WorldWideScience

Sample records for increased recovery rates

  1. Seaweed richness and herbivory increase rate of community recovery from disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Kristin M; Stachowicz, John J

    2012-04-01

    The importance of herbivores and of plant diversity for community succession and recovery from disturbance is well documented. However, few studies have assessed the relative magnitude of, or potential interactions between, these factors. To determine the combined effect of herbivory and surrounding algal species richness on the recovery of a rocky intertidal community, we conducted a 27-month field experiment assessing algal recruitment and succession in cleared patches that mimic naturally forming gaps in the ambient community. We crossed two herbivore treatments, ambient and reduced abundance, with monocultures and polycultures of the four most common algal species in a mid-high rocky intertidal zone of northern California. We found that both the presence of herbivores and high surrounding algal richness increased recovery rates, and the effect of algal richness was twice the magnitude of that of herbivores. The increased recovery rate of patches containing herbivores was due to the consumption of fast-growing, early colonist species that preempt space from perennial, late-successional species. Mechanisms linking algal richness and recovery are more numerous. In polycultures, herbivore abundance and species composition is altered, desiccation rates are lower, and propagule recruitment, survival, and growth are higher compared to monocultures, all of which could contribute the observed effect of surrounding species richness. Herbivory and species richness should jointly accelerate recovery wherever palatable species inhibit late-successional, herbivore-resistant species and recruitment and survival of new colonists is promoted by local species richness. These appear to be common features of rocky-shore seaweed, and perhaps other, communities.

  2. High-Impact Aerobic and Zumba Fitness on Increasing VO2MAX, Heart Rate Recovery and Skinfold Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminar, T. J.; Kusnanik, N. W.; Wiriawan, O.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to determine the significant effect of high-impact aerobics exercise, and Zumba fitness on increasing VO2Max, decreasing of heart rate recovery, and decreasing of skinfold thickness. A sample of this study is 30 members aerobics of student activity unit. Type of this study was quantitative by using a quasi-experimental design method. The design of this study used Matching-Only Design. Data were Analyzed by using the t test (paired t-test). The samples divided into three groups consisted of experimental group I, experimental group II, and control group. They were given a treatment for 8 weeks or 24 meeting. For the data, retrieval is done by MFT test, heart rate recovery test, and skinfold thickness test. Furthermore, the result was analyzed by using SPSS 21 series. In conclusion, significant effect of high-impact aerobics and Zumba fitness on increasing VO2Max, heart rate recovery, skinfold thickness.

  3. Improved heavy oil recovery by low rate waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, A. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Kantzas, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory

    2008-10-15

    Waterflooding techniques are frequently used to recover oil in low viscosity or marginal heavy oil reservoirs. This paper described a low-rate waterflooding oil recovery mechanism. The mechanism was determined by examining the effect of sand permeability on the impact of viscous force contributions. Changes in permeability and injection rates parameters were studied in order to evaluate the significance of imbibition, and a method of quantifying the effect of capillary forces was presented. The mechanism was demonstrated in an experimental study that used sand packs of varying permeabilities wet-packed into cores with overburden pressures. A fixed injection rate was used to investigate waterflooding in the different permeability systems with 2 different oils. Overall recovery rates were examined as a function of injection velocity. An analysis of normalized oil production rates demonstrated that viscous forces are more important during the early phases of waterflooding. The study showed that breakthrough oil recovery values increased with higher permeability values. However, when injection rates were reduced to low frontal velocity values, the correlation between sand permeability and breakthrough oil recovery resulted in low permeability rates. Lower permeability porous media resulted in more restrictive flow conditions. However, the capillary force components increased as a result of the smaller pore sizes, which in turn led to enhanced water imbibition and higher oil recovery values after water breakthrough. It was concluded that waterflooding rates can be modified later in the recovery process in order to improve final oil recovery values. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  4. Heart-Rate Recovery Index Is Impaired in Behçet's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ergun Baris; Yorgun, Hikmet; Akdogan, Ali; Ates, Ahmet Hakan; Canpolat, Ugur; Sunman, Hamza; Aytemir, Kudret; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Kabakci, Giray; Calguneri, Meral; Ozkutlu, Hilmi; Oto, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Behçet's disease, a multisystemic inflammatory disorder, has been associated with a number of cardiovascular dysfunctions, including ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Heart-rate recovery after exercise can provide both an estimate of impaired parasympathetic tone and a prognosis in regard to all-cause and cardiovascular death. The aim of our study was to evaluate heart-rate recovery in Behçet's disease From January through July 2008, we examined at our outpatient clinic and prospectively enrolled 30 consecutive patients with Behçet's disease and 50 healthy control participants who were matched for age and sex. Basal electrocardiography, echocardiography, and treadmill exercise testing were performed in all patients and control participants. The heart-rate recovery index was calculated in the usual manner, by subtracting the 1st-minute (Rec1), 2nd-minute (Rec2), and 3rd-minute (Rec3) recovery heart rates from the maximal heart rate after exercise stress testing. Patients with Behçet's disease exhibited significantly lower heart-rate recovery numbers, compared with healthy control participants: Rec1, 24.28 ± 8.2 vs 34.4 ± 7.6, P = 0.002; Rec2, 49.28 ± 11.2 vs 57.5 ± 7.0, P < 0.05; and Rec3, 56.2 ± 12.11 vs 67.4 ± 8.7, P = 0.014. To our knowledge, this is the 1st study that shows an impaired heart-rate recovery index (indicative of reduced parasympathetic activity) among patients with Behçet's disease. Given the independent prognostic value of the heart-rate recovery index, our results may explain the increased occurrence of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in Behçet's patients. Therefore, this index may be clinically useful in the identification of high-risk patients. PMID:19693299

  5. Cellular sensitivity and low dose-rate recovery in Fanconi anaemia fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnet, N.G.; Wurm, R.; Tait, D.M.; Peacock, J.H. (Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom). Surrey Branch Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom))

    1994-06-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare inherited condition characterized by developmental abnormalities and progressive bone marrow failure, which requires bone marrow transplantation for successful treatment. This involves the use of alkylating agents and total body or thoraco-abdominal irradiation. Both chemical clastogens and irradiation cause increased chromosome damage in FA cells compared with controls. In some studies FA fibroblasts have been found to be more radiosensitive than normal. From these data it has been inferred that patients with FA might be more sensitive than normal to radiotherapy. However, increased radiosensitivity of FA fibroblasts has not been a uniform finding. The radiosensitivity of fibroblasts from two FA patients was studied at high and low dose-rate (LDR), and their sensitivity compared with normal strains. Both FA strains fell at the sensitive end of the range, but both demonstrated marked dose-rate sparing, with D[sub 0.01] recovery factors of 1.23 and 1.27, similar to the normal strains. These recovery factors are inconsistent with the suggestion that FA patients are recovery deficient. The data indicate that at least some FA strains are capable of LDR recovery, and imply that these patients would probably have a clinical benefit from fractionated or low dose-rate total body irradiation. (Author).

  6. Cellular sensitivity and low dose-rate recovery in Fanconi anaemia fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnet, N.G.; Wurm, R.; Tait, D.M.; Peacock, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare inherited condition characterized by developmental abnormalities and progressive bone marrow failure, which requires bone marrow transplantation for successful treatment. This involves the use of alkylating agents and total body or thoraco-abdominal irradiation. Both chemical clastogens and irradiation cause increased chromosome damage in FA cells compared with controls. In some studies FA fibroblasts have been found to be more radiosensitive than normal. From these data it has been inferred that patients with FA might be more sensitive than normal to radiotherapy. However, increased radiosensitivity of FA fibroblasts has not been a uniform finding. The radiosensitivity of fibroblasts from two FA patients was studied at high and low dose-rate (LDR), and their sensitivity compared with normal strains. Both FA strains fell at the sensitive end of the range, but both demonstrated marked dose-rate sparing, with D 0.01 recovery factors of 1.23 and 1.27, similar to the normal strains. These recovery factors are inconsistent with the suggestion that FA patients are recovery deficient. The data indicate that at least some FA strains are capable of LDR recovery, and imply that these patients would probably have a clinical benefit from fractionated or low dose-rate total body irradiation. (Author)

  7. Assessing the natural recovery of a lake contaminated with Hg using estimated recovery rates determined by sediment chronologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, Matthew J.; Long, David T.; Yohn, Sharon S.

    2010-01-01

    increasing after 1997. The cause of the recent Hg concentrations may be related to influx of contaminated watershed soils or sediments. Estimating the time frame for recovery is challenging in this system because the process of natural recovery seems to have been arrested and deeper, uncontaminated sediments, were not recovered as a basis for reference. However, a recovery to background conditions is likely not achievable since rates of Hg loading to nearby lakes and the current rate of atmospheric deposition are greater than an estimate of background conditions for Deer Lake. Assuming recovery continued after 2000, estimates of the time required for recovery varied based on the system state used to define it (e.g., recent rates of wet Hg deposition or Hg surface concentrations/fluxes from similar systems), but were less than 12 a. However, the recent increasing values of recovery indicators (e.g., Hg concentrations) suggests that these estimates are conservative and will be longer if recovery remains arrested, which may in part be due to the legacy of Hg contamination on the landscape. This study shows that estimates of recovery of highly disturbed lake systems can be made in the absence of within lake reference conditions by using comparisons to reference systems and challenges of estimating ages from atypical 210 Pb activity profiles can be overcome in part using event-based dating techniques.

  8. Assessing the natural recovery of a lake contaminated with Hg using estimated recovery rates determined by sediment chronologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Matthew J. [Michigan State University, Department of Geological Sciences, 206 Natural Science, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Long, David T., E-mail: long@msu.edu [Michigan State University, Department of Geological Sciences, 206 Natural Science, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Yohn, Sharon S. [Juniata College, Raystown Field Station, Brumbaugh Academic Center, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    their peak, remain elevated, and were increasing after 1997. The cause of the recent Hg concentrations may be related to influx of contaminated watershed soils or sediments. Estimating the time frame for recovery is challenging in this system because the process of natural recovery seems to have been arrested and deeper, uncontaminated sediments, were not recovered as a basis for reference. However, a recovery to background conditions is likely not achievable since rates of Hg loading to nearby lakes and the current rate of atmospheric deposition are greater than an estimate of background conditions for Deer Lake. Assuming recovery continued after 2000, estimates of the time required for recovery varied based on the system state used to define it (e.g., recent rates of wet Hg deposition or Hg surface concentrations/fluxes from similar systems), but were less than 12 a. However, the recent increasing values of recovery indicators (e.g., Hg concentrations) suggests that these estimates are conservative and will be longer if recovery remains arrested, which may in part be due to the legacy of Hg contamination on the landscape. This study shows that estimates of recovery of highly disturbed lake systems can be made in the absence of within lake reference conditions by using comparisons to reference systems and challenges of estimating ages from atypical {sup 210}Pb activity profiles can be overcome in part using event-based dating techniques.

  9. Isothermal recovery rates in shape memory polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azra, Charly; Plummer, Christopher J G; Månson, Jan-Anders E

    2011-01-01

    This work compares the time dependence of isothermal shape recovery in thermoset and thermoplastic shape memory polyurethanes (SMPUs) with comparable glass transition temperatures. In each case, tensile tests have been used to quantify the influence of various thermo-mechanical programming parameters (deformation temperature, recovery temperature, and stress and storage times following the deformation step) on strain recovery under zero load (free recovery) and stress recovery under fixed strain (constrained recovery). It is shown that the duration of the recovery event may be tuned over several decades of time with an appropriate choice of programming parameters, but that there is a trade-off between the rate of shape recovery and the recoverable stress level. The results are discussed in terms of the thermal characteristics of the SMPUs in the corresponding temperature range as characterized by modulated differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis, with the emphasis on the role of the effective width of the glass transition temperature and the stability of the network that gives rise to the shape memory effect. (fast track communication)

  10. Influence of music on maximal self-paced running performance and passive post-exercise recovery rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sam; Kimmerly, Derek S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fast tempo music (FM) on self-paced running performance (heart rate, running speed, ratings of perceived exertion), and slow tempo music (SM) on post-exercise heart rate and blood lactate recovery rates. Twelve participants (5 women) completed three randomly assigned conditions: static noise (control), FM and SM. Each condition consisted of self-paced treadmill running, and supine postexercise recovery periods (20 min each). Average running speed, heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the treadmill running period, while HR and blood lactate were measured during the recovery period. Listening to FM during exercise resulted in a faster self-selected running speed (10.8±1.7 vs. 9.9±1.4 km•hour-1, Peffect P<0.001) and blood lactate at the end of recovery (2.8±0.4 vs. 4.7±0.8 mmol•L-1, P<0.05). Listening to FM during exercise can increase self-paced intensity without altering perceived exertion levels while listening to SM after exercise can accelerate the recovery rate back to resting levels.

  11. Design of the Brine Evaporation Bag for Increased Water Recovery in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Anna L.; Delzeit, Lance D.

    2015-01-01

    The existing water recovery system on the International Space Station (ISS) is limited to 75% reclamation; consequently, long duration space missions are currently unfeasible due to the large quantity of water necessary to sustain the crew. The Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) is a proposed system to supplement the existing water recovery system aboard the ISS that can to increase water recovery to 99%. The largest barrier to high water recovery is mineral scaling inside the water recovery equipment, which leads to equipment failure; therefore, some water must remain to keep the minerals dissolved. This waste stream is liquid brine containing salts, acids, organics, and water. The BEB is designed to recover this remaining water while protecting the equipment from scale. The BEB consists of a sealed bag containing a hydrophobic membrane that allows water vapor and gas to pass through. It is operated under vacuum, heated, and continuously filled with brine to boil away the water. The water vapor is recovered and the solids are contained inside the bag for disposal. The BEB can dry the brine to a solid block. Ongoing work includes improving the design of the BEB and the evaporator to prevent leaks, maximize the rate of water removal, and minimize energy use and weight. Additional testing will determine whether designs are heat- or mass-transfer limited and the optimal water recovery rate.

  12. Increased recovery rates of phosphocreatine and inorganic phosphate after isometric contraction in oxidative muscle fibres and elevated hepatic insulin resistance in homozygous carriers of the A-allele of FTO rs9939609

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Louise Groth; Brøns, Charlotte; Jacobsen, Stine

    2009-01-01

    9939609 A-allele was associated with elevated fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin, hepatic insulin resistance and shorter recovery halftimes of phosphocreatine (PCr) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) after exercise in a primarily type I muscle. These relationships - except for fasting insulin - remained...... or mitochondrially encoded genes in skeletal muscle during rest. Conclusion. Increased energy efficiency - and potentially increased mitochondrial coupling - as suggested by faster recovery rates of PCr and Pi in oxidative muscle fibres may contribute to the increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes...

  13. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-13

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR.

  14. Theoretical prediction and validation of cell recovery rates in preparing platelet-rich plasma through a centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Linfeng; Park, Hyungmin; Jo, Chris Hyunchul

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we propose a theoretical framework to predict the recovery rates of platelets and white blood cells in the process of centrifugal separation of whole blood contained in a tube for the preparation of platelet-rich plasma. Compared to previous efforts to optimize or standardize the protocols of centrifugation, we try to further the physical background (i.e., based on the multiphase flow phenomena) of analysis to develop a universal approach that can be applied to widely different conditions. That is, one-dimensional quasi-linear partial differential equation to describe the centrifugal sedimentation of dispersed phase (red and white blood cells) in continuous phase (plasma) is derived based on the kinematic-wave theory. With the information of whole blood volume and tube geometry considered, it is possible to determine the positions of interfaces between supernatant/suspension and suspension/sediment, i.e., the particle concentration gradient in a tube, for a wide range of centrifugation parameters (time and acceleration). While establishing a theory to predict the recovery rates of the platelet and white blood cell from the pre-determined interface positions, we also propose a new correlation model between the recovery rates of plasma and platelets, which is found to be a function of the whole blood volume, centrifugal time and acceleration, and tube geometry. The present predictions for optimal condition show good agreements with available human clinical data, obtained from different conditions, indicating the universal applicability of our method. Furthermore, the dependence of recovery rates on centrifugal conditions reveals that there exist a different critical acceleration and time for the maximum recovery rate of platelets and white blood cells, respectively. The other parameters such as hematocrit, whole blood volume and tube geometry are also found to strongly affect the maximum recovery rates of blood cells, and finally, as a strategy

  15. Assessment of opportunities to increase the recovery and recycling rates of waste oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    Waste oil represents an important energy resource that, if properly managed and reused, would reduce US dependence on imported fuels. Literature and current practice regarding waste oil generation, regulations, collection, and reuse were reviewed to identify research needs and approaches to increase the recovery and recycling of this resource. The review revealed the need for research to address the following three waste oil challenges: (1) recover and recycle waste oil that is currently disposed of or misused; (2) identify and implement lubricating oil source and loss reduction opportunities; and (3) develop and foster an effective waste oil recycling infrastructure that is based on energy savings, reduced environment at impacts, and competitive economics. The United States could save an estimated 140 {times} 1012 Btu/yr in energy by meeting these challenges.

  16. Individual variability in heart rate recovery after standardized submaximal exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, Hendrike; Brink, Michel; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen

    2012-01-01

    To optimize performance, coaches and athletes are always looking for the right balance between training load and recovery. Therefore, closely monitoring of athletes is important. Heart rate recovery (HRR) after standardized sub maximal exercise has been proposed as a useful variable to monitor

  17. Sucralose Increases Antimicrobial Resistance and Stimulates Recovery of Escherichia coli Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yilin; Li, Rongyan; Jiang, Mingshan; Wang, Xiuhong

    2017-07-01

    Because of heavy use of antimicrobials, antimicrobial resistance in bacteria has become of great concern. The effect of some widely used food additives such as sucralose on bacteria in the gut and the environment has also drawn increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the interaction between antimicrobials and sucralose impacting antimicrobial resistance and mutation of Escherichia coli (E. coli). To examine antimicrobial resistance and mutation frequency, different subinhibitory concentrations of sucralose were added to cultures of E.coli BW25113 that were then treated with antimicrobials, oxolinic acid, or moxifloxacin. Then the E.coli were assayed for bacterial survival and recovery of mutants resistant to an unrelated antimicrobial, rifampicin. Pre-treatment of E.coli BW25113 with 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of sucralose increased the survival rate in oxolinic acid or moxifloxacin. A 1/3 MIC of sucralose increased rifampicin-resistant mutation rate of E.coli BW25113 after 72 h, while rifampicin-resistant mutation rate was increased when co-treated with 1/8 MIC, 1/4 MIC, 1/3 MIC sucralose, and oxolinic acid after 24 h. Sucralose can increase the antimicrobial resistance and mutation frequency of E.coli to some antimicrobials.

  18. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Steven Killen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fuelled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced aerobic scope could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how aerobic scope and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden grey mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26oC, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and aerobic scope using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasise that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with

  19. Increased oil recovery: secondary and tertiary. Application and future prospect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiting, R L

    1978-01-01

    Oil is initially produced using the nature reservoir pressure present, in a process called primary oil recovery. Secondary recovery uses artificial means to increase the natural reservoir pressure; tertiary, or enhanced oil recovery, uses a number of methods to enhance the flow characteristics of the oil. The scope for such techniques to increase the yield from oil fields in the US is estimated; the practicality of their application is shown to be particularly dependent upon pricing, taxation, and other existing policies. 16 references.

  20. Abnormal heart rate recovery and deficient chronotropic response after submaximal exercise in young Marfan syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Paulo; Carvalho, Antônio C; Perez, Ana Beatriz A; Medeiros, Wladimir M

    2016-10-01

    Marfan syndrome patients present important cardiac structural changes, ventricular dysfunction, and electrocardiographic changes. An abnormal heart rate response during or after exercise is an independent predictor of mortality and autonomic dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to compare heart rate recovery and chronotropic response obtained by cardiac reserve in patients with Marfan syndrome subjected to submaximal exercise. A total of 12 patients on β-blocker therapy and 13 off β-blocker therapy were compared with 12 healthy controls. They were subjected to submaximal exercise with lactate measurements. The heart rate recovery was obtained in the first minute of recovery and corrected for cardiac reserve and peak lactate concentration. Peak heart rate (141±16 versus 155±17 versus 174±8 bpm; p=0.001), heart rate reserve (58.7±9.4 versus 67.6±14.3 versus 82.6±4.8 bpm; p=0.001), heart rate recovery (22±6 versus 22±8 versus 34±9 bpm; p=0.001), and heart rate recovery/lactate (3±1 versus 3±1 versus 5±1 bpm/mmol/L; p=0.003) were different between Marfan groups and controls, respectively. All the patients with Marfan syndrome had heart rate recovery values below the mean observed in the control group. The absolute values of heart rate recovery were strongly correlated with the heart rate reserve (r=0.76; p=0.001). Marfan syndrome patients have reduced heart rate recovery and chronotropic deficit after submaximal exercise, and the chronotropic deficit is a strong determinant of heart rate recovery. These changes are suggestive of autonomic dysfunction.

  1. Laser Rate Equation Based Filtering for Carrier Recovery in Characterization and Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piels, Molly; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Xue, Weiqi

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a semiconductor laser rate equationbased approach to carrier recovery in a Bayesian filtering framework. Filter stability and the effect of model inaccuracies (unknown or un-useable rate equation coefficients) are discussed. Two potential application areas are explored: laser...... characterization and carrier recovery in coherent communication. Two rate equation based Bayesian filters, the particle filter and extended Kalman filter, are used in conjunction with a coherent receiver to measure frequency noise spectrum of a photonic crystal cavity laser with less than 20 nW of fiber...

  2. How heterogeneous susceptibility and recovery rates affect the spread of epidemics on networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an extended heterogeneous SIR model is proposed, which generalizes the heterogeneous mean-field theory. Different from the traditional heterogeneous mean-field model only taking into account the heterogeneity of degree, our model considers not only the heterogeneity of degree but also the heterogeneity of susceptibility and recovery rates. Then, we analytically study the basic reproductive number and the final epidemic size. Combining with numerical simulations, it is found that the basic reproductive number depends on the mean of distributions of susceptibility and disease course when both of them are independent. If the mean of these two distributions is identical, increasing the variance of susceptibility may block the spread of epidemics, while the corresponding increase in the variance of disease course has little effect on the final epidemic size. It is also shown that positive correlations between individual susceptibility, course of disease and the square of degree make the population more vulnerable to epidemic and avail to the epidemic prevalence, whereas the negative correlations make the population less vulnerable and impede the epidemic prevalence. Keywords: Networks, Heterogeneity, Susceptibility, Recovery rates, Correlation, The basic reproductive number, The final epidemic size

  3. Heart rate recovery in elite Spanish male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, A B; Benito, P J; Barriopedro, M; Lorenzo, I; Maffulli, N; Calderón, F J

    2014-06-01

    During postexercise recovery, heart rate (HR) initially falls rapidly, followed by a period of slower decrease, until resting values are reached. The aim of the present work was to examine the differences in the recovery heart rate (RHR) between athletes engaged in static and dynamic sports. The study subjects were 294 federated sportsmen competing at the national and international level in sports classified using the criteria of Mitchell et al. as either prevalently static (N.=89) or prevalently dynamic (N.=205). Within the dynamic group, the subjects who practised the most dynamic sports were assigned to further subgroups: triathlon (N.=20), long distance running (N.=58), cycling (N.=28) and swimming (N.=12). All athletes were subjected to a maximum exertion stress test and their HR recorded at 1, 2, 3 and 4 min (RHR1,2,3,4) into the HR recovery period. The following indices of recovery (IR) were then calculated: IR1=(HRpeak-RHR1,2,3,4)/(HRmax-HRrest)*100, IR2=(HRpeak-RHR1,2,3,4)/(HRmax/HRpeak), and IR3=HRpeak-RHR1,2,3,4. The differences in the RHR and IR for the static and dynamic groups were examined using two way ANOVA. The RHR at minutes 2 (138.7±15.2 vs. 134.8±14.4 beats·min⁻¹) and 3 (128.5±15.2 vs. 123.3±14.4 beats·min⁻¹) were significantly higher for the static group (Group S) than the dynamic group (Group D), respectively. Significant differences were seen between Group D and S with respect to IR1 at minutes 1 (26.4±8.7 vs. 24.8±8.4%), 2 (43.8±8.1 vs. 41.5±7.8%), 3 (52.1±8.3 vs. 49.1±8%) and 4 (56.8±8.6 vs. 55.4±7.4%) of recovery. For IR2, significant differences were seen between the same groups at minutes 2 (59.7±12.5 vs. 55.9±10.8 beats·min⁻¹) and 3 (71.0±13.5 vs. 66.1±11.4 beats·min⁻¹) of recovery. Finally, for IR3, the only significant difference between Group D and S was recorded at minute 3 of recovery (72.2±12.5 vs. 66.2±11.5 beats·min⁻¹). This work provides information on RHR of a large population of elite

  4. Improving sample recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the tasks, i.e., tests, studies, external support and modifications planned to increase the recovery of the recovery of the waste tank contents using combinations of improved techniques, equipment, knowledge, experience and testing to better the recovery rates presently being experienced

  5. Boosting recovery rather than buffering reactivity: Higher stress-induced oxytocin secretion is associated with increased cortisol reactivity and faster vagal recovery after acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engert, Veronika; Koester, Anna M; Riepenhausen, Antje; Singer, Tania

    2016-12-01

    Animal models and human studies using paradigms designed to stimulate endogenous oxytocin release suggest a stress-buffering role of oxytocin. We here examined the involvement of stress-induced peripheral oxytocin secretion in reactivity and recovery phases of the human psychosocial stress response. Healthy male and female participants (N=114) were subjected to a standardized laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. In addition to plasma oxytocin, cortisol was assessed as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis activity, alpha-amylase and heart rate as markers of sympathetic activity, high frequency heart rate variability as a marker of vagal tone and self-rated anxiety as an indicator of subjective stress experience. On average, oxytocin levels increased by 51% following psychosocial stress. The stress-induced oxytocin secretion, however, did not reduce stress reactivity. To the contrary, higher oxytocin secretion was associated with greater cortisol reactivity and peak cortisol levels in both sexes. In the second phase of the stress response the opposite pattern was observed, with higher oxytocin secretion associated with faster vagal recovery. We suggest that after an early stage of oxytocin and HPA-axis co-activation, the stress-reducing action of oxytocin unfolds. Due to the time lag it manifests as a recovery-boosting rather than a reactivity-buffering effect. By reinforcing parasympathetic autonomic activity, specifically during stress recovery, oxytocin may provide an important protective function against the health-compromising effects of sustained stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of different characteristics of sport on heart rate recovery in elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđić Radovan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the benefits of regular physical activity is lower resting heart rate and its faster recovery after maximal exercise test, as a result of a stronger parasympatic (vagal tone. Heart rate recovery is used as reliable parameter for prescription of the training program and also in prognostic purposes as a parameter of risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Aim: The purpose of this study is to show significant differences in heart rate recovery after maximal exercise test and resting heart rate among different groups of elite athletes. Material and Methods: This study subjected 575 adult (23.1 ± 4.3 years, male athletes divided into four sport groups: skill, power, mixed and endurance. Every subject performed progressive, maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on a treadmill. Heart rate recovery in first (ΔHRR1 and third (ΔHRR3 minute was calculated as a difference of maximal heart rate and heart rate in the first and the third minute after cessation of exercise, respectively. Results: Compared to skill, power and mixed group (62.9 ± 11.4; 61.5 ± 10.0; 59.9 ± 10.4 min-1 respectively, significantly lower values od resting heart rate are recorded in the endurance group (56.2 ± 10.6 min-1 (p = 0,05. Also, ΔHRR1 was significantly higher in the endurance group (33.5 ±14.3 min-1 compared to skill, power and mixed group (24.3 ± 10.9; 25.5 ± 11.2; 27.8 ± 15.6 min-1 respectively (p = 0,05. Values od ΔHRR3 were significantly higher in power, mixed and endurance groups (74.8 ± 14.3; 79.5 ± 12.7; 79.4 ± 12.6 min-1 respectively compared to skill group (67.3±16.1 min-1 (p = 0,05. Conclusion: Training endurance group of sports has the most contribution to lower resting heart rate and faster recovery of heart rate in the first minute after exercising, due to dominant parasympatic tone.

