status of patients, on the activity of antioxidative enzymes, and on the initiation of lipid peroxidation (LPO processes, as supported by the values of Fe2+-induced chemiluminescence, were revealed. In critically ill patients, iron metabolism occurs with the overload of a transport protein, such as transferrin, which is caused by intravascular hemolysis and hemoglobin metabolism to ionized iron. The overload of proteins responsible for iron transport leads to the tissue accumulation of free (ferrous and ferric iron that is actively involved in the processes of LPO initiation with excess synthesis of cytotoxic radicals, which in turn accounts for the severity of endotoxicosis.

  3. Deferasirox improves hematologic and hepatic function with effective reduction of serum ferritin and liver iron concentration in transfusional iron overload patients with myelodysplastic syndrome or aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, June-Won; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Lee, Kyoo-Hyung; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Lee, Jae Hoon; Park, Hee-Sook; Kim, Ho Young; Shim, Hyeok; Seong, Chu-Myung; Kim, Chul Soo; Chung, Jooseop; Hyun, Myung Soo; Jo, Deog-Yeon; Jung, Chul Won; Sohn, Sang Kyun; Yoon, Hwi-Joong; Kim, Byung Soo; Joo, Young-Don; Park, Chi-Young; Min, Yoo Hong

    2014-06-01

    Transfusional iron overload and its consequences are challenges in chronically transfused patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) or aplastic anemia (AA). This was a prospective, multicenter, open-label study to investigate the efficacy of deferasirox (DFX) by serial measurement of serum ferritin (S-ferritin) level, liver iron concentration (LIC) level using relaxation rates magnetic resonance imaging, and other laboratory variables in patients with MDS or AA. A total of 96 patients showing S-ferritin level of at least 1000 ng/mL received daily DFX for up to 1 year. At the end of the study, S-ferritin level was significantly decreased in MDS (p=0.02366) and AA (p=0.0009). LIC level was also significantly reduced by more than 6.7 mg Fe/g dry weight from baseline. Hemoglobin level and platelet counts were significantly increased from baseline (p=0.002 and p=0.025, respectively) for patients showing significant anemia or thrombocytopenia. Elevated alanine aminotransferase was also significantly decreased from baseline. This study shows that DFX is effective in reducing S-ferritin and LIC level in transfusional iron overload patients with MDS or AA and is well tolerated. In addition, positive effects in hematologic and hepatic function can be expected with DFX. Iron chelation treatment should be considered in transfused patients with MDS and AA when transfusion-related iron overload is documented. © 2013 AABB.

  4. Iron ions increase the thermostability of phycocyanin of Spirulina maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Hong; Tai, Zi-Hou; Tseng, Chao-Tsi

    1998-03-01

    A spectral method to investigate the effect of Fe3+, Fe2+ on the thermostability of phycocyanin (PC) of Spirulina maxima showed that iron ions provent decrease of visible light absorbance and fluorescence intensity of PC. Increase in denaturation temperature caused by Fe3+ was observed by the micro-differential scanning calorimetric method. All results showed iron ions maintain the aggregation stability of the PC. The absorption spectrum of phycocyanobilin (PCB, a prosthetic group of PC) with Fe3+ in chloroform was quite different from that of free PCB.

  5. Serum Iron Parameters, HFE C282Y Genotype, and Cognitive Performance in Older Adults: Results From the FACIT Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiepers, O.J.G.; Boxtel, van M.P.J.; Groot, R.H.M.; Jolles, J.; Kort, de W.L.A.M.; Swinkels, D.W.; Kok, F.J.; Verhoef, P.; Durga, J.

    2010-01-01

    Although iron homeostasis is essential for brain functioning, the effects of iron levels on cognitive performance in older individuals have scarcely been investigated. In the present study, serum iron parameters and hemochromatosis (HFE) C282Y genotype were determined in 818 older individuals who pa

  6. Serum Iron Parameters, HFE C282Y Genotype, and Cognitive Performance in Older Adults: Results From the FACIT Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiepers, O.J.G.; Boxtel, van M.P.J.; Groot, R.H.M.; Jolles, J.; Kort, de W.L.A.M.; Swinkels, D.W.; Kok, F.J.; Verhoef, P.; Durga, J.

    2010-01-01

    Although iron homeostasis is essential for brain functioning, the effects of iron levels on cognitive performance in older individuals have scarcely been investigated. In the present study, serum iron parameters and hemochromatosis (HFE) C282Y genotype were determined in 818 older individuals who pa

  7. [The serum copper/serum iron ratio in malignant tumors of the female genitalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, D H; Hinckers, H J

    1975-08-01

    Copper and iron in blood of 83 women with maligne tumors of the genitalia were regulary controled before, during and till 69 weeks after therapy. The relation between the copper/iron-ratio and the expansion and histology of the tumors, the success of the therapy and the incidence of a recurrence was checked for any significancy. Our results show the improtance of the ratio in the diagnosis and differentialdiagnosis of the ovarian-cancer and the corpus-uteri-cancer, and in the success-controll during tumor-therapy. In the group of the patients with collum-uteri-cancer we found a significant difference in the copper/iron-ratio of the patients with and without a recurrence during the controllperiod after therapy, which emphasizes the importance of this copper/iron-ratio.

  8. Albendazole increases serum retinol concentration in primary schoolchildren with low serum retinol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Florida Kalumpiu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection is still a health problem in Indonesia. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is often found together with STH. The effect of the deworming program on the vitamin A status of primary school children is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of albendazole on serum retinol concentrations in primary school children. Methods An experimental study of pre-post test design without control was carried out on 118 children from grades 3-5 at one primary school in North Jakarta, from July to September 2014. Flotac examination was used to determine STH infections and high performance liquid chromatography was performed to measure serum retinol concentration. Stool and blood samples were taken twice: before and three weeks after treatment with albendazole 400 mg single dose for three consecutive days given to all children either infected or uninfected. Paired t-test was used to analyze the data. Results Of the 118 children, the prevalence of STH was 71.2%. The prevalence of low retinol serum (<1.05 mmol/L was 17 (17.2% and of mild VAD was 2 (2.0%. Albendazole given in 3 consecutive days could not increase serum retinol concentrations (p=0.055. Serum retinol concentration significantly increased after albendazole treatment in children with low retinol serum at baseline (p=0.001. Conclusions In children with low serum retinol concentration, treatment with albendazole increased retinol concentration. Integrated deworming and vitamin A supplementation strategies should be evaluated in this population.

  9. Increased expression of serum gelsolin in patients with osteosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Song; SHEN Jing-nan; PENG Jian-qiang; WANG Jin; HUANG Gang; LI Ming-tao

    2012-01-01

    Background Identification of potential serum biomarkers of osteosarcoma to aid in its early diagnosis and in the discovery of possible therapeutic targets is an area of increasing interest.Methods Two-dimensional difference-in-gel electrophoresis was used to assess multiple serum samples in patients with osteosarcoma.In addition,differential expression of protein biomarkers was characterized in osteosarcoma serum by using matrix-assisted desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with database interrogation.Serum samples from four individuals with osteosarcoma and four age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were compared.Results Fifty-eight significant protein spot features in the osteosarcoma sera were found.These spot features were excised,digested with trypsin,and analyzed with mass spectrometry.Gelsolin was down-regulated only in osteosarcoma.Furthermore,Western blotting and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed decreased levels of gelsolin in the osteosarcoma serum samples.Conclusions These results indicated that gelsolin might have great potential as a biomarker of osteosarcoma and as a potential target for gene therapy.

  10. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C.; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S.; Irace, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk. Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods. We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women. Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  11. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Adult Onset Still's Disease with a Serum Ferritin of 26,387 μg/L

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    Sheetal Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum ferritin rises in the anemia of chronic inflammation reflecting increased iron storage and other changes mediated by inflammation. When iron deficiency coexists, the ferritin may not always decline into the subnormal range. We describe the rare interaction of iron deficiency with the extreme hyperferritinemia characteristic of adult onset Still's disease. The combination has clinical relevance and allows deductions about the presence of serum ferritin at 26,387 μg/L despite obvious iron depletion. The diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia was delayed and became fully obvious when her Still's disease remitted and serum ferritin decreased to 6.5 μg/L. The coexistence of iron deficiency should be considered when evaluating a patient with anemia of chronic inflammation even when the ferritin level is elevated several hundredfold. Further insights on ferritin metabolism in Still's disease are suggested by the likelihood that the patient's massive hyperferritinemia in the acute phase of Still's disease was almost entirely of the iron-free apoferritin form.

  12. Ejaculation increases the serum prostate-specific antigen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchetgen, M B; Song, J T; Strawderman, M; Jacobsen, S J; Oesterling, J E

    1996-04-01

    To determine the effect of ejaculation on the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration in men at risk for developing prostate cancer. A prospective, community-based study was conducted in which 64 men, aged 49 to 79 years, underwent a serum PSA determination immediately before ejaculation (baseline) and at 1 hour, 6 hours, and 24 hours following ejaculation. The serum PSA also was measured 48 hours and 1 week after ejaculation if the concentration had not returned to the baseline value by the previous time interval. All subjects abstained from ejaculation for a minimum of 7 days prior to the study and until the PSA concentration returned to the baseline level. Absolute and relative change in serum PSA concentration, as well as the time to return to baseline PSA concentration following ejaculation, were assessed. The serum PSA concentration increased following ejaculation in 87% of the subjects. The mean baseline PSA was 1.8 ng/mL (median, 0.7 ng/mL). The mean absolute PSA change +/- standard deviation 1 hour, 6 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours after ejaculation was 0.8 +/- 1.32 ng/mL, 0.3 +/- 0.66 ng/mL, 0.2 +/- 0.33 ng/mL, and 0.4 +/- 0.40 ng/mL, respectively. The mean relative PSA change +/- standard error 1 hour, 6 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours after ejaculation was 41 +/- 4%, 9 +/- 1.5%, 8 +/- 1.3%, and 10 +/- 2.3%, respectively. The absolute and relative changes in PSA concentration noted 1 hour, 6 hours, and 24 hours after ejaculation were statistically significant (P = 0.0001). A strong correlation was observed between absolute change in PSA and baseline serum PSA, at each time interval (1 hour: r = 0.68, 6 hours: r = 0.77, 24 hours: r = 0.70; P returned to baseline by 24 hours (95% confidence interval (Cl) = 83% to 97%), whereas 97% of subjects returned to baseline by 48 hours (95% Cl = 89% to 99%). Ejaculation causes a significant increase in the serum PSA concentration in men between 49 and 79 years of age that may persist for up to 48 hours. This

  13. Evaluation of Erythrocytes, Platelets, and Serum Iron Profile in Dogs with Chronic Enteropathy

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    Veronica Marchetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate iron status, erythrocyte, and platelet modifications in dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE. Dogs were grouped as food-responsive diarrhea (FRD, =11, antibiotic-responsive diarrhea (ARD, =5, and steroid-responsive diarrhea (SRD, =6 relating to therapeutic-response. Clinical and haematological findings, evidence of gastrointestinal blood loss, and iron metabolism were evaluated before and after treatment. A mild normocytic or microcytic anemia and thrombocytosis were identified, respectively in 18.0% and 31.8% of CE dogs. No significant differences between pre- and posttreatment of hematocrit, haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular volume, platelet count and mean platelet volume were found. Statistical analysis pointed out significant differences between pre- and posttreatment in serum iron (<.03 and unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC (<.01. No significant correlations were found between these parameters and canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease activity index and pattern of CE as well.

  14. Quantification of ferritin bound iron in human serum using species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yao; Walczyk, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Ferritin is a hollow sphere protein composed of 24 subunits that can store up to 4500 iron atoms in its inner cavity. It is mainly found in the liver and spleen but also in serum at trace levels. Serum ferritin is considered as the best single indicator in assessing body iron stores except liver or bone marrow biopsy. However, it is confounded by other disease conditions. Ferritin bound iron (FBI) and ferritin saturation have been suggested as more robust biomarkers. The current techniques for FBI determination are limited by low antibody specificity, low instrument sensitivity and possible analyte losses during sample preparation. The need for a highly sensitive and reliable method is widely recognized. Here we describe a novel technique to detect serum FBI using species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SS-IDMS). [(57)Fe]-ferritin was produced by biosynthesis and in vitro labeling with the (57)Fe spike in the form of [(57)Fe]-citrate after cell lysis and heat treatment. [(57)Fe]-ferritin for sample spiking was further purified by fast liquid protein chromatography. Serum ferritin and added [(57)Fe]-ferritin were separated from other iron species by ultrafiltration followed by isotopic analysis of FBI using negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Repeatability of our assay is 8% with an absolute detection limit of 18 ng FBI in the sample. As compared to other speciation techniques, SS-IDMS offers maximum control over sample losses and species conversion during analysis. The described technique may therefore serve as a reference technique for clinical applications of FBI as a new biomarker for assessing body iron status.

  15. HFE Genotyping in Patients with Elevated Serum Iron Indices and Liver Diseases

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    Andreia Silva Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron abnormalities in chronic liver disease may be the result of genetic diseases or secondary factors. The present study aimed to identify subjects with HFE-HH in order to describe the frequency of clinical manifestations, identify risk factors for iron elevation, and compare the iron profile of HFE-HH to other genotypes in liver disease patients. A total of 108 individuals with hepatic disease, transferrin saturation (TS > 45%, and serum ferritin (SF > 350 ng/mL were tested for HFE mutations. Two groups were characterized: C282Y/C282Y or C282Y/H63D genotypes (n=16 were the HFE hereditary hemochromatosis (HFE-HH group; and C282Y and H63D single heterozygotes, the H63D/H63D genotype, and wild-type were considered group 2 (n=92. Nonalcoholic liver disease, alcoholism, and chronic hepatitis C were detected more frequently in group 2, whereas arthropathy, hepatocarcinoma, diabetes, and osteoporosis rates were significantly higher in the HFE-HH group. TS > 82%, SF > 2685 ng/mL, and serum iron > 178 μg/dL were the cutoffs for diagnosis of HFE-HH in patients with liver disease. Thus, in non-Caucasian populations with chronic liver disease, HFE-HH diagnosis is more predictable in those with iron levels higher than those proposed in current guidelines for the general population.

  16. Nutrient intake, serum lipids and iron status of colligiate rugby players

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    Imamura Hiroyuki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are two main playing positions in rugby (backs and forwards, which demonstrate different exercise patterns, roles, and physical characteristics. The purpose of this study was: 1 to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise the athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2 to compare serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (apo, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT activity, and iron status of forwards and backs. Methods The sporting group was divided into 18 forwards and 16 backs and were compared with 26 sedentary controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. Results There were significant differences among the three groups. The forwards had the highest body weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat (calculated by sum of four skinfold thicknesses, as well as the highest lean body mass, followed by the backs and the control group. The mean carbohydrate intake was marginal and protein intake was lower than the respective recommended targets in all three groups. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, and vitamins A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances or adequate dietary intakes for the rugby players. The forwards had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and HDL2-C than the backs and had significantly higher apo B and LCAT activity than the controls. The backs showed significantly higher HDL-C, HDL3-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apo A-I, and LCAT activity than the controls. Four forwards (22%, five backs (31%, and three controls (12% had hemolysis. None of the rugby players had anemia or iron depletion. Conclusion The findings of our study indicate that as the athletes increased their carbohydrate and protein intake, their performance and lean body mass increased. Further, to increase mineral and vitamin intakes, we recommended athletes

  17. Serum zinc levels in patients with iron deficiency anemia and its association with symptoms of iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkitli, Engin; Ozturk, Nurinnisa; Aslan, Nevin Alayvaz; Kilic-Baygutalp, Nurcan; Bayraktutan, Zafer; Kurt, Nezahat; Bakan, Nuri; Bakan, Ebubekir

    2016-04-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major public health problem especially in underdeveloped and developing countries. Zinc is the co-factor of several enzymes and plays a role in iron metabolism, so zinc deficiency is associated with IDA. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship of symptoms of IDA and zinc deficiency in adult IDA patients. The study included 43 IDA patients and 43 healthy control subjects. All patients were asked to provide a detailed history and were subjected to a physical examination. The hematological parameters evaluated included hemoglobin (Hb); hematocrit (Ht); red blood cell (erythrocyte) count (RBC); and red cell indices mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (МСН), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (МСНС), and red cell distribution width (RDW). Anemia was defined according to the criteria defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Serum zinc levels were measured in the flame unit of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Symptoms attributed to iron deficiency or depletion, defined as fatigue, cardiopulmonary symptoms, mental manifestations, epithelial manifestations, and neuromuscular symptoms, were also recorded and categorized. Serum zinc levels were lower in anemic patients (103.51 ± 34.64 μ/dL) than in the control subjects (256.92 ± 88.54 μ/dL;  100 μ/dL. When the serum zinc level was compared with pica, no statistically significant correlation was found (p = 0.742). Zinc is a trace element that functions in several processes in the body, and zinc deficiency aggravates IDA symptoms. Measurement of zinc levels and supplementation if necessary should be considered for IDA patients.

  18. Iron Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Serum Iron; Serum Fe Formal name: Iron, serum Related tests: Ferritin ; TIBC, UIBC and Transferrin ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Reticulocyte Count ; Zinc Protoporphyrin ; Iron Tests ; Soluble Transferrin Receptor ... I should know? How is it used? Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) , and/or ...

  19. Comparison of Deferoxamine, Activated Charcoal, and Vitamin C in Changing the Serum Level of Fe in Iron Overloaded Rats

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    Reza Ghafari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron is an essential mineral for normal cellular physiology but its overload can lead to cell injury. For many years, deferoxamine injection has been used as an iron chelator for treatment of iron overload. The aim of this study is to compare oral deferoxamine, activated charcoal, and vitamin C, as an absorbent factor of Fe, in changing the serum level of iron in iron overload rats. Methods: In this experimental study, all groups were administered 150 mg iron dextran orally by gavage. After eight hours, rats in the first group received oral deferoxamine while those in the second and third groups received oral activated charcoal 1 mg/kg and oral vitamin C 150 mg, respectively. Then, serum levels of iron ware measured in all rats. Results: The mean serum level of iron in rats that received oral deferoxamine was 258.11±10.49 µg/dl, whereas mean levels of iron in charcoal and vitamin C groups were 380.88±11.21 µg/dl and 401.22±13.28 µg/dl, respectively. None of the measurements were within safety limits of serum iron. Conclusion: It seems that oral deferoxamine per se may not help physicians in the management of cases presented with iron toxicity. Activated charcoal did not reduce serum iron significantly in this study and further investigations may be warranted to assess the potential clinical utility of its mixture with oral deferoxamine as an adjunct in the clinical management of iron ingestions.

  20. Testosterone Administration Inhibits Hepcidin Transcription and is Associated with Increased Iron Incorporation into Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wen; Bachman, Eric; Li, Michelle; Roy, Cindy N.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Wong, Siu; Chan, Stephen Y.; Serra, Carlo; Jasuja, Ravi; Travison, Thomas G.; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Bhasin, Shalender

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone administration increases hemoglobin levels and has been used to treat anemia of chronic disease. Erythrocytosis is the most frequent adverse event associated with testosterone therapy of hypogonadal men, especially older men. However, the mechanisms by which testosterone increases hemoglobin remain unknown. Testosterone administration in male and female mice was associated with a greater increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit, reticulocyte count, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration, and serum iron and transferring saturation than placebo. Testosterone downregulated hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression, upregulated renal erythropoietin mRNA expression, and increased erythropoietin levels. Testosterone-induced suppression of hepcidin expression was independent of its effects on erythropoietin or hypoxia-sensing mechanisms. Transgenic mice with liver-specific constitutive hepcidin over-expression failed to exhibit the expected increase in hemoglobin in response to testosterone administration. Testosterone upregulated splenic ferroportin expression and reduced iron retention in spleen. After intravenous administration of transferrin-bound 58Fe, the amount of 58Fe incorporated into red blood cells was significantly greater in testosterone-treated mice than in placebo-treated mice. Serum from testosterone-treated mice stimulated hemoglobin synthesis in K562 erythroleukemia cells more than that from vehicle-treated mice. Testosterone administration promoted the association of androgen receptor (AR) with Smad1 and Smad4 to reduce their binding to BMP-response elements in hepcidin promoter in the liver. Ectopic expression of AR in hepatocytes suppressed hepcidin transcription; this effect was blocked dose-dependently by AR antagonist flutamide. Testosterone did not affect hepcidin mRNA stability. Conclusion: Testosterone inhibits hepcidin transcription through its interaction with BMP-Smad signaling. Testosterone administration is associated with increased iron

  1. Serum iron levels and the risk of Parkinson disease: a mendelian randomization study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pichler, I.; Greco, M.F. Del; Gogele, M.; Lill, C.M.; Bertram, L.; Do, C.B.; Eriksson, N.; Foroud, T.; Myers, R.H.; Consortium, P.G.; Nalls, M.; Keller, M.F.; Benyamin, B.; Whitfield, J.B.; Pramstaller, P.P.; Hicks, A.A.; Thompson, J.R.; Minelli, C.; Bloem, B.R.; Swinkels, D.W.; Vermeulen, S.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although levels of iron are known to be increased in the brains of patients with Parkinson disease (PD), epidemiological evidence on a possible effect of iron blood levels on PD risk is inconclusive, with effects reported in opposite directions. Epidemiological studies suffer from proble

  2. Quantitative data on the magnitude of the systemic inflammatory response and its relationship with serum measures of iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, Stephen T; Jones, Iain; McMillan, Donald C; Talwar, Dinesh

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to quantify the magnitude of the systemic inflammatory response, measured by C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin, and its relationship with common serum biochemical measures of iron status including total iron, transferrin, transferrin saturation, and ferritin. Retrospective interrogation of laboratory computer databases at 4 centers between 2006 and 2011 provided results from patients in which serum CRP and albumin had been measured together with iron studies (iron, transferrin, and transferrin saturation, n = 16,522) and ferritin (n = 7,226). Analyte results were categorized into groups according to CRP and albumin. When those groups with CRP 35 g/L, CRP 11-80 mg/L and albumin 25-35 mg/L, and CRP >80 mg/L and albumin serum total iron was 15.0, 7.0, and 3.0 μmol/L, respectively (P serum transferrin concentration was 2.6, 2.0, and 1.3 μmol/L respectively (P serum ferritin was 77, 173, and 445 μg/L respectively (P serum measures of iron status. This association should be taken into account when measures of iron status are requested and interpreted to prevent misdiagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Relation between serum lipoperoxide concentrations and iron or copper status over one year in Cuban adult men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, J.; Renversez, J.C.; Favier, A.E. [Dept. de Biologie Integree, CHUG, Grenoble (France); Fleites, P.; Perez-Cristia, R. [Centro national de Toxicologia (CENATOX), La Habana (Cuba); Chassagne, M.; Barnouin, J. [INRA, Unite d' Ecopathologie, Saint Genes Champanelle (France); Verdura, T. [Inst. Finlay, La Lisa, La Habana (Cuba); Garcia, I.G. [Inst. de Farmacia y Alimentos, La Coronela, La Lisa, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba); Tressol, J.C. [INRA, Unite maladies metaboliques et micronutriments, Saint Genes Champanelle (France)

    2001-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the relations between iron and copper status and lipid peroxidation at different periods over one year in low-income and low-energy intake healthy subjects. The study was conducted in 199 middle-aged healthy Cuban men from March 1995 to February 1996. Iron status was assessed by the determination of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, whole blood hemoglobin and iron intakes. Copper status was evaluated by the determination of serum copper and copper intakes. Serum thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARS) determination was used as an index of lipid peroxidation. Rank correlations were observed between serum TBARS concentrations and iron or copper status indices at different periods. In period 3 (end of the rainy season), serum TBARS and ferritin concentrations were maximum whereas blood hemoglobin levels and iron intake were minimum. Serum TBARS concentrations were significantly higher than the reference values of the laboratory whereas, iron and copper status were within the reference ranges. These results suggested that iron and copper status may be associated with lipid peroxidation in subjects without metal overloads and that variations over the year needed to be taken in account. (orig.)

  4. Bovine serum albumin adsorption to iron-oxide coated sands can change microsphere deposition mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Raymond M; Yang, Xinyao; Hofmann, Thilo; von der Kammer, Frank

    2012-03-06

    Particulate colloids often occur together with proteins in sewage-impacted water. Using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a surrogate for protein in sewage, column experiments investigating the capacity of iron-oxide coated sands to remove latex microspheres from water revealed that microsphere attenuation mechanisms depended on antecedent BSA coverage. Dual pulse experiment (DPE) results suggested that where all BSA was adsorbed, subsequent multiple pore volume microsphere breakthrough curves reflected progressively reduced colloid deposition rates with increasing adsorbed BSA content. Modeling colloid responses suggested adsorption of 1 μg BSA generated the same response as blockage by between 7.1 × 10(8) and 2.3 × 10(9) deposited microspheres. By contrast, microsphere responses in DPEs where BSA coverage of the deposition sites approached/reached saturation revealed the coated sand maintained a finite capacity to attenuate microspheres, even when incapable of further BSA adsorption. Subsequent microsphere breakthrough curves demonstrated the matrix's colloid attenuation capacity progressively increased with continued microsphere deposition. Experimental findings suggested BSA adsorption on the sand surface approaching/reaching saturation generated attractive deposition sites for colloids, which became progressively more attractive with further colloid deposition (filter ripening). Results demonstrate that adsorption of a single type of protein may either enhance or inhibit colloid mobility in saturated porous media.

  5. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killilea, David W; Rohner, Fabian; Ghosh, Shibani; Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations.Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC.Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry.Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1-2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale.Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions.

  6. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H

    2017-01-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations. Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC. Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1–2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale. Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions. PMID

  7. Nutrient intake, serum lipids and iron status of colligiate rugby players

    OpenAIRE

    Imamura Hiroyuki; Iide Kazuhide; Yoshimura Yoshitaka; Kumagai Kenya; Oshikata Reika; Miyahara Keiko; Oda Kazuto; Miyamoto Noriko; Nakazawa Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background There are two main playing positions in rugby (backs and forwards), which demonstrate different exercise patterns, roles, and physical characteristics. The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise the athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to compare serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (apo), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, and iron status of forwards and ba...

  8. Assessment of iron stores in inflammation by assay of serum ferritin concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, D. R.; Waterworth, R F; Bacon, P.A

    1981-01-01

    A serum ferritin concentration of below 15 microgram/l is accepted as indicating diminished iron reserves in an otherwise normal person. In patients with inflammatory disease this lower limit of normality may be inappropriate as inflammation may directly stimulate the production of ferritin protein. Results obtained in a survey of 150 patients with early inflammatory joint disease suggest that a ferritin concentration of 55 microgram/l is a more appropriate lower limit of normality.

  9. Rapid assessment of iron in blood plasma and serum by spectrophotometry with cloud-point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarina, Tatyana; Proskurnin, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Rapid photometric assessment of iron in blood plasma and serum by a simple procedure after the extraction of iron(II) complex with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol in the micellar phase of a nonionic surfactant at the cloud point upon heating (pH range is 4.5-6.3) is proposed. The procedure trueness was verified using a standard reference protocol using bathophenanthroline. The advantages of the procedure are higher sensitivity than the reference protocol: the limit of detection is 0.03 μg/mL, the limit of quantitation is 0.1 μg/mL, the determination range is 0.1 - 2.8 μg/mL (RSD 0.02-0.10). Copper does not interfere with the iron assessment.

  10. Overactivation of Intestinal SREBP2 in Mice Increases Serum Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Vinay; Hedroug, Omar; Annaba, Fadi; Dudeja, Amish; Shen, Le; Turner, Jerrold R.; Khramtsova, Ekaterina A.; Saksena, Seema; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Gill, Ravinder K.; Alrefai, Waddah A.

    2014-01-01

    Sterol Response Element Binding Protein 2 (SREBP2) transcription factor is a master regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. Treatment with statins, inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis, activates intestinal SREBP2, which may hinder their cholesterol-lowering effects. Overactivation of SREBP2 in mouse liver was shown to have no effect on plasma cholesterol. However, the influence of activating intestinal SREBP2 on plasma cholesterol is not known. We have generated a novel transgenic mouse model with intestine specific overexpression of active SREBP2 (ISR2) driven by villin promoter. ISR2 mice showed overexpression of active SREBP2 specifically in the intestine. Microarray analysis of jejunal RNA from ISR2 mice showed a significant increase in genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) in jejunum and liver (mg/g protein) were significantly increased in ISR2 vs wild type mice. Serum Cholesterol was significantly increased in VLDL and LDL fractions whereas the level of serum triglycerides was decreased in ISR2 vs wild type mice. In conclusion, activation of intestinal SREBP2 alone seems to be sufficient to increase plasma cholesterol, highlighting the essential role of intestine in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the body. PMID:24465397

  11. The presence of serum alters the properties of iron oxide nanoparticles and lowers their accumulation by cultured brain astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geppert, Mark; Petters, Charlotte [University of Bremen, Centre for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen (Germany); Thiel, Karsten [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (Germany); Dringen, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.dringen@uni-bremen.de [University of Bremen, Centre for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Such particles are able to cross the blood-brain barrier and are taken up into brain cells. To test whether serum components affect the properties of IONPs and/or their uptake into brain cells, we have incubated dimercaptosuccinate-coated magnetic IONPs without and with fetal calf serum (FCS) and have exposed cultured brain astrocytes with IONPs in the absence or presence of FCS. Incubation with FCS caused a concentration-dependent increase in the average hydrodynamic diameter of the particles and of their zeta-potential. In the presence of 10 % FCS, the diameter of the IONPs increased from 57 {+-} 2 to 107 {+-} 6 nm and the zeta-potential of the particles from -22 {+-} 5 to -9 {+-} 1 mV. FCS affected also strongly the uptake of IONPs by cultured astrocytes. The efficient time- and temperature-dependent cellular accumulation of IONPs was lowered with increasing concentration of FCS by up to 90 %. In addition, in the absence of serum, endocytosis inhibitors did not alter the IONP accumulation by astrocytes, while chlorpromazine or wortmannin lowered significantly the accumulation of IONPs in the presence of FCS, suggesting that clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis are involved in astrocytic IONP uptake from serum-containing medium. These data demonstrate that the presence of FCS strongly affects the properties of IONPs as well as their accumulation by cultured brain cells.

  12. Exercise increases serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cuevas-Ramos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 increases glucose uptake. It is unknown if FGF21 serum levels are affected by exercise. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a comparative longitudinal study. Anthropometric and biochemical evaluation were carried out before and after a bout of exercise and repeated after two weeks of daily supervised exercise. The study sample was composed of 60 sedentary young healthy women. The mean age was 24±3.7 years old, and the mean BMI was 21.4±7.0 kg/m². The anthropometric characteristics did not change after two weeks of exercise. FGF21 levels significantly increased after two weeks of exercise (276.8 ng/l (142.8-568.6 vs. (460.8 (298.2-742.1, p<0.0001. The delta (final-basal log of serum FGF21, adjusted for BMI, showed a significant positive correlation with basal glucose (r = 0.23, p = 0.04, mean maximal heart rate (MHR (r = 0.54, p<0.0001, mean METs (r = 0.40, p = 0.002, delta plasma epinephrine (r = 0.53, p<0.0001 and delta plasma FFAs (r = 0.35, p = 0.006. A stepwise linear regression model showed that glucose, MHR, METs, FFAs, and epinephrine, were factors independently associated with the increment in FGF21 after the exercise program (F = 4.32; r² = 0.64, p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Serum FGF21 levels significantly increased after two weeks of physical activity. This increment correlated positively with clinical parameters related to the adrenergic and lipolytic response to exercise. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01512368.

  13. Both immanently high active iron contents and increased root ferrous uptake in response to low iron stress contribute to the iron deficiency tolerance in Malus xiaojinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Qian; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Xin-Zhong; Han, Zhen-Hai

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the mechanism of low-iron stress tolerance in Malus xiaojinensis, the differences in physiological parameters and gene expression between an iron deficiency-sensitive species, Malus baccata, and an iron deficiency-tolerant species, M. xiaojinensis were investigated under low-iron (4 μM Fe) conditions. Under iron sufficient conditions, the expressions of iron uptake- and transport-related genes, i.e. FIT1, IRT1, CS1, FRD3 and NRMAP1, and the immanent leaf and root active iron contents were higher in M. xiaojinensis than those in M. baccata. However, on the first three days of low iron stress, the rhizospheric pH decreased and the root ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity and the expression of ferrous uptake- and iron transport-related genes in the roots increased significantly only in M. xiaojinensis. Leaf chlorosis occurred on the 3rd and the 9th day after low-iron treatment in M. baccata and M. xiaojinensis, respectively. The expression of iron relocalization-related genes, such as NAS1, FRD3 and NRMAP3, increased after the 5th or 6th day of low iron stress in leaves of M. xiaojinensis, whereas the expression of NAS1, FRD3 and NRMAP3 in the leaves of M. baccata increased immediately after the onset of low iron treatment. Conclusively, the relative high active iron contents caused by the immanently active root ferrous uptake and the increased root ferrous uptake in response to low iron stress were the dominant mechanisms for the tolerance to iron deficiency in M. xiaojinensis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Serum neopterin is not increased in obese juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangge, Harald; Freytag, Florian; Almer, Gunter; Weghuber, Daniel; Bauer-Denk, Carmen; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Cardiovascular disease is associated with inflammation and immune activation, concentrations of immune activation markers like neopterin predict outcome in adults. Methods. Serum neopterin concentrations and early metabolic and pre-atherosclerotic symptoms were analyzed in 295 obese juveniles and 101 normal weight controls of similar age. Additionally, the influence of a 12 months weight reduction program on neopterin levels was investigated in 31 obese juveniles. Results. Intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (IMT) and the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) were increased in the obese juveniles (P juveniles (P juvenile obesity behaved considerably different from what was demonstrated in adults, levels did not correlate with metabolic and pre-atherosclerotic symptoms found in early phases although early vascular burden and chronic low grade inflammation was indicated by increased IMT and CRP. Neopterin concentrations increased after a 12 months intervention program.

  15. HFE mutations in Caucasian participants of the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening study with serum ferritin level <1000 µg/L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Paul C; McLaren, Christine E; Speechley, Mark; McLaren, Gordon D; Barton, James C; Eckfeldt, John H

    2013-07-01

    Many patients referred for an elevated serum ferritin level iron overload and hemochromatosis. To determine the prevalence of HFE mutations in the hemochromatosis gene for 11 serum ferritin concentration intervals from 200 µg⁄L to 1000 µg⁄L in Caucasian participants in a primary care, population-based study. The Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening study screened 99,711 participants for serum ferritin levels, transferrin saturation and genetic testing for the C282Y and H63D mutations of the HFE gene. This analysis was confined to 17,160 male and 27,465 female Caucasian participants because the HFE C282Y mutation is rare in other races. Post-test likelihood was calculated for prediction of C282Y homozygosity from a ferritin interval. A subgroup analysis was performed in participants with both an elevated serum ferritin level and transferrin saturation. There were 3359 male and 2416 female participants with an elevated serum ferritin level (200 µg⁄L to 1000 µg⁄L for women, 300 µg⁄L to 1000 µg⁄L for men). There were 69 male (2.1%) and 87 female (3.6%) C282Y homozygotes, and the probability of being a homozygote increased as the ferritin level increased. Post-test likelihood values were 0.3% to 16% in men and 0.3% to 30.4% in women. Iron loading HFE mutations are unlikely to be the most common cause of an elevated serum ferritin level in patients with mild hyperferritinemia. Patients should be advised that there are many causes of an elevated serum ferritin level including iron overload.

  16. Effects of different iron supplementation on serum ferritin level in iron deficient children: A meta-analysis%不同补铁方式改善铁缺乏儿童血清铁蛋白水平的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱玲; 张艳洁; 张继翠; 刘兆秋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of daily iron supplementation and weekly iron supplementation on promoting serum ferritin level in iron deficient children. Methods Comprehensive literature retrieval was performed via searching electronic databases, bibliographies of books and relevant journals, and reviewing references and citations. Criteria from Cochrane EPOC review group were used to assess the quality of included studies. A meta-analysis was done on included studies. Results The serum ferritin level improved by daily iron supplementation increased 0. 62μg/L compared with that improved by weekly iron supplementation ( 95% CI:0. 38 ~0. 85 ,P <0. 01 ). Conclusion Daily iron supplementation is superior to weekly iron supplementation in improving serum ferritin for iron deficient children.%目的 比较每日补铁与每周补铁改善铁缺乏儿童血清铁蛋白水平的效果.方法 通过检索电子数据库、手工检索相关期刊书籍、并通过查找参考文献进行全面的文献检索;使用Cochrane EPOC制定的标准对纳入研究质量进行了评价;并对各结局的纳入研究进行Meta分析.结果 每日补铁比每周补铁使铁缺乏儿童血清铁蛋白浓度增加0.62μg/L(95%CI:0.38~0.85,P<0.01).结论 每日补铁比每周补铁对增加铁缺乏儿童血清铁蛋白含量更为有效.

  17. Suppression of serum iron-binding capacity and bone marrow cellularity in pigs fed aflatoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, R.B.; Clark, D.E.; Huff, W.E.; Kubena, L.F.; Corrier, D.E. (USDA, College Station, TX (USA)); Phillips, T.D. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

    1988-05-01

    Flavus-parasiticus species of the genus Aspergillus are recognized as the primary producers of aflatoxins B{sub 1}, B{sub 2}, G{sub 1}, and G{sub 2}, hereafter referred to as aflatoxin (AF). The effects of feeding AF-contaminated diets to growing and finishing pigs have been described with changes in clinical performance, serum biochemistry, histology, and hematology attributed to aflatoxicosis. However, most of these studies evaluated AF-induced changes for a single AF dosage at a given point in time. The present study was designed to characterize how various AF dosages influence bone marrow histology, hematology, prothrombin and activated thromboplastin times, serum amino acids, and serum iron binding capacity during aflatoxicosis in growing pigs.

  18. Suppression of serum iron-binding capacity and bone marrow cellularity in pigs fed aflatoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, R.B.; Clark, D.E.; Huff, W.E.; Kubena, L.F.; Corrier, D.E.; Phillips, I.D.

    1988-04-01

    Flavus-parasiticus species of the genus Aspergillus are recognized as the primary producers of aflatoxins B/sub 1/, B/sup 2/, G/sup 1/, and G/sup 2/, hereafter referred to as aflatoxin (AF). The effects of feeding AF-contaminated diets to growing and finishing pigs have been described with changes in clinical performance, serum biochemistry, histology, and hematology attributed to aflatoxicosis. However, most of these studies evaluated AF-induced changes for a single AF dosage at a given point in time. The present study was designed to characterize how various AF dosages influence bone marrow histology, hematology, prothrombin and activated thromboplastin times, serum amino acids, and serum iron binding capacity during aflatoxicosis in growing pigs.

  19. Accuracy of erythrogram and serum ferritin for the maternal anemia diagnosis (AMA): a phase 3 diagnostic study on prediction of the therapeutic responsiveness to oral iron in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresani, Cristiane Campello; Braga, Maria Cynthia; Felisberto, Daniel Falcão; Tavares-de-Melo, Carlos Eduardo Lopes; Salvi, Debora Bresani; Batista-Filho, Malaquias

    2013-01-16

    Pregnancy anemia remains as a public health problem, since the official reports in the 70's. To guide the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in pregnancy, the haemoglobin concentration is the most used test in spite of its low accuracy, and serum ferritin is the most reliable test, although its cutoff point remains an issue. The aim of this protocol is to verify the accuracy of erythrocyte indices and serum ferritin (studied tests) for the diagnosis of functional iron-deficiency in pregnancy using the iron-therapy responsiveness as the gold-standard. This is an ongoing phase III accuracy study initiated in August 2011 and to be concluded in April 2013. The subjects are anemic pregnant women (haemoglobin concentration iron during 90 days and will be analyzed as a delayed-type cross-sectional study. Women at the second trimester of pregnancy are being evaluated with clinical and laboratorial examinations at the enrollment and monthly. The 'responsiveness to therapeutic test with oral iron' (gold-standard) was defined to an increase of at least 0.55 Z-score in haemoglobin after 4 weeks of treatment and a total dose of 1200 mg of iron. At the study conclusion, sensitivities, specificities, predictive values, likelihood ratios and areas under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curves of serum ferritin and erythrocyte indices (red blood cell count, haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, red blood cell distribution width, reticulocyte count) will be tested. The compliance and adverse effects are considered confounding variables, since they are the main obstacles for the iron-therapy responsiveness. This study protocol shows a new approach on iron-deficiency anemia in pregnancy from a functional point of view that could bring some insights about the diagnostic misclassifications arising from the dynamic physiologic changes during the gestational cycle. WHO

  20. Ionic residues of human serum transferrin affect binding to the transferrin receptor and iron release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steere, Ashley N; Miller, Brendan F; Roberts, Samantha E; Byrne, Shaina L; Chasteen, N Dennis; Smith, Valerie C; MacGillivray, Ross T A; Mason, Anne B

    2012-01-17

    Efficient delivery of iron is critically dependent on the binding of diferric human serum transferrin (hTF) to its specific receptor (TFR) on the surface of actively dividing cells. Internalization of the complex into an endosome precedes iron removal. The return of hTF to the blood to continue the iron delivery cycle relies on the maintenance of the interaction between apohTF and the TFR after exposure to endosomal pH (≤6.0). Identification of the specific residues accounting for the pH-sensitive nanomolar affinity with which hTF binds to TFR throughout the cycle is important to fully understand the iron delivery process. Alanine substitution of 11 charged hTF residues identified by available structures and modeling studies allowed evaluation of the role of each in (1) binding of hTF to the TFR and (2) TFR-mediated iron release. Six hTF mutants (R50A, R352A, D356A, E357A, E367A, and K511A) competed poorly with biotinylated diferric hTF for binding to TFR. In particular, we show that Asp356 in the C-lobe of hTF is essential to the formation of a stable hTF-TFR complex: mutation of Asp356 in the monoferric C-lobe hTF background prevented the formation of the stoichiometric 2:2 (hTF:TFR monomer) complex. Moreover, mutation of three residues (Asp356, Glu367, and Lys511), whether in the diferric or monoferric C-lobe hTF, significantly affected iron release when in complex with the TFR. Thus, mutagenesis of charged hTF residues has allowed identification of a number of residues that are critical to formation of and release of iron from the hTF-TFR complex.

  1. Comparison of serial serum ferritin measurements and liver iron concentration assessed by MRI in adult transfused patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsikas, Dimitris A; Nzouakou, Ruben; Ameen, Venus; Sirigireddy, Bala; Amos, Roger J

    2014-02-01

    Transfused patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk of iron overload and identifying such patients is important to prevent associated complications. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of serial serum ferritin (SF) measurements in identifying patients with hepatic iron overload as assessed by liver MRI and its usefulness in guiding decision making regarding chelation therapy. We retrospectively compared the results of 49 liver MRI scans (LS) with the median serum ferritin (MSF) values for 28 patients in our institution. We found a nonlinear increment of MSF with increasing liver iron concentration (LIC). 18.4% and 47.4% of abnormal LSs corresponded to MSF serum ferritin measurements in adult transfused patients with sickle cell disease have a low sensitivity for identifying patients with iron overload and are of limited value in guiding decision making regarding initiation or monitoring of chelation therapy. The iron status of such high risk patients should be assessed by more definitive ways such as MRI. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Serum levels of osteopontin are increased in SIRS and sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaschetto, Rosanna; Nicola, Stefania; Olivieri, Carlo; Boggio, Elena; Piccolella, Fabio; Mesturini, Riccardo; Damnotti, Federica; Colombo, Davide; Navalesi, Paolo; Della Corte, Francesco; Dianzani, Umberto; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

    2008-12-01

    In sepsis, dysregulation of the immune response leads to rapid multiorgan failure and death. Accurate and timely diagnosis is lifesaving and should discriminate sepsis from the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) caused by non-infectious agents. Osteopontin acts as an extracellular matrix component or a soluble cytokine in inflamed tissues. Its exact role in immune response and sepsis remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the role of osteopontin in SIRS and sepsis. Prospective, observational study. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Fifty-six patients with SIRS or sepsis and 56 healthy subjects were enrolled. We analyzed the serum levels of osteopontin and TH1-TH2 cytokines and investigated the role of osteopontin on interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes. Serum osteopontin levels were strikingly higher in patients than in controls and in sepsis than in SIRS, and decreased during the resolution of both the disorders. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that osteopontin levels have discriminative power between SIRS and sepsis with an area under the curve of 0.796. Osteopontin levels directly correlated with those of interleukin 6 and in vitro, recombinant osteopontin increased interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes in both the absence and presence of high doses of lipopolysaccharide. These data suggest that osteopontin might be a mediator involved in the pathogenesis of SIRS and sepsis, possibly by supporting interleukin 6 secretion. 45. SIRS/Sepsis: clinical studies.

  3. Correlation between liver iron concentration determined by magnetic resonance imaging and serum ferritin in adolescents with thalassaemia disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan; Laothamathat, Jiraporn; Sirachainan, Nongnuch; Sungkarat, Witaya; Wongwerawattanakoon, Pakawan; Kumkrua, Patrapop

    2016-08-01

    MRI imaging is an alternative to serum ferritin for assessing iron overload in patients with thalassaemia disease. To correlate liver iron concentration (LIC) determined by MRI and clinical and biochemical parameters. An MRI study using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) tools to determine cardiac and liver iron was undertaken in adolescents with thalassaemia disease. Eighty-nine patients (48 males) with thalassaemia disease were enrolled. Seventy patients had been transfusion-dependent since a mean (SD) age of 3.8 (3.0) years, and 19 patients were not transfusiondependent. Mean (SD) haematocrit was 27.3 (2.9)%. Twenty-eight patients were splenectomized. Mean (SD) serum ferritin was 1673 (1506) μg/L. All transfusion-dependent patients received iron chelation at the mean (SD) age of 8.4 (3.5) years with either monotherapy of desferrioxamine, deferiprone, deferasirox or combined therapy of desferrioxamine and deferiprone, while only 5 of 19 patients who were not transfusion-dependent received oral chelation. The 89 patients underwent an MRI scan at the mean (SD) age of 14.8 (3.2) years. No patients had myocardial iron overload, but nine had severe liver iron overload, 27 had moderate liver iron overload, and 36 had mild liver iron overload. A significant correlation between liver T2* and serum ferritin was expressed as the equation: T2* (ms) = 28.080-7.629 log ferritin (μg/L) (r(2) 0.424, P = 0.0001). Patients with serum ferritin of >1000 to >2500 μg/L risked moderate and severe liver iron loading with the odds ratio ranging from 6.8 to 13.3 (95% CI 2.5-50.8). In thalassaemia, MRI is an alternative means of assessing iron stores, but when it is not available serum ferritin can be used to estimate liver T2*.

  4. Growth Promotion, Increase of Iron, Potassium and Cell Wall Components following Silicon Application in Rice under Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    z Kiani Chalmardi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is one of the most important stress reducing crop growth and yields. Silicon is also an essential element in most grasses including rice that may reduces biotic and abiotic stresses. In present study, the interactions of silicon and iron nutrition were studied in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Tarem. The plants cultivated in greenhouse under iron treatments of 0, 2 and 10 mg l-1 as a Fe-EDTA (first factor and silicon treatments of 0 and 1.5 mM sodium silicate (second factor. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks as a factorial experiment. The plants were harvested after 5 weeks. Iron deficiency resulted in reduction of dry mater and height of plants. In addition, cellulose content in shoots and lignin and soluble proteins in roots and shoots decreased, however, potassium content in roots increased due to iron deficiency. On the contrary, silicon application caused significant increase in dry mater and height of plants. Besides, iron and potassium contents increased in iron deficient plants following silicon application. Also, cellulose, lignin, and soluble proteins in roots and shoots and phenolic compounds in shoots enhanced in silicon fed plants. The results indicated that silicon nutrition could ameliorate harmful effects of iron deficiency by increase of iron and potassium contents and increment of cell wall components and phenolic compounds

  5. Dietary Iron Intake and Serum Ferritin Concentration in 213 Patients Homozygous for the HFEC282Y Hemochromatosis Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor R Gordeuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HFEC282Y homozygotes have an increased risk for developing increased iron stores and related disorders. It is controversial whether dietary iron restrictions should be recommended to such individuals.

  6. Assessment of serum copper, iron and immune complexes in potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu TIWARI

    Full Text Available Abstract Potentially malignant disorders (PMDs of oral cavity and oral cancer remain a cause of serious concern despite intensive research and development. Diet and immunity have been identified to play a crucial role as modifying factors in these diseases. Our study intended to explore this relationship by estimating and comparing the serum levels of copper, iron and circulating immune complexes (CICs in patients diagnosed with PMDs and oral cancer and normal healthy individuals. In this study, 40 histopathologically diagnosed cases of PMDs and oral cancer were included along with 30 healthy controls and 5 ml of venous blood was drawn using venipuncture. Serum estimation of copper, iron and CIC then followed using the colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using one way ANOVA and Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlation Test. The mean serum copper level was measured as 138.98 ± 10.13µg/100ml in the PMD group and 141.99 ± 21.44 µg/100ml in the oral cancer as compared to 105.5 + 18.81µ/100ml in the controls. The mean serum CIC levels was highest in the oral cancer (9.65 ± 0.16OD470 followed by the PMD group (0.18 + 0.21 OD470 and least in the control group (0.048 ± 0.02OD470. Whereas, the serum levels of iron showed a significant decrease in the PMD group (110.9 ± 10.54 µg/100ml and the oral cancer group (114.29 ± 25.83 µg/100ml as compared with the control group (136.85 ± 14.48 µg/100ml. There was no positive correlation obtained between the three groups with respect to the chosen parameters indicating that the variables were independent of each other. It can be thus be ascertained that trace elements like copper and iron as well as humoral responses (CICs have a close relationship with PMDs and oral cancers.

  7. α-Synuclein Over-Expression Induces Increased Iron Accumulation and Redistribution in Iron-Exposed Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Richard; Carmona, Asuncion; Roudeau, Stéphane; Perrin, Laura; Dučić, Tanja; Carboni, Eleonora; Bohic, Sylvain; Cloetens, Peter; Lingor, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Parkinson's disease is the most common α-synucleinopathy, and increased levels of iron are found in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease patients, but the potential interlink between both molecular changes has not been fully understood. Metal to protein binding assays have shown that α-synuclein can bind iron in vitro; therefore, we hypothesized that iron content and iron distribution could be modified in cellulo, in cells over-expressing α-synuclein. Owing to particle-induced X-ray emission and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence chemical nano-imaging, we were able to quantify and describe the iron distribution at the subcellular level. We show that, in neurons exposed to excess iron, the mere over-expression of human α-synuclein results in increased levels of intracellular iron and in iron redistribution from the cytoplasm to the perinuclear region within α-synuclein-rich inclusions. Reproducible results were obtained in two distinct recombinant expression systems, in primary rat midbrain neurons and in a rat neuroblastic cell line (PC12), both infected with viral vectors expressing human α-synuclein. Our results link two characteristic molecular features found in Parkinson's disease, the accumulation of α-synuclein and the increased levels of iron in the substantia nigra.

  8. Nifedipine Increases Iron Content in WKPT-0293 Cl.2 Cells via Up-Regulating Iron Influx Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuang-Shuang; Jiang, Li-Rong; Ling, Yan; Qian, Zhong-Ming; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Li, Juan; Ke, Ya

    2017-01-01

    Nifedipine was reported to enhance urinary iron excretion in iron overloaded mice. However, it remains unknown how nifedipine stimulates urinary iron excretion in the kidney. We speculated that nifedipine might inhibit the TfR1/ DMT1 (transferrin receptor 1/divalent metal transporter1)-mediated iron uptake by proximal tubule cells in addition to blocking L-type Ca2+ channels, leading to an increase in iron in lumen-fluid and then urinary iron excretion. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of nifedipine on iron content and expression of TfR1, DMT1 and ferroportin1 (Fpn1) in WKPT-0293 Cl.2 cells of the S1 segment of the proximal tubule in rats, using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer and Western blot analysis, respectively. We demonstrated for the first time that nifedipine significantly enhanced iron content as well as TfR1 and DMT1 expression and had no effect on Fpn1 levels in the cells. We also found that ferric ammonium citrate decreased TfR1 levels, increased Fpn1 expression and had no effect on DMT1 content, while co-treatment with nifedipine and FAC increase TfR1 and DMT1 expression and also had no effect on Fpn1 levels. These findings suggest that the nifedipine-induced increase in cell iron may mainly be due to the corresponding increase in TfR1 and DMT1 expression and also imply that the effects of nifedipine on iron transport in proximal tubule cells can not explain the increase in urinary iron excretion.