  7. Effects of a constant rate infusion of detomidine on cardiovascular function, isoflurane requirements and recovery quality in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauvliege, Stijn; Marcilla, Miguel Gozalo; Verryken, Kirsten; Duchateau, Luc; Devisscher, Lindsey; Gasthuys, Frank

    2011-11-01

    To examine the influence of a detomidine constant rate infusion (CRI) on cardiovascular function, isoflurane requirements and recovery quality in horses undergoing elective surgery. Prospective, randomized, blinded, clinical trial. Twenty adult healthy horses. After sedation (detomidine, 10 μg kg(-1) intravenously [IV]) and induction of anaesthesia (midazolam 0.06 mg kg(-1) , ketamine 2.2 mg kg(-1) IV), anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen/air (inspiratory oxygen fraction 55%). When indicated, the lungs were mechanically ventilated. Dobutamine was administered when MAPdetomidine (5 μg kg(-1)  hour(-1) ) (D) or saline (S) CRI, with the anaesthetist unaware of the treatment. Monitoring included end-tidal isoflurane concentration, arterial pH, PaCO(2) , PaO(2) , dobutamine administration rate, heart rate (HR), arterial pressure, cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), stroke index and oxygen delivery index (ḊO(2) I). For recovery from anaesthesia, all horses received 2.5 μg kg(-1) detomidine IV. Recovery quality and duration were recorded in each horse. For statistical analysis, anova, Pearson chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used as relevant. Heart rate (p=0.0176) and ḊO(2) I (p= 0.0084) were lower and SVR higher (p=0.0126) in group D, compared to group S. Heart rate (p=0.0011) and pH (p=0.0187) increased over time. Significant differences in isoflurane requirements were not detected. Recovery quality and duration were comparable between treatments. A detomidine CRI produced cardiovascular effects typical for α(2) -agonists, without affecting isoflurane requirements, recovery duration or recovery quality. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2011 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  8. Heart Rate and Oxygen Uptake Recovery and the Level of Aerobic Capacity in Mountain Bikers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalik Kamil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since mountain biking involves exercise of varying intensity, competitive performance may be affected by the rate of recovery. The aim of the current study was to determine whether maximal oxygen uptake is associated with the rate of heart rate and oxygen uptake recovery in mountain bike athletes.

  9. Increasing oil recovery from heavy oil waterfloods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, B.W. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[BP Exploration, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    In an effort to optimize waterflood strategies in Alaska, the authors examined the results of up to 50 years of waterflooding on 166 western Canadian waterfloods recovering oil of less than 30 degrees API. The study determined the best operating practices for heavy oil waterflooding by investigating the difference between waterflooding of heavy oil and lighter oil counterparts. Operators of light oil waterflooding are advised to begin waterflooding early and maintain the voidage replacement ratio (VRR) at 1. However, this study showed that it is beneficial to delay the start of waterflooding until a certain fraction of the original oil in place was recovered. Varying the VRR was also shown to correlate with increased ultimate recovery. This statistical study of 166 western Canadian waterfloods also examined the effect of injection strategy and the effect of primary production before waterflooding. Some pre-waterflood production and under injection time is advantageous for ultimate recovery by waterfloods. Specific recommendations were presented for waterfloods in reservoirs with both high and low API gravity ranges. Each range showed a narrow sweet spot window where improved recovery occurred. 27 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Worldwide Weather Radar Imagery May Allow Substantial Increase in Meteorite Fall Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Marc; Matson, Robert; Schaefer, Jacob; Fries, Jeffery; Hankey, Mike; Anderson, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    rate of recovery of fresh meteorite falls can increase by as much as 3.6x the current rate. The authors' experience to date indicates that the most effective course of action would be to have local meteorite research groups (outside of the US) form research consortia and develop a working relationship with their nation's weather bureau for access to data. These research consortia could utilize the same, proven methods used for US NEXRAD imagery, internet eyewitness report aggregation, seismometry analysis, etc. to locate meteorite falls. The consortia could then recover and analyze meteorite falls and enrich their own research efforts. It would be beneficial to conduct a global program to coordinate the development of methods and data tools, as well as to coordinate meteorite sample sharing and research. Perhaps an institution such as the Meteoritical Society could lead such an effort.

  11. Increasing Recovery of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria from Respiratory Specimens over a 10-Year Period in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Won-Jung; Chang, Boksoon; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Kyeongman; Kim, Su-Young; Lee, Nam Yong; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kwon, O Jung

    2013-11-01

    The number of patients with pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term trends in the NTM recovery rate from respiratory specimens over a 10-year period in a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea. We retrospectively reviewed the records of mycobacterial cultures of respiratory specimens at Samsung Medical Center from January 2001 to December 2011. During the study period, 32,841 respiratory specimens from 10,563 patients were found to be culture-positive for mycobacteria. These included 12,619 (38%) Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 20,222 (62%) NTM isolates. The proportion of NTM among all positive mycobacterial cultures increased from 43% (548/1,283) in 2001 to 70% (3,341/4,800) in 2011 (ptrend). The recovery rate of NTM isolates from acid-fast bacilli smear-positive specimens increased from 9% (38/417) in 2001 to 64% (1,284/1,997) in 2011 (ptrend). The proportion of positive liquid cultures was higher for NTM than for M. tuberculosis (p<0.001). The most frequently isolated NTM were Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (53%) and Mycobacterium abscessus-massiliense complex (25%). The recovery rate of NTM from respiratory specimens in South Korea has increased steadily.

  12. Prediction of the recovery rate after surgery for cervical myelopathy from the view of CT-myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Takahiro; Satomi, Kazuhiko; Asazuma, Takahito; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Fujimura, Shoichi; Hirabayashi, Kiyoshi; Hamano, Yasuyuki; Shiraishi, Takeshi.

    1991-01-01

    This study was designed to prepare a formula for predicting postoperative recovery in cervical myelopathy. Preoperative CT-myelography (CT-M) was performed in a total of 103 patients, consisting of 44 with cervical spinal myelopathy (CSM), 39 with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), and 20 with cervical disk herniation (CDH). Multivariate analyses were used to obtain correlations between CT-M findings (spinal cord area and the rate of spinal cord flatness) and clinical items (age, disease duration, preoperative JOA score, and postoperative recovery rate). There was a strong positive correlation between spinal cord area and postoperative recovery rate. Because both spinal cord area and disease duration for the CSM and OPLL groups had a strong positive correlation with the recovery rate, they were found to predict postoperative recovery. In the CDH group, there was no predictive index. Spinal cord area was more potential index than preoperative severity. Disease duration may also serve as an index complementing spinal cord area in the evaluation of postoperative recovery. (N.K.)

  13. Oil Recovery Increases by Low-Salinity Flooding: Minnelusa and Green River Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-09-01

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely used method in the world to increase oil recovery. Historically, little consideration has been given in reservoir engineering practice to the effect of injection brine composition on waterflood displacement efficiency or to the possibility of increased oil recovery through manipulation of the composition of the injected water. However, recent work has shown that oil recovery can be significantly increased by modifying the injection brine chemistry or by injecting diluted or low salinity brine. This paper reports on laboratory work done to increase the understanding of improved oil recovery by waterflooding with low salinity injection water. Porous media used in the studies included outcrop Berea sandstone (Ohio, U.S.A.) and reservoir cores from the Green River formation of the Uinta basin (Utah, U.S.A.). Crude oils used in the experimental protocols were taken from the Minnelusa formation of the Powder River basin (Wyoming, U.S.A.) and from the Green River formation, Monument Butte field in the Uinta basin. Laboratory corefloods using Berea sandstone, Minnelusa crude oil, and simulated Minnelusa formation water found a significant relationship between the temperature at which the oil- and water-saturated cores were aged and the oil recovery resulting from low salinity waterflooding. Lower aging temperatures resulted in very little to no additional oil recovery, while cores aged at higher temperatures resulted in significantly higher recoveries from dilute-water floods. Waterflood studies using reservoir cores and fluids from the Green River formation of the Monument Butte field also showed significantly higher oil recoveries from low salinity waterfloods with cores flooded with fresher water recovering 12.4% more oil on average than those flooded with undiluted formation brine.

  14. Vesicular GABA Uptake Can Be Rate Limiting for Recovery of IPSCs from Synaptic Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manami Yamashita

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Synaptic efficacy plays crucial roles in neuronal circuit operation and synaptic plasticity. Presynaptic determinants of synaptic efficacy are neurotransmitter content in synaptic vesicles and the number of vesicles undergoing exocytosis at a time. Bursts of presynaptic firings depress synaptic efficacy, mainly due to depletion of releasable vesicles, whereas recovery from strong depression is initiated by endocytic vesicle retrieval followed by refilling of vesicles with neurotransmitter. We washed out presynaptic cytosolic GABA to induce a rundown of IPSCs at cerebellar inhibitory cell pairs in slices from rats and then allowed fast recovery by elevating GABA concentration using photo-uncaging. The time course of this recovery coincided with that of IPSCs from activity-dependent depression induced by a train of high-frequency stimulation. We conclude that vesicular GABA uptake can be a limiting step for the recovery of inhibitory neurotransmission from synaptic depression. : Recovery of inhibitory synaptic transmission from activity-dependent depression requires refilling of vesicles with GABA. Yamashita et al. find that vesicular uptake rate of GABA is a slow process, limiting the recovery rate of IPSCs from depression.

  15. Increased Oil Recovery Prize for work on Troll; Fikk pris for Troll-arbeid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steensen, Anders J.

    2007-07-01

    Halliburton and Baker Hughes have developed tools that ensures increased oil recovery from the Troll platform. For this work, the companies were awarded the Increased Oil Recovery (IOR) Prize. Details on the technical principles are provided (ml)

  16. Curve fitting of the corporate recovery rates: the comparison of Beta distribution estimation and kernel density estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongda; Wang, Ze

    2013-01-01

    Recovery rate is essential to the estimation of the portfolio's loss and economic capital. Neglecting the randomness of the distribution of recovery rate may underestimate the risk. The study introduces two kinds of models of distribution, Beta distribution estimation and kernel density distribution estimation, to simulate the distribution of recovery rates of corporate loans and bonds. As is known, models based on Beta distribution are common in daily usage, such as CreditMetrics by J.P. Morgan, Portfolio Manager by KMV and Losscalc by Moody's. However, it has a fatal defect that it can't fit the bimodal or multimodal distributions such as recovery rates of corporate loans and bonds as Moody's new data show. In order to overcome this flaw, the kernel density estimation is introduced and we compare the simulation results by histogram, Beta distribution estimation and kernel density estimation to reach the conclusion that the Gaussian kernel density distribution really better imitates the distribution of the bimodal or multimodal data samples of corporate loans and bonds. Finally, a Chi-square test of the Gaussian kernel density estimation proves that it can fit the curve of recovery rates of loans and bonds. So using the kernel density distribution to precisely delineate the bimodal recovery rates of bonds is optimal in credit risk management.

  17. Recovery, work-life balance and work experiences important to self-rated health: A questionnaire study on salutogenic work factors among Swedish primary health care employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlertsson, Lina; Heijbel, Bodil; Ejlertsson, Göran; Andersson, Ingemar

    2018-01-01

    There is a lack of information on positive work factors among health care workers. To explore salutogenic work-related factors among primary health care employees. Questionnaire to all employees (n = 599) from different professions in public and private primary health care centers in one health care district in Sweden. The questionnaire, which had a salutogenic perspective, included information on self-rated health from the previously validated SHIS (Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale), psychosocial work environment and experiences, recovery, leadership, social climate, reflection and work-life balance. The response rate was 84%. A multivariable linear regression model, with SHIS as the dependent variable, showed three significant predictors. Recovery had the highest relationship to SHIS (β= 0.34), followed by experience of work-life balance (β= 0.25) and work experiences (β= 0.20). Increased experience of recovery during working hours related to higher self-rated health independent of recovery outside work. Individual experiences of work, work-life balance and, most importantly, recovery seem to be essential areas for health promotion. Recovery outside the workplace has been studied previously, but since recovery during work was shown to be of great importance in relation to higher self-rated health, more research is needed to explore different recovery strategies in the workplace.

  18. Curve fitting of the corporate recovery rates: the comparison of Beta distribution estimation and kernel density estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongda Chen

    Full Text Available Recovery rate is essential to the estimation of the portfolio's loss and economic capital. Neglecting the randomness of the distribution of recovery rate may underestimate the risk. The study introduces two kinds of models of distribution, Beta distribution estimation and kernel density distribution estimation, to simulate the distribution of recovery rates of corporate loans and bonds. As is known, models based on Beta distribution are common in daily usage, such as CreditMetrics by J.P. Morgan, Portfolio Manager by KMV and Losscalc by Moody's. However, it has a fatal defect that it can't fit the bimodal or multimodal distributions such as recovery rates of corporate loans and bonds as Moody's new data show. In order to overcome this flaw, the kernel density estimation is introduced and we compare the simulation results by histogram, Beta distribution estimation and kernel density estimation to reach the conclusion that the Gaussian kernel density distribution really better imitates the distribution of the bimodal or multimodal data samples of corporate loans and bonds. Finally, a Chi-square test of the Gaussian kernel density estimation proves that it can fit the curve of recovery rates of loans and bonds. So using the kernel density distribution to precisely delineate the bimodal recovery rates of bonds is optimal in credit risk management.

  19. Curve Fitting of the Corporate Recovery Rates: The Comparison of Beta Distribution Estimation and Kernel Density Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongda; Wang, Ze

    2013-01-01

    Recovery rate is essential to the estimation of the portfolio’s loss and economic capital. Neglecting the randomness of the distribution of recovery rate may underestimate the risk. The study introduces two kinds of models of distribution, Beta distribution estimation and kernel density distribution estimation, to simulate the distribution of recovery rates of corporate loans and bonds. As is known, models based on Beta distribution are common in daily usage, such as CreditMetrics by J.P. Morgan, Portfolio Manager by KMV and Losscalc by Moody’s. However, it has a fatal defect that it can’t fit the bimodal or multimodal distributions such as recovery rates of corporate loans and bonds as Moody’s new data show. In order to overcome this flaw, the kernel density estimation is introduced and we compare the simulation results by histogram, Beta distribution estimation and kernel density estimation to reach the conclusion that the Gaussian kernel density distribution really better imitates the distribution of the bimodal or multimodal data samples of corporate loans and bonds. Finally, a Chi-square test of the Gaussian kernel density estimation proves that it can fit the curve of recovery rates of loans and bonds. So using the kernel density distribution to precisely delineate the bimodal recovery rates of bonds is optimal in credit risk management. PMID:23874558

  20. Analysis of Water Recovery Rate from the Heat Melt Compactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Hegde, U.; Gokoglu, S.

    2013-01-01

    any remaining free water in the trash by evaporation. The temperature settings of the heated surfaces are usually kept above the saturation temperature of water but below the melting temperature of the plastic in the waste during this step to avoid any encapsulation of wet trash which would reduce the amount of recovered water by blocking the vapor escape. In this paper, we analyze the water recovery rate during Phase B where the trash is heated and water leaves the waste chamber as vapor, for operation of the HMC in reduced gravity. We pursue a quasi-one-dimensional model with and without sidewall heating to determine the water recovery rate and the trash drying time. The influences of the trash thermal properties, the amount of water loading, and the distribution of the water in the trash on the water recovery rates are determined.

  1. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 679 - Product Recovery Rates for Groundfish Species and Conversion Rates for Pacific Halibut

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product Recovery Rates for Groundfish Species and Conversion Rates for Pacific Halibut 3 Table 3 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Rates for Groundfish Species and Conversion Rates for Pacific Halibut ER28JA02.074 ER10JY02.000 ER28JA02...

  2. Delayed storm-time increases in the whistler rate at mid-latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, M.K.

    1975-01-01

    The occurrence of whistlers during 105 magnetic storms in the period 1963 to 1968 is studied. Evidence that more whistlers occur during the storm recovery period is presented. Assuming that the increased whistler rate implies the presence of more ducts, similarities are noted between the storm-time duct population and the incidence of mid-latitude spread-F in both time and space. It is suggested that a fresh examination of the physical processes involved in spread-F may aid understanding of the formation of whistler ducts. (author)

  3. Effects of nutritional status on metabolic rate, exercise and recovery in a freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Andrew James; Philipp, David P; Suski, Cory D

    2010-03-01

    The influence of feeding on swimming performance and exercise recovery in fish is poorly understood. Examining swimming behavior and physiological status following periods of feeding and fasting is important because wild fish often face periods of starvation. In the current study, researchers force fed and fasted groups of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) of similar sizes for a period of 16 days. Following this feeding and fasting period, fish were exercised for 60 s and monitored for swimming performance and physiological recovery. Resting metabolic rates were also determined. Fasted fish lost an average of 16 g (nearly 12%) of body mass, while force fed fish maintained body mass. Force fed fish swam 28% further and required nearly 14 s longer to tire during exercise. However, only some physiological conditions differed between feeding groups. Resting muscle glycogen concentrations was twofold greater in force fed fish, at rest and throughout recovery, although it decreased in both feeding treatments following exercise. Liver mass was nearly three times greater in force fed fish, and fasted fish had an average of 65% more cortisol throughout recovery. Similar recovery rates of most physiological responses were observed despite force fed fish having a metabolic rate 75% greater than fasted fish. Results are discussed as they relate to largemouth bass starvation in wild systems and how these physiological differences might be important in an evolutionary context.

  4. Effects of nutritional status on metabolic rate, exercise and recovery in a freshwater fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingerich, Andrew J.; Philipp, D. P.; Suski, C. D.

    2010-11-20

    The influence of feeding on swimming performance and exercise recovery in fish is poorly understood. Examining swimming behavior and physiological status following periods of feeding and fasting is important because wild fish often face periods of starvation. In the current study, researchers force fed and fasted groups of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) of similar sizes for a period of 16 days. Following this feeding and fasting period, fish were exercised for 60 s and monitored for swimming performance and physiological recovery. Resting metabolic rates were also determined. Fasted fish lost an average of 16 g (nearly 12%) of body mass, while force fed fish maintained body mass. Force fed fish swam 28% further and required nearly 14 s longer to tire during exercise. However, only some physiological conditions differed between feeding groups. Resting muscle glycogen concentrations was twofold greater in force fed fish, at rest and throughout recovery, although it decreased in both feeding treatments following exercise. Liver mass was nearly three times greater in force fed fish, and fasted fish had an average of 65% more cortisol throughout recovery. Similar recovery rates of most physiological responses were observed despite force fed fish having a metabolic rate 75% greater than fasted fish. Results are discussed as they relate to largemouth bass starvation in wild systems and how these physiological differences might be important in an evolutionary context.

  5. A study of the effect of relaxing music on heart rate recovery after exercise among healthy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fuitze; Tengah, Asrin; Nee, Lo Yah; Fredericks, Salim

    2014-05-01

    Music has been employed in various clinical settings to reduce anxiety. However, meta-analysis has shown music to have little influence on haemodynamic parameters. This study aimed at investigating the effect of relaxing music on heart rate recovery after exercise. Twenty-three student volunteers underwent treadmill exercise and were assessed for heart rate recovery and saliva analysis; comparing exposure to sedative music with exposure to silence during the recovery period immediately following exercise. No differences were found between music and non-music exposure regarding: heart rate recovery, resting pulse rate, and salivary cortisol. Music was no different to silence in affecting these physiological measures, which are all associated with anxiety. Relaxing music unaccompanied by meditation techniques or other such interventions may not have a major role in reducing anxiety in certain experimental settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens; Klinting, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods...... motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed...... were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration...

  7. Effects of smoking on heart rate at rest and during exercise, and on heart rate recovery, in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, George; Georgakopoulos, Dimitris; Papageorgiou, Effie; Zerva, Efthimia; Michalis, Lampros; Kalfakakou, Vasiliki; Evangelou, Angelos

    2013-01-01

    There is an established link between smoking, abnormal heart rate (HR) values, and impaired cardiovascular health in middle-aged or older populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smoking on resting HR and on HR responses during and after exercise in young adults. A sample of 298 young adults (159 men), aged 20-29 years old, were selected from a large population of health-science students based on health status, body mass index, physical activity, and smoking habit. All subjects underwent a maximal Bruce treadmill test and their HR was recorded during, at peak, and after termination of exercise. Smokers had significantly higher resting HR values than non-smokers. Both female and male smokers showed a significantly slower HR increase during exercise. Female smokers failed to reach their age-predicted maximum HR by 6.0 bpm and males by 3.6 bpm. The actual maximum HR achieved (HRmax) was significantly lower for both female smokers (191.0 bpm vs.198.0 bpm) and male smokers (193.2 bpm vs.199.3 bpm), compared to non-smokers. Heart rate reserve was also significantly lower in female (114.6 bpm vs. 128.1 bpm) and male smokers (120.4 bpm vs. 133.0 bpm). During recovery, the HR decline was significantly attenuated, but only in female smokers. Females had a higher resting HR and showed a higher HR response during sub-maximal exercise compared to males. Smoking was found to affect young smokers' HR, increasing HR at rest, slowing HR increase during exercise and impairing their ability to reach the age-predicted HRmax. In addition, smoking was associated with an attenuated HR decline during recovery, but only in females.

  8. HEART RATE RECOVERY AFTER EXERCISE AND NEURAL REGULATION OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN 30-40 YEAR OLD FEMALE MARATHON RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Matsuoka

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of endurance training on heart rate (HR recovery after exercise and cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS modulation in female marathon runners by comparing with untrained controls. Six female marathon runners (M group aged 32-40 years and eight age-matched untrained females (C group performed a maximum-effort treadmill running exercise. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was measured during the exercise with a gas analyzer connected to subjects through a face mask. Heart rate, blood pressure and blood lactate were measured before and after the exercise. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE to the exercise was obtained immediately after the exercise. Holter ECG was recorded and analyzed with power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV to investigate the cardiac ANS modulation. The M group had significantly higher VO2max, faster HR recovery after exercise, higher Mean RR, SDRR, HF power and lower LF/HF ratio at rest compared with the C group. The M group also presented greater percent decrease of blood pressure after exercise, although their blood pressure after exercise was higher than the C group. It is suggested that endurance training induced significant alterations in cardiac ANS modulation at rest and significant acceleration of HR recovery after exercise in female marathon runners. Faster HR recovery after exercise in the female marathon runners should result from their higher levels of HRV, higher aerobic capacity and exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise compared with untrained controls.

  9. Prediction and optimization of the recovery rate in centrifugal separation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Linfeng; Park, Hyungmin; Jo, Chris

    2016-11-01

    We present a theoretical model of the recovery rate of platelet and white blood cell in the process of centrifugal separation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). For the practically used conditions in the field, the separation process is modeled as a one-dimensional particle sedimentation; a quasi-linear partial differential equation is derived based on the kinematic-wave theory. This is solved to determine the interface positions between supernatant-suspension and suspension-sediment, used to estimate the recovery rate of the plasma. While correcting the Brown's hypothesis (1989) claiming that the platelet recovery is linearly proportional to that of plasma, we propose a new correlation model for prediction of the platelet recovery, which is a function of the volume of whole blood, centrifugal acceleration and time. For a range of practical parameters, such as hematocrit, volume of whole blood and centrifugation (time and acceleration), the predicted recovery rate shows a good agreement with available clinical data. We propose that this model is further used to optimize the preparation method of PRP that satisfies the customized case. Supported by a Grant (MPSS-CG-2016-02) through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government.

  10. An investigation on groundwater recovery rate within sub sea floor tunnels at closed coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Eiji; Suenaga, Hiroshi; Oyama, Takahiro; Nomura, Tokisada; Ichihara, Yoshihisa

    2008-01-01

    The groundwater recovery rate investigated at the closed coal mines extended within sub sea floor tunnels. The Ikeshima and the Taiheiyo coal mine companies exploited the deep coal-bearing strata beneath the ocean. Ikeshima coal mine, excavated S.L. -650m to 6km offshore from Ikeshima island, was closed at November 2002, and Taiheiyo coal mine, excavated S.L. -720m to 9km offshore from Hokkaido, was stopped to excavate from the deep area at January 2003. After closing and stopping of development, we began the investigation of the groundwater recovery rate at both coal mines. The groundwater level of Ikeshima coal mine raised +405m per 1.8 years at the main shaft. The permeability coefficient estimated between 10 - 8 m /s and 10 -6 m/s to use the water recovery rate at the shaft. Otherwise, at Taiheiyo coal mine, we measured the air pressure in tubes used by 3.5km 2.5km, and 1.5km length 2mm diameters tubes to estimate the groundwater recovery level at the 3.2km offshore plug site. Groundwater didn't reach 4.7km (1.5+3.2km) area until November 2004. There were breakdown of shotcleate and rock mass from the roof of tunnel at 5.3km from offshore line. In this paper, we try to show the groundwater recovery rate of these sub sea floor collieries. (author)

  11. Routine recovery: an ethical plan for greatly increasing the supply of transplantable organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spital, Aaron; Taylor, James S

    2008-04-01

    All current organ procurement policies require some form of consent. Many families refuse to permit organ recovery from a recently deceased relative; therefore, the major cost of requiring consent is the loss of some lives that could have been saved through transplantation. Here, we argue for a much more efficient approach to organ procurement from brain dead individuals - routine recovery of all transplantable organs without consent. Careful analysis of the relevant literature shows that, compared with its competitors, routine recovery has the greatest potential to increase cadaveric organ procurement and save lives while causing very little harm. Furthermore, a recent survey suggests that 30% of the US public would already accept routine recovery even though the respondents were not educated regarding the value of this approach. Patients on the transplant waiting list are dying while organs that could have saved them are being buried or burned because of family refusal to allow posthumous organ procurement. Routine recovery would eliminate this tragic loss of life-saving organs without violating ethical principles. Indeed, we argue that of all the proposals designed to increase the supply of transplantable cadaveric organs, routine recovery is the best.

  12. Poor Heart Rate Recovery Is Associated With the Development of New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbag, Avi; Berkovitch, Anat; Sidi, Yechezkel; Kivity, Shaye; Ben Zekry, Sagit; Beinart, Roy; Segev, Shlomo; Glikson, Michael; Goldenberg, Ilan; Maor, Elad

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the association between heart rate recovery (HRR) and new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in middle-aged adults. Heart rate recovery was calculated using the exercise stress test in 15,729 apparently healthy self-referred men and women who attended periodic health screening examinations between January 2000, and December 2015. All participants completed the maximal exercise stress test according to the Bruce protocol and were followed clinically on a yearly basis for a median of 6.4±4 years. The primary end point was new-onset AF. Participants were grouped according to HRR at 5 minutes, dichotomized at the median value (age, male sex, obesity resting heart rate, and ischemic heart disease were all associated with increased AF risk in a univariate Cox regression model (Pnew-onset AF during long-term follow-up in middle-aged adults. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sequential improvements in organ procurement increase the organ donation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, Adrian T; Sklare, Seth; Franklin, Glen A; Wright, Jerry; Morgan, Gary; O'Flynn, Paul E; Polk, Hiram C

    2012-11-01

    Organ demand exceeds availability of transplantable organs. Organ procurement continues to suffer from failures to identify potential donors, inability to obtain consent for donation, as well as failures to retrieve certain organs as donor demographics change. The purpose of this article is to propose how sequentially introduced measures can increase organ donation rates as well as improve organ procurement. We analysed the effect of stepwise improvements in the organ procurement process patients in a university-based surgical intensive care unit over a 20-year period. We related newly introduced measures in the organ retrieval process with changes in donation rates. We specifically targeted these three main steps in the donation process: donor identification, conversion of potential donors to actual donors, and organ protection during the procurement process. Finally, we assessed the effect of the same measures on organ procurement after introduction in other hospitals of the same organ procurement region. Introduction of quality improvement steps increased all of the observed parameters. The number of organ donors was stabilised due to a better identification of potential donors, a major increase in conversion from potential to actual donors, and an increase in extended criteria donor. Improvements in organ protection led to higher rates of organs transplanted per donor and increased recovery of lungs and hearts despite increasing donor age. The same measures were introduced successfully in other hospitals in our organ procurement region. Sequential improvements in organ procurement can increase the yield of retrieved organs. The same measures can be applied to other hospitals and lead to comparable improvements in organ donation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Increasing CNS norepinephrine levels by the precursor L-DOPS facilitates beam-walking recovery after sensorimotor cortex ablation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K; Nishino, K; Ohyu, H

    2000-03-31

    The present investigation was conducted to document a role of L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS), precursor of L-norepinephrine (NE), in the functional recovery from beam-walking performance deficits in rats after unilateral sensorimotor cortex ablation. L-DOPS was administered simultaneously with benserazide (BSZ; a peripheral aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor), and the regional contents of NE in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum were assayed. Behavioral recovery was demonstrated by the rats treated with L-DOPS and BSZ, and the rate of recovery was significantly different from that of either BSZ-treated or vehicle-treated control rats. The NE tissue levels in the three discrete regions of the rat brain were significantly elevated in the experimental rats receiving both L-DOPS and BSZ. The present studies indicate that increasing NE levels by the precursor L-DOPS may be responsible for facilitating behavioral recovery from beam-walking performance deficits in rats, and further suggest that L-DOPS may become one of the candidate compounds for further clinical human trials promoting functional recovery after injuries to the cerebral cortex.

  15. Heart rate recovery after maximal exercise is blunted in hypertensive seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Stuart A.; Bivens, Tiffany B.; Dean Palmer, M.; Boyd, Kara N.; Melyn Galbreath, M.; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Carrick-Ranson, Graeme; Shibata, Shigeki; Hastings, Jeffrey L.; Spencer, Matthew D.; Tarumi, Takashi; Levine, Benjamin D.; Fu, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR) after maximal exercise may indicate autonomic dysfunction and is a predictor for cardiovascular mortality. HRR is attenuated with aging and in middle-age hypertensive patients, but it is unknown whether HRR is attenuated in older-age adults with hypertension. This study compared HRR among 16 unmedicated stage 1 hypertensive (HTN) participants [nine men/seven women; 68 ± 5 (SD) yr; awake ambulatory blood pressure (BP) 149 ± 10/87 ± 7 mmHg] and 16 normotensive [control (CON)] participants (nine men/seven women; 67 ± 5 yr; 122 ± 4/72 ± 5 mmHg). HR, BP, oxygen uptake (V̇o2), cardiac output (Qc), and stroke volume (SV) were measured at rest, at two steady-state work rates, and graded exercise to peak during maximal treadmill exercise. During 6 min of seated recovery, the change in HR (ΔHR) was obtained every minute and BP every 2 min. In addition, HRR and R-R interval (RRI) recovery kinetics were analyzed using a monoexponential function, and the indexes (HRRI and RRII) were calculated. Maximum V̇o2, HR, Qc, and SV responses during exercise were not different between groups. ΔHR was significantly different (P age adults, HRR is attenuated further with the presence of hypertension, which may be attributable to an impairment of autonomic function. PMID:25301897

  16. Relationship between heart rate recovery and inflammatory markers in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Giallauria Francesco; Orio Francesco; Lombardi Gaetano; Colao Annamaria; Vigorito Carlo; Tafuri Maria; Palomba Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease closely related to several risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR), an easily-obtained measure derived from exercise stress test and closely related to an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, has been recently described in PCOS women. A subclinical increase of the inflammation markers has been also observed in the PCOS. This study was designed to study the relationships ...

  17. High population increase rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    In addition to its economic and ethnic difficulties, the USSR faces several pressing demographic problems, including high population increase rates in several of its constituent republics. It has now become clear that although the country's rigid centralized planning succeeded in covering the basic needs of people, it did not lead to welfare growth. Since the 1970s, the Soviet economy has remained sluggish, which as led to increase in the death and birth rates. Furthermore, the ideology that held that demography could be entirely controlled by the country's political and economic system is contradicted by current Soviet reality, which shows that religion and ethnicity also play a significant role in demographic dynamics. Currently, Soviet republics fall under 2 categories--areas with high or low natural population increase rates. Republics with low rates consist of Christian populations (Armenia, Moldavia, Georgia, Byelorussia, Russia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine), while republics with high rates are Muslim (Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirgizia, Azerbaijan Kazakhstan). The later group has natural increase rates as high as 3.3%. Although the USSR as a whole is not considered a developing country, the later group of republics fit the description of the UNFPA's priority list. Another serious demographic issue facing the USSR is its extremely high rate of abortion. This is especially true in the republics of low birth rates, where up to 60% of all pregnancies are terminated by induced abortions. Up to 1/5 of the USSR's annual health care budget is spent on clinical abortions -- money which could be better spent on the production of contraceptives. Along with the recent political and economic changes, the USSR is now eager to deal with its demographic problems.

  18. Building a better methane generation model: Validating models with methane recovery rates from 35 Canadian landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Shirley; Sawyer, Jennifer; Bonam, Rathan; Valdivia, J E

    2009-07-01

    The German EPER, TNO, Belgium, LandGEM, and Scholl Canyon models for estimating methane production were compared to methane recovery rates for 35 Canadian landfills, assuming that 20% of emissions were not recovered. Two different fractions of degradable organic carbon (DOC(f)) were applied in all models. Most models performed better when the DOC(f) was 0.5 compared to 0.77. The Belgium, Scholl Canyon, and LandGEM version 2.01 models produced the best results of the existing models with respective mean absolute errors compared to methane generation rates (recovery rates + 20%) of 91%, 71%, and 89% at 0.50 DOC(f) and 171%, 115%, and 81% at 0.77 DOC(f). The Scholl Canyon model typically overestimated methane recovery rates and the LandGEM version 2.01 model, which modifies the Scholl Canyon model by dividing waste by 10, consistently underestimated methane recovery rates; this comparison suggested that modifying the divisor for waste in the Scholl Canyon model between one and ten could improve its accuracy. At 0.50 DOC(f) and 0.77 DOC(f) the modified model had the lowest absolute mean error when divided by 1.5 yielding 63 +/- 45% and 2.3 yielding 57 +/- 47%, respectively. These modified models reduced error and variability substantially and both have a strong correlation of r = 0.92.

  19. Recovery and permanent radiation damage of plastic scintillators at different dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicken, B.; Holm, U.; Marckmann, T.; Wick, K.; Rhode, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the radiation stability of plastic scintillators and wavelength shifters for the calorimeter of the ZEUS detector by irradiating them with protons, a 60 Co-source, and depleted uranium. Changes in light yield, absorption length and absorption coefficient have been measured for storage in inert and oxygen atmospheres during and after irradiation. Radiation doses up to 40 kGy with dose rates of 30 up to 2000 Gy/h have been applied. The polystyrene based scintillator SCSN-38 and the wavelength shifters Y-7 and K-27 in PMMA show an additional absorption but a recovery in air to a low permanent damage (at 10 kGy) which is proportional to the applied dose. Series investigations on samples of all production cycles of the ZEUS scintillators with high dose rates show only minor differences in radiation hardness. The recovery is described by a simple oxygen diffusion model for high and medium dose rates down to 30 Gy/h. During long term irradiations at low dose rates (<100 Gy/h) of 3 mm thick SCSN-38 in air the radiation damage recovers to a permanent damage which does not depend on the dose rate. On the other hand the radiation damage at very low dose rates (17 Gy/a) seems to be higher than expected for the accumulated dose

  20. Improving the rate of Cu+2 recovery from industrial wastewater using a vertical array of reciprocating perforated zin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. El-Shazly

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the possibility of improving the rate of Cu+2 recovery and/or removal from industrial wastewater by cementation technique using an array of pulsating horizontal perforated zinc discs. The results show that the rate of cementation was found to increase by increasing frequency and amplitude of oscillation (vibrating velocity; disc diameter; copper ion concentration and solution temperature while decreasing by increasing the disc separation. Under certain conditions using pulsating array of perforated zinc discs was found to increase the rate of mass transfer by a factor of 17 times the stagnant discs. The activation energy of the reaction was found to be 8.948 kcal/mol which indicates that under the present conditions cementation takes place under mixed control, i.e. the reaction is partially diffusion control. As such no overall mass transfer correlation could be obtained.

  1. Liraglutide as adjunct to insulin treatment in type 1 diabetes does not interfere with glycaemic recovery or gastric emptying rate during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Christian S.; Dejgaard, Thomas F.; Andersen, Henrik U.

    2017-01-01

    significantly between groups (P =.96), with no significant changes from baseline, whether evaluated from AUCs or time to peak. The secondary endpoints, glycaemic recovery, counter-regulatory hormone responses, systolic blood pressure and GLP-1 and PP responses, were also similar. Heart rate increased...... 1.2 mg once daily or placebo as add-on to insulin treatment. Before and at end of treatment a hypoglycaemic clamp (plasma glucose target 2.5 mmol/L) was carried out, followed by a liquid meal. Primary endpoint was change in GE rate (evaluated by area under the paracetamol curve and time to peak......). Secondary endpoints included changes in glycaemic recovery, counter-regulatory hormones, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), GLP-1, blood pressure and heart rate. Results: During the period June 2013 to October 2014, 20 patients were enrolled. After 12 weeks of treatment, changes in GE rates did not differ...

  2. Liraglutide as adjunct to insulin treatment in type 1 diabetes does not interfere with glycaemic recovery or gastric emptying rate during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Christian Seerup; Dejgaard, Thomas Fremming; Andersen, Henrik Ullits

    2017-01-01

    groups (p = 0.96), with no significant changes from baseline whether evaluated from AUCs or time to peak. The secondary endpoints: glycaemic recovery, counterregulatory hormone responses, systolic blood pressure and GLP-1 and PP responses were also similar. Heart rate increased with liraglutide from 69.......2 mg once daily or placebo as add-on to insulin treatment. Before and at end of treatment a hypoglycaemic clamp (plasma glucose target 2.5 mmol/l) was carried out followed by a liquid meal. Primary endpoint was change in GE rate (evaluated by area under the paracetamol curve and time to peak......). Secondary endpoints included changes in glycaemic recovery, counterregulatory hormones, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), GLP-1, blood pressure, and heart rate. RESULTS: During June 2013-October 2014, 20 patients were enrolled. After 12 weeks' treatment, changes in GE rates did not differ significantly between...

  3. Miscible fluid displacement: an answer to increasing oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, N R; Rivera, R J

    1976-01-01

    This study presents the state of the art on miscible and miscible-type processes. It is well known that when these processes are applied under ideal laboratory conditions, the oil recovery obtained from linear cores approaches 100% of the total oil contained in the porous structure which is contacted by the displacing fluids. In the past few years, a worldwide shortage of crude oil supplies produced an increased interest in new oil recovery methods. Because of this situation, the oil industry turned its eyes back toward the miscible processes. This study discusses the following miscible fluid displacement processes: (1) high-pressure dry gas displacement; (2) enriched gas displacement; (3) GLP slug flooding; and (4) carbon dioxide displacement. In addition to the processes aforementioned, this work presents the main features of the micellar solution flooding process. (17 refs.)

  4. Northern Pintail (Anas acuta survival, recovery, and harvest rates derived from 55 years of banding in Prairie Canada, 1960-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake A. Bartzen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Northern Pintail (Anas acuta; hereafter pintail experienced a significant population decline in North America in the 1980s but did not rebound to the previous population level the way that other prairie dabbling duck species (Anas spp. did once habitat conditions improved. Although the population decline occurred throughout the breeding range of pintails, the decline was most pronounced and sustained in Prairie Canada, i.e., southern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Thus, we estimated and examined annual survival, recovery, and harvest rates of pintails banded in Prairie Canada from 1960-2014. Annual survival rates varied by sex but were relatively high compared to those of other dabbling duck species and increased slightly over the study period to end at 0.64 ± 0.13 (SE and 0.74 ± 0.10 for females and males, respectively. Recovery and harvest rates varied over time but generally declined in the 1980s and increased from the early 1990s until the end of the study period. There was no clear evidence that hunting bag limit restrictions affected annual survival, recovery, or harvest rates. In addition, we could find no compelling evidence that harvest mortality was substantially additive to nonharvest mortality for pintails. However, we could not definitively ascertain the effects of the restrictions, and we suggest that a trial basis of liberalized hunting bag limits would do much to improve the understanding of harvest and population dynamics of pintails and pose little risk to the population. Based on our results, we believe that measures other than harvest restrictions will likely have to be taken to elevate the pintail population to the North American Waterfowl Management Plan objective.

  5. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane...... distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The flux of SGMD increased with an increase in temperature, feed flow rate or sweeping gas flow rate. Increased temperature and feed flow rate also increased the concentration factors...... the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption...

  6. Rate and predictors of employment among formerly polysubstance dependent urban individuals in recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudet, Alexandre B

    2012-01-01

    Employment is a key functioning index in addiction services and consistently emerges as a goal among individuals in recovery. Research on the employment status in the addiction field has focused on treatment populations or welfare recipients; little is known of employment rates or their predictors among individuals in recovery. This study seeks to fill this gap, capitalizing on a sample (N = 311) of urban individuals at various stages of recovery. Fewer than half (44.5%) of participants were employed; in logistic regressions, male gender and Caucasian race enhanced the odds of employment, whereas having a comorbid chronic physical or mental health condition decreased the odds by half. Implications center on the need to identify effective strategies to enhance employability among women and minorities and for integrated care for individuals with multiple chronic conditions.

  7. The Acute Effect of Local Vibration As a Recovery Modality from Exercise-Induced Increased Muscle Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Pournot, Jérémy Tindel, Rodolphe Testa, Laure Mathevon, Thomas Lapole

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Exercise involving eccentric muscle contractions is known to decrease range of motion and increase passive muscle stiffness. This study aimed at using ultrasound shear wave elastography to investigate acute changes in biceps brachii passive stiffness following intense barbell curl exercise involving both concentric and eccentric contractions. The effect of local vibration (LV as a recovery modality from exercise-induced increased stiffness was further investigated. Eleven subjects performed 4 bouts of 10 bilateral barbell curl movements at 70% of the one-rep maximal flexion force. An arm-to-arm comparison model was then used with one arm randomly assigned to the passive recovery condition and the other arm assigned to the LV recovery condition (10 min of 55-Hz vibration frequency and 0.9-mm amplitude. Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus measurements were performed prior to exercise (PRE, immediately after exercise (POST-EX and 5 min after the recovery period (POST-REC. Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus was significantly increased at POST-EX (+53 ± 48%; p < 0.001 and POST-REC (+31 ± 46%; p = 0.025 when compared to PRE. No differences were found between passive and LV recovery (p = 0.210. LV as a recovery strategy from exercise-induced increased muscle stiffness was not beneficial, probably due to an insufficient mechanical action of vibrations.

  8. Recovery of strain-hardening rate in Ni-Si alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. L.; Zhang, Z. J.; Cai, T.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the recovery of strain-hardening rate (RSHR) was discovered for the first time in polycrystalline materials (Ni-Si alloys) that have only dislocation activities during tensile test. Detailed microstructure characterizations show that the activation of dislocations in the secondary slip systems during tensile deformation is the major reason for this RSHR. By taking into account other metals that also exhibit RSHR during tension, a more general mechanism for the RSHR was proposed, i.e. the occurrence of a sharp decrease of dislocation mean free path (Λ) during plastic deformation, caused by either planar defects or linear defects.

  9. Traditional risk factors as determinants of heart rate recovery in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 without known coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaban, Sanny; Afif Siregar, A.; Hasan, H.; Aryfa Andra, C.

    2018-03-01

    The impact of Traditional risk factors on heart rate recovery (HRR) has not been studied in patients Diabetes Mellitus type 2 without known coronary artery disease (CAD). For this reason, we sought to determine the association between HRR as cardiac autonomic dysfunction marker and traditonal risk factors. The study was conducted with a cross-sectional study involving 89 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus without known having coronary artery disease. The data was taken through anamnese and laboratory tests, and subjects who met the criteria were tested for a treadmill exercise to assess heart rate recovery in the first minute. In bivariate analysis Dyslipidemia, Hypertension, smoker, age, duration of DM≥ 5 years, HbA1C ≥7.5, Peak Heart rate, functional capacity and ST depression ischemic have an association with heart rate recovery. In multivariate analysis patients with hyper triglyceride, smoker, overweight, duration of diabetes ≥ five years and HbA1C ≥ 7,5 have lower heart rate recovery significantly. Traditional risk factors are determinant factors for heart rate recovery in patients with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 without known coronary artery disease.

  10. Recovery rates of infants with cryptorchidism before 15 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Cryptorchidism or undescended testicle, with a prevalence of 33 percent in preterm and 3-5 percent in term infants, is the most common congenital abnormality in newborn boys. The present study aimed to assess the recovery rate and urinary tract infection among infants with cryptorchidism during the first 15 months of their life.         Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 47 infants with cryptorchidism in Zahedan city (Iran in 2012. The infants’ birth weight, preterm/term birth, delivery method, and affected testicle along with maternal age, history of urinary tract infection during pregnancy, and number of pregnancies were collected. Information about the infants’ urinary tract infection and recovery from cryptorchidism was collected through observations and trimonthly phone calls until the 15th month after birth. Percentage and mean were used for data analysis. Results: Of the 47 studied infants, 63.82 percent were premature, 59.57 percent had right-side cryptorchidism, and 80.60 percent developed urinary tract infection at least once. The highest incidence of urinary tract infection (29.8 percent was seen at the age of three months old. The majority of infants (91.5 percent recovered during the course of the study and the recovery rate at the fifth, 10th, and 15th months were 31.9 percent, 38.3 percent and 21.3 percent,respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed the high prevalence of urinary tract infection among infants with cryptorchidism. It also showed that most infants with cryptorchidism recover within 15 months of age.

  11. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on resting heart rate, heart rate recovery after exercise, and heart rate variability in men with healed myocardial infarctions and depressed ejection fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, James H; Abuissa, Hussam; Sastre, Antonio; Steinhaus, David M; Harris, William S

    2006-04-15

    We explored possible mechanisms by which recommended intakes of omega-3 fatty acids may decrease the risk for sudden cardiac death in patients with documented coronary heart disease. The cardioprotective effects of omega-3 fatty acids have been documented in epidemiologic and randomized controlled trials. These fatty acids are presumed to decrease susceptibility to fatal arrhythmias, but whether this is mediated by classic risk factors or direct cardiac mechanisms is not known. Eighteen white men with a history of myocardial infarction and ejection fractions <40% were randomized to placebo or omega-3 fatty acids (585 mg of docosahexaenoic acid and 225 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid) for two 4-month periods in a crossover design. At the end of each period, heart rate (HR), HR variability, and rate of HR recovery after exercise were determined, as were effects on arterial compliance, blood pressure, cardiac function, and fasting serum levels of lipids and inflammatory markers. Omega-3 fatty acids decreased HR at rest from 73 +/- 13 to 68 +/- 13 beats/min (p <0.0001) and improved 1-minute HR recovery after exercise (-27 +/- 10 to -32 +/- 12 beats/min, p <0.01). HR variability in the high-frequency band increased (p <0.02), but no change was noted in overall HR variability. There were no significant effects on blood pressure, arterial compliance, lipids, or inflammatory markers. These changes are consistent with an increase in vagal activity and may in part explain the observed decrease in risk for sudden cardiac death seen with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation.

  12. Small Business Administration (SBA) Loan Program Performance- Post-Charge Off Recovery Rates by Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Reflects total post-charge off recovery rates, as a percent of the amounts charged off by charge off year, for the major loan programs and aggregate totals by charge...

  13. Ex-vivo glucose sensors using micro-dialysis: importance of on-line recovery rate determination by multi-analyte infrared spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlsing, Thorsten; Delbeck, Sven; Budde, Janpeter; Cocchieri, Lars; Ihrig, Dieter; Leonhardt, Steffen; Heise, H. M.

    2015-03-01

    Micro-dialysis has been established in the clinical environment for continuously harvesting body fluids, but a drawback of this process are variable recovery rates, which can be observed especially for subcutaneously implanted catheters. Perfusates with either acetate or mannitol have been investigated as recovery markers. The latter substance is suggested for application with external cavity tuneable quantum cascade lasers, rendering a limited wavenumber interval in contrast to FTIR-spectrometers. Despite the overlap of mannitol and glucose spectra, their simultaneous quantification was successful. By investigating the depletion of the marker substances from the perfusates using different micro-dialysis devices, the theoretical nonlinear relationship between the relative dialysate marker concentration and glucose recovery rate was confirmed for the marker substance-analyte pair of acetate and glucose, rendering a basis for reliable blood glucose measurements. For the pair of mannitol and glucose an almost linear dependency was expected for the microdialysate catheters and experimentally verified, which provides a straightforward correction of any dialysis recovery rate variation during patient monitoring.

  14. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Jäger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29 recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01, with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08. The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (−39.8 watts, −5.3%, p = 0.03, whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%. Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage

  15. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Ralf; Shields, Kevin A.; Lowery, Ryan P.; De Souza, Eduardo O.; Partl, Jeremy M.; Hollmer, Chase; Purpura, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29) recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm) were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO) or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC) in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01), with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08). The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (−39.8 watts, −5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%). Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery

  16. Addressing the recovery of feeding rates in post-exposure feeding bioassays: Cyathura carinata as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pais-Costa, Antonia Juliana [IMAR—Institute of Marine Research, MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Acevedo, Pelayo [SaBio IREC, Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (UCLM-CSIC-JCCM), Ciudad Real 13005 (Spain); Marques, João Carlos [IMAR—Institute of Marine Research, MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Martinez-Haro, Mónica, E-mail: monica.martinezharo@gmail.com [IMAR—Institute of Marine Research, MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-02-15

    Post-exposure bioassays are used in environmental assessment as a cost-effective tool, but the effects of organism's recovery after exposure to pollutant has not yet been addressed in detail. The recoveries of post-exposure feeding rates after being exposed to two sublethal concentrations of cadmium during two different exposure periods (48 h and 96 h) were evaluated under laboratory conditions using the estuarine isopod Cyathura carinata. Results showed that feeding depression was a stable endpoint up to 24 h after cadmium exposure, which is useful for ecotoxicological bioassays. - Highlights: • We studied recovery of post-exposure feeding rates 48–96 h after cadmium exposure. • The assay is based on the isopod Cyathura carinata. • Post-exposure feeding inhibition is a stable sublethal endpoint.

  17. A method for studying post-fledging survival rates using data from ringing recoveries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, D.L.; Baillie, S.R.; Peach, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    We present a method for studying post-fledging survival rates from data on national ringing recoveries. The approach extends the classical two-age-class models of Brownie et al. (1985) to include a third age-class of birds ringed as nestlings. The models can incorporate age-class-specific and

  18. Relationship between heart rate recovery and inflammatory markers in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallauria, Francesco; Orio, Francesco; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo; Tafuri, Maria Giovanna; Palomba, Stefano

    2009-02-02

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease closely related to several risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR), an easily-obtained measure derived from exercise stress test and closely related to an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, has been recently described in PCOS women. A subclinical increase of the inflammation markers has been also observed in the PCOS. This study was designed to study the relationships between HRR and inflammatory markers in PCOS women. Two-hundred forty-three young PCOS patients without known risk factors for cardiovascular risk were enrolled. All patients underwent hormonal and metabolic profile, white blood cells (WBCs) count and C-reactive protein (CRP). HRR was calculated as the difference between heart rate at peak exercise and heart rate at first minute of the cool-down period. Abnormal HRR was defined as PCOS patients with abnormal versus normal HRR. HRR was significantly associated with both CRP (r = -0.33, p PCOS women acting probably in concert to increase the cardiovascular risk profile of these patients.

  19. Effects of topical application of aqueous solutions of hexoses on epidermal permeability barrier recovery rate after barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested that hexose molecules influence the stability of phospholipid bilayers. Therefore, the effects of topical application of all 12 stereoisomers of dextro-hexose on the epidermal barrier recovery rate after barrier disruption were evaluated. Immediately after tape stripping, 0.1 m aqueous solution of each hexose was applied on hairless mouse skin. Among the eight dextro-aldohexoses, topical application of altose, idose, mannose and talose accelerated the barrier recovery, while allose, galactose, glucose and gulose had no effect. Among the four dextro-ketohexoses, psicose, fructose, sorbose and tagatose all accelerated the barrier recovery. As the effects of hexoses on the barrier recovery rate appeared within 1 h, the mechanism is unlikely to be genomic. Instead, these hexoses may influence phase transition of the lipid bilayers of lamellar bodies and cell membrane, a crucial step in epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Heart Rate Variability of Athletes Across Concussion Recovery Milestones: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthinathan, Arrani; Mainwaring, Lynda M; Hutchison, Michael

    2017-05-01

    To assess heart rate variability (HRV) in athletes with concussion across three phases of recovery. A prospective matched control group design included the collection of HRV and symptoms measured by the Rivermead Post-Concussion Questionnaire. These measures were taken at 3 phases of recovery [(1) symptomatic; (2). asymptomatic; and (3) one-week after return-to-play (RTP)]. The same protocol was completed by noninjured athletes. Interuniversity sports teams at a single institution. 11 athletes, across 7 sports, diagnosed with concussion, and 11 matched-athlete controls volunteered for the study. Physician diagnosed concussion and a sitting to standing protocol for HRV monitoring. The frequency, time, and nonlinear domains of HRV were assessed along with the absolute difference between sitting and standing for each. A 2 x 3 (group x phase) repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed significant interactions for sitting High Frequency (HF) norm, sitting Low Frequency (LF) norm, the difference between sitting and standing HF norm, and difference between sitting and standing LF norm. Acutely, athletes with concussion displayed increased LF norm and decreased HF norm while sitting and a decreased change in their HF and LF norm measures between sitting and standing. A significant group effect for sample entropy when standing was detected, with the concussed group displaying decreased values compared with the matched controls. Athletes with concussion displayed autonomic dysfunction in some measures of HRV that persisted beyond RTP and were related to a previous history of concussion.