  9. Iron and ferritin levels in the serum and milk of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOICHI eORINO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron metabolism was examined in 15 bovine leukemia virus (BLV -infected dairy cows (2.6-7.8 years old. BLV infection was detected by measuring serum antibody titer against BLV virus antigen (gp51. The anti-BLV antibody titers of the BLV-infected cows were significantly higher in serum than in milk; a single serum-positive animal lacked detectable anti-BLV antibodies in its milk. Iron and ferritin concentrations also were significantly higher in serum than in milk. Although most of the BLV-infected dairy cows had past or present anamneses (such as inflammatory diseases, including intramammary infection, the milk ferritin concentrations of the infected cows were significantly lower than those of normal cows; serum ferritin concentrations did not differ significantly between these two groups. The anti-BLV antibody titers in milk samples showed significant correlation with serum iron concentrations. These results suggest that BLV infection affects iron homeostasis through iron metabolism in the dairy cow mammary gland.

  10. Increased endogenous DNA oxidation correlates to increased iron levels in melanocytes relative to keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelle, Edward; Huang, Xi; Zhang, Qi; Pernodet, Nadine; Yarosh, Daniel B; Frenkel, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    The endogenous oxidative state of normal human epidermal melanocytes was investigated and compared to normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) in order to gain new insight into melanocyte biology. Previously, we showed that NHEKs contain higher levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than melanocytes and that it can migrate from NHEKs to melanocytes by passive permeation. Nevertheless, despite lower concentrations of H2O2, we now report higher levels of oxidative DNA in melanocytes as indicated by increased levels of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG): 4.49 (±0.55 SEM) 8-oxo-dG/10(6) dG compared to 1.49 (±0.11 SEM) 8-oxo-dG/10(6) dG for NHEKs. An antioxidant biomarker, glutathione (GSH), was also lower in melanocytes (3.14 nmoles (±0.15 SEM)/cell) in comparison to NHEKs (5.98 nmoles (±0.33 SEM)/cell). Intriguingly, cellular bioavailable iron as measured in ferritin was found to be nearly fourfold higher in melanocytes than in NHEKs. Further, ferritin levels in melanocytes were also higher than in hepatocarcinoma cells, an iron-rich cell, and it indicates that higher relative iron levels may be characteristic of melanocytes. To account for the increased oxidative DNA and lower GSH and H2O2 levels that we observe, we propose that iron may contribute to higher levels of oxidation by reacting with H2O2 through a Fenton reaction leading to the generation of DNA-reactive hydroxyl radicals. In conclusion, our data support the concept of elevated oxidation and high iron levels as normal parameters of melanocytic activity. We present new evidence that may contribute to our understanding of the melanogenic process and lead to the development of new skin care products.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus redirects central metabolism to increase iron availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Friedman

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis is significantly influenced by the iron status of the host. However, the regulatory impact of host iron sources on S. aureus gene expression remains unknown. In this study, we combine multivariable difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry with multivariate statistical analyses to systematically cluster cellular protein response across distinct iron-exposure conditions. Quadruplicate samples were simultaneously analyzed for alterations in protein abundance and/or post-translational modification state in response to environmental (iron chelation, hemin treatment or genetic (Deltafur alterations in bacterial iron exposure. We identified 120 proteins representing several coordinated biochemical pathways that are affected by changes in iron-exposure status. Highlighted in these experiments is the identification of the heme-regulated transport system (HrtAB, a novel transport system which plays a critical role in staphylococcal heme metabolism. Further, we show that regulated overproduction of acidic end-products brought on by iron starvation decreases local pH resulting in the release of iron from the host iron-sequestering protein transferrin. These findings reveal novel strategies used by S. aureus to acquire scarce nutrients in the hostile host environment and begin to define the iron and heme-dependent regulons of S. aureus.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus redirects central metabolism to increase iron availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Friedman

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis is significantly influenced by the iron status of the host. However, the regulatory impact of host iron sources on S. aureus gene expression remains unknown. In this study, we combine multivariable difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry with multivariate statistical analyses to systematically cluster cellular protein response across distinct iron-exposure conditions. Quadruplicate samples were simultaneously analyzed for alterations in protein abundance and/or post-translational modification state in response to environmental (iron chelation, hemin treatment or genetic (Deltafur alterations in bacterial iron exposure. We identified 120 proteins representing several coordinated biochemical pathways that are affected by changes in iron-exposure status. Highlighted in these experiments is the identification of the heme-regulated transport system (HrtAB, a novel transport system which plays a critical role in staphylococcal heme metabolism. Further, we show that regulated overproduction of acidic end-products brought on by iron starvation decreases local pH resulting in the release of iron from the host iron-sequestering protein transferrin. These findings reveal novel strategies used by S. aureus to acquire scarce nutrients in the hostile host environment and begin to define the iron and heme-dependent regulons of S. aureus.

  13. Evaluation of iron status by serum ferritin level in Iranian carriers of beta thalassemia minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorfar, Hamid; Sadrarhami, Shohreh; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Ardestani, Samaneh Khanpour; Ataei, Manijeh; Moafi, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    Conflicting data exists on iron metabolism in adults with beta thalassemia minor (BTM). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serum ferritin (SF) levels in Iranian adults with BTM in order to determine the iron status in these subjects. Eighty four (41 males, 43 females) Iranian adults with BTM and 102 (55 males, 47 females) healthy subjects as a control group were enrolled in the study. SF level was measured by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). The mean SF concentration in the BTM group was 101.84+/-8.5 microg/L, which was higher than the mean SF in non-BTM subjects (67.98+/-5.4 microg/L, p=0.001). Comparing SF concentrations between BTM males and males in the control group showed that the SF level was significantly higher in BTM males (150.57+/-75.13 microg/L vs. 96.66+/-56.79 microg/L, piron status in females with BTM. However in males, BTM can lead to iron overload. Therefore, we suggest determining the levels of SF in subjects with BTM, especially in males, to avoid harmful effects of iron overload in early stages of the disorder.

  14. Sugars increase non-heme iron bioavailability in human epithelial intestinal and liver cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Christides

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that sugars enhance iron bioavailability, possibly through either chelation or altering the oxidation state of the metal, however, results have been inconclusive. Sugar intake in the last 20 years has increased dramatically, and iron status disorders are significant public health problems worldwide; therefore understanding the nutritional implications of iron-sugar interactions is particularly relevant. In this study we measured the effects of sugars on non-heme iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and HepG2 hepatoma cells using ferritin formation as a surrogate marker for iron uptake. The effect of sugars on iron oxidation state was examined by measuring ferrous iron formation in different sugar-iron solutions with a ferrozine-based assay. Fructose significantly increased iron-induced ferritin formation in both Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. In addition, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55 increased Caco-2 cell iron-induced ferritin; these effects were negated by the addition of either tannic acid or phytic acid. Fructose combined with FeCl3 increased ferrozine-chelatable ferrous iron levels by approximately 300%. In conclusion, fructose increases iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Given the large amount of simple and rapidly digestible sugars in the modern diet their effects on iron bioavailability may have important patho-physiological consequences. Further studies are warranted to characterize these interactions.

  15. Strawberry consumption is associated with increased antioxidant capacity in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Susanne M; Seeram, Navindra P; Zhang, Yanjun; Li, Luyi; Gao, Kun; Lee, Ru-Po; Wang, David C; Zerlin, Alona; Karp, Hannah; Thames, Gail; Kotlerman, Jenny; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2010-02-01

    Strawberries are known to contain antioxidants, but the significance of ingesting antioxidant-rich fruits remains to be established. In order to determine whether the consumption of strawberries impacted measures of in vivo antioxidant capacity, frozen strawberries (250 g) were administered daily for 3 weeks to 21 healthy female volunteers. Compliance was confirmed by quantitating pelargonidin-glucuronide, urolithin A-glucuronide, and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-[(2)H]furanone-glucuronide in plasma and urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and antioxidant capacity in serum measured by the increase in lag phase of low-density lipoprotein after copper sulfate exposure, DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes, and activity of phase II enzymes. Among these measures lipid peroxidation lag time increased by 20% (P < .01), whereas other measures did not change significantly. The potent antioxidant defenses in humans make determination of changes due to dietary ingestion in healthy individuals difficult. In summary, daily consumption of strawberries resulted in a modest but significant increase in antioxidant capacity in a healthy population.

  16. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I, iron, C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A for prediction of outcome in dogs with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitpean, Supranee; Holst, Bodil Ström; Höglund, Odd V; Pettersson, Ann; Olsson, Ulf; Strage, Emma; Södersten, Fredrik; Hagman, Ragnvi

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra, accumulation of pus in the uterus, is a bacterial infection that frequently initiates systemic inflammation. The disease may have lethal consequences when the systemic effects are severe or complications occur. Markers for identifying high-risk patients and predicting outcome are therefore in high demand. The objective of this study was to measure serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), iron, C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) in bitches with pyometra and to explore the possible value of these variables for detection of increased morbidity. In total, 31 bitches were diagnosed with pyometra and destined for surgical treatment (ovariohysterectomy) and 17 healthy bitches were included in the study. Concentrations of IGF-I and iron were lower in the pyometra group (mean concentration 221.2 ± 22.5 ng/mL and 16.9 ± 1.6 μmol/L, respectively) compared with the healthy control group (mean concentration 366.7 ± 46.2 ng/mL and 38.1 ± 2.7 μmol/L, respectively). In contrast, concentrations of CRP and SAA were significantly higher in bitches with pyometra (mean concentrations 212.9 ± 17.3 mg/L and 119.9 ± 8.5 mg/L, respectively) compared with the control group (pyometra, whereas SAA and CRP concentrations were increased in the disease. Although unspecific, measurement of these variables may be valuable as adjunctive markers for prognosis in cases of pyometra. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Body iron and individual prophylaxis in pregnancy-should the iron dose be adjusted according to serum  ferritin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, KE; Bergholt, T;

    2006-01-01

    .0%, 40 mg 13.9%, 60 mg 5.7%, 80 mg 5.1% (p70 microg/l had no ID. Postpartum, ID was found in 4.7% in 20-mg group, 2.9% in group 40 mg and 0% in group 60 and 80 mg. IDA: At 32 weeks, women with ferritin 30 microg/l displayed IDA. Body iron at 18 weeks was 10.4 mg/kg, similar......This study aims to evaluate iron prophylaxis in pregnant women from the individual aspect, i.e. according to serum ferritin levels at the beginning of pregnancy, and to assess which dose of iron would be adequate to prevent iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) during pregnancy...... and postpartum. A randomised, double-blind study comprising 301 healthy Danish pregnant women allocated into four groups taking ferrous iron (as fumarate) in doses of 20 mg (n=74), 40 mg (n=76), 60 mg (n=77) and 80 mg (n=75) from 18 weeks gestation (inclusion) to 8 weeks postpartum. Iron status markers [serum...

  18. Evaluation of serum ferritin in screening for iron deficiency in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotru, M; Rusia, U; Sikka, M; Chaturvedi, S; Jain, A K

    2004-02-01

    Serum ferritin (SF) values Iron (BMI) stores and therefore of iron deficiency (ID). However, SF, which may be elevated as a part of acute phase reaction, is an unreliable indicator of BMI stores in the setting of chronic disorders, making it difficult to diagnose ID in these patients. Thus, in chronic disorders (CD) such as tuberculosis, bone marrow examination is the only reliable way to establish ID. This study was done in order to identify levels of SF that would be indicative of absent BMI stores and also to study a combination of hematological and biochemical parameters that would be helpful in raising the predictive power of SF in patients of tuberculosis. Fifty-five tuberculosis patients were studied and classified into Iron Deplete (ID) and Iron Replete (IR) based on BMI. Raising the cut-off values of SF from iron binding capacity (TIBC) did not improve the predictive power of SF further. Also, 89.5% cases could be correctly classified by logistic regression equations using SF with ESR and C- reactive protein (CRP).

  19. Increased serum serotonin improves parturient calcium homeostasis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Hernandez, Laura L; Weaver, Samantha; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2017-02-01

    Hypocalcemia in dairy cows is caused by the sudden increase in calcium demand by the mammary gland for milk production at the onset of lactation. Serotonin (5-HT) is a key factor for calcium homeostasis, modulating calcium concentration in blood. Therefore, it is hypothesized that administration of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a 5-HT precursor, can increase 5-HT concentrations in blood and, in turn, induce an increase in blood calcium concentration. In this study, 20 Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups. Both groups received a daily i.v. infusion of 1 L of either 0.9% NaCl (C group; n = 10) or 0.9% NaCl containing 1 mg of 5-HTP/kg of BW (5-HTP group, n = 10). Infusions started d 10 before the estimated parturition and ceased the day of parturition, resulting in at least 4 d of infusion (8.37 ± 0.74 d of infusion). Until parturition, blood samples were collected every morning before the infusions, after parturition samples were taken daily until d 7, and a final sample was collected on d 30. Milk yield was recorded during this period. No differences between groups were observed for blood glucose, magnesium, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Cows receiving the 5-HTP infusion showed an increase in fatty acid concentrations from d -3 to -1 before parturition. Serum 5-HT concentrations were increased at d -4 related to parturition until d 5 postpartum in the 5-HTP group compared with the C group. In addition, cows from the 5-HTP group had increased 5-HT concentrations in colostrum, but not in mature milk, on d 7 postpartum. Serum calcium concentrations decreased in both groups around parturition; however, calcium remained higher in the 5-HTP group than in controls, with a significant difference between groups on d 1 (1.62 ± 0.08 vs. 1.93 ± 0.09 mmol/L in control and 5-HTP groups, respectively) and d 2 (1.83 ± 0.06 vs. 2.07 ± 0.07 mmol/L in control and 5-HTP groups, respectively). Additionally, colostrum yield (first milking) was lower in the

  20. Randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of a reusable fish-shaped iron ingot to increase hemoglobin concentration in anemic, rural Cambodian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Aviva I; Whitfield, Kyly C; Chapman, Gwen E; Yada, Rickey Y; Kheang, Khin Meng; Louise, Jennie; Summerlee, Alastair J; Armstrong, Gavin R; Green, Timothy J

    2017-08-01

    Background: Anemia affects 45% of women of childbearing age in Cambodia. Iron supplementation is recommended in populations in which anemia prevalence is high. However, there are issues of cost, distribution, and adherence. A potential alternative is a reusable fish-shaped iron ingot, which, when added to the cooking pot, leaches iron into the fluid in which it is prepared.Objective: We sought to determine whether there was a difference in hemoglobin concentrations in rural Cambodian anemic women (aged 18-49 y) who cooked with the iron ingot or consumed a daily iron supplement compared with a control after 1 y.Design: In Preah Vihear, 340 women with mild or moderate anemia were randomly assigned to 1) an iron-ingot group, 2) an iron-supplement (18 mg/d) group, or 3) a nonplacebo control group. A venous blood sample was taken at baseline and at 6 and 12 mo. Blood was analyzed for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and serum transferrin receptor. Hemoglobin electrophoresis was used to detect structural hemoglobin variants.Results: Anemia prevalence was 44% with the use of a portable hemoglobinometer during screening. At baseline, prevalence of iron deficiency was 9% on the basis of a low serum ferritin concentration. There was no significant difference in mean hemoglobin concentrations between the iron-ingot group (115 g/L; 95% CI: 113, 118 g/L; P = 0.850) or iron-supplement group (115 g/L; 95% CI: 113, 117 g/L; P = 0.998) compared with the control group (115 g/L; 95% CI: 113, 117 g/L) at 12 mo. Serum ferritin was significantly higher in the iron-supplement group (73 μg/L; 95% CI: 64, 82 μg/L; P = 0.002) than in the control group at 6 mo; however, this significance was not maintained at 12 mo (73 μg/L; 95% CI: 58, 91 μg/L; P = 0.176).Conclusions: Neither the iron ingot nor iron supplements increased hemoglobin concentrations in this population at 6 or 12 mo. We do not recommend the use of the fish-shaped iron ingot in Cambodia or in countries where the prevalence of

  1. Parametric studies on iron-carbon composite nanoparticles synthesized by laser pyrolysis for increased passivation and high iron content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, F.; Morjan, I.; Fleaca, C.; Birjega, R.; Vasile, E.; Kuncser, V.; Alexandrescu, R.

    2011-04-01

    Iron/iron carbide core and carbon shell nanoparticles with improved magnetic properties were successfully synthesized by laser pyrolysis. As iron and carbon precursors, iron pentacarbonyl and pure or argon-diluted acetylene/ethylene mixtures, respectively, were used. The aim of the present optimization is the improvement of the magnetic properties of the nanomaterials by the increase of the iron percent in powders simultaneously to the maintaining of the protective character of the carbon coverage of nanoparticles. The chemical content and the crystalline structure were monitored by EDX, XRD and TEM techniques. In the first study, the content of acetylene as carbon source was diminished from 75% to 0%. Consequently the percent iron increased from 10 at.% to 28 at.% while oxygen remained relatively constant (around 5 at.%). In the second step, only diluted ethylene was used (maximum 87.5 vol.% Ar). In this case, an increase of iron to 46 at.% is observed. An optimum 50% carbon source dilution was found. Above this value, the carbon content increases and below it, superficial oxidation increases through the diminishing of the carbon shell. The magnetic properties and the Fe phase composition of the Fe-C samples were analyzed by temperature dependent Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  2. Overexpression of Arabidopsis VIT1 increases accumulation of iron in cassava roots and stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is extremely abundant in the soil, but its uptake in plants is limited due to low solubility in neutral or alkaline soils. Plants can rely on rhizosphere acidification to increase iron solubility. AtVIT1 was previously found to be involved in mediating vacuolar sequestration of iron, which indi...

  3. Serum ferritin levels are increased in patients with glomerular diseases and proteinuria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branten, A.J.W.; Swinkels, D.W.; Klasen, I.S.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ferritin is a high molecular weight protein which reflects body iron stores, but may also rise in the case of an acute phase response. Recently, ferritin has been identified as a predictive factor in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. This is the first report on serum

  4. Helicobacter pylori Infection Induces Anemia, Depletes Serum Iron Storage, and Alters Local Iron-Related and Adult Brain Gene Expression in Male INS-GAS Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Monika; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Ge, Zhongming; Wang, Timothy C; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Cunningham, Catriona; Ennis, Kathleen; Georgieff, Michael; Fox, James G

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) affects > 500 million people worldwide, and is linked to impaired cognitive development and function in children. Helicobacter pylori, a class 1 carcinogen, infects about half of the world's population, thus creating a high likelihood of overlapping risk. This study determined the effect of H. pylori infection on iron homeostasis in INS-GAS mice. Two replicates of INS-GAS/FVB male mice (n = 9-12/group) were dosed with H. pylori (Hp) strain SS1 or sham dosed at 6-9 weeks of age, and were necropsied at 27-29 weeks of age. Hematologic and serum iron parameters were evaluated, as was gene expression in gastric and brain tissues. Serum ferritin was lower in Hp SS1-infected mice than uninfected mice (p in mice infected with Hp SS1 compared to sham-dosed controls (pin gastric tissue of Hp SS1-infected mice (pin myelination (myelin basic protein (Mbp) and proteolipid protein 2 (Plp2)) was downregulated in infected mice (p = 0.001 and p = 0.02). Expression of synaptic plasticity markers (brain derived neurotrophic factor 3 (Bdnf3), Psd95 (a membrane associated guanylate kinase), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1)) was also downregulated in Hp SS1-infected mice (p = 0.09, p = 0.04, p = 0.02 respectively). Infection of male INS-GAS mice with Hp SS1, without concurrent dietary iron deficiency, depleted serum ferritin, deregulated gastric and hepatic expression of iron regulatory genes, and altered iron-dependent neural processes. The use of Hp SS1-infected INS-GAS mice will be an appropriate animal model for further study of the effects of concurrent H. pylori infection and anemia on iron homeostasis and adult iron-dependent brain gene expression.

  5. Serum retinol levels are positively correlated with hemoglobin concentrations, independent of iron homeostasis: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seyed Mojtaba; Heidari, Gholamreza; Nabipour, Iraj; Amirinejad, Roya; Assadi, Majid; Bargahi, Afshar; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Sanjdideh, Zahra

    2013-04-01

    Micronutrient interactions give rise to complex issues that have an impact on preventive strategies when multiple micronutrient deficiencies coexist. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the prevalence of vitamins A and E and iron deficiencies among women 15 to 49 years of age in the northern Persian Gulf region. We hypothesized that serum retinol levels may show correlations with hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, independent of iron status. A total of 1242 nonpregnant women of reproductive age were selected via a multistage stratified random cluster sampling technique. Serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor levels were measured using enzyme immunoassay techniques. Serum retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) were determined for 727 women by high-performance liquid chromatography. The prevalence of anemia (Hb retinol levels exhibit a significant association with Hb concentrations after controlling for serum ferritin levels, anemia associated with chronic disease, and risk factors for anemia. Therefore, most nonpregnant women of reproductive age in the northern Persian Gulf were found to have adequate serum vitamin A and E levels. However, the status of anemia and iron deficiency anemia could be considered a mild public health problem in this region. On the basis of multivariate analyses, we conclude that low serum retinol levels may contribute to anemia, independent of iron homeostasis.

  6. Atmospheric processing outside clouds increases soluble iron in mineral dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zongbo; Krom, Michael D; Bonneville, Steeve; Benning, Liane G

    2015-02-03

    Iron (Fe) is a key micronutrient regulating primary productivity in many parts of the global ocean. Dust deposition is an important source of Fe to the surface ocean, but most of this Fe is biologically unavailable. Atmospheric processing and reworking of Fe in dust aerosol can increase the bioavailable Fe inputs to the ocean, yet the processes are not well understood. Here, we experimentally simulate and model the cycling of Fe-bearing dust between wet aerosol and cloud droplets. Our results show that insoluble Fe in dust particles readily dissolves under acidic conditions relevant to wet aerosols. By contrast, under the higher pH conditions generally relevant to clouds, Fe dissolution tends to stop, and dissolved Fe precipitates as poorly crystalline nanoparticles. If the dust-bearing cloud droplets evaporated again (returning to the wet aerosol stage with low pH), those neo-formed Fe nanoparticles quickly redissolve, while the refractory Fe-bearing phases continue to dissolve gradually. Overall, the duration of the acidic, wet aerosol stage ultimately increases the amount of potentially bioavailable Fe delivered to oceans, while conditions in clouds favor the formation of Fe-rich nanoparticles in the atmosphere.

  7. Iron deficiency anemia and increased urinary norepinephrine excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhess, M L; Stuart, M J; Stockman, J A; Oski, F A

    1975-04-01

    Chronic iron deficiency in rats resulted in decreased MAO activity both in vitro and in vivo. Since MAO is an important enzyme in inactivation of catecholamines, urinary excretion of DA, NE, E, MN-NMN, and VMA was measured in 24-hour samples from 11 iron-deficient children before and after treatment with intramuscular iron. Pretreatment NE excretion was abnormally high and returned to normal (P=0.001) within one week of therapy. VMA excretion also was higher before than after treatment (P greater than 0.05), but most values were within the normal range for healthy children of comparable size. There was no significant difference between DA, E, and MN-NMN excretion before and after iron therapy. Anemic, non-iron-deficient children had normal urinary NE, E, and VMA excretion before and after transfusion. These findings suggest that the irritability, lack of attentiveness, and low performance scores of iron-deficient children may be related to alterations in catecholamine metabolic pathways secondary to dependence of MAO on adequate iron stores.

  8. Ferritin-iron increases killing of Chinese hamster ovary cells by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J.M.; Stevens, R.G. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    Stationary-phase Chinese hamster ovary cells were cultured in medium containing ferritin ([approx]19% iron by weight) added at concentrations ranging from 0 to 128 [mu]g/ml. One set of cultures was unirradiated, another set exposed to 4.0 Gy of X-ray. Clonogenic cell survival was assessed in each set of cultures. In the absence of added ferritin, 4.0 Gy killed approximately 50% of the cells. In the absence of radiation, ferritin was not toxic at less than 48 [mu]g/ml; above 48 [mu]g/ml, toxicity increased with concentration. Apoferritin was not toxic at any concentration tested (up to 1000 [mu]g/ml). Although 32 [mu]g/ml ferritin, reflecting only a 3-6 fold increase in iron concentration over normal serum, was not toxic, it reduced survival of X-irradiated cells by an additional 75%. These results indicate that a sublethal concentration of ferritin can be a potent radiosensitizer. (Author).

  9. Higher ferritin levels, but not serum iron or transferrin saturation, are associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in adult men and women free of genetic haemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Bu B; Divitini, Mark L; Gunton, Jenny E; Olynyk, John K; Beilby, John P; McQuillan, Brendan; Hung, Joseph; Knuiman, Matthew W

    2015-04-01

    Iron overload predisposes to diabetes and higher ferritin levels have been associated with diabetes. However, it is unclear whether ferritin reflects differences in iron-related parameters between diabetic and nondiabetic persons. We examined associations of serum ferritin, iron and transferrin saturation with Type 2 diabetes in adults without genetic predisposition to iron overload. Cross-sectional analysis of community-dwelling men and women aged 17-97 years from the Busselton Health Survey, Western Australia. Men and women carrying genotypes associated with haemochromatosis (C282Y/C282Y or C282Y/H63D) were excluded. Serum ferritin, iron and transferrin saturation were assayed. There were 1834 men (122 with diabetes, 6·6%) and 2351 women (141 with diabetes, 6%). In men, higher serum ferritin was associated with diabetes after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, cardiovascular history, body mass index (BMI), waist, blood pressure, lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, alanine transaminase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) [odds ratio (OR): 1·29 per 1 unit increase log ferritin, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·01-1·65, P = 0·043]. In women, higher serum ferritin was associated with diabetes [fully adjusted OR: 1·31 per 1 unit increase log ferritin, 95% CI = 1·04-1·63, P = 0·020; 1·84 for tertile (T) 3 vs T1, 95% CI = 1·09-3·11]. Neither iron levels nor transferrin saturation were associated with diabetes risk in men or women. Higher ferritin was not associated with insulin resistance in nondiabetic adults. In adults, higher ferritin levels are independently associated with prevalent diabetes while iron and transferrin saturation are not. Ferritin is a robust biomarker for diabetes risk, but further investigation is needed to clarify whether this relationship is mediated via iron metabolism. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Iron Dextran Increases Hepatic Oxidative Stress and Alters Expression of Genes Related to Lipid Metabolism Contributing to Hyperlipidaemia in Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of iron dextran on lipid metabolism and to determine the involvement of oxidative stress. Fischer rats were divided into two groups: the standard group (S, which was fed the AIN-93M diet, and the standard plus iron group (SI, which was fed the same diet but also received iron dextran injections. Serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were higher in the SI group than in the S group. Iron dextran was associated with decreased mRNA levels of pparα, and its downstream gene cpt1a, which is involved in lipid oxidation. Iron dextran also increased mRNA levels of apoB-100, MTP, and L-FABP indicating alterations in lipid secretion. Carbonyl protein and TBARS were consistently higher in the liver of the iron-treated rats. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between oxidative stress products, lfabp expression, and iron stores. In addition, a negative correlation was found between pparα expression, TBARS, carbonyl protein, and iron stores. In conclusion, our results suggest that the increase observed in the transport of lipids in the bloodstream and the decreased fatty acid oxidation in rats, which was promoted by iron dextran, might be attributed to increased oxidative stress.

  11. High Dietary Iron and Radiation Exposure Increase Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Blood and Liver of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Theriot, Corey A.; Wu, Honglu; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and increased iron (Fe) status independently cause oxidative damage that can result in protein, lipid, and DNA oxidation. During space flight astronauts are exposed to both increased radiation and increased Fe stores. Increased body Fe results from a decrease in red blood cell mass and the typically high Fe content of the food system. In this study we investigated the combined effects of radiation exposure (0.375 Gy of Cs-137 every other day for 16 days for a total of 3 Gy) and high dietary Fe (650 mg Fe/kg diet compared to 45 mg Fe/kg for controls) in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8/group). Liver and serum Fe were significantly increased in the high dietary Fe groups. Likewise, radiation treatment increased serum ferritin and Fe concentrations. These data indicate that total body Fe stores increase with both radiation exposure and excess dietary Fe. Hematocrit decreased in the group exposed to radiation, providing a possible mechanism for the shift in Fe indices after radiation exposure. Markers of oxidative stress were also affected by both radiation and high dietary Fe, evidenced by increased liver glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and serum catalase as well as decreased serum GPX. We thus found preliminary indications of synergistic effects of radiation exposure and increased dietary Fe, warranting further study. This study was funded by the NASA Human Research Project.

  12. Overexpression of Arabidopsis VIT1 increases accumulation of iron in cassava roots and stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Narayanan; Beyene, Getu; Chauhan, Raj Deepika; Gaitán-Solis, Eliana; Grusak, Michael A; Taylor, Nigel; Anderson, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Iron is extremely abundant in the soil, but its uptake in plants is limited due to low solubility in neutral or alkaline soils. Plants can rely on rhizosphere acidification to increase iron solubility. AtVIT1 was previously found to be involved in mediating vacuolar sequestration of iron, which indicates a potential application for iron biofortification in crop plants. Here, we have overexpressed AtVIT1 in the starchy root crop cassava using a patatin promoter. Under greenhouse conditions, iron levels in mature cassava storage roots showed 3-4 times higher values when compared with wild-type plants. Significantly, the expression of AtVIT1 showed a positive correlation with the increase in iron concentration of storage roots. Conversely, young leaves of AtVIT1 transgenic plants exhibit characteristics of iron deficiency such as interveinal chlorosis of leaves (yellowing) and lower iron concentration when compared with the wild type plants. Interestingly, the AtVIT1 transgenic plants showed 4 and 16 times higher values of iron concentration in the young stem and stem base tissues, respectively. AtVIT1 transgenic plants also showed 2-4 times higher values of iron content when compared with wild-type plants, with altered partitioning of iron between source and sink tissues. These results demonstrate vacuolar iron sequestration as a viable transgenic strategy to biofortify crops and to help eliminate micronutrient malnutrition in at-risk human populations.

  13. Decreased serum hepcidin, inflammation, and improved functional iron status six-months post-restrictive bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess adiposity is associated with low-grade inflammation and decreased iron status. Iron depletion (ID) in obesity is thought to be mediated by an inflammation-induced increase in the body’s main regulator of iron homeostasis, hepcidin. Elevated hepcidin can result in ID as it prevents the release...

  14. Raised serum ferritin concentration in hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome is not a marker for iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dan; Kulhalli, Vasu; Walker, Ann P

    2014-03-01

    Hyperferritinemia and bilateral cataracts are features of the rare hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome (HHCS; OMIM #600886). HHCS is an autosomal dominant condition caused by mutations which increase expression of the ferritin light polypeptide (FTL) gene. We report a patient with HHCS who was misdiagnosed and treated as having hemochromatosis, in whom a heterozygous c.-160A>G mutation was identified in the iron responsive element (IRE) of FTL, causing ferritin synthesis in the absence of iron overload. This report demonstrates the need for clinical awareness of HHCS as a cause of hyperferritinemia in the absence of iron overload and provides a possible diagnostic schema. © 2014 The Authors. HEPATOLOGY published by Wiley on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  15. Increased iron sequestration in alveolar macrophages in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Philippot

    Full Text Available Free iron in lung can cause the generation of reactive oxygen species, an important factor in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD pathogenesis. Iron accumulation has been implicated in oxidative stress in other diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, but little is known about iron accumulation in COPD. We sought to determine if iron content and the expression of iron transport and/or storage genes in lung differ between controls and COPD subjects, and whether changes in these correlate with airway obstruction. Explanted lung tissue was obtained from transplant donors, GOLD 2-3 COPD subjects, and GOLD 4 lung transplant recipients, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cells were obtained from non-smokers, healthy smokers, and GOLD 1-3 COPD subjects. Iron-positive cells were quantified histologically, and the expression of iron uptake (transferrin and transferrin receptor, storage (ferritin and export (ferroportin genes was examined by real-time RT-PCR assay. Percentage of iron-positive cells and expression levels of iron metabolism genes were examined for correlations with airflow limitation indices (forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 and the ratio between FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC. The alveolar macrophage was identified as the predominant iron-positive cell type in lung tissues. Furthermore, the quantity of iron deposit and the percentage of iron positive macrophages were increased with COPD and emphysema severity. The mRNA expression of iron uptake and storage genes transferrin and ferritin were significantly increased in GOLD 4 COPD lungs compared to donors (6.9 and 3.22 fold increase, respectively. In BAL cells, the mRNA expression of transferrin, transferrin receptor and ferritin correlated with airway obstruction. These results support activation of an iron sequestration mechanism by alveolar macrophages in COPD, which we postulate is a protective mechanism against iron induced oxidative

  16. Serum YKL-40 is increased in patients with hepatic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J S; Christoffersen, P; Møller, S

    2000-01-01

    with the blood sample. RESULTS: The median serum YKL-40 was highest in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (532 microg/l), in particular in patients with additional alcoholic hepatitis (740 microg/l). Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, post-hepatitic cirrhosis (425 microg/l) and non-cirrhotic fibrosis (330 microg...

  17. Serum Iron, Zinc, and Copper Levels in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Replication Study and Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Xuan; Tan, Lan; Wang, Hui-Fu; Ma, Jing; Liu, Jinyuan; Tan, Meng-Shan; Sun, Jia-Hao; Zhu, Xi-Chen; Jiang, Teng; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether iron, zinc, and copper levels in serum are disarranged in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we performed meta-analyses of all studies on the topic published from 1984 to 2014 and contextually carried out a replication study in serum as well. Our meta-analysis results showed that serum zinc was significantly lower in AD patients. Our replication and meta-analysis results showed that serum copper was significantly higher in AD patients than in healthy controls, so our findings were consistent with the conclusions of four previously published copper meta-analyses. Even if a possible role of iron in the pathophysiology of the disease could not be ruled out, the results of our meta-analysis showed no change of serum iron levels in AD patients, but this conclusion was not robust and requires further investigation. The meta-regression analyses revealed that in some studies, differences in serum iron levels could be due to the different mean ages, while differences in zinc levels appeared to be due to the different sex ratios. However, the effect of sex ratio on serum zinc levels in our meta-analysis is subtle and needs further confirmation. Also, diverse demographic terms and methodological approaches appeared not to explain the high heterogeneity of our copper meta-analysis. Therefore, when investigating trace elements, covariants such as age and sex have to be taken into account in the analyses. In the light of these findings, we suggest that the possible alteration of serum zinc and copper levels are involved in the pathogenesis of AD.

  18. New rat models of iron sucrose-induced iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu'o'ng Lê, Bá; Khorsi-Cauet, Hafida; Villegier, Anne-Sophie; Bach, Véronique; Gay-Quéheillard, Jérôme

    2011-07-01

    The majority of murine models of iron sucrose-induced iron overload were carried out in adult subjects. This cannot reflect the high risk of iron overload in children who have an increased need for iron. In this study, we developed four experimental iron overload models in young rats using iron sucrose and evaluated different markers of iron overload, tissue oxidative stress and inflammation as its consequences. Iron overload was observed in all iron-treated rats, as evidenced by significant increases in serum iron indices, expression of liver hepcidin gene and total tissue iron content compared with control rats. We also showed that total tissue iron content was mainly associated with the dose of iron whereas serum iron indices depended essentially on the duration of iron administration. However, no differences in tissue inflammatory and antioxidant parameters from controls were observed. Furthermore, only rats exposed to daily iron injection at a dose of 75 mg/kg body weight for one week revealed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation in iron-treated rats compared with their controls. The present results suggest a correlation between iron overload levels and the dose of iron, as well as the duration and frequency of iron injection and confirm that iron sucrose may not play a crucial role in inflammation and oxidative stress. This study provides important information about iron sucrose-induced iron overload in rats and may be useful for iron sucrose therapy for iron deficiency anemia as well as for the prevention and diagnosis of iron sucrose-induced iron overload in pediatric patients.

  19. Limitations of serum ferritin to predict liver iron concentration responses to deferasirox therapy in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John B; Elalfy, Mohsen; Taher, Ali; Aydinok, Yesim; Lee, Szu-Hee; Sutcharitchan, Pranee; El-Ali, Ali; Han, Jackie; El-Beshlawy, Amal

    2017-03-01

    In transfusion-dependent anaemias, while absolute serum ferritin levels broadly correlate with liver iron concentration (LIC), relationships between trends in these variables are unclear. These relationships are important because serum ferritin changes are often used to adjust or switch chelation regimens when liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is unavailable. This post hoc analysis of the EPIC study compared serum ferritin and LIC in 317 patients with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia before and after 1 yr of deferasirox. Serum ferritin responses (decreases) occurred in 73% of patients, 80% of whom also have decreased LIC. However, 52% of patients without a serum ferritin response did decrease LIC and by >1 mg Fe/g dw (median 3.9) in 77% of cases. Absolute serum ferritin and LIC values correlated significantly only when serum ferritin was Serum ferritin response was accompanied by decreased LIC in 89% and 70% of cases when serum ferritin was serum ferritin non-response was associated with LIC decrease in over half of patients, use of liver MRI may be particularly useful for differentiating true from apparent non-responders to deferasirox based on serum ferritin trends alone. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Haematology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Response of iron overload to deferasirox in rare transfusion-dependent anaemias: equivalent effects on serum ferritin and labile plasma iron for haemolytic or production anaemias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John B; Lin, Kai-Hsin; Beris, Photis; Forni, Gian Luca; Taher, Ali; Habr, Dany; Domokos, Gabor; Roubert, Bernard; Thein, Swee Lay

    2011-01-01

    Objectives It is widely assumed that, at matched transfusional iron-loading rates, responses to chelation therapy are similar, irrespective of the underlying condition. However, data are limited for rare transfusion-dependent anaemias, and it remains to be elucidated if response differs, depending on whether the anaemia has a primary haemolytic or production mechanism. Methods The efficacy and safety of deferasirox (Exjade®) in rare transfusion-dependent anaemias were evaluated over 1 yr, with change in serum ferritin as the primary efficacy endpoint. Initial deferasirox doses were 10–30 mg/kg/d, depending on transfusion requirements; 34 patients had production anaemias, and 23 had haemolytic anaemias. Results Patients with production anaemias or haemolytic anaemias had comparable transfusional iron-loading rates (0.31 vs. 0.30 mL red blood cells/kg/d), mean deferasirox dosing (19.3 vs. 19.0 mg/kg/d) and baseline median serum ferritin (2926 vs. 2682 ng/mL). Baseline labile plasma iron (LPI) levels correlated significantly with the transfusional iron-loading rates and with serum ferritin levels in both cohorts. Reductions in median serum ferritin levels were initially faster in the production than the haemolytic anaemias, but at 1 yr, similar significant reductions of 940 and 617 ng/mL were attained, respectively (−26.0% overall). Mean LPI decreased significantly in patients with production (P < 0.0001) and haemolytic (P = 0.037) anaemias after the first dose and was maintained at normal mean levels (<0.4 μm) subsequently. The most common drug-related, investigator-assessed adverse events were diarrhoea (n = 16) and nausea (n = 12). Conclusions At matched transfusional iron-loading rates, the responses of rare transfusion-dependent anaemias to deferasirox are similar at 1 yr, irrespective of the underlying pathogenic mechanism. PMID:21649735

  1. Circulating serum trefoil factors increase dramatically during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie Hessellund; Vestergaard, Else Marie; Milman, N

    2008-01-01

    in pregnant women carrying trisomy 21 foetuses and in women with normal pregnancies, throughout pregnancy and postpartum. Material and methods. Employing ELISA methods, serum collected at gestational weeks (GW) 18, 32, 39 and 8 weeks postpartum from women carrying normal foetuses (n = 141) was analysed...... comparable to concentrations previously measured in non-pregnant women. TFF1 concentrations rose throughout pregnancy and postpartum, being 1.5 times higher postpartum compared to 18 GW. No differences in the levels of TFFs were observed between women carrying trisomy 21 and those with healthy foetuses......Objective. Trefoil factors (TFF1-3) are 7-12 kDa peptides secreted by mucosal surfaces, with changing levels of expression reflected in serum concentrations. The genes for the peptides are located on chromosome 21, the chromosome duplicated in trisomy 21. We studied the levels of circulating TFFs...

  2. Increased Serum Sodium and Serum Osmolarity Are Independent Risk Factors for Developing Chronic Kidney Disease; 5 Year Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Masanari; Hisatome, Ichiro; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A.; Niwa, Koichiro; Andres-Hernando, Ana; Jensen, Thomas; Bjornstad, Petter; Milagres, Tamara; Cicerchi, Christina; Song, Zhilin; Garcia, Gabriela; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G.; Ohno, Minoru; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Johnson, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Epidemics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) not due to diabetes mellitus (DM) or hypertension have been observed among individuals working in hot environments in several areas of the world. Experimental models have documented that recurrent heat stress and water restriction can lead to CKD, and the mechanism may be mediated by hyperosmolarity that activates pathways (vasopressin, aldose reductase-fructokinase) that induce renal injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that elevated serum sodium, which reflects serum osmolality, may be an independent risk factor for the development of CKD. Methods This study was a large-scale, single-center, retrospective 5-year cohort study at Center for Preventive Medicine, St. Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, between 2004 and 2009. We analyzed 13,201 subjects who underwent annual medical examination of which 12,041 subjects (age 35 to 85) without DM and/or CKD were enrolled. This analysis evaluated age, sex, body mass index, abdominal circumference, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, fasting glucose, BUN, serum sodium, potassium, chloride and calculated serum osmolarity. Results Elevated serum sodium was an independent risk factor for development of CKD (OR: 1.03, 95% CI, 1.00–1.07) after adjusted regression analysis with an 18 percent increased risk for every 5 mmol/L change in serum sodium. Calculated serum osmolarity was also an independent risk factor for CKD (OR: 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03–1.05) as was BUN (OR: 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06–1.10) (independent of serum creatinine). Conclusions Elevated serum sodium and calculated serum osmolarity are independent risk factors for developing CKD. This finding supports the role of limiting salt intake and preventing dehydration to reduce risk of CKD. PMID:28081152

  3. Serum Hepcidin and Soluble Transferrin Receptor in the Assessment of Iron Metabolism in Children on a Vegetarian Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Mazur, Joanna; Gajewska, Joanna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Chełchowska, Magdalena

    2017-03-24

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vegetarian diet on iron metabolism parameters paying special attention to serum hepcidin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations in 43 prepubertal children (age range 4.5-9.0 years) on vegetarian and in 46 children on omnivorous diets. There were no significant differences according to age, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) between vegetarian and omnivorous children. Vegetarians had similar intake of iron and vitamin B12 and a significantly higher intake of vitamin C (p vegetarians. Hematologic parameters and serum iron concentrations were within the reference range in both groups of children. Serum transferrin levels were similar in all subjects; however, ferritin concentrations were significantly (p vegetarians than in omnivores. In children on a vegetarian diet, median hepcidin levels were lower (p vegetarians. We did not find significant associations with concentration of sTfR and selected biochemical, anthropometric, and dietary parameters in any of the studied groups of children. As hematologic parameters and iron concentrations in vegetarians and omnivores were comparable and ferritin level was lower in vegetarians, we suggest that inclusion of novel markers, in particular sTfR (not cofounded by inflammation) and hepcidin, can better detect subclinical iron deficiency in children following vegetarian diets.

  4. Iron fortification of whole wheat flour reduces iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia and increases body iron stores in Indian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Thankachan, Prashanth; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Amalrajan, Vani; Thomas, Tinku; Lubree, Himangi; Agarwal, Dhiraj; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Hurrell, Richard F; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Kurpad, Anura V

    2012-11-01

    Wheat is the primary staple food for nearly one-third of the world's population. NaFeEDTA is the only iron (Fe) compound suitable for fortifying high extraction flours. We tested the hypothesis that NaFeEDTA-fortified, whole wheat flour reduces Fe deficiency (ID) and improves body Fe stores (BIS) and cognitive performance in Indian children. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, school feeding trial, 6- to 15-y-old, Fe-depleted children (n = 401) were randomly assigned to either a daily wheat-based lunch meal fortified with 6 mg of Fe as NaFeEDTA or an otherwise identical unfortified control meal. Hemoglobin (Hb) and Fe status were measured at baseline, 3.5 mo, and 7 mo. Cognitive performance was evaluated at baseline and 7 mo in children (n = 170) at one of the study sites. After 7 mo, the prevalence of ID and ID anemia in the treatment group significantly decreased from 62 to 21% and 18 to 9%, respectively. There was a time x treatment interaction for Hb, serum ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc protoporphyrin, and BIS (all P children. It may be recommended for wider use in national school feeding programs.

  5. Helicobacter pylori Infection Induces Anemia, Depletes Serum Iron Storage, and Alters Local Iron-Related and Adult Brain Gene Expression in Male INS-GAS Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Burns

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia (IDA affects > 500 million people worldwide, and is linked to impaired cognitive development and function in children. Helicobacter pylori, a class 1 carcinogen, infects about half of the world's population, thus creating a high likelihood of overlapping risk. This study determined the effect of H. pylori infection on iron homeostasis in INS-GAS mice. Two replicates of INS-GAS/FVB male mice (n = 9-12/group were dosed with H. pylori (Hp strain SS1 or sham dosed at 6-9 weeks of age, and were necropsied at 27-29 weeks of age. Hematologic and serum iron parameters were evaluated, as was gene expression in gastric and brain tissues. Serum ferritin was lower in Hp SS1-infected mice than uninfected mice (p < 0.0001. Infected mice had a lower red blood cell count (p<0.0001, hematocrit (p < 0.001, and hemoglobin concentration (p <0.0001 than uninfected mice. Relative expression of gastric hepcidin antimicrobial peptide (Hamp was downregulated in mice infected with Hp SS1 compared to sham-dosed controls (p<0.001. Expression of bone morphogenic protein 4 (Bmp4, a growth factor upstream of hepcidin, was downregulated in gastric tissue of Hp SS1-infected mice (p<0.001. Hp SS1-infected mice had downregulated brain expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (Th (p = 0.02. Expression of iron-responsive genes involved in myelination (myelin basic protein (Mbp and proteolipid protein 2 (Plp2 was downregulated in infected mice (p = 0.001 and p = 0.02. Expression of synaptic plasticity markers (brain derived neurotrophic factor 3 (Bdnf3, Psd95 (a membrane associated guanylate kinase, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1 was also downregulated in Hp SS1-infected mice (p = 0.09, p = 0.04, p = 0.02 respectively. Infection of male INS-GAS mice with Hp SS1, without concurrent dietary iron deficiency, depleted serum ferritin, deregulated gastric and hepatic expression of iron regulatory genes, and altered iron-dependent neural processes. The use of Hp SS

  6. Increased serum levels of sortilin are associated with depression and correlated with BDNF and VEGF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Demontis, Ditte; Ollendorff, Mathias Kaas;

    2015-01-01

    measured by immunoassay, and potential determinants of the serum sortilin level were assessed by generalized linear models. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured in previous studies. We identified a significant increase of serum...... sortilin levels in depressed individuals compared with controls (P = 0.0002) and significant positive correlation between serum sortilin levels and the corresponding levels of BDNF and VEGF. None of the genotyped SNPs were associated with depression. Additional analyses showed that the serum sortilin level...... was influenced by several other factors. Alcohol intake and body mass index, as well as depression, serum BDNF and serum VEGF were identified as predictors of serum sortilin levels in our final multivariate model. In conclusion, the results suggest a role of circulating sortilin in depression which may relate...

  7. High Iron Stores in the Low Malaria Season Increase Malaria Risk in the High Transmission Season in a Prospective Cohort of Rural Zambian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barffour, Maxwell A; Schulze, Kerry J; Coles, Christian L; Chileshe, Justin; Kalungwana, Ng'andwe; Arguello, Margia; Siamusantu, Ward; Moss, William J; West, Keith P; Palmer, Amanda C

    2017-08-01

    Background: Higher iron stores, defined by serum ferritin (SF) concentration, may increase malaria risk.Objective: We evaluated the association between SF assessed during low malaria season and the risk of malaria during high malaria season, controlling for inflammation.Methods: Data for this prospective study were collected from children aged 4-8 y (n = 745) participating in a biofortified maize efficacy trial in rural Zambia. All malaria cases were treated at baseline (September 2012). We used baseline SF and malaria status indicated by positive microscopy at endline (March 2013) to define exposure and outcome, respectively. Iron status was defined as deficient (corrected or uncorrected SF iron status assessed in the low malaria seasons (baseline).Results: We observed an age-dependent, positive dose-response association between ferritin in the low malaria season and malaria incidence during the high malaria season in younger children. In children aged iron status [incidence rate ratio (IRR) with SF: 1.56; 95% CI: 0.64, 3.86; IRR with inflammation-corrected SF: 1.92; 95% CI: 0.75, 4.93] and high iron status (IRR with SF: 2.66; 95% CI: 1.10, 6.43; or IRR with corrected SF: 2.93; 95% CI: 1.17, 7.33) categories compared with the deficient iron status category. The relative increase in malaria risk for children with high iron status was statistically significant only among those with a concurrently normal serum soluble transferrin receptor concentration (Iron adequacy in 4- to 8-y-old children in rural Zambia was associated with increased malaria risk. Our findings underscore the need to integrate iron interventions with malaria control programs. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01695148. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. ROLE OF INCREASED SERUM URIC ACID IN STROKE

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    Rajiv

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of hyperuricemia as a risk factor for acute stroke is debatable as it is not clear whether Serum Uric Acid ( SUA promotes or protects against the cerebrovascular disease . In this study , the serum uric acid level and other risk factors like lipid profile , S . Adenosine Deaminase was estimated in patients with acute stroke and their relationship with ischemic stroke , and the association of factors like age , sex , obesity and smoking in the development of ischemic stroke . METHODS: A prospective , randomized study conducted on 100 cases of ischemic stroke presenting to Department of Medicine , GMC , Amritsar . Risk factors fo r stroke were noted such as hypertension , diabetes mellitus , metabolic syndrome , smoking , and obesity . Serum uric acid levels were measured in cases and controls . In addition the measurement of other risk factors likes lipid profile , Fasting blood sugar an d S . Adenosine deaminase was done . The collected data were analyzed using Student’s t - test . RESULTS: Out of 100 patients , 69 were males and 31 were females . The hyperuricemia and ischemic stroke was more in males than females ( 46 vs . 23 . Hyperuricemia and ischemic stroke was associated with higher FBS ( mg/dl 122 . 33±18 . 46 and 129 . 37±15 . 40 , HbA1c ( mg/dl 6 . 87±2 . 1 and 6 . 82±6 . 21 , S . Triglyceride ( mg/dl 162 . 34±14 . 08 and 154 . 34±10 . 12 , S . Total Cholesterol ( mg/dl 169±12 . 10 and 160 . 09±14 . 10 , S . HDL - C ( mg/dl 42 . 11±10 . 17 and 45 . 16±11 . 40 , S . LDL - C ( mg/dl 119 . 85±14 . 07 and 110 . 42±12 . 67 , S . ADA ( U/L 45 . 62±7 . 90 and 49 . 47±9 . 57 at admission and at discharge respectively compared to the control . CONCLUSIONS: H yperuricemia and ischemic stroke was significantly higher in pa tients with hypertension , Diabetes mellitus , metabolic syndrome , chronic smokers and BMI > 25 kg/m2 . So control of these factors should be done to prevent future onset of ischemic stroke .