  1. Survival, fidelity, and recovery rates of white-winged doves in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2012-03-12

    Management of migratory birds at the national level has historically relied on regulatory boundaries for definition of harvest restrictions and estimation of demographic parameters. Most species of migratory game birds are not expanding their ranges, so migratory corridors are approximately fixed. White-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica), however, have undergone significant variation in population structure with marked range expansion occurring in Texas, and range contraction in Arizona, during the last 30 years. Because >85% of white-winged dove harvest in the United States (approx. 1.3 million annually) now occurs in Texas, information on vital rates of expanding white-winged dove populations is necessary for informed management. We used band recovery and mark-recapture data to investigate variation in survival and harvest across 3 geographic strata for white-winged doves banded in the pre-hunting season in Texas during 2007-2010. We banded 60,742 white-winged doves, recovered 2,458 bands via harvest reporting, and recaptured 455 known-age birds between 2007 and 2010. The best supporting model found some evidence for geographic differences in survival rates among strata (A-C) in both hatch-year (juvenile; A = 0.205 [SE = 0.0476], B = 0.213 [SE = 0.0278], C = 0.364 [SE = 0.0254]) and after-hatch year (adult; A = 0.483 [SE = 0.0775], B = 0.465 [SE = 0.0366], C = 0.538 [SE = 0.251]) birds. White-winged doves had a low probability of moving among strata (0.009) or being recaptured (0.002) across all strata. Harvest recovery rates were concordant with estimates for other dove species, but were variable across geographic strata. Based on our results, harvest management strategies for white-winged doves in Texas and elsewhere should consider differences in population vital rates among geographic strata. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  2. Relationship between adiposity and heart rate recovery following an exercise stress test in obese older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rocha da Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare differences in heart rate (HR response during and following exercise in obese older women with different percent body fat levels. Ninety older, obese women aged 60-87 years participated in the study, were categorized, and enrolled to one of two groups based on a lower percent body fat (LPBF ≤ 41.10 % or higher percent body fat (HPBF > 41.10 % as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The peak HR during exercise and in the first and second minutes of recovery period were compared between groups. The HPBF group presented a lower peak HR during exercise (p = 0.001 and an impaired HR recovery (p = 0.001 when compared to LPBF group. The present study demonstrated that older women who were in exceedingly obese level have an impaired heart rate response during exercise and in the recovery period, indicating possible autonomic dysfunction.

  3. Desensitization and recovery of phototropic responsiveness in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoudi, A.K.; Poff, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Phototropism is induced by blue light, which also induces desensitization, a partial or total loss of phototropic responsiveness. The fluence and fluence-rate dependence of densensitization and recovery from desensitization have been measured for etiolated and red light (669-nm) preirradiated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. The extent of desensitization increased as the fluence of the desensitizing 450-nm light was increased from 0.3 to 60 μmol m -2 s -1 . At equal fluences, blue light caused more desensitization when given at a fluence rate of 1.0 μmol m -2 s -1 than at 0.3 μmol m -2 s -1 . In addition, seedlings irradiated with blue light at the higher fluence rate required a longer recovery time than seedlings irradiated at the lower fluence rate. A red light preirradiation, probably mediated via phytochrome, decreased the time required for recovery from desensitization. The minimum time for detectable recovery was about 65 s, and the maximum time observed was about 10 min. It is proposed that the descending arm of the fluence-response relationship for first positive phototropism is a consequence of desensitization, and that the time threshold for second positive phototropism establishes a period during which recovery from desensitization occurs. 11 refs., 6 figs

  4. Desensitization and recovery of phototropic responsiveness in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoudi, A. K.; Poff, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    Phototropism is induced by blue light, which also induces desensitization, a partial or total loss of phototropic responsiveness. The fluence and fluence-rate dependence of desensitization and recovery from desensitization have been measured for etiolated and red light (669-nm) preirradiated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. The extent of desensitization increased as the fluence of the desensitizing 450-nm light was increased from 0.3 to 60 micromoles m-2 s-1. At equal fluences, blue light caused more desensitization when given at a fluence rate of 1.0 micromole m-2 s-1 than at 0.3 micromole m-2 s-1. In addition, seedlings irradiated with blue light at the higher fluence rate required a longer recovery time than seedlings irradiated at the lower fluence rate. A red light preirradiation, probably mediated via phytochrome, decreased the time required for recovery from desensitization. The minimum time for detectable recovery was about 65 s, and the maximum time observed was about 10 min. It is proposed that the descending arm of the fluence-response relationship for first positive phototropism is a consequence of desensitization, and that the time threshold for second positive phototropism establishes a period during which recovery from desensitization occurs.

  5. New technology for sulfide reductions and increased oil recovery: Petroleum project fact sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-14

    This Fact Sheet is written for the Inventions and Innovations Program about a new technology for sulfide reduction and increased oil recovery. The new technology, called Bio-Competitive Exclusion (BCX), results in greater oil production and prevents the production of corrosive hydrogen sulfide in oil and gas reservoirs. This BCX process is initiated and maintained by a new product, called Max-Well 2000, in which nutrients are custom designed to stimulate targeted beneficial microorganisms that live in every oil and gas reservoir. Rapid growth of these microorganisms excludes activity of harmful sulfide-producing bacteria and produces by-products that serve as effective tertiary oil recovery agents and as sulfide degradation agents. Oil and gas production is both increased and sweetened.

  6. Importance of intrahepatic mechanisms to gluconeogenesis from alanine during exercise and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, D.H.; Williams, P.E.; Lacy, D.B.; Green, D.R.; Cherrington, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    These studies were performed to assess the importance of intrahepatic mechanisms to gluconeogenesis in the dog during 150 min of treadmill exercise and 90 min of recovery. Sampling catheters were implanted in an artery and portal and hepatic veins 16 days before experimentation. Infusions of [U- 14 C]alanine, [3- 3 H]glucose, and indocyanine green were used to assess gluconeogenesis. During exercise, a decline in arterial and portal vein plasma alanine and in hepatic blood flow led to a decrease in hepatic alanine delivery. During recovery, hepatic blood flow was restored to basal, causing an increase in hepatic alanine delivery beyond exercise rates but still below resting rates. Hepatic fractional alanine extraction increased from 0.26 +/- 0.02 at rest to 0.64 +/- 0.03 during exercise and remained elevated during recovery. Net hepatic alanine uptake was 2.5 +/- 0.2 mumol.kg-1.min-1 at rest and remained unchanged during exercise but was increased during recovery. The conversion rate of [ 14 C]alanine to glucose had increased by 248 +/- 38% by 150 min of exercise and had increased further during recovery. The efficiency with which alanine was channeled into glucose in the liver was accelerated to a rate of 338 +/- 55% above basal by 150 min of exercise but declined slightly during recovery. In conclusion, 1) gluconeogenesis from alanine is accelerated during exercise, due to an increase in the hepatic fractional extraction of the amino acid and through intrahepatic mechanisms that more efficiently channel it into glucose

  7. Ruminant urine increases uptake but decreases relative recovery of nitrogen by smooth brome grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and excreta return may contribute to poor nutrient recovery and use efficiencies in pastures. From 2011-2012, we investigated the effects of ruminant urine input (urine and distilled water control) and N fertilizer rate (0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 lb N/acre) on N res...

  8. BEATRIX-II: In-situ tritium recovery data correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagle, O.D.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Kurasawa, T.; Verrall, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    BEATRIX-II was an in-situ tritium recovery experiment in a fast reactor to characterize the irradiation behavior of fusion ceramic breeder materials. Correcting and compiling the in-situ tritium recovery data involved correcting the ion chamber response for the effect of sweep gas composition or amount of hydrogen in the helium sweep gas and for the buildup of background. The effect of sweep gas composition was addressed in the previous workshop. During the operation of Phase I of the experiment the backgrounds of the ion chambers were found to reach significant levels relative to the tritium recovery concentrations in the sweep gas from the specimen canisters. The measured tritium concentrations were corrected for background by comparing the tritium recovery rate during reference conditions with the predicted tritium generation rate. Background increases were found to be associated with tritium recovery peaks and elevated levels of moisture in the sweep gas. These conditions typically occurred when the hydrogen concentration in the sweep gas was increased to 0.1% after extended operation in He or He-0.01% H 2 . Three examples of this increase in ionization chamber background are described. The final corrected BEATRIX-II, Phase I tritium recovery data provide a valuable resource to be used for predicting the performance of Li 2 O in a fusion blanket application

  9. Cold water immersion recovery following intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointon, Monique; Duffield, Rob; Cannon, Jack; Marino, Frank E

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the effects of cold water immersion (CWI) on recovery of neuromuscular function following simulated team-sport exercise in the heat. Ten male team-sport athletes performed two sessions of a 2 × 30-min intermittent-sprint exercise (ISE) in 32°C and 52% humidity, followed by a 20-min CWI intervention or passive recovery (CONT) in a randomized, crossover design. The ISE involved a 15-m sprint every minute separated by bouts of hard running, jogging and walking. Voluntary and evoked neuromuscular function, ratings of perceived muscle soreness (MS) and blood markers for muscle damage were measured pre- and post-exercise, immediately post-recovery, 2-h and 24-h post-recovery. Measures of core temperature (Tcore), heart rate (HR), capillary blood and perceptions of exertion, thermal strain and thirst were also recorded at the aforementioned time points. Post-exercise maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and activation (VA) were reduced in both conditions and remained below pre-exercise values for the 24-h recovery (P recovery period (P recovery rate of reduction in Tcore, HR and MS was enhanced with CWI whilst increasing MVC and VA (P recovery MVC and activation were significantly higher in CONT compared to CWI (P = 0.05). Following exercise in the heat, CWI accelerated the reduction in thermal and cardiovascular load, and improved MVC alongside increased central activation immediately and 2-h post-recovery. However, despite improved acute recovery CWI resulted in an attenuated MVC 24-h post-recovery.

  10. Heart rate recovery improves after weight loss in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M; Norman, Robert J; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2010-03-01

    To determine the effects of weight loss on heart rate recovery (HRR) in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A 10-week prospective clinical intervention. Clinical research unit. Fifty-seven overweight and obese women with PCOS (age: 29.8 +/- 0.8 years; body mass index [BMI] 36.2 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2)). A dietary plan of 5-6 MJ/day ( approximately 30% energy restricted). Heart rate recovery (defined as the reduction in heart rate after 1 minute from peak heart rate after a graded treadmill test to exhaustion), weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and sex steroids before and after the intervention. The mean percentage of weight loss was (-6.7 +/- 0.4%). There were significant reductions in waist circumference (-6.9 +/- 0.6 cm), blood pressure (-4.9/-2.5 +/- 1.2/1.2 mm Hg), fasting insulin (-3.4 +/- 0.7 mU/L), fasting glucose (-0.17 +/- 0.05 mmol/L), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (-0.43 +/- 0.09), T (-0.38 +/- 0.07 nmol/L), free androgen index (-2.86 +/- 0.58), and an increase in sex hormone-binding globulin [SHBG] (5.86 +/- 1.12 nmol/L). The HRR improved from 30.9 +/- 1.1 to 38.0 +/- 1.1 beats/min and that was related to the reduction in body weight (r = -0.34) and waist circumference (r = -0.27). Weight loss in overweight and obese women with PCOS is associated with improvements in HRR, which suggests improved autonomic function. This highlights the importance of weight loss to reduce the cardiovascular disease risk in these women. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  12. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo A. Bisschoff, Ben Coetzee, Michael R. Esco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV, and heart rate recovery (HRR are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match, during (in-match, after (post-match and during rest periods (in-match rest of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014 was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626 and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085 and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258 for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  13. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschoff, Christo A; Coetzee, Ben; Esco, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV), and heart rate recovery (HRR) are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states) for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match), during (in-match), after (post-match) and during rest periods (in-match rest) of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014) was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626) and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085) and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258) for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  14. Heart rate variability recovery after a skyrunning marathon and correlates of performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Mertová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is well known that vigorous physical activity induces functional changes in cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS activity that is sustained several hours after exercise. However, data related to ANS recovery after more extreme endurance events, such as skyrunning marathons, are still lacking. Objective: The aims of this prospective cohort study were firstly, to determine the ANS response to a SkyMarathon, and secondly, to examine correlates of run performance. Methods: Ten male skyrunners aged 37.2 ± 9.2 years were recruited. The race was performed at a mean intensity 85.4 ± 3.7% of heart rate reserve, and lasted for 338 ± 38 min. Morning supine heart rate variability was measured at 10, 2 and 1 days before race, on the race day, at 5 min intervals for 30 min immediately post-race and then at 5 h and 30 h post. High-frequency power (HF, 0.15-0.50 Hz, low-frequency power (LF, 0.05-0.15 Hz, and square root of the mean of the squares of the successive differences (RMSSD were calculated and transformed by natural logarithm (Ln. Results: Sympathovagal balance (Ln LF/HF was most likely increased above baseline during the 30 min post-race and returned to baseline by 5 h. Vagal activity (Ln RMSSD and Ln HF was most likely decreased below baseline during the 30 min post-race and 5 h of post-race, and recovered to baseline by 30 h. Race time correlated with resting heart rate (r = .81, body mass index (r = .73, maximal power output (r = -.70, and maximal oxygen uptake (r = -.61. Conclusions: The SkyMarathon elicited disturbances in ANS activity, with relative sympathetic activity increased up to 5 h post-race and vagal activity recovering by 30 h. Resting heart rate, body mass index, maximal power output, and maximal oxygen uptake were associated with SkyMarathon performance prediction.

  15. Heart Rate Monitoring in Team Sports—A Conceptual Framework for Contextualizing Heart Rate Measures for Training and Recovery Prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schneider

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive monitoring of fitness, fatigue, and performance is crucial for understanding an athlete's individual responses to training to optimize the scheduling of training and recovery strategies. Resting and exercise-related heart rate measures have received growing interest in recent decades and are considered potentially useful within multivariate response monitoring, as they provide non-invasive and time-efficient insights into the status of the autonomic nervous system (ANS and aerobic fitness. In team sports, the practical implementation of athlete monitoring systems poses a particular challenge due to the complex and multidimensional structure of game demands and player and team performance, as well as logistic reasons, such as the typically large number of players and busy training and competition schedules. In this regard, exercise-related heart rate measures are likely the most applicable markers, as they can be routinely assessed during warm-ups using short (3–5 min submaximal exercise protocols for an entire squad with common chest strap-based team monitoring devices. However, a comprehensive and meaningful monitoring of the training process requires the accurate separation of various types of responses, such as strain, recovery, and adaptation, which may all affect heart rate measures. Therefore, additional information on the training context (such as the training phase, training load, and intensity distribution combined with multivariate analysis, which includes markers of (perceived wellness and fatigue, should be considered when interpreting changes in heart rate indices. The aim of this article is to outline current limitations of heart rate monitoring, discuss methodological considerations of univariate and multivariate approaches, illustrate the influence of different analytical concepts on assessing meaningful changes in heart rate responses, and provide case examples for contextualizing heart rate measures using

  16. Heart Rate Monitoring in Team Sports-A Conceptual Framework for Contextualizing Heart Rate Measures for Training and Recovery Prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christoph; Hanakam, Florian; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Döweling, Alexander; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive monitoring of fitness, fatigue, and performance is crucial for understanding an athlete's individual responses to training to optimize the scheduling of training and recovery strategies. Resting and exercise-related heart rate measures have received growing interest in recent decades and are considered potentially useful within multivariate response monitoring, as they provide non-invasive and time-efficient insights into the status of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and aerobic fitness. In team sports, the practical implementation of athlete monitoring systems poses a particular challenge due to the complex and multidimensional structure of game demands and player and team performance, as well as logistic reasons, such as the typically large number of players and busy training and competition schedules. In this regard, exercise-related heart rate measures are likely the most applicable markers, as they can be routinely assessed during warm-ups using short (3-5 min) submaximal exercise protocols for an entire squad with common chest strap-based team monitoring devices. However, a comprehensive and meaningful monitoring of the training process requires the accurate separation of various types of responses, such as strain, recovery, and adaptation, which may all affect heart rate measures. Therefore, additional information on the training context (such as the training phase, training load, and intensity distribution) combined with multivariate analysis, which includes markers of (perceived) wellness and fatigue, should be considered when interpreting changes in heart rate indices. The aim of this article is to outline current limitations of heart rate monitoring, discuss methodological considerations of univariate and multivariate approaches, illustrate the influence of different analytical concepts on assessing meaningful changes in heart rate responses, and provide case examples for contextualizing heart rate measures using simple heuristics. To

  17. NGL recovery increase through natural gasoline recirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas M., M.; Bracho, J.L.; Murray, J. [Lagoven S.A., Maracaibo (Venezuela). Western Div.

    1997-12-31

    Given that the gas being processed in the compression plants Tia Juana 2 (PCTJ-2) and Tia Juana 3 (PCTJ-3) of Lagoven, S.A., an operating affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. has become learner through time, current production of natural gas liquids (NGL) and plant efficiency are significantly lower, compared to design and first obtained values. In this sense and aimed at increasing propane production, an optimization study on condensate stream recirculation and absorber installation was carried out to affect the process equilibrium constants thereby obtaining deeper extraction. Recirculation streams options were recirculation of natural gasoline obtained from the downstream fractionation process and recirculation of a conditioned, unfractionated, deethanized condensate stream. From the study, the natural gasoline recirculation scheme was determined to be the most efficient NGL recovery process. Accordingly, Lagoven, S.A. has undertaken a project to carry out this optimization scheme in PCTJ-2 and PCTJ-3. Construction stages are currently underway with completion scheduled at the end of 1997.

  18. The effect of emotion on articulation rate in persistence and recovery of childhood stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Aysu; Walden, Tedra A; Jefferson, Caswell M; Choi, Dahye; Jones, Robin M

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated the possible association of emotional processes and articulation rate in pre-school age children who stutter and persist (persisting), children who stutter and recover (recovered) and children who do not stutter (nonstuttering). The participants were ten persisting, ten recovered, and ten nonstuttering children between the ages of 3-5 years; who were classified as persisting, recovered, or nonstuttering approximately 2-2.5 years after the experimental testing took place. The children were exposed to three emotionally-arousing video clips (baseline, positive and negative) and produced a narrative based on a text-free storybook following each video clip. From the audio-recordings of these narratives, individual utterances were transcribed and articulation rates were calculated. Results indicated that persisting children exhibited significantly slower articulation rates following the negative emotion condition, unlike recovered and nonstuttering children whose articulation rates were not affected by either of the two emotion-inducing conditions. Moreover, all stuttering children displayed faster rates during fluent compared to stuttered speech; however, the recovered children were significantly faster than the persisting children during fluent speech. Negative emotion plays a detrimental role on the speech-motor control processes of children who persist, whereas children who eventually recover seem to exhibit a relatively more stable and mature speech-motor system. This suggests that complex interactions between speech-motor and emotional processes are at play in stuttering recovery and persistency; and articulation rates following negative emotion or during stuttered versus fluent speech might be considered as potential factors to prospectively predict persistence and recovery from stuttering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Terrestrial ecosystem recovery - Modelling the effects of reduced acidic inputs and increased inputs of sea-salts induced by global change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, C.; Moldan, F.; Wright, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    to 3 large-scale "clean rain" experiments, the so-called roof experiments at Risdalsheia, Norway; Gardsjon, Sweden, and Klosterhede, Denmark. Implementation of the Gothenburg protocol will initiate recovery of the soils at all 3 sites by rebuilding base saturation. The rate of recovery is small...

  20. Growth hormone transgenic tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) compensate for increased metabolic rate to preserve exercise performance and hypoxia tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Martínez, R.; Morales, A.

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic tilapia hybrids (Oreochromis mossambicus × O. hornorum) carrying a single copy of a homologous cDNA growth hormone exhibit higher growth rates than their wild-type conspecifics (Martinez et al. 1999). Swimming respirometry was employed to determine whether the increased growth rate...... higher in transgenics, such that aerobic scope was similar in both groups, and there was no difference in maximum sustainable U (5.2 ± 0.5 vs. 4.5 ± 0.7 bl s-1 in transgenics vs. wild-types, respectively). Following 2 h recovery from exercise, tilapia were exposed to progressive hypoxia (stepwise......Pa, respectively). The results indicate that stimulation of growth consequent to ectopic expression of growth hormone in transgenic tilapia (Martinez et al. 1999) is linked to increased rates of maintenance metabolism. The swimming and hypoxia experiments indicate, however, that the transgenics were able...

  1. Glomerular filtration rate and renal recovery of [14C]-allantoin in Bali and Zebu cattle of Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasitkusol, P.; Chen, X.B.; Orskov, E.R.; Kyle, D.J.; Yusiati, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The urinary recovery of [ 14 C]-allantoin injected into the blood of Bali Cattle (Bos banteng) and Zebu cattle (Bos indicus), and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of these animals, were determined. The cattle were fed with king grass at 95% of ad libitum intake. The recovery of [ 14 C]-allantoin in the urine was significantly higher for Bali (83 ± SE 0.94 %) than for Zebu Cattle (74 ± SE 0.79 %). There were no significant differences in GFR between Bali and Zebu cattle (302 ± SE23.8 and 285 ± SE18.7 L/d). Within each species, there was no significant effect of GFR on the [ 14 C]-allantoin recovery. It remains to be investigated whether the differences in [ 14 C]-allantoin recovery between species is affected by GFR. (author)

  2. Voluntary wheel running increases satellite cell abundance and improves recovery from disuse in gastrocnemius muscles from mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew J; Hajira, Ameena; Mohamed, Junaith S; Alway, Stephen E

    2018-02-22

    Reloading of atrophied muscles after hindlimb suspension unloading (HSU) can induce injury and prolong recovery. Low-impact exercise, such as voluntary wheel running, has been identified as a non-damaging rehabilitation therapy in rodents, but its effects on muscle function, morphology, and satellite cell activity after HSU are unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that low impact wheel running would increase satellite cell proliferation and improve recovery of muscle structure and function after HSU in mice. Young adult male and female C57BL/6 mice (n=6/group) were randomly placed into 5 groups. These included HSU without recovery (HSU), normal ambulatory recovery for 14 days after HSU (HSU+NoWR), and voluntary wheel running recovery for 14 days after HSU (HSU+WR). Two control groups were used: non-suspended mice-cage controls (Control) and voluntary wheel running controls (ControlWR). Satellite cell activation, was evaluated by providing mice 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in their drinking water. As expected, HSU significantly reduced in vivo maximal force and decreased the in vivo fatigability and decreased type I and IIa myosin heavy chain (MHC) abundance in plantarflexor muscles. HSU+WR mice significantly improved plantarflexor fatigue resistance, increased type type I and IIa MHC abundance, increased fiber cross sectional area (CSA), and an increased the percentage of type I and IIA muscle fibers in the gastrocnemius muscle. HSU+WR mice also had a significantly greater percentage of BrdU-positive and Pax 7 positive nuclei inside muscle fibers and a greater MyoD to Pax 7 protein ratio when compared to HSU+NoWR mice. The mechanotransduction protein Yes-associated protein (YAP) was elevated with reloading after HSU, but HSU+WR had lower levels of the inactive phosphorylated YAP serine127 which may have contributed to increased satellite cell activation creased with reloading after HSU. These results indicate that voluntary wheel running increased YAP

  3. Does lying in the recovery position increase the likelihood of not delivering cardiopulmonary resuscitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire-Tellado, Miguel; Navarro-Patón, Rubén; Pavón-Prieto, Maria Del Pilar; Fernández-López, Marta; Mateos-Lorenzo, Javier; López-Fórneas, Ivan

    2017-06-01

    Resuscitation guidelines endorse unconscious and normally breathing out-of-hospital victims to be placed in the recovery position to secure airway patency, but recently a debate has been opened as to whether the recovery position threatens the cardiac arrest victim's safety assessment and delays the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. To compare the assessment of the victim's breathing arrest while placed in the recovery position versus maintaining an open airway with the continuous head tilt and chin lift technique to know whether the recovery position delays the cardiac arrest victim's assessment and the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Basic life support-trained university students were randomly divided into two groups: one received a standardized cardiopulmonary resuscitation refresher course including the recovery position and the other received a modified cardiopulmonary resuscitation course using continuous head tilt and chin lift for unconscious and spontaneously breathing patients. A human simulation test to evaluate the victim's breathing assessment was performed a week later. In total, 59 participants with an average age of 21.9 years were included. Only 14 of 27 (51.85%) students in the recovery position group versus 23 of 28 (82.14%) in the head tilt and chin lift group p=0.006 (OR 6.571) detected breathing arrest within 2min. The recovery position hindered breathing assessment, delayed breathing arrest identification and the initiation of cardiac compressions, and significantly increased the likelihood of not starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation when compared to the results shown when the continuous head tilt and chin lift technique was used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Vehicle recovery and towing guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-01-15

    This guideline was developed to provide light and medium duty vehicles operators in the oil and gas industry with a set of best practices for avoiding injury and damage during the recovery of stuck vehicles. The aim of the guideline was to increase awareness of safety issues and promote the safe usage of the vehicles by personnel throughout the petroleum industry and to establish minimum standards of practice for vehicle recovery. The guideline included a step-by-step guide for pulling out a vehicle with a recovery strap as well as vehicle-mounted winch procedures. Pre-job checklists for both procedures were provided. Issues related to the strength rating of vehicle tow hooks and hitch receivers were discussed, as well as some of the hazards associated with steep terrains and heavy mud. The guideline also included recommendations for a vehicle recovery kit with instructions on vehicle recovery, a recovery strap, a recovery hitch and shackle, a collapsible shovel, traffic cones and reflector flares, and a heavy blanket and gloves. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  5. Cerebral circulation and metabolism with recovery of chronic poststroke aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tomoyuki; Kabasawa, Hidehiro; Matsubara, Michitaka; Hibino, Hiroaki; Kamimoto, Kaoru; Fukagawa, Kazutoshi

    2004-01-01

    The recruitment of cerebral circulation and oxygen metabolism in the particular brain areas responsible for poststroke aphasia are necessary for recovery. This study was undertaken to investigate changes in cerebral circulation and oxygen metabolism corresponding to improvement of aphasia. Twenty-nine right-handed chronic aphasic patients with left hemispheric stroke were studied. Aphasia was evaluated as the score of fluency, comprehension, repetition and naming by the Western Aphasia Battery (Japanese version). Concurrent with the evaluation of aphasia, positron emission tomography (PET) scans were performed. After several months of speech therapy, PET scans and evaluation of aphasia were reperformed. Both regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen significantly increased in the left upper superior and middle temporal gyri, and in the left upper inferior frontal gyrus in the fair recovery group for comprehension, repetition and naming. In the fair recovery group for fluency, the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen significantly increased in the left upper superior and middle temporal gyri, but regional cerebral blood flow increased insignificantly in these areas. In the lower white matter of the right parietal lobe, both the regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen were significantly increased in the fair recovery group for all aphasic features. The recruitment of cerebral circulation and oxygen metabolism in the left temporo-parietal area, in the left inferior frontal area, and in the right deep parietal area are essentially responsible for the recovery of aphasia. (author)

  6. Caffeine delays autonomic recovery following acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunsawat, Kanokwan; White, Daniel W; Kappus, Rebecca M; Baynard, Tracy

    2015-11-01

    Impaired autonomic recovery of heart rate (HR) following exercise is associated with an increased risk of sudden death. Caffeine, a potent stimulator of catecholamine release, has been shown to augment blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic nerve activity; however, whether caffeine alters autonomic function after a bout of exercise bout remains unclear. In a randomized, crossover study, 18 healthy individuals (26 ± 1 years; 23.9 ± 0.8 kg·m(-2)) ingested caffeine (400 mg) or placebo pills, followed by a maximal treadmill test to exhaustion. Autonomic function and ventricular depolarization/repolarization were determined using heart rate variability (HRV) and corrected QT interval (QTc), respectively, at baseline, 5, 15, and 30 minutes post-exercise. Maximal HR (HRmax) was greater with caffeine (192 ± 2 vs. 190 ± 2 beat·min(-1), p < 0.05). During recovery, HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) remained elevated with caffeine (p < 0.05). Natural log transformation of low-to-high frequency ratio (LnLF/LnHF) of HRV was increased compared with baseline at all time points in both trials (p < 0.05), with less of an increase during 5 and 15 minutes post-exercise in the caffeine trial (p < 0.05). QTc increased from baseline at all time points in both trials, with greater increases in the caffeine trial (p < 0.05). Caffeine ingestion disrupts post-exercise autonomic recovery because of increased sympathetic nerve activity. The prolonged sympathetic recovery time could subsequently hinder baroreflex function during recovery and disrupt the stability of autonomic function, potentiating a pro-arrhythmogenic state in young adults. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  7. In ecoregions across western USA streamflow increases during post-wildfire recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, Michael L.; Cadol, Daniel; Makhnin, Oleg

    2018-01-01

    Continued growth of the human population on Earth will increase pressure on already stressed terrestrial water resources required for drinking water, agriculture, and industry. This stress demands improved understanding of critical controls on water resource availability, particularly in water-limited regions. Mechanistic predictions of future water resource availability are needed because non-stationary conditions exist in the form of changing climatic conditions, land management paradigms, and ecological disturbance regimes. While historically ecological disturbances have been small and could be neglected relative to climatic effects, evidence is accumulating that ecological disturbances, particularly wildfire, can increase regional water availability. However, wildfire hydrologic impacts are typically estimated locally and at small spatial scales, via disparate measurement methods and analysis techniques, and outside the context of climate change projections. Consequently, the relative importance of climate change driven versus wildfire driven impacts on streamflow remains unknown across the western USA. Here we show that considering wildfire in modeling streamflow significantly improves model predictions. Mixed effects modeling attributed 2%-14% of long-term annual streamflow to wildfire effects. The importance of this wildfire-linked streamflow relative to predicted climate change-induced streamflow reductions ranged from 20%-370% of the streamflow decrease predicted to occur by 2050. The rate of post-wildfire vegetation recovery and the proportion of watershed area burned controlled the wildfire effect. Our results demonstrate that in large areas of the western USA affected by wildfire, regional predictions of future water availability are subject to greater structural uncertainty than previously thought. These results suggest that future streamflows may be underestimated in areas affected by increased prevalence of hydrologically relevant ecological

  8. Increasing Recovery of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria from Respiratory Specimens over a 10-Year Period in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Won-Jung; Chang, Boksoon; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Kyeongman; Kim, Su-Young; Lee, Nam Yong; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kwon, O Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background The number of patients with pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term trends in the NTM recovery rate from respiratory specimens over a 10-year period in a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of mycobacterial cultures of respiratory specimens at Samsung Medical Center from January 2001 to December 2011. Results During the study pe...