  9. Pharmacological ascorbate and ionizing radiation (IR increase labile iron in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin C. Moser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Labile iron, i.e. iron that is weakly bound and is relatively unrestricted in its redox activity, has been implicated in both the pathogenesis as well as treatment of cancer. Two cancer treatments where labile iron may contribute to their mechanism of action are pharmacological ascorbate and ionizing radiation (IR. Pharmacological ascorbate has been shown to have tumor-specific toxic effects due to the formation of hydrogen peroxide. By catalyzing the oxidation of ascorbate, labile iron can enhance the rate of formation of hydrogen peroxide; labile iron can also react with hydrogen peroxide. Here we have investigated the magnitude of the labile iron pool in tumor and normal tissue. We also examined the ability of pharmacological ascorbate and IR to change the size of the labile iron pool. Although a significant amount of labile iron was seen in tumors (MIA PaCa-2 cells in athymic nude mice, higher levels were seen in murine tissues that were not susceptible to pharmacological ascorbate. Pharmacological ascorbate and irradiation were shown to increase the labile iron in tumor homogenates from this murine model of pancreatic cancer. As both IR and pharmacological ascorbate may rely on labile iron for their effects on tumor tissues, our data suggest that pharmacological ascorbate could be used as a radio-sensitizing agent for some radio-resistant tumors.

  10. Pharmacological ascorbate and ionizing radiation (IR) increase labile iron in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Justin C; Rawal, Malvika; Wagner, Brett A; Du, Juan; Cullen, Joseph J; Buettner, Garry R

    2013-01-01

    Labile iron, i.e. iron that is weakly bound and is relatively unrestricted in its redox activity, has been implicated in both the pathogenesis as well as treatment of cancer. Two cancer treatments where labile iron may contribute to their mechanism of action are pharmacological ascorbate and ionizing radiation (IR). Pharmacological ascorbate has been shown to have tumor-specific toxic effects due to the formation of hydrogen peroxide. By catalyzing the oxidation of ascorbate, labile iron can enhance the rate of formation of hydrogen peroxide; labile iron can also react with hydrogen peroxide. Here we have investigated the magnitude of the labile iron pool in tumor and normal tissue. We also examined the ability of pharmacological ascorbate and IR to change the size of the labile iron pool. Although a significant amount of labile iron was seen in tumors (MIA PaCa-2 cells in athymic nude mice), higher levels were seen in murine tissues that were not susceptible to pharmacological ascorbate. Pharmacological ascorbate and irradiation were shown to increase the labile iron in tumor homogenates from this murine model of pancreatic cancer. As both IR and pharmacological ascorbate may rely on labile iron for their effects on tumor tissues, our data suggest that pharmacological ascorbate could be used as a radio-sensitizing agent for some radio-resistant tumors.

  11. Serum-induced iron-acquisition systems and TonB contribute to virulence in Klebsiella pneumoniae causing primary pyogenic liver abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pei-Fang; Lin, Tzu-Lung; Lee, Cha-Ze; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Wang, Jin-Town

    2008-06-15

    Klebsiella pneumoniae has become the predominant pathogen causing primary pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). K. pneumoniae was stimulated by human serum, and gene expression was analyzed by microarray. Three putative iron acquisition systems, Yersinia high-pathogenicity island (HPI), iucABCDiutA, and iroA(iroNDCB), that increased in expression and predominated in PLA-associated K. pneumoniae strains were identified. By use of siderophore uptake assays, these 3 systems were confirmed to be siderophore-dependent iron acquisition systems. Only the irp2-iuc-iroA triple mutant showed decreased virulence in mice. Full-genome analysis of K. pneumoniae strain NTUH-K2044 identified 10 putative iron uptake systems. Seven of these 10 systems were TonB dependent, including Yersinia HPI, iucABCDiutA, and iroA. A tonB deletion mutant was demonstrated to have profound attenuation of virulence. Immunization with the tonB mutant resulted in seroconversion of extracellular polysaccharide antibodies and protective efficacy against subsequent exposure to the parental strain. Iron uptake systems were the genes in K. pneumoniae that were highly up-regulated in response to sera. Although there are multiple iron transporter systems in NTUH-K2044, a mutation in all 3 loci (irp2, iuc, and iroA) is necessary to decrease virulence. The tonB mutant is a potential vaccine candidate because it can induce a significant protective immune response against challenge with a wild-type strain.

  12. Serum 8-isoprostane increased in pre-eclampsia

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    Besari Adi Pramono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The main causes of maternal mortality in Indonesia are pre-eclampsia, hemorrhage, and infection. Oxidative stress has a primary role in pre-eclampsia and one of its parameters is 8-isoprostane serum level. The objective of this study is to measure 8-isoprostane and to analyze the relationship between 8-isoprostane level and birth weight in pre-eclampsia. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 23 pre-eclampsia and 29 normotensive pregnant women with normal or cesarean delivery at Dr. Kariadi Hospital Semarang from January to May 2011. Collected maternal blood samples were assessed for 8-Isoprostane levels by means of a specific ELISA kit. Neonatal birth weight was measured immediately after delivery by means of calibrated baby scales. Differences in 8-isoprostane levels between pre-eclampsia and normotensive women were assessed using independent t-test for normal distributed data, and the Mann-Whitney test for non-normally distributed data. Results Mean 8-isoprostane level was significantly higher in women with pre-eclampsia than in normotensive women (62.52 ± 12.19 pg/mL vs 28.64 ± 8.81 pg/mL (p<0.05. Low birth weight was twice as frequent in pre-eclampsia than in normotensives. There was no correlation between 8-isoprostane serum level and neonatal birth weight in pre-eclampsia. Conclusion The level of 8-isoprostane was higher in pre-eclampsia than in normotensives. It is recommended to conduct further studies to determine whether 8-isoprostane may be used as a predictive marker of pre-eclampsia.

  13. Dietary iron intake, serum ferritin and haemoglobin levels, and cognitive development scores of infants aged 6–8 months

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    Dian Kusumadewi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency during infancy may lead to negative effect on cognitive function and psychomotor development. This study aimed to investigate serum ferritin, haemoglobin level and its relation to cognitive development score in infants aged 6–8 months.Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 76 infants recruited from several selected community health center in Kampung Melayu Village, Jatinegara Jakarta who had fulfilled the study criteria. Data collected consist of age, weight, height, head circumference, energy, protein and iron intake, serum feritin levels, haemoglobin levels and cognitive development score using Capute Scales method (Cognitive Adaptive Test/ Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scales/ CAT-CLAMS.Results: Among 74 infants aged 6-8 months, 73% had less dietary iron intake as compared to its RDA (7 mg/d, 18.9% were with serum ferritin less than normal value (20 μg/L, and 56.7% with haemoglobin levels less than normal value (11 mg/dL. In relation to cognitive development score, this study revealed that the CAT score was significantly lower among subjects with hemoglobin value less than 11 mg/dL (p = 0.026.Conclusion: Early prevention of impaired cognitive development is urgently needed by providing iron-rich complementary foods to infants since 6 months (mo old to maintain the normal level of hemoglobin. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:46-9Keywords: cognitive score, ferritin, hemoglobin, infants

  14. Liver iron and serum ferritin levels are misleading for estimating cardiac, pancreatic, splenic and total body iron load in thalassemia patients: factors influencing the heterogenic distribution of excess storage iron in organs as identified by MRI T2*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolnagou, Annita; Natsiopoulos, Konstantinos; Kleanthous, Marios; Ioannou, Alexia; Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2013-01-01

    A comparative assessment of excess storage iron distribution in the liver, heart, spleen and pancreas of β-thalassemia major (β-ΤΜ) patients has been carried out using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxation times T2*. The β-ΤΜ patients (8-40 years, 11 males, 9 females) had variable serum ferritin levels (394-5603 μg/L) and were treated with deferoxamine (n = 10), deferiprone (n = 5) and deferoxamine/deferiprone combination (n = 5). MRI T2* assessment revealed that excess iron is not proportionally distributed among the organs but is stored at different concentrations in each organ and the distribution is different for each β-ΤΜ patient. There is random variation in the distribution of excess storage iron from normal to severe levels in each organ among the β-ΤΜ patients by comparison to the same organs of ten normal volunteers. The correlation of serum ferritin with T2* was for spleen (r = -0.81), liver (r = -0.63), pancreas (r = -0.33) and none with heart. Similar trend was observed in the correlation of liver T2* with the T2* of spleen (r = 0.62), pancreas (r = 0.61) and none with heart. These studies contradict previous assumptions that serum ferritin and liver iron concentration is proportional to the total body iron stores in β-ΤΜ and especially cardiac iron load. The random variation in the concentration of iron in the organs of β-ΤΜ patients appears to be related to the chelation protocol, organ function, genetic, dietary, pharmacological and other factors. Monitoring of the iron load for all the organs is recommended for each β-ΤΜ patient.

  15. Does Obesity Increase Risk for Iron Deficiency? A Review of the Literature and the Potential Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cepeda-Lopez, A.C.; Aeberli, I.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing obesity is a major global health concern while at the same time iron-deficiency anemia remains common worldwide. Although these two conditions represent opposite ends of the spectrum of over- and under-nutrition, they appear to be linked: overweight individuals are at higher risk of iron

  16. Does Obesity Increase Risk for Iron Deficiency? A Review of the Literature and the Potential Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cepeda-Lopez, A.C.; Aeberli, I.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing obesity is a major global health concern while at the same time iron-deficiency anemia remains common worldwide. Although these two conditions represent opposite ends of the spectrum of over- and under-nutrition, they appear to be linked: overweight individuals are at higher risk of iron

  17. Iron overload in very low birth weight infants: Serum Ferritin and adverse outcomes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barrett, M

    2011-11-01

    Adequate iron isessential for growth and haematpoiesis. Oral iron supplementation is the standard of care in VLBW infants. Post mortem evidence has confirmed significant iron overload. Excessive free iron has been associated with free radical formation and brain injury in term infants.

  18. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  19. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of iron stored in the body become low, iron deficiency anemia sets in. Red blood cells become smaller and ... from the lungs throughout the body. Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia include tiredness and lack of energy, GI upset, ...

  20. Comparison of the serum ferritin and percentage of transferrin saturation as exposure markers of iron-driven oxidative stress-related disease outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duk-Hee; Zacharski, Leo R; Jacobs, David R

    2006-06-01

    Iron-catalyzed oxidative stress may be the primary mechanism for the pathogenesis of diseases related to iron excess. We hypothesized previously that certain markers of iron in bound form that are commonly used in epidemiologic studies might be inappropriate for investigating iron-related adverse health effects because oxidative stress requires iron in redox-active form. To study aspects of this hypothesis, we examined the association between levels of serum ferritin or the percentage of transferrin saturation (%TS) and levels of serum antioxidant vitamins and C-reactive protein (CRP). This cross-sectional analysis included 11245 adults aged 20 years or older who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Adjusted concentrations of serum alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene were inversely correlated with the serum ferritin concentration (P for trend serum ferritin. In contrast, the %TS was significantly and positively associated with beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamin C, and vitamin E. In addition, the serum ferritin was positively associated but the %TS was strongly and inversely associated with the serum CRP (P for trend serum ferritin and %TS showed contrasting associations with serum antioxidant vitamin levels and CRP although they have been used interchangeably in epidemiologic studies as markers of body iron. These results suggest that the %TS may not be a valid marker of exposure to iron-related oxidative stress. It appears that the serum ferritin is the preferred marker for assessment of clinical outcomes presumed to be caused by iron-related oxidative stress.

  1. Development of a new biodosimetry of serum iron%血清铁生物剂量计的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽华; 张晓红; 胡晓丹; 陈峰; 张泽群; 李群; 张海黔

    2016-01-01

    The aim is to study the serum iron changesin vitro serum of human peripheral blood irradiated by Co-60γ-rays and explore its feasibility as a biodosimetry. To establish the dose-response relationship, the concentration of serum iron inγ-rays irradiated serum was detected using ELISA (Enzymes linked immunosorbent assay). The results demonstrated that serum iron level increased with absorbed dose, and the dose-response curve of serum iron concentration followed the linear-quadratic model: male [y=30 676.5+2 383.5x–202.7x2 (r=0.99)], female [y=26 974.4+ 1 611.8x–141.3x2 (r=0.98)]. Time-response relationship of 4 Gy demonstrated that the serum iron was stable within 2 d. With the dose-response linear-quadratic curve, the absorbed dose was close to the double-blind dose (1, 2 and 4 Gy), and the 95% confidence interval of the estimated value was narrow. Therefore, the serum iron has the potential to be a new biodosimetry to reconstruct human exposure dose.%研究人体外周血血清经急性 γ 射线照射后血清铁的浓度变化,探讨其作为生物剂量计的可行性.人体血清经不同剂量γ射线辐照,采用酶联免疫吸附试验 (Enzymes linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA)法定量检测血清铁的浓度,建立血清铁浓度与吸收剂量之间的剂量?效应关系.结果显示,血清铁浓度随吸收剂量升高,血清铁浓度与吸收剂量成线性平方关系:男性[y=30 676.5+2 383.5x–202.7x2(r=0.99)];女性 [y=26 974.4+ 1 611.8x–141.3x2 (r=0.98)].4 Gy剂量时间?效应关系研究发现离体血清铁在2 d内维持稳定.利用建立的线性平方剂量?效应曲线估算的吸收剂量与双盲剂量(1、2、4 Gy)接近,估算值的95%置信区间较窄.研究结果提示血清铁具有重建人体吸收剂量的潜能.

  2. Iron increases HMOX1 and decreases hepatitis C viral expression in HCV-expressing cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Hong Hou; Lisa Rossi; Ying Shan; Jian-Yu Zheng; Richard W Lambrecht; Herbert L Bonkovsky

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate effects of iron on oxidative stress,heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) and hepatitis C viral (HCV) expression in human hepatoma cells stably expressing HCV proteins.METHODS: Effects of iron on oxidative stress, HMOX1,and HCV expression were assessed in CON1 cells.Measurements included mRNA by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and protein levels by Western blots.RESULTS: Iron, in the form of ferric nitrilotriacetate,increased oxidative stress and up-regulated HMOX1 gene expression. Iron did not affect mRNA or protein levels of Bach1, a repressor of HMOX1. Silencing the up-regulation of HMOX1 nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) by Nrf2-siRNA decreased FeNTA-mediated up-regulation of HMOX1 mRNA levels. These iron effects were completely blocked by deferoxamine (DFO). Iron also significantly decreased levels of HCV core mRNA and protein by 80%-90%,nonstructural 5A mRNA by 90% and protein by about 50% in the Con1 full length HCV replicon cells,whereas DFO increased them.CONCLUSION: Excess iron up-regulates HMOX1 and down-regulates HCV gene expression in hepatoma cells. This probably mitigates liver injury caused by combined iron overload and HCV infection.

  3. Increased iron and free radical generation in preclinical Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Zhu, Xiongwei; Tabaton, Massimo; Liu, Gang; McKeel, Daniel W; Cohen, Mark L; Wang, Xinglong; Siedlak, Sandra L; Dwyer, Barney E; Hayashi, Takaaki; Nakamura, Masao; Nunomura, Akihiko; Perry, George

    2010-01-01

    It is now established that oxidative stress is one of the earliest, if not the earliest, change that occurs in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consistent with this, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the clinical precursor of AD, is also characterized by elevations in oxidative stress. Since such stress does not operate in vacuo, in this study we sought to determine whether redox-active iron, a potent source of free radicals, was elevated in MCI and preclinical AD as compared to cognitively-intact age-matched control patients. Increased iron was found at the highest levels both in the cortex and cerebellum from the pre-clinical AD/MCI cases. Interestingly, glial accumulations of redox-active iron in the cerebellum were also evident in preclinical AD patients and tended to increase as patients became progressively cognitively impaired. Our findings suggests that an imbalance in iron homeostasis is a precursor to the neurodegenerative processes leading to AD and that iron imbalance is not necessarily unique to affected regions. In fact, an understanding of iron deposition in other regions of the brain may provide insights into neuroprotective strategies. Iron deposition at the preclinical stage of AD may be useful as a diagnostic tool, using iron imaging methods, as well as a potential therapeutic target, through metal ion chelators.

  4. Increased gastric IL-1β concentration and iron deficiency parameters in H. pylori infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhaes; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; Melo, Fabricio Freire; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Teixeira, Kádima Nayara; Carvalho, Simone Diniz; Bittencourt, Paulo Fernando Souto; Castro, Lucia Porto Fonseca; Crabtree, Jean E

    2013-01-01

    Association between H. pylori infection, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia has been described, but the mechanisms involved have not been established. We hypothesized that in H. pylori infected children increased gastric concentrations of IL-1β and/or TNF-α, both potent inhibitors of gastric acid secretion that is essential for iron absorption, are predictors for low blood concentrations of ferritin and haemoglobin, markers of early depletion of iron stores and anaemia, respectively. We evaluated 125 children undergoing endoscopy to clarify the origin of gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastric specimens were obtained for H. pylori status and cytokine evaluation and blood samples for determination of iron deficiency/iron deficiency anaemia parameters and IL1 cluster and TNFA polymorphisms that are associated with increased cytokine secretions. Higher IL-1β and TNF-α gastric concentrations were observed in H. pylori-positive (n = 47) than in -negative (n = 78) children. Multiple linear regression models revealed gastric IL-1β, but not TNF-α, as a significant predictor of low ferritin and haemoglobin concentrations; results were reproduced in young children in whom IL1RN polymorphic genotypes associated with higher gastric IL-1β expression and lower blood ferritin and haemoglobin concentrations. In conclusion, high gastric levels of IL-1β can be the link between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency/iron deficiency anaemia in childhood.

  5. Maternal serum ferritin concentration is positively associated with newborn iron stores in women with low ferritin status in late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jie; Lou, Jingan; Rao, Raghavendra; Georgieff, Michael K; Kaciroti, Niko; Felt, Barbara T; Zhao, Zheng-Yan; Lozoff, Betsy

    2012-11-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is common in pregnant women and infants, particularly in developing countries. The relation between maternal and neonatal iron status remains unclear. This study considered the issue in a large sample of mother-newborn pairs in rural southeastern China. Hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin (SF) were measured in 3702 pregnant women at ≥37 wk gestation and in cord blood of their infants born at term (37-42 wk gestation). Maternal anemia (Hb iron measures (r = 0.07-0.10 for both Hb and SF; P ≤ 0.0001 due to the large number). We excluded 430 neonates with suggestion of inflammation [cord SF >370 μg/L, n = 208 and/or C-reactive protein (CRP) >5 mg/L, n = 233]. Piecewise linear regression analyses identified a threshold for maternal SF at which cord-blood SF was affected. For maternal SF below the threshold of 13.6 μg/L (β = 2.4; P = 0.001), cord SF was 0.17 SD lower than in neonates whose mothers had SF above the threshold (167 ± 75 vs. 179 ± 80 μg/L). The study confirmed that ID anemia remains common during pregnancy in rural southeastern China. Despite widespread maternal ID, however, iron nutrition seemed to meet fetal needs except when mothers were very iron deficient. The impact of somewhat lower cord SF on iron status later in infancy warrants further study.

  6. Chicken thigh, chicken liver, and iron-fortified wheat flour increase iron uptake in an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachón, Helena; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Glahn, Raymond P

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to test meat and fortified-food combinations to identify those that optimize iron uptake in an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model, a proxy for iron bioavailability. Four experiments tested combinations of meats such as chicken (blood, spleen, liver, thigh), beef (cube steak), and fish (whole-fish meal) with iron-fortified foods (rice cereal, maize-soy flour, wheat flour). Chicken liver, thigh, spleen, blood, or fish meal increased the Caco-2 cell iron uptake from these combined with rice cereal (Pflour (Pmeats did not increase the Caco-2 cell iron uptake (P >or= .05). Adding either meat to the 3 fortified foods increased the Caco-2 cell iron uptake of the fortified foods (Pflour were selected for an infant porridge because the combinations with the highest Caco-2 cell iron uptake were chicken thigh + wheat flour, chicken liver + wheat flour, and chicken liver + maize-soy flour, and wheat flour was the least expensive fortified food sold in the target population. Per unit of iron, the chicken thigh + wheat flour and chicken liver + wheat flour combinations resulted in the highest bioavailable iron. In the proportion of 3:1 fortified food:meat examined, meat increases the bioavailability of iron-fortified foods, but iron-fortified foods do not enhance total iron bioavailability when added to meat.

  7. [Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    The major causes of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) include iron loss due to bleeding, increased iron requirements, and decreased iron absorption by the intestine. The most common cause of IDA in Japanese women is iron loss during menstruation. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection can also cause IDA by reducing intestinal iron absorption. In addition to these common etiologies, germline mutations of TMPRSS6 can cause iron-refractory IDA (IRIDA). TMPRSS6 encodes matriptase-2, a membrane-bound serine protease primarily expressed in the liver. Functional loss of matriptase-2 due to homozygous mutations results in an increase in the expression of hepcidin, which is the key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. The serum hepcidin increase in turn leads to a decrease in iron supply from the intestine and macrophages to erythropoietic cells. IRIDA is microcytic and hypochromic, but decreased serum ferritin is not observed as in IDA. IRIDA is refractory to oral iron supplementation, but does respond to intravenous iron supplementation to some extent. Because genetic testing is required for the diagnoses of IRIDA, a considerable number of cases may go undiagnosed and may thus be overlooked.

  8. Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Associated with Increased Risk for Melanoma and Unfavourable Prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Bade; Alexander Zdebik; Stefan Wagenpfeil; Stefan Gräber; Jürgen Geisel; Thomas Vogt; Jörg Reichrath

    2014-01-01

    Background Low vitamin D status (serum 25(OH)D concentration) is associated with increased incidence and unfavourable outcome of various types of cancer. However, there are limited data on influence of serum 25(OH)D on risk and prognosis of malignant melanoma. Methods Basal serum 25(OH)D concentrations were retrospectively analyzed in a cohort of melanoma patients (n = 324) and healthy controls (n = 141). We tested the hypothesis that serum 25(OH)D concentrations are predictive of melanoma ri...

  9. Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Keskin, Ebru; Yenicesu, İdil

    2015-03-05

    Iron is essential for life because it is indispensable for several biological reactions, such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. Over the past few years, our understanding of iron metabolism and its regulation has changed dramatically. New disorders of iron metabolism have emerged, and the role of iron as a cofactor in other disorders has begun to be recognized. The study of genetic conditions such as hemochromatosis and iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) has provided crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis. In the future, these advances may be exploited to improve treatment of both genetic and acquired iron disorders. IRIDA is caused by mutations in TMPRSS6, the gene encoding matriptase-2, which downregulates hepcidin expression under conditions of iron deficiency. The typical features of this disorder are hypochromic, microcytic anemia with a very low mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, low transferrin saturation, no (or inadequate) response to oral iron, and only a partial response to parenteral iron. In contrast to classic iron deficiency anemia, serum ferritin levels are usually low-normal, and serum or urinary hepcidin levels are inappropriately high for the degree of anemia. Although the number of cases reported thus far in the literature does not exceed 100, this disorder is considered the most common of the "atypical" microcytic anemias. The aim of this review is to share the current knowledge on IRIDA and increase awareness in this field.

  10. Iron-Refractory Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Keskin, Ebru; Yenicesu, İdil

    2015-01-01

    Iron is essential for life because it is indispensable for several biological reactions, such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. Over the past few years, our understanding of iron metabolism and its regulation has changed dramatically. New disorders of iron metabolism have emerged, and the role of iron as a cofactor in other disorders has begun to be recognized. The study of genetic conditions such as hemochromatosis and iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) has provided crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis. In the future, these advances may be exploited to improve treatment of both genetic and acquired iron disorders. IRIDA is caused by mutations in TMPRSS6, the gene encoding matriptase-2, which downregulates hepcidin expression under conditions of iron deficiency. The typical features of this disorder are hypochromic, microcytic anemia with a very low mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, low transferrin saturation, no (or inadequate) response to oral iron, and only a partial response to parenteral iron. In contrast to classic iron deficiency anemia, serum ferritin levels are usually low-normal, and serum or urinary hepcidin levels are inappropriately high for the degree of anemia. Although the number of cases reported thus far in the literature does not exceed 100, this disorder is considered the most common of the “atypical” microcytic anemias. The aim of this review is to share the current knowledge on IRIDA and increase awareness in this field. PMID:25805669

  11. Dietary Mannoheptulose Increases Fasting Serum Glucagon Like Peptide-1 and Post-Prandial Serum Ghrelin Concentrations in Adult Beagle Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Leslie L; Eyre, Ryan; Gooding, Margaret A; Davenport, Gary M; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-06-16

    There is a growing interest in the use of nutraceuticals for weight management in companion animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar in avocados that inhibits glycolysis, on energy metabolism in adult Beagle dogs. The study was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial where dogs were allocated to a control (CON, n = 10, 10.1 ± 0.4 kg) or MH containing diet (168 mg/kg, n = 10, 10.3 ± 0.4 kg). Blood was collected after an overnight fast and 1 h post-feeding (week 12) to determine serum satiety related hormones and biochemistry. Resting and post-prandial energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were determined by indirect calorimetry (weeks 4 and 8). Physical activity was measured using an accelerometer (weeks 3, 7, 11). Body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (week 12). MH significantly (p < 0.05) increased fasting serum glucagon-like peptide-1 and post-prandial serum ghrelin. MH tended (p < 0.1) to increase fasting serum gastric inhibitory peptide and decrease physical activity. Together, these findings suggest that dietary MH has the ability to promote satiation and lowers daily energy expenditure.

  12. Iron deficiency in sports - definition, influence on performance and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Clénin, German; Cordes, Mareike; Huber, Andreas; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Noack, Patrick; Scales, John; Kriemler, Susi

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is frequent among athletes. All types of iron deficiency may affect physical performance and should be treated. The main mechanisms by which sport leads to iron deficiency are increased iron demand, elevated iron loss and blockage of iron absorption due to hepcidin bursts. As a baseline set of blood tests, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean cellular volume, mean cellular haemoglobin and serum ferritin levels help monitor iron deficiency. In healthy male and female athletes >15 yea...

  13. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung-Kook [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yangho, E-mail: yanghokm@nuri.net [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Cheonha-Dong, Dong-Gu, Ulsan 682-060 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  14. Heme oxygenase activity correlates with serum indices of iron homeostasis in healthy nonsmokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the breakdown of heme to carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin. While the use of genetically altered animal models in investigation has established distinct associations between HO activity and systemic iron availability, studies have not yet confirm...

  15. The Importance of Serum Transferrin Receptor and TfR-F Index in the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Accompanied by Acute and Chronic Infections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koşan Çulha, Vildan; Uysal, Zümrüt

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the diagnostic superiority of serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) measurement to other laboratory tests performed for the determination of iron deficiency caused by chronic disease...

  16. Increased duodenal DMT-1 expression and unchanged HFE mRNA levels in HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis and iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, V; Barrett, S; Ryan, E; Kelleher, T; O'Keane, C; Coughlan, B; Crowe, J

    2002-01-01

    HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis is characterized by imbalances of iron homeostasis and alterations in intestinal iron absorption. The identification of the HFE gene and the apical iron transporter divalent metal transporter-1, DMT-1, provide a direct method to address the mechanisms of iron overload in this disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the regulation of duodenal HFE and DMT-1 gene expression in HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis. Small bowel biopsies and serum iron indices were obtained from a total of 33 patients. The study population comprised 13 patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (C282Y homozygous), 10 patients with iron deficiency anemia, and 10 apparently healthy controls, all of whom were genotyped for the two common mutations in the HFE gene (C282Y and H63D). Total RNA was isolated from tissue and amplified via RT-PCR for HFE, DMT-1, and the internal control GAPDH. DMT-1 protein expression was additionally assessed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of HFE mRNA did not differ significantly between patient groups (P = 0.09), specifically between C282Y homozygotes and iron deficiency anemic patients, when compared to controls (P = 0.09, P = 0.9, respectively). In contrast, DMT-1 mRNA levels were at least twofold greater in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis and iron deficiency anemia when compared to controls (P = 0.02, P = 0.01, respectively). Heightened DMT-1 protein expression correlated with mRNA levels in all patients. Loss of HFE function in hereditary hemochromatosis is not derived from inhibition of its gene expression. DMT-1 expression in C282Y homozygote subjects is consistent with the hypothesis of a "paradoxical" duodenal iron deficiency in hereditary hemochromatosis. The observed twofold upregulation of the DMT-1 is consistent with the slow but steady increase in body iron stores observed in those presenting with clinical features of hereditary hemochromatosis.

  17. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d concentrations are associated with increased risk for melanoma and unfavourable prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Bade

    Full Text Available Low vitamin D status (serum 25(OHD concentration is associated with increased incidence and unfavourable outcome of various types of cancer. However, there are limited data on influence of serum 25(OHD on risk and prognosis of malignant melanoma.Basal serum 25(OHD concentrations were retrospectively analyzed in a cohort of melanoma patients (n = 324 and healthy controls (n = 141. We tested the hypothesis that serum 25(OHD concentrations are predictive of melanoma risk, thickness of primary melanomas, and overall survival (OS.Median serum 25(OHD concentrations were significantly lower (p = 0.004 in melanoma patients (median = 13.6 ng/ml as compared to controls (median = 15.6 ng/ml. Primary tumors of patients with low serum 25(OHD concentrations (20 ng/ml; median: 1.00 mm. Patients with 25(OHD serum concentrations in the lowest quartile had inferior overall survival (median: 80 months comparing with the highest quartile (median: 195 months; p = 0.049.Our data support the concept that serum 25(OHD concentrations are associated with risk and prognosis of melanoma. Whether normalizing serum 25(OHD concentrations in these patients improves outcomes will require testing in future clinical trials.

  18. Detection of serum iron and zinc levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their relationship with glucose and lipid metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yong Tang; Wan-Fen Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the blood iron and zinc levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their relationship with glucose and lipid metabolism.Methods:Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in T2DM group and healthy people were enrolled in control group. T2DM patients were divided into low iron and zinc group and high iron and zinc group with the median of serum iron and zinc contents as the standard. Serum trace elements contents and glucose and lipid metabolism indicators were detected.Results:T2DM patients’ blood iron contents were significantly higher than those of the control group while the zinc contents were significantly lower than those of the control group. Copper, calcium and magnesium contents had no significant difference between two groups of patients. HbA1c%, glucagon and HOMA-IR as well as apoB, apoE, ApoM, leptin and vaspin contents in high iron group were higher than those in low iron group while serum insulin, GLP-1, GIP, ApoA1, APN and HOMA-β levels were lower than those in low iron group. HbA1c%, glucagon, HOMA-IR, apoB, apoE, ApoM, leptin and vaspin contents in high zinc group were lower than those in low zinc group while serum insulin, GLP-1, GIP, ApoA1, APN and HOMA-β levels were higher than those in low zinc group.Conclusions: the serum iron level was abnormally high and the zinc content was abnormally low in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serum iron and zinc levels were closely related to the glucose and lipid metabolism.

  19. Assessment of iron deficiency in the context of the obesity epidemic: importance of correcting serum ferritin concentrations for inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Agnès; Berger, Jacques; Bour, Abdellatif; El Ati, Jalila; Traissac, Pierre; Landais, Edwige; El Kabbaj, Saâd; Delpeuch, Francis

    2013-09-01

    The correction of serum ferritin (SF) concentrations for inflammation because of infectious or parasitic diseases was recently proposed, especially in developing countries, but in many countries, adiposity has become the main cause of inflammation. We assessed, overall and by adiposity status, the bias in the estimation of iron deficiency (ID) on the basis of uncorrected SF. A cross-sectional survey in 2010 in Rabat-Salé, Morocco, used a random sample of 811 women aged 20-49 y. Adiposity was assessed by body mass index (BMI) (in kg/m²) (normal: BMI concentration >2 mg/L. ID was indicated by an SF concentration concentration >2 mg/L. The correction factor of SF was 0.65. The prevalence of ID (37.2% compared with 45.2%; difference -8.0%, P < 0.0001) was underestimated by not correcting SF, and the difference increased with adiposity (-2.9%, -8.5%, and -12.4% in normal, overweight, and obese subjects, respectively; P-interaction < 0.0001). Analogous results were observed for other adiposity measures. In developing countries where ID remains prevalent but rates of obesity are already high, corrected SF should be used when assessing ID status, even if infectious or parasitic diseases are no longer widespread. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01844349.

  20. Urinary hepcidin identifies a serum ferritin cut-off for iron supplementation in young athletes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrione, P; Spaccamiglio, A; Rizzo, M; Termine, A; Chierto, E; Campostrini, N; Quaranta, F; Di Gianfrancesco, A; Pigozzi, F

    2011-01-01

    The use of iron supplements should be a judicious choice, primarily when considering the possible risks deriving from an unjustified treatment. In trained athletes, levels of ferritin between 15 and 30 microg/L are frequently observed. Within this ferritin range, the usefulness of iron supplementation is still controversial. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of hepcidin assessment in the analysis of the iron status of young non-anemic athletes. Fifty young athletes were enrolled. The subjects were divided into 4 groups according to their ferritin levels. No statistically significant difference was found regarding hepcidin levels between athletes with ferritin lower than 15 microg/L and those in the 15-30 microg/L range. Similarly, no difference was found between athletes with ferritin higher than 50 microg/L and those in the 30-50 microg/L range. On the contrary, statistically significant differences were found between athletes with ferritin levels ranging from 15 to 30 microg/L and those in the 30-50 microg/L range. The present study suggests that serum ferritin levels below 30 microg/L indicate an asymptomatic iron deficiency status inhibiting hepcidin expression and that 30 microg/L should be considered the ferritin cut-off when considering an iron supplementation in young athletes.

  1. Higher triglyceride serum level increases atherosclerotic index in subjects 50-70 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiem Mawi

    2016-04-01

    Higher triglyceride levels increase AI in subjects 50-70 years of age. Subjects with high serum triglyceride level but without symptoms of cardiovascular disease should be examined for the development of coronary artery blockage.

  2. Increase in Dickkopf-1 Serum Level in Recent Spondyloarthritis. Data from the DESIR Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocturne, Gaetane; Pavy, Stephan; Boudaoud, Saida; Seror, Raphaèle; Goupille, Philippe; Chanson, Philippe; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris; Berenbaum, Francis; Mariette, Xavier; Briot, Karine; Feydy, Antoine; Claudepierre, Pascal; Dieudé, Philippe; Nithitham, Joanne; Taylor, Kimberly E; Criswell, Lindsey A; Dougados, Maxime; Roux, Christian; Miceli-Richard, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    To investigate DKK-1 and SOST serum levels among patients with recent inflammatory back pain (IBP) fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA and associated factors. The DESIR cohort is a prospective, multicenter French cohort of 708 patients with early IBP (duration >3 months and <3 years) suggestive of AxSpA. DKK-1 and SOST serum levels were assessed at baseline and were compared between the subgroup of patients fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA (n = 486; 68.6%) and 80 healthy controls. Mean SOST serum levels were lower in ASAS+ patients than healthy controls (49.21 ± 25.9 vs. 87.8 ± 26 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, age (p = 5.4 10-9), CRP level (p<0.0001) and serum DKK-1 level (p = 0.001) were associated with SOST level. Mean DKK-1 serum levels were higher in axial SpA patients than controls (30.03 ± 15.5 vs. 11.6 ± 4.2 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, DKK-1 serum levels were associated with male gender (p = 0.03), CRP level (p = 0.006), SOST serum level (p = 0.002) and presence of sacroiliitis on radiography (p = 0.05). Genetic association testing of 10 SNPs encompassing the DKK-1 locus failed to demonstrate a significant contribution of genetics to control of DKK-1 serum levels. DKK-1 serum levels were increased and SOST levels were decreased among a large cohort of patients with early axial SpA compared to healthy controls. DKK-1 serum levels were mostly associated with biological inflammation and SOST serum levels.

  3. Increase in Dickkopf-1 Serum Level in Recent Spondyloarthritis. Data from the DESIR Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetane Nocturne

    Full Text Available To investigate DKK-1 and SOST serum levels among patients with recent inflammatory back pain (IBP fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA and associated factors.The DESIR cohort is a prospective, multicenter French cohort of 708 patients with early IBP (duration >3 months and <3 years suggestive of AxSpA. DKK-1 and SOST serum levels were assessed at baseline and were compared between the subgroup of patients fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA (n = 486; 68.6% and 80 healthy controls.Mean SOST serum levels were lower in ASAS+ patients than healthy controls (49.21 ± 25.9 vs. 87.8 ± 26 pmol/L; p<0.0001. In multivariate analysis, age (p = 5.4 10-9, CRP level (p<0.0001 and serum DKK-1 level (p = 0.001 were associated with SOST level. Mean DKK-1 serum levels were higher in axial SpA patients than controls (30.03 ± 15.5 vs. 11.6 ± 4.2 pmol/L; p<0.0001. In multivariate analysis, DKK-1 serum levels were associated with male gender (p = 0.03, CRP level (p = 0.006, SOST serum level (p = 0.002 and presence of sacroiliitis on radiography (p = 0.05. Genetic association testing of 10 SNPs encompassing the DKK-1 locus failed to demonstrate a significant contribution of genetics to control of DKK-1 serum levels.DKK-1 serum levels were increased and SOST levels were decreased among a large cohort of patients with early axial SpA compared to healthy controls. DKK-1 serum levels were mostly associated with biological inflammation and SOST serum levels.

  4. Increase in Dickkopf-1 Serum Level in Recent Spondyloarthritis. Data from the DESIR Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocturne, Gaetane; Pavy, Stephan; Boudaoud, Saida; Seror, Raphaèle; Goupille, Philippe; Chanson, Philippe; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris; Berenbaum, Francis; Mariette, Xavier; Briot, Karine; Feydy, Antoine; Claudepierre, Pascal; Dieudé, Philippe; Nithitham, Joanne; Taylor, Kimberly E.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Dougados, Maxime; Roux, Christian; Miceli-Richard, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate DKK-1 and SOST serum levels among patients with recent inflammatory back pain (IBP) fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA and associated factors. Methods The DESIR cohort is a prospective, multicenter French cohort of 708 patients with early IBP (duration >3 months and <3 years) suggestive of AxSpA. DKK-1 and SOST serum levels were assessed at baseline and were compared between the subgroup of patients fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA (n = 486; 68.6%) and 80 healthy controls. Results Mean SOST serum levels were lower in ASAS+ patients than healthy controls (49.21 ± 25.9 vs. 87.8 ± 26 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, age (p = 5.4 10−9), CRP level (p<0.0001) and serum DKK-1 level (p = 0.001) were associated with SOST level. Mean DKK-1 serum levels were higher in axial SpA patients than controls (30.03 ± 15.5 vs. 11.6 ± 4.2 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, DKK-1 serum levels were associated with male gender (p = 0.03), CRP level (p = 0.006), SOST serum level (p = 0.002) and presence of sacroiliitis on radiography (p = 0.05). Genetic association testing of 10 SNPs encompassing the DKK-1 locus failed to demonstrate a significant contribution of genetics to control of DKK-1 serum levels. Conclusions DKK-1 serum levels were increased and SOST levels were decreased among a large cohort of patients with early axial SpA compared to healthy controls. DKK-1 serum levels were mostly associated with biological inflammation and SOST serum levels. PMID:26313358

  5. Serum Resistin Levels May Contribute to an Increased Risk of Acute Cerebral Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Liu; Xu, Shi-Jun; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xiu-Qing; Liu, Ting; Gao, Qiu-Yan; Qian, Qing-Qiang; Sun, Bao-Liang; Yang, Ming-Feng

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between serum resistin levels and acute cerebral infarction (ACI). PubMed, SpringerLink, Wiley, EBSCO, Ovid, Web of Science, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP databases (last updated search in October 2014) were exhaustively searched, and data from the eligible studies were extracted and analyzed to assess the association between serum resistin levels and ACI. STATA software (version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) was utilized for data analysis. Ten studies including 1829 ACI patients and 1557 healthy controls were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Our major result revealed that ACI patients exhibited higher serum resistin levels compared with healthy controls. Asubgroup analysis based on ethnicity showed a significant association between serum resistin levels and ACI in Asians, but surprisingly not in Caucasians. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that serum resistin levels are associated with an increased risk of ACI.

  6. Serum copper, zinc, and iron levels, and markers of carbohydrate metabolism in postmenopausal women with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalnaya, Margarita G; Skalny, Anatoly V; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate serum level of copper, zinc, iron and metabolic parameters in postmenopausal women with diabetes. A total of 413 postmenopausal women were enrolled in the current study. Women were divided into 4 groups with equal age and body mass index according to glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (≤5.5; 5.5-6.0; 6.0-6.5; >6.5%). Serum Fe, Cu, and Zn levels were assessed using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. Blood HbA1c, serum glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, and ceruloplasmin (Cp) were assessed using commercial kits. Homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and transferrin (Tf) saturation were calculated. The obtained data demonstrate that every 0.5% increase in HbA1c levels from 5.5% is associated with a significant elevation of glucose, insulin, CRP, and HOMA-IR values. Diabetic patients were characterized by significantly higher Fe (11%), Cu (8%), and Zn (6%) levels as compared to the controls. At the same time, the overall trend to increased metal levels in association with HbA1c was detected only for Fe (p<0.05) and Cu (p<0.05). Serum ferritin levels in diabetic women was 3-fold higher than in the controls, whereas Tf saturation was decreased by 35%. Serum Cp levels were significantly increased by 19% in prediabetes, whereas in diabetic postmenopausal women no such increase was observed. A significant elevation of total metal concentration in diabetic subjects without a concomitant elevation of transport proteins may be indicative of increased levels of "free" Fe and Cu, known to be toxic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross sectional, comparative study of serum erythropoietin, transferrin receptor, ferritin levels and other hematological indices in normal pregnancies and iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jai B; Bumma, Sirisha D; Saxena, Renu; Kumar, Sunesh; Roy, Kallol K; Singh, Neeta; Vanamail, P

    2016-08-01

    To test the correlation of the serum erythropoietin levels, serum transferrrin receptor levels and serum ferritin levels along with other hematological parameters in normal pregnant and anemic pregnant patients. In a prospective study, 120 pregnant women were recruited between 18 and 36 weeks of gestation; 53 normal pregnant patients, 67 anemic pregnant patients, in which, 17 had mild, 30 had moderate anemia, 20 had severe anemia. A blood sample was taken. The various hematological parameters, hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), serum ferritin, percentage saturation of iron, serum erythropoietin (SEPO) levels, serum transferrin receptors (STfRS) were performed. For statistics, Student's 't' test, Pearson's Chi test, Mann Whitney test and Bartlett test were used as per data. MCV was significantly reduced in anemic pregnancies as compared to non-anemic pregnancies (80.2±9.6 vs 94.12±9.8fl, p=0.001), MCHC was also reduced in them (30.2±3.38% vs 34.2±2.33%, p=0.176), TIBC was significantly increased in anemic pregnancies (343.31±28.54% vs 322.88±23.84%, p=0.001), serum ferritin was significantly reduced (24.9±10.48μg/L vs 31.03±9.98μg/L, p=0.001), percentage saturation of iron was also reduced (53.85±13.21% vs 62.04±15.79%, p=0.0024), serum erythropoietin levels were significantly higher in anemic women (26.24±26.61mU/ml vs 18.12±19.08mU/ml, p=0.064). The levels were significantly higher in severe anemia (46.5±46.8mU/ml than in moderate anemia 27.4±28.1mU/ml and mild anemia 22.8±22.8mU/ml. Serum transferrin receptors were significantly higher in anemic pregnancies than in non-anemic pregnancies (1.40±0.0802μg/ml vs 1.08±0.641μg/ml, p=0.019) with rise being higher in severe anemia (2.28±0.986μg/ml) than in moderate (1.4±0.816μg/ml) and mild anemia (1.16±0.702μg/ml). Various hematological parameters especially sTfR, serum erythropoietin, serum

  8. Prenatal Iron Deficiency in Guinea Pigs Increases Locomotor Activity but Does Not Influence Learning and Memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Fiset

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to determine whether prenatal iron deficiency induced during gestation in guinea pigs affected locomotor activity and learning and memory processes in the progeny. Dams were fed either iron-deficient anemic or iron-sufficient diets throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were fed an iron-sufficient diet. On postnatal day 24 and 40, the pups' locomotor activity was observed within an open-field test, and from postnatal day 25 to 40, their learning and memory processes were assessed within a Morris Water Maze. The behavioural and cognitive tests revealed that the iron deficient pup group had increased locomotor activity, but solely on postnatal day 40, and that there were no group differences in the Morris Water Maze. In the general discussion, we propose that prenatal iron deficiency induces an increase in nervousness due to anxiety in the progeny, which, in the current study, resulted in an increase of locomotor activity.

  9. Changes in serum markers of iron metabolism and their clinical significance in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OU Qiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the changes in the serum markers of iron metabolism and their clinical significance in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. MethodsA total of 68 NAFLD patients who were admitted to The Eighth People′s Hospital of Shanghai from July 2014 to April 2016 were enrolled as NAFLD group, and 70 healthy persons who underwent physical examination were enrolled as healthy control group. Among the 68 patients in the NAFLD group, 24 had NAFLD alone and 44 were complicated by abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT level. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, ALT, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and serum markers of iron metabolism [serum iron (SI, serum ferritin (SF, and serum hepcidin (HEPC] were measured for all patients, and the correlations between abnormal ALT level and serum markers of iron metabolism were analyzed. The independent samples t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to investigate the correlation between two variables. ResultsThe NAFLD group had significantly higher body mass index and serum levels of ALT, AST, TC, and TG than the healthy control group (t=9.8, 8.6, 8.5, 9.2, and 2.7, all P<0.05. Compared with the healthy control group, the NAFLD group had significantly higher levels of SI (21.7±7.1 μmol/L vs 187±6.9 μmol/L, t=2.3, P=0.02 and SF (340.2±257.6 μg/L vs 119.1±81.2 μg/L, t=6.7, P<0.01 and a significantly lower level of HEPC (12.2±5.3 μg/L vs 22.2±6.5 μg/L, t=9.9, P<0.01. Compared with those with NAFLD alone, the patients complicated by abnormal ALT level had significantly higher serum levels of ALT (89±58 U/L vs 26±8 U/L, t=7.1, P<0.01, SI (23.4±6.2 μmol/L vs 19.6±7.9 μmol/L, t=2.2, P=0.03, and SF (406.2±290.0 μg/L vs 219.4±112.0 μg/L, t=3.7, P<0.01, as well as a significantly

  10. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the role of ferrous iron in diabetes pathophysiology has been revived by recent evidence of iron as an important determinant of pancreatic islet inflammation and as a biomarker of diabetes risk and mortality. The iron metabolism in the β-cell is complex. Excess free iron is toxic......, but at the same time, iron is required for normal β-cell function and thereby glucose homeostasis. In the pathogenesis of diabetes, iron generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by participating in the Fenton chemistry, which can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to present...... and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...

  11. Re-Evaluation of Serum Ferritin Cut-Off Values for the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency in Children Aged 12-36 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Kawsari; Birken, Catherine S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Fehlings, Darcy; Hanley, Anthony J; Thorpe, Kevin E; Parkin, Patricia C

    2017-09-01

    An ongoing challenge has been determining clinically relevant serum ferritin cut-offs in the diagnosis of iron deficiency in children aged 1-3 years. We identified 2 potential clinically relevant serum ferritin cut-off values through their association with clinically important cut-off of hemoglobin as the indicator of anemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of Sirtuin 2 exerts neuroprotection in aging rats with increased neonatal iron intake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xijin Wang; Meihua Wang; Liu Yang; Jie Bai; Zhiqiang Yan; Yuhong Zhang; Zhenguo Liu

    2014-01-01

    Impaired iron homeostasis may cause damage to dopaminergic neurons and is critically involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. At present, very little is understood about the effect of neonatal iron intake on behavior in aging animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that increased neonatal iron intake would result in signiifcant behavior abnormalities and striatal dopamine depletion during aging, and Sirtuin 2 contributes to the age-related neurotoxicity. In the present study, we observed that neonatal iron intake (120 μg/g per day) during postnatal days 10–17 resulted in significant behavior abnormalities and striatal dopamine depletion in aging rats. Furthermore, after AK-7 (a selective Sirtuin 2 inhibitor) was injected into the substantia nigra at postnatal 540 days and 570 days (5 μg/side per day), striatal dopamine depletion was signiifcant-ly diminished and behavior abnormality was improved in aging rats with neonatal iron intake. Experimental ifndings suggest that increased neonatal iron intake may result in Parkinson’s dis-ease-like neurochemical and behavioral deifcits with aging, and inhibition of Sirtuin 2 expression may be a neuroprotective measure in Parkinson’s disease.

  13. Use of ascorbic and citric acids to increase dialyzable iron from vinal (Prosopis ruscifolia) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, C; Freyre, M; Sambucetti, M E; Pirovani, M E

    2004-01-01

    Vinal (Prosopis ruscifolia) is an ecologically important wild leguminous tree that grows spontaneously in Argentine deforested lands, the fruit of which is consumed by humans and animals. Because considerable iron content with low to intermediate availability has been previously reported in vinal pulps, its enhancement would be of interest. Iron availability was determined as iron dialyzability using an in vitro technique. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate iron availability increase after adding ascorbic and/or citric acids to vinal pulp at different mM acid/mM Fe ratios. Those ratios ranged from 0.05:1 to 9.95:1 and from 0.5:1 to 99.5:1 for ascorbic acid/Fe (AA:Fe) and citric acid/Fe (CA:Fe), respectively. The obtained second- and first-order polynomial equations showed that AA:Fe and CA:Fe molar ratios linear terms had a significant effect on iron dialyzability increase (P iron availability to a maximum of 4.6 times. Additional confirmatory experiments were made adding the same organic acids to different vinal pulps and to a traditional cake prepared with vinal pulp called "patay." There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between predicted values obtained by the model and experimental results.

  14. Serum concentration of copper, zinc, iron, and cobalt and the copper/zinc ratio in horses with equine herpesvirus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yörük, Ibrahim; Deger, Yeter; Mert, Handan; Mert, Nihat; Ataseven, Veysel

    2007-07-01

    The serum concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, and cobalt and copper/zinc ratio were investigated in horses infected with equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1). Nine horses were naturally infected with the virus and nine healthy horses served as controls. The concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, and cobalt were determined spectrophotometrically in the blood serum of all horses. The results were (expressed in micrograms per deciliters) copper 2.80 +/- 0.34 vs 1.12 +/- 0.44, zinc 3.05 +/- 0.18 vs 0.83 +/- 0.06, iron 2.76 +/- 0.17 vs 3.71 +/- 0.69, cobalt 0.19 +/- 0.37 vs 0.22 +/- 0.45, and copper/zinc ratio 0.72 +/- 0.38 vs 1.41 +/- 0.36 for control vs infected group, respectively. In conclusion, copper and zinc concentrations of the infected group were lower than the control group (p copper/zinc ratio of the infected group were higher than the control group (p cobalt concentration was not found to be statistically different between two groups. It might be emphasized that copper/zinc ratio was significantly affected by the EHV-1 infection, so it could be taken into consideration during the course of infection.

  15. An increase in lipoprotein oxidation and endogenous lipid peroxides in serum of obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu-Türkoğlu, U; Oztezcan, S; Telci, A; Orhan, Y; Aykaç-Toker, G; Sivas, A; Uysal, M

    2003-02-01

    Endogenous malondialdehyde and diene conjugate levels, the susceptibility of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins to copper-induced lipid peroxidation, and antibody titer against oxidized low-density lipoproteins were increased, but serum antioxidant activity was unchanged in obese women. Serum cholesterol, low-density lipoproteincholesterol, and trigliceride levels were also elevated, but high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels remained unchanged in obese women. In vitro, oxidation of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and levels of antibody against oxidized low-density lipoprotein correlated with body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteincholesterol levels in obese women. These results indicate that obesity is associated with increases in endogenous lipid peroxides, oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, and lipids in serum.

  16. Human serum transferrin: Is there a link between autism, high oxalate and iron deficiency anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Ashley N.; Bobst, Cedric E.; Kaltashov, Igor A.; Mason, Anne B.

    2013-01-01

    It has been previously suggested that high amounts of oxalate in plasma could play a role in autism by binding to the bilobal iron transport protein transferrin (hTF) thereby interfering with iron metabolism by inhibiting iron delivery to cells. By examining the effect of the substitution of oxalate for the physiologically utilized synergistic carbonate anion in each lobe of hTF we sought to provide a molecular basis for or against such a role. Our work clearly shows both qualitatively (6 M urea gels) and quantitatively (kinetic analysis by stop flow spectrofluorimetry) that the presence of oxalate in place of carbonate in each binding site of hTF does indeed greatly interfere with iron removal from each lobe (both in the absence and presence of the specific hTF receptor). However, we also clearly demonstrate that once the iron is bound within each lobe of hTF, neither anion can displace the other. Additionally, as verified by urea gels and electrospray mass spectrometry, formation of completely homogeneous hTF-anion complexes requires that all iron must first be removed and hTF then reloaded with iron in the presence of either carbonate or oxalate. Of significance, experiments described herein show that carbonate is the preferred binding partner, i.e., even if an equal amount of each anion is available during the iron loading process the hTF-carbonate complex is formed. PMID:24152109

  17. Human serum transferrin: is there a link among autism, high oxalate levels, and iron deficiency anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Ashley N; Bobst, Cedric E; Kaltashov, Igor A; Mason, Anne B

    2013-11-19

    It has been previously suggested that large amounts of oxalate in plasma could play a role in autism by binding to the bilobal iron transport protein transferrin (hTF), thereby interfering with iron metabolism by inhibiting the delivery of iron to cells. By examining the effect of the substitution of oxalate for the physiologically utilized synergistic carbonate anion in each lobe of hTF, we sought to provide a molecular basis for or against such a role. Our work clearly shows both qualitatively (6 M urea gels) and quantitatively (kinetic analysis by stopped-flow spectrofluorimetry) that the presence of oxalate in place of carbonate in each binding site of hTF does indeed greatly interfere with the removal of iron from each lobe (in the absence and presence of the specific hTF receptor). However, we also clearly demonstrate that once the iron is bound within each lobe of hTF, neither anion can displace the other. Additionally, as verified by urea gels and electrospray mass spectrometry, formation of completely homogeneous hTF-anion complexes requires that all iron must first be removed and hTF then reloaded with iron in the presence of either carbonate or oxalate. Significantly, experiments described here show that carbonate is the preferred binding partner; i.e., even if an equal amount of each anion is available during the iron loading process, the hTF-carbonate complex is formed.

  18. Acid and organic aerosol coatings on magnetic nanoparticles increase iron concentrations in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghio, Andrew J; Dailey, Lisa A; Richards, Judy H; Jang, Myoseon

    2009-07-01

    Numerous industrial applications for man-made nanoparticles have been proposed. Interactions of nanoparticles with agents in the atmosphere may impact human health. We tested the postulate that in vitro exposures of respiratory epithelial cells to airborne magnetic nanoparticles (MNP; Fe(3)O(4)) with and without a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and an inorganic acid could affect iron homeostasis, oxidative stress, and interleukin (IL)-8 release. Cell iron concentrations were increased after exposures to MNP and values were further elevated with co-exposures to either SOA or inorganic acid. Increased expression of ferritin and elevated levels of RNA for DMT1, proteins for iron storage and transport respectively, followed MNP exposures, but values were significant for only those with co-exposures to inorganic acid and organic aerosols. Cell iron concentration corresponded to a measure of oxidative stress in the airway epithelial cells; MNP with co-exposures to SOA and inorganic acid increased both available metal and indices of oxidant generation. Finally, the release of a proinflammatory cytokine (i.e. IL-8) by the exposed cells similarly increased with cell iron concentration. We conclude that MNP can interact with a SOA and an inorganic acid to present metal in a catalytically reactive state to cultured respiratory cells. This produces an oxidative stress to affect a release of IL-8.

  19. High serum ferritin levels increase the risk of hyperuricemia: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Xu, Chengfu; Xu, Lei; Yu, Chaohui; Miao, Min; Xie, Jianhong; Li, Youming

    2014-01-01

    To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of serum ferritin levels with hyperuricemia. A cross-sectional and subsequently prospective study was performed among the employees of Zhenhai Refining and Chemical Company, Ningbo, China. In a cross-sectional study, the association between serum ferritin levels and the prevalence of hyperuricemia was analyzed. Subjects who were free of hyperuricemia at baseline were followed up annually to explore the prospective association between serum ferritin levels and hyperuricemia incidence. Of the 10,074 subjects enrolled at baseline, 1,731 (17.18%) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of hyperuricemia. Subjects with hyperuricemia presented significantly higher serum ferritin levels, and the levels were positively correlated with the prevalence of hyperuricemia. During a total of 22,367 person-years of follow-up, 502 subjects developed hyperuricemia. The overall incidence of hyperuricemia for 1,000 person-years of follow-up was 22.4, ranging from 17.6 in subjects with baseline serum ferritin levels in the first quintile to 19.2, 21.7, 23.9, and 30.7 in subjects in quintiles 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively (p for trend serum ferritin levels were positively associated with the risk of incident hyperuricemia. Our cross-sectional and longitudinal results indicate that high serum ferritin levels increase the risk of hyperuricemia.

  20. Iron stores in 70-year-old Danish men and women. Evaluation in 469 individuals by serum ferritin and hemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Schultz-Larsen, K

    1994-01-01

    Iron status, including serum (S-) ferritin and hemoglobin (Hb) was assessed in a population survey of 469 old subjects (70 years of age; 254 men, 215 women); 7.9% of the participants had abnormal laboratory tests indicating diseases which might be connected with inappropriately high S-ferritin...... levels. Men had a median S-ferritin of 114 micrograms/L, 5-95 percentile 28-373 micrograms/L; 2.4% had values 30 micrograms/L (e.g., replete iron stores); 74.4% had values...... from 61-300 micrograms/L, and 8.7% values > 300 micrograms/L. Median Hb was 142 g/L (8.8 mmol/L), 5-95 percentile 124-158 g/L (7.7-9.8 mmol/L); Hb values ferritin

  1. Increased iron export by ferroportin induces restriction of HIV-1 infection in sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Namita; Ammosova, Tatiana; Diaz, Sharmin; Lin, Xionghao; Niu, Xiaomei; Ivanov, Andrey; Jerebtsova, Marina; Dhawan, Subhash; Oneal, Patricia; Nekhai, Sergei

    2017-01-01

    The low incidence of HIV-1 infection in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro under the conditions of low intracellular iron or heme treatment suggests a potential restriction of HIV-1 infection in SCD. We investigated HIV-1 ex vivo infection of SCD peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and found that HIV-1 replication was inhibited at the level of reverse transcription (RT) and transcription. We observed increased expression of heme and iron-regulated genes, previously shown to inhibit HIV-1, including ferroportin, IKBα, HO-1, p21, and SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1). HIV-1 inhibition was less pronounced in hepcidin-treated SCD PBMCs and more pronounced in the iron or iron chelators treated, suggesting a key role of iron metabolism. In SCD PBMCs, labile iron levels were reduced and protein levels of ferroportin, HIF-1α, IKBα, and HO-1 were increased. Hemin treatment induced ferroportin expression and inhibited HIV-1 in THP-1 cells, mimicking the HIV-1 inhibition in SCD PBMCs, especially as hepcidin similarly prevented HIV-1 inhibition. In THP-1 cells with knocked down ferroportin, IKBα, or HO-1 genes but not HIF-1α or p21, HIV-1 was not inhibited by hemin. Activity of SAMHD1-regulatory CDK2 was decreased, and SAMHD1 phosphorylation was reduced in SCD PBMCs and hemin-treated THP-1 cells, suggesting SAMHD1-mediated HIV-1 restriction in SCD. Our findings point to ferroportin as a trigger of HIV-1 restriction in SCD settings, linking reduced intracellular iron levels to the inhibition of CDK2 activity, reduction of SAMHD1 phosphorylation, increased IKBα expression, and inhibition of HIV-1 RT and transcription.

  2. Utility of labile plasma iron and transferrin saturation in addition to serum ferritin as iron overload markers in different underlying anemias before and after deferasirox treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John B; El-Alfy, Mohsen; Viprakasit, Vip; Giraudier, Stephane; Chan, Lee Lee; Lai, Yongrong; El-Ali, Ali; Han, Jackie; Cappellini, Maria D

    2016-01-01

    Plasma markers in addition to serum ferritin (SF) may be useful for the assessment of iron overload; however, predictive utility may differ depending on underlying, transfusion-dependent, anemias. Data were collected before and after 1 year of deferasirox treatment (end of study; EOS) from the large, 1-year EPIC (Evaluation of Patients' Iron Chelation with Exjade(®) ) study. Trends were evaluated between liver iron concentration (LIC), transferrin saturation (TfSat), predose labile plasma iron (LPI) and their relationship to SF categories in 1530 patients: thalassemia major (TM; n = 1114), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS, n = 336), and sickle-cell disease (SCD, n = 80). Baseline and EOS SF values showed a clear and similar relationship to LIC for all disease groups. TfSat also showed a relationship to SF, most clearly in patients with SCD, where TfSat was lowest in the lowest relative SF category. Unlike SF or LIC, TfSat did not decrease at EOS in any disease group. Baseline LPI was raised in TM and MDS, but not in patients with SCD, decreasing at EOS in both patient groups. After 1 year of chelation therapy, there was a significant trend for greater LPI reduction in patients with TM achieving LIC <7 mg Fe/g dw (P = 0.0137). Despite limitations, SF showed the clearest relationship, of the plasma markers evaluated, to LIC before and after 1 year of deferasirox in patients with TM, MDS, and SCD. In patients with TM, changes in LPI with chelation show a significant relationship to EOS LIC and may provide an additional indicator of chelation response (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00171821). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. SERUM FERRITIN CONCENTRATION IS NOT A RELIABLE BIOMARKER OF IRON OVERLOAD DISORDER PROGRESSION OR HEMOCHROMATOSIS IN THE SUMATRAN RHINOCEROS (DICERORHINUS SUMATRENSIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Terri L; Reinhart, Paul R; Kroll, Jennifer L

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if ferritin is a reliable biomarker of iron overload disorder (IOD) progression and hemochromatosis in the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) by developing a species-specific ferritin assay and testing historically banked samples collected from rhinos that did and did not die of hemochromatosis. Ferritin extracted from Sumatran rhino liver tissue was used to generate antibodies for the Enzyme Immunoassay. Historically banked Sumatran rhino serum samples (n = 298) obtained from six rhinos in US zoos (n = 290); five rhinos at the Sumatran Rhino Conservation Centre in Sungai Dusun, Malaysia (n = 5); and two rhinos in Sabah, Malaysia (n = 3) were analyzed for ferritin concentrations. Across all US zoo samples, serum ferritin concentrations ranged from 348 to 7,071 ng/ml, with individual means ranging from 1,267 (n = 25) to 2,604 ng/ml (n = 36). The ferritin profiles were dynamic, and all rhinos exhibited spikes in ferritin above baseline during the sampling period. The rhino with the highest mean ferritin concentration did not die of hemochromatosis and exhibited only mild hemosiderosis postmortem. A reproductive female exhibited decreases and increases in serum ferritin concurrent with pregnant and nonpregnant states, respectively. Mean (±SD) serum ferritin concentration for Sumatran rhinos in Malaysia was high (4,904 ± 4,828 ng/ml) compared to that for US zoo rhinos (1,835 ± 495 ng/ml). However, those in Sabah had lower ferritin concentrations (1,025 ± 52.7 ng/ml) compared to those in Sungai Dusun (6,456 ± 4,941 ng/ml). In conclusion, Sumatran rhino serum ferritin concentrations are dynamic, and increases often are not associated with illness or hemochromatosis. Neither a specific pattern nor the individual's overall mean ferritin concentration can be used to accurately assess IOD progression or diagnose hemochromatosis in this rhino species.

  4. Possible Increase in Serum FABP4 Level Despite Adiposity Reduction by Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 Inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Furuhashi

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2 is secreted from adipocytes in association with catecholamine-induced lipolysis, and elevated serum FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Secreted FABP4 as a novel adipokine leads to insulin resistance via increased hepatic glucose production (HGP. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors decrease blood glucose level via increased urinary glucose excretion, though HGP is enhanced. Here we investigated whether canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, modulates serum FABP4 level.Canagliflozin (100 mg/day was administered to type 2 diabetic patients (n = 39 for 12 weeks. Serum FABP4 level was measured before and after treatment.At baseline, serum FABP4 level was correlated with adiposity, renal dysfunction and noradrenaline level. Treatment with canagliflozin significantly decreased adiposity and levels of fasting glucose and HbA1c but increased average serum FABP4 level by 10.3% (18.0 ± 1.0 vs. 19.8 ± 1.2 ng/ml, P = 0.008, though elevation of FABP4 level after treatment was observed in 26 (66.7% out of 39 patients. Change in FABP4 level was positively correlated with change in levels of fasting glucose (r = 0.329, P = 0.044, HbA1c (r = 0.329, P = 0.044 and noradrenaline (r = 0.329, P = 0.041 but was not significantly correlated with change in adiposity or other variables.Canagliflozin paradoxically increases serum FABP4 level in some diabetic patients despite amelioration of glucose metabolism and adiposity reduction, possibly via induction of catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. Increased FABP4 level by canagliflozin may undermine the improvement of glucose metabolism and might be a possible mechanism of increased HGP by inhibition of SGLT2.UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial UMIN000018151.

  5. Possible Increase in Serum FABP4 Level Despite Adiposity Reduction by Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Masato; Matsumoto, Megumi; Hiramitsu, Shinya; Omori, Akina; Tanaka, Marenao; Moniwa, Norihito; Yoshida, Hideaki; Ishii, Junnichi; Miura, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2) is secreted from adipocytes in association with catecholamine-induced lipolysis, and elevated serum FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Secreted FABP4 as a novel adipokine leads to insulin resistance via increased hepatic glucose production (HGP). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors decrease blood glucose level via increased urinary glucose excretion, though HGP is enhanced. Here we investigated whether canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, modulates serum FABP4 level. Canagliflozin (100 mg/day) was administered to type 2 diabetic patients (n = 39) for 12 weeks. Serum FABP4 level was measured before and after treatment. At baseline, serum FABP4 level was correlated with adiposity, renal dysfunction and noradrenaline level. Treatment with canagliflozin significantly decreased adiposity and levels of fasting glucose and HbA1c but increased average serum FABP4 level by 10.3% (18.0 ± 1.0 vs. 19.8 ± 1.2 ng/ml, P = 0.008), though elevation of FABP4 level after treatment was observed in 26 (66.7%) out of 39 patients. Change in FABP4 level was positively correlated with change in levels of fasting glucose (r = 0.329, P = 0.044), HbA1c (r = 0.329, P = 0.044) and noradrenaline (r = 0.329, P = 0.041) but was not significantly correlated with change in adiposity or other variables. Canagliflozin paradoxically increases serum FABP4 level in some diabetic patients despite amelioration of glucose metabolism and adiposity reduction, possibly via induction of catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. Increased FABP4 level by canagliflozin may undermine the improvement of glucose metabolism and might be a possible mechanism of increased HGP by inhibition of SGLT2. UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial UMIN000018151.

  6. Increased serum G72 protein levels in patients with schizophrenia: a potential candidate biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Esra Soydaş; Albayrak, Yakup; Aksoy, Nurkan; Şahin, Başak; Beyazyüz, Murat; Kuloğlu, Murat; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2017-04-01

    The product of the G72 gene is an activator of d-amino acid oxidase and has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Increased G72 protein levels may be associated with disturbed glutamatergic transmission and increased reactive oxygen species. Only one pilot study by Lin et al. has investigated the potential role of serum G72 protein levels as a biomarker for schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to compare serum G72 protein levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and to retest the results of the previous pilot study. Materials and methods In total, 107 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and 60 age-sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The groups were compared regarding serum G72 protein levels. The mean serum G72 protein values were 495.90±152.03 pg/ml in the schizophrenia group and 346.10±102.08 pg/ml in the healthy control group. The mean serum G72 protein level was significantly increased in the schizophrenia group compared with the healthy control group (t=-3.89, pschizophrenia and healthy control groups. It was determined that the cut-off value was 141.51 pg/ml with a sensitivity of 0.991 and a specificity of 0.821. We suggest that serum G72 protein levels may represent a candidate biomarker for schizophrenia and have confirmed the results of the previous preliminary study. Additional studies with larger sample sizes and the inclusion of first episode schizophrenia patients are required to clarify the reliability and validity of serum G72 protein levels as a biomarker for schizophrenia.

  7. Characterization of transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis and cellular iron delivery of recombinant human serum transferrin from rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Deshui; Lee, Hsin-Fang; Pettit, Steven C; Zaro, Jennica L; Huang, Ning; Shen, Wei-Chiang

    2012-11-30

    Transferrin (TF) plays a critical physiological role in cellular iron delivery via the transferrin receptor (TFR)-mediated endocytosis pathway in nearly all eukaryotic organisms. Human serum TF (hTF) is extensively used as an iron-delivery vehicle in various mammalian cell cultures for production of therapeutic proteins, and is also being explored for use as a drug carrier to treat a number of diseases by employing its unique TFR-mediated endocytosis pathway. With the increasing concerns over the risk of transmission of infectious pathogenic agents of human plasma-derived TF, recombinant hTF is preferred to use for these applications. Here, we carry out comparative studies of the TFR binding, TFR-mediated endocytosis and cellular iron delivery of recombinant hTF from rice (rhTF), and evaluate its suitability for biopharmaceutical applications. Through a TFR competition binding affinity assay with HeLa human cervic carcinoma cells (CCL-2) and Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cells (HTB-37), we show that rhTF competes similarly as hTF to bind TFR, and both the TFR binding capacity and dissociation constant of rhTF are comparable to that of hTF. The endocytosis assay confirms that rhTF behaves similarly as hTF in the slow accumulation in enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells and the rapid recycling pathway in HeLa cells. The pulse-chase assay of rhTF in Caco-2 and HeLa cells further illustrates that rice-derived rhTF possesses the similar endocytosis and intracellular processing compared to hTF. The cell culture assays show that rhTF is functionally similar to hTF in the delivery of iron to two diverse mammalian cell lines, HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells (CCL-240) and murine hybridoma cells derived from a Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma fusion partner (HB-72), for supporting their proliferation, differentiation, and physiological function of antibody production. The functional similarity between rice derived rhTF and native hTF in their cellular iron delivery, TFR binding, and TFR

  8. Characterization of transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis and cellular iron delivery of recombinant human serum transferrin from rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Deshui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transferrin (TF plays a critical physiological role in cellular iron delivery via the transferrin receptor (TFR-mediated endocytosis pathway in nearly all eukaryotic organisms. Human serum TF (hTF is extensively used as an iron-delivery vehicle in various mammalian cell cultures for production of therapeutic proteins, and is also being explored for use as a drug carrier to treat a number of diseases by employing its unique TFR-mediated endocytosis pathway. With the increasing concerns over the risk of transmission of infectious pathogenic agents of human plasma-derived TF, recombinant hTF is preferred to use for these applications. Here, we carry out comparative studies of the TFR binding, TFR-mediated endocytosis and cellular iron delivery of recombinant hTF from rice (rhTF, and evaluate its suitability for biopharmaceutical applications. Result Through a TFR competition binding affinity assay with HeLa human cervic carcinoma cells (CCL-2 and Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cells (HTB-37, we show that rhTF competes similarly as hTF to bind TFR, and both the TFR binding capacity and dissociation constant of rhTF are comparable to that of hTF. The endocytosis assay confirms that rhTF behaves similarly as hTF in the slow accumulation in enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells and the rapid recycling pathway in HeLa cells. The pulse-chase assay of rhTF in Caco-2 and HeLa cells further illustrates that rice-derived rhTF possesses the similar endocytosis and intracellular processing compared to hTF. The cell culture assays show that rhTF is functionally similar to hTF in the delivery of iron to two diverse mammalian cell lines, HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells (CCL-240 and murine hybridoma cells derived from a Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma fusion partner (HB-72, for supporting their proliferation, differentiation, and physiological function of antibody production. Conclusion The functional similarity between rice derived rhTF and native hTF in

  9. Replacing electrolytic iron in a fortification-mix with NaFeEDTA increases both iron and zinc availabilities in traditional African maize porridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Johanita

    2016-08-15

    While replacing electrolytic iron with NaFeEDTA in multi-micronutrient fortification-mixes is a popular option, there is no information about the effect on the iron and zinc availabilities in African staple foods. This study evaluated the effects of adding a multi-micronutrient fortification-mix, with no iron, electrolytic iron or NaFeEDTA on the availabilities of iron and zinc from thick and fermented special-grade maize porridges using a Caco-2 cell model. Replacing electrolytic iron with NaFeEDTA significantly (p ⩽ 0.05) increased iron and, importantly zinc, availabilities in both the thick (2.16% vs. 1.45% and 2.51% vs. 2.29%, respectively) and fermented (3.35% vs. 2.66% and 3.04% vs. 2.61%, respectively) porridges. Some of the NaFeEDTA complexes perhaps partially dissociated because of pH changes during simulated digestion, binding with zinc and increasing its availability. NaFeEDTA in a multi-micronutrient fortification-mix, added to less refined, high phytate maize meal, would be more effective than electrolytic iron in addressing both iron and zinc deficiencies in low socio-economic populations of sub-Saharan Africa.

  10. A case of anaemia in a neonatal warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus and evaluation of serum-soluble iron in warthogs : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E. Kenny

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 38-day-old male warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus with marked anaemia (haematocrit = 14 % presented to the Denver Zoological Gardens hospital with ataxia, tachypnoea, suspected stunted growth and cardiomegaly. The piglet demonstrated some features consistent with both iron deficiency anaemia and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Serum-soluble iron was below the level of detection (<8.96 mmol/l. Iron deficiency anaemia is a well recognised entity in domestic swine reared on concrete and denied access to soil. Fifteen captive warthogs were subsequently evaluated for serum soluble iron content (mean = 21.62±4.36 mmol/l as well as 5 neonatal warthog piglets that required hand-rearing. Only 1 of 5 neonatal warthog piglets had measurable serum soluble iron (9.50 mmol/l. These data suggest that warthogs are similar to domestic swine and are born with low iron stores. Some form of iron supplementation should be considered for captive neonatal warthog piglets, especially if they are reared on concrete.

  11. Dephytinisation with intrinsic wheat phytase and iron fortification significantly increase iron absorption from fonio (Digitaria exilis) meals in West African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Dossa, Romain A M; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B; Brouwer, Inge D

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with (57)Fe or (58)Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8-7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8-17.9) in FWFP (Pporridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges.

  12. Dephytinisation with intrinsic wheat phytase and iron fortification significantly increase iron absorption from fonio (Digitaria exilis meals in West African women.

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    Yara Koréissi-Dembélé

    Full Text Available Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16, using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat, each fortified with (57Fe or (58Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed, with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU per g (whole wheat. Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C. Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8-7.8 in FFP to 8.3% (3.8-17.9 in FWFP (P<0.0001. Dephytinisation of fonio porridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges.

  13. Associations of common variants in HFE and TMPRSS6 with iron parameters are independent of serum hepcidin in a general population: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galesloot, Tessel E; Geurts-Moespot, Anneke J; den Heijer, Martin; Sweep, Fred C G J; Fleming, Robert E; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Vermeulen, Sita H; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2013-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies have convincingly shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HFE and TMPRSS6 are associated with iron parameters. It was commonly thought that these associations could be explained by the intermediate effect on hepcidin concentration. A recent study in an isolated Italian population, however, concluded that these associations were not exclusively dependent on hepcidin values. We report here the second study to investigate the role of hepcidin in the associations between common variants in HFE and TMPRSS6 with iron parameters. We extracted 101 SNPs in HFE and TMPRSS6 from genome-wide imputed SNP data of 1832 individuals from the general population (Nijmegen Biomedical Study). Single locus and haplotype associations with serum iron parameters and hepcidin were studied using linear regression analyses. We found that HFE rs1800562 and TMPRSS6 rs855791 are the main determinants of HFE and TMPRSS6 related variation in serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation, and total iron binding capacity. These SNPs are associated with the ratios hepcidin/ferritin (pserum hepcidin (p>0.2). Adjustment for hepcidin or the ratio hepcidin/ferritin did not decrease the strength of the SNP-iron parameter associations. Our results do not support an intermediate role for hepcidin in the SNP-iron parameter associations, which confirms previous findings, and indicate a pleiotropic SNP effect on the hepcidin ratios and the iron parameters. Taken together, this suggests that there might be other, yet unknown, serum hepcidin independent mechanisms which play a role in the association of HFE and TMPRSS6 variants with serum iron parameters.

  14. Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion induces bronchial hyperreactivity and increases serum TNF-alpha in rats

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    Arruda Marcio Jose Cristiano de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Intestinal or hepatic ischemia/reperfusion induces acute lung injury in animal models of multiple organ failure. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF- alpha is involved in the underlying inflammatory mechanism of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although the inflammatory cascade leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome has been extensively investigated, the mechanical components of acute respiratory distress syndrome are not fully understood. Our hypothesis is that splanchnic ischemia/reperfusion increases airway reactivity and serum TNF-alpha levels. OBJECTIVE: To assess bronchial smooth muscle reactivity under methacholine stimulation, and to measure serum TNF-alpha levels following intestinal and/or hepatic ischemia/reperfusion in rats. METHOD: Rats were subjected to 45 minutes of intestinal ischemia, or 20 minutes of hepatic ischemia, or to both (double ischemia, or sham procedures (control, followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. The animals were then sacrificed, and the bronchial response to increasing methacholine molar concentrations (10-7 to 3 x 10-4 was evaluated in an ex-vivo bronchial muscle preparation. Serum TNF-alpha was determined by the L929-cell bioassay. RESULTS: Bronchial response (g/100 mg tissue showed increased reactivity to increasing methacholine concentrations in the intestinal ischemia and double ischemia groups, but not in the hepatic ischemia group. Similarly, serum TNF-alpha (pg/mL concentration was increased in the intestinal ischemia and double ischemia groups, but not in the hepatic ischemia group. CONCLUSION: Intestinal ischemia, either isolated or associated with hepatic ischemia, increased bronchial smooth muscle reactivity, suggesting a possible role for bronchial constriction in respiratory dysfunction following splanchnic ischemia/reperfusion. This increase occurred in concomitance with serum TNF-alpha increase, but whether the increase in TNF-alpha caused this bronchial contractility remains

  15. Iron deprivation results in a rapid but not sustained increase of the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism and sulfate uptake in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolacci, Anna Rita; Celletti, Silvia; Catarcione, Giulio; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Astolfi, Stefania; Ciaffi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of the relationship between sulfur and iron in both Strategy I and Strategy II plants, has proven that low sulfur availability often limits plant capability to cope with iron shortage. Here it was investigated whether the adaptation to iron deficiency in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants was associated with an increased root sulfate uptake and translocation capacity, and modified dynamics of total sulfur and thiols accumulation between roots and shoots. Most of the tomato sulfate transporter genes belonging to Groups 1, 2, and 4 were significantly upregulated in iron-deficient roots, as it commonly occurs under S-deficient conditions. The upregulation of the two high affinity sulfate transporter genes, SlST1.1 and SlST1.2, by iron deprivation clearly suggests an increased root capability to take up sulfate. Furthermore, the upregulation of the two low affinity sulfate transporter genes SlST2.1 and SlST4.1 in iron-deficient roots, accompanied by a substantial accumulation of total sulfur and thiols in shoots of iron-starved plants, likely supports an increased root-to-shoot translocation of sulfate. Results suggest that tomato plants exposed to iron-deficiency are able to change sulfur metabolic balance mimicking sulfur starvation responses to meet the increased demand for methionine and its derivatives, allowing them to cope with this stress.

  16. Iron deprivation results in a rapid but not sustained increase of the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism and sulfate uptake in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Rita Paolacci; Silvia Celletti; Giulio Catarcione; Malcolm J. Hawkesford; Stefania Astolfi; Mario Ciaffi

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of the relationship between sulfur and iron in both Strategy I and Strategy II plants, has proven that low sulfur availability often limits plant capability to cope with iron shortage. Here it was investigated whether the adaptation to iron deficiency in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants was associated with an increased root sulfate uptake and translocation capacity, and modified dynamics of total sulfur and thiols accumulation between roots and shoots. Most of the tomato sulfate transporter genes belonging to Groups 1, 2, and 4 were significantly upregulated in iron-deficient roots, as it commonly occurs under S-deficient conditions. The upregulation of the two high affinity sulfate transporter genes, SlST1.1 and SlST1.2, by iron deprivation clearly suggests an increased root capability to take up sulfate. Furthermore, the upregulation of the two low affinity sulfate transporter genes SlST2.1 and SlST4.1 in iron-deficient roots, accompanied by a substantial accumulation of total sulfur and thiols in shoots of iron-starved plants, likely supports an increased root-to-shoot translocation of sulfate. Results suggest that tomato plants exposed to iron-deficiency are able to change sulfur metabolic balance mimicking sulfur starvation responses to meet the increased demand for methionine and its derivatives, al owing them to cope with this stress.

  17. Increase of the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO by Carbon and Iron Modifications

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    Beata Tryba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of TiO2 by doping of a residue carbon and iron can give enhanced photoactivity of TiO2. Iron adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 can be an electron or hole scavenger and results in the improvement of the separation of free carriers. The presence of carbon can increase the concentration of organic pollutants on the surface of TiO2 facilitating the contact of the reactive species with the organic molecules. Carbon-doped TiO2 can extend the absorption of the light to the visible region and makes the photocatalysts active under visible-light irradiation. It was proved that TiO2 modified by carbon and iron can work in both photocatalysis and photo-Fenton processes, when H2O2 is used, enhancing markedly the rate of the organic compounds decomposition such as phenol, humic acids and dyes. The photocatalytic decomposition of organic compounds on TiO2 modified by iron and carbon is going by the complex reactions of iron with the intermediates, what significantly accelerate the process of their decomposition. The presence of carbon in such photocatalyst retards the inconvenient reaction of OH radicals scavenging by H2O2, which occurs when Fe-TiO2 photocatalyst is used.

  18. INCREASED LEVELS OF MIRNA-146A IN SERUM AND HISTOLOGIC SAMPLES OF PATIENTS WITH UVEAL MELANOMA

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    ANDREA RUSSO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze MiRs expression in serum of UM patients, respect to healthy donors, and to compare this data with MiRs expressed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded UM samples.Methods: Expression profile of 754 miRNAs was performed in serum from patients with uveal melanoma that underwent primary enucleation. The level of miRNAs increased in serum was individually analyzed on FFPE UM samples and compared to choroidal melanocytes from unaffected eyes.Results: 14 patients with uveal melanoma were included in the study. We found 8 serum miRNAs differentially expressed compared to normal controls: 2 upregulated miRNAs (miR-146a, miR-523; 6 downregulated miRNAs (miR-19a, miR-30d, miR-127, miR-451, miR-518f, miR-1274B. When data on upregulated miRNAs were singularly validated only a significant overexpression of miR-146a was found. A statistically significant upregulation of miRNA-146a was also found on FFPE UM samples, compared to choroidal melanocytes from unaffected eyes. Conclusions: miRNA-146a is increased in serum of patients with UM and in FFPE tumour samples. Further studies will show if it could be considered a potential marker of UM in the blood.

  19. 孕妇贫血与血清铁蛋白及膳食铁摄入之间的关系%The Relationship between Anemia in Pregnant Women with Serum Ferritin and Dietary Iron Intake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜波玲; 卢媛

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between anemia in pregnant women with serum ferritin and dietary iron intake, it is significance to antenatal care. Methods The data of hemoglobin and serum ferritin of 1168 pregnant women applying hematology analyzer and chemiluminescence immunoassay assay respective. In addition to dietary surveys assess dietary iron intake. Results The overal prevalence of anemia was 29.3%. Anemia in pregnancy was estimated to increase from 12.5%to 32.2% and 52.0% in the first, second and third trimesters respectively. As the gestational weeks increased, the prevalence of anemia raised. The prevalence of iron deficiency in pregnant women was 43.2%. As the gestational weeks increased, the demand of iron in pregnant women increased, the dietary iron intake ratio increased, the content of serum ferritin decreased. The serum ferritin and dietary iron intake and anemia was positive correlation in pregnant women. Conclusion As the gestational weeks increased, the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia raised. Increasing the intake of dietary iron during pregnancy has a significant benefit in reducing incidence of anemia in mothers and low birth weight in neonates. Serum ferritin deficiency in pregnant women was accompanied by anemia mostly. Serum ferritin detection of abnormality should be used as hemoglobin started lowering marker and clinical iron supplementation as an early indicator of iron deficiency anemia, what provided a basis as the prevention and treatment in early.%目的:探讨孕妇贫血与血清铁蛋白及膳食铁摄入三者之间的关系,为孕期保健提供可靠的依据。方法应用血液分析仪和化学发光免疫分析仪对1168名孕妇进行血液血红蛋白含量和血清铁蛋白检测,另外进行膳食调查评估膳食铁摄入情况。结果妊娠期贫血发生率29.3%,孕早期、中期、晚期贫血率分别为12.5%、32.2%、52.0%,随着孕周的增加,贫血率升高。孕

  20. An Animal-Source Food Supplement Increases Micronutrient Intakes and Iron Status among Reproductive-Age Women in Rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Andrew G; Ngu, Tu; Nga, Hoang T; Quyen, Phi N; Hong Anh, Pham T; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the impact of local animal-source foods (ASFs) on the nutritional status of reproductive-age women in developing countries.Objective: We hypothesized that a midmorning snack of local ASF for 6 mo would reduce dietary micronutrient deficiencies [usual intake less than the estimated average requirement (EAR)] and improve blood biomarkers of iron, zinc, and vitamins A and B-12 status among nonpregnant, reproductive-age women in rural Vietnam.Methods: One hundred seventeen women, 18-30 y old, were randomly assigned to receive either an ASF (mean: 144 kcal, 8.9 mg Fe, 2.7 mg Zn, 1050 μg retinoic acid equivalent vitamin A, and 5.5 μg vitamin B-12) or a control snack (mean: 150 kcal, 2.0 mg Fe, 0.9 mg Zn, 0 μg retinoic acid equivalent vitamin A, and 0 μg vitamin B-12) 5 d/wk for 6 mo. Usual nutrient intakes were estimated by repeated 24-h dietary recalls. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 3 and 6 mo. Because of the relation between nutritional status and inflammation, serum C-reactive protein, α-1-acid-glycoprotein, and urinary tract infections (UTIs) were also monitored.Results: Eighty-nine women (47 in the ASF group and 42 controls) completed the study. In the ASF group, intakes of iron and vitamins A and B-12 below the EAR were eliminated, and the prevalence of a low zinc intake was reduced to 9.6% compared with 64.7% in controls (P vitamin B-12 concentrations did not differ. UTI relative risk was 3.9 (P < 0.05) among women assigned to the ASF group who had a low whole-body iron status at baseline.Conclusions: Adding a small amount of locally produced ASF to the diets of reproductive-age Vietnamese women improved micronutrient intakes and iron status. However, the increased UTI incidence in women in the ASF group with initially lower iron stores warrants further investigation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Extruded rice grains fortified with zinc, iron, and vitamin A increase zinc status of Thai school children when incorporated into a school lunch program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkaew, Siwaporn; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Hurrell, Richard F; Wegmuller, Rita

    2013-03-01

    Iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and vitamin A (VA) deficiencies are common among children in developing countries and often occur in the same individual. Rice is widely consumed in the developing countries of Asia and the low phytate in polished rice makes it ideal for Zn and Fe fortification. Triple-fortified rice grains with Zn, Fe, and VA were produced using hot extrusion technology. The main objective of the present study was to determine the impact of triple-fortified extruded rice on Zn status in school children in Southern Thailand. Although serum zinc was the main outcome indicator, Fe and VA status were also assessed. School children with low serum zinc (n = 203) were randomized to receive either triple-fortified rice (n = 101) or natural control rice (n = 102) as a component of school lunch meals for 5 mo. Serum Zn, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, serum retinol, and C-reactive protein were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. After the intervention, serum Zn increased (P fortified rice (P extruded rice grains is efficacious and can be used to improve Zn status in school children.

  2. The Increased Level of Serum p53 in Hepatitis B-Associated Liver Cirrhosis

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    Parisa Shahnazari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability of tumour suppressor protein p53 (P53 to regulate cell cycle processes can be modulated by hepatitis B virus (HBV. While preliminary evidences indicates the involvement of protein-x of HBV (HBx in altering p53 DNA binding, no further data have been accumulated for the significance of serum p53 in chronic hepatitis B virus infected patients. Methods: 72 non-cirrhotic and 19 cirrhotic patients infected by HBV were enrolled for the analysis in this study. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was performed to study the concentrations of serum p53 protein. The tertiary structures of HBx and P53 were docked by Z-dock and Hex servers for in-silico protein-protein interaction analysis. Results: There was a significant association between the serum p53 and cirrhosis (OR=1.81 95% CI: 1.017-3.2, P=0.044. Cirrhotic patients had higher level of serum p53 compare with chronic infection of HBV (1.98±1.22 vs. 1.29±0.72 U/ml, P=0.05. No evidence of correlation was seen between the different variables such as age, gender, log viral load, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP and alanine aminotransferase (ALT with serum p53. Tertiary model shows that the amino acid residues from Arg110 to Lys132 of the N-terminal of P53 which is critical for ubiquitination, are bonded to a region in N- terminal of HBx amino acid residues from Arg19 to Ser33. Conclusion: There is an increase in serum p53 in HBV-related cirrhosis patients. In this case, HBx might be responsible for such higher concentration of p53 through HBx-p53 protein-protein interaction, as is shown by molecular modeling approach.

  3. Prednisolone is associated with an increase in serum insulin but not serum fructosamine concentrations in dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalik, Marcel; Thoday, Keith L; Evans, Helen; van den Broek, Adri H M; Mellanby, Richard J

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a standard therapeutic protocol of prednisolone (Pred) on glucose homeostasis in atopic dogs and compare it with previously published data for ciclosporin A (CsA). The central aim of the study was to assess and compare the effects of standard therapeutic protocols of prednisolone (Pred) and ciclosporin A (CsA) on glucose homeostasis in dogs with atopic dermatitis (CAD). Both treatments significantly reduced the physical signs of CAD, as determined by the canine atopic dermatitis extent and severity index version 3 (CADESI-03) and the Edinburgh Pruritus Scale (EPS). Post-treatment plasma glucose concentrations were not significantly different in the two groups, but serum insulin concentrations were significantly higher following Pred therapy (P<0.05). Serum fructosamine concentrations were not significantly different pre- and post-treatment with Pred, although previous studies had shown that CsA treatment increased fructosamine concentrations (P<0.005). The two treatment groups were recruited in a similar timeframe, were numerically matched and there were no differences in CADESI-03 and EPS scores between the CsA and Pred groups either before or after treatment. Thus, both CsA and Pred treatment were associated with mild disturbances in glucose metabolism, but only CsA therapy resulted in a significant increase in fructosamine concentrations. This information may be relevant to clinicians when considering therapeutic options for dogs with atopic dermatitis which already have impaired glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased cancer cell proliferation in prostate cancer patients with high levels of serum folate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: A recent clinical trial revealed that folic acid supplementation is associated with an increased incidence of prostate cancer (1). The present study evaluates serum and prostate tissue folate levels in men with prostate cancer, compared to histologically normal prostate glands from can...

  5. Serum apolipoprotein e level is not increased in Alzheimer's disease : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooter, A.J.C.; Knijff, P. de; Hofman, A.; Cruts, M.; Breteler, M.M.B.; Broeckhoven, C. van; Havekes, L.M.; Duijn, C.M. van

    1998-01-01

    The APOE*4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. It has been suggested that levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in plasma are increased in Alzheimer's disease. In this population-based study, we found that serum apoE levels were lower in

  6. Magnetic separation of algae genetically modified for increased intracellular iron uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Amy [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Moore, Lee R. [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lane, Christopher D.; Kumar, Anil; Stroff, Clayton; White, Nicolas [Phycal Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Xue, Wei; Chalmers, Jeffrey J. [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Zborowski, Maciej, E-mail: zborowm@ccf.org [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Algae were investigated in the past as a potential source of biofuel and other useful chemical derivatives. Magnetic separation of algae by iron oxide nanoparticle binding to cells has been proposed by others for dewatering of cellular mass prior to lipid extraction. We have investigated feasibility of magnetic separation based on the presence of natural iron stores in the cell, such as the ferritin in Auxenochlorella protothecoides (A. protothecoides) strains. The A. protothecoides cell constructs were tested for inserted genes and for increased intracellular iron concentration by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption (ICP–AA). They were grown in Sueoka’s modified high salt media with added vitamin B1 and increasing concentration of soluble iron compound (FeCl{sub 3} EDTA, from 1× to 8× compared to baseline). The cell magnetic separation conditions were tested using a thin rectangular flow channel pressed against interpolar gaps of a permanent magnet forming a separation system of a well-defined fluid flow and magnetic fringing field geometry (up to 2.2 T and 1000 T/m) dubbed “magnetic deposition microscopy”, or MDM. The presence of magnetic cells in suspension was detected by formation of characteristic deposition bands at the edges of the magnet interpolar gaps, amenable to optical scanning and microscopic examination. The results demonstrated increasing cellular Fe uptake with increasing Fe concentration in the culture media in wild type strain and in selected genetically-modified constructs, leading to magnetic separation without magnetic particle binding. The throughput in this study is not sufficient for an economical scale harvest. - Highlights: • Auxenochlorella protothecoides algae were genetically modified for biofuel production. • Algal iron metabolism was sufficient for their label-less magnetic separation. • High magnetic field and low flow required make the separation scale-up uneconomical.

  7. Hair loss in females after sleeve gastrectomy: predictive value of serum zinc and iron levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Oller, Inmaculada; Llavero, Carolina; Zubiaga, Lorea; Diez, María; Arroyo, Antonio; Calero, Alicia; Calpena, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    A common complication after bariatric surgery is hair loss, which is related to rapid weight reduction, but zinc, iron, and other micronutrient deficiencies can also be involved. Little is studied after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). A prospective observational study was performed of 42 morbidly obese females undergoing LSG. Incidence of hair loss was monitored. Micronutrients were investigated preoperatively and three, six, and 12 months after surgery. Sixteen patients (41%) reported hair loss in the postoperative course. A significant association was observed between hair loss and zinc levels (P = 0.021) but mean zinc levels were within the normal range in patients reporting hair loss. Only three patients (7.7%) presented low zinc levels, all of them reporting hair loss. There was also a significant association between iron levels and alopecia (P = 0.017), but mean values of the patients with hair loss were within normal range. Only four patients (10.2%) presented low iron levels, all of them presenting hair loss. A variable consisting of the addition of zinc + iron showed a significant association with hair loss (P = 0.013). A cutoff point was established in 115 (odds ratio, 4; P = 0.006). All the patients but two reporting hair loss presented addition levels under 115. This variable showed sensibility 88 per cent, specificity 84 per cent, positive predictive value 79 per cent, and negative predictive value 91 per cent to predict hair loss. Hair loss is a frequent condition after sleeve gastrectomy. In most cases, iron and zinc levels are within the normal range. The variable addition (zinc + iron) is a good predictor of hair loss. Patients with addition levels below 115 are fourfold more susceptible to present hair loss. In these cases, zinc supplements achieve the stop of hair loss in most cases.

  8. Increased serum level of prolactin is related to autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, Q; Yang, X; Li, M

    2016-04-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is known to aid effector B cells and augment autoimmunity, but the role of PRL in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the serum levels of PRL and autoantibody production in SLE. Blood levels of PRL, anti-double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) antibody, immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in samples from 30 adult patients with SLE and 25 healthy controls. The relationships between the serum level of PRL and SLE disease activity, as well as the titres of the ds-DNA antibody, IgM and IgG were determined. The serum level of PRL was higher in the SLE patients than in the healthy controls. PRL concentration increased during SLE flares-ups and decreased following disease remission. There was a positive correlation between the PRL concentration and serum levels of IgM, IgG and ds-DNA antibody titre. These data suggest that the serum level of PRL was closely related to the antibody production and disease activity of SLE patients. PRL concentration was dramatically reduced upon the remission of disease activity, indicating that PRL levels might be a promising predictor of SLE disease severity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with carotid atherosclerosis in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyan; Song, Yanqi; Xu, Jing; Gu, Yeqing; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Xia, Yang; Bao, Xue; Shi, Hongbin; Su, Qian; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Wang, Guolin; Song, Kun; Wu, Yuntang; Sun, Zhong; Niu, Kaijun

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ferritin concentration and carotid atherosclerosis. In the present study, the overall prevalence of IMT and carotid plaques in participants is 29·2 and 22·7 %, respectively. In women, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the OR of IMT and carotid plaques by increasing serum ferritin quartiles were 1·00, 1·39 (95 % CI 0·98-1·99), 1·39 (95 % CI 0·99-1·97), 1·81 (95 % CI 1·30-2·55) (P for trendserum ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in men. The study demonstrated that increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with IMT and carotid plaques in Asian women but not in Asian men.

  10. Impact of oral iron challenges on circulating non-transferrin-bound iron in healthy Guatemalan males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schümann, Klaus; Kroll, Sylvia; Romero-Abal, Maria-Eugenia; Georgiou, Niki A; Marx, Jo J M; Weiss, Günter; Solomons, Noel W

    2012-01-01

    Oral iron as a supplement has been associated with adverse health consequences, especially in the context of young children with active malaria. A potential aggravating role of non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) has been proposed. NTBI responses in both a fasting and post-oral iron dosing situation were related to serum iron concentration and ferritin status. Fasting and 1, 2, and 3 h postdose serum samples were obtained in conjunction with oral ferrous sulfate supplementation in aqueous solution of 0, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 mg Fe in a cohort of 8 healthy Guatemalan men over a 9-week metabolic protocol. Hemoglobin, serum ferritin, percent transferrin saturation, serum iron and NTBI were all measured. Circulating levels of serum iron and NTBI increased in a graded fashion in response to oral iron, with the relative increment for NTBI slightly greater than that of iron. Detectable NTBI was occasionally measured in fasting specimens, more frequently in subjects with high ferritin status. Post-iron NTBI responses, by contrast, were higher in normal-ferritin subjects in absolute terms, and rose with increasing postabsorptive serum iron responses. The appearance and response of circulating NTBI were consistent with recognized principles of iron regulation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Aerobic exercise improves hippocampal function and increases BDNF in the serum of young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Éadaoin W; Mullally, Sinéad; Foley, Carole; Warmington, Stuart A; O'Mara, Shane M; Kelly, Aine M

    2011-10-24

    Physical activity has been reported to improve cognitive function in humans and rodents, possibly via a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-regulated mechanism. In this study of human subjects, we have assessed the effects of acute and chronic exercise on performance of a face-name matching task, which recruits the hippocampus and associated structures of the medial temporal lobe, and the Stroop word-colour task, which does not, and have assessed circulating concentrations of BDNF and IGF-1 in parallel. The results show that a short period of high-intensity cycling results in enhancements in performance of the face-name matching, but not the Stroop, task. These changes in cognitive function were paralleled by increased concentration of BDNF, but not IGF-1, in the serum of exercising subjects. 3 weeks of cycling training had no effect on cardiovascular fitness, as assessed by VO2 scores, cognitive function, or serum BDNF concentration. Increases in fitness, cognitive function and serum BDNF response to acute exercise were observed following 5 weeks of aerobic training. These data indicate that both acute and chronic exercise improve medial temporal lobe function concomitant with increased concentrations of BDNF in the serum, suggesting a possible functional role for this neurotrophic factor in exercise-induced cognitive enhancement in humans.

  12. TREM-2 Receptor Expression Increases with 25(OHD Vitamin Serum Levels in Patients with Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bucova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TREM-1 and TREM-2 molecules are members of the TREM transmembrane glycoproteins. In our previous study we identified increased expressions of TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptors in pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS. Only a few studies concerning the association between vitamin D and TREM receptor expression can be found. The aim of our current study was to determine the association between the levels of an inactive form of 25(OHD vitamin and TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptor expressions. We have detected low levels of 25(OHD vitamin in 79% of PS patients. Only 21% of patients had normal serum level of 25(OHD vitamin with values clustered within the low-normal range. The most striking findings were the increased TREM-2 expressions on myeloid cells surfaces in BALF of PS patients with normal 25(OHD vitamin serum levels compared with those with its decreased levels. The total number of TREM-2 positive cells was 5.7 times higher and the percentage of TREM-2 positive cells was also significantly increased in BALF of PS patients with normal compared to PS patients with low 25(OHD vitamin serum levels. A significant correlation between total TREM-2 expression and vitamin D levels has been detected too. However, we have not detected similar differences in TREM-1expression and 25(OHD vitamin serum levels.

  13. Effect of dietary Garcinia cambogia extract on serum essential minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and trace elements (iron, copper, zinc) in rats fed with high-lipid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsel, Feraye Esen; Ateş, Atila; Bilal, Tanay; Altiner, Ayşen

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in rats fed with the normal or the high-lipid and -cholesterol diet. Thirty 1-year-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (pathogen-free), weighing an average of 229 g, were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of ten animals each. Diets and tap water were given ad libitum for 75 days. Group 1 (control group) was fed with basal diet (2 % liquid vegetable oil, 0 % cholesterol), while the diets of groups 2 and 3 contained vegetable oil (2 % liquid vegetable oil and 5 % hydrogenated vegetable oil) and cholesterol (3 %) in high levels. 4,5 % G. cambogia extract containing 65 % HCA was added to the diet of group 3 as from day 45. Blood samples were withdrawn on days 0, 45 and 75. Serum mineral levels were analyzed using standard enzymatic colorimetric methods with a spectrophotometer. All significant differences were pcambogia extract than in the control group on day 45. Serum Mg level was significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group on day 45. Serum Fe levels were significantly lower in the control group than in the other groups on days 45 and 75. Serum Zn level of the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract was significantly higher than in the control group on day 75. Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group, and in group 3 than in group 2 on day 75. In conclusion, a diet containing the high fat amounts may lead to the increase in circular levels of some minerals due to the short-chain fatty acid production lowering the luminal pH which increases mineral solubility, or serving as a fuel for mucosal cells and stimulating cell proliferation in the large intestine. G. cambogia extract may be used in the P and Cu deficiencies due to increases resulting in the present P and Cu amounts in G. cambogia extract, or the use of

  14. Effect of iron on pancreatic beta cell function and insulin resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    concentration, insulin resistance and pancreatic beta cell function increased significantly with increased concentration of iron. .... RESULTS. Effect of Iron on Blood Glucose Concentration .... Gillum, R.F., (2001). Association of serum ferritin and.

  15. Effectiveness of B vitamin supplementation following bariatric surgery: rapid increases of serum vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carolyn E; Sherman, Vadim

    2015-04-01

    Few prospective studies have compared changes of nutrient intake while assessing effectiveness of thiamin, vitamin B12, and folate supplementation to prevent B vitamin deficiencies immediately following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Therefore, we determined the response to 3 months supplementation on maintaining blood B vitamin concentrations. Women undergoing RYGB (n = 11) and SG (n = 11) consumed bariatric vitamin supplements (12 mg thiamin, 350 μg vitamin B12, 800 μg folic acid) daily for 3 months. Height, weight, body mass index, and blood vitamin concentrations were measured preoperatively and at 3 months. Wilcoxon signed-rank analyses compared body weight parameters, laboratory indices, and nutrient intake at baseline and 3 months. Supplementation for 3 months maintained blood thiamin, increased serum folate from 13.1 ± 5.4 to 16.3 ± 6.0 nmol/L (P = 0.049), and increased serum vitamin B12 concentrations from 498 ± 150 to 736 ± 340 pg/mL (P = 0.005). Dietary intake of thiamin and folate decreased in the combined surgical groups, while dietary intake of B12 was maintained. Bariatric B vitamin supplements provided multiple intakes of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (1090% thiamin, 14,583% vitamin B12, 200% folate). Although energy intake decreased 64%, B vitamin supplementation for 3 months resulted in a 48% increase of serum vitamin B12, a modest increase of serum folate, and no reduction of blood thiamin concentrations. Long-term effects of the rapid rise of serum B12 levels attributed to the high content of supplements warrant further investigation.