  9. The very low-frequency band of heart rate variability represents the slow recovery component after a mental stress task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Harunobu; Nishida, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    The very low-frequency (VLF) band of heart rate variability (HRV) has different characteristics compared with other HRV components. Here we investigated differences in HRV changes after a mental stress task. After the task, the high-frequency (HF) band and ratio of high- to low-frequency bands (LF/HF) immediately returned to baseline. We evaluated the characteristics of VLF band changes after a mental stress task. We hypothesized that the VLF band decreases during the Stroop color word task and there would be a delayed recovery for 2 h after the task (i.e., the VLF change would exhibit a "slow recovery"). Nineteen healthy, young subjects were instructed to rest for 10 min, followed by a Stroop color word task for 20 min. After the task, the subjects were instructed to rest for 120 min. For all subjects, R-R interval data were collected; analysis was performed for VLF, HF, and LF/HF ratio. HRV during the rest time and each 15-min interval of the recovery time were compared. An analysis of the covariance was performed to adjust for the HF band and LF/HF ratio as confounding variables of the VLF component. HF and VLF bands significantly decreased and the LF/HF ratio significantly increased during the task compared with those during rest time. During recovery, the VLF band was significantly decreased compared with the rest time. After the task, the HF band and LF/HF ratio immediately returned to baseline and were not significantly different from the resting values. After adjusting for HF and LF/HF ratio, the VLF band had significantly decreased compared with that during rest. The VLF band is the "slow recovery" component and the HF band and LF/HF ratio are the "quick recovery" components of HRV. This VLF characteristic may clarify the unexplained association of the VLF band in cardiovascular disease prevention.

  10. The correlates of body composition with heart rate recovery after step test: an exploratory study of Malaysian adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redzal Abu Hanifah

    Full Text Available In adults, heart rate recovery is a predictor of mortality, while in adolescents it is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between body composition measures and heart rate recovery (HRR after step test in Malaysian secondary school students.In the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART study, 1071 healthy secondary school students, aged 13 years old, participated in the step test. Parameters for body composition measures were body mass index z-score, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist height ratio. The step test was conducted by using a modified Harvard step test. Heart rate recovery of 1 minute (HRR1min and heart rate recovery of 2 minutes (HRR2min were calculated by the difference between the peak pulse rate during exercise and the resting pulse rate at 1 and 2 minutes, respectively. Analysis was done separately based on gender. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the association between the HRR parameters with body composition measures, while multiple regression analysis was used to determine which body composition measures was the strongest predictor for HRR.For both gender groups, all body composition measures were inversely correlated with HRR1min. In girls, all body composition measures were inversely correlated with HRR2min, while in boys all body composition measures, except BMI z-score, were associated with HRR2min. In multiple regression, only waist circumference was inversely associated with HRR2min (p=0.024 in boys, while in girls it was body fat percentage for HRR2min (p=0.008.There was an inverse association between body composition measurements and HRR among apparently healthy adolescents. Therefore, it is important to identify cardio-metabolic risk factors in adolescent as an early prevention of consequent adulthood morbidity. This reiterates the importance of healthy living which should start from young.

  11. The Correlates of Body Composition with Heart Rate Recovery after Step Test: An Exploratory Study of Malaysian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hanifah, Redzal; Mohamed, Mohd. Nahar Azmi; Jaafar, Zulkarnain; Abdul Mohsein, Nabilla Al-Sadat; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Murray, Liam; Cantwell, Marie; Su, Tin Tin

    2013-01-01

    Background In adults, heart rate recovery is a predictor of mortality, while in adolescents it is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between body composition measures and heart rate recovery (HRR) after step test in Malaysian secondary school students. Methods In the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study, 1071 healthy secondary school students, aged 13 years old, participated in the step test. Parameters for body composition measures were body mass index z-score, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist height ratio. The step test was conducted by using a modified Harvard step test. Heart rate recovery of 1 minute (HRR1min) and heart rate recovery of 2 minutes (HRR2min) were calculated by the difference between the peak pulse rate during exercise and the resting pulse rate at 1 and 2 minutes, respectively. Analysis was done separately based on gender. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the association between the HRR parameters with body composition measures, while multiple regression analysis was used to determine which body composition measures was the strongest predictor for HRR. Results For both gender groups, all body composition measures were inversely correlated with HRR1min. In girls, all body composition measures were inversely correlated with HRR2min, while in boys all body composition measures, except BMI z-score, were associated with HRR2min. In multiple regression, only waist circumference was inversely associated with HRR2min (p=0.024) in boys, while in girls it was body fat percentage for HRR2min (p=0.008). Conclusion There was an inverse association between body composition measurements and HRR among apparently healthy adolescents. Therefore, it is important to identify cardio-metabolic risk factors in adolescent as an early prevention of consequent adulthood morbidity. This reiterates the importance of healthy living

  12. Neptunium immobilization and recovery using phase separated glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meaker, T.F.

    1997-01-01

    A phase separated (amorphous) glass has been developed which allows very efficient recovery of +4 valence actinides. The total amount of crystal formation in a heat treated vycor-type glass can be controlled with time, temperature and loading. Heat treatments at lower temperatures and for less time inhibit crystal formation while still allowing significant phase separation. If the Thorium loading exceeds 10 weight percent oxide, crystal formation during heat treatment may not be avoided. The total amount of crystal growth has a direct affect on thorium leachability. An increase in crystal formation limits the Th recovery significantly. High thorium loaded glasses (15 weight percent) with heat treatments (increased crystal formation) leach at approximately the same rate as non-heat treated glasses. A phase separated (amorphous) glass has been produced using thorium as a surrogate for neptunium. Two different homogeneous vycor compositions targeting 10 and 15 weight percent thorium oxide have been processed, heat treated and leached with concentrated nitric acid at 110 degrees C. Thorium recovery rates have been shown to be considerably better when the glass has been heat treated inducing phase separation that is relatively crystal free. Non-heat treated and crystalline (due to heat treatment) glasses have similar Th recovery rates with respect to surface area. Phase separated amorphous samples were found to have significantly higher thorium concentrations in the leachate compared to non-heat treated and crystalline glasses for all mesh sizes. All glasses had increased thorium concentration in the leachate as surface area increased

  13. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Z N; Wu, P; Wu, D Z; Wang, L Q

    2013-01-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m 3 /h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result

  14. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Z. N.; Wu, P.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m3/h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result.

  15. Beyond reduced-impact logging: silvicultural treatments to increase growth rates of tropical trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña-Claros, M.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Alarcón, A.; Blate, G.M.; Choque, U.; Leaño, C.; Licona, J.C.; Mostacedo, B.; Pariona, W.; Villegas, Z.; Putz, F.E.

    2008-01-01

    Use of reduced-impact logging (RIL) techniques has repeatedly been shown to reduce damage caused by logging. Unfortunately, these techniques do not necessarily ameliorate the low growth rates of many commercial species or otherwise assure recovery of the initial volume harvested during the next

  16. Closed Process of Shale Oil Recovery from Circulating Washing Water by Hydrocyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The conventional oil recovery system in the Fushun oil shale retorting plant has a low oil recovery rate. A large quantity of fresh water is used in the system, thereby consuming a considerable amount of water and energy, as well as polluting the environment. This study aims to develop a closed process of shale oil recovery from the circulating washing water for the Fushun oil shale retorting plant. The process would increase oil yield and result in clean production. In this process, oil/water hydrocyclone groups were applied to decrease the oil content in circulating water and to simultaneously increase oil yield. The oil sludge was removed by the solid/liquid hydrocyclone groups effectively, thereby proving the smooth operation of the devices and pipes. As a result, the oil recovery rate has increased by 5.3 %, which corresponds to 230 tonnes a month.

  17. Defining recovery in adult bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jessica; Agras, W Stewart; Bryson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    To examine how different definitions of recovery lead to varying rates of recovery, maintenance of recovery, and relapse in bulimia nervosa (BN), end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up data were obtained from 96 adults with BN. Combining behavioral, physical, and psychological criteria led to recovery rates between 15.5% and 34.4% at EOT, though relapse was approximately 50%. Combining these criteria and requiring abstinence from binge eating and purging when defining recovery may lead to lower recovery rates than those found in previous studies; however, a strength of this definition is that individuals who meet this criteria have no remaining disordered behaviors or symptoms.

  18. Relationship between Credit Recovery Programs and Graduation Rates for At-Risk Students on the Navajo Indian Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Low graduation rates of high school students are a problem for the Native American community. One possible solution for low graduation rates is a credit recovery program that may assist Native American students to recover credit not earned in their early high school years. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a credit…

  19. Enhanced malignant transformation is accompanied by increased survival recovery after ionizing radiation in Chinese hamster embryo fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothman, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Transformed Chinese hamster embryo fibroblasts (CHEF), which gradually increase in tumor-forming ability in nude mice, were isolated from normal diploid CHEF/18 cells. Transformed CHEF cells (i.e., T30-4 > 21-2M3 > 21-2 > normal CHEF/18) showed gradual increases in potentially lethal damage (PLD) survival recovery. β-Lapachone and camptothecin, modulators of topoisomerase I (Topo I) activity, not only prevented survival recovery in normal as well as in tumor cells, but enhanced unscheduled DNA synthesis. These seemingly conflicting results are due to the fact that Topo I activity can be modulated by inhibitors to convert single-stranded DNA lesions into double-stranded breaks. Increases in unscheduled DNA synthesis may result from a continual supply of free ends, on which DNA repair processes may act. Altering Topo I activity with modulators appears to increase X-ray lethality via a DNA lesion modification suicide pathway. Cells down-regulate Topo I immediately after ionizing radiation to prevent Topo I-mediated lesion modification and to enhance survival recovery. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. 76 FR 29963 - Rate Increase Disclosure and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... for the product associated with the rate increase; and (8) employee and executive compensation data... 154 Rate Increase Disclosure and Review; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 99 / Monday... CFR Part 154 [CMS-9999-FC] RIN 0938-AQ68 Rate Increase Disclosure and Review AGENCY: Center for...

  1. Effect of exercise and recovery on muscle protein synthesis in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraro, F.; Stuart, C.A.; Hartl, W.H.; Rosenblatt, J.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies using indirect means to assess the response of protein metabolism to exercise have led to conflicting conclusions. Therefore, in this study we have measured the rate of muscle protein synthesis in normal volunteers at rest, at the end of 4 h of aerobic exercise (40% maximal O2 consumption), and after 4 h of recovery by determining directly the rate of incorporation of 1,2-[13C]leucine into muscle. The rate of muscle protein breakdown was assessed by 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) excretion, and total urinary nitrogen excretion was also measured. There was an insignificant increase in 3-MH excretion in exercise of 37% and a significant increase (P less than 0.05) of 85% during 4 h of recovery from exercise (0.079 +/- 0.008 vs. 0.147 +/- 0.0338 mumol.kg-1.min-1 for rest and recovery from exercise, respectively). Nonetheless, there was no effect of exercise on total nitrogen excretion. Muscle fractional synthetic rate was not different in the exercise vs. the control group at the end of exercise (0.0417 +/- 0.004 vs. 0.0477 +/- 0.010%/h for exercise vs. control), but there was a significant increase in fractional synthetic rate in the exercise group during the recovery period (0.0821 +/- 0.006 vs. 0.0654 +/- 0.012%/h for exercise vs. control, P less than 0.05). Thus we conclude that although aerobic exercise may stimulate muscle protein breakdown, this does not result in a significant depletion of muscle mass because muscle protein synthesis is stimulated in recovery

  2. Increased bioclogging and corrosion risk by sulfate addition during iodine recovery at a natural gas production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Choon-Ping; Zhao, Dan; Takase, Yuta; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Tomoko; Tomoe, Yasuyoshi; Tanji, Yasunori

    2011-02-01

    Iodine recovery at a natural gas production plant in Japan involved the addition of sulfuric acid for pH adjustment, resulting in an additional about 200 mg/L of sulfate in the waste brine after iodine recovery. Bioclogging occurred at the waste brine injection well, causing a decrease in well injectivity. To examine the factors that contribute to bioclogging, an on-site experiment was conducted by amending 10 L of brine with different conditions and then incubating the brine for 5 months under open air. The control case was exposed to open air but did not receive additional chemicals. When sulfate addition was coupled with low iodine, there was a drastic increase in the total amount of accumulated biomass (and subsequently the risk of bioclogging) that was nearly six times higher than the control. The bioclogging-associated corrosion rate of carbon steel was 84.5 μm/year, which is four times higher than that observed under other conditions. Analysis of the microbial communities by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the additional sulfate established a sulfur cycle and induced the growth of phototrophic bacteria, including cyanobacteria and purple bacteria. In the presence of sulfate and low iodine levels, cyanobacteria and purple bacteria bloomed, and the accumulation of abundant biomass may have created a more conducive environment for anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. It is believed that the higher corrosion rate was caused by a differential aeration cell that was established by the heterogeneous distribution of the biomass that covered the surface of the test coupons.

  3. Assessing the recovery of coastal wetlands from oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelssohn, I.A.; Hester, M.W.; Hill, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The impact of oil spills on coastal environments and the ability of these systems to exhibit long-term recovery has received increased attention in recent years. Although oil spills can have significant short-term impacts on coastal marshes, the long-term effects and eventual recovery are not well documented. Estuarine marshes have sometimes been reported to exhibit slow recovery after oil spills, whereas in other instances they appear to have great resiliency, with complete recovery after one or two years. To document and understand this phenomenon better, we have investigated the long-term recovery of a south Louisiana estuarine marsh exposed to an accidental spill of crude oil. Although a pipeline rupture releasing Louisiana crude oil caused the near complete mortality of a brackish marsh dominated by Spartina patens and S. alterniflora, this marsh completely recovered four years after the spill with no differences in plant species cover between oiled and reference marshes. Remotely sensed imagery of the study site confirmed the relatively rapid recovery demonstrated by the ground truth data. Louisiana's coastal marshes are naturally experiencing rapid rates of deterioration. Land loss rates, determined from aerial imagery, at the spill site and adjacent reference areas before and after the spill demonstrated that the long-term loss rates were not affected by the spill event

  4. Task-related increases in fatigue predict recovery time after academic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasche, Gerhard; Zilic, Jelena; Frischenschlager, Oskar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time course of recovery after an academic exam as a model of high workload and its association with stress-related fatigue. Thirty-six medical students (17 females, 19 males) filled out diaries during an exam phase, starting 2 days prior to the exam, and a control phase 4 weeks after the exam for 14 days, respectively. Fatigue, distress, quality of sleep, and health complaints were assessed. Recovery time was determined for each individual and variable by comparing the 3-day average with the confidence interval of the control phase. Recovery time was predicted by Cox regression analyses. Recovery times of all variables except health complaints were predicted by stress-related fatigue. Half of the individuals had recovered after 6 days, and 80% of the individuals had recovered after 8 days. The time necessary for recovery from work demands is determined by fatigue as a measure of resource depletion.

  5. Exponential decay and exponential recovery of modal gains in high count rate channel electron multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, S.F.; Burch, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A series of data on high count rate channel electron multipliers revealed an initial drop and subsequent recovery of gains in exponential fashion. The FWHM of the pulse height distribution at the initial stage of testing can be used as a good criterion for the selection of operating bias voltage of the channel electron multiplier

  6. Relationship between heart rate recovery and inflammatory markers in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giallauria Francesco

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is an endocrine disease closely related to several risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR, an easily-obtained measure derived from exercise stress test and closely related to an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, has been recently described in PCOS women. A subclinical increase of the inflammation markers has been also observed in the PCOS. This study was designed to study the relationships between HRR and inflammatory markers in PCOS women. Methods Two-hundred forty-three young PCOS patients without known risk factors for cardiovascular risk were enrolled. All patients underwent hormonal and metabolic profile, white blood cells (WBCs count and C-reactive protein (CRP. HRR was calculated as the difference between heart rate at peak exercise and heart rate at first minute of the cool-down period. Abnormal HRR was defined as ≤18 beats/min for standard exercise testing. Results Eighty-nine out of 243 patients presented abnormal HRR. Serum CRP (1.8 ± 0.7 vs. 1.1 ± 0.4 mg/dl, p 9 cells/l, p versus normal HRR. HRR was significantly associated with both CRP (r = -0.33, p p Conclusion Abnormal HRR and inflammatory markers are closely associated in PCOS women acting probably in concert to increase the cardiovascular risk profile of these patients.

  7. Unexpected demography in the recovery of an endangered primate population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen B Strier

    Full Text Available Assessments of the status of endangered species have focused on population sizes, often without knowledge of demographic and behavioral processes underlying population recovery. We analyzed demographic data from a 28-year study of a critically endangered primate, the northern muriqui, to investigate possible changes in demographic rates as this population recovered from near extirpation. As the population increased from 60 to nearly 300 individuals, its growth rate declined due to increased mortality and male-biased birth sex ratios; the increased mortality was not uniform across ages and sexes, and there has been a recent increase in mortality of prime-aged males. If not for a concurrent increase in fertility rates, the population would have stabilized at 200 individuals instead of continuing to grow. The unexpected increase in fertility rates and in adult male mortality can be attributed to the muriquis' expansion of their habitat by spending more time on the ground. The demographic consequences of this behavioral shift must be incorporated into management tactics for this population and emphasize the importance of understanding demographic rates in the recovery of endangered species.

  8. Heart-Rate Recovery After Warm-up in Swimming: A Useful Predictor of Training Heart-Rate Response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzevles, Sander P M; de Haan, Arnold; Beek, Peter J; Daanen, Hein A M; Truijens, Martin J

    2017-07-01

    For training to be optimal, daily training load has to be adapted to the momentary status of the individual athlete, which is often difficult to establish. Therefore, the current study investigated the predictive value of heart-rate recovery (HRR) during a standardized warm-up for training load. Training load was quantified by the variation in heart rate during standardized training in competitive swimmers. Eight female and 5 male Dutch national-level swimmers participated in the study. They all performed 3 sessions consisting of a 300-m warm-up test and a 10 × 100-m training protocol. Both protocols were swum in front crawl at individually standardized velocities derived from an incremental step test. Velocity was related to 75% and 85% heart-rate reserve (% HR res ) for the warm-up and training, respectively. Relative HRR during the first 60 s after the warm-up (HR Rw-up ) and differences between the actual and intended heart rate for the warm-up and the training (ΔHR w-up and ΔHR tr ) were determined. No significant relationship between HRR w-up and ΔHR tr was found (F 1,37 = 2.96, P = .09, R 2 = .07, SEE = 4.65). There was considerable daily variation in ΔHR tr at a given swimming velocity (73-93% HR res ). ΔHR w-up and ΔHR tr were clearly related (F 1,37 = 74.31, P warm-up does not predict heart rate during a directly subsequent and standardized training session. Instead, heart rate during the warm-up protocol seems a promising alternative for coaches to make daily individual-specific adjustments to training programs.

  9. The very low-frequency band of heart rate variability represents the slow recovery component after a mental stress task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harunobu Usui

    Full Text Available The very low-frequency (VLF band of heart rate variability (HRV has different characteristics compared with other HRV components. Here we investigated differences in HRV changes after a mental stress task. After the task, the high-frequency (HF band and ratio of high- to low-frequency bands (LF/HF immediately returned to baseline. We evaluated the characteristics of VLF band changes after a mental stress task. We hypothesized that the VLF band decreases during the Stroop color word task and there would be a delayed recovery for 2 h after the task (i.e., the VLF change would exhibit a "slow recovery". Nineteen healthy, young subjects were instructed to rest for 10 min, followed by a Stroop color word task for 20 min. After the task, the subjects were instructed to rest for 120 min. For all subjects, R-R interval data were collected; analysis was performed for VLF, HF, and LF/HF ratio. HRV during the rest time and each 15-min interval of the recovery time were compared. An analysis of the covariance was performed to adjust for the HF band and LF/HF ratio as confounding variables of the VLF component. HF and VLF bands significantly decreased and the LF/HF ratio significantly increased during the task compared with those during rest time. During recovery, the VLF band was significantly decreased compared with the rest time. After the task, the HF band and LF/HF ratio immediately returned to baseline and were not significantly different from the resting values. After adjusting for HF and LF/HF ratio, the VLF band had significantly decreased compared with that during rest. The VLF band is the "slow recovery" component and the HF band and LF/HF ratio are the "quick recovery" components of HRV. This VLF characteristic may clarify the unexplained association of the VLF band in cardiovascular disease prevention.

  10. Increasing Running Step Rate Reduces Patellofemoral Joint Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Rachel L.; Thelen, Darryl G.; Wille, Christa M.; Chumanov, Elizabeth S.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Increasing step rate has been shown to elicit changes in joint kinematics and kinetics during running, and has been suggested as a possible rehabilitation strategy for runners with patellofemoral pain. The purpose of this study was to determine how altering step rate affects internal muscle forces and patellofemoral joint loads, and then to determine what kinematic and kinetic factors best predict changes in joint loading. Methods We recorded whole body kinematics of 30 healthy adults running on an instrumented treadmill at three step rate conditions (90%, 100%, and 110% of preferred step rate). We then used a 3D lower extremity musculoskeletal model to estimate muscle, patellar tendon, and patellofemoral joint forces throughout the running gait cycles. Additionally, linear regression analysis allowed us to ascertain the relative influence of limb posture and external loads on patellofemoral joint force. Results Increasing step rate to 110% of preferred reduced peak patellofemoral joint force by 14%. Peak muscle forces were also altered as a result of the increased step rate with hip, knee and ankle extensor forces, and hip abductor forces all reduced in mid-stance. Compared to the 90% step rate condition, there was a concomitant increase in peak rectus femoris and hamstring loads during early and late swing, respectively, at higher step rates. Peak stance phase knee flexion decreased with increasing step rate, and was found to be the most important predictor of the reduction in patellofemoral joint loading. Conclusion Increasing step rate is an effective strategy to reduce patellofemoral joint forces and could be effective in modulating biomechanical factors that can contribute to patellofemoral pain. PMID:23917470

  11. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    signal changes were measured simultaneously using the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique. During hypercapnia established by an end-tidal CO2 increase of 1.46 kPa, CBF in the visual cortex increased by 47.3 +/- 17.3% (mean +/- SD; n = 9), and deltaR2* was -0.478 +/- 0.147 sec......The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can...

  12. Gravity assisted recovery of liquid xenon at large mass flow rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virone, L.; Acounis, S.; Beaupère, N.; Beney, J.-L.; Bert, J.; Bouvier, S.; Briend, P.; Butterworth, J.; Carlier, T.; Chérel, M.; Crespi, P.; Cussonneau, J.-P.; Diglio, S.; Manzano, L. Gallego; Giovagnoli, D.; Gossiaux, P.-B.; Kraeber-Bodéré, F.; Ray, P. Le; Lefèvre, F.; Marty, P.; Masbou, J.; Morteau, E.; Picard, G.; Roy, D.; Staempflin, M.; Stutzmann, J.-S.; Visvikis, D.; Xing, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Thers, D.

    2018-06-01

    We report on a liquid xenon gravity assisted recovery method for nuclear medical imaging applications. The experimental setup consists of an elevated detector enclosed in a cryostat connected to a storage tank called ReStoX. Both elements are part of XEMIS2 (XEnon Medical Imaging System): an innovative medical imaging facility for pre-clinical research that uses pure liquid xenon as detection medium. Tests based on liquid xenon transfer from the detector to ReStoX have been successfully performed showing that an unprecedented mass flow rate close to 1 ton per hour can be reached. This promising achievement as well as future areas of improvement will be discussed in this paper.

  13. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics...... for pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30...