  16. Evaluation of iron deposits in the reticuloendothelial system using T2-relaxation rate of MRI. Relation with serum ferritin and Fe concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ootsuka, Kae; Togami, Izumi; Kitagawa, Takahiro [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1996-10-01

    MR imaging is a useful non-invasive technique to detect iron deposits in many organs, but it is difficult to evaluate quantitatively. This study was performed to determine the possibility whether T2 relaxation rate (1/T2) could quantify iron deposits in the reticuloendothelial system (liver, spleen and bone marrow) of 11 patients and four normal volunteers. A moderate correlation was obtained between T2-relaxation rate and the serum ferritin level. These results suggest that T2-relaxation rate may provide useful information for the repeated quantitative evaluation of patients with iron-overload-syndromes. (author)

  17. Increased Serum Free Light Chains Precede the Presentation of Immunoglobulin Light Chain Amyloidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Brendan M.; Hebreo, Joseph; Cordaro, Daniel V.; Roschewski, Mark J.; Baker, Thomas P.; Abbott, Kevin C.; Olson, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) generally present with advanced organ dysfunction and have a high risk of early death. We sought to characterize monoclonal immunoglobulin (M-Ig) light chains before clinical presentation of AL amyloidosis. Patients and Methods We obtained prediagnostic sera from 20 cases with AL amyloidosis and 20 healthy controls matched for age, sex, race, and age of serum sample from the Department of Defense Serum Repository. Serum protein electrophoresis with immunofixation and serum free light chain (FLC) analysis were performed on all samples. Results An M-Ig was detected in 100% of cases and 0% of controls (P diff) was higher in cases compared with controls at all time periods, less than 4 years (174.8 v 0.3 mg/L; P diff was greater than 23 mg/L in 85% of cases and 0% of controls (P diff level increased more than 10% per year in 84% of cases compared with 16% of controls (P < .001). Conclusion Increase of FLCs, including within the accepted normal range, precedes the development of AL amyloidosis for many years. PMID:25024082

  18. Effect of EPO erythropoietin combined with iron sucrose treatment on serum indexes and micro inflammation state of renal anemia patients who received hemodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Yuan Guan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of EPO erythropoietin combined with iron sucrose treatment on serum indexes and micro inflammation state of renal anemia patients who received hemodialysis.Methods: 90 cases of renal anemia patients who received hemodialysis in our hospital from May 2013 to September 2014 were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. Observation group received recombinant human erythropoietin combined with iron supplementation treatment; control group only received recombinant human erythropoietin treatment. Then serum index, oxidative stress index and micro inflammation state were compared.Results: (1) serum index: after treatment, hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin, transferrin saturation of observation group were higher than those of control group; (2) oxidative stress index: serum NOX2, AOPP, MDA contents of observation group were lower than those of control group; CAT, SOD and GSH-Px were higher than those of control group;(3) micro inflammatory state: serum NF-毷B, AGEs, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, IL-23 contents of observation group were lower than those of control group.Conclusion:EPO erythropoietin combined with iron sucrose treatment is helpful to improve anemia, alleviate oxidative stress and micro inflammatory state; it’s an ideal method of treating renal anemia with hemodialysis.

  19. Body iron stores and iron restoration rate in Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis C as measured during therapeutic iron removal revealed neither increased body iron stores nor effects of C282Y and H63D mutations on iron indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Y; Hayashi, H; Wakusawa, S; Sanae, F; Takikawa, T; Yano, M; Yoshioka, K; Saito, H

    2001-05-01

    Information on the level of iron stores in chronic hepatitis C is clinically important because its reduction is technically simple and therapeutically effective. This study was performed to measure the levels of iron stores from the total amounts of hemoglobin removed during iron reduction therapy. The C282Y and H63D mutations of HFE gene were analyzed in 94 patients. All of the patients were negative for C282Y mutation. One patient was homozygous, and 4 patients were heterozygous for H63D mutation. The body iron stores and iron restoration rate were measured in 59 patients in serial courses of iron reduction therapy. Mean values of body iron stores in the two groups with and without H63D mutation were 890 and 606 mg, while those of iron restoration rate were 1.85 and 1.52 mg/day, respectively. None of the indices of iron metabolism were different from the reference values measured similarly in healthy subjects, suggesting that the iron deposition in chronic hepatitis C is limited to the liver, probably due to changes in the iron distribution in tissues.

  20. Low T3 syndrome in canine babesiosis associated with increased serum IL-6 concentration and azotaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Bąska, Piotr; Długosz, Ewa

    2015-06-30

    Low triiodothyronine (T3) syndrome, also named euthyroid sick syndrome or non-thyroidal illness syndrome, has been recognized in canine babesiosis caused by Babesia rossi, where it manifested by lowering of the serum thyrotropin (TSH), total thyroxin (TT4) and free thyroxin (FT4) concentrations. This syndrome has also been observed in critical diseases in humans and animals, and the severity of the disease is considered an important factor in lowering of thyroid hormone concentrations. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a role in the development of low T3 syndrome by causing a decrease in deiodinases 1 and 2 activity and increased activity of deiodinase 3, enzymes involved in the conversion of thyroxin (T4) to T3. The purpose of this study was to compare the concentrations of serum thyroid hormones and TSH between healthy dogs and dogs with babesiosis, and to determine correlations between serum IL-6 concentration and serum total T3 (TT3), TT4, FT4, and TSH concentrations, and the level of azotaemia in dogs with babesiosis. The concentrations of IL-6, TT3, TT4, FT4, TSH, urea and creatinine were determined in 13 dogs with canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis and in 10 healthy dogs. The results of this study showed decreases in TT3, TT4, FT4, and TSH and increases in IL-6, urea and creatinine concentrations in affected dogs in comparison to healthy dogs. The concentration of IL-6 was negatively correlated with TT3 and TSH concentrations and the TT3 concentration was negatively correlated with serum urea and creatinine concentrations. This study showed low T3 syndrome in canine babesiosis, which was confirmed by the determination of the T3 concentration, and demonstrates that in canine babesiosis the T3 concentration is associated with IL-6 concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Breathing Assistance by the Iron Lung Increases Sympathetic Tone and Modifies Fluid Excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisch, F. J.; Gerzer, R.

    Adaptation to weightlessness is not accompanied by an increase in sodium- and urine- excretion in humans in contrast to the expectations and the bed rest model in use to simulate effects of weightlessness on earth. On earth the thorax remains compressed by gravity in the horizontal body position while its unloading in weightlessness reduces transmural pressure in the mediastinal walls and membranes. Thus, wall stretching. or the Henry-Gauer mechanism, is reduced and may even result in a reduced water and sodium excretion. We have therefore lowered the transmural mediastinal pressure by the principle of the "Iron Lung" in a terrestrial model, and have studied whether or not this principle might reduce body fluid loss seen during onset of head down tilt bed rest. Methods: Two experiment runs were performed in a cross over design: one run pure 6° head down tilt body position (HDT) and the other with iron lung assistance. Six male subjects (26.5 +/- 8.1 years old; 187+/- 5 cm tall; 84.0 +/- 6.6 kg body weight) participated. Lung pressure was modified by the iron lung where the whole body except the head is enclosed in a box. The air pressure inside the box was 5 cm H2O lower than ambient during activation of the iron lung. For inspiration negative pressure increased up to 15 cm H2O, roughly doubling resting breath tide. The counteracting lung pressure was 8.1 +/- 0.6 cm H2O for 4 hours in mean. Breathing rate was reduced under iron lung to avoid hyperventilation (10.2 +/- 0.6 bpm [iron lung] versus 14.0 +/- 1.2 Bpm [spontaneously]). The relationship between expiration and inspiration remained at 2:1 in both runs. End expiratory CO2 was measured breath by breath via a nose clip. Heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, and sphygmomanometric blood pressure were determined every half hour. Urine volume was measured hourly. sodium excretion and pH was determined. Ambient conditions were kept constant at thermoneutral conditions. Evaporative fluid loss was evaluated by a

  2. Measurement of liver iron concentration by superconducting quantum interference device biomagnetic liver susceptometry validates serum ferritin as prognostic parameter for allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Nicole; Herich, Lena

    2016-10-01

    There are conflicting data regarding the role of serum ferritin (SF) as surrogate parameter for iron overload as an independent prognostic factor for outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) biomagnetic liver susceptometry, a noninvasive measurement of iron overload, allows measurement of the interference of an exteriorly applied small but highly constant magnetic field by the paramagnetic liver storage iron. By measuring the true iron load of patients through SQUID, we wanted to assess the effect of iron overload on patients undergoing SCT. We conducted a single-center retrospective analysis (1994-2010), comparing the effect of SF and liver iron content measured by SQUID shortly before transplantation on overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and transplant-related mortality (TRM) in 142 patients (median age 54.5 yr, range 5.6-75 yr) undergoing SCT (80% reduced intensity regimen). Patients were subdivided into five groups: myelodysplastic syndrome, de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML), secondary AML, primary myelofibrosis, and others. Correlation between SF and SQUID was significant (r = 0.6; P 1000 ng/mL (P = 0.003). A significant association between SQUID and fungal infection was also seen (P = 0.004). For patients with SQUID ≥1000, the risk of proven fungal infection was increased 3.08-fold (95% CI 1.43-6.63). A similar association between SF >1000 and fungal infection was shown (P = 0.01). In univariate analysis, age was a prognostic factor for TRM (P = 0.034, HR 1.04, CI 1.00-1.08). SF ≥1000 was associated with OS (P = 0.033, HR 2.09, CI 1.06-4.11) and EFS (P = 0.016, HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.15-4.10). In multivariate analysis on EFS, only age and SF >1000 remained as independent factors (HR 1.027, P = 0.040, 95% CI 1.001-1.054 and HR 2.058, P = 0.034, 95% CI 1.056-4.008, respectively). The multivariate analysis on TRM left age and SQUID values ≥1000 in the final model (HR 1.045, P

  3. Iron uptake and increased intracellular enzyme activity follow host lactoferrin binding by Trichomonas vaginalis receptors

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Lactoferrin acquisition and iron uptake by pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Saturation binding kinetics were obtained for trichomonads using increasing amounts of radioiodinated lactoferrin, while no significant binding by transferrin under similar conditions was achieved. Only unlabeled lactoferrin successfully and stoichiometrically competed with 125I-labeled lactoferrin binding. Time course studies showed maximal lactoferrin binding by 30 min at 37 degrees C. Data suggest no ...

  4. Magnetic separation of algae genetically modified for increased intracellular iron uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Amy; Moore, Lee R.; Lane, Christopher D.; Kumar, Anil; Stroff, Clayton; White, Nicolas; Xue, Wei; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej

    2015-04-01

    Algae were investigated in the past as a potential source of biofuel and other useful chemical derivatives. Magnetic separation of algae by iron oxide nanoparticle binding to cells has been proposed by others for dewatering of cellular mass prior to lipid extraction. We have investigated feasibility of magnetic separation based on the presence of natural iron stores in the cell, such as the ferritin in Auxenochlorella protothecoides (A. protothecoides) strains. The A. protothecoides cell constructs were tested for inserted genes and for increased intracellular iron concentration by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption (ICP-AA). They were grown in Sueoka's modified high salt media with added vitamin B1 and increasing concentration of soluble iron compound (FeCl3 EDTA, from 1× to 8× compared to baseline). The cell magnetic separation conditions were tested using a thin rectangular flow channel pressed against interpolar gaps of a permanent magnet forming a separation system of a well-defined fluid flow and magnetic fringing field geometry (up to 2.2 T and 1000 T/m) dubbed "magnetic deposition microscopy", or MDM. The presence of magnetic cells in suspension was detected by formation of characteristic deposition bands at the edges of the magnet interpolar gaps, amenable to optical scanning and microscopic examination. The results demonstrated increasing cellular Fe uptake with increasing Fe concentration in the culture media in wild type strain and in selected genetically-modified constructs, leading to magnetic separation without magnetic particle binding. The throughput in this study is not sufficient for an economical scale harvest.

  5. Iron-regulatory protein hepcidin is increased in female athletes after a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roecker, L; Meier-Buttermilch, R; Brechtel, L; Nemeth, E; Ganz, T

    2005-12-01

    The propose of this study was to determine the influence of marathon race on hepcidin excretion in female athletes (age 26-45 years). Urine samples were taken before, immediately after, 1 and 3 days after the race. In the average, hepcidin transiently increased at day 1 from 32 to 85 ng/mg creatinine. We propose that the frequently observed iron deficiency of females runners is caused by elevated hepcidin levels.

  6. Increased serum levels of lipogenic enzymes in patients with severe liver steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notarnicola Maria

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid metabolism is altered in subjects with liver steatosis. FAS is a key enzyme in de novo lipogenesis and both FAS gene expression and enzymatic activity are primarily regulated by metabolic signals in the liver. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL, the rate-limiting enzyme for the hydrolysis of core triglycerides, plays a pivotal role in lipid metabolism. This study aims to investigate if circulating levels of FAS and LPL could be clinically associated with liver steatosis. Methods In this work, we present data obtained from a subsample of 94 subjects with liver steatosis enrolled by NUTRIEPA study, a nutritional trial in subjects with liver steatosis. Serum levels of FAS protein and LPL activity were evaluated by ELISA test and by a fluorescent method, respectively. The diagnosis and the degree of liver steatosis were based on laboratory and ecographic measurements. Statistical methods included Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed-rank test, where appropriate. The χ2 test has been performed to analyse categorical variables. Results The subjects with severe steatosis had significantly higher serum levels of FAS protein and LPL activity compared to subjects with mild and moderate liver steatosis. Moreover, a positive trend in serum levels of FAS expression from lower to higher degree of steatosis was also detected. Conclusions We describe a relationship between human liver steatosis and elevated levels of circulating lipogenic enzymes. Increased serum levels of FAS expression and LPL activity could be considered a marker of severe liver steatosis.

  7. Dietary quercetin supplementation increases serum antioxidant capacity and alters hepatic gene expression profile in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liting; Wu, Jianquan; Yang, Jijun; Wei, Jingyu; Gao, Weina; Guo, Changjiang

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of quercetin on hepatic gene expression profile in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into the control group and the quercetin-treated group, in which a diet containing 0.5% quercetin was provided. After two weeks of feeding, serum and liver samples were collected. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, including serum ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values and levels of ascorbic acid, vitamin E (VE), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. The hepatic gene expression profile was examined using a microarray technique. The results showed that serum FRAP value, levels of ascorbic acid and VE were increased significantly, whereas serum levels of GSH and MDA were not changed significantly after quercetin supplementation. The microarray analysis revealed that some hepatic genes involved in phase 2 reaction, metabolism of cholesterol and homocysteine, and energy production were expressed differentially in response to quercetin administration. These findings provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of the actions played by quercetin in vivo.

  8. Mendelian randomization provides no evidence for a causal role of serum urate in increasing serum triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Humaira; Hughes, Kim; Flynn, Tanya J; Merriman, Tony R

    2014-12-01

    Triglycerides and their lipoprotein transport molecules are risk factors for heart disease. Observational studies have associated elevated levels of serum urate (SU) with triglycerides and risk of heart disease. However, owing to unmeasured confounding, observational studies do not provide insight into the causal relationship between SU and triglyceride. The aim of this study was to test for a causal role of SU in increasing triglyceride using Mendelian randomization that accounts for unmeasured confounding. Subjects were of European ancestry from the atherosclerosis risk in communities (n=5237) and Framingham heart (n=2971) studies. Mendelian randomization by the 2-stage least squares regression method was done with SU as the exposure, a uric acid transporter genetic risk score as instrumental variable, and triglyceride as the outcome. In ordinary linear regression, SU was significantly associated with triglyceride levels (β=2.69 mmol/L change in triglyceride per mmol/L increase in SU). However, Mendelian randomization-based estimation showed no evidence for a direct causal association of SU with triglyceride concentration-there was a nonsignificant 1.01 mmol/L decrease in triglyceride per mmol/L increase in SU attributable to the genetic risk score (P=0.21). The reverse analysis using a triglyceride genetic risk score provided evidence of a causal role for triglyceride in raising urate in men (P(Corrected)=0.018). These data provide no evidence for a causal role for SU in raising triglyceride levels, consistent with a previous Mendelian randomization report of no association between SU and ischemic heart disease. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry with serum ferritin predicts liver iron concentration and changes in concentration better than ferritin alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, John A; Fan, Bo; Lu, Ying; Marquez, Lorena; Salama, Khaled; Hwang, Jimmy; Fung, Ellen B

    2010-01-01

    Accurate assessment of liver iron concentration (LIC) is critical for optimal monitoring of iron toxicity in multitransfused patients. Serum ferritin is the most widely used although its association to LIC is only modest. We studied if a liver-specific measure using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) systems could improve LIC estimates over ferritin alone in Thalassemia (Thal) patients. Thirty-seven patients with Thal (19.2 ± 9.0 yr, 20 male) were studied and 10 had multiple visits. Height, weight, ferritin, whole-body DXA, and hepatic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) were measured within 5 wk. DXA hepatic density was measured using right rib, whole liver, and multiple subliver regions. The best agreement to SQUID LIC was found using a combination of ferritin, weight, DXA subliver region 3 bone mineral content (BMC), and right rib BMC. DXA with ferritin improved the ferritin alone correlation from R(2)=0.35 to R(2)=0.62. Serial LIC changes using DXA were associated with serial SQUID changes (r=0.73, p=0.02). Changes in ferritin alone were not significant (p=0.06). We conclude that the addition of whole-body DXA measures and body weight substantially increased the accuracy of LIC and change in LIC estimates over the use of ferritin alone and could be useful when magnetic resonance imaging or SQUID is not available. Copyright © 2010 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Weight Gain and Serum TSH Increase within the Reference Range after Hemithyroidectomy Indicate Lowered Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft Kristensen, Tina; Larsen, Jacob; Pedersen, Palle Lyngsie;

    2014-01-01

    -up period. Results. Two years after hemithyroidectomy, median serum TSH was increased over preoperative levels (1.23 versus 2.08 mIU/L, P weight (75.0 versus 77.3 kg, P = 0.02). Matched healthy controls had unchanged median serum TSH (1.70 versus 1.60 mIU/L, P = 0......Background. Weight gain is frequently reported after hemithyroidectomy but the significance is recently discussed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine changes in body weight of hemithyroidectomized patients and to evaluate if TSH increase within the reference range could be related...... to weight gain. Methods. In a controlled follow-up study, two years after hemithyroidectomy for benign euthyroid goiter, postoperative TSH and body weight of 28 patients were compared to preoperative values and further compared to the results in 47 matched control persons, after a comparable follow...

  11. Intravenous Iron Sucrose for Children With Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneva, Kristiyana; Chow, Erika; Rosenfield, Cathy G; Kelly, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in children. Most children with IDA are treated with oral iron preparations. However, intravenous (IV) iron is an alternative for children with severe IDA who have difficulty in adhering to or absorbing oral iron. We sought to describe the safety and effectiveness of IV iron sucrose for treatment of IDA in children. Pharmacy records of children who received IV iron sucrose at a children's hospital between 2004 and 2014 were reviewed. Laboratory markers of anemia and iron studies were obtained and preinfusion and postinfusion values were compared. Records were also reviewed for adverse reactions. A total of 142 patients received IV iron sucrose over 10 years. The mean age was 11 years, 9 months. One patient of 142 developed cough and wheezing during the infusion. No other adverse events were found. IV iron sucrose resulted in a statistically significant and clinically meaningful increase in hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, serum iron, ferritin, and % iron saturation, with a corresponding decrease in total iron binding capacity. The use of IV iron sucrose in pediatric patients with IDA is safe and leads to a moderate increase in hemoglobin and substantial improvement in iron studies.

  12. Pre-Altitude Serum Ferritin Levels and Daily Oral Iron Supplement Dose Mediate Iron Parameter and Hemoglobin Mass Responses to Altitude Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Govus, Andrew D.; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Chris R Abbiss; Peter Peeling; Gore, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the influence of daily oral iron supplementation on changes in hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) and iron parameters after 2–4 weeks of moderate altitude exposure. Methods Hematological data collected from 178 athletes (98 males, 80 females) exposed to moderate altitude (1,350–3,000 m) were analysed using linear regression to determine how altitude exposure combined with oral iron supplementation influenced Hbmass, total iron incorporation (TII) and blood iron parameters [ferrit...

  13. Serum levels of YKL-40 increases in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Høst, Nis B; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2008-01-01

    YKL-40 is secreted by macrophages, including those in atherosclerotic plaques, neutrophils, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Circulating YKL-40 is elevated in patients with inflammation and increased tissue remodeling. The aim was to examine the sequential changes in serum YKL-40 in patients wit...... with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), with and without thrombolytic therapy, as compared with patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD)....

  14. SALIVA IRON AND FERRITIN LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH THALASSEMIA AND IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Canatan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Most of the  techniques for measuring iron accumulation such as serum iron concentration, iron binding capacity, serum ferritin level, liver biopsy are invasive and hard methods for patients. The changes in trace element concentrations in saliva at different systemic diseases shows the quantity of the element at the body. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of iron and ferritin in saliva and serum in patients  with thalassemia and iron deficiency anemia. For this purpose, 35 healthy children as control group and 71 thalassemia major, 10 thalassemia intermedia and 15 thalassemia trait patients were involved. Their saliva  and serum iron and ferritin levels were measured.  There was no statistically difference between age and gender in all groups and control group (p>0.05.  In all groups saliva iron levels are higher than serum iron levels(p<0.05. Furthermore there was a positive correlation betwen serum and saliva  iron levels in thalassemia major, intermedia and trait groups ( p=0.000, r=0.972, r=0.720, r=0.955 and also there was a positive correlation between serum and saliva iron levels in control and iron deficiency group (p= 0.000, r= 0.885, r= 0.368.  In conclusion,  Saliva iron and ferritin levels increase  as well as serum in patients with thalassemia and decrease in patients with iron deficiency anemia. Saliva can be used for diagnosis routinely  to shows the iron overload  and deficiency of the body and its easy applicability and also a non-invasive procedure is important advantage.

  15. SALIVA IRON AND FERRITIN LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH THALASSEMIA AND IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Canatan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the  techniques for measuring iron accumulation such as serum iron concentration, iron binding capacity, serum ferritin level, liver biopsy are invasive and hard methods for patients. The changes in trace element concentrations in saliva at different systemic diseases shows the quantity of the element at the body. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of iron and ferritin in saliva and serum in patients  with thalassemia and iron deficiency anemia. For this purpose, 35 healthy children as control group and 71 thalassemia major, 10 thalassemia intermedia and 15 thalassemia trait patients were involved. Their saliva  and serum iron and ferritin levels were measured.  There was no statistically difference between age and gender in all groups and control group (p>0.05.  In all groups saliva iron levels are higher than serum iron levels(p<0.05. Furthermore there was a positive correlation betwen serum and saliva  iron levels in thalassemia major, intermedia and trait groups ( p=0.000, r=0.972, r=0.720, r=0.955 and also there was a positive correlation between serum and saliva iron levels in control and iron deficiency group (p= 0.000, r= 0.885, r= 0.368.  In conclusion,  Saliva iron and ferritin levels increase  as well as serum in patients with thalassemia and decrease in patients with iron deficiency anemia. Saliva can be used for diagnosis routinely  to shows the iron overload  and deficiency of the body and its easy applicability and also a non-invasive procedure is important advantage.

  16. Correlation between Soil-Transmitted Helminths Infection and Serum Iron Level among Primary School Children in Medan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrasyid, Nurfida K; Sinambela, Monica Nadya; Tala, Zaimah Z; Darlan, Dewi Masyithah; Warli, Syah Mirsya

    2017-04-15

    The latest estimates indicate that more than 2 billion people worldwide are infected by Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STH). The burden of STH infection is mainly attributed to the chronic effect on health and quality of life of those infected. It is also contributed to micronutrient deficiencies such as iron-deficiency anaemia. The prevalence of worm infection in Public Primary School students in Medan was quite high (40.3%), and 33.3% was anaemic in the latest study. To determine the correlation between STH infection with serum iron (SI) level on primary school children, as well as to determine the prevalence of SI level and worm infection, and the type of worm that infects the most of them. This study was conducted in the cross-sectional method. Consecutive sampling technique was used and a total of 132 students age 8-12 years old were included. The study took places in Public Primary School 060925 Amplas, Medan and 101747 Hamparan Perak, Deli Serdang throughout May-October 2016. Fisher Exact test was used to analyse the correlation between STH infection and SI level. The prevalence of STH infection was 7.6%, and low SI was 11.4%. There was no significant correlation between STH infection and SI level (P = 0.317). The prevalence of low SI level was not significantly dependent on STH infection (RP = 1.877, 95% CI = 0.481-7.181).

  17. Contraction-induced increase in muscle insulin sensitivity: requirement for a serum factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Gulve, E A; Holloszy, J O

    1994-02-01

    The insulin sensitivity of glucose transport is enhanced in skeletal muscle after a bout of exercise. In a previous study, stimulation of washed muscles to contract in vitro, in contrast to exercise, did not result in an increase in insulin sensitivity. The purpose of the present study was to explain this apparent discrepancy. We found that, although rat epitrochlearis muscles stimulated to contract in vitro after 15 min of incubation in Krebs-Henseleit buffer did not develop increased insulin sensitivity, muscles stimulated to contract immediately after being dissected showed a small but significant enhancement of the stimulation of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose transport by 30 microU/ml insulin. Furthermore, muscles stimulated to contract in situ and then allowed to recover in vitro showed as large an increase in insulin sensitivity as that which occurs after a bout of swimming. To follow up these findings suggesting involvement of a humoral factor, we incubated epitrochlearis muscles in serum before and during contractile activity in vitro. Epitrochlearis muscle insulin sensitivity was enhanced to as great an extent after in vitro contractile activity in serum as after swimming. Experiments involving charcoal treatment, ultrafiltration, or trypsin digestion provided evidence that the serum factor that interacts with contractions to enhance insulin sensitivity is a protein.

  18. Increased Concentrations of Interleukin-33 in the Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Jafarzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Interleukin (IL-33 is a cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects involved in the pathogenesis of some inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF IL-33 concentrations in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: Blood specimens were obtained from 140 patients with MS (46 males and 94 females with various disease patterns and treatment plans and 140 healthy subjects (47 males and 93 females, who acted as a control group. CSF samples were collected from 20 MS group and 20 sex- and age-matched patients with other neurological diseases of nonautoimmune etiology. The serum and CSF concentrations of IL-33 were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The serum and CSF IL-33 levels were significantly higher in the MS group compared to the control group (p<0.001 and p<0.050, respectively. The serum IL-33 concentrations were also significantly higher in newly diagnosed (untreated patients and patients treated with methylprednisolone or with interferon-β and methylprednisolone compared to the healthy patient group (p<0.007, p<0.002, and p<0.010, respectively. Moreover, the serum IL-33 concentrations in patients with relapsing-remitting (RRMS, primary progressive (PPMS, and secondary progressive (SPMS forms of the disease were significantly higher than in the healthy control group (p<0.006, p<0.001, and p<0.020, respectively. Conclusions: Our results showed increased concentrations of IL-33 in patients with MS including both untreated and treated MS patients and patients with the RRMS, SPMS, and PPMS forms. This suggests that IL-33 may be involved in the pathogenesis of all MS forms and treatment with methylprednisolone or both interferon-β plus methylprednisolone has no influence on IL-33 concentrations.

  19. Persistent serum creatinine increase following contrast-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguori, Carlo; Quintavalle, Cristina; De Micco, Francesca; Visconti, Gabriella; Di Palma, Vito; Napolitano, Giovanni; Focaccio, Amelia; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2017-08-11

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) may led to both a transient and a persistent serum creatinine (sCr) increase. To assess whether serum cystatin C (sCyC) and urine and serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL, sNGAL) are useful in the early identification of persistent sCr increase following CI-AKI. One hundred and eighteen patients who developed CI-AKI were included into the study. Persistent sCr elevation was defined as a persistent increase ≥0.3 mg dL(-1) at 1 month after contrast media (CM) administration. sCr levels recovered in 87 patients (74%; Transient group), whereas a persistent elevation of sCr was observed in the remaining 31 patients (26%; Persistent group). By multivariable logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of persistent sCr increase were insulin therapy, uNGAL at 48 hr and absolute sCr difference between 48 and 72 hr. On the contrary, sCyC assessment did not help in the early identification of this subset of patients. By receiver operating curve analysis, the best cutoff values for predicting persistent sCr increase were uNGAL ≥0.50 ng dL(-1) at 48 hr, and the absolute sCr increase ≥0.20 mg dL(-1) between 48 and 72 hr. uNGAL ≥0.50 ng dL(-1) at 48 hr and absolute sCr increase ≥0.20 mg dL(-1) between 48 and 72 hr but not sCyC are useful in the early identification of patients developing persistent sCr increase after CM administration. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Low Serum DHEAS Predicts Increased Fracture Risk in Older Men: The MrOS Sweden Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Claes; Nethander, Maria; Kindmark, Andreas; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Rosengren, Björn E; Karlsson, Magnus K; Mellström, Dan; Vandenput, Liesbeth

    2017-03-09

    The adrenal-derived hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS) are the most abundant circulating hormones and their levels decline substantially with age. DHEAS is considered an inactive precursor, which is converted into androgens and estrogens via local metabolism in peripheral target tissues. The predictive value of serum DHEAS for fracture risk is unknown. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the associations between baseline DHEAS levels and incident fractures in a large cohort of older men. Serum DHEAS levels were analyzed with mass spectrometry in the population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study in Sweden (n = 2568, aged 69 to 81 years). Incident X-ray validated fractures (all, n = 594; non-vertebral major osteoporotic, n = 255; hip, n = 175; clinical vertebral, n = 206) were ascertained during a median follow-up of 10.6 years. DHEAS levels were inversely associated with the risk of any fracture (hazard ratio [HR] per SD decrease = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.24), non-vertebral major osteoporotic fractures (HR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.16-1.48), and hip fractures (HR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.37) but not clinical vertebral fractures (HR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.95-1.26) in Cox regression models adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI) and prevalent fractures. Further adjustment for traditional risk factors for fracture, bone mineral density (BMD), and/or physical performance variables as well as serum sex steroid levels only slightly attenuated the associations between serum DHEAS and fracture risk. Similarly, the point estimates were only marginally reduced after adjustment for FRAX estimates with BMD. The inverse association between serum DHEAS and all fractures or major osteoporotic fractures was nonlinear, with a substantial increase in fracture risk (all fractures 22%, major osteoporotic fractures 33%) for those participants with serum DHEAS levels below the median (0.60 μg/mL). In

  1. Hepcidin levels are low during pregnancy and increase around delivery in women without iron deficiency - a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedengran, Katrine K; Nelson, Dick; Andersen, Malene R;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate hepcidin during pregnancy, delivery and postpartum in women with sufficient iron supplementation. METHODS: Hepcidin was measured using LC-MS spectroscopy in 37 women during pregnancy, delivery and postpartum period in this longitudinal study. RESULTS: Hepcidin was low...... during pregnancy and increased at delivery and postpartum. No correlations with inflammatory markers or iron metabolism were observed during pregnancy; at delivery a correlation with inflammatory markers was observed. CONCLUSION: During pregnancy, in women with sufficient iron supplementation, hepcidin...... is low and does not reflect iron status. During delivery and the postpartum period, hepcidin functions as a marker of inflammation....

  2. Exploring the role of hepcidin, an antimicrobial and iron regulatory peptide, in increased iron absorption in beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Laura; Gardenghi, Sara; Guy, Ella; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A; Weizer-Stern, Orly; Adamsky, Konstantin; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Giardina, Patricia J; Grady, Robert W; Rivella, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    To develop new treatments for beta-thalassemia, it is essential to identify the genes involved in the relevant pathophysiological processes. Iron metabolism in thalassemia mice being investigated, focusing on the expression of a gene called hepcidin (Hamp), which is expressed in the liver and whose product (Hamp) is secreted into the bloodstream. In mice, iron overload leads to overexpression of Hamp, while Hamp-knockout mice suffer from hemochromatosis. The aim of this study is to investigate Hamp in the mouse model of beta-thalassemia and to address the potential gene transfer of Hamp to prevent abnormal iron absorption.

  3. Growth Promotion, Increase of Iron, Potassium and Cell Wall Components following Silicon Application in Rice under Iron Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    z Kiani Chalmardi; Ahmad Abdolzadeh; Hamid Reza Sadeghipour

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most important stress reducing crop growth and yields. Silicon is also an essential element in most grasses including rice that may reduces biotic and abiotic stresses. In present study, the interactions of silicon and iron nutrition were studied in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Tarem). The plants cultivated in greenhouse under iron treatments of 0, 2 and 10 mg l-1 as a Fe-EDTA (first factor) and silicon treatments of 0 and 1.5 mM sodium silicate (second factor). The...

  4. The ironic effect of guessing: increased false memory for mediated lists in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coane, Jennifer H; Huff, Mark J; Hutchison, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    Younger and older adults studied lists of words directly (e.g., creek, water) or indirectly (e.g., beaver, faucet) related to a nonpresented critical lure (CL; e.g., river). Indirect (i.e., mediated) lists presented items that were only related to CLs through nonpresented mediators (i.e., directly related items). Following study, participants completed a condition-specific task, math, a recall test with or without a warning about the CL, or tried to guess the CL. On a final recognition test, warnings (vs. math and recall without warning) decreased false recognition for direct lists, and guessing increased mediated false recognition (an ironic effect of guessing) in both age groups. The observed age-invariance of the ironic effect of guessing suggests that processes involved in mediated false memory are preserved in aging and confirms the effect is largely due to activation in semantic networks during encoding and to the strengthening of these networks during the interpolated tasks.

  5. Increased iron-stress resilience of maize through inoculation of siderophore-producing Arthrobacter globiformis from mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Meenakshi; Mishra, Vandana; Rau, Nupur; Sharma, Radhey Shyam

    2016-07-01

    Iron deficiency is common among graminaceous crops. Ecologically successful wild grasses from iron-limiting habitats are likely to harbour bacteria which secrete efficient high-affinity iron-chelating molecules (siderophores) to solubilize and mobilize iron. Such siderophore-producing rhizobacteria may increase the iron-stress resilience of graminaceous crops. Considering this, 51 rhizobacterial isolates of Dichanthium annulatum from iron-limiting abandoned mine (∼84% biologically unavailable iron) were purified and tested for siderophore production; and efficacy of Arthrobacter globiformis inoculation to increase iron-stress resilience of maize and wheat was also evaluated. 16S rRNA sequence analyses demonstrated that siderophore-producing bacteria were taxonomically diverse (seven genera, nineteen species). Among these, Gram-positive Bacillus (eleven species) was prevalent (76.92%). A. globiformis, a commonly found rhizobacterium of graminaceous crops was investigated in detail. Its siderophore has high iron-chelation capacity (ICC: 13.0 ± 2.4 μM) and effectively dissolutes diverse iron-complexes (FeCl3 : 256.13 ± 26.56 μM/ml; Fe2 O3 red: 84.3 ± 4.74 μM/ml; mine spoil: 123.84 ± 4.38 μM/ml). Siderophore production (ICC) of A. globiformis BGDa404 also varied with supplementation of different iron complexes. In plant bioassay with iron-deficiency sensitive species maize, A. globiformis inoculation triggered stress-associated traits (peroxidase and proline) in roots, enhanced plant biomass, uptake of iron and phosphate, and protein and chlorophyll contents. However, in iron deficiency tolerant species wheat, growth improvement was marginal. The present study illustrates: (i) rhizosphere of D. annulatum colonizing abandoned mine as a "hotspot" of siderophore-producing bacteria; and (ii) potential of A. globiformis BGDa404 inoculation to increase iron-stress resilience in maize. A. globiformis BGDa404 has the potential to develop as

  6. Substantial Increases Occur in Serum Activins and Follistatin during Lung Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M de Kretser

    Full Text Available Lung transplantation exposes the donated lung to a period of anoxia. Re-establishing the circulation after ischemia stimulates inflammation causing organ damage. Since our published data established that activin A is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, we assessed the roles of activin A and B, and their binding protein, follistatin, in patients undergoing lung transplantation.Sera from 46 patients participating in a published study of remote ischemia conditioning in lung transplantation were used. Serum activin A and B, follistatin and 11 other cytokines were measured in samples taken immediately after anaesthesia induction, after remote ischemia conditioning or sham treatment undertaken just prior to allograft reperfusion and during the subsequent 24 hours.Substantial increases in serum activin A, B and follistatin occurred after the baseline sample, taken before anaesthesia induction and peaked immediately after the remote ischemia conditioning/sham treatment. The levels remained elevated 15 minutes after lung transplantation declining thereafter reaching baseline 2 hours post-transplant. Activin B and follistatin concentrations were lower in patients receiving remote ischemia conditioning compared to sham treated patients but the magnitude of the decrease did not correlate with early transplant outcomes.We propose that the increases in the serum activin A, B and follistatin result from a combination of factors; the acute phase response, the reperfusion response and the use of heparin-based anti-coagulants.

  7. Oxidative Stress is Increased in Serum from Mexican Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genaro Gabriel Ortiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the oxidative stress markers in serum from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Methods: Blood samples from healthy controls and 22 patients 15 women (7 aged from 20 to 30 and 8 were > 40 years old and 7 men (5 aged from 20 to 30 and 2 were > 40 years old fulfilling the McDonald Criteria and classified as having Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis accordingly with Lublin were collected for oxidative stress markers quantification. Results: Nitric oxide metabolites (nitrates/nitrites, lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde plus 4-hidroxialkenals, and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly increased in serum of subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in comparison with that of healthy controls. These data support the hypothesis that multiple sclerosis is a component closely linked to oxidative stress.

  8. Primary malignant pericardial mesothelioma with increased serum mesothelin diagnosed by surgical pericardial resection: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Takeyuki; Sugino, Keishi; Isobe, Kazutoshi; Hata, Yoshinobu; Fukasawa, Yuri; Homma, Sakae

    2016-11-01

    A 37-year-old female smoker without a history of exposure to asbestos was referred to our hospital with persistent pericardial effusion. Chest computed tomography imaging examination revealed an irregular thickened pericardium with large amounts of pericardial effusion and a small pleural effusion. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography imaging demonstrated intrapericardial FDG accumulation. Blood tests revealed an increase in serum mesothelin levels. Examination of a surgically resected specimen revealed a grayish-white thickening of the pericardium, with a straw-colored mucinous pericardial effusion. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid malignant mesothelioma. Although the patient's condition temporarily improved, with decreased levels of serum mesothelin during chemotherapy with carboplatin and pemetrexed, she succumbed to cardiac tamponade 18 months after the initial onset of the symptoms. Primary malignant pericardial mesothelioma (PMPM) is an extremely rare and refractory disorder. Thus, an early definitive diagnosis and timely treatment are crucial for the management of PMPM.

  9. Oxidative Stress is Increased in Serum from Mexican Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Genaro Gabriel; Macías-Islas, Miguel Ángel; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Cruz-Ramos, José A.; Sustersik, Silvia; Barba, Elías Alejandro; Aguayo, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the oxidative stress markers in serum from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Methods: Blood samples from healthy controls and 22 patients 15 women (7 aged from 20 to 30 and 8 were > 40 years old) and 7 men (5 aged from 20 to 30 and 2 were > 40 years old) fulfilling the McDonald Criteria and classified as having Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis accordingly with Lublin were collected for oxidative stress markers quantification. Results: Nitric oxide metabolites (nitrates/nitrites), lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde plus 4-hidroxialkenals), and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly increased in serum of subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in comparison with that of healthy controls. These data support the hypothesis that multiple sclerosis is a component closely linked to oxidative stress. PMID:19242067

  10. Milk peptides increase iron solubility in water but do not affect DMT-1 expression in Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro digestion of milk produces peptide fractions that enhance iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our objectives were to investigate whether these fractions a) exert their effect by increasing relative gene expression of DMT-1 in Caco-2 cells b) enhance iron dialyzability when added in meals. Peptid...

  11. Increasing the cooking temperature of meat does not affect nonheme iron absorption from a phytate-rich meal in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baech, S.B.; Hansen, M.; Bukhave, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    The effect of increasing cooking temperatures of meat on nonheme iron absorption from a composite meal was investigated. Cysteine-containing peptides may have a role in the iron absorption enhancing effect of muscle proteins. Heat treatment can change the content of sulfhydryl groups produced fro...

  12. Iron availability increases the pathogenic potential of Salmonella typhimurium and other enteric pathogens at the intestinal epithelial interface.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortman, G.A.M.; Boleij, A.; Swinkels, D.W.; Tjalsma, H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent trials have questioned the safety of untargeted oral iron supplementation in developing regions. Excess of luminal iron could select for enteric pathogens at the expense of beneficial commensals in the human gut microflora, thereby increasing the incidence of infectious diseases. The objectiv

  13. A STUDY ON HEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE IN PATIENTS OF CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SERUM IRON PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide public health problem. Chronic renal failure is defined by the National Kidney Foundation as either damage or a glomerular filtration rate less than 60ml/minute/1.73m2 of body surface area for more than 3 months. The primary cause of anemia in patients with chronic renal failure is insufficient production of erythropoietin by the diseased kidneys. As there is paucity of data regarding the haematological changes in chronic renal failure in this region, the present study was aimed to achieve the following objectives. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the various hematological changes in chronic renal failure. 2. To assess the correlation between hematological and biochemical parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was conducted in the department of Medicine, in a tertiary care hospital, Assam for one year. STUDY DESIGN: Hospital based, single centred observational study. All patients with features of chronic renal failure, who were admitted in medicine wards, were taken randomly for the study. RESULTS: The series included 100 cases of which the highest number 37% were in the age group of 51-60 years. Male preponderance was observed with males being 65% and females 35%. Generalized weakness and swelling were the commonest symptoms observed in 76% and 74% cases and pallor, hypertension, pedal edema, ascites and acidotic breathing on examination were found in 85%, 70%, 57%, 17% and 17% cases respectively. 72% patients had serum creatinine between 5.1 to 10 mg/dl. A negative co-relationship was observed between serum creatinine and hemoglogin. All cases had anemia of which 52% had hemoglobin between 7 to 10 gm/dl, 61% had normocytic normochronic anemia and 20% had absolute iron deficiency. Diabetes was the commonest etiology in 42%, followed by hypertension 35%, undiagnosed 12%, chronic glomerulonephritis 7%, polycystic kidney and obstructive nephropathy in 2% each respectively

  14. Serum neurofilament light chain levels are increased in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disanto, Giulio; Adiutori, Rocco; Dobson, Ruth; Martinelli, Vittorio; Dalla Costa, Gloria; Runia, Tessel; Evdoshenko, Evgeniy; Thouvenot, Eric; Trojano, Maria; Norgren, Niklas; Teunissen, Charlotte; Kappos, Ludwig; Giovannoni, Gavin; Kuhle, Jens

    2016-02-01

    Neurofilament light chain (NfL) represents a promising biomarker for axonal injury. We present the first exploratory study on serum NfL in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and healthy controls. We investigated serum NfL levels in 100 patients with CIS with a short conversion interval to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS) (fast converters (FC), median (IQR) conversion time: 110 days (79-139)); 98 patients with non-converting CIS (non-converters (NC), follow-up: 6.5 years (5.3-7.9)); and 92 healthy controls. NfL levels were higher in FC (24.1 pg/mL (13.5-51.8)) and NC (19.3 pg/mL (13.6-35.2)) than in healthy controls (7.9 pg/mL (5.6-17.2)) (OR=5.85; 95% CI 2.63 to 13.02; p = 1.5 × 10(-5) and OR = 7.03; 95% CI 2.85 to 17.34; p = 2.3 × 10(-5), respectively). When grouping FC and NC, increased serum NfL concentration was also associated with increasing numbers of T2 hyperintense MRI lesions (OR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.21 to 4.59; p = 0.011), gadolinium-enhancing lesions (OR = 2.69; 95% CI 1.13 to 6.41; p=0.026) and higher disability scores (OR = 2.54; 95% CI 1.21 to 5.31; p = 0.013) at CIS diagnosis. If replicated in future studies, serum NfL may represent a reliable and easily accessible biomarker of early axonal damage in CIS and MS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. IGFBP-4 tumor and serum levels are increased across all stages of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosig Rebecca A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to identify candidate serum biomarkers for the detection and surveillance of EOC. Based on RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis of patient-derived tumors, highly expressed secreted proteins were identified using a bioinformatic approach. Methods RNA-Seq was used to quantify papillary serous ovarian cancer transcriptomes. Paired end sequencing of 22 flash frozen tumors was performed. Sequence alignments were processed with the program ELAND, expression levels with ERANGE and then bioinformatically screened for secreted protein signatures. Serum samples from women with benign and malignant pelvic masses and serial samples from women during chemotherapy regimens were measured for IGFBP-4 by ELISA. Student's t Test, ANOVA, and ROC curves were used for statistical analysis. Results Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-4 was consistently present in the top 7.5% of all expressed genes in all tumor samples. We then screened serum samples to determine if increased tumor expression correlated with serum expression. In an initial discovery set of 21 samples, IGFBP-4 levels were found to be elevated in patients, including those with early stage disease and normal CA125 levels. In a larger and independent validation set (82 controls, 78 cases, IGFBP-4 levels were significantly increased (p -5. IGFBP-4 levels were ~3× greater in women with malignant pelvic masses compared to women with benign masses. ROC sensitivity was 73% at 93% specificity (AUC 0.816. In women receiving chemotherapy, average IGFBP-4 levels were below the ROC-determined threshold and lower in NED patients compared to AWD patients. Conclusions This study, the first to our knowledge to use RNA-Seq for biomarker discovery, identified IGFBP-4 as overexpressed in ovarian cancer patients. Beyond this, these studies identified two additional intriguing findings. First, IGFBP-4 can be elevated in early stage disease without elevated CA125. Second, IGFBP-4

  16. Increased serum free light chains precede the presentation of immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Brendan M; Hebreo, Joseph; Cordaro, Daniel V; Roschewski, Mark J; Baker, Thomas P; Abbott, Kevin C; Olson, Stephen W

    2014-09-01

    Patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) generally present with advanced organ dysfunction and have a high risk of early death. We sought to characterize monoclonal immunoglobulin (M-Ig) light chains before clinical presentation of AL amyloidosis. We obtained prediagnostic sera from 20 cases with AL amyloidosis and 20 healthy controls matched for age, sex, race, and age of serum sample from the Department of Defense Serum Repository. Serum protein electrophoresis with immunofixation and serum free light chain (FLC) analysis were performed on all samples. An M-Ig was detected in 100% of cases and 0% of controls (P < .001). The M-Ig was present in 100%, 80%, and 42% of cases at less than 4 years, 4 to 11 years, and more than 11 years before diagnosis, respectively. The median FLC differential (FLC-diff) was higher in cases compared with controls at all time periods, less than 4 years (174.8 v 0.3 mg/L; P < .001), 4 to 11 years (65.1 v 2.2 mg/L; P < .001), and more than 11 years (4.5 v 0.4 mg/L; P = .03) before diagnosis. The FLC-diff was greater than 23 mg/L in 85% of cases and 0% of controls (P < .001). The FLC-diff level increased more than 10% per year in 84% of cases compared with 16% of controls (P < .001). Increase of FLCs, including within the accepted normal range, precedes the development of AL amyloidosis for many years. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  17. Association of Low Serum Concentration of Bilirubin with Increased Risk of Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    bilirubin with increased risk of coronary artery dises . Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada Cliii Chem 1994,40:18-23. Fax 416-481-2899 10 CLINICAL...performed for abnor- according to the maximum coronary stenosis at angiog- mal repolarization, decreased thallium uptake, cardiac raphy: < 10% (no...g AD-A276 272... 08/17/93 Association of Low Serum Concentration of Bilirubin IN-House with Increased Risk of Coronary Artery Disease PE 62202F

  18. LIVER IRON CONTENT (LIC IN ADULTS WITH NON-TRANSFUSION DEPENDENT SICKLE CELL DISEASE (NT-SCD. CORRELATION WITH SERUM FERRITIN AND LIVER ENZYMES CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Sanctis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Introduction: Sickle cell disease (SCD is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing damage and dysfunction in multiple organs. The complications of this disease are numerous, affect every organ and/or tissue in the body and vary considerably among patients over the time which challenge its management. Aim of our study: To determine the iron status of 17 patients with NT-SCD patients and 6 patients with TD- SCD using both serum ferritin level (SF and Ferriscan® evaluation of liver iron content (LIC and correlate values of LIC on the one hand with SF levels and some hepatic functions (ALT, AST, ALP and albumin.  Results: 17 adults with NT-SCD (n = 17, age: 32±15 years were studied.  Seven of NT-SCD had serum ferritin > 500 μg/L, 4 out of the seven had high liver iron measured by FerriScan®  (> 30 mg/kg/ tissue dry weight - DW.  Two patients had high liver iron content despite a concomitant serum ferritin concentration < 500 μg/L.  Two patients had high serum ferritin (1.117 μg/L and 675 μg/L while their LIC was normal (< 30 mg/kg/DW.  5 patients had elevated ALT and/or AST concentrations. In TD-SCD (n = 6, age = 25 ±11 years, 2 patients had serum ferritin <500 μg/L, one of them had high LIC (127 mg/kg/DW. Liver enzymes were high in two patients.  Serum ferritin concentration was correlated significantly with LIC  (r = 0.85, p < 0.001. Neither serum ferritin level, nor LIC was correlated significantly with hepatic enzyme levels. Conclusions:  A significant number of our patients with ND-SCD had high LIC , high serum ferritin and elevated hepatic enzymes (ALT and AST. Despite some  limitations of our study (small NT-SCD cohort,  these findings have important clinical implications. We recommend  to measure serum ferritin and LIC in NT-SCD patients to apply therapeutic preventive measures with iron chelation therapy in patients with high LIC.

  19. Increasing dissolved-oxygen disrupts iron homeostasis in production cultures of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Antonino; Shiloach, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The damaging effect of high oxygen concentration on growth of Escherichia coli is well established. Over-oxygenation increases the intracellular concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing the destruction of the [4Fe-4S] cluster of dehydratases and limiting the biosynthesis of both branched-chain amino acids and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. A key enzyme that reduces the damaging effect of superoxide is superoxide dismutase (SOD). Its transcriptional regulation is controlled by global transcription regulators that respond to changes in oxygen and iron concentrations and pH. Production of biological compounds from E. coli is currently achieved using cultures grown to high cell densities which require oxygen-enriched air supply. It is, therefore, important to study the effect of over-oxygenation on E. coli metabolism and the bacterial protecting mechanism. The effect of over-oxygenation on the superoxide dismutase regulation system was evaluated in cultures grown in a bioreactor by increasing the oxygen concentration from 30 to 300 % air saturation. Following the change in the dissolved oxygen (DO), the expression of sodC, the periplasmic CuZn-containing SOD, and sodA, the cytosolic Mn-containing SOD, was higher in all the tested strains, while the expression of the sodB, the cytosolic Fe-containing SOD, was lower. The down-regulation of the sodB was found to be related to the activation of the small RNA RyhB. It was revealed that iron homeostasis, in particular ferric iron, was involved in the RyhB activation and in sodB regulation but not in sodA. Supplementation of amino acids to the culture medium reduced the intracellular ROS accumulation and reduced the activation of both SodA and SodC following the increase in the oxygen concentration. The study provides evidence that at conditions of over-oxygenation, sodA and sodC are strongly regulated by the amount of ROS, in particular superoxide; and sodB is regulated by iron availability through the

  20. No exercise-induced increase in serum BDNF after cycling near a major traffic road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, I; Jacobs, L; Nawrot, T S; de Geus, B; Torfs, R; Int Panis, L; Degraeuwe, B; Meeusen, R

    2011-08-15

    Commuting by bike has a clear health enhancing effect. Moreover, regular exercise is known to improve brain plasticity, which results in enhanced cognition and memory performance. Animal research has clearly shown that exercise upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF - a neurotrophine) enhancing brain plasticity. Studies in humans found an increase in serum BDNF concentration in response to an acute exercise bout. Recently, more evidence is emerging suggesting that exposure to air pollution (such as particulate matter (PM)) is higher in commuter cyclists compared to car drivers. Furthermore, exposure to PM is linked to negative neurological effects, such as neuroinflammation and cognitive decline. We carried-out a cross-over experiment to examine the acute effect of exercise on serum BDNF, and the potential effect-modification by exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Thirty eight physically fit, non-asthmatic volunteers (mean age: 43, 26% women) performed two cycling trials, one near a major traffic road (Antwerp Ring, R1, up to 260,000 vehicles per day) and one in an air-filtered room. The air-filtered room was created by reducing fine particles as well as ultrafine particles (UFP). PM10, PM2.5 and UFP were measured. The duration (∼20min) and intensity of cycling were kept the same for each volunteer for both cycling trials. Serum BDNF concentrations were measured before and 30min after each cycling trial. Average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 64.9μg/m(3) and 24.6μg/m(3) in cycling near a major ring way, in contrast to 7.7μg/m(3) and 2.0μg/m(3) in the air-filtered room. Average concentrations of UFP were 28,180 particles/cm(3) along the road in contrast to 496 particles/cm(3) in the air-filtered room. As expected, exercise significantly increased serum BDNF concentration after cycling in the air-filtered room (+14.4%; p=0.02). In contrast, serum BDNF concentrations did not increase after cycling near the major traffic route (+0.5%; p

  1. The Regulation of Iron Absorption and Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Daniel F

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential element in biology, required for numerous cellular processes. Either too much or too little iron can be detrimental, and organisms have developed mechanisms for balancing iron within safe limits. In mammals there are no controlled mechanisms for the excretion of excess iron, hence body iron homeostasis is regulated at the sites of absorption, utilisation and recycling. This review will discuss the discoveries that have been made in the past 20 years into advancing our understanding of iron homeostasis and its regulation. The study of iron-associated disorders, such as the iron overload condition hereditary haemochromatosis and various forms of anaemia have been instrumental in increasing our knowledge in this area, as have cellular and animal model studies. The liver has emerged as the major site of systemic iron regulation, being the location where the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin is produced. Hepcidin is a negative regulator of iron absorption and recycling, achieving this by binding to the only known cellular iron exporter ferroportin and causing its internalisation and degradation, thereby reducing iron efflux from target cells and reducing serum iron levels. Much of the research in the iron metabolism field has focussed on the regulation of hepcidin and its interaction with ferroportin. The advances in this area have greatly increased our knowledge of iron metabolism and its regulation and have led to the development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for iron-associated disorders.

  2. Serum neurofilament light chain levels are increased in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Disanto, Giulio; Adiutori, Rocco; Dobson, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurofilament light chain (NfL) represents a promising biomarker for axonal injury. We present the first exploratory study on serum NfL in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and healthy controls. METHODS: We investigated serum NfL levels in 100 patients with CIS...... with a short conversion interval to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS) (fast converters (FC), median (IQR) conversion time: 110 days (79-139)); 98 patients with non-converting CIS (non-converters (NC), follow-up: 6.5 years (5.3-7.9)); and 92 healthy controls. RESULTS: NfL levels were higher in FC (24.......1 pg/mL (13.5-51.8)) and NC (19.3 pg/mL (13.6-35.2)) than in healthy controls (7.9 pg/mL (5.6-17.2)) (OR=5.85; 95% CI 2.63 to 13.02; p=1.5×10(-5) and OR=7.03; 95% CI 2.85 to 17.34; p=2.3×10(-5), respectively). When grouping FC and NC, increased serum NfL concentration was also associated...

  3. Lansoprazole increases serum IgG and IgM in H. pylori-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Y; Kurosaka, H; Kato, K; Hayashi, I; Minekawa, K; Arakawa, Y; Sawada, S

    2007-01-01

    Proton-pump inhibitors have been reported to influence the human immune system, we therefore evaluated the effect of lansoprazole, a proton-pump inhibitor, on humoral immunity. Patients with gastric ulcer received lansoprazole 30 mg/day for 8 weeks, and serum immunoglobulins were evaluated before and upon completion of the treatment. There were 79 patients with gastric ulcer; 51 were H. pylori-infected and 28 were H. pylori-uninfected. Eighteen patients positive for H. pylori were receiving at least one non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and 12 patients negative for H. pylori received one non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. H. pylori-infected patients showed significant increases in serum immunoglobulins G and M 8 weeks after the start of lansoprazole treatment (PLansoprazole elevated serum levels of immunoglobulins G and M in gastric ulcer patients with H. pylori infection, particularly in those receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Deducing from these observations, lansoprazole might alter the Th1 shift in the immune response induced by H. pylori infection.

  4. Low water conductivity increases the effects of copper on the serum parameters in fish (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canli, Esin G; Canli, Mustafa

    2015-03-01

    The conductivity is largely determined by ion levels in water, predominant ion being Ca(2+) in the freshwaters. For this reason, the effects of copper were evaluated as a matter of conductivity of exposure media in the present study. Thus, freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to copper in differing conductivities (77, 163 and 330 μS/cm), using acute (0.3 μM, 3 d) and chronic (0.03 μM, 30 d) exposure protocols. Following the exposure serum parameters of fish were measured. Data showed that there was no significant alteration (P>0.05) in serum parameters of control fish. However, activities of ALP, ALT and AST decreased significantly at the lower conductivities in chronic copper exposure, but not in acute ones. Protein levels did not differ significantly in any of the exposure conditions. However, Cu exposure at the lowest conductivity sharply increased the levels of glucose in the acute exposure, while there was no significant difference in the chronic exposure. Cholesterol levels decreased only at the lower conductivities in chronic exposure, but increased in acute exposure. Similarly, triglyceride levels increased in acute exposures and decreased in chronic exposures at the lowest conductivity. There was no change in Na(+) levels, while there was an increase in K(+) levels and a decrease in Ca(2+) level at the lowest conductivity of acute exposures. However, Cl(-) levels generally decreased at the higher conductivities of chronic exposures. There was a strong negative relationship between significant altered serum parameters and water conductivity. In conclusion, this study showed that copper exposure of fish at lower conductivities caused more toxicities, indicating the protective effect of calcium ions against copper toxicity. Data suggest that conductivity of water may be used in the evaluation of metal data from different waters with different chemical characteristics.

  5. Evaluation of diagnostic efficacy of serum sTfR assay in iron-deficiency anemia and Beta-thalassemia trait in Shafa hospital, Ahvaz, Iran 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, M T; Mohseni, A; Keikhaei, B; Latifi, M

    2012-10-01

    Soluble form of transferrin receptor (TFR) called soluble TFR (sTfR) is shed mainly from the erythroid precursors and with a slower rate from other tissues into the plasma. This process of release is intensified in situations characterized with a some degree of erythroid hyperplasia or body iron stores depletion, such as seen in beta-thalassemia trait (betaTT) and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), respectively. Therefore, the employement of sTfR assay as a diagnostic tool for differentiating IDA from betaTT in case of co-existence of these two clinical entities seems to be questionable. In this work we decided to study the above-mentioned dilemma in our geographical area, south of Iran. Whole blood (5 ml) and serum samples (2 ml) were collected from 30 patients with IDA, 30 individuals with betaTT and 30 apparently healthy cases as control group. Complete blood count (CBC) was done by blood analyzer and serum iron, serum ferritin and serum sTfR were assayed by biochemical, immunological (chemiluminescence) and Elisa Kit, respectively. Serum ferritin concentration in IDA group was significantly lower than the concentration seen in betaTT: 6.93 ± 4.16 vs 47.40+/=32.33 microg/ml. The findings for sTfR serum concentration in IDA group (3.25+/=1.60 microg/ml) and betaTT group (1.86+/=0.36 microg/ml) showed a significant difference between IDA and the control group (p Serum ferritin concentration and serum sTfR concentration in the control group were (65.60 ± 58.53 microg/dl) and (1.51+/=0.22 microg/ml), respectively. The sTfR/ferritin ratio clearly showed a diagnostic superiority to ferritin assay in IDA diagnosis. The observed overlap in serum stfR concentrations between IDA and betaTT groups makes the sTfR assay unefficient tool for a differential diagnosis between IDA and betaTT in the early stages of IDA. An higher diagnostic potential was observed in the advanced stage of iron deficiency anemia. Calculated ratio of serum sTfR/ferritin showed the diagnostic

  6. Arterial oxygen content is precisely maintained by graded erythrocytotic responses in settings of high/normal serum iron levels, and predicts exercise capacity: an observational study of hypoxaemic patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatshalan Santhirapala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxygen, haemoglobin and cardiac output are integrated components of oxygen transport: each gram of haemoglobin transports 1.34 mls of oxygen in the blood. Low arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, and haemoglobin saturation (SaO2, are the indices used in clinical assessments, and usually result from low inspired oxygen concentrations, or alveolar/airways disease. Our objective was to examine low blood oxygen/haemoglobin relationships in chronically compensated states without concurrent hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity. METHODOLOGY: 165 consecutive unselected patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations were studied, in 98 cases, pre/post embolisation treatment. 159 (96% had hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Arterial oxygen content was calculated by SaO2 x haemoglobin x 1.34/100. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There was wide variation in SaO2 on air (78.5-99, median 95% but due to secondary erythrocytosis and resultant polycythaemia, SaO2 explained only 0.1% of the variance in arterial oxygen content per unit blood volume. Secondary erythrocytosis was achievable with low iron stores, but only if serum iron was high-normal: Low serum iron levels were associated with reduced haemoglobin per erythrocyte, and overall arterial oxygen content was lower in iron deficient patients (median 16.0 [IQR 14.9, 17.4]mls/dL compared to 18.8 [IQR 17.4, 20.1]mls/dL, p<0.0001. Exercise tolerance appeared unrelated to SaO2 but was significantly worse in patients with lower oxygen content (p<0.0001. A pre-defined athletic group had higher Hb:SaO2 and serum iron:ferritin ratios than non-athletes with normal exercise capacity. PAVM embolisation increased SaO2, but arterial oxygen content was precisely restored by a subsequent fall in haemoglobin: 86 (87.8% patients reported no change in exercise tolerance at post-embolisation follow-up. SIGNIFICANCE: Haemoglobin and oxygen measurements in isolation do not indicate the more physiologically relevant

  7. Defining serum ferritin thresholds to predict clinically relevant liver iron concentrations for guiding deferasirox therapy when MRI is unavailable in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Ali T; Porter, John B; Viprakasit, Vip; Kattamis, Antonis; Chuncharunee, Suporn; Sutcharitchan, Pranee; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Origa, Raffaella; Karakas, Zeynep; Habr, Dany; Zhu, Zewen; Cappellini, Maria Domenica

    2015-01-01

    Liver iron concentration (LIC) assessment by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the gold standard to diagnose iron overload and guide iron chelation therapy in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT). However, limited access to MRI technology and expertise worldwide makes it practical to also use serum ferritin assessments. The THALASSA (assessment of Exjade(®) in non-transfusion-dependent THALASSemiA patients) study assessed the efficacy and safety of deferasirox in iron-overloaded NTDT patients and provided a large data set to allow exploration of the relationship between LIC and serum ferritin. Using data from screened patients and those treated with deferasirox for up to 2 years, we identified clinically relevant serum ferritin thresholds (for when MRI is unavailable) for the initiation of chelation therapy (>800 μg/l), as well as thresholds to guide chelator dose interruption (2000 μg/l). (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00873041). © 2014 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Serum ferritin levels in hospital patients

    OpenAIRE

    竹田, 芳弘; 平木, 祥夫; 森本,節夫; 戸上, 泉; 白神, 敏明; 白石,則之; 木本, 真; 上者,郁夫; 橋本, 啓二; 青野, 要

    1985-01-01

    Serum ferritin levels were determined in 75 hematologic, 1205 malignant, and 538 benign diseases. In hematologic diseases the serum ferritin level was generally low in iron deficiency anemia, but high in hemochromatosis, aplastic anemia, and leukemia. In malignant diseases the serum ferritin concentration was increased remarkably in lung, liver, biliary, and urogential diseases and in malignant lymphoma. Among benign diseases hepatitis cases showed a tendency for high serum ferritin levels. S...

  9. Serum ferritin levels in hospital patients

    OpenAIRE

    竹田,芳弘; 平木,祥夫; 森本, 節夫; 戸上, 泉; 白神, 敏明; 白石, 則之; 木本, 真; 上者, 郁夫; 橋本, 啓二; 青野,要

    1985-01-01

    Serum ferritin levels were determined in 75 hematologic, 1205 malignant, and 538 benign diseases. In hematologic diseases the serum ferritin level was generally low in iron deficiency anemia, but high in hemochromatosis, aplastic anemia, and leukemia. In malignant diseases the serum ferritin concentration was increased remarkably in lung, liver, biliary, and urogential diseases and in malignant lymphoma. Among benign diseases hepatitis cases showed a tendency for high serum ferritin levels. S...

  10. Acute Physical Stress Increases Serum Levels of Specific microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Tadashi; Hashiyada, Masaki; Funayama, Masato

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA (miR) is non-coding small RNA that regulate mRNA at the post-transcriptional level by degradation or inhibition. To find physical stress markers, we developed a rat model involving a simple and complicated stress and measured serum miR levels. To demonstrate changes in serum miR levels when physical stress is applied, we constructed three stress modalities using rats: alcohol intake, treadmill running and restraint. After alcohol administration, the rats were made to run on a treadmill and some of the rats were further stressed by restraining with a 2 kg water bag immediately after the treadmill run. The rats were grouped as follows: control, run for 20 min, run for 90 min, run and restrained for 20 min, run and restrained for 90 min. Using total RNA extracted from sera, expression levels of eight miRs were measured by real-time PCR. The level of miR-199a was increased by 20 min stress procedures and the levels of miR-1, miR-24a and miR-133a/b were increased by 90 min stress procedures. No change in the levels of miR-208, miR-212 or miR-296-5p was seen under any stress conditions. There was no significant difference between a treadmill run only and a combination of treadmill run and being restrained by a 2 kg water bag. We demonstrated that a combination of these serum miRs might indicate the intensity of stress experienced.

  11. Rapid assessment of iron in blood plasma and serum by spectrophotometry with cloud-point extraction [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana Samarina; Mikhail Proskurnin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid photometric assessment of iron in blood plasma and serum by a simple procedure after the extraction of iron(II) complex with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol in the micellar phase of a nonionic surfactant at the cloud point upon heating (pH range is 4.5–6.3) is proposed. The procedure trueness was verified using a standard reference protocol using bathophenanthroline. The advantages of the procedure are higher sensitivity than the reference protocol: the limit of detection is 0.03 μg/mL, the limit ...

  12. Initial screening transferrin saturation values, serum ferritin concentrations, and HFE genotypes in Native Americans and whites in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study

    OpenAIRE

    Barton, JC; Acton, RT; Lovato, L; Speechley, MR; McLaren, CE; Harris, EL; Reboussin, DM; Adams, PC; Dawkins, FW; Gordeuk, VR; Walker, AP; Dixon, D.; Ferguson, S; Jones, R.; McKnight, J

    2006-01-01

    We compared initial screening transferrin saturation (TfSat) and serum ferritin (SF) phenotypes and HFE C282Y and H63D genotypes of 645 Native American and 43,453 white Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study participants who did not report a previous diagnosis of hemochromatosis or iron overload. Elevated measurements were defined as TfSat >50% in men and >45% in women and SF>300 ng/ml in men and >200 ng/ml in women. Mean TfSat was 31% in Native American men and 32% in white men (p...

  13. Intracellular modulation, extracellular disposal and serum increase of MiR-150 mark lymphocyte activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola de Candia

    Full Text Available Activated lymphocytes release nano-sized vesicles (exosomes containing microRNAs that can be monitored in the bloodstream. We asked whether elicitation of immune responses is followed by release of lymphocyte-specific microRNAs. We found that, upon activation in vitro, human and mouse lymphocytes down-modulate intracellular miR-150 and accumulate it in exosomes. In vivo, miR-150 levels increased significantly in serum of humans immunized with flu vaccines and in mice immunized with ovalbumin, and this increase correlated with elevation of antibody titers. Immunization of immune-deficient mice, lacking MHCII, resulted neither in antibody production nor in elevation of circulating miR-150. This study provides proof of concept that serum microRNAs can be detected, with minimally invasive procedure, as biomarkers of vaccination and more in general of adaptive immune responses. Furthermore, the prompt reduction of intracellular level of miR-150, a key regulator of mRNAs critical for lymphocyte differentiation and functions, linked to its release in the external milieu suggests that the selective extracellular disposal of microRNAs can be a rapid way to regulate gene expression during lymphocyte activation.

  14. Iron uptake and increased intracellular enzyme activity follow host lactoferrin binding by Trichomonas vaginalis receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, K.M.; Alderete, J.F.

    1984-08-01

    Lactoferrin acquisition and iron uptake by pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Saturation binding kinetics were obtained for trichomonads using increasing amounts of radioiodinated lactoferrin, while no significant binding by transferrin under similar conditions was achieved. Only unlabeled lactoferrin successfully and stoichiometrically competed with 125I-labeled lactoferrin binding. Time course studies showed maximal lactoferrin binding by 30 min at 37 degrees C. Data suggest no internalization of bound lactoferrin. The accumulation of radioactivity in supernatants after incubation of T. vaginalis with 125I-labeled lactoferrin and washing in PBS suggested the presence of low affinity sites for this host macromolecule. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of 90,000 receptors per trichomonad with an apparent Kd of 1.0 microM. Two trichomonad lactoferrin binding proteins were identified by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation of receptor-ligand complexes. A 30-fold accumulation of iron was achieved using 59Fe-lactoferrin when compared to the steady state concentration of bound lactoferrin. The activity of pyruvate/ferrodoxin oxidoreductase, an enzyme involved in trichomonal energy metabolism, increased more than sixfold following exposure of the parasites to lactoferrin, demonstrating a biologic response to the receptor-mediated binding of lactoferrin. These data suggest that T. vaginalis possesses specific receptors for biologically relevant host proteins and that these receptors contribute to the metabolic processes of the parasites.

  15. Formulation and sensory evaluation of Prosopis alba (Algarrobo) pulp cookies with increased iron and calcium dialyzabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, C; Drago, S; Sabbag, N; Sanchez, H; Freyre, M

    2006-03-01

    Prosopis alba (algarrobo) is an important indigenous specie, which fruits are used as food and feed since ancient times. Cookies containing algarrobo pulp (AP) with increased iron and calcium availabilities were formulated and sensory evaluated. AP is preferred as food ingredient because of its high sugar content and pleasant flavour. Formulated cookies mean proximal composition was 8.9 g/100 g protein, 7.2 g/100 g dietary fiber, 25 g/100 g total sugar, and 18.5 g/100 g crude fat with iron and calcium contents 30 ppm and 340 ppm, respectively. Ascorbic (AA) and citric (CA) acids at different mM acid: mM Fe were added in order to increase mineral availabilities being evaluated by an in vitro method. Those ratios were 5:1 and 10:1 for AA:Fe whereas for CA:Fe were 50:1 and 100:1 and combinations of them. After chosen the best AA:Fe and CA:Fe ratios (5:1 and 50:1, respectively), sensory evaluation with trained sensory panel and a consumer acceptability test with one hundred and seventy untrained judges were carried out. Acceptability test showed that 77.65% of the people ( 50 years old 15.89%) tasting final formulated cookies indicated that they "like very much" or "moderately like" and there were not consumers rejecting them.

  16. New insights into iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaschella, Clara

    2017-02-13

    Recent advances in iron metabolism have stimulated new interest in iron deficiency (ID) and its anemia (IDA), common conditions worldwide. Absolute ID/IDA, i.e. the decrease of total body iron, is easily diagnosed based on decreased levels of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Relative lack of iron in specific organs/tissues, and IDA in the context of inflammatory disorders, are diagnosed based on arbitrary cut offs of ferritin and transferrin saturation and/or marker combination (as the soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin index) in an appropriate clinical context. Most ID patients are candidate to traditional treatment with oral iron salts, while high hepcidin levels block their absorption in inflammatory disorders. New iron preparations and new treatment modalities are available: high-dose intravenous iron compounds are becoming popular and indications to their use are increasing, although long-term side effects remain to be evaluated.

  17. Iron ion irradiation increases promotes adhesion of monocytic cells to arterial vascular endothelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucik, Dennis; Khaled, Saman; Gupta, Kiran; Wu, Xing; Yu, Tao; Chang, Polly; Kabarowski, Janusz

    Radiation causes inflammation, and chronic, low-level vascular inflammation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Consistent with this, exposure to radiation from a variety of sources is associated with increased risk of heart disease and stroke. Part of the inflammatory response to radiation is a change in the adhesiveness of the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels, triggering inappropriate accumulation of leukocytes, leading to later, damaging effects of inflammation. Although some studies have been done on the effects of gamma irradiation on vascular endothelium, the response of endothelium to heavy ion radiation likely to be encountered in prolonged space flight has not been determined. We investigated how irradiation of aortic endothelial cells with iron ions affects adhesiveness of cultured aortic endothelial cells for monocytic cells and the consequences of this for development of atherosclerosis. Aortic endothelial cells were irradiated with 600 MeV iron ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory and adhesion-related changes were measured. Cells remained viable for at least 72 hours, and were even able to repair acute damage to cell junctions. We found that iron ion irradiation altered expression levels of specific endothelial cell adhesion molecules. Further, these changes had functional consequences. Using a flow chamber adhesion assay to measure adhesion of monocytic cells to endothelial cells under physiological shear stress, we found that adhesivity of vascular endothelium was enhanced in as little as 24 hours after irradiation. Further, the radiation dose dependence was not monotonic, suggesting that it was not simply the result of endothelial cell damage. We also irradiated aortic arches and carotid arteries of Apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice. Histologic analysis of these mice will be conducted to determine whether effects of radiation on endothelial adhesiveness result in consequences for development of atherosclerosis. (Supported by NSBRI

  18. Accuracy of erythrogram and serum ferritin for the maternal anemia diagnosis (AMA): a phase 3 diagnostic study on prediction of the therapeutic responsiveness to oral iron in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Bresani, Cristiane Campello; Braga, Maria Cynthia; Felisberto, Daniel Falcão; Tavares-de-Melo, Carlos Eduardo Lopes; Salvi, Debora Bresani; Batista-Filho,Malaquias

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnancy anemia remains as a public health problem, since the official reports in the 70’s. To guide the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in pregnancy, the haemoglobin concentration is the most used test in spite of its low accuracy, and serum ferritin is the most reliable test, although its cutoff point remains an issue. Methods/design The aim of this protocol is to verify the accuracy of erythrocyte indices and serum ferritin (studied tests) for the diagnosis of functional ir...

  19. Facile synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbon dots and its application as sensing probes for serum iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Long; Hou, Juan; Li, Huiyu; Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Fengshuang; Zhao, Jiahui [Jilin University, College of Chemistry (China); Ding, Hong [Jilin University, State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry (China); Ding, Lan, E-mail: dinglan@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin University, College of Chemistry (China)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) with a quantum yield of 23.6 % were successfully synthesized by microwave pyrolysis of urea using diethylene glycol as the high boiling point reaction medium. The N-CDs were spherical and monodisperse with a size distribution between 1.5 and 5.5 nm. The N-CDs exhibited excellent water-soluble property and remarkable stability under extreme ionic strengths and light illumination. The fluorescence of the N-CDs could be quenched by Fe{sup 3+} through the static quenching mechanism, but not by other common metal ions. On this basis, the N-CDs can be used as a facile sensing platform for label-free sensitive and selective detection of Fe{sup 3+} in a linear range of 1.6–333.3 μmol L{sup −1}, and the detection limit was 0.45 μmol L{sup −1} obtained at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Importantly, the N-CDs-based fluorescent probe was successfully applied to the direct analysis of iron contents in human serum samples, which demonstrated potential applications in biological and clinical analysis.

  20. Iron and bismuth bound human serum transferrin reveals a partially-opened conformation in the N-lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nan; Zhang, Hongmin; Wang, Minji; Hao, Quan; Sun, Hongzhe

    2012-01-01

    Human serum transferrin (hTF) binds Fe(III) tightly but reversibly, and delivers it to cells via a receptor-mediated endocytosis process. The metal-binding and release result in significant conformational changes of the protein. Here, we report the crystal structures of diferric-hTF (Fe(N)Fe(C)-hTF) and bismuth-bound hTF (Bi(N)Fe(C)-hTF) at 2.8 and 2.4 Å resolutions respectively. Notably, the N-lobes of both structures exhibit unique "partially-opened" conformations between those of the apo-hTF and holo-hTF. Fe(III) and Bi(III) in the N-lobe coordinate to, besides anions, only two (Tyr95 and Tyr188) and one (Tyr188) tyrosine residues, respectively, in contrast to four residues in the holo-hTF. The C-lobe of both structures are fully closed with iron coordinating to four residues and a carbonate. The structures of hTF observed here represent key conformers captured in the dynamic nature of the transferrin family proteins and provide a structural basis for understanding the mechanism of metal uptake and release in transferrin families.

  1. Facile synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbon dots and its application as sensing probes for serum iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Hou, Juan; Li, Huiyu; Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Fengshuang; Zhao, Jiahui; Ding, Hong; Ding, Lan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) with a quantum yield of 23.6 % were successfully synthesized by microwave pyrolysis of urea using diethylene glycol as the high boiling point reaction medium. The N-CDs were spherical and monodisperse with a size distribution between 1.5 and 5.5 nm. The N-CDs exhibited excellent water-soluble property and remarkable stability under extreme ionic strengths and light illumination. The fluorescence of the N-CDs could be quenched by Fe3+ through the static quenching mechanism, but not by other common metal ions. On this basis, the N-CDs can be used as a facile sensing platform for label-free sensitive and selective detection of Fe3+ in a linear range of 1.6-333.3 μmol L-1, and the detection limit was 0.45 μmol L-1 obtained at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Importantly, the N-CDs-based fluorescent probe was successfully applied to the direct analysis of iron contents in human serum samples, which demonstrated potential applications in biological and clinical analysis.

  2. Steatohepatitis is developed by a diet high in fat, sucrose, and cholesterol without increasing iron concentration in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Katsuko; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2016-04-01

    Iron overload to the liver is known to be a pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis through oxidative stress. High-fat diets have been reported to increase iron concentration in livers that developed steatohepatitis in experimental animals. However, the effect of high-fat diets on hepatic iron concentration is controversial. We hypothesized that a diet high in lard, cholesterol, and sucrose (Western diet) leads to the development of steatohepatitis without increasing hepatic iron concentration. Rats were given either a control or the Western diet for 12 weeks. The Western diet increased triacylglycerol concentration and oxidative stress markers such as the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of heme oxygenase-1 in the liver. The Western diet also increased the mRNA expression of macrophage-1 antigen, cluster of differentiation (CD) 45, and CD68 in the liver, and nuclear factor κB level in liver nuclear fraction, suggesting the development of hepatic inflammation. Histological observation also indicated fatty liver and hepatic inflammation in the rats given the Western diet. In contrast, the Western diet decreased iron concentration in the liver. These results clearly indicated that the diet high in lard, cholesterol, and sucrose induces steatohepatitis without increasing hepatic iron concentration.

  3. Decreased serum tryptophan in patients with HIV-1 infection correlates with increased serum neopterin and with neurologic/psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, D; Möller, A A; Reibnegger, G; Stöckle, E; Werner, E R; Wachter, H

    1990-01-01

    We investigated serum neopterin, tryptophan, and kynurenine concentrations in 23 HIV-1 seropositive patients (Walter Reed Stage 4-6). Ten patients presented with polyneuropathy and three with dementia, one of the patients with dementia also had polyneuropathy and dementia. We found significant associations between lower trytophan concentrations and neurologic/psychiatric symptoms. The negative correlation of tryptophan with kynurenine and neopterin concentrations indicates activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in patients. IDO can be induced by cytokines such as interferon-gamma and therefore low tryptophan levels may result from chronic immune stimulation in HIV-1 seropositives.

  4. Single dose of intra-muscular platelet rich plasma reverses the increase in plasma iron levels in exercise-induced muscle damage:A pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zekine Punduk; Onur Oral; Nadir Ozkayin; Khalid Rahman; Rana Varol

    2016-01-01

    Background: Platelet rich plasma (PRP) therapy is widely used in enhancing the recovery of skeletal muscle from injury. However, the impact of intramuscular delivery of PRP on hematologic and biochemical responses has not been fully elucidated in exercise-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this investigation the effects of intramuscular delivery of PRP on hematologic and biochemical responses and recovery strategy muscle damage induced by high intensity muscle exercise (exercise-induced muscle damage, EIMD). Methods: Moderately active male volunteers participated in this study and were assigned to a control group (control, n=6) and PRP administration group (PRP, n=6). The subjects performed exercise with a load of 80%one repetition maximum (1RM) maximal voluntary contraction of the elbow flexors until point of exhaustion of the non-dominant arm was reached. The arms were treated with saline or autologous PRP post-24 h EIMD. Venous blood samples were obtained in the morning to establish a baseline value and 1–4 days post-exercise and were analyzed for serum ferritin, iron, iron binding capacity (IBC), creatinine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Results: The baseline levels of plasma iron, ferritin, IBC, CK, LDH, AST, and ALT were similar in both the control and PRP groups. However, 24-h following exercise a significant increase in these parameters was observed in both groups between 1 and 4 days during the recovery period. Interestingly, PRP administration decreased plasma iron levels compared to the control on the second day post-exercise. Plasma IBC increased in PRP group from Days 2 to 4 post-exercise compared to the control group whilst PRP administration had no effect on plasma ferritin, CK, AST, ALT, or LDH. Conclusion: Acute exhaustive exercise increased muscle damage markers, including plasma iron, IBC, and ferritin levels, indicating muscle damage induced by exercise. PRP

  5. Effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Manuel; Castro, Carla; Pizarro, Fernando; de Romaña, Daniel López

    2013-09-01

    Iron (Fe) and zinc's (Zn) interaction at the absorptive level can have an effect on the success of co-fortification of wheat flour with both minerals on iron deficiency prevention. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea. Twelve women aged 33-42 years participated in the study. They received on four different days 200 mL of black tea and 100 g of bread made with wheat flour (70% extraction) fortified with either 30 mg Fe/kg alone, as ferrous sulfate (A), or with the same Fe-fortified flour, but with graded levels of Zn, as zinc sulfate: 30 mg/kg (B), 60 mg/kg (C), or 90 mg/kg (D). Fe radioisotopes ((59)Fe and (55)Fe) of high specific activity were used as tracers, and Fe absorption iron was measured by the incorporation of radioactive Fe into erythrocytes. The geometric mean and range of ±1 SD of Fe absorption were as follows: A = 6.5% (2.2-19.3%), B = 4.6% (1.0-21.0%), C = 2.1% (0.9-4.9%), and D = 2.2% (0.7-6.6%), respectively; ANOVA for repeated measures F = 10.9, p black tea is significantly decreased at a zinc fortification level of ≥60 mg/kg flour.

  6. Ineffective erythropoiesis in beta-thalassemia is characterized by increased iron absorption mediated by down-regulation of hepcidin and up-regulation of ferroportin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardenghi, Sara; Marongiu, Maria F; Ramos, Pedro; Guy, Ella; Breda, Laura; Chadburn, Amy; Liu, YiFang; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A; Breuer, William; Cabantchik, Z Ioav; Wrighting, Diedra M; Andrews, Nancy C; de Sousa, Maria; Giardina, Patricia J; Grady, Robert W; Rivella, Stefano

    2007-06-01

    Progressive iron overload is the most salient and ultimately fatal complication of beta-thalassemia. However, little is known about the relationship among ineffective erythropoiesis (IE), the role of iron-regulatory genes, and tissue iron distribution in beta-thalassemia. We analyzed tissue iron content and iron-regulatory gene expression in the liver, duodenum, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, and heart of mice up to 1 year old that exhibit levels of iron overload and anemia consistent with both beta-thalassemia intermedia (th3/+) and major (th3/th3). Here we show, for the first time, that tissue and cellular iron distribution are abnormal and different in th3/+ and th3/th3 mice, and that transfusion therapy can rescue mice affected by beta-thalassemia major and modify both the absorption and distribution of iron. Our study reveals that the degree of IE dictates tissue iron distribution and that IE and iron content regulate hepcidin (Hamp1) and other iron-regulatory genes such as Hfe and Cebpa. In young th3/+ and th3/th3 mice, low Hamp1 levels are responsible for increased iron absorption. However, in 1-year-old th3/+ animals, Hamp1 levels rise and it is rather the increase of ferroportin (Fpn1) that sustains iron accumulation, thus revealing a fundamental role of this iron transporter in the iron overload of beta-thalassemia.

  7. Results of an international round robin for the quantification of serum non-transferrin-bound iron: Need for defining standardization and a clinically relevant isoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Esther M G; Hendriks, Jan C M; van Tits, Berry L J H; Evans, Patricia J; Breuer, William; Liu, Ding Yong; Jansen, Eugene H J M; Jauhiainen, Katri; Sturm, Brigitte; Porter, John B; Scheiber-Mojdehkar, Barbara; von Bonsdorff, Leni; Cabantchik, Z Ioav; Hider, Robert C; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2005-06-15

    Non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) appears in the circulation of patients with iron overload. Various methods to measure NTBI were comparatively assessed as part of an international interlaboratory study. Six laboratories participated in the study, using methods based on iron mobilization and detection with iron chelators or on reactivity with bleomycin. Serum samples of 12 patients with hereditary (n=11) and secondary (n=1) hemochromatosis were measured during a 3-day analysis using 4 determinations per sample per day, making a total of 144 measurements per laboratory. Bland-Altman plots for repeated measurements are presented. The methods differed widely in mean serum NTBI level (range 0.12-4.32mumol/L), between-sample variation (SD range 0.20-2.13mumol/L and CV range 49.3-391.3%), and within-sample variation (SD range 0.02-0.45mumol/L and CV range 4.4-193.2%). The results obtained with methods based on chelators correlated significantly (R(2) range 0.86-0.99). On the other hand, NTBI values obtained by the various methods related differently from those of serum transferrin saturation (TS) when expressed in terms of both regression coefficients and NTBI levels at TS of 50%. Recent studies underscore the clinical relevance of NTBI in the management of iron-overloaded patients. However, before measurement of NTBI can be introduced into clinical practice, there is a need for more reproducible protocols as well as information on which method best represents the pathophysiological phenomenon and is most pertinent for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  8. Increased serum advanced glycation end products are associated with impairment in HDL antioxidative capacity in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huali; Tan, Kathryn C B; Shiu, Sammy W M; Wong, Ying

    2008-03-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Recent data suggest that AGEs may also interfere with the function of HDL and the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. We have investigated whether serum AGE level is associated with impairment in the antioxidative capacity of HDL and in the ability of serum to induce cholesterol efflux in type 2 diabetic patients with and without nephropathy. A total of 167 controls and 264 diabetic patients was recruited. The ability of serum to induce cellular cholesterol efflux and the capacity of HDL to inhibit LDL oxidation ex vivo was determined. Serum AGEs were assayed by competitive ELISA using a polyclonal rabbit antisera raised against AGE-RNase. Diabetic subjects were subdivided into three groups (normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and proteinuria). Serum AGEs were significantly increased in diabetic patients with microalbuminuria or proteinuria (P diabetic patients compared to controls (P HDL was significantly impaired in patients with microalbuminuria or proteinuria (P HDL and this was partly due to the adverse effect of AGEs on paraoxonase-1 activity. In type 2 diabetic patients with incipient or overt nephropathy, increased serum concentration of AGEs was associated with impairment in the antioxidative capacity of HDL. Cholesterol efflux to serum was also reduced but was not related to serum AGEs.

  9. Rapid assessment of iron in blood plasma and serum by spectrophotometry with cloud-point extraction [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Samarina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid photometric assessment of iron in blood plasma and serum by a simple procedure after the extraction of iron(II complex with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol in the micellar phase of a nonionic surfactant at the cloud point upon heating (pH range is 4.5–6.3 is proposed. The procedure trueness was verified using a standard reference protocol using bathophenanthroline. The advantages of the procedure are higher sensitivity than the reference protocol: the limit of detection is 0.03 μg/mL, the limit of quantitation is 0.1 μg/mL, the determination range is 0.1 – 2.8 μg/mL (RSD 0.02–0.10. Copper does not interfere with the iron assessment.

  10. Elevated levels of serum IL-5 are associated with an increased likelihood of major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elomaa Antti-Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory mediators in both the peripheral circulation and central nervous system (CNS are dysregulated in major depressive disorder (MDD. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the role of the T-helper (Th-2 effector cytokines interleukin (IL-5 and IL-13 in MDD. Methods We examined the serum levels of these cytokines and a Th-1 comparison cytokine, interferon (IFN-γ, in 116 individuals (MDD, n = 58; controls, n = 58. Results In our basic multivariate model controlling for the effects of potential confounders on the associations between MDD and the examined cytokines, each 1-unit increase in the serum IL-5 level increased the likelihood of belonging to the MDD group by 76% (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.03-2.99, p = 0.04; model covariates: age, gender, marital status, daily smoking and alcohol use. The likelihood further increased in models additionally controlling for the effects of the use of antidepressants and NSAIDS, and a diagnosis of asthma. No such associations were detected with regard to IL-13 (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.96-1.22, p = 0.22 or IFN-γ (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.99-1.05, p = 0.23. Conclusions Elevated levels of IL-5, which uses the neural plasticity-related RAS GTPase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras-ERK pathway to mediate its actions in the central nervous system (CNS, could be one of the factors underlying the depression-related changes in CNS plasticity.

  11. Relationship between serum ferritin level and amikacin ototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayaninasab, Mohammad; Fatololoomi, Mohammadreza; Behnood, Fatollah; Alizamir, Azam

    2012-07-01

    Aminoglycosides are highly effective against bacteria but have serious side-effects including ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. One of the theories in aminoglycosides ototoxicity is that Iron-aminoglycoside complex causes ototoxicity by creating free radicals. Based on this theory, the relationship between serum iron level and amikacin ototoxicity was studied to determine whether more iron results in more ototoxcity. This prospective cohort study was conducted from August 2005 to October 2008. Patients with amikacin prescription and different serum-ferritin levels were examined. Burned patients with amikacin prescription were divided into Group1 (89 patients; serum-ferritin >150) and Group2 (92 patients, serum-ferritin ototoxicity. More iron can create more ototoxicity, and iron deficiency may inhibit aminoglycoside ototoxicity. An increase in MCV may be due to higher serum ferritin and an indication of more ototoxicity.

  12. Hydroxyiminodisuccinic acid (HIDS): A novel biodegradable chelating ligand for the increase of iron bioavailability and arsenic phytoextraction

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M. Azizur; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Kadohashi, K.; Maki, Teruya; Ueda, Kazumasa

    2009-01-01

    The influence of biodegradable chelating ligands on arsenic and iron uptake by hydroponically grown rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) was investigated. Even though the growth solution contained sufficient Fe, the growth of rice seedlings gradually decreased up to 76% with the increase of pH of the solution from 7 to 11. Iron forms insoluble ferric hydroxide complexes at neutral or alkaline pH in oxic condition. Chelating ligands produce soluble 'Fe-ligand complex' which assist Fe uptake in pla...

  13. Increased serum urea to creatinine ratio and its negative correlation with arterial pressure in canine babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga

    2014-09-01

    The increase of the serum urea to creatinine ratio (UCR) was observed in dogs infected with Babesia canis. Previous studies have suggested that decrease of blood pressure can be one of the reasons for this phenomenon. In this work statistically significant increase of the UCR was observed in dogs with babesiosis. Comparison of the UCR between 23 azotaemic dogs and 25 non-azotaemic dogs infected with Babesia canis showed statistically significantly higher mean of the UCR in azotaemic dogs. Correlations between UCR and systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP and MAP) in 48 dogs infected with B. canis were negative (UCR and SAP: r = -0.3909; UCR and DAP: r = -0.3182; UCR and MAP: r = -0.3682) and statistically significant (p babesiosis. However, the correlations were not high, and there was no statistically significant correlation between UCR and arterial pressures in azotaemic dogs. Thus, it seems that decrease of blood pressure in dogs with babesiosis explains only partially the cause of increased UCR in infected dogs. The other authors suggested hyperureagenesis and myocardial injury as a potential reason for the increased UCR in canine babesiosis. Thus, further studies are needed to determine causes of increased UCR in dogs with babesiosis, especially on the connection between UCR changes and the concentrations of plasma cardiac troponins and ammonia, and the occurrence of occult blood on fecal examination.

  14. Erratum to "Apotransferrin administration prevents growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis in serum of stem cell transplant patients by binding of free iron". [FEMS Immunol. Med Microbiol. 37 (2003) 45-51].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bonsdorff, Leni; Sahlstedt, Leila; Ebeling, Freja; Ruutu, Tapani; Parkkinen, Jaakko

    2004-03-08

    We investigated the effect of free, non-transferrin-bound iron occurring in haematological stem cell transplant patients on growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis in serum in vitro, and prevention of bacterial growth by exogenous apotransferrin. S. epidermidis did not grow in normal serum at inoculated bacterial densities up to 10(3) cfu ml(-1) but slow growth could be detected at higher initial inocula. Addition of free iron abolished the growth-inhibitory effect of serum, whereas addition of apotransferrin again restored it. Appearance of free iron and loss of growth inhibition coincided in patient serum samples taken daily during myeloablative therapy. Intravenously administered apotransferrin effectively bound free iron and restored the growth inhibition in patient sera. The results suggest that exogenous apotransferrin might protect stem cell transplant patients against infections by S. epidermidis and possibly other opportunistic pathogens.

  15. In contrast to matrix metalloproteinases, serum adiponectin concentrations increase after radioiodine treatment of thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewiński A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, together with their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs, remodel extracellular matrix under physiological and pathological conditions and are implicated in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, cancer and in chronic inflammation. We have endeavoured to assess whether concentrations of MMPs, TIMPs, and anti-inflammatory adiponectin are altered by pharmacological treatment of acute thyrotoxicosis or by radioiodine therapy (RIT. Material and methods We measured serum concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and adiponectin, TSH, free T4 (FT4 and free T3 (FT3 in 15 patients (4 males, age (years 51.8±15.3 (mean±SD with hyperthyroidism treated with thiamazole (Group 1 and in 20 subjects (2 males, treated for thyrotoxicosis with radioiodine, age 52.3±12.4 (Group 2, where blood samples were taken before RIT, visit 1 (V1, seven days post RIT, visit 2 (V2, and two to three months post RIT, visit 3 (V3. Results In Group 1 there was no significant change in concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 or adiponectin, despite a fall in FT4 and FT3 (8.74±4.79 pg/ml vs 3.54±2.40 pg/ml, for FT3, and 4.48 ±2.21 ng/ml vs 1.02±1.07 ng/ml, for FT4, p4 and FT3 from 24.4±15.4 pmol/l (V1 to 14.7±10.6 pmol/l (V3, and from 10.0±5.65 (V1 to 6.1±4.8 pmol/l (V2, p4 and FT3, respectively. Conclusions Radioiodine therapy of thyrotoxicosis does not alter serum MMP-2, MMP-9 or TIMP-1 concentrations either acutely or after about three months of observation. An increase in serum adiponectin might reflect favourable effects of radioiodine administration on cardiovascular risk factors, while an increase in TIMP-2 (principal MMP-2 inhibitor might lead to a decrease in free MMP-2 concentrations.

  16. Increased concentrations of Serum amyloid A in dogs with sepsis caused by pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitpean, Supranee; Pettersson, Ann; Höglund, Odd V; Holst, Bodil Ström; Olsson, Ulf; Hagman, Ragnvi

    2014-11-28

    Sepsis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is crucial for survival. Pyometra is one of the most common diseases in intact female dogs. The disease often leads to sepsis (systemic inflammatory response syndrome, SIRS, caused by infection). Diagnostic markers for detecting sepsis are gaining increasing interest in veterinary medicine. Acute phase proteins (APPs) such as C-reactive protein (CRP) are useful for detecting systemic inflammation in dogs. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is another major APP in dogs that is not yet as widely used. Albumin is regarded as a negative APP and has earlier been evaluated for prediction of prognosis in septic dogs. The aim of the present study was to determine SAA, CRP and albumin concentrations in dogs with sepsis and pyometra and to evaluate whether these inflammatory markers are associated with length of postoperative hospitalization. Thirty-one surgically treated bitches with pyometra were included, whereof 23 septic (SIRS-positive) and eight non-septic (SIRS-negative). Albumin concentrations were analyzed by routine automated methods. SAA and CRP analyses were performed with previously validated commercially available assays (ELISA and immunoturbidimetric).Mean (± SE) serum concentrations of SAA were significantly higher in septic (130.8 ± 8.0 mg/L) compared to non-septic bitches (88.5 ± 12.5 mg/L). Using a cut-off value for SAA of 109.07 mg/L (n = 31 bitches), the sensitivity and specificity for detecting sepsis was 74% and 50%, respectively. Serum albumin concentrations were not significantly different in septic compared to non-septic bitches (mean ± SE, 25 ± 1 g/L and 26 ± 1 g/L, respectively). CRP concentrations were also not significantly different in septic (mean ± SE 225.6 ± 16.0 mg/L) compared to non-septic bitches (mean ± SE, 176.0 ± 27.1 mg/L). None of these inflammatory markers were associated with the outcome as measured by length of hospitalization

  17. Parenteral nutrition in short bowel syndrome patients, regardless of its duration, increases serum proinflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizari, Letícia; da Silva Santos, Andressa Feijó; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio; Suen, Vivian Marques Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Short bowel syndrome is a severe malabsorption disorder, and prolonged parenteral nutrition is essential for survival in some cases. Among the undesirable effects of long-term parenteral nutrition is an increase in proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to measure the serum levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and transforming growth factor beta, in patients with short bowel syndrome on cyclic parenteral nutrition and patients who had previously received but no longer require parenteral nutrition. The study was cross-sectional and observational. Three groups were studied as follows: Parenteral nutrition group, 9 patients with short bowel syndrome that receive cyclic parenteral nutrition; Oral nutrition group, 10 patients with the same syndrome who had been weaned off parenteral nutrition for at least 1 year prior to the study; Control group, 13 healthy adults, matched for age and sex to parenteral and oral groups. The following data were collected: age, tobacco use, drug therapies, dietary intake, body weight, height, blood collection. All interleukins were significantly higher in the parenteral group compared with the control group as follows: interleukin-6: 22 ± 19 vs 1.5 ± 1.4 pg/mL, P= .0002; transforming growth factor β: 854 ± 204 vs 607 ± 280 pg/mL, P= .04; interleukin-10: 8 ± 37 vs 0.6 ± 4, P= .03; tumor necrosis factor α: 20 ± 8 vs 8 ± 4 pg/mL, Pshort bowel syndrome patients, regardless of its duration, increases serum proinflammatory cytokines.

  18. SERUM VITAMIN B12, IRON AND FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCIES IN OBESE INDIVIDUALS SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT BARIATRIC TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafaella de Andrade; Malta, Flávia Monteiro França; Correia, Maria Flora Ferreira Sampaio Carvalho; Burgos, Maria Goretti Pessoa de Araújo

    Different surgical techniques to combat obesity combine malabsorption with restrictive procedures and can lead to metabolic problems, such as micronutrient deficiencies. Assess vitamin B12, iron and folic acid deficiencies associated with the lifestyle of obese individuals having been submitted to different bariatric techniques. A retrospective analysis was performed using the electronic charts of patients submitted to bariatric surgery involving adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at the São João Hospital Center in the city of Porto, Portugal, between 2005 and 2010. The following data were collected: surgical technique, sex, age, marital status, serum concentrations of vitamin B12, iron and folic acid and postoperative lifestyle. A 5% significance level was used for the statistical analysis (psexo, idade, estado civil, concentrações séricas de vitamina B12, ferro e ácido fólico e o estilo de vida no pós-operatório. Para análise estatística foi utilizado nível de significância de 5% (psexo feminino (90,9%) em ambas as técnicas cirúrgicas, sendo a banda gástrica a mais realizada (68,9%); no entanto maiores deficiências de micronutrientes foram detectadas após o bypass gástrico. A deficiência de micronutriente mais prevalente foi a de ferro (21,3%), seguida da vitamina B12 (16,9%) e do ácido fólico (4,5%). A ingestão de bebida alcoólica de leve-moderada, a adesão à dieta e o uso de polivitamínicos reduziu a frequência, mas não evitou a carência de micronutrientes. A deficiência de vitamina B12, ferro e ácido fólico foi observada durante o primeiro e o segundo anos após as duas técnicas avaliadas, sendo mais frequente nos pacientes submetidos ao bypass gástrico.

  19. Acute hyperinsulinemia is followed by increased serum concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 in type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian; Nybo, Mads; Vind, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Background. Phosphate homeostasis is connected to glucose metabolism and is influenced by insulin, but the role of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is unknown in this relation. Therefore, the levels of FGF23 and phosphate were investigated during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp in healthy......)) to determine glucose disposal rates. Blood samples for measurement of serum FGF23 and insulin, plasma phosphate and glucose, and HbA(1c) were drawn before and after insulin infusion. Results. The three groups did not differ in baseline levels of serum FGF23. Insulin infusion increased serum FGF23...... in the diabetic group (p = 0.009), but not in the other groups. The increase in serum FGF23 correlated strongly with increase in insulin levels in the diabetic group (r = 0.83; p = 0.003). In the overall group insulin infusion suppressed plasma phosphate concentrations (p = 0.006), but with no differences between...

  20. Comparison of Tissue Elastography With Magnetic Resonance Imaging T2* and Serum Ferritin Quantification in Detecting Liver Iron Overload in Patients With Thalassemia Major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipaliya, Nirav; Solanke, Dattatray; Parikh, Pathik; Ingle, Meghraj; Sharma, Ratna; Sharma, Sujata; Sawant, Prabha

    2017-02-01

    We investigated whether tissue elastography (TE) can be used as an alternative to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2* analysis to determine the degree of iron overload in patients with thalassemia major. We conducted a prospective study of 154 patients (99 male; mean age, 12 ± 3.6 years) with thalassemia major requiring chronic blood transfusion and on iron chelator therapy. The study was performed at a tertiary hospital in India from January 2015 through June 2015. We performed routine blood sample analyses, measurements of serum levels of ferritin, and TE within 1 month of MRI T2* analysis of the liver. The Spearman correlation test and linear regression analysis were used to evaluate the correlation between TE liver stiffness measurements and R2* MRI results or serum ferritin levels. The subjects' mean total serum levels of bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and albumin were 1.4 ± 0.6 mg/dL, 65.0 ± 51.8 IU/L, 62.9 ± 44 IU/L, and 4.2 ± 0.2 g/d, respectively. Mean liver stiffness measurement, MRI T2* (3 T), corresponding MRI R2* (3 T), and ferritin values were 8.2 ± 4.4 kPa, 3.18 ± 2.6 milliseconds, 617.3 ± 549 Hz, and 4712 ± 3301 ng/mL, respectively. On the basis of MRI analysis, 67 patients (43.5%) had mild iron overload, 49 patients (31.8%) had moderate iron overload, and 22 patients (14.3%) had severe iron overload. Fibroscan liver stiffness measurements correlated with MRI R2* values (r = 0.85; P serum level of ferritin (r = 0.19; P = .11). Results of TE correlate with those from MRI T2* analysis. TE is cheaper and more available than MRI and might be used to estimate hepatic iron overload, especially moderate to severe overload in patients with thalassemia major who require chronic transfusion. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Milk peptides increase iron dialyzability in water but do not affect DMT-1 expression in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyri, Konstantina; Tako, Elad; Miller, Dennis D; Glahn, Raymond P; Komaitis, Michael; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2009-02-25

    In vitro digestion of milk produces peptide fractions that enhance iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether these fractions (a) exert their effect by increasing relative gene expression of DMT-1 in Caco-2 cells and (b) enhance iron dialyzability when added in meals. Two milk peptide fractions that solubilize iron were isolated by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration of a milk digest. These peptide fractions did not affect relative gene expression of DMT-1 when incubated with Caco-2 cells for 2 or 48 h. Dialyzability was measured after in vitro simulated gastric and pancreatic digestion. Both peptide fractions enhanced the dialyzability of iron from ferric chloride added to PIPES buffer, but had no effect on dialyzability from milk or a vegetable or fruit meal after in vitro simulated gastric and pancreatic digestion. However, dialyzability from milk was enhanced by the addition of a more concentrated lyophilized peptide fraction.