  14. The influence of diffusion and dispersion on heavy oil recovery by VAPEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkindi, A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Muggeridge, A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, London (United Kingdom)]|[Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Al-Wahaibi, Y. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)]|[Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman)

    2008-10-15

    Heavy oil recovery using vapour extraction (VAPEX) is a promising improved oil recovery technique. However, field application of this process has been limited due to concerns that favourable laboratory recoveries may not scale up to the field level. Previous laboratory studies of VAPEX in porous media have obtained much higher production rates than predicted either by analytic models derived from Hele-Shaw experiments or numerical simulation. The difference between experimental and simulation models has been explained by assuming greater mixing between vapour and oil than would be expected from molecular diffusion. Convective dispersion is a plausible justification for this increase. This paper investigated the role of convective dispersion on oil recovery by VAPEX using a combination of well characterized laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. So that all mechanisms contributing to increased-mixing apart from convective dispersion were eliminated, a first contact miscible fluid system was used. Longitudinal and transverse dispersion coefficients were experimentally measured as a function of flow-rate and viscosity ratio. VAPEX drainage experiments were then conducted over a range of injection rates. The paper also discussed the comparison of laboratory measurements of oil drainage rates with those predicted by the Butler-Mokrys analytical model and numerical simulation using either molecular diffusion or convective dispersion. Last, the paper discussed the use of the numerical model in investigating the impact of rate, well separation, and reservoir geometry on recovery. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  15. Increasing CO2 storage in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, K.; Kovscek, A.R.; Orr, F.M. Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Oil fields offer a significant potential for storing CO 2 and will most likely be the first large scale geological targets for sequestration as the infrastructure, experience and permitting procedures already exist. The problem of co-optimizing oil production and CO 2 storage differs significantly from current gas injection practice due to the cost-benefit imbalance resulting from buying CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery projects. Consequently, operators aim to minimize the amount of CO 2 required to sweep an oil reservoir. For sequestration purposes, where high availability of low cost CO 2 is assumed, the design parameters of enhanced oil recovery processes must be re-defined to optimize the amount of CO 2 left in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. To redefine properly the design parameters, thorough insight into the mechanisms controlling the pore scale displacement efficiency and the overall sweep efficiency is essential. We demonstrate by calculation examples the different mechanisms controlling the displacement behavior of CO 2 sequestration schemes, the interaction between flow and phase equilibrium and how proper design of the injection gas composition and well completion are required to co-optimize oil production and CO 2 storage. [Author

  16. Increasing CO2 storage in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, Kristian; Kovscek, Anthony R.; Orr, Franklin M.

    2005-01-01

    Oil fields offer a significant potential for storing CO 2 and will most likely be the first large scale geological targets for sequestration as the infrastructure, experience and permitting procedures already exist. The problem of co-optimizing oil production and CO 2 storage differs significantly from current gas injection practice due to the cost-benefit imbalance resulting from buying CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery projects. Consequently, operators aim to minimize the amount of CO 2 required to sweep an oil reservoir. For sequestration purposes, where high availability of low cost CO 2 is assumed, the design parameters of enhanced oil recovery processes must be re-defined to optimize the amount of CO 2 left in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. To redefine properly the design parameters, thorough insight into the mechanisms controlling the pore scale displacement efficiency and the overall sweep efficiency is essential. We demonstrate by calculation examples the different mechanisms controlling the displacement behavior of CO 2 sequestration schemes, the interaction between flow and phase equilibrium and how proper design of the injection gas composition and well completion are required to co-optimize oil production and CO 2 storage

  17. Inhibition and recovery of the rate of DNA synthesis in V79 Chinese hamster cells following ultraviolet light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, A.M.; Meneghini, R.

    1984-01-01

    Chinese hamster fibroblasts (V79 cell line) exhibit the phenomenon of recovery of DNA synthesis from the initial inhibition observed after ultraviolet light irradiation, in the absence of significant excision of pyrimidine dimers. In an attempt to determine whether the initial inhibition and subsequent recovery can be accounted for by parallel variations in the rate of movement of the replication fork, the cells were pulse-labeled with radioactive bromodeoxyuridine at different times following irradiation and their DNA centrifuged in neutral CsCl density gradients. When DNA synthesis inhibition was at a maximum, an accumulation of DNA, of density intermediate between hybrid and nonsubstituted DNA, was noticed in the density-distribution profiles. The density distribution of DNA along the gradient can provide an estimate of the rate of movement of the replication fork, and the results indicate that most of the variation in the overall rate of DNA synthesis can be accounted for by a parallel variation in the rate of fork movement. (Auth.)

  18. Physical activity, body mass index and heart rate variability-based stress and recovery in 16 275 Finnish employees: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Föhr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity, overweight, and work-related stress are major concerns today. Psychological stress causes physiological responses such as reduced heart rate variability (HRV, owing to attenuated parasympathetic and/or increased sympathetic activity in cardiac autonomic control. This study’s purpose was to investigate the relationships between physical activity (PA, body mass index (BMI, and HRV-based stress and recovery on workdays, among Finnish employees. Methods The participants in this cross-sectional study were 16 275 individuals (6863 men and 9412 women; age 18–65 years; BMI 18.5–40.0 kg/m2. Assessments of stress, recovery and PA were based on HRV data from beat-to-beat R-R interval recording (mainly over 3 days. The validated HRV-derived variables took into account the dynamics and individuality of HRV. Stress percentage (the proportion of stress reactions, workday and working hours, and stress balance (ratio between recovery and stress reactions, sleep describe the amount of physiological stress and recovery, respectively. Variables describing the intensity (i.e. magnitude of recognized reactions of physiological stress and recovery were stress index (workday and recovery index (sleep, respectively. Moderate to vigorous PA was measured and participants divided into the following groups, based on calculated weekly PA: inactive (0 min, low (0 300 min. BMI was calculated from self-reported weight and height. Linear models were employed in the main analyses. Results High PA was associated with lower stress percentages (during workdays and working hours and stress balance. Higher BMI was associated with higher stress index, and lower stress balance and recovery index. These results were similar for men and women (P < 0.001 for all. Conclusion Independent of age and sex, high PA was associated with a lower amount of stress on workdays. Additionally, lower BMI was associated with better recovery during

  19. Stress Recovery Effects of High- and Low-Frequency Amplified Music on Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yoshie; Tanaka, Naofumi; Mima, Tatsuya; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    Sounds can induce autonomic responses in listeners. However, the modulatory effect of specific frequency components of music is not fully understood. Here, we examined the role of the frequency component of music on autonomic responses. Specifically, we presented music that had been amplified in the high- or low-frequency domains. Twelve healthy women listened to white noise, a stress-inducing noise, and then one of three versions of a piece of music: original, low-, or high-frequency amplified. To measure autonomic response, we calculated the high-frequency normalized unit (HFnu), low-frequency normalized unit, and the LF/HF ratio from the heart rate using electrocardiography. We defined the stress recovery ratio as the value obtained after participants listened to music following scratching noise, normalized by the value obtained after participants listened to white noise after the stress noise, in terms of the HFnu, low-frequency normalized unit, LF/HF ratio, and heart rate. Results indicated that high-frequency amplified music had the highest HFnu of the three versions. The stress recovery ratio of HFnu under the high-frequency amplified stimulus was significantly larger than that under the low-frequency stimulus. Our results suggest that the high-frequency component of music plays a greater role in stress relief than low-frequency components.

  20. Effect of cuticular abrasion and recovery on water loss rates in queens of the desert harvester ant Messor pergandei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert A; Kaiser, Alexander; Quinlan, Michael; Sharp, William

    2011-10-15

    Factors that affect water loss rates (WLRs) are poorly known for organisms in natural habitats. Seed-harvester ant queens provide an ideal system for examining such factors because WLRs for mated queens excavated from their incipient nests are twofold to threefold higher than those of alate queens. Indirect data suggest that this increase results from soil particles abrading the cuticle during nest excavation. This study provides direct support for the cuticle abrasion hypothesis by measuring total mass-specific WLRs, cuticular abrasion, cuticular transpiration, respiratory water loss and metabolic rate for queens of the ant Messor pergandei at three stages: unmated alate queens, newly mated dealate queens (undug foundresses) and mated queens excavated from their incipient nest (dug foundresses); in addition we examined these processes in artificially abraded alate queens. Alate queens had low WLRs and low levels of cuticle abrasion, whereas dug foundresses had high WLRs and high levels of cuticle abrasion. Total WLR and cuticular transpiration were lowest for alate queens, intermediate for undug foundresses and highest for dug foundresses. Respiratory water loss contributed ~10% of the total WLR and was lower for alate queens and undug foundresses than for dug foundresses. Metabolic rate did not vary across stages. Total WLR and cuticular transpiration of artificially abraded alate queens increased, whereas respiratory water loss and metabolic rate were unaffected. Overall, increased cuticular transpiration accounted for essentially all the increased total water loss in undug and dug foundresses and artificially abraded queens. Artificially abraded queens and dug foundresses showed partial recovery after 14 days.

  1. National Estimates of Recovery-Remission From Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Mark S; Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Townley, Greg

    2018-05-01

    A broad range of estimates of recovery among previously institutionalized persons has been reported, but no current, community-based national estimate of recovery from serious mental illness exists. This study reports recovery rate results, based on a remission definition, and explores related demographic factors. A national, geographically stratified, and random cross-sectional survey conducted from September 2014 to December 2015 resulted in responses from more than 41,000 individuals. Lifetime prevalence of serious mental illness was assessed by asking about receipt of a diagnosis (major depression, bipolar disorder, manic depression, and schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder) and hospitalization and impairment associated with the diagnosis. Recovery was determined by asking about impairments over the past 12 months. Almost 17% reported receiving one of the diagnoses in their lifetime, 6% had a lifetime rate of a serious mental illness, and nearly 4% continued to experience interference associated with serious mental illness. One-third of those with a lifetime serious mental illness reported having been in remission for at least the past 12 months. Recovery rates were low until age 32 and then progressively increased. Lifetime estimates of diagnosed illness and current prevalence of serious mental illness are consistent with previous research. Results indicate that recovery is possible and is associated with age. Further research is needed to understand factors that promote recovery, and sustained evaluation efforts using similar parsimonious approaches may be useful in conducting timely assessments of national and local mental health policies.

  2. Exploring identity within the recovery process of people with serious mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley-Walker, Kellie; Crowe, Trevor; Caputi, Peter

    2010-01-01

    To examine self-identity within the recovery processes of people with serious mental illnesses using a repertory grid methodology. Cross-sectional study involving 40 mental health service consumers. Participants rated different "self" and "other" elements on the repertory grid against constructs related to recovery, as well as other recovery focused measures. Perceptions of one's "ideal self" represented more advanced recovery in contrast to perceptions of "a person mentally unwell." Current perceptions of self were most similar to perceptions of "usual self" and least similar to "a person who is mentally unwell." Increased identification with one's "ideal self" reflected increased hopefulness in terms of recovery. The recovery repertory grid shows promise in clinical practice, in terms of exploring identity as a key variable within mental health recovery processes. Distance measures of similarity between various self-elements, including perceptions of others, maps logically against the recovery process of hope.

  3. Effects of 12 months aerobic exercise intervention on work ability, need for recovery, productivity and rating of exertion among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Mark; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster-randomised (w......PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster......-randomised (work location; sex; age; length of service) to aerobic exercise [N = 57, 44.9 years, 75.4% female, body mass index (BMI) 26.2], receiving 2 weekly aerobic exercise sessions during 12 months, or a reference group (N = 59, 45.7 years, 76.3% female, BMI 27.1), receiving health-promoting lectures. Self.......2) in the aerobic exercise group compared to the reference group. Productivity and rating of exertion were unaltered. Analysis stratified on age showed significant effects only among the participants aged ≤ 45 years. CONCLUSIONS: After 12 months work ability improved and need for recovery decreased. A period of 4...

  4. The impact of furloughs on emotional exhaustion, self-rated performance, and recovery experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Wheeler, Anthony R; Paustian-Underdahl, Samantha C

    2013-05-01

    The notion that strain can result as employees' resources are threatened or lost is well established. However, the transition from resource threats to resource losses is an important but understudied aspect of employee strain. We argue that the threat-to-loss transition triggers accelerated resource loss and a shift in how employees utilize their remaining resources unless employees engage in recovery experiences during the transition. Using a discontinuous change framework, we examine employee furloughs-the placement of employees on leave with no salary of any kind-in terms of the transition from resource threat to loss: Resources may be threatened when the furlough is announced and lost when the furlough occurs. Using 4 data collections with 180 state government employees, we found mean levels of emotional exhaustion increased and mean levels of self-reported performance decreased following the furlough. The discontinuous changes in exhaustion and performance were significantly impacted by employees' recovery experiences during the furlough. We discuss the implications of these findings for other threat-to-loss and recovery research as well as for organizations implementing furloughs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Effects of slow recovery rates on water column geochemistry in aquitard wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring wells are often installed in aquitards to verify effectiveness for preventing migration of surface contaminants to underlying aquifers. However, water sampling of aquitard wells presents a challenge due to the slow recovery times for water recharging the wells, which can take as long as weeks, months or years to recharge depending on the sample volume needed. In this study, downhole profiling and sampling of aquitard wells was used to assess geochemical changes that occur in aquitard wells during water level recovery. Wells were sampled on three occasions spanning 11years, 1year and 1week after they were purged and casing water showed substantial water chemistry variations. Temperature decreased with depth, whereas pH and specific conductance increased with depth in the water column after 11years of water level recovery. Less stable parameters such as dissolved O2 (DO) and Eh showed strong zonation in the well column, with DO stratification occurring as the groundwater slowly entered the well. Oxidation of reduced till groundwater along with degassing of CO2 from till pore water affects mineral solubility and dissolved solid concentrations. Recommendations for sampling slowly recovering aquitard wells include identifying the zone of DO and Eh stratification in the well column and collecting water samples from below the boundary to better measure unstable geochemical parameters. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Metazoan operons accelerate recovery from growth arrested states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslaver, Alon; Baugh, L. Ryan; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Existing theories explain why operons are advantageous in prokaryotes, but their occurrence in metazoans is an enigma. Nematode operon genes, typically consisting of growth genes, are significantly up-regulated during recovery from growth-arrested states. This expression pattern is anti-correlated to non-operon genes consistent with a competition for transcriptional resources. We find that transcriptional resources are initially limiting during recovery, and that recovering animals are highly sensitive to any additional decrease in transcriptional resources. Operons become advantageous because by clustering growth genes into operons, fewer promoters compete for the limited transcriptional machinery, effectively increasing the concentration of transcriptional resources, and accelerating recovery. Mathematical modeling reveals how a moderate increase in transcriptional resources can substantially enhance transcription rate and recovery. This design principle occurs in different nematodes and the chordate C. intestinalis. As transition from arrest to rapid growth is shared by many metazoans, operons could have evolved to facilitate these processes. PMID:21663799

  7. Effect of layer number on recovery rate of WS{sub 2} nanosheets for ammonia detection at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Ziyu [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Zeng, Dawen, E-mail: dwzeng@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Zhang, Jia; Wu, Congyi; Wen, Yanwei; Shan, Bin; Xie, Changsheng [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Reasons for room-temperature difficult recovery of WS{sub 2} sensors for NH{sub 3} detection. • The excellent recovery within 271.9 s was observed for single-layer WS{sub 2} sensor. • The recovery time of WS{sub 2} sensor has a anti-linear relation with number of layer. - Abstract: Tungsten disulfide (WS{sub 2}), as a representative layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), is expected as a promising candidate for high-performance NH{sub 3} sensor at room temperature. Unfortunately, the common WS{sub 2} based NH{sub 3} sensors are difficult to recovery at room temperature, which severely limits its application. Hence, how to improve recovery has become an urgent problem to be solved. Herein, we prepare five types of WS{sub 2} nanosheets with different layer numbers from bulk to monolayer, and find that the recovery time of NH{sub 3} gas sensor is rapidly linear shorten as the number of layers decreasing. Through the first-principles calculation of the interaction between NH{sub 3} and WS{sub 2} substance, the different binding energy between ammonia and the surface (−0.179 eV) and interlayer (−0.356 eV) of layered WS{sub 2}, as well as the different electron transfer way, should be responsible for the difficult recovery rate of various WS{sub 2} samples. Therefore, reducing the number of layer of WS{sub 2} is a promising approach to speed up recovery. Based on this conclusion, we successfully prepare a fast recoverable ammonia gas sensor based on single layer WS{sub 2}, which exhibits exciting fast recovery within 271.9 s at room temperature without any condition. Moreover, our work also can act as a reference for other gas detection of TMDs based gas sensor to improve the gas performance at room-temperature.

  8. Increasing the Fine Flaky Graphite Recovery in Flotation via a Combined MultipleTreatments Technique of Middlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Peng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As the residual flaky graphite ores become miscellaneous and fine, a single treatment technique for the middlings from the flotation process of graphite ore cannot efficiently recover the valuable graphite in the multistage grinding-flotation technology. In the study, the existence form of graphite and relationship of graphite with the associated gangue minerals were estimated by optical microscope analysis. The results indicated that the fine flaky graphite particles embedded with gangue minerals like a honeycomb, making it difficult to be beneficiated using the typical flotation technique. A combination technique of individual process and concentrated returning for the treatment of middlings was used to increase the graphite recovery based on the co-existing relationship between graphite and gangue minerals in the middlings. The graphite recovery of the final concentrate upgraded from 51.81% to 91.14% at a fixed carbon (FC content of 92.01% by a beneficiation process consisted of once coarse (94.41% passing 74 μm and rougher, five stages regrinding and six stages cleaning. The proposed treatment technique for middlings is of great significance to increase the recovery of fine flaky graphite.

  9. Mechanics of arterial subfailure with increasing loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2007-01-01

    Arterial subfailure leads to delayed symptomatology and high morbidity and mortality rates, particularly for the thoracic aorta and carotid arteries. Although arterial injuries occur during high-velocity automotive collisions, previous studies of arterial subfailure focused on quasi-static loading. This investigation subjected aortic segments to increasing loading rates to quantify effects on elastic, subfailure, and ultimate vessel mechanics. Sixty-two specimens were axially distracted, and 92% demonstrated subfailure before ultimate failure. With increasing loading rate, stress at initial subfailure and ultimate failure significantly increased, and strain at initial subfailure and ultimate failure significantly decreased. Present results indicate increased susceptibility for arterial subfailure and/or dissection under higher-rate extension. According to the present results, automotive occupants are at greater risk of arterial injury under higher velocity impacts due to greater body segment motions in addition to decreased strain tolerance to subfailure and catastrophic failure.

  10. Digital recovery management: Characterizing recovery-specific social network site participation and perceived benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Brandon G; Kelly, Nathaniel W; Hoeppner, Bettina B; Vilsaint, Corrie L; Kelly, John F

    2017-06-01

    Research shows that digital social network sites (SNSs) may be valuable platforms to effect health behavior change. Little is known specifically about their ability to help address alcohol and other drug problems. This gap is noteworthy, given that individuals are already participating in existing, recovery-specific SNSs (hereafter referred to as recovery SNSs): online communities with the functionality of conventional SNSs (e.g., Facebook) that focus on substance use disorder (SUD) recovery. For example, InTheRooms.com (ITR) is a large, well-known recovery SNS that is available for free 24 hr/day via website and mobile smartphone applications. It offers recovery tools within a digital social milieu for over 430,000 registered users. To augment the knowledge base on recovery SNS platforms, we conducted an online survey of 123 ITR participants (M = 50.8 years old; 56.9% female; 93.5% White; M = 7.3 years of abstinence, range of 0-30 years; 65% cited alcohol as their primary substance). Respondents engaged with ITR, on average, for about 30 min/day several times each week. Daily meditation prompts and live online video meetings were the most commonly utilized resources. Participants generally endorsed ITR as a helpful platform, particularly with respect to increased abstinence/recovery motivation and self-efficacy. Compared to individuals abstinent for 1 or more years, those abstinent less than 1 year (including nonabstinent individuals) showed similar rates of engagement with ITR activities and similar levels of perceived benefit. Our findings suggest that longitudinal studies are warranted to examine the clinical utility of ITR and other recovery SNSs as SUD treatment adjuncts and/or recovery self-management tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Accurate Region-of-Interest Recovery Improves the Measurement of the Cell Migration Rate in the In Vitro Wound Healing Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Cesar; Cardona, Andrés; Galeano, July; Cortés-Mancera, Fabián; Sandoz, Patrick; Zarzycki, Artur

    2017-12-01

    The wound healing assay is widely used for the quantitative analysis of highly regulated cellular events. In this essay, a wound is voluntarily produced on a confluent cell monolayer, and then the rate of wound reduction (WR) is characterized by processing images of the same regions of interest (ROIs) recorded at different time intervals. In this method, sharp-image ROI recovery is indispensable to compensate for displacements of the cell cultures due either to the exploration of multiple sites of the same culture or to transfers from the microscope stage to a cell incubator. ROI recovery is usually done manually and, despite a low-magnification microscope objective is generally used (10x), repositioning imperfections constitute a major source of errors detrimental to the WR measurement accuracy. We address this ROI recovery issue by using pseudoperiodic patterns fixed onto the cell culture dishes, allowing the easy localization of ROIs and the accurate quantification of positioning errors. The method is applied to a tumor-derived cell line, and the WR rates are measured by means of two different image processing software. Sharp ROI recovery based on the proposed method is found to improve significantly the accuracy of the WR measurement and the positioning under the microscope.

  12. Cardiac Autonomic Responses during Exercise and Post-exercise Recovery Using Heart Rate Variability and Systolic Time Intervals—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Scott; Graham, Kenneth S.; Davis, Glen M.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac parasympathetic activity may be non-invasively investigated using heart rate variability (HRV), although HRV is not widely accepted to reflect sympathetic activity. Instead, cardiac sympathetic activity may be investigated using systolic time intervals (STI), such as the pre-ejection period. Although these autonomic indices are typically measured during rest, the “reactivity hypothesis” suggests that investigating responses to a stressor (e.g., exercise) may be a valuable monitoring approach in clinical and high-performance settings. However, when interpreting these indices it is important to consider how the exercise dose itself (i.e., intensity, duration, and modality) may influence the response. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to review the literature regarding how the exercise dosage influences these autonomic indices during exercise and acute post-exercise recovery. There are substantial methodological variations throughout the literature regarding HRV responses to exercise, in terms of exercise protocols and HRV analysis techniques. Exercise intensity is the primary factor influencing HRV, with a greater intensity eliciting a lower HRV during exercise up to moderate-high intensity, with minimal change observed as intensity is increased further. Post-exercise, a greater preceding intensity is associated with a slower HRV recovery, although the dose-response remains unclear. A longer exercise duration has been reported to elicit a lower HRV only during low-moderate intensity and when accompanied by cardiovascular drift, while a small number of studies have reported conflicting results regarding whether a longer duration delays HRV recovery. “Modality” has been defined multiple ways, with limited evidence suggesting exercise of a greater muscle mass and/or energy expenditure may delay HRV recovery. STI responses during exercise and recovery have seldom been reported, although limited data suggests that intensity is a key

  13. Pressure recovery in a diffuser for gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Masatoshi; Takashima, Yoichi; Mikami, Hisashi

    1977-01-01

    The pressure recovery of supersonic flow at very low density was studied in a vane-island type diffuser for gas centrifuge. A tester of diffuser with a rapidly rotating cylinder was used in experiments. Wall static pressures were measured at many points in the diffuser to observe the static pressure distribution. The change of pressure distribution with back pressure and the effect of flow rate were investigated. Pressure distribution showed that the pressure recovery occurred in the converging section. The pressure ratio increased linearly with the back pressure in this experimental range and the effect of flow rate was not observed. A numerical analysis of the pressure recovery in the channel section of the diffuser was made by applying the finite difference method to the slender-channel equations. The pressure distribution obtained in experiments could be explained as a result of supersonic compression with reverse flow. (auth.)

  14. Tc Generator Development: Up-to-Date Tc Recovery Technologies for Increasing the Effectiveness of Mo Utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van So Le

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review on the Mo sources available today and on the Tc generators developed up to date for increasing the effectiveness of Mo utilisation is performed in the format of detailed description of the features and technical performance of the technological groups of the Mo production and Tc recovery. The latest results of the endeavour in this field are also surveyed in regard of the technical solution for overcoming the shortage of Mo supply. The technological topics are grouped and discussed in a way to reflect the similarity in the technological process of each group. The following groups are included in this review which are high specific activity Mo: the current issues of production, the efforts of more effective utilisation, and the high specific activity Mo-based Tc generator and Tc concentration units; low specific activity Mo: the Mo production based on neutron capture and accelerators and the direct production of Tc and the methods of increasing the specific activity of Mo using Szilard-Chalmers reaction and high electric power isotopic separator; up-to-date technologies of Tc recovery from low specific activity Mo: the solvent extraction-based Tc generator, the sublimation methods for Mo/Tc separation, the electrochemical method for Tc recovery, and the column chromatographic methods for Tc recovery. Besides the traditional Tc-generator systems, the integrated Tc generator systems (Tc generator column combined with postelution purification/concentration unit are discussed with the format of process diagram and picture of real generator systems. These systems are the technetium selective sorbent column-based generators, the high Mo-loading capacity column-based integrated Tc generator systems which include the saline-eluted generator systems, and the nonsaline aqueous and organic solvent eluent-eluted generator systems using high Mo-loading capacity molybdategel and recently developed sorbent columns. Tc concentration methods used in the

  15. Effect of different musical tempo on post-exercise recovery in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, D; Mallikarjuna, Reddy N; Rao, Chythra

    2010-01-01

    The role of music in increasing the exercise performance is well recognised. There is very little information about effect of music on time taken for post exercise recovery. We examined the effect of music and different musical tempo on post exercise recovery time, following treadmill work. 30 volunteers (15 male, 15 female) subjected to isotonic exercise (submaximal treadmill work) on three consecutive days. They were allowed to rest in silence on the first day, rest by hearing slow music on second day and rest with fast music on third day. Parameters such as Pulse rate, blood pressure, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at predetermined intervals. Repeated measures ANOVA test showed that with slow music, recovery time of systolic blood pressure (SBP) (7.9 +/- 2.5), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (5.5 +/- 3.4) pulse rate recovery (PR) (8.0 +/- 2.3) and recovery from exertion (RPE) (7.7 +/- 2.5) were significantly faster when compared to both no music and fast music. The individual music preference made no significant difference in the relaxation time. The study concluded that music hastens post exercise recovery and slow music has greater relaxation effect than fast or no music, recovery time being independent of the gender and individual music preference.

  16. Survival rate and expression of Heat-shock protein 70 and Frost genes after temperature stress in Drosophila melanogaster lines that are selected for recovery time from temperature coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaka, Hiroko; Ueda, Chiaki; Goto, Shin G

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the physiological mechanisms underlying temperature tolerance using Drosophila melanogaster lines with rapid, intermediate, or slow recovery from heat or chill coma that were established by artificial selection or by free recombination without selection. Specifically, we focused on the relationships among their recovery from heat or chill coma, survival after severe heat or cold, and survival enhanced by rapid cold hardening (RCH) or heat hardening. The recovery time from heat coma was not related to the survival rate after severe heat. The line with rapid recovery from chill coma showed a higher survival rate after severe cold exposure, and therefore the same mechanisms are likely to underlie these phenotypes. The recovery time from chill coma and survival rate after severe cold were unrelated to RCH-enhanced survival. We also examined the expression of two genes, Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Frost, in these lines to understand the contribution of these stress-inducible genes to intraspecific variation in recovery from temperature coma. The line showing rapid recovery from heat coma did not exhibit higher expression of Hsp70 and Frost. In addition, Hsp70 and Frost transcription levels were not correlated with the recovery time from chill coma. Thus, Hsp70 and Frost transcriptional regulation was not involved in the intraspecific variation in recovery from temperature coma. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on Dynamic Characteristics of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Shi, Fang; Qin, Wuying; Yan, Jing

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy, the demand for oil is increasing day by day. MEOR has the advantages of low cost and no pollution to the environment, attracted widespread attention. In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of microbial enhanced oil recovery were studied by laboratory experiments. The result showed that all the microbial flooding recovery rate could reach more than 5%, and the total recovery could reach more than 35% and if the injection period of microbial composite system was advanced, the whole oil displacement process could be shortened and the workload would be reduced.