  2. Beneficial effects of quercetin-iron complexes on serum and tissue lipids and redox status in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imessaoudene, Asmahan; Merzouk, Hafida; Berroukeche, Farid; Mokhtari, Nassima; Bensenane, Bachir; Cherrak, Sabri; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Elhabiri, Mourad

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is characterized by iron deficiency, carbohydrate and fat alterations as well as oxidative stress. Iron status monitoring is recommended because of the conventional oral iron preparations that frequently exacerbate the already present oxidative stress. Iron complexation by natural antioxidants can be exploited. We herein investigated the metabolic effects of quercetin (25 mg/kg/day), iron (2.5 mg Fe/kg/day) or quercetin-iron complexes (molar ratio 5:1; 25 mg/2.5 mg/kg/day) in animal models of obesity. Our results emphasized that obese rats displayed metabolic alterations that were worsened by iron supplementation. In contrast, quercetin used alone or as iron complex clearly prevented adipose fat accumulation and alleviated the hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, liver steatosis and oxidative stress. In addition, it induced a modulation of lipase activities in obese rats. Interestingly, quercetin-iron complexes showed enhanced beneficial effects such as a corrected iron deficiency in obese rats when compared to quercetin alone. In conclusion, antianemic, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of the quercetin-iron complexes shed a light on their beneficial use against obesity-related metabolic alterations.

  3. New Options for Iron Supplementation in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Nosratola D; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Wish, Jay B

    2016-03-01

    End-stage renal disease results in anemia caused by shortened erythrocyte survival, erythropoietin deficiency, hepcidin-mediated impairment of intestinal absorption and iron release, recurrent blood loss, and impaired responsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). Iron malabsorption renders oral iron products generally ineffective, and intravenous (IV) iron supplementation is required in most patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD). IV iron is administered at doses far exceeding normal intestinal iron absorption. Moreover, by bypassing physiologic safeguards, indiscriminate use of IV iron overwhelms transferrin, imposing stress on the reticuloendothelial system that can have long-term adverse consequences. Unlike conventional oral iron preparations, ferric citrate has recently been shown to be effective in increasing serum ferritin, hemoglobin, and transferrin saturation values while significantly reducing IV iron and ESA requirements in patients treated with HD. Ferric pyrophosphate citrate is a novel iron salt delivered by dialysate; by directly reaching transferrin, its obviates the need for storing administered iron and increases transferrin saturation without increasing serum ferritin levels. Ferric pyrophosphate citrate trials have demonstrated effective iron delivery and stable hemoglobin levels with significant reductions in ESA and IV iron requirements. To date, the long-term safety of using these routes of iron administration in patients receiving HD has not been compared to IV iron and therefore awaits future investigations.

  4. Increased Serum Level of Cyclopropaneoctanoic Acid 2-Hexyl in Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia-Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Adriana; Stepnowski, Piotr; Chmielewski, Michal; Malgorzewicz, Sylwia; Kaska, Lukasz; Proczko, Monika; Ratnicki-Sklucki, Krzysztof; Sledzinski, Maciej; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    We recently reported the presence of various cyclopropane fatty acids-among them, cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl-in the adipose tissue of obese women. The aim of this study was to verify whether the presence of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl in human serum was associated with obesity or chronic kidney disease (both being related to dyslipidemia), and to find potential associations between the serum level of this compound and specific markers of the these conditions. The serum concentration of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in non-obese controls, obese patients, obese patients after a 3-month low-calorie diet, and individuals with chronic kidney disease. Obese patients and those with chronic kidney disease presented with higher serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl than controls. Switching obese individuals to a low-calorie (low-lipid) diet resulted in a reduction in this fatty acid concentration to the level observed in controls. Cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was also found in foods derived from animal fat. Serum concentrations of triacylglycerols in the analyzed groups followed a pattern similar to that for serum cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl, and these variables were positively correlated with each other among the studied groups. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia-related conditions presented with elevated serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl. Our findings suggest that its high serum level is related to high serum triacylglycerol concentrations rather than to body mass or BMI.

  5. Maternal Serum Ferritin Concentration Is Positively Associated with Newborn Iron Stores in Women with Low Ferritin Status in Late Pregnancy123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jie; Lou, Jingan; Rao, Raghavendra; Georgieff, Michael K.; Kaciroti, Niko; Felt, Barbara T.; Zhao, Zheng-Yan; Lozoff, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is common in pregnant women and infants, particularly in developing countries. The relation between maternal and neonatal iron status remains unclear. This study considered the issue in a large sample of mother-newborn pairs in rural southeastern China. Hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin (SF) were measured in 3702 pregnant women at ≥37 wk gestation and in cord blood of their infants born at term (37–42 wk gestation). Maternal anemia (Hb neonates were anemic (Hb neonates with suggestion of inflammation [cord SF >370 μg/L, n = 208 and/or C-reactive protein (CRP) >5 mg/L, n = 233]. Piecewise linear regression analyses identified a threshold for maternal SF at which cord-blood SF was affected. For maternal SF below the threshold of 13.6 μg/L (β = 2.4; P = 0.001), cord SF was 0.17 SD lower than in neonates whose mothers had SF above the threshold (167 ± 75 vs. 179 ± 80 μg/L). The study confirmed that ID anemia remains common during pregnancy in rural southeastern China. Despite widespread maternal ID, however, iron nutrition seemed to meet fetal needs except when mothers were very iron deficient. The impact of somewhat lower cord SF on iron status later in infancy warrants further study. PMID:23014493

  6. Evidence for increased renal tubule and parathyroid gland sensitivity to serum calcium in human idiopathic hypercalciuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Elaine M; Bergsland, Kristin J; Gillen, Daniel L; Coe, Fredric L

    2013-09-15

    Patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) have decreased renal calcium reabsorption, most marked in the postprandial state, but the mechanisms are unknown. We compared 29 subjects with IH and 17 normal subjects (N) each fed meals providing identical amounts of calcium. Urine and blood samples were collected fasting and after meals. Levels of three candidate signalers, serum calcium (SCa), insulin (I), and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH), did not differ between IH and N either fasting or fed, but all changed with feeding, and the change in SCa was greater in IH than in N. Regression analysis of fractional excretion of calcium (FECa) was significant for PTH and SCa in IH but not N. With the use of multivariable analysis, Sca entered the model while PTH and I did not. To avoid internal correlation we decomposed FECa into its independent terms: adjusted urine calcium (UCa) and UFCa molarity. Analyses using adjusted Uca and unadjusted Uca parallel those using FECa, showing a dominant effect of SCa with no effect of PTH or I. The effect of SCa may be mediated via vitamin D receptor-stimulated increased abundance of basolateral Ca receptor, which is supported by the fact PTH levels also seem more responsive to serum Ca in IH than in N. Although our data support an effect of SCa on FECa and UCa, which is more marked in IH than in N, it can account for only a modest fraction of the meal effect, perhaps 10-20%, suggesting additional mediators are also responsible for the exaggerated postprandial hypercalciuria seen in IH.

  7. A decrease in serum creatinine after ICU admission is associated with increased mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye Ran; Lee, Si Nae; Cho, Yun Ju; Jeon, Jin Seok; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Dong Cheol; Park, Suyeon; Kwon, Soon Hyo

    2017-01-01

    The elevation of serum creatinine (SCr), acute kidney injury (AKI), is associated with an increase of mortality in critically ill patients. However, it is uncertain whether a decrease in SCr in the intensive care unit (ICU) has an effect on outcomes. In a retrospective study, we enrolled 486 patients who had been admitted to an urban tertiary center ICU between Jan 2014 and Dec 2014. The effect of changes in SCr after ICU admission on 90 day mortality was analyzed. Patients were classified into 3 groups based on change in SCr after ICU admission: a stable SCr group (Δ SCr decreased SCr group (Δ SCr ≥ -0.3 mg/dL during ICU stay) and an increased SCr group with criteria based on the KDIGO AKI criteria. In total, 486 patients were identified. SCr decreased in 123 (25.3%) patients after ICU admission. AKI developed in 125 (24.4%) patients. The overall 90-day mortality rate was 29.0%. In a Kaplan-Meyer analysis, the mortality of the AKI group was higher than that of other groups (pdecrease in SCr had a higher mortality rate than those with stable SCr (pdecrease in SCR (HR, 3.56; 95% CI, 1.59-7.97; p = 0.002) and an increase in SCr (AKI stage 1, HR, 9.35; 95% CI, 4.18-20.9; pdecrease in SCr was associated with mortality in critically ill patients.

  8. Endosperm-specific co-expression of recombinant soybean ferritin and Aspergillus phytase in maize results in significant increases in the levels of bioavailable iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakakaki, Georgia; Marcel, Sylvain; Glahn, Raymond P; Lund, Elizabeth K; Pariagh, Sandra; Fischer, Rainer; Christou, Paul; Stoger, Eva

    2005-12-01

    We have generated transgenic maize plants expressing Aspergillus phytase either alone or in combination with the iron-binding protein ferritin. Our aim was to produce grains with increased amounts of bioavailable iron in the endosperm. Maize seeds expressing recombinant phytase showed enzymatic activities of up to 3 IU per gram of seed. In flour paste prepared from these seeds, up to 95% of the endogenous phytic acid was degraded, with a concomitant increase in the amount of available phosphate. In seeds expressing ferritin in addition to phytase, the total iron content was significantly increased. To evaluate the impact of the recombinant proteins on iron absorption in the human gut, we used an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. We found that phytase in the maize seeds was associated with increased cellular iron uptake, and that the rate of iron uptake correlated with the level of phytase expression regardless of the total iron content of the seeds. We also investigated iron bioavailability under more complex meal conditions by adding ascorbic acid, which promotes iron uptake, to all samples. This resulted in a further increase in iron absorption, but the effects of phytase and ascorbic acid were not additive. We conclude that the expression of recombinant ferritin and phytase could help to increase iron availability and enhance the absorption of iron, particularly in cereal-based diets that lack other nutritional components.

  9. Zinc-iron, but not zinc-alone supplementation, increased linear growth of stunted infants with low haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmida, Umi; Rumawas, Johanna S P; Utomo, Budi; Patmonodewo, Soemiarti; Schultink, Werner

    2007-01-01

    Zinc supplementation has been shown to benefit linear growth. However the effect may depend on whether zinc is the most limiting nutrient. This study aims to investigate the effect of supplementation with zinc-given alone or with iron and vitamin-A in improving infantsf micronutrient status and linear growth. The study was a double-blind-community-intervention study involving 800 infants aged 3-6 months in rural East Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara. Syrup consisting of zinc-alone, Zn (10 mg/d), zinc+iron, Zn+Fe (10 mg/d of each), zinc+iron+vitamin-A, Zn+Fe+vit.A (10 mg/d of each zinc and iron plus 1,000 IU vitamin-A), or placebo were given daily for six months. Outcomes measured were length, weight, and micronutrient status (haemoglobin, se-rum zinc, ferritin and retinol). Zn+Fe and Zn+Fe+vit.A supplementations benefit zinc and iron status of the sub-jects, while Zn-alone supplementation disadvantaged haemoglobin and iron status. The highest increment in vi-tamin A and haemoglobin status was shown in Zn+Fe+vit.A group. An effect on linear growth was observed among initially-stunted subjects in Zn+Fe and Zn+Fe+vit.A groups who grew 1.1-1.5 cm longer than placebo. On the other hand, in the Zn-alone group, mean height-for-age Z-score decreased to a greater extent than placebo. The between-group difference in HAZ among initially-stunted subjects was significant after four months sup-plementation. While the difference was not significant in follow-up after 6 months, the pattern remained the same where means height-for-age Z-score in Zn+Fe+vit.A and Zn+Fe groups were higher than placebo and Zn-alone groups. Given the low haemoglobin/iron status of the subjects, zinc supplementation would have positive effect on growth if the low haemoglobin/iron status is also addressed and corrected.

  10. Associations of increases in serum creatinine with mortality and length of hospital stay after coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D; Chen, Huanyu; Stone, Roslyn A; Kip, Kevin E; Fine, Michael J; Saul, Melissa I; Palevsky, Paul M

    2006-10-01

    The absence of a universally accepted definition of radiocontrast nephropathy (RCN) has hampered efforts to characterize effectively the incidence and the clinical significance of this condition. The objective of this study was to identify a clinically relevant definition of RCN by assessment of the relationships between increases in serum creatinine (Scr) of varying magnitude after coronary angiography and clinical outcomes. An electronic medical database was used to identify all patients who underwent coronary angiography at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center during a 12-yr period and abstract Scr levels before and after angiography, as well as demographic characteristics and comorbid conditions. Changes in Scr after angiography were categorized into mutually exclusive categories on the basis of absolute and relative changes from baseline levels, with a separate category denoting "unknown" change. Discrete proportional odds models were used to examine the association between increases in Scr and 30-d in-hospital mortality and length of stay. A total of 27,608 patients who underwent coronary angiography were evaluated. Small absolute (0.25 to 0.5 mg/dl) and relative (25 to 50%) increases in Scr were associated with risk-adjusted odds ratios for in-hospital mortality of 1.83 and 1.39, respectively. Larger increases in Scr generally were associated with greater risks for these clinical outcomes. Small increases in Scr after the administration of intravascular radiocontrast are associated with adverse patient outcomes. This observation will help guide the post-procedure care of patients who undergo coronary angiography and has important implications for future studies that investigate RCN.

  11. Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease Are Associated with Decreased Serum Selenium Concentrations and Increased Cardiovascular Risk

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and associated oxidative stress is increasing. The antioxidant mineral selenium (Se) was measured in serum samples from 106 IBD patients (53 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 53 with Crohn’s disease (CD)) and from 30 healthy controls. Serum Se concentrations were significantly lower in UC and CD patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.001) and significantly lower in CD patients than in UC patients (p = 0.006). Se concentrations in patients ...

  12. Iron overload increases osteoclastogenesis and aggravates the effects of ovariectomy on bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wang; Beibei, Fei; Guangsi, Shen; Yu, Jiang; Wen, Zhang; Xi, Huang; Youjia, Xu

    2015-09-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a metabolic disease associated with estrogen deficiency. The results of numerous studies have revealed the positive correlation between iron accumulation and postmenopausal osteoporotic status. Although the results of previous studies have indicated that estrogen or iron alone have an effect on bone metabolism, their combined effects are not well defined. Using an in vivo mouse model, we found that bone mass was minimally affected by an excess of iron in the presence of estrogen. Once the source of estrogen was removed (ovariectomy), iron accumulation significantly decreased bone mass. These effects were accompanied by fluctuations in the level of oxidative stress. To determine whether these effects were related to bone formation or bone resorption, primary osteoblasts (OBs), RAW264.7 cells, and bone-marrow-derived macrophages were used for in vitro experiments. We found that iron accumulation did inhibit the activity of OBs. However, estrogen had little effect on this inhibition. In contrast, iron promoted osteoclast differentiation through the production of reactive oxygen species. Estrogen, a powerful reactive oxygen scavenger, suppressed this effect in osteoclasts. Our data provided direct evidence that iron affected the bone mass only in the absence of estrogen. The inhibitory effect of estrogen on iron-induced osteopenia was particularly relevant to bone resorption rather than bone formation. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  13. INCREASED CONCENTRATION OF NITRITE IN SYNOVIAL FLUID AND SERUM SAMPLES IN STEROID INDUCED FEMORAL HEAD NECROSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in steroid-induced femoral head necrosis, NO production was measured indirectly as nitrite in serum and synovial fluid samples from patients with steroid-induced femoral head necrosis together with serum samples from healthy volunteers matched for age and sex. The results showed that:① serum nitrite concentration in patients with femoral head necrosis were significantly lower than that in controls (P<0.001); ② nitrite level of synovial fluid was markedly higher than that of serum. In addition, there was a positive correlation between them (r=0.378,P<0.05). We reach the conclusion:① NO is synthesized by synovium and chondrocytes; ② the decreased NO concentration in serum suggests a protective role in steroid-induced femoral head necrosis.

  14. Increased serum triglycerides and reduced HDL cholesterol in male rats after intake of ammonium chloride for 3 weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous data suggested that intake of sodas and other acid beverages might be associated with increased levels of serum triglycerides, lowered HDL cholesterol, and increased formation of mono unsaturated fatty acids, which are the preferred ones for triglyceride synthesis. The present work is an extension of these studies. Methods Thirty male rats were divided into 3 groups. All groups were given the same food, but various beverages: water (W), ammonium chloride, 200 mmol/L (AC), or sodium bicarbonate, 200 mmol/L (SB). Serum triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and the fatty acid distribution in total serum lipids were determined. Delta9-desaturase in serum lipids was estimated by the ratio of palmitoleic to palmitic acid, and by the oleic/stearic acid ratio. Correlation and ANOVA were used to study associations and group differences. Results After 3 weeks, the AC group had higher triglyceride concentration and higher Delta9 desaturase indexes, but lower serum HDL and body weight as compared with the SB and W groups. In each of the groups, the oleic acid/stearic acid ratio correlated positively with serum triglycerides; in the pooled group the correlation coefficient was r = 0.963, ptriglycerides, and lowered HDL cholesterol concentration, thereby possibly contributing to explain the increased triglyceride concentration previously observed in subjects with a frequent intake of acid beverages, such as sodas containing carbonic acid, citric acid, and phosphoric acid. PMID:23800210

  15. Increased serum triglycerides and reduced HDL cholesterol in male rats after intake of ammonium chloride for 3 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Lunde, Marianne Sylvana Haug; Haug, Anna

    2013-06-25

    Previous data suggested that intake of sodas and other acid beverages might be associated with increased levels of serum triglycerides, lowered HDL cholesterol, and increased formation of mono unsaturated fatty acids, which are the preferred ones for triglyceride synthesis. The present work is an extension of these studies. Thirty male rats were divided into 3 groups. All groups were given the same food, but various beverages: water (W), ammonium chloride, 200 mmol/L (AC), or sodium bicarbonate, 200 mmol/L (SB). Serum triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and the fatty acid distribution in total serum lipids were determined. Delta9-desaturase in serum lipids was estimated by the ratio of palmitoleic to palmitic acid, and by the oleic/stearic acid ratio. Correlation and ANOVA were used to study associations and group differences. After 3 weeks, the AC group had higher triglyceride concentration and higher Delta9 desaturase indexes, but lower serum HDL and body weight as compared with the SB and W groups. In each of the groups, the oleic acid/stearic acid ratio correlated positively with serum triglycerides; in the pooled group the correlation coefficient was r = 0.963, ptriglycerides, and lowered HDL cholesterol concentration, thereby possibly contributing to explain the increased triglyceride concentration previously observed in subjects with a frequent intake of acid beverages, such as sodas containing carbonic acid, citric acid, and phosphoric acid.

  16. Effects of Pregnancy and Lactation on Iron Metabolism in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofen Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In female, inadequate iron supply is a highly prevalent problem that often leads to iron-deficiency anemia. This study aimed to understand the effects of pregnancy and lactation on iron metabolism. Rats with different days of gestation and lactation were used to determine the variations in iron stores and serum iron level and the changes in expression of iron metabolism-related proteins, including ferritin, ferroportin 1 (FPN1, ceruloplasmin (Cp, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, and the major iron-regulatory molecule—hepcidin. We found that iron stores decline dramatically at late-pregnancy period, and the low iron store status persists throughout the lactation period. The significantly increased FPN1 level in small intestine facilitates digestive iron absorption, which maintains the serum iron concentration at a near-normal level to meet the increase of iron requirements. Moreover, a significant decrease of hepcidin expression is observed during late-pregnancy and early-lactation stages, suggesting the important regulatory role that hepcidin plays in iron metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. These results are fundamental to the understanding of iron homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation and may provide experimental bases for future studies to identify key molecules expressed during these special periods that regulate the expression of hepcidin, to eventually improve the iron-deficiency status.

  17. NZ-GMP Approved Serum Improve hDPSC Osteogenic Commitment and Increase Angiogenic Factor Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Anna; Montella, Roberta; Liccardo, Davide; De Rosa, Alfredo; Laino, Luigi; Mitsiadis, Thimios A.; La Noce, Marcella

    2016-01-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs), selected from the stromal-vascular fraction of dental pulp, are ecto-mesenchymal stem cells deriving from neural crests, successfully used in human bone tissue engineering. For their use in human therapy GMP procedures are required. For instance, the use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) is strongly discouraged in clinical practice due to its high risk of prions and other infections for human health. Alternatively, clinical grade sera have been suggested, including the New Zealand FBS (NZ-FBS). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of hDPSCs expanded in culture medium containing NZ-FBS. Since it was widely demonstrated hDPSCs display relevant capabilities to differentiate into osteogenic and angiogenic lineages, we performed a comparative study to assess if these features are also retained by cultivating the cells with a safer serum never tested on this cell line. hDPSCs were grown using NZ-FBS and conventional (C-FBS) for 7, 14, and 21 days, in both 2D and 3D cultures. Growth curves, expression of bone-related markers, calcification and angiogenesis were evaluated. NZ-FBS induced significant cell growth with respect to C-FBS and promoted an earlier increase expression of osteogenic markers, in particular of those involved in the formation of mineralized matrix (BSP and OPN) within 14 days. In addition, hDPSCs cultured in presence of NZ-FBS were found to produce higher mRNA levels of the angiogenic factors, such as VEGF and PDGFA. Taken together, our results highlight that hDPSCs proliferate, enhance their osteogenic commitment and increase angiogenic factors in NZ-FBS containing medium. These features have also been found when hDPSC were seeded on the clinical-grade collagen I scaffold (Bio-Gide®), leading to the conclusion that for human therapy some procedures and above all the use of GMP-approved materials have no negative impact. PMID:27594842

  18. Older men with low serum IGF-1 have an increased risk of incident fractures: the MrOS Sweden study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Claes; Mellström, Dan; Carlzon, Daniel; Orwoll, Eric; Ljunggren, Osten; Karlsson, Magnus K; Vandenput, Liesbeth

    2011-04-01

    Osteoporosis-related fractures constitute a major health concern not only in women but also in men. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a key determinant of bone mass, but the association between serum IGF-1 and incident fractures in men remains unclear. To determine the predictive value of serum IGF-1 for fracture risk in men, older men (n = 2902, mean age of 75 years) participating in the prospective, population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Sweden study were followed for a mean of 3.3 years. Serum IGF-1 was measured at baseline by radioimmunoassay. Fractures occurring after the baseline visit were validated. In age-adjusted hazards regression analyses, serum IGF-1 associated inversely with risk of all fractures [hazard ratio (HR) per SD decrease = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.41], hip fractures (HR per SD decrease = 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.97), and clinical vertebral fractures (HR per SD decrease = 1.40, 95% CI 1.10-1-78). The predictive role of serum IGF-1 for fracture risk was unaffected by adjustment for height, weight, prevalent fractures, falls, and major prevalent diseases. Further adjustment for bone mineral density (BMD) resulted in an attenuated but still significant association between serum IGF-1 and fracture risk. Serum IGF-1 below but not above the median was inversely related to fracture incidence. The population-attributable risk proportion was 7.5% for all fractures and 22.9% for hip fractures. Taken together, older men with low serum IGF-1 have an increased fracture risk, especially for the two most important fracture types, hip and vertebral fractures. The association between serum IGF-1 and fracture risk is partly mediated via BMD.

  19. Reduced serum content and increased matrix stiffness promote the cardiac myofibroblast transition in 3D collagen matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galie, Peter A.; Westfall, Margaret V.; Stegemann, Jan P.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The fibroblast-myofibroblast transition is an important event in the development of cardiac fibrosis and scar formation initiated after myocardial ischemia. The goals of the present study were to better understand the contribution of environmental factors to this transition and determine whether myofibroblasts provide equally important feedback to the surrounding environment. Methods The influence of matrix stiffness and serum concentration on the myofibroblast transition was assessed by measuring message levels of a panel of cardiac fibroblast phenotype markers using quantitative rtPCR. Cell-mediated gel compaction measured the influence of environmental factors on cardiac fibroblast contractility. Immunohistochemistry characterized α-SMA expression and cell morphology, while static and dynamic compression testing evaluated the effect of the cell response on the mechanical properties of the cell-seeded collagen hydrogels. Results Both reduced serum content and increased matrix stiffness contributed to the myofibroblast transition, as indicated by contractile compaction of the gels, increased message levels of col3α1 and α-SMA, and a less stellate morphology. However, the effects of serum and matrix stiffness were not additive. Mechanical testing indicated the cell-seeded gels became less viscoelastic with time, and that reduced serum content also increased the initial elastic properties of the gel. Conclusions The results suggest that reduced serum and increased matrix stiffness promote the myofibroblast phenotype in the myocardium. This transition both enhances and is promoted by matrix stiffness, indicating the presence of positive feedback that may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis. Summary Lower serum content and increased matrix stiffness accelerated the transition of cardiac fibroblasts seeded in collagen hydrogels to a myofibroblast phenotype, though their effects were not additive. Reduced serum also affected mechanical

  20. Associations between Dietary Iron and Zinc Intakes, and between Biochemical Iron and Zinc Status in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1 describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2 investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3 investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18–50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379. Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection, and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326. Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5 mg/day and 9.3 (3.8 mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range serum ferritin was 22 (12–38 μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD were 12.6 (1.7 μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0 μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340. Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort.

  1. Increased serum nitric oxide and malondialdehyde levels in patients with acute intestinal amebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namıduru, E S; Tarakçıoğlu, M; Namıduru, M; Kocabaş, R; Erbağcı, B; Meram, I; Karaoğlan, I; Yılmaz, N; Cekmen, M

    2011-12-01

    To determine the level of oxygen-nitrogen stress parameters in the pathogenesis of amebiasis. Twenty-four acute intestinal amebiasis patients and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the present study. Serum malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were determined spectrophotometrically. Serum malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were significantly higher in acute intestinal amebiasis patients than healthy controls (Pamebiasis patients. Also these parameters can be used to supplement the conventional microscopic method for reliable diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis.

  2. Increased serum YKL-40 in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis--a potential marker of disease activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Julia S; Milman, Nils; Hansen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    YKL-40, a growth factor for fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells, is secreted by macrophages and neutrophils. Elevated serum YKL-40 is found in patients with diseases characterized by inflammation, tissue remodelling and ongoing fibrosis. The aim was to evaluate whether macrophages and gian...... cells in the granulomatous sarcoid lesions of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis produce YKL-40 and to determine whether serum YKL-40 in these patients were associated with disease activity....

  3. Increased serum levels of interleukin-18 in patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, F; Di Marco, R; Mangano, K

    2001-01-01

    Serum but not CSF concentrations of the interferon-gamma-inducing cytokine interleukin (IL)-18 were significantly augmented in patients with MS as compared to both healthy controls and patients with other neurologic diseases. Patients with MS with secondary chronic progressive disease had...... significantly higher serum levels than those with relapsing remitting MS. In the latter group, IL-18 levels were higher in patients with acute exacerbation as compared to those with stable disease....

  4. Iron and Ferritin Levels in Saliva of Patients with Thalassemia and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Canatan, Duran; Akdeniz, Sevgi Kosaci

    2012-01-01

    Most of the techniques for measuring iron stores such as serum iron concentration, iron binding capacity, serum ferritin level, liver biopsy can be troublesome or invasive for patients with thalassemia. The salivary iron measurement could be of potential advantage being an easy and non invasive approach for diagnosis of iron deficiency and iron overload . The aim of this study was to compare the levels of iron and ferritin in saliva and serum of patients affected by thalassemia or iron defici...

  5. Correlation between serum ferritin levels and liver iron concentration determined by MR imaging : impact of hematologic disease and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Allard W.; Sijens, Paul E.; Kreeftenberg, Herman G.; Kappert, Peter; Irwan, Roy; van der Jagt, Eric J.; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    Liver iron concentration was determined in 28 patients by magnetic resonance imaging using the method of Gandon et al. (Non-invasive assessment of hepatic iron stores by MRI. Lancet 2004;363:357-362). The result showed a significant correlation with blood plasma ferritin content (Spearman's r = .66;

  6. Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia

    OpenAIRE

    De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in ad...

  7. Streptococcal Serum Opacity Factor Increases Hepatocyte Uptake of Human Plasma High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Baiba K.; Rosales, Corina; Pillai, Biju K.; Lin, Hu Yu; Courtney, Harry S.; Pownall, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    Serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes, converts plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) to three distinct species: lipid-free apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, neo HDL, a small discoidal HDL-like particle, and a large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM), that contains the cholesterol esters (CE) of up to ~400,000 HDL particles and apo E as its major protein. Similar SOF reaction products are obtained with HDL, total plasma lipoproteins and whole plasma. We hypothesized that hepatic uptake of CERM-CE via multiple apo E dependent receptors would be faster than that of HDL-CE. We tested our hypothesis using human hepatoma cells and lipoprotein receptor-specific Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. [3H]CE uptake by HepG2 and Huh7 cells from HDL after SOF treatment, which transfers >90% of HDL-CE to CERM, was respectively 2.4 and 4.5 times faster than from control HDL. CERM-[3H]CE uptake was inhibited by LDL and HDL, suggestive of uptake by both the LDL receptor (LDL-R) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Studies in CHO cells specifically expressing LDL-R and SR-BI confirmed CERM-[3H]CE uptake by both receptors. RAP and heparin inhibit CERM-[3H]CE but not HDL-[3H]CE uptake thereby implicating LRP-1 and cell surface proteoglycans in this process. These data demonstrate that SOF treatment of HDL increases CE uptake via multiple hepatic apo E receptors. In so doing, SOF might increase hepatic disposal of plasma cholesterol in a way that is therapeutically useful. PMID:20879789

  8. A route for a strong increase of critical current in nanostrained iron-based superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Toshinori; Wu, Lijun; Zhang, Cheng; Jaroszynski, Jan; Si, Weidong; Zhou, Juan; Zhu, Yimei; Li, Qiang

    2016-10-06

    The critical temperature Tc and the critical current density Jc determine the limits to large-scale superconductor applications. Superconductivity emerges at Tc. The practical current-carrying capability, measured by Jc, is the ability of defects in superconductors to pin the magnetic vortices, and that may reduce Tc. Simultaneous increase of Tc and Jc in superconductors is desirable but very difficult to realize. Here we demonstrate a route to raise both Tc and Jc together in iron-based superconductors. By using low-energy proton irradiation, we create cascade defects in FeSe0.5Te0.5 films. Tc is enhanced due to the nanoscale compressive strain and proximity effect, whereas Jc is doubled under zero field at 4.2 K through strong vortex pinning by the cascade defects and surrounding nanoscale strain. At 12 K and above 15 T, one order of magnitude of Jc enhancement is achieved in both parallel and perpendicular magnetic fields to the film surface.

  9. Iron deficiency increases growth and nitrogen-fixation rates of phosphorus-deficient marine cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Nathan S; Fu, Feixue; Sedwick, Peter N; Hutchins, David A

    2015-01-01

    Marine dinitrogen (N2)-fixing cyanobacteria have large impacts on global biogeochemistry as they fix carbon dioxide (CO2) and fertilize oligotrophic ocean waters with new nitrogen. Iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) are the two most important limiting nutrients for marine biological N2 fixation, and their availabilities vary between major ocean basins and regions. A long-standing question concerns the ability of two globally dominant N2-fixing cyanobacteria, unicellular Crocosphaera and filamentous Trichodesmium, to maintain relatively high N2-fixation rates in these regimes where both Fe and P are typically scarce. We show that under P-deficient conditions, cultures of these two cyanobacteria are able to grow and fix N2 faster when Fe deficient than when Fe replete. In addition, growth affinities relative to P increase while minimum concentrations of P that support growth decrease at low Fe concentrations. In Crocosphaera, this effect is accompanied by a reduction in cell sizes and elemental quotas. Relatively high growth rates of these two biogeochemically critical cyanobacteria in low-P, low-Fe environments such as those that characterize much of the oligotrophic ocean challenge the common assumption that low Fe levels can have only negative effects on marine primary producers. The closely interdependent influence of Fe and P on N2-fixing cyanobacteria suggests that even subtle shifts in their supply ratio in the past, present and future oceans could have large consequences for global carbon and nitrogen cycles.

  10. Increased brain iron coincides with early plaque formation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskovjan, Andreana C; Kretlow, Ariane; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Barrea, Raul; Vogt, Stefan; Miller, Lisa M

    2011-03-01

    Elevated brain iron content, which has been observed in late-stage human Alzheimer's disease, is a potential target for early diagnosis. However, the time course for iron accumulation is currently unclear. Using the PSAPP mouse model of amyloid plaque formation, we conducted a time course study of metal ion content and distribution [iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn)] in the cortex and hippocampus using X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM). We found that iron in the cortex was 34% higher than age-matched controls at an early stage, corresponding to the commencement of plaque formation. The elevated iron was not associated with the amyloid plaques. Interestingly, none of the metal ions were elevated in the amyloid plaques until the latest time point (56 weeks), where only the Zn content was significantly elevated by 38%. Since neuropathological changes in human Alzheimer's disease are presumed to occur years before the first cognitive symptoms appear, quantification of brain iron content could be a powerful marker for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Pivotal Role of Mediterranean Dietary Regimen in the Increase of Serum Magnesium Concentration in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimah Bahreini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies confirmed cardioprotective role of intravenous magnesium for the prevention of cardiac events, but effect of dietary intake of this mineral via recommended dietary regimens on control and inhibition of coronary artery disease (CAD risk factors has been questioned. The aim of the present study was to determine effect of Mediterranean dietary approach on serum magnesium concentration among Iranian patients with CAD. Method. Baseline characteristics and clinical data of 102 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of CAD and candidates for isolated coronary artery bypass surgery were entered into the study. Laboratory parameters especially serum magnesium concentration were measured after 12–14 h of overnight fasting and before operation. Nutritional status was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and the diet score was calculated on the basis of Mediterranean diet quality index (Med-DQI. Results. No significant differences were found in the concentrations of albumin, last fasting blood sugar, last creatinine, and lipid profiles between the groups with Mediterranean dietary score < 5 and the group with higher dietary score; however, serum magnesium concentration in the first group was higher than that in the group with higher dietary score. Linear multivariate regression analysis showed that the lower Mediterranean dietary score was a predictor for serum magnesium concentration after adjusting for confounders. Conclusion. Taking Mediterranean dietary regimen can be associated with increased level of serum magnesium concentration, and thus this regimen can be cardioprotective because of its effects on serum magnesium.

  12. Increased Serum Pepsinogen II Level as a Marker of Pangastritis and Corpus-Predominant Gastritis in Gastric Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarrat, Sadegh; Haj-Sheykholeslami, Arghavan

    2016-02-01

    Serum pepsinogen I and II are considered as indicators of changes in gastric morphology. Important publications from the last decades are reviewed with regard to the serum level of these biomarkers for the diagnosis of normal gastric mucosa, diffuse gastritis and its change to atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia as well as gastric cancer. Due to the low sensitivity of serum biomarkers for diagnosis of gastric cancer, especially at its early stage and the poor prognosis of the tumor at the time of diagnosis, its prevention by eradication of H. pylori remains the mandatory strategy. On the other hand, the severity of regression and non-reversibility of precancerous lesions and intestinal metaplasia in gastric mucosa through eradication of H. pylori make it necessary to diagnose diffuse gastritis at its early stage. Increased serum pepsinogen II compared to normal serum pepsinogen I seems to indicate the presence of diffuse gastritis without precancerous lesions suitable for eradication of H. pylori infection, when it is serologically positive. A diagram illustrates the strategy of this therapeutic measure depending on the age of people and the level of serum biomarkers in areas with high gastric cancer prevalence.

  13. Increased serum C-reactive protein level in Japanese patients of psoriasis with cardio- and cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Iinuma, Shin; Honma, Masaru; Iizuka, Hajime

    2014-11-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which may be associated with metabolic syndrome accompanied by cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. We investigated the relation between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases in Japanese psoriasis vulgaris patients. Ninety-seven psoriasis vulgaris patients and 79 healthy controls were assessed for serum CRP levels by immunoturbidimetry. The data were analyzed in terms of Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores, and comorbidity of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Serum CRP levels in psoriasis vulgaris patients were significantly higher than those of healthy controls. There was no significant difference between male and female CRP levels in either psoriasis or healthy controls. No correlation was detected between PASI scores and serum CRP levels, either. Psoriasis with cardio- and cerebrovascular disease showed significantly higher CRP levels compared with those without the diseases. Furthermore, psoriasis with metabolic syndrome showed significantly higher serum CRP levels than those without the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, serum CRP level is increased in psoriasis, and may be a useful marker for the prediction of the future risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease.

  14. Helicobacter pylori Infection Induces Anemia, Depletes Serum Iron Storage, and Alters Local Iron-Related and Adult Brain Gene Expression in Male INS-GAS Mice

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) affects > 500 million people worldwide, and is linked to impaired cognitive development and function in children. Helicobacter pylori, a class 1 carcinogen, infects about half of the world's population, thus creating a high likelihood of overlapping risk. This study determined the effect of H. pylori infection on iron homeostasis in INS-GAS mice. Two replicates of INS-GAS/FVB male mice (n = 9-12/group) were dosed with H. pylori (Hp) strain SS1 or sham dosed at 6-9...

  15. Increased serum ferritin levels are independently related to incidence of prediabetes in adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, G; Yang, H; Bao, X; Zhang, Q; Liu, L; Wu, H; Du, H; Xia, Y; Shi, H; Guo, X; Liu, X; Li, C; Su, Q; Gu, Y; Fang, L; Yu, F; Sun, S; Wang, X; Zhou, M; Jia, Q; Guo, Q; Song, K; Huang, G; Wang, G; Wu, Y; Niu, K

    2017-04-01

    To comprehensively and exhaustively assess the relationship between serum ferritin levels and incidence of prediabetes in a prospective study. This prospective cohort study (n=7380) with a mean follow-up of 3.07 years (range: 1-7, 95% CI: 3.03-3.12) was conducted in Tianjin, China. Blood fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, serum ferritin levels and other potentially confounding factors were measured at baseline and at each year of follow-up. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the gender-specific relationship between baseline and mean serum ferritin quintiles and prediabetes. The incidence of prediabetes was 85 per 1000 person-years among men and 44 per 1000 person-years among women during follow-up (from 2007 to 2014). After adjusting for potential confounders, hazard ratios (95% CI) for prediabetes across baseline ferritin quintiles were: for men, 1.00, 1.13 (0.90-1.40), 1.20 (0.97-1.48), 1.41 (1.14-1.73) and 1.73 (1.41-2.11); and for women, 1.00, 1.01 (0.74-1.38), 0.68 (0.48-0.96), 0.84 (0.61-1.15) and 1.07 (0.80-1.45), respectively. Similar results were also observed for mean ferritin levels. Both baseline and mean serum ferritin levels were significantly and linearly related to prediabetes in men, whereas U-shaped relationships were observed between baseline and mean serum ferritin and prediabetes in women. The relationship between prediabetes risk and mean serum ferritin levels may be more stable than one with baseline serum ferritin levels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Levels of soluble TNF-RII are increased in serum of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissolo, Nicolás; Cantó, Ester; Vidal-Jordana, Angela; Castilló, Joaquín; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2014-06-15

    The levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II (sTNF-RII) were determined in serum of 161 untreated multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with different clinical forms and 46 healthy controls (HC) by ELISA. Our results show that serum sTNF-RII levels were significantly increased in patients with primary progressive MS (PPMS) compared with other MS forms and HC. Although sTNF-RII levels significantly increased over a 2-year follow-up period in a subgroup of PPMS patients, they could not discriminate between patients with and without disability progression. Additional studies are needed to further implicate sTNF-RII in patients with PPMS.

  17. Chronic ethanol consumption increases the levels of chemerin in the serum and adipose tissue of humans and rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-zhen REN; Xu ZHANG; Jin XU; Hai-qing ZHANG; Chun-xiao YU; Ming-feng CAO; Ling GAO; Qing-bo GUAN; Jia-jun ZHAO

    2012-01-01

    Chemerin is a new adipokine involved in adipogenesis and insulin resistance.Since ethanol affects the insulin sensitivity that is closely associated with adipokines.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol on chemerin in humans and rats.Methods:In the human study,148 men who consumed alcohol for more than 3 years and 55 men who abstained from alcohol were included.Based on ethanol consumption per day,the drinkers were classified into 3 groups:low-dose (<15 g/d),middle-dose (15-47.9 g/d) and high-dose (≥48 g/d).Anthropometric measurementsand serum parameters were collected.In the rat study,27 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups administered water or ethanol (0.5,2.5,or 5 g·kg-1·d-1) for 22 weeks.The chemerin levels in the sera,visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver were measured using ELISA.Results:In the high-dose group of humans and middle- and high-dose groups of rats,chronic ethanol consumption significantly increased the serum chemerin level.Both the middle- and high-dose ethanol significantly increased the chemerin level in the VAT of rats.In humans,triglyceride,fasting glucose,insulin and HOMA-IR were independently associated with chemerin.In rats,the serum chemerin level was positively correlated with chemerin in the VAT after adjustments for the liver chemerin (r=+0.768).High-dose ethanol significantly increased the body fat in humans and the VAT in rats.Conclusion:Chronic ethanol consumption dose-dependently increases the chemerin levels in the serum and VAT.The serum chemerin level is associated with metabolic parameters in humans.The increased serum chemerin level is mainly attributed to an elevation of chemerin in the VAT after the ethanol treatment.

  18. A prospective study to assess the efficacy and safety of iron sucrose in pregnant women with iron deficiency anemia in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nanthini

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Parenteral iron therapy was effective in increasing Hb, serum ferritin, and other hematological parameters in pregnant women with moderate anemia. Intravenous iron sucrose complex can be used in tertiary care hospitals where it can replace conventional parenteral iron therapy due to injection-related side effects. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1271-1275

  19. Hydroxyurea could be a good clinically relevant iron chelator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushnooma Italia

    Full Text Available Our previous study showed a reduction in serum ferritin of β-thalassemia patients on hydroxyurea therapy. Here we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxyurea alone and in combination with most widely used iron chelators like deferiprone and deferasirox for reducing iron from experimentally iron overloaded mice. 70 BALB/c mice received intraperitonial injections of iron-sucrose. The mice were then divided into 8 groups and were orally given hydroxyurea, deferiprone or deferasirox alone and their combinations for 4 months. CBC, serum-ferritin, TBARS, sTfr and hepcidin were evaluated before and after iron overload and subsequently after 4 months of drug therapy. All animals were then killed. Iron staining of the heart and liver tissue was done using Perl's Prussian Blue stain. Dry weight of iron in the heart and liver was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Increased serum-ferritin, TBARS, hepcidin and dry weight of iron in the liver and heart showed a significant reduction in groups treated with iron chelators with maximum reduction in the group treated with a combination of deferiprone, deferasirox and hydroxyurea. Thus hydroxyurea proves its role in reducing iron from iron overloaded mice. The iron chelating effect of these drugs can also be increased if given in combination.

  20. Increased IL-35 serum levels in systemic sclerosis and association with pulmonary interstitial involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Andréa Tavares; Gonçalves, Sayonara Maria Calado; Pereira, Michelly Cristiny; Gonçalves, Rafaela Silva Guimarães; Marques, Cláudia Diniz Lopes; Rego, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the serum IL-35 level and its association with clinical manifestations in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). IL-35 serum levels were measured by ELISA from 56 patients with SSc and 53 healthy controls. Association of IL-35 serum levels were sought with clinical parameters. Serum IL-35 levels were significantly higher in SSc patients (5.08 ± 0.76 pg/ml) than in healthy individuals (1.89 ± 0.69 pg/ml; p IL-35 levels than those without fibrosis (7.75 ± 1.36 and 3.08 ± 0.70 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.0022). IL-35 is elevated in the serum of patients with SSc and is associated with lung fibrosis. Our findings suggest that this cytokine can have a role in fibrotic diseases, but further studies are needed to address the role of IL-35 in the pathogenesis of SSc.

  1. Increased Interleukin-17 and decreased BAFF serum levels in drug-free acute schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kissi, Yousri; Samoud, Samar; Mtiraoui, Ahlem; Letaief, Leila; Hannachi, Neila; Ayachi, Mouna; Ali, Bechir Ben Hadj; Boukadida, Jalel

    2015-01-30

    Hypotheses regarding an immune-cytokine basis of schizophrenia have been postulated with controversial findings and a lack of data related to many cytokines. The aim of this study was to assess serum levels of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), Interleukin-4 (IL-4), Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β), Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and B-cell Activating Factor (BAFF) in schizophrenic patients and to determine correlations between cytokine levels and clinical parameters. Serum cytokine levels were measured with ELISA techniques in 60 neuroleptic-free patients on acute phase of the disease (BPRS≥40) and 28 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Current symptoms were assessed with Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). No significant difference was found between patients and controls regarding IFN-γ serum levels. IL-4 was not detected in both groups. Patients exhibited significantly higher IL-17 and lower BAFF serum levels. IL-17 and BAFF levels were negatively correlated in schizophrenic patients. SANS global score was negatively correlated with IL-17 and positively correlated with IFN-γ serum levels. These results argue against the involvement of Th1 or Th2 population cells in schizophrenia. IL-17 and BAFF could be valuable markers for schizophrenia.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of iron overload: a comparison of MRI, echocardiography and serum ferritin level in patients with β-thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsian, Bibi Shahin; Esfahani, Shadi Abdar; Milani, Hani; Akhlaghpoor, Shahram; Mojtahedzadeh, Saeid; Karimi, Abdollah; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza; Alavi, Samin; Safari, Alieh; Rezaei, Nima; Arzanian, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate iron levels in cardiac and hepatic tissues using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2*. Cardiac and hepatic MRI was performed for 93 patients with β-thalassemia major. Cardiac T2* was in the range of 2.9-56.6 ms. Myocardial siderosis was detected in 44% of patients; 25 patients had moderate and severe siderosis with serum ferritin level (SFL) of 576-10,284 ng/ml. There was a significant correlation between SFL and cardiac T2* (piron concentration in tissues is not accessible with conventional techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of the positive blood culture to serum iron%血细菌培养阳性对血清铁的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦扬; 吕晓娴; 刘冰

    2014-01-01

    目的:回顾分析血细菌培养阳性病人血清铁浓度,了解血液感染对病人血清铁浓度的影响。方法:采用BacT/ALERT 3D自动化血培养仪及配套血培养瓶,按要求采集双侧双份血培养瓶送检,血培养阳性者,分离病原菌,采用VITEK-32微生物分析系统进行菌株鉴定。应用Cobas501全自动生化分析仪对所有病例(45例)和对照组(45例)血清铁进行检测。结果:两组均数,对照组为19.349,病例组为12.311,两组差别显著(P<0.05)。对照组与病例组比较有统计学意义。结论:综合统计血培养阳性病人血清铁降低。%Objective:Retrospective analysis of the serum iron was performed for the positive blood bacteria cul-ture patient,to understand the effects to the serum iron concentration of the blood infected patients.Methods:Using BacT/ALERT 3D automated blood culture system and related blood culture bottle,isolating the pathogens in positive blood culture,using VITEK-32 microbial analytical system to identify the strains isolated from blood culture positive for pathogenic bacteria,using Cobas501 automatic biochemical analyzer to detect the serum iron in all cases(45 peo-ple)and control group(45 people).Results:Comparing the means of the two groups,the control group was 19.349, while the case group was 12.311,the differences of the two groups was significant(P<0.05).There was significant difference between the two groups.Conclusion:The patients positive in blood culture have lower serum iron concen-tration.

  4. Fish oil increases atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis, although decreases serum cholesterol in Wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo M-Shirazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is known that fish oil consumption decreases incidence of cardiovascular disease. However, some studies showed that it increases atherosclerosis as it does not get completely metabolized by the liver. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of fish oil on aortic atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis and serum lipids in rats. Methods: Twenty pregnant Wistar rats were fed with a fish oil-containing diet or standard diet (containing soy bean oil during pregnancy and lactation and the pups were weaned onto the same diet. Fasting blood samples, hepatic and aortic specimens were taken from pups on day 70 postnatal. Data were analyzed with SPSS software, using t-test, Mann-Whitney test and Spearman correlation coefficient. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Medians for fatty streak in aorta of fish oil fed and soy bean oil fed pups were 1.00 and 0.00, respectively, and P value was 0.042. Also, medians for ductular cell hyperplasia of liver in fish oil fed and soy bean oil fed pups were 1.00 and 0.00, respectively, and P value was 0.014. Total cholesterol in pups fed with fish oil was 52.20 mg/dl and in pups fed with soy bean oil was 83.90 mg/dl (p < 0.00 and for low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C values were 8.79 mg/dl and 13.16 mg/dl, respectively (p = 0.031. Conclusions: According to the results of the present study, a diet which provided 15.9% of energy from fish oil as the only source of dietary fat, induced aortic atherosclerosis as well as hepatic steatosis in Wistar rat, although it decreased total cholesterol and LDL-C.

  5. Apoptosis of non-tumor cells contributes to increased serum cytochrome c level in a neuroblastoma xenograft model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Da; WANG Jia-xiang; YU Jie-kai; YANG Fu-quan; WANG Lei; ZHANG Guo-feng; MENG Qing-lei; MU Xin; MA Wei; JIA Zhan-kui

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the most common malignant solid tumors of childhood.It is still not clear whether the apoptosis of tumor cells or the non-tumor cells contributes to the increase of concentration of cytochrome c (Cyt c) in the serum of the cancer patients.The aim of this research was to identify the source of the Cyt c in the serum when the tumor grows up by subcutaneous inoculation of human NB cells into nude mice.Methods We subcutaneously inoculated human NB cells (KP-N-NS) into nude mice and collected the sera of tumor-bearing mice (n=14) and control mice (n=25) 4 weeks later in order to screen for and identify differentially expressed proteins in the serum.Differentially expressed proteins in the serum were screened by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time-of-fiight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry.Results The relative intensity of a protein having a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 11 609 was 3338.37±3410.85 in the tumor group and 59.84±40.74 in the control group,indicating that the expression level of this protein in the tumor group was 55.8 times higher than that in the control group.Serum proteins were separated and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed to produce peptide mass fingerprints (PMFs).Spectrum analysis and a database search revealed that the highly expressed protein (m/z=11605.4) from the serum of tumor-bearing mice was the mouse Cyt c.Conclusions Increased concentration of Cyt c in the serum of tumor-bearing nude mice might be partially attributed to the secretion of this protein by non-tumor cells.

  6. Cobalamin Related Parameters and Disease Patterns in Patients with Increased Serum Cobalamin Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Nexø, Ebba

    2012-01-01

    to sCD320 and total and holo transcobalamin levels were found. Conclusion: In non-supplemented patients, high cobalamin levels were associated to high haptocorrin levels, and several diagnoses, including alcoholism, liver disease and cancer. Our study emphasizes that clinicians should take high serum......Background: Measurement of serum cobalamin levels is routinely used to diagnose cobalamin deficiency. Surprisingly, approximately 15% of patients have high cobalamin levels and no consensus exists regarding the clinical implications. Methods: Hospital-treated patients above 18 years of age referred...... for serum cobalamin measurement were included in groups of patients [percentage cobalamin supplemented] with low (,200 pmol/L, n = 200 [6%]), normal (200–600, n = 202 [6%]) high (601–1000, n = 217 [27%]) and very high (.1000, n = 199 [53%]) cobalamin levels. Total and cobalamin-saturated (holo...

  7. Increased serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients with narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Jennum, Poul; Knudsen, Stine

    2013-01-01

    in hypocretin neurons in hypothalamus in post-mortem tissue. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are important for activity-dependent neuronal function and synaptic modulation and it is considered that these mechanisms are important in sleep regulation. We hypothesised......Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy), fragmentation of nocturnal sleep and sleep paralysis. The symptoms of the disease strongly correlate with a reduction in hypocretin levels in CSF and a reduction...... that serum levels of these factors are altered in patients with narcolepsy compared to healthy controls without sleep disturbances. Polysomnography data was obtained and serum BDNF and NGF levels measured using ELISA, while hypocretin was measured using RIA. Serum BDNF levels were significantly higher...

  8. Increased Levels of miRNA-146a in Serum and Histologic Samples of Patients with Uveal Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Andrea; Caltabiano, Rosario; Longo, Antonio; Avitabile, Teresio; Franco, Livio M.; Bonfiglio, Vincenza; Puzzo, Lidia; Reibaldi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze MiRs expression in serum of UM patients, respect to healthy donors, and to compare this data with MiRs expressed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded UM samples. Methods: Expression profile of 754 miRNAs was performed in serum of patients with uveal melanoma who underwent primary enucleation. The level of miRNAs increased in serum was individually analyzed on FFPE UM samples and compared to choroidal melanocytes from unaffected eyes. Results: Fourteen patients with uveal melanoma were included in the study. We found 8 serum miRNAs differentially expressed compared to normal controls: 2 upregulated miRNAs (miRNA-146a, miR-523); 6 downregulated miRNAs (miR-19a, miR-30d, miR-127, miR-451, miR-518f, miR-1274B). When data on upregulated miRNAs were singularly validated only a significant overexpression of miRNA-146a was found. A statistically significant upregulation of miRNA-146a was also found on FFPE UM samples, compared to choroidal melanocytes from unaffected eyes. Conclusions: miRNA-146a is increased in serum of patients with UM and in FFPE tumor samples. Further studies will show if it could be considered a potential marker of UM in the blood. PMID:27895580

  9. Constitutive expression of a barley Fe phytosiderophore transporter increases alkaline soil tolerance and results in iron partitioning between vegetative and storage tissues under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Sudhakar, Duraialagaraja; Pelacho, Ana M; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Cereals have evolved chelation systems to mobilize insoluble iron in the soil, but in rice this process is rather inefficient, making the crop highly susceptible to alkaline soils. We therefore engineered rice to express the barley iron-phytosiderophore transporter (HvYS1), which enables barley plants to take up iron from alkaline soils. A representative transgenic rice line was grown in standard (pH 5.5) or alkaline soil (pH 8.5) to evaluate alkaline tolerance and iron mobilization. Transgenic plants developed secondary tillers and set seeds when grown in standard soil although iron concentration remained similar in leaves and seeds compared to wild type. However, when grown in alkaline soil transgenic plants exhibited enhanced growth, yield and iron concentration in leaves compared to the wild type plants which were severely stunted. Transgenic plants took up iron more efficiently from alkaline soil compared to wild type, indicating an enhanced capacity to increase iron mobility ex situ. Interestingly, all the additional iron accumulated in vegetative tissues, i.e. there was no difference in iron concentration in the seeds of wild type and transgenic plants. Our data suggest that iron uptake from the rhizosphere can be enhanced through expression of HvYS1 and confirm the operation of a partitioning mechanism that diverts iron to leaves rather than seeds, under stress.

  10. Correlation between serum ferritin levels and liver iron concentration determined by MR imaging: impact of hematologic disease and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthof, Allard W; Sijens, Paul E; Kreeftenberg, Herman G; Kappert, Peter; Irwan, Roy; van der Jagt, Eric J; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2007-02-01

    Liver iron concentration was determined in 28 patients by magnetic resonance imaging using the method of Gandon et al. (Non-invasive assessment of hepatic iron stores by MRI. Lancet 2004;363:357-362). The result showed a significant correlation with blood plasma ferritin content (Spearman's r=.66; P<.001) and a slightly improving correlation coefficient when limited to those patients not known to have inflammation (r=.82; n=17; P<.001). Zooming in on patients with hematologic disease also had a beneficial effect on the correlation between liver iron content and plasma ferritin level (r=.79; n=13; P=.001). It is concluded that in patients without inflammation and in patients with hematologic disease, the content of ferritin in blood is a better predictor of liver iron content than in other patient categories.

  11. Serum levels of FGF-21 are increased in coronary heart disease patients and are independently associated with adverse lipid profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuofeng Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21 is a metabolic regulator with multiple beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism in animal models. The relationship between plasma levels of FGF-21 and coronary heart disease (CHD in unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study aimed to investigate the correlation of serum FGF-21 levels and lipid metabolism in the patients with coronary heart disease. We performed a logistic regression analysis of the relation between serum levels of FGF-21 and CHD patients with and without diabetes and hypertension. This study was conducted in the Departments of Endocrinology and Cardiovascular Diseases at two University Hospitals. Participants consisted of one hundred and thirty-five patients who have been diagnosed to have CHD and sixty-one control subjects. Serum FGF-21 level and levels of fasting blood glucose; triglyceride; apolipoprotein B100; HOMA-IR; insulin; total cholesterol; HDL-cholesterol; LDL-cholesterol; and C-reactive protein were measured. We found that median serum FGF-21 levels were significantly higher in CHD than that of control subjects (P<0.0001. Serum FGF-21 levels in CHD patients with diabetes, hypertension, or both were higher than that of patients without these comorbidities. Serum FGF-21 levels correlated positively with triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, apolipoprotein B100, insulin and HOMA-IR but negatively with HDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 after adjusting for BMI, diabetes and hypertension. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that FGF-21 showed an independent association with triglyceride and apolipoprotein A1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: High levels of FGF-21 are associated with adverse lipid profiles in CHD patients. The paradoxical increase of serum FGF-21 in CHD patients may indicate a compensatory response or resistance to FGF-21.

  12. Differential analysis of transient increases of serum cTnI in response to handling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelian, Igor; Dunn, Michael E; Mould, Diane R; Hirkaler, Gerard; Geng, Wanping; Coluccio, Denise; Nicklaus, Rosemary; Singer, Thomas; Reddy, Micaela

    2013-12-01

    Serum cardiac troponins are the key biomarkers of myocardial necrosis in humans and in preclinical species. The use of ultrasensitive assays for serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) as a biomarker in safety studies is hampered by interindividual differences. In this study, we investigated the effect of handling procedures on serum cTnI and explored modeling and simulation approaches to mitigate the impact of these interindividual differences. Femoral-catheterized male Crl:WI(Han) rats (n = 16/group) were left undisturbed in their cages with no handling; subjected to 5 min of isoflurane/O2 anesthesia (A); or placed into a rodent restrainer followed by simulated tail vein injection (RR). Serum cTnI concentrations were assessed over a 24-h period using an ultrasensitive assay, and the study was repeated for confirmation. The mean serum cTnI concentration pre-procedure was 4.2 pg/mL, and remained stable throughout the duration of the study in the rats submitted to the A procedure. Serum cTnI concentrations increased transiently after the RR procedure with a median time to maximum concentration (T max), of 1 and 2 h and a mean maximum value concentration (C max), of 53.0 and 7.2 pg/mL in the initial and repeat studies, respectively. A population pharmacodynamic model identified interindividual, procedure- and study-specific effects on serum cTnI concentrations in rats. It is concluded that a modeling and simulation approach more appropriately describes and statistically analyzes the data obtained with this ultrasensitive assays.

  13. Increased tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 serum levels and their correlation with laboratory parameters in patients with imported malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poluga Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In malaria, blood concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-6, are increased. In a study which included 34 patients, TNF-α and IL-6 were examined in two phases, immediately after the admission of patients, and at the end of antimalarial therapy, when the parasitemia was negative. The results show a significant increase of TNF-α and IL-6 in the first phase, before the effects of antimalarial therapy. A very strong correlation between TNF-α and IL-6 is also confirmed, which suggests their coordinated production. Increased TNF-α values were correlated with an older age, the level of parasitemia, the number of platelets and leukocytes, elevated values of procalcitonin, D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenasе, and lower values of serum iron and antithrombin. Increased values of IL-6 were correlated with the level of parasitemia, the number of platelets and leukocytes, and elevated values of D-dimer and lactates.

  14. Increased serum neuron specific enolase concentrations in patients with hyperglycemic cortical ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elting, JW; De Keyser, J; Sulter, G.

    1998-01-01

    A detrimental effect of hyperglycemia in ischemic brain has been demonstrated in laboratory experiments and it has been found that hyperglycemia in ischemic stroke is a predictor of poor outcome. We determined serum neuron specific enolase (NSE) concentrations in 41 consecutive patients with a cereb

  15. Increased serum YKL-40 in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis—a potential marker of disease activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, JS; Milman, N; Hansen, M

    2005-01-01

    diagnosis of pulmonal sarcoidosis. Immunohistochemical staining for YKL-40 antigen was performed in five biopsies with pulmonary sarcoid lesions. Serum YKL-40 was likewise measured in 173 healthy age-matched control subjects. Results: Mononuclear cells/macrophages and giant cells in pulmonary sarcoid...

  16. Increase of Serum gamma-Glutamyltransferase Associated With Development of Cirrhotic Cystic Fibrosis Liver Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewes, Frank A. J. A.; van der Doef, Hubert P. J.; Houwen, Roderick H. J.; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Identification of patients at risk for developing cirrhotic cystic fibrosis liver disease (CCFLD) is essential for targeting potentially preventive treatment. We studied the evolution of serum liver enzymes and thrombocyte counts as predictors of CCFLD development.Methods:For this study,

  17. Role of alcohol in the regulation of iron metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease frequently exhibit increased body iron stores, as reflected by elevated serum iron indices (transferrin saturation, ferritin) and hepatic iron concentration. Even mild to moderate alcohol consumption has been shown to increase the prevalence of iron overload. Moreover, increased hepatic iron content is associated with greater mortality from alcoholic cirrhosis, suggesting a pathogenic role for iron in alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol increases the severity of disease in patients with genetic hemochromatosis,an iron overload disorder common in the Caucasian population. Both iron and alcohol individually cause oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, which culminates in liver injury. Despite these observations, the underlying mechanisms of iron accumulation and the source of the excess iron observed in alcoholic liver disease remain unclear. Over the last decade, several novel iron-regulatory proteins have been identified and these have greatly enhanced our understanding of iron metabolism. For example, hepcidin, a circulatory antimicrobial peptide synthesized by the hepatocytes of the liver is now known to play a central role in the regulation of iron homeostasis. This review attempts to describe the interaction of alcohol and iron-regulatory molecules. Understanding these molecular mechanisms is of considerable clinical importance because both alcoholic liver disease and genetic hemochromatosis are common diseases, in which alcohol and iron appear to act synergistically to cause liver injury.

  18. Over-expression of the MxIRT1 gene increases iron and zinc content in rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Song; Han, Rui; Li, Peng; Yang, Guang; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Wei-Bing; Zhao, Wei-Zhong; Yin, Li-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Iron and zinc are essential in plant and human nutrition. Iron deficiency has been one of the causes of human mortality, especially in developing countries with high rice consumption. MxIRT1 is a ferrous transporter that has been screened from an iron-efficient genotype of the apple tree, Malus xiaojinensis Cheng et Jiang. In order to produce Fe-biofortified rice with MxIRT1 to solve the Fe-deficiency problem, plant expression vectors of pCAMBIA1302-MxIRT1:GFP and pCAMBIA1302-anti MxIRT1:GFP were constructed that led to successful production of transgenic rice. The transgenic plant phenotypes showed that the expression of endogenous OsIRT1 was suppressed by anti-MxIRT1 in antisense lines that acted as an opposing control, while sense lines had a higher tolerance under Zn- and Fe-deficient conditions. The iron and zinc concentration in T3 seeds increased by three times in sense lines when compared to the wild type. To understand the MxIRT1 cadmium uptake, the MxIRT1 cadmium absorption trait was compared with AtIRT1 and OsIRT1 in transgenic rice protoplasts, and it was found that MxIRT1 had the lowest Cd uptake capacity. MxIRT1 transgenic tobacco-cultured bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cells and rice lines were subjected to different Fe conditions and the results from the non-invasive micro-test technique showed that iron was actively transported compared to cadmium as long as iron was readily available in the environment. This suggests that MxIRT1 is a good candidate gene for plant Fe and Zn biofortification.

  19. Increased sensitivity to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana over-accumulating nicotianamine

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Nicotianamine (NA) is a non-protein amino acid derivative synthesized from S-adenosyl L-methionine able to bind several metal ions such as iron, copper, manganese, zinc, or nickel. In plants, NA appears to be involved in iron availability and is essential for the plant to complete its biological cycle. In graminaceous plants, NA is also the precursor in the biosynthesis of phytosiderophores. Arabidopsis lines accumulating 4- and 100-fold more NA than wild-type plants were used in order to eva...

  20. Meningococcal surface fibril (Msf) binds to activated vitronectin and inhibits the terminal complement pathway to increase serum resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Natalie J; Hill, Darryl J; Borodina, Elena; Sessions, Richard B; Devos, Nathalie I; Feron, Christiane M; Poolman, Jan T; Virji, Mumtaz

    2011-12-01

    Complement evasion is an important survival strategy of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) during colonization and infection. Previously, we have shown that Nm Opc binds to serum vitronectin to inhibit complement-mediated killing. In this study, we demonstrate meningococcal interactions with vitronectin via a novel adhesin, Msf (meningococcal surface fibril, previously NhhA or Hsf). As with Opc, Msf binds preferentially to activated vitronectin (aVn), engaging at its N-terminal region but the C-terminal heparin binding domain may also participate. However, unlike Opc, the latter binding is not heparin-mediated. By binding to aVn, Msf or Opc can impart serum resistance, which is further increased in coexpressers, a phenomenon dependent on serum aVn concentrations. The survival fitness of aVn-binding derivatives was evident from mixed population studies, in which msf/opc mutants were preferentially depleted. In addition, using vitronectin peptides to block Msf-aVn interactions, aVn-induced inhibition of lytic C5b-9 formation and of serum killing could be reversed. As Msf-encoding gene is ubiquitous in the meningococcal strains examined and is expressed in vivo, serum resistance via Msf may be of significance to meningococcal pathogenesis. The data imply that vitronectin binding may be an important strategy for the in vivo survival of Nm for which the bacterium has evolved redundant mechanisms.

  1. Stress from exercise in the below sea level environment causes an increase in serum testosterone levels in trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani Hani, I; El-Migdadi, F; Shotar, A; Abudheese, R; Bashir, N

    2001-01-01

    A comparative study (n = 20) of serum levels of leutinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) between male trained athletes (high-school students, 16-18 years old) living in North and South Shouna in the Jordan Valley (JV), 320-360 meters below sea level, and those living in Ramtha and Irbid, 550-650 meters above sea level, was conducted in November, 1999. Serum levels of LH and T were also measured in these athletes following a 20 Km noncompetitive run. The air temperatures on the day of the experiment was comparable (25 degrees C in North and South Shouna versus 23 degrees C in Ramtha and Irbid). Before exercise, serum levels of LH and T in athletes of the below sea level environment (North and South Shouna) were similar to those levels in athletes of the above sea level environment (Ramtha and Irbid). Exercise caused a significant increase in serum levels of both LH and T only in athletes of North and South Shouna. It seems likely that the higher secretion of LH contributes, at least in part, for the higher serum levels of T following exercise. Taken together, these data suggest that exercise has an effect on LH and T secretion that is similar to that of fasting. And finally, the below sea level environmental factors, such as the high barometric pressure, as well as the genetic background of the athletes affect the pituitary and adrenal cortex as well as testicular tissue, resulting in the secretion of more LH and T.

  2. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile: An Observational Study on a Large Cohort From South Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S; Irace, Concetta

    2016-02-01

    Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk.Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods.We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women.Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk.

  3. Human apoB contributes to increased serum total apo(a level in LPA transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teivainen Päivi A

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lp(a lipoprotein (Lp(a consists of the polymorphic glycoprotein apolipoprotein(a (apo(a, which is attached by a disulfide bond to apolipoprotein B (apoB. Apo(a, which has high homology with plasminogen, is present only in primates and hedgehogs. However, transgenic mice and rabbits with high serum apo(a levels exist. Liver is the main site for apo(a synthesis, but the site of removal is uncertain. To examine differences between transgenic mice expressing the LPA gene and mice capable of forming Lp(a particles, LPA-YAC transgenic mice and hAPOB transgenic mice were crossed and their offspring examined. Results Comparison of LPA-YAC with LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice showed that LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice have higher serum total apo(a and total cholesterol level than mice lacking the hAPOB gene. However, hepatic apo(a mRNA level was higher in LPA-YAC transgenic mice than in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice. Feeding of a high-cholesterol/high-fat diet to male LPA-YAC transgenic mice with or without the hAPOB gene resulted in reduced serum total apo(a and hepatic apo(a mRNA level. Conclusion In conclusion, the higher serum total apo(a level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice than in LPA-YAC transgenic mice is not caused by increased apo(a synthesis. Lower hepatic apo(a mRNA level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB than in LPA-YAC transgenic mice may suggest that the increase in total apo(a level is a result of apo(a accumulation in serum. Furthermore, observed higher serum total cholesterol level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice than either in wild type or LPA-YAC transgenic mice may further suggest that human APOB transgenicity is a factor that contributes to increased serum total apo(a and cholesterol levels. Our results on reduced serum total apo(a and hepatic apo(a mRNA levels in HCHF fed male LPA-YAC transgenic mice confirm earlier findings in females, and show that there are no sex difference in mechanisms for lowering apo(a level in

  4. Isoprenaline increases serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases type Ⅰ in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI He-ping; ZHANG Meng-zhen; YANG Xiang-yu; HOU Xing-hua; LIN Qiu-xiong; YANG Min; ZHONG Shi-long

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment of rats with the beta-adrenergic agonist Isoprenaline (ISO) results in cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis.In the present work,we aimed to study the in vivo effects of ISO on serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases type Ⅰ in Wistar rats.Methods ISO (5 mg· kg-1) or Saline were injected subcutaneously into Wistar rats once a day for 3 or 7 consecutive days.Ventricular remodeling and cardiac function were evaluated by echocardiography.Sections of heart were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) for histopathology or with Masson's trichrome for collagen visualization.In addition,heart tissue immunohistochemistry for α-SMA was also analyzed.The serum levels of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases type Ⅰ (TIMP-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were determined by Luminex multiplex technology.Results ISO induced cardiac dysfunction in rats after 3 or 7 days of treatment.ISO caused significant increase of myocardial disorder and fibrosis withincreased α-SMA expression.ISO treated aats showed a significant increase in the serum levels of TIMP-1 and MCP-1.Conclusions Our study suggests that ISO induces profound cardiac remodeling accompanied with increase of serum TIMP-1 and MCP-1.

  5. TREM-2 Receptor Expression Increases with 25(OH)D Vitamin Serum Levels in Patients with Pulmonary Sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucova, Maria; Suchankova, Magda; Tibenska, Elena; Tedlova, Eva; Demian, Juraj; Majer, Ivan; Novosadova, Helena; Tedla, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    TREM-1 and TREM-2 molecules are members of the TREM transmembrane glycoproteins. In our previous study we identified increased expressions of TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptors in pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS). Only a few studies concerning the association between vitamin D and TREM receptor expression can be found. The aim of our current study was to determine the association between the levels of an inactive form of 25(OH)D vitamin and TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptor expressions. We have detected low levels of 25(OH)D vitamin in 79% of PS patients. Only 21% of patients had normal serum level of 25(OH)D vitamin with values clustered within the low-normal range. The most striking findings were the increased TREM-2 expressions on myeloid cells surfaces in BALF of PS patients with normal 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels compared with those with its decreased levels. The total number of TREM-2 positive cells was 5.7 times higher and the percentage of TREM-2 positive cells was also significantly increased in BALF of PS patients with normal compared to PS patients with low 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels. A significant correlation between total TREM-2 expression and vitamin D levels has been detected too. However, we have not detected similar differences in TREM-1expression and 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels.

  6. Reassessment of Iron Biomarkers for Prediction of Dialysis Iron Overload: An MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostoker, Guy; Griuncelli, Mireille; Loridon, Christelle; Magna, Théophile; Machado, Gabrielle; Drahi, Gilles; Dahan, Hervé; Janklewicz, Philippe; Cohen, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Iron overload among hemodialysis patients was previously considered rare but is now an increasingly recognized clinical situation. We analyzed correlations between iron biomarkers and the liver iron concentration (LIC) measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and examined their diagnostic accuracy for iron overload. We performed a prospective cross-sectional study from 31 January 2005 to 31 August 2013 in the dialysis centre of a French community-based private hospital. A cohort of 212 hemodialysis patients free of overt inflammation or malnutrition, were treated for anemia with parenteral iron-sucrose and an erythropoesis-stimulating agent, in keeping with current clinical guidelines. Blinded measurements of hepatic iron stores were performed by T1 and T2* contrast MRI, and relationships were analysed using Spearman's coefficient, logistic regression and receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Among the biological markers, only serum ferritin showed a strong correlation with LIC (rho= 0.52, 95% CI: 0.41-0.61, pserum ferritin correctly classified the overall cohort into patients with normal liver iron stores (LIC ≤ 50 μmol/g) and those with elevated liver iron stores (LIC > 50 μmol/g) (odds ratio 1.007; 95% CI: 1.004-1.010). Serum ferritin was the iron biomarker with the best discriminatory capacity in ROC curves analysis (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.767; 95% CI: 0.698-0.835). The optimal serum ferritin cutoffs were 160 μg/L for LIC > 50 μmol/g (mild iron overload) and 290 μg/L for LIC > 200 μmol/g (severe iron overload). For clinical purposes, serum ferritin correctly reflects liver iron stores, as assessed by MRI, in hemodialysis patients without overt inflammation or malnutrition. These results strongly suggest that current ferritin target values should be lowered to avoid iron overload. ISRCTN Registry 80100088.

  7. Maternal serum soluble CD30 is increased in pregnancies complicated with acute Pyelonephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Romero, Roberto; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Edwin, Samuel; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Mittal, Pooja; Soto, Eleazar; Erez, Offer; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Than, Nandor Gabor; Friel, Lara; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Mazor, Moshe; Hassan, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Normal pregnancy is characterized by activation of the innate immunity and suppression of the adaptive limb of the immune response. However, pregnant women are more susceptible to the effects of infection and microbial products than non-pregnant women. CD30 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and is preferentially expressed by activated T cells producing Th2-type cytokines. Its soluble form (sCD30) is proposed to be an index of Th2 immune response. High serum concentrations of sCD30 have been found in the acute phase of viral infections, such as HIV-1 and hepatitis B. There is, however, conflicting evidence about serum sCD30 concentration in patients with bacterial infections. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are changes in the serum concentration of sCD30 in pregnant women with pyelonephritis. Methods This cross-sectional study included normal pregnant women (N=89) and pregnant women with pyelonephritis (N=41). Maternal serum concentration of sCD30 was measured by a specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. Non-parametric tests were used for comparisons. A p value pyelonephritis had a significantly higher median serum concentration of sCD30 than those with a normal pregnancy (median: 44.3 U/ml, range: 16–352.5 vs. median: 29.7 U/ml, range: 12.2–313.2, respectively; ppyelonephritis who had a positive blood culture compared to those with a negative blood culture (median:47.7 U/mL, range: 17.1–118.8 vs. median: 42.6 U/mL, range: 16–352.5, respectively; p=0.86). Conclusions Acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with a higher maternal serum concentration of sCD30 than normal pregnancy. This finding is novel, and suggests that pregnant women with pyelonephritis may have a complex immune state in which there is activation of some components of what is considered a Th2 immune response. PMID:17853184

  8. Association of cardiac injury with iron-increased oxidative and nitrative modifications of the SERCA2a isoform of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueli; Li, Wenliang; Gao, Zhonghong; Li, Hailing

    2016-08-01

    The role of iron in the etiology of diabetes complications is not well established. Thus, this study was performed to test whether the iron-induced increase of oxidative/nitrative damage is involved in SERCA2a-related diabetic heart complication. Four randomly divided groups of rats were used: normal control group; iron overload group; diabetes group, and diabetic plus iron overload group. Iron supplementation stimulated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and led to an increase in cardiac protein carbonyls, nitrotyrosine (3-NT) formation, and iNOS protein expression, thus resulting in abnormal myocardium calcium homeostasis of diabetic rats. The levels of SECA2a oxidation/nitration were significantly increased in the iron overload diabetic rats, along with a decrease in SECA2a expression and activity. In order to elucidate the possible role of iron in SERCA2a dysfunction, the effects of iron (Fe(3+) or hemin) on peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) induced SERCA2a oxidation and nitration were further investigated in vitro. It was found that tyrosine nitration played more important role in SERCA2a inactivation than thiol oxidation. These results present a potential mechanism in which iron exacerbates the diabetes-induced oxidative/nitrative modification of SERCA2a, which may cause functional deficits in the myocyte associated with diabetic cardiac dysfunction. Our findings may help to further understand the role of iron in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications.

  9. Association Between HLA Haplotypes and Increased Serum Levels of IgG4 in Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsen, Natalie L; Klingenberg, Olav; Juran, Brian D; Benito de Valle, Maria; Lindkvist, Björn; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Karlsen, Tom H; Hov, Johannes Roksund

    2015-05-01

    Increased serum levels of IgG4 have been reported in 9%-15% of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC); it is not clear whether this increase contributes to pathogenesis. We performed genetic analyses of the HLA complex in patients with PSC from Norway, Sweden, and from the United States. We found an association between levels of IgG4 above the upper reference limit and specific HLA haplotypes. These patients had a significantly lower frequency of the strongest PSC risk factor, HLA-B*08, than patients without increased IgG4, and significantly higher frequencies of HLA-B*07 and HLA-DRB1*15. HLA genotype therefore might affect the serum concentration of IgG4, and increased IgG4 might be a marker of a distinct phenotype of PSC.

  10. Association of Increased Grain Iron and Zinc Concentrations with Agro-morphological Traits of Biofortified Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tatiana Moreno-Moyano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofortification of rice (Oryza sativa L. with micronutrients is widely recognized as a sustainable strategy to alleviate human iron (Fe and zinc (Zn deficiencies in developing countries where rice is the staple food. Constitutive overexpression of the rice nicotianamine synthase (OsNAS genes has been successfully implemented to increase Fe and Zn concentrations in unpolished and polished rice grain. Intensive research is now needed to couple this high-micronutrient trait with high grain yields. We investigated associations of increased grain Fe and Zn concentrations with agro-morphological traits of backcross twice second filial (BC2F2 transgenic progeny carrying OsNAS1 or OsNAS2 overexpression constructs under indica/japonica and japonica/japonica genetic backgrounds. Thirteen agro-morphological traits were evaluated in BC2F2 transgenic progeny grown under hydroponic conditions. Concentrations of 8 mineral nutrients (Fe, Zn, copper, manganese, calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus in roots, stems/sheaths, non-flag leaves, flag leaves, panicles and grain were also determined. A distance-based linear model (DistLM was utilized to extract plant tissue nutrient predictors accounting for the largest variation in agro-morphological traits differing between transgenic and non-transgenic progeny. Overall, the BC2F2 transgenic progeny contained up to 148% higher Fe and 336% higher Zn concentrations in unpolished grain compared to non-transgenic progeny. However, unpolished grain concentrations surpassing 23 µg Fe g-1 and 40 µg Zn g-1 in BC2F2 indica/japonica progeny, and 36 µg Fe g-1 and 56 µg Zn g1 in BC2F2 japonica/japonica progeny, were associated with significant reductions in grain yield. DistLM analyses identified grain-Zn and panicle-magnesium as the primary nutrient predictors associated with grain yield reductions in the indica/japonica and japonica/japonica progeny, respectively. We subsequently produced polished grain from high

  11. Association of Increased Grain Iron and Zinc Concentrations with Agro-morphological Traits of Biofortified Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Moyano, Laura T.; Bonneau, Julien P.; Sánchez-Palacios, José T.; Tohme, Joseph; Johnson, Alexander A. T.

    2016-01-01

    Biofortification of rice (Oryza sativa L.) with micronutrients is widely recognized as a sustainable strategy to alleviate human iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) deficiencies in developing countries where rice is the staple food. Constitutive overexpression of the rice nicotianamine synthase (OsNAS) genes has been successfully implemented to increase Fe and Zn concentrations in unpolished and polished rice grain. Intensive research is now needed to couple this high-micronutrient trait with high grain yields. We investigated associations of increased grain Fe and Zn concentrations with agro-morphological traits of backcross twice second filial (BC2F2) transgenic progeny carrying OsNAS1 or OsNAS2 overexpression constructs under indica/japonica and japonica/japonica genetic backgrounds. Thirteen agro-morphological traits were evaluated in BC2F2 transgenic progeny grown under hydroponic conditions. Concentrations of eight mineral nutrients (Fe, Zn, copper, manganese, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus) in roots, stems/sheaths, non-flag leaves, flag leaves, panicles, and grain were also determined. A distance-based linear model (DistLM) was utilized to extract plant tissue nutrient predictors accounting for the largest variation in agro-morphological traits differing between transgenic and non-transgenic progeny. Overall, the BC2F2 transgenic progeny contained up to 148% higher Fe and 336% higher Zn concentrations in unpolished grain compared to non-transgenic progeny. However, unpolished grain concentrations surpassing 23 μg Fe g-1 and 40 μg Zn g-1 in BC2F2 indica/japonica progeny, and 36 μg Fe g-1 and 56 μg Zn g1 in BC2F2 japonica/japonica progeny, were associated with significant reductions in grain yield. DistLM analyses identified grain-Zn and panicle-magnesium as the primary nutrient predictors associated with grain yield reductions in the indica/japonica and japonica/japonica background, respectively. We subsequently produced polished grain from high

  12. Increased serum levels of interleukin 6 are associated with severe intraventricular haemorrhage in extremely premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heep, A; Behrendt, D; Nitsch, P; Fimmers, R; Bartmann, P; Dembinski, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) in premature infants presumably have many causes. It has been proposed that inflammatory processes in the fetomaternal unit play an important role in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Objective: To study the correlation of postpartum serum interleukin 6 (IL6) concentration as a marker of inflammation and neonatal cerebral morbidity in preterm infants 100 pg/ml. Ultrasound studies and clinical assessment were performed routinely. Results: IVH was noted significantly more often in group B (24/38; 63%) than in group A (19/50; 38%) (p = 0.02). In a multiple logistic regression model, raised serum IL6 independently predicted development of severe IVH (odds ratio 8.4; 95% confidence interval 2.85 to 24.9; p = 0.0001). Conclusions: Raised serum IL6 may serve as a marker for severe IVH in infants < 28 weeks of gestational age. Although cerebral morbidity in premature infants is determined by different variables, the identification of systemic inflammation can help to define the need for anti-inflammatory strategies to prevent cerebral morbidity. PMID:14602698

  13. Interactions of proteins with biogenic iron oxyhydroxides and a new culturing technique to increase biomass yields of neutrophilic, iron-oxidizing bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Barco, Roman A.; Edwards, Katrina J

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophilic, bacterial iron-oxidation remains one of the least understood energy-generating biological reactions to date. One of the reasons it remains under-studied is because there are inherent problems with working with iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB), including low biomass yields and interference from the iron oxides in the samples. In an effort to circumvent the problem of low biomass, a new large batch culturing technique was developed. Protein interactions with biogenic iron oxides wer...

  14. The increased susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide of the (post)-ischemic rat heart is associated with the magnitude of the low molecular weight iron pool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Voogd (Arthur); W.J. Sluiter (Wim); J.F. Koster (Johan)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractRecently we have shown that intracellular low molecular weight (LMW) iron increases during ischemia. It is hypothesized that this increase in LMW iron during ischemia underlies the reported hydrogen peroxide toxicity toward ischemic hearts. To investigate this hypothesis, rat hearts were

  15. Dietary iron concentration influences serum concentrations of manganese in rats consuming organic or inorganic sources of manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaiyong; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Pan, Shuqin; Zhang, Keying; Ding, Xuemei; Wang, Jianping; Zeng, Qiufeng; Bai, Shiping

    2016-02-28

    To determine the effects of dietary Fe concentration on Mn bioavailability in rats fed inorganic or organic Mn sources, fifty-four 22-d-old male rats were randomly assigned and fed a basal diet (2·63 mg Fe/kg) supplemented with 0 (low Fe (L-Fe)), 35 (adequate Fe (A-Fe)) or 175 (high Fe (H-Fe)) mg Fe/kg with 10 mg Mn/kg from MnSO4 or Mn-lysine chelate (MnLys). Tissues were harvested after 21 d of feeding. Serum Mn was greater (P<0·05) in MnLys rats than in MnSO4 rats, and in L-Fe rats than in A-Fe or H-Fe rats. Duodenal divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) mRNA was lower (P<0·05) in H-Fe rats than in A-Fe rats for the MnSO4 treatment; however, no significant difference was observed between them for MnLys. Liver DMT1 mRNA abundance was greater (P<0·05) in MnSO4 than in the MnLys group for H-Fe rats. The DMT1 protein in duodenum and liver and ferroportin 1 (FPN1) protein in liver was greater (P<0·05) in the MnSO4 group than in the MnLys group, and in L-Fe rats than in H-Fe rats. Duodenal FPN1 protein was greater (P<0·05) in L-Fe rats than in A-Fe rats for the MnLys treatment, but it was not different between them for the MnSO4 treatment. Results suggest that MnLys increased serum Mn concentration as compared with MnSO4 in rats irrespective of dietary Fe concentration, which was not because of the difference in DMT1 and FPN1 expression in the intestine and liver.

  16. Continuously increasing δ98Mo values in Neoarchean black shales and iron formations from the Hamersley Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzweil, Florian; Wille, Martin; Schoenberg, Ronny; Taubald, Heinrich; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.

    2015-09-01

    We present Mo-, C- and O-isotope data from black shales, carbonate- and oxide facies iron formations from the Hamersley Group, Western Australia, that range in age from 2.6 to 2.5 billion years. The data show a continuous increase from near crustal δ98Mo values of around 0.50‰ for the oldest Marra Mamba and Wittenoom formations towards higher values of up to 1.51‰ for the youngest sample of the Brockman Iron Formation. Thereby, the trend in increasing δ98Mo values is portrayed by both carbonate facies iron formations and black shales. Considering the positive correlation between Mo concentration and total organic carbon, we argue that this uniformity is best explained by molybdate adsorption onto organic matter in carbonate iron formations and scavenging of thiomolybdate onto sulfurized organic matter in black shales. A temporal increase in the seawater δ98Mo over the period 2.6-2.5 Ga is observed assuming an overall low Mo isotope fractionation during both Mo removal processes. Oxide facies iron formations show lowest Mo concentrations, lowest total organic carbon and slightly lower δ98Mo compared to nearly contemporaneous black shales. This may indicate that in iron formation settings with very low organic matter burial rates, the preferential adsorption of light Mo isotopes onto Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides becomes more relevant. A similar Mo-isotope pattern was previously found in contemporaneous black shales and carbonates of the Griqualand West Basin, South Africa. The consistent and concomitant increase in δ98Mo after 2.54 billion years ago suggests a more homogenous distribution of seawater molybdate with uniform isotopic composition in various depositional settings within the Hamersley Basin and the Griqualand West Basin. The modeling of the oceanic Mo inventory in relation to the Mo in- and outflux suggests that the long-term build-up of an isotopically heavy seawater Mo reservoir requires a sedimentary sink for isotopically light Mo. The search for this

  17. Cobalamin related parameters and disease patterns in patients with increased serum cobalamin levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan F B Arendt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measurement of serum cobalamin levels is routinely used to diagnose cobalamin deficiency. Surprisingly, approximately 15% of patients have high cobalamin levels and no consensus exists regarding the clinical implications. METHODS: Hospital-treated patients above 18 years of age referred for serum cobalamin measurement were included in groups of patients [percentage cobalamin supplemented] with low (1000, n = 199 [53%] cobalamin levels. Total and cobalamin-saturated (holo transcobalamin, total haptocorrin, soluble TC receptor, sCD320, and methylmalonic acid were analyzed. Data on diagnoses and medical prescriptions was obtained through medical files and the Aarhus University Prescription Database. RESULTS: Among patients not cobalamin supplemented median total haptocorrin and holo transcobalamin levels were markedly higher in the groups with high/very high cobalamin levels compared to groups with low/normal cobalamin levels. Median total transcobalamin and sCD320 levels were similar across the groups. A number of diagnoses were significantly associated to very high Cbl levels (odds ratio (95% confidence interval: alcoholism (5.74 (2.76-11.96, liver disease (8.53 (3.59-20.23, and cancer (5.48 (2.85-10.55. Elevated haptocorrin levels were seen in patients with alcoholism, cancer, liver-, renal-, autoimmune-, and bronchopulmonary disease. No clinical associations to sCD320 and total and holo transcobalamin levels were found. CONCLUSION: In non-supplemented patients, high cobalamin levels were associated to high haptocorrin levels, and several diagnoses, including alcoholism, liver disease and cancer. Our study emphasizes that clinicians should take high serum cobalamin levels into consideration in the diagnostic process.

  18. Increased serum renalase in peritoneal dialysis patients: Is it related to cardiovascular disease risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok Oguz, Ebru; Akoglu, Hadim; Ulusal Okyay, Gulay; Karaveli Gursoy, Guner; Yildirim, Tolga; Merhametsiz, Ozgur; Cimen, Tolga; Canbakan, Basol; Yeter, Ekrem; Ayli, M Deniz

    Renalase, with possible monoamine oxidase activity, is implicated in degradation of catecholamines; which suggests novel mechanisms of cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney diseases. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been found to correlate with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in dialysis patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the association of serum renalase levels with EAT thickness and other CVD risk factors in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The study included 40 PD patients and 40 healthy controls. All subjects underwent blood pressure and anthropometric measurements. Serum renalase was assessed by using a commercially available assay. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to measure EAT thickness and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in all subjects. The median serum renalase level was significantly higher in the PD patients than in the control group [176.5 (100-278.3) vs 122 (53.3-170.0)ng/ml] (p=0.001). Renalase was positively correlated with C-reactive protein (r=0.705, p<0.001) and negatively correlated with RRF (r=-0.511, p=0.021). No correlation was observed between renalase and EAT thickness or LVMI. There was a strong correlation between EAT thickness and LVMI in both the PD patients and the controls (r=0.848, p<0.001 and r=0.640, p<0.001 respectively). This study indicates that renalase is associated with CRP and residual renal function but not with EAT thickness as CVD risk factors in PD patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased serum levels of betatrophin in pancreatic cancer-associated diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, Jerry D.T.; Chen, Shu-Fan; Wang, Chih-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Long-standing diabetes or glucose intolerance is recognized as a crucial event in the process of pancreatic cancer. Betatrophin, a novel liver-derived hormone, promotes β-cell proliferation and improves glucose intolerance. However, the relationship between betatrophin and PDAC-associated diabetes is not fully understood. To evaluate the serum betatrophin levels in PDAC-associated diabetes, a total 105 Taiwanese subjects including 15 healthy subjects, and 12 patients having PDAC with normal glucose tolerance (PDAC-NGT), 12 patients having PC with impaired glucose tolerance (PDAC-IGT), and 66 patients having PC with diabetes mellitus (PDAC-DM) were enrolled for this study. Serum betatrophin and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared to healthy subjects, PDAC patients had higher levels of betatrophin and CA19-9. Consistently, betatrophin protein was significantly expressed in pancreatic ductal of PDAC-associated DM patients using immunohistochemistry (IHC) method. Furthermore, multivariate regression analysis showed the betatrophin was significantly and positively independent with T category (β= 0.605, P=0.010), serum albumin (β= 0. 423, P=0.021), lipase (β= 0.292, P=0.039), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (β= 0.303, P=0.040). Further, the betatrophin was three folds of having PDAC-associated diabetes with the highest odds ratio [OR=3.39; 95% CI (1.20–9.57); P=0.021) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that AUC value of betarophin was 0.853 which is slightly larger than AUC value of CA19-9 (0.792) in PDAC-DM patients. Interestingly, AUC value of betarophin plus CA19-9 was 0.988 in PDAC-DM patients. Therefore, betatrophin combined CA19-9 may serve as a potential biomarker for PDAC-associated diabetes. PMID:27276680

  20. Nutritional Supplementation Inhibits the Increase in Serum Malondialdehyde in Patients with Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Toshiyuki; Takayama, Kei; Kaneko, Hiroki; Ye, Fuxiang; Fukukita, Hiroshi; Tsunekawa, Taichi; Kataoka, Keiko; Hwang, Shiang-Jyi; Nagasaka, Yosuke; Ito, Yasuki; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To compare serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD), patients with dry AMD (dAMD), and patients without AMD and to evaluate the efficacy of nutritional supplementation for treating elevated serum MDA in patients with wAMD. Methods. MDA levels were measured in sera from 20 patients with wAMD, 20 with dAMD, and 24 without AMD. Patients with wAMD were randomized to receive or not receive nutritional supplementation (10 patients in each group), and MDA levels were measured after 3 months of treatment. Results. MDA levels in patients with wAMD were significantly greater compared with patients without AMD. In eyes with wAMD, there was a significant correlation between MDA levels and choroidal neovascularization lesion area. Serum MDA levels decreased in most patients that received supplementation and significantly increased in those who did not. Conclusion. Baseline serum MDA levels were elevated in patients with wAMD, and MDA levels were directly correlated with choroidal neovascularization lesion area. In addition, nutritional supplementation appeared to exert a protective effect against oxidative stress in patients with wAMD.

  1. Nutritional Supplementation Inhibits the Increase in Serum Malondialdehyde in Patients with Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Matsuura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD, patients with dry AMD (dAMD, and patients without AMD and to evaluate the efficacy of nutritional supplementation for treating elevated serum MDA in patients with wAMD. Methods. MDA levels were measured in sera from 20 patients with wAMD, 20 with dAMD, and 24 without AMD. Patients with wAMD were randomized to receive or not receive nutritional supplementation (10 patients in each group, and MDA levels were measured after 3 months of treatment. Results. MDA levels in patients with wAMD were significantly greater compared with patients without AMD. In eyes with wAMD, there was a significant correlation between MDA levels and choroidal neovascularization lesion area. Serum MDA levels decreased in most patients that received supplementation and significantly increased in those who did not. Conclusion. Baseline serum MDA levels were elevated in patients with wAMD, and MDA levels were directly correlated with choroidal neovascularization lesion area. In addition, nutritional supplementation appeared to exert a protective effect against oxidative stress in patients with wAMD.

  2. Nutritional Supplementation Inhibits the Increase in Serum Malondialdehyde in Patients with Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukukita, Hiroshi; Tsunekawa, Taichi; Kataoka, Keiko; Hwang, Shiang-Jyi; Nagasaka, Yosuke; Ito, Yasuki; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To compare serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD), patients with dry AMD (dAMD), and patients without AMD and to evaluate the efficacy of nutritional supplementation for treating elevated serum MDA in patients with wAMD. Methods. MDA levels were measured in sera from 20 patients with wAMD, 20 with dAMD, and 24 without AMD. Patients with wAMD were randomized to receive or not receive nutritional supplementation (10 patients in each group), and MDA levels were measured after 3 months of treatment. Results. MDA levels in patients with wAMD were significantly greater compared with patients without AMD. In eyes with wAMD, there was a significant correlation between MDA levels and choroidal neovascularization lesion area. Serum MDA levels decreased in most patients that received supplementation and significantly increased in those who did not. Conclusion. Baseline serum MDA levels were elevated in patients with wAMD, and MDA levels were directly correlated with choroidal neovascularization lesion area. In addition, nutritional supplementation appeared to exert a protective effect against oxidative stress in patients with wAMD. PMID:28243361

  3. Increased serum midkine concentration as a possible tumor marker in patients with superficial esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Okazumi, Shin-ichi; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Muramatsu, Takashi; Ikematsu, Shinya; Sakuma, Sadatoshi; Ochiai, Takenori

    2003-01-01

    Midkine, a heparin-binding growth factor, is expressed in numerous cancer tissues and is reportedly elevated in patients with various neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of serum midkine concentration (S-MK) in patients with superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Pretreatment S-MK was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 135 healthy controls, 16 patients with benign esophageal disease, and 60 patients with primary superficial esophageal squamous cell cancer (SESCC). All patients with SESCC underwent curative resection. The disease was staged according to TNM/UICC guidelines. Serum concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag), and cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) were also evaluated in the same populations. S-MK in patients with SESCC (388+/-411 pg/ml) was significantly higher than in benign esophageal disease or healthy controls (183+/-73 and 154+/-76 pg/ml, respectively). Using the mean + 2 standard deviations of healthy control S-MK (300 pg/ml) as the cut-off level, 50% of patients with esophageal SESCC were deemed positive. This S-MK positivity rate for detecting SESCC was significantly higher than for other tumor markers. Thus, S-MK may be useful as a tumor marker to detect SESCC.

  4. Probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v increases iron absorption from an iron-supplemented fruit drink: a double-isotope cross-over single-blind study in women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Michael; Önning, Gunilla; Berggren, Anna; Hulthén, Lena

    2015-10-28

    Iron deficiency is common, especially among young women. Adding probiotics to foods could be one way to increase iron absorption. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that non-haem iron absorption from a fruit drink is improved by adding Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v). Iron absorption was studied in healthy women of reproductive age using a single-blind cross-over design in two trials applying the double-isotope (55Fe and 59Fe) technique. In Trial 1, iron absorption from a fruit drink containing 109 colony-forming units (CFU) Lp299v was compared with that from a control drink without Lp299v. Trial 2 had the same design but 1010 CFU were used. The test and control drinks contained approximately 5 mg of iron as ferrous lactate and were labelled with 59Fe (B) and 55Fe (A), respectively, and consumed on 4 consecutive days in the order AABB. Retention of the isotopes was measured with whole-body counting and in blood. Mean iron absorption from the drink containing 109 CFU Lp299v (28·6(sd 12·5) %) was significantly higher than from the control drink (18·5(sd 5·8) %), n 10, P<0·028). The fruit drink with 1010 CFU Lp299v gave a mean iron absorption of 29·1(sd 17·0) %, whereas the control drink gave an absorption of (20·1(sd 6·4) %) (n 11, P<0·080). The difference in iron absorption between the 109 CFU Lp299v and the 1010 CFU Lp299v drinks was not significant (P=0·941). In conclusion, intake of probiotics can increase iron absorption by approximately 50 % from a fruit drink having an already relatively high iron bioavailability.

  5. Diet-induced elevations in serum cholesterol are associated with alterations in hippocampal lipid metabolism and increased oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Stranahan, Alexis M.; Cutler, Roy G.; Button, Catherine; Telljohann, Richard; Mattson, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    The structure and function of the hippocampus, a brain region critical for learning and memory, is impaired by obesity and hyperlipidemia. Peripheral cholesterol and sphingolipids increase progressively with aging and are associated with a range of age-related diseases. However, the mechanisms linking peripheral cholesterol metabolism to hippocampal neuroplasticity remain poorly understood. To determine whether diets that elevate serum cholesterol influence lipid metabolism in the hippocampus...

  6. SGLT2 inhibitor lowers serum uric acid through alteration of uric acid transport activity in renal tubule by increased glycosuria

    OpenAIRE

    Chino, Yukihiro; Samukawa, Yoshishige; Sakai, Soichi; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-01-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been reported to lower the serum uric acid (SUA) level. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for this reduction, SUA and the urinary excretion rate of uric acid (UEUA) were analysed after the oral administration of luseogliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, to healthy subjects. After dosing, SUA decreased, and a negative correlation was observed between the SUA level and the UEUA, suggesting that SUA decreased as a result of the increase in the...

  7. 甲状腺功能亢进对大鼠红细胞系列指标及血清铁的影响%The impact of hyperthyroidism on erythrocyte indices and serum iron of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晋英; 王培培; 谢颖; 黄作良; 马新华; 李艳伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the change of erythrocyte indices and serum iron in hyperthyroidism rats .Methods SD female rats were randomly divided into hyperthyroidism group and control group .Hyperthyroidism rats were induced by intragastric ad‐ministration of Euthyrox (Levothyroxine) and their blood and serum were obtained after administration of 1-8 weeks ,respective‐ly .And the control rats were given normal saline .Levels of T3 ,T4 and TSH were determined by a radioimmunoassay .Erythrocyte index were measured by automatic blood cell analyzer .Serum iron concentration and total iron binding capacity were determined by chromatometry .Results The concentration of serum T3 and T4 increased in hyperthyroidism rats ,whereas the TSH decreased . RBC was higher in hyperthyroidism rats at 2-8 weeks compared with the control rats (P<0 .05) .HCT was higher in hyperthy‐roidism rats at 1-8 weeks compared with the control rats (P<0 .01) .MCV was lower in hyperthyroidism rats at 2-8 weeks com‐pared with the control rats (P<0 .05) .MCHC was lower in hyperthyroidism rats at 1 -8 weeks compared with the control rats (P<0 .01) .RDW SD and RDW CV was higher hyperthyroidism rats at 1-2 weeks compared with the control rats(P<0 .01) .Ser‐um iron concentration and total iron binding capacity increased in hyperthyroidism rats at 4 -8 weeks compared with the control rats(P<0 .01) .Conclusion The hyperthyroidism rats in the present study is absent significant manifestation of anemia ,whereas the hypochromic changes of erythrocyte is significant .Serum iron concentration and total iron binding capacity increase in hyperthy‐roidism rats ,which demonstrate the iron utilization disorder .%目的:研究甲状腺功能亢进(简称甲亢)对大鼠红细胞系列指标及血清铁的影响。方法SD雌性大鼠分为甲亢模型组和对照组,优甲乐灌胃制造甲亢模型,对照组灌服生理盐水。分别在灌胃给药后的第1~8周采血,采用放射免疫法测定

  8. Dissolution behaviour of ferric pyrophosphate and its mixtures with soluble pyrophosphates: Potential strategy for increasing iron bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Blanco, Elena; Smoukov, Stoyan K; Velev, Orlin D; Velikov, Krassimir P

    2016-10-01

    Ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) is a widely used iron source in food fortification and in nutritional supplements, due to its white colour, that is very uncommon for insoluble Fe salts. Although its dissolution is an important determinant of Fe adsorption in human body, the solubility characteristics of FePP are complex and not well understood. This report is a study on the solubility of FePP as a function of pH and excess of pyrophosphate ions. FePP powder is sparingly soluble in the pH range of 3-6 but slightly soluble at pH8. In the presence of pyrophosphate ions the solubility of FePP strongly increases at pH 5-8.5 due to formation a soluble complex between Fe(III) and pyrophosphate ions, which leads to an 8-10-fold increase in the total ionic iron concentration. This finding is beneficial for enhancing iron bioavailability, which important for the design of fortified food, beverages, and nutraceutical products.

  9. Enzyme-mediated quenching of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS promotes biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by increasing iron availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Tettmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2-alkyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H-quinolone 2,4-dioxygenase HodC was previously described to cleave the Pseudomonas quinolone signal, PQS, which is exclusively used in the complex quorum sensing (QS system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen employing QS to regulate virulence and biofilm development. Degradation of PQS by exogenous addition of HodC to planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa attenuated production of virulence factors, and reduced virulence in planta. However, proteolytic cleavage reduced the efficacy of HodC. Here, we identified the secreted protease LasB of P. aeruginosa to be responsible for HodC degradation. In static biofilms of the P. aeruginosa PA14 lasB::Tn mutant, the catalytic activity of HodC led to an increase in viable biomass in newly formed but also in established biofilms, and reduced the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism and siderophore production, such as pvdS, pvdL, pvdA and pvdQ. This is likely due to an increase in the levels of bioavailable iron by degradation of PQS, which is able to sequester iron from the surrounding environment. Thus, HodC, despite its ability to quench the production of virulence factors, is contraindicated for combating P. aeruginosa biofilms.

  10. Effect of increased manganese addition and mould type on the slurry erosion characteristics of Cr–Mn iron systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sampathkumaran; C Ranganathaiah; S Seetharamu; Kishore

    2008-12-01

    The wear resistance of high chromium iron is well recorded. However, the same is not the case as regards the use of manganese at higher percentages in high chromium irons and its influence on wear behaviour. Hence, this work highlights the slurry wear characteristics of chromium ($\\Box$ 16–19%) iron following the introduction of manganese at two levels i.e. 5 and 10%. It is known that the wear properties are dictated by the microstructural features. To alter the structure, the cooling rate of casting has been varied by adopting two different types of moulds (i.e. sand and metal) and subsequently subjecting to thermal treatment. The as-cast and heat treated samples are examined for microstructure and then evaluated for hardness and slurry erosion properties. As the manganese content is increased from 5 to 10%, the hardness showed a decrease in value both in the as-cast and heat treated conditions. The slurry erosion loss, expectedly, showed an increase irrespective of the sample condition (i.e. mould type/heat treatment adopted). The findings are corroborated with the microstructural features obtained through optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Iron stores assessment in alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Matos, Luís; Batista, Paulo; Monteiro, Nuno; Ribeiro, João; Cipriano, Maria A; Henriques, Pedro; Girão, Fernando; Carvalho, Armando

    2013-06-01

    The relation between alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and iron overload is well known. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for assessing iron stores. MRI is also validated for liver iron concentration (LIC) assessment. We aimed to assess the effect of active drinking in liver iron stores and the practicability of measuring LIC by MRI in ALD patients. We measured LIC by MRI in 58 ALD patients. We divid