  18. Cardiac and respiratory responses of rainbow trout, bluegills and brown bullhead catfish during rapid hypoxia and recovery under normoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvin, Jr, D E; Burton, D T

    1973-01-01

    Heart rate, ventilation rate and routine oxygen consumption were measured in Salmo gairdneri, Lepomis macrochirus and Ictalurus nebulosus during rapid hypoxic stress and recovery under normoxic conditions. Cardiac and respiratory responses during hypoxia were similar to those reported in the literature for teleost fish. Immediate increases in heart rate and ventilation rate occurred in all three species after stress. When the mean heart rate for each species at 1 hr post-stress was compared with its pre-stress rate, differences in recovery patterns were found in all species. During recovery from hypoxia, rapid increases in oxygen consumption, above pre-stress levels, occurred in S. gairdneri and L. macrochirus. No significant differences between pre-stress and post-stress values were found in I. nebulosus.

  19. Hydrolysis rates of domestic wastewater sludge using biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic wastewater treatment can be improved by reducing energy consumption and increasing carbon recovery, which can be achieved using anaerobic digestion of sludge with methane recovery at ambient temperature. Hydrolysis can be a limiting step in anaerobic digestion, and characterisation of hydrolysis rates ...

  20. Working the night shift causes increased vascular stress and delayed recovery in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Hsiang; Lin, Lian-Yu; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Chang, Yu-Yin; Liau, Chiau-Suong; Wang, Jung-Der

    2010-08-01

    Shiftwork has been associated with elevated blood pressure (BP) and decreased heart-rate variability (HRV), factors that may increase the long-term risk of cardiovascular-related mortality and morbidity. This study explored the effect of shiftwork on dynamic changes in autonomic control of HRV (cardiac stress), systolic BP and diastolic BP, i.e., SBP and DBP (vascular stress), and recovery in the same subjects working different shifts. By studying the same subjects, the authors could reduce the effect of possible contribution of between-subject variation from genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The authors recruited 16 young female nurses working rotating shifts--day (08:00-16:00 h), evening (16:00-00:00 h), and night (00:00-08:00 h)--and 6 others working the regular day shift. Each nurse received simultaneous and repeated 48-h ambulatory electrocardiography and BP monitoring during their work day and the following off-duty day. Using a linear mixed-effect model to adjust for day shift, the results of the repeated-measurements and self-comparisons found significant shift differences in vascular stress. While working the night shift, the nurses showed significant increases in vascular stress, with increased SBP of 9.7 mm Hg. The changes of SBP and DBP seemed to peak during waking time at the same time on the day off as they did on the working day. Whereas HRV profiles usually returned to baseline level after each shift, the SBP and DBP of night-shift workers did not completely return to baseline levels the following off-duty day (p night shift, they do not completely recover from increases in vascular stress on that day.

  1. Increasing preferred step rate during running reduces plantar pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, James M; Bonanno, Daniel R

    2018-01-01

    Increasing preferred step rate during running is a commonly used strategy in the management of running-related injuries. This study investigated the effect of different step rates on plantar pressures during running. Thirty-two healthy runners ran at a comfortable speed on a treadmill at five step rates (preferred, ±5%, and ±10%). For each step rate, plantar pressure data were collected using the pedar-X in-shoe system. Compared to running with a preferred step rate, a 10% increase in step rate significantly reduced peak pressure (144.5±46.5 vs 129.3±51 kPa; P=.033) and maximum force (382.3±157.6 vs 334.0±159.8 N; P=.021) at the rearfoot, and reduced maximum force (426.4±130.4 vs 400.0±116.6 N; P=.001) at the midfoot. In contrast, a 10% decrease in step rate significantly increased peak pressure (144.5±46.5 vs 161.5±49.3 kPa; P=.011) and maximum force (382.3±157.6 vs 425.4±155.3 N; P=.032) at the rearfoot. Changing step rate by 5% provided no effect on plantar pressures, and no differences in plantar pressures were observed at the medial forefoot, lateral forefoot or hallux between the step rates. This study's findings indicate that increasing preferred step rate by 10% during running will reduce plantar pressures at the rearfoot and midfoot, while decreasing step rate by 10% will increase plantar pressures at the rearfoot. However, changing preferred step rate by 5% will provide no effect on plantar pressures, and forefoot pressures are unaffected by changes in step rate. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Influence of biogenic gas production on coalbed methane recovery index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In investigating the effect of biogenic gas production on the recovery of coalbed methane (CBM, coal samples spanning different ranks were applied in the microbial-functioned simulation experiments for biogenic methane production. Based on the biogenic methane yield, testing of pore structures, and the isothermal adsorption data of coals used before and after the simulation experiments, several key parameters related to the recovery of CBM, including recovery rate, gas saturation and ratio of critical desorption pressure to reservoir pressure, etc., were calculated and the corresponding variations were further analyzed. The results show that one of the significant functions of microbial communities on coal is possibly to weaken its affinity for methane gas, especially with the advance of coal ranks; and that by enhancing the pore system of coal, which can be evidenced by the increase of porosity and permeability, the samples collected from Qianqiu (Yima in Henan and Shaqu (Liulin in Shanxi coal mines all see a notable increase in the critical desorption pressure, gas saturation and recovery rate, as compared to the moderate changes of that of Guandi (Xishan in Shanxi coal sample. It is concluded that the significance of enhanced biogenic gas is not only in the increase of CBM resources and the improvement of CBM recoverability, but in serving as an engineering reference for domestic coalbed biogenic gas production.

  3. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as well as speeded 2-choice finger motor responses. Different groups of subjects were trained on a standard prosaccade gap paradigm before periods of nocturnal sleep and sleep deprivation. Saccade performance was retested in the next morning and again 24 h later. The rate of express saccades was not affected by sleep after training, but slightly increased after sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, this increase augmented even further after recovery sleep and was still present 4 weeks later. Additional experiments revealed that the short testing after sleep deprivation was sufficient to increase express saccades across recovery sleep. An increase in speeded responses across recovery sleep was likewise found for finger motor responses. Our findings indicate that recovery sleep can consolidate motor disinhibition for behaviors practiced during prior sleep deprivation, thereby persistently enhancing response automatization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Cold water recovery reduces anaerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, M J; O'Connor, D; Rudd, D

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of cold water immersion on recovery from anaerobic cycling. Seventeen (13 male, 4 female) active subjects underwent a crossover, randomised design involving two testing sessions 2 - 6 d apart. Testing involved two 30-s maximal cycling efforts separated by a one-hour recovery period of 10-min cycling warm-down followed by either passive rest or 15-min cold water immersion (13 - 14 degrees C) with passive rest. Peak power, total work and postexercise blood lactate were significantly reduced following cold water immersion compared to the first exercise test and the control condition. These variables did not differ significantly between the control tests. Peak exercise heart rate was significantly lower after cold water immersion compared to the control. Time to peak power, rating of perceived exertion, and blood pH were not affected by cold water immersion compared to the control. Core temperature rose significantly (0.3 degrees C) during ice bath immersion but a similar increase also occurred in the control condition. Therefore, cold water immersion caused a significant decrease in sprint cycling performance with one-hour recovery between tests.

  5. Recovery Kinetics in Commercial Purity Aluminum Deformed to Ultrahigh Strain: Model and Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    A new approach to analyze recovery kinetics is developed from a recent model, and microstructural observations are introduced to supplement hardness measurements. The approach involves two steps of data fitting, and the second step of fitting enables an estimation of the apparent activation energy...... for recovery. This approach is applied to commercial purity aluminum (AA1050) cold rolled to ultrahigh strain (99.6 pct reduction in thickness) and annealed at temperatures from 413 K to 493 K (140 A degrees C to 220 A degrees C). The annealing data fit the recovery model well, and the analysis shows...... that the apparent activation energy increases during recovery and approaches 190 kJ/mol at the end of recovery, suggesting that solute drag is an important rate-controlling mechanism. The recovery rate for the highly strained Al is found to be higher than that for Al deformed to a lower strain, an effect which...

  6. Predicting recovery from whiplash injury in the primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert

    2014-08-01

    The effect of expectation of recovery on the recovery rate of whiplash patients in the primary care setting is not known. Whiplash patients were assessed in a primary care setting within 1 week of their collision for their expectations of recovery and were re-examined 3 months later for recovery. Initial expectations of recovery predicted recovery. According to adjusted odds ratios, subjects who expected 'to get better slowly' had a recovery rate that was nearly 1.9 times that of subjects with poor recovery expectations. Subjects who expected 'to get better soon' had a recovery rate that was 2.6 times greater than either of those with poor recovery expectations. In the primary care setting, asking patients with whiplash about their expectations of recovery is a useful predictor of their outcome.

  7. Recovery of Three Arctic Stream Reaches From Experimental Nutrient Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A. C.; Benstead, J. P.; Deegan, L. A.; Peterson, B. J.; Bowden, W. B.; Huryn, A. D.; Slavik, K.; Hershey, A. E.

    2005-05-01

    We examined multi-year patterns in community recovery from experimental low-concentration nutrient (N+P and P only) enrichment in three reaches of two Arctic tundra streams (Kuparuk River and Oksrukuyik Creek) on the North Slope of Alaska (USA). Rates of recovery varied among community components and depended on duration of enrichment (2 to 13 consecutive growing seasons). Biomass and C:P ratio of epilithic algae returned to reference levels rapidly (within 2 years), regardless of enrichment duration. Bryophyte cover, which increased greatly after long-term enrichment (>8 years), recovered to reference levels only after 7 years, when a storm scoured most remnant moss in the recovering reach. Persistence of bryophytes slowed recovery rates of insect taxa that had either been positively (e.g., Ephemerella, most chironomid taxa) or negatively (e.g., Orthocladius rivulorum) affected by this shift in dominant primary producer and its consequence for benthic habitat. Growth of Arctic grayling (adults and young-of-year), the top predator, returned to reference rates within two years. Recovery of these Arctic stream ecosystems from nutrient enrichment was consequently controlled largely by interactions between duration of enrichment and physical disturbance, mediated through physical habitat shifts caused by bryophytes.

  8. Cascade damage in nickel: Production, saturation and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Blewitt, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the electrical resistivity and length were simultaneously measured during the bombardment of nickel at 70 K with 235 U fission fragments and during a subsequent isothermal annealing program. The resistivity changes and length changes were linearly related during the damage production for damage concentrations less 80% of the defect saturation limit. The initial ratio of the length change to the resistivity change was 8.4x10 4 /Ω m. At high damage concentrations, the length change increased at a slightly higher rate than the resistivity change. During isothermal annealing of the near-saturation defect concentration, the resistivity and the length changes had identical recoveries through stage I and most of stage II. During stage III annealing, the ratio of the length change to the resistivity change showed a small increase. At temperatures above 475 K, this ratio showed a marked increase as the resistivity change exhibited recovery without a corresponding recovery of the length change. These differences, which are attributed to the direct formation and growth of three-dimensional vacancy agglomerates, and results of tranmission electron microscopy suggest that the sign of the third derivative of the resistivity with respect to fast-neutron fluence (the sense of curvature in the damage rate) is positive for materials in which cascades collapse to loops, and negative for materials in which three-dimensional vacancy agglomerates are stable. (orig.)

  9. Mechanics of vacuum-enhanced recovery of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.L.; McWhorter, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    A growing body of field data demonstrates the enhancement of product recovery that can be achieved by applying a partial vacuum to recovery wells. Typical explanations for the observed improvement in performance invoke an increased slope of the cone of depression created in the water-table surface. Explanations related to water-table slope do not consider the gradient induced in the hydrocarbon by virtue of the airflow. Also, the airflow may induce a gradient in the aqueous phase that is not reflected in a water-table drawdown. The equations for steady-state flow of three immiscible fluids elucidate the fundamental mechanics of vacuum-enhanced recovery or bioslurping. Airflow to the recovery well causes hydrocarbon to migrate toward the well, independent of any gravity effects that may be created. Also, the relative permeability to hydrocarbon is affected by both water and airflow in the vicinity of the recovery well. Two critical airflow rates delineate the conditions for which only air is recovered, air and hydrocarbon are recovered, and all three phases are recovered

  10. An exploratory study of lead recovery in lead-acid battery lifecycle in US market: An evidence-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genaidy, A.M.; Sequeira, R.; Tolaymat, T.; Kohler, J.; Rinder, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This research examines lead recovery and recycling in lead-acid batteries (LAB) which account for 88% of US lead consumption. We explore strategies to maximize lead recovery and recycling in the LAB lifecycle. Currently, there is limited information on recycling rates for LAB in the published literature and is derived from a single source. Therefore, its recycling efforts in the US has been unclear so as to determine the maximum opportunities for metal recovery and recycling in the face of significant demands for LAB particularly in the auto industry. Objectives: The research utilizes an evidence-based approach to: (1) determine recycling rates for lead recovery in the LAB product lifecycle for the US market; and (2) quantify and identify opportunities where lead recovery and recycling can be improved. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search of the published literature was conducted to gather information on different LAB recycling models and actual data used to calculate recycling rates based on product lifecycle for the US market to identify strategies for increasing lead recovery and recycling. Results: The electronic search yielded five models for calculating LAB recycling rates. The description of evidence was documented for each model. Furthermore, an integrated model was developed to identify and quantify the maximum opportunities for lead recovery and recycling. Results showed that recycling rates declined during the period spanning from 1999 to 2006. Opportunities were identified for recovery and recycling of lead in the LAB product lifecycle. Concluding remarks: One can deduce the following from the analyses undertaken in this report: (1) lead recovery and recycling has been stable between 1999 and 2006; (2) lead consumption has increased at an annual rate of 2.25%, thus, the values derived in this study for opportunities dealing with lead recovery and recycling underestimate the amount of lead in scrap and waste generated; and (3) the

  11. Measuring the Recovery Orientation of ACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyers, Michelle P.; Stull, Laura G.; Rollins, Angela L.; McGrew, John H.; Hicks, Lia J.; Thomas, Dave; Strieter, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Background Approaches to measuring recovery orientation are needed, particularly for programs that may struggle with implementing recovery-oriented treatment. Objective A mixed methods comparative study was conducted to explore effective approaches to measuring recovery orientation of Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams. Design Two ACT teams exhibiting high and low recovery orientation were compared using surveys, treatment plan ratings, diaries of treatment visits, and team-leader-reported treatment control mechanisms. Results The recovery-oriented team differed on one survey measure (higher expectations for consumer recovery), treatment planning (greater consumer involvement and goal-directed content), and use of control mechanisms (less use of representative payee, agency-held lease, daily medication delivery, and family involvement). Staff and consumer diaries showed the most consistent differences (e.g., conveying hope and choice) and were the least susceptible to observer bias, but had the lowest response rates. Conclusions Several practices differentiate recovery orientation on ACT teams, and a mixed-methods assessment approach is feasible. PMID:23690285

  12. Methane Post-Processor Development to Increase Oxygen Recovery beyond State-of-the-Art Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee A.; Alvarez, Giraldo; Iannantuono, Michelle; Jones, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art life support carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology, based on the Sabatier reaction, is theoretically capable of 50% recovery of oxygen from metabolic CO2. This recovery is constrained by the limited availability of reactant hydrogen. Post-processing of the methane byproduct from the Sabatier reactor results in hydrogen recycle and a subsequent increase in oxygen recovery. For this purpose, a Methane Post-Processor Assembly containing three sub-systems has been developed and tested. The assembly includes a Methane Purification Assembly (MePA) to remove residual CO2 and water vapor from the Sabatier product stream, a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to partially pyrolyze methane into hydrogen and acetylene, and an Acetylene Separation Assembly (ASepA) to purify the hydrogen product for recycle. The results of partially integrated testing of the sub-systems are reported

  13. Effect of heat sink layer on ultrafast magnetization recovery of FeCo films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Y; Zhao, J Q; Zhang, Z Z; Jin, Q Y; Hu, H N; Zhou, S M

    2008-01-01

    For FeCo alloy thin films with Ag, Cu, Pt, Ta and Cr as heat sink layers, ultrafast demagnetization and recovery processes of transient magnetization have been studied by the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect. For all samples, the ultrafast demagnetization process is accomplished within almost the same time interval of 500 fs, which is independent of the heat sink layer material and the pump fluence. The recovery rate of the FeCo film grown on the Si(1 0 0) substrate is enhanced with a heat sink layer. In addition, the recovery rate is found to be independent of the heat sink layer thickness; it decreases with increasing pump fluence. Among all heat sink layers, the sample with the Cr layer achieves the highest recovery rate because it has the same bcc structure as that of the FeCo layer and the small lattice mismatch. The sample with the Ta layer, has the largest damage threshold of pump fluence because of the highest melting point

  14. Age, sex, and nutritional status modify the CD4+ T-cell recovery rate in HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeamama, Amara E; Mupere, Ezekiel; Oloya, James; Martinez, Leonardo; Kakaire, Robert; Yin, Xiaoping; Sekandi, Juliet N; Whalen, Christopher C

    2015-06-01

    Baseline age and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) were examined as determinants of CD4+ T-cell recovery during 6 months of tuberculosis (TB) therapy with/without cART. It was determined whether this association was modified by patient sex and nutritional status. This longitudinal analysis included 208 immune-competent, non-pregnant, ART-naive HIV-positive patients from Uganda with a first episode of pulmonary TB. CD4+ T-cell counts were measured using flow cytometry. Age was defined as ≤24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35-39 vs. ≥40 years. Nutritional status was defined as normal (>18.5kg/m(2)) vs. underweight (≤18.5kg/m(2)) using the body mass index (BMI). Multivariate random effects linear mixed models were fitted to estimate differences in CD4+ T-cell recovery in relation to specified determinants. cART was associated with a monthly rise of 15.7 cells/μl (precovery during TB therapy (p = 0.655). However, among patients on cART, the age-associated CD4+ T-cell recovery rate varied by sex and nutritional status, such that age recovery among females (p=0.006) and among patients with a BMI ≥18.5kg/m(2) (p18.5kg/m(2) or they are female. These patients may benefit from increased monitoring and nutritional support during cART. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased recovery in dual temperature isotope exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock, D.F.; Neill, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    The improvement comprises increasing the flow ratio of liquid with respect to gas within the upper portion of the first tower, wherein the liquid is enriched in the isotope, and within the lower portion of the second tower, wherein the liquid is depleted in the isotope each to a value of at least 5% above the corresponding flow ratio within the remaining lower portion of the first tower and the remaining upper portion of the second tower respectively. The increased flow ratios are provided by increasing the rate of liquid substance being fed to the first tower and withdrawing up to about 50% of the increased liquid substance flow from a location within the upper one-half of the first tower and reintroducing the withdrawn liquid at a location within the lower one-half portion of the second tower. (author)

  16. Computers in the Cop Car: Impact of the Mobile Digital Terminal Technology on Motor Vehicle Theft Clearance and Recovery Rates in a Texas City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Samuel

    1993-01-01

    Assessed the impact of the Mobile Digital Terminal technology (computers used to communicate with remote crime databases) on motor vehicle theft clearance (arresting a perpetrator) and recovery rates in Fort Worth (Texas), using a time series analysis. Impact has been ambiguous, with little evidence of improved clearance or recovery. (SLD)

  17. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Ralf Jäger; Kevin A. Shields; Ryan P. Lowery; Eduardo O. De Souza; Jeremy M. Partl; Chase Hollmer; Martin Purpura; Jacob M. Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administrat...

  18. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Springer, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield.

  19. The mitochondrial uniporter controls fight or flight heart rate increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuejin; Rasmussen, Tyler P; Koval, Olha M; Joiner, Mei-Ling A; Hall, Duane D; Chen, Biyi; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Wang, Qiongling; Rokita, Adam G; Wehrens, Xander H T; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E

    2015-01-20

    Heart rate increases are a fundamental adaptation to physiological stress, while inappropriate heart rate increases are resistant to current therapies. However, the metabolic mechanisms driving heart rate acceleration in cardiac pacemaker cells remain incompletely understood. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) facilitates calcium entry into the mitochondrial matrix to stimulate metabolism. We developed mice with myocardial MCU inhibition by transgenic expression of a dominant-negative (DN) MCU. Here, we show that DN-MCU mice had normal resting heart rates but were incapable of physiological fight or flight heart rate acceleration. We found that MCU function was essential for rapidly increasing mitochondrial calcium in pacemaker cells and that MCU-enhanced oxidative phoshorylation was required to accelerate reloading of an intracellular calcium compartment before each heartbeat. Our findings show that MCU is necessary for complete physiological heart rate acceleration and suggest that MCU inhibition could reduce inappropriate heart rate increases without affecting resting heart rate.

  20. Imaging resilience and recovery in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Katrin; Rosenthal, Annika; Lohoff, Falk W; Heinz, Andreas; Beck, Anne

    2018-05-09

    Resilience and recovery are of increasing importance in the field of alcohol dependence (AD). This paper describes how imaging studies in man can be used to assess the neurobiological correlates of resilience and, if longitudinal, of disease trajectories, progression rates and markers for recovery to inform treatment and prevention options. Original articles on recovery and resilience in alcohol addiction and its neurobiological correlates were identified from 'PubMed' and have been analyzed and condensed within a systematic literature review. Findings deriving from (f)MRI and PET studies have identified links between increased resilience and less task-elicited neural activation within the basal ganglia, and benefits of heightened neural prefrontal cortex (PFC) engagement regarding resilience in a broader sense, namely resilience against relapse in early abstinence of AD. Furthermore, findings consistently propose at least partial recovery of brain glucose metabolism and executive and general cognitive functioning, as well as structural plasticity effects throughout the brain of alcohol-dependent patients during the course of short, medium and long-term abstinence, even when patients only lowered their alcohol consumption to a moderate level. Additionally, specific factors were found that appear to influence these observed brain recovery processes in AD, e.g. genotype-dependent neuronal (re)growth, gender-specific neural recovery effects, critical interfering effects of psychiatric comorbidities, additional smoking or marijuana influences, or adolescent alcohol abuse. Neuroimaging research has uncovered neurobiological markers that appear to be linked to resilience and improved recovery capacities that are furthermore influenced by various factors such as gender or genetics. Consequently, future system-oriented approaches may help to establish a broad neuroscience-based research framework for alcohol dependence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  1. Development of the REFOCUS intervention to increase mental health team support for personal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Mike; Bird, Victoria; Le Boutillier, Clair; Farkas, Marianne; Grey, Barbara; Larsen, John; Leamy, Mary; Oades, Lindsay; Williams, Julie

    2015-12-01

    There is an emerging evidence base about best practice in supporting recovery. This is usually framed in relation to general principles, and specific pro-recovery interventions are lacking. To develop a theoretically based and empirically defensible new pro-recovery manualised intervention--called the REFOCUS intervention. Seven systematic and two narrative reviews were undertaken. Identified evidence gaps were addressed in three qualitative studies. The findings were synthesised to produce the REFOCUS intervention, manual and model. The REFOCUS intervention comprises two components: recovery-promoting relationships and working practices. Approaches to supporting relationships comprise coaching skills training for staff, developing a shared team understanding of recovery, exploring staff values, a Partnership Project with people who use the service and raising patient expectations. Working practices comprise the following: understanding values and treatment preferences; assessing strengths; and supporting goal-striving. The REFOCUS model describes the causal pathway from the REFOCUS intervention to improved recovery. The REFOCUS intervention is an empirically supported pro-recovery intervention for use in mental health services. It will be evaluated in a multisite cluster randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN02507940). © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  2. Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery in arctic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    Mechanical ventilations systems with highly effective heat recovery units in arctic climate have problems with condensing water from the extracted humid indoor air. If the condensing water freezes to ice in the heat recovery unit, the airflow rate will quickly diminish due to the increasing...... pressure drop. Preheating the inlet air (outdoor air) to a temperature just above 0ºC is typically used to solve the problem. To minimize the energy cost, a more efficient solution to the problem is therefore desirable. In this project a new design of a heat recovery unit has been developed to the low......-energy house in Sisimiut, which is capable of continuously defrosting itself. The disadvantage of the unit is that it is quite big compared with other units. In this paper the new heat recovery unit is described and laboratory measurements are presented showing that the unit is capable of continuously...

  3. A Review of CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery with a Simulated Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandadige Samintha Anne Perera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a comprehensive study of the CO2-EOR (Enhanced oil recovery process, a detailed literature review and a numerical modelling study. According to past studies, CO2 injection can recover additional oil from reservoirs by reservoir pressure increment, oil swelling, the reduction of oil viscosity and density and the vaporization of oil hydrocarbons. Therefore, CO2-EOR can be used to enhance the two major oil recovery mechanisms in the field: miscible and immiscible oil recovery, which can be further increased by increasing the amount of CO2 injected, applying innovative flood design and well placement, improving the mobility ratio, extending miscibility, and controlling reservoir depth and temperature. A 3-D numerical model was developed using the CO2-Prophet simulator to examine the effective factors in the CO2-EOR process. According to that, in pure CO2 injection, oil production generally exhibits increasing trends with increasing CO2 injection rate and volume (in HCPV (Hydrocarbon pore volume and reservoir temperature. In the WAG (Water alternating gas process, oil production generally increases with increasing CO2 and water injection rates, the total amount of flood injected in HCPV and the distance between the injection wells, and reduces with WAG flood ratio and initial reservoir pressure. Compared to other factors, the water injection rate creates the minimum influence on oil production, and the CO2 injection rate, flood volume and distance between the flood wells have almost equally important influence on oil production.

  4. Heat pipe heat exchanger for heat recovery in air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Baky, Mostafa A.; Mohamed, Mousa M. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minufiya University, Shebin El-Kom (Egypt)

    2007-03-15

    The heat pipe heat exchangers are used in heat recovery applications to cool the incoming fresh air in air conditioning applications. Two streams of fresh and return air have been connected with heat pipe heat exchanger to investigate the thermal performance and effectiveness of heat recovery system. Ratios of mass flow rate between return and fresh air of 1, 1.5 and 2.3 have been adapted to validate the heat transfer and the temperature change of fresh air. Fresh air inlet temperature of 32-40{sup o}C has been controlled, while the inlet return air temperature is kept constant at about 26{sup o}C. The results showed that the temperature changes of fresh and return air are increased with the increase of inlet temperature of fresh air. The effectiveness and heat transfer for both evaporator and condenser sections are also increased to about 48%, when the inlet fresh air temperature is increased to 40{sup o}C. The effect of mass flow rate ratio on effectiveness is positive for evaporator side and negative for condenser side. The enthalpy ratio between the heat recovery and conventional air mixing is increased to about 85% with increasing fresh air inlet temperature. The optimum effectiveness of heat pipe heat exchanger is estimated and compared with the present experimental data. The results showed that the effectiveness is close to the optimum effectiveness at fresh air inlet temperature near the fluid operating temperature of heat pipes. (author)

  5. Cheese whey protein recovery by ultrafiltration through transglutaminase (TG) catalysis whey protein cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Qiong, Wang; Lan-Wei, Zhang; Xue, Han; Yi, Lu

    2017-01-15

    In whey ultrafiltration (UF) production, two main problems are whey protein recovery and membrane fouling. In this study, membrane coupling protein transglutaminase (TG) catalysis protein cross-linking was investigated under different conditions to find out the best treatment. We found that the optimal conditions for protein recovery involved catalyzing whey protein cross-linking with TG (40U/g whey proteins) at 40°C for 60min at pH 5.0. Under these conditions, the recovery rate was increased 15-20%, lactose rejection rate was decreased by 10%, and relative permeate flux was increase 30-40% compared to the sample without enzyme treatment (control). It was noticeable that the total resistance and cake resistance were decreased after enzyme catalysis. This was mainly due to the increased particle size and decreased zeta potential. Therefore, membrane coupling enzyme catalysis protein cross-linking is a potential means for further use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Analysis of heat recovery from a spray dryer by recirculation of exhaust air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golman, Boris; Julklang, Wittaya

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study a spray dryer with heat recovery by partial recirculation of exhaust air. • We examine effects of process parameters on energy efficiency and energy savings. • Decreasing drying air temperature and flow rate will increase energy efficiency. • Increasing recirculation ratio and slurry feed rate will increase energy efficiency. - Abstract: Model simulations were employed to investigate the influences of process parameters on the energy recovery in spray drying process that partially recycle the exhaust drying gas. The energy efficiency and energy saving were studied for various values of recirculation ratios with respect to the temperature and flow rate of the drying air, slurry feed rate and concentration of slurry in spray drying of advanced ceramic materials. As a result, significant gains in energy efficiency and energy saving were obtained for a spray drying system with high recirculation ratio of exhaust air. The high slurry feed rate and the low slurry concentration, inlet drying air temperature and drying air flow rate enhanced the energy efficiency of spray drying system. However, the high energy saving was obtained in spray dryers operating at low slurry feed rate and high slurry concentration

  7. Effects of solutes on damage production and recovery in zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, R.H.; Birtcher, R.C.; MacEwen, S.R.; Abromeit, C.

    1986-04-01

    Dilute zirconium-based alloys and pure zirconium were irradiated at 10 K with spallation neutrons at IPNS. Four types of alloys - Zr-Ti, Zr-Sn, Zr-Dy and Zr-Au - each with three concentration levels, were used. Low-temperature resistivity damage rates are enhanced by the presence of any of the four solutes. The greatest enhancement was produced by Au while the least by Dy. Within each alloy group, damage production also increased but at a decreasing rate, with increasing concentration. Post-irradiation annealing experiments, up to 400 K, showed that all four solutes suppress recovery due to interstitial migration, indicative of interstitial trapping by the solutes. Vacancy recovery is also suppressed by the presence of Sn, Dy or Au. The effect of Ti is to shift this stage to lower temperature. No clear correlation between the results with solute size was detected

  8. The effect of follicular fluid hormones on oocyte recovery after ovarian stimulation: FSH level predicts oocyte recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaudo Paolo F

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technology (ART overcomes the physiologic process to develop a single dominant follicle. However, following stimulation, egg recovery rates are not 100%. The objective of this study is to determine if the follicular fluid hormonal environment is associated with oocyte recovery. Methods This is a prospective study involving patients undergoing ART by standard ovarian stimulation protocols at an urban academic medical center. A total of 143 follicular fluid aspirates were collected from 80 patients. Concentrations of FSH, hCG, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and prolactin were determined. A multivariable regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the follicular fluid hormones and oocyte recovery. Results Intrafollicular FSH was significantly associated with oocyte recovery after adjustment for hCG (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.03–1.42. The hCG concentration alone, in the range tested, did not impact the odds of oocyte recovery (AOR = 0.99, 95%CI 0.93–1.07. Estradiol was significantly associated with oocyte recovery (AOR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.96–0.99. After adjustment for progesterone, the strength of association between FSH and oocyte recovery increased (AOR = 1.84, 95%CI 1.45–2.34. Conclusion The relationship between FSH and oocyte recovery is significant and appears to work through mechanisms independent of the sex hormones. FSH may be important for the physiologic event of separation of the cumulus-oocyte complex from the follicle wall, thereby influencing oocyte recovery. Current methods for inducing the final stages of oocyte maturation, with hCG administration alone, may not be optimal. Modifications of treatment protocols utilizing additional FSH may enhance oocyte recovery.

  9. Learning how to recover from job stress: effects of a recovery training program on recovery, recovery-related self-efficacy, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Verena C; Binnewies, Carmen; Sonnentag, Sabine; Mojza, Eva J

    2011-04-01

    This quasi-experimental study evaluated the effects of a recovery training program on recovery experiences (psychological detachment from work, relaxation, mastery experiences, and control during off-job time), recovery-related self-efficacy, and well-being outcomes. The training comprised two sessions held one week apart. Recovery experiences, recovery-related self-efficacy, and well-being outcomes were measured before the training (T1) and one week (T2) and three weeks (T3) after the training. A training group consisting of 48 individuals and a waitlist control group of 47 individuals were compared (N = 95). Analyses of covariance revealed an increase in recovery experiences at T2 and T3 (for mastery only at T2). Recovery-related self-efficacy and sleep quality increased at T2 and T3, perceived stress and state negative affect decreased at T3. No training effects were found for emotional exhaustion.

  10. Evaluating work/recovery schedules in terms of whole body heat storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardcastle, S.G. [Natural Resources Canada, Sudbury, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories; Stapleton, J.M.; Kenny, G.P. [Ottawa Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). School of Human Kinetics, Human and Environmental Physiology Research Unit; Allen, C. [Vale Inco, Copper Cliff, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on heat stress related research aimed at better managing the heat exposure of underground miners. The potential for underground miners to experience heat stress or strain is increasing due to greater mining depth; mechanization, and a trend towards larger diesel equipment; an aging workforce; an increasing amount of personal protective equipment worn to prevent injuries (that has led to most of the miner's body being covered) and increases in the surface climate that are superimposed through the underground workplace. This paper focused on research involving metabolic heat storage and the possibility of heat strain from elevated core temperatures. It targeted work/recovery cycles and the recovery strategies between work bouts. The first study examined the cumulative change in body heat content for a moderate metabolic rate and increasing the recovery allocation as per the TLV screening criteria to offset an increase in the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The second study examined strategies that could be used between work bouts and how they affect the thermoregulatory system, heat generation or losses and net cumulative heat storage. The calorimeter based work suggested that a miner's clothing may be improved to promote evaporative cooling, and that work recovery regimes could be modified to maximize recovery. 10 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  11. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Springer, Christian

    2011-04-01

    In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dielectric recovery mechanism of pressurized carbon dioxide at liquid and supercritical phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, Hiroyuki; Furusato, Tomohiro; Imamichi, Takahiro; Ota, Miyuki; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori

    2015-09-01

    Estimates of dielectric recovery rates of supercritical (SC) and liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) were derived with focus on highly-repetitive pulsed power switching mediums. Calculated results suggest that recovery time of SC and liquid CO2 are approximately 50 times shorter than that of water and oils. Prior to 10 µs after breakdown, recovery rates in neither SC nor liquid CO2 reached 100%, though the recovery rate in SC CO2 was higher than that of liquid CO2. To examine causes of recovery rate differences, each dielectric recovery process in SC and liquid CO2 was observed by laser shadowgraph technique. These shadowgraph images suggest two factors explaining dielectric recovery rate differences between these medium conditions: 1) thermodynamic property differences between medium conditions, and 2) differences in the low density region recovery mechanism.

  13. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2000-01-19

    This report covers the work performed in the various physicochemical factors for the improvement of oil recovery efficiency. In this context the following general areas were studied: (1) The understanding of vapor-liquid flows in porous media, including processes in steam injection; (2) The effect of reservoir heterogeneity in a variety of foams, from pore scale to macroscopic scale; (3) The flow properties of additives for improvement of recovery efficiency, particularly foams and other non-Newtonian fluids; and (4) The development of optimization methods to maximize various measures of oil recovery.

  14. Xeroderma pigmentosum variants have a slow recovery of DNA synthesis after irradiation with ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, J.E.; Thomas, G.H.; Park, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Human cells (normal and xeroderma pigmentosum variant) irradiated with ultraviolet light and pulse-labelled with [ 3 H]thymidine underwent transient decline and recovery of molecular weights of newly synthesized DNA and rates of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation. The ability of synthesize normal-sized DNA recovered more rapidly in both cell types than thymidine incorporation. During recovery cells steadily increased in their ability to replicate normalsized DNA on damaged templates. The molecular weight versus time curves fitted exponential functions with similar rate constants in normal and heterozygous xeroderma pigmentosum cells, but with a slower rate in two xeroderma pigmentosum variant cell lines. Caffeine added during the post-irradiation period eliminated the recovery of molecular weights in xeroderma pigmentsoum variant but not in normal cells. The recovery of the ability to synthesize normal-sized DNA represents a combination of a number of cellular regulatory processes, some of which are constitutive, and one of which is altered in the xeroderma pigmentosum variant such that recovery becomes slow and caffeine sensitive. (Auth.)

  15. The influence of artificially increased trunk stiffness on the balance recovery after a trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, J C E; Pijnappels, M; van Dieën, J H

    2007-07-01

    Falls occur frequently in the growing population of elderly. Since trunk control is critical for maintaining balance, the higher trunk stiffness in elderly people compared to the general population has been associated with their increased fall-risk. Theoretically, trunk stiffness may be beneficial for balance recovery in walking, i.e. after a trip. A stiff joint may provide a torque that restricts the perturbation effects and thereby reduces the probability of a fall. The aim of this study was to test whether trunk stiffness impaired or assisted balance recovery after a trip during walking. An orthopedic corset was used to simulate trunk stiffness in 11 young male adults. Subjects walked over a platform, with or without the corset on, and were occasionally tripped over a hidden obstacle. Kinematics of the tripping reaction were measured. Initial trunk accelerations were significantly attenuated by the corset, which indicates a positive effect of the stiffening corset. However, no subsequent effects on peak trunk inclination and on the peak moment arm of gravity on the trunk were found. The pattern of trunk motion allowed ample time for triggered or voluntary muscle responses to be generated, before a substantial inclination occurred. It appears that such active responses were sufficient in the young subjects tested to obtain a similar net effect with or without the increased trunk stiffness induced by the corset.

  16. Recovery of the immune system after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Jonathan M; Neubauer, Oliver; Walsh, Neil P; Simpson, Richard J

    2017-05-01

    The notion that prolonged, intense exercise causes an "open window" of immunodepression during recovery after exercise is well accepted. Repeated exercise bouts or intensified training without sufficient recovery may increase the risk of illness. However, except for salivary IgA, clear and consistent markers of this immunodepression remain elusive. Exercise increases circulating neutrophil and monocyte counts and reduces circulating lymphocyte count during recovery. This lymphopenia results from preferential egress of lymphocyte subtypes with potent effector functions [e.g., natural killer (NK) cells, γδ T cells, and CD8 + T cells]. These lymphocytes most likely translocate to peripheral sites of potential antigen encounter (e.g., lungs and gut). This redeployment of effector lymphocytes is an integral part of the physiological stress response to exercise. Current knowledge about changes in immune function during recovery from exercise is derived from assessment at the cell population level of isolated cells ex vivo or in blood. This assessment can be biased by large changes in the distribution of immune cells between blood and peripheral tissues during and after exercise. Some evidence suggests that reduced immune cell function in vitro may coincide with changes in vivo and rates of illness after exercise, but more work is required to substantiate this notion. Among the various nutritional strategies and physical therapies that athletes use to recover from exercise, carbohydrate supplementation is the most effective for minimizing immune disturbances during exercise recovery. Sleep is an important aspect of recovery, but more research is needed to determine how sleep disruption influences the immune system of athletes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Increased strength of concrete subject to high loading rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curbach, M.

    1987-01-01

    Within the scope of this work various problems are discussed which occur in connection with concrete under high tensile loading rates (e.g. when a plane crashes on a nuclear power plant very high loads occur which act only for a very short time). Particularly the causes for the already frequently noticed increases in strength with increasing loading rates are investigated and also the question whether this increased strength can be taken into account when dimensioning a construction. (MM) [de

  18. Biological responses to the chemical recovery of acidified fresh waters in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteith, D.T.; Hildrew, A.G.; Flower, R.J.; Raven, P.J.; Beaumont, W.R.B.; Collen, P.; Kreiser, A.M.; Shilland, E.M.; Winterbottom, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    We report biological changes at several UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network lakes and streams that are spatially consistent with the recovery of water chemistry induced by reductions in acid deposition. These include trends toward more acid-sensitive epilithic diatom and macroinvertebrate assemblages, an increasing proportional abundance of macroinvertebrate predators, an increasing occurrence of acid-sensitive aquatic macrophyte species, and the recent appearance of juvenile (<1 year old) brown trout in some of the more acidic flowing waters. Changes are often shown to be directly linked to annual variations in acidity. Although indicative of biological improvement in response to improving water chemistry, 'recovery' in most cases is modest and very gradual. While specific ecological recovery endpoints are uncertain, it is likely that physical and biotic interactions are influencing the rate of recovery of certain groups of organisms at particular sites. - Recently observed changes in the species composition of UK lakes and streams are consistent with chemical recovery from acidification

  19. Biological responses to the chemical recovery of acidified fresh waters in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteith, D.T. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: d.monteith@geog.ucl.ac.uk; Hildrew, A.G. [School of Biological Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Flower, R.J. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AP (United Kingdom); Raven, P.J. [Environment Agency, Rio House, Waterside Drive, Aztec West, Almondsbury, Bristol, BS32 4UD (United Kingdom); Beaumont, W.R.B. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Dorset, Winfrith Technology Centre, Winfrith, Newburgh, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8ZD (United Kingdom); Collen, P. [Fisheries Research Services, Freshwater Laboratory, Faskally, Pitlochry, Perthshire, PH16 5LB (United Kingdom); Kreiser, A.M. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AP (United Kingdom); Shilland, E.M. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AP (United Kingdom); Winterbottom, J.H. [School of Biological Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-15

    We report biological changes at several UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network lakes and streams that are spatially consistent with the recovery of water chemistry induced by reductions in acid deposition. These include trends toward more acid-sensitive epilithic diatom and macroinvertebrate assemblages, an increasing proportional abundance of macroinvertebrate predators, an increasing occurrence of acid-sensitive aquatic macrophyte species, and the recent appearance of juvenile (<1 year old) brown trout in some of the more acidic flowing waters. Changes are often shown to be directly linked to annual variations in acidity. Although indicative of biological improvement in response to improving water chemistry, 'recovery' in most cases is modest and very gradual. While specific ecological recovery endpoints are uncertain, it is likely that physical and biotic interactions are influencing the rate of recovery of certain groups of organisms at particular sites. - Recently observed changes in the species composition of UK lakes and streams are consistent with chemical recovery from acidification.

  20. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Richard

    2009-07-01

    The recovery model refers to subjective experiences of optimism, empowerment and interpersonal support, and to a focus on collaborative treatment approaches, finding productive roles for user/consumers, peer support and reducing stigma. The model is influencing service development around the world. This review will assess whether optimism about outcome from serious mental illness and other tenets of the recovery model are borne out by recent research. Remission of symptoms has been precisely defined, but the definition of 'recovery' is a more diffuse concept that includes such factors as being productive and functioning independently. Recent research and a large, earlier body of data suggest that optimism about outcome from schizophrenia is justified. A substantial proportion of people with the illness will recover completely and many more will regain good social functioning. Outcome is better for people in the developing world. Mortality for people with schizophrenia is increasing but is lower in the developing world. Working appears to help people recover from schizophrenia, and recent advances in vocational rehabilitation have been shown to be effective in countries with differing economies and labor markets. A growing body of research supports the concept that empowerment is an important component of the recovery process. Key tenets of the recovery model - optimism about recovery from schizophrenia, the importance of access to employment and the value of empowerment of user/consumers in the recovery process - are supported by the scientific research. Attempts to reduce the internalized stigma of mental illness should enhance the recovery process.

  1. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.; Byrne, J.C.; Daniels, L.D.; Franklin, J.F.; Fule, P.Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Larson, A.J.; Smith, Joseph M.; Taylor, A.H.; Veblen, T.T.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 to 29 years among regions. Increases were also pervasive across elevations, tree sizes, dominant genera, and past fire histories. Forest density and basal area declined slightly, which suggests that increasing mortality was not caused by endogenous increases in competition. Because mortality increased in small trees, the overall increase in mortality rates cannot be attributed solely to aging of large trees. Regional warming and consequent increases in water deficits are likely contributors to the increases in tree mortality rates.

  2. Empirical links between natural mortality and recovery in marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Kuparinen, Anna

    2017-06-14

    Probability of species recovery is thought to be correlated with specific aspects of organismal life history, such as age at maturity and longevity, and how these affect rates of natural mortality ( M ) and maximum per capita population growth ( r max ). Despite strong theoretical underpinnings, these correlates have been based on predicted rather than realized population trajectories following threat mitigation. Here, we examine the level of empirical support for postulated links between a suite of life-history traits (related to maturity, age, size and growth) and recovery in marine fishes. Following threat mitigation (medium time since cessation of overfishing = 20 years), 71% of 55 temperate populations had fully recovered, the remainder exhibiting, on average, negligible change (impaired recovery). Singly, life-history traits did not influence recovery status. In combination, however, those that jointly reflect length-based mortality at maturity, M α , revealed that recovered populations have higher M α , which we hypothesize to reflect local adaptations associated with greater r max But, within populations, the smaller sizes at maturity generated by overfishing are predicted to increase M α , slowing recovery and increasing its uncertainty. We conclude that recovery potential is greater for populations adapted to high M but that temporal increases in M concomitant with smaller size at maturity will have the opposite effect. The recovery metric documented here ( M α ) has a sound theoretical basis, is significantly correlated with direct estimates of M that directly reflect r max , is not reliant on data-intensive time series, can be readily estimated, and offers an empirically defensible correlate of recovery, given its clear links to the positive and impaired responses to threat mitigation that have been observed in fish populations over the past three decades. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Increasing the graduation rates of minority medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J L; Nowacki, C M; Girotti, J A; Townsel, J; Plagge, J C; Beckham, T W

    1986-05-01

    The University of Illinois College of Medicine has operated a program since 1969 to recruit minority students into the college and to increase the graduation rates of these students once they enroll. Known as the Medical Opportunities Program (MOP) until 1978, the program was expanded in 1978 and renamed the Urban Health Program (UHP). The authors of the present paper discuss the results of these programs, particularly the effect of granting minority students delays in completing graduation requirements. The MOP (1969 through 1978) increased graduation rates for minority students from 55 percent for those who graduated on time to 81 percent for both on-time and delayed graduates. Under the first seven years of the UHP (1979 through 1985), more minority students have been offered places, and more have enrolled than in the 10 years of the MOP. The retention rate under the UHP, if it holds, will be higher than that under the MOP. For the combined MOP-UHP period, the retention rate for minority students was 88 percent; 69.8 percent of the graduates were on time, and 30.2 were delayed.

  4. Temperature regulation in horses during exercise and recovery in a cool environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallsten Hanna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clipping the winter coat in horses is done to improve heat dissipation during exercise and make grooming easier. It is often combined with blanketing to keep the horse warm. The aims of the present study were to investigate how clipping and the use of blankets affect thermoregulation during exercise and recovery in horses. Methods One Gotland pony, one New Forest pony, and one warm-blooded horse exercised one after the other on a 6450 m long track. The horses walked, trotted and cantered according to a predetermined scheme, which took about 50 minutes including three stops. The scheme was repeated on five consecutive days when horses were: 1 unclipped 2 unclipped + blanket during recovery, 3 left or right side clipped, 4 clipped, and 5 clipped + riding blanket + blanket during recovery. Heart rate (HR was measured with telemetry, respiratory rate (RR by counting flank contractions, skin temperatures by thermistor probes, and rectal temperature with a digital thermometer. Skin wetness (SW was estimated by ocular inspection (dripping = 5, dry = 0. Results Mean outdoor temperature varied from -1.1 to - 8.7°C. HR increased progressively during exercise with no difference between treatments. Maximum RR was 77 ± 30 breaths/min (unclipped and 49 ± 27 breaths/min (clipped. The lowest skin temperature was 17.5 ± 2.7°C in a hind leg during exercise, which increased to 34.5 ± 0.1°C during recovery. Rectal temperature was elevated during recovery in unclipped, but not in clipped horses and skin temperature at base of tail was elevated during recovery except in unclipped horses without blanket. Moisture after exercise scored 3.2 ± 0.8 in unclipped and zero in clipped horses. Discussion and conclusion Leg skin temperature initially dropped at onset of exercise in clipped horses, and then increased after about 30 minutes due to internal heat from the working muscles. These changes were not significant when

  5. Effect of gender and type 2 diabetes mellitus on heart rate recovery in patients with coronary artery disease after cardiac rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleimani, Abbas; Nejatian, Mostafa; Hajizaynali, Mohammad Ali; Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin; Alidoosti, Mohammad; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to clarify whether type 2 diabetic patients with coronary disease are subject to similar benefits in heart rate recovery (HRR) as non-diabetic counterpatrs after cardiac rehabilitation, assessing men and women subjects separately. Material and methods: The

  6. Effect of gender and type 2 diabetes mellitus on heart rate recovery in patients with coronary artery disease after cardiac rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleimani, A.; Abbasi, K.; Nejatian, M.; Movahhedi, N.; Hajizaynali, M. Ali; Salehiomran, A.; Abbasi, S. Hesameddin; Alidoosti, M.; Sheikhfathollahi, M.; Abbasi, A.

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether type 2 diabetic patients with coronary disease are subject to similar benefits on heart rate recovery (HRR) as non-diabetic coronary individuals after cardiac rehabilitation, assessing separately male and female subjects separately. Methods. Data

  7. Procedure for determining the optimum rate of increasing shaft depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, E.M.

    1983-03-01

    Presented is an economic analysis of increasing shaft depth during mine modernization. Investigations carried out by the Yuzhgiproshakht Institute are analyzed. The investigations are aimed at determining the optimum shaft sinking rate (the rate which reduces investment to the minimum). The following factors are considered: coal output of a mine (0.9, 1.2, 1.5 and 1.8 Mt/year), depth at which the new mining level is situated (600, 800, 1200, 1400 and 1600 m), four schemes of increasing depth of 2 central shafts (rock hoisting to ground surface, rock hoisting to the existing level, rock haulage to the developed level, rock haulage to the level being developed using a large diameter borehole drilled from the new level to the shaft bottom and enlarged from shaft bottom to the new level), shaft sinking rate (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 m/month), range of increasing shaft depth (the difference between depth of the shaft before and after increasing its depth by 100, 200, 300 and 400 m). Comparative evaluations show that the optimum shaft sinking rate depends on the scheme for rock hoisting (one of 4 analyzed), range of increasing shaft depth and gas content in coal seams. The optimum shaft sinking rate ranges from 20 to 40 m/month in coal mines with low methane content and from 20 to 30 m/month in gassy coal mines. The planned coal output of a mine does not influence the optimum shaft sinking rate.

  8. Some factors determining the PCr recovery overshoot in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Bernard; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2005-07-01

    It has been proposed recently that the phosphocreatine (PCr) overshoot (increase above the resting level) during muscle recovery after exercise is caused by a slow decay during this recovery of the direct activation of oxidative phosphorylation taking place during muscle work. In the present article the factors determining the appearance and size of the PCr overshoot are studied using the computer model of oxidative phosphorylation in intact skeletal muscle developed previously. It is demonstrated that the appearance and duration of this overshoot is positively correlated with the value of the characteristic decay time of the direct activation of oxidative phosphorylation. It is also shown that the size of PCr overshoot is increased by low resting PCr/Cr ratio (what is confirmed by our unpublished experimental data), by high intensity of the direct activation of oxidative phosphorylation, by high muscle work intensity and by low rate of the return of cytosolic pH to the resting value during muscle recovery.

  9. Recovery of heart rate variability after treadmill exercise analyzed by lagged Poincaré plot and spectral characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ping; Hu, Sijung; Yu, Hongliu

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the recovery of heart rate variability (HRV) after treadmill exercise and to investigate the autonomic nervous system response after exercise. Frequency domain indices, i.e., LF(ms 2 ), HF(ms 2 ), LF(n.u.), HF(n.u.) and LF/HF, and lagged Poincaré plot width (SD1 m ) and length (SD2 m ) were introduced for comparison between the baseline period (Pre-E) before treadmill running and two periods after treadmill running (Post-E1 and Post-E2). The correlations between lagged Poincaré plot indices and frequency domain indices were applied to reveal the long-range correlation between linear and nonlinear indices during the recovery of HRV. The results suggested entirely attenuated autonomic nervous activity to the heart following the treadmill exercise. After the treadmill running, the sympathetic nerves achieved dominance and the parasympathetic activity was suppressed, which lasted for more than 4 min. The correlation coefficients between lagged Poincaré plot indices and spectral power indices could separate not only Pre-E and two sessions after the treadmill running, but also the two sessions in recovery periods, i.e., Post-E1 and Post-E2. Lagged Poincaré plot as an innovative nonlinear method showed a better performance over linear frequency domain analysis and conventional nonlinear Poincaré plot.

  10. Thermomechanical damage recovery parameters for rocksalt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, N.S.

    1995-08-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted in which intact WIPP salt specimens were damaged by testing under constant strain-rate triaxial conditions at low confining pressure (0.5 MPa) and near room temperature (25 degrees C) until 1.5 percent axial strain was reached. Introduction of dilatant damage caused specimen volume to increase and compressional wave velocities and amplitudes to decrease. Specimens were then subjected to hydrostatic loads of 15 MPa at a temperature of either 20 degrees C, 46 degrees C, or 70 degrees C. Under these conditions damage was partially recovered and specimen volume and compressional wave characteristics approached the values of the undamaged state. The data from each test were fitted using a first order kinetics law to determine characteristic time constants for the damage recovery process at each temperature. The mean time constant associated with recovery of ultrasonic amplitudes decreased as temperature increased, as expected for a thermally activated process. Time constants associated with ultrasonic velocities and with volumetric strains showed no systematic change with temperature. The modeling results show that time constants are very short compared with time scales required for creep closure of rooms and shafts, implying that the rate of healing under confining pressure will be extremely rapid. The rates of volumetric strain recovery determined at different temperatures were fitted to an Arrhenius plot to determine an activation energy for the recovery process. The data were fitted using linear least squares to calculate an activation energy of 10.5 kJ · mole -1

  11. Increased heart rate variability during nondirective meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvold, Anders; Fagerland, Morten W; Davanger, Svend; Ellingsen, Øyvind; Solberg, Erik E; Holen, Are; Sevre, Knut; Atar, Dan

    2012-08-01

    Meditation practices are in use for relaxation and stress reduction. Some studies indicate beneficial cardiovascular health effects of meditation. The effects on the autonomous nervous system seem to vary among techniques. The purpose of the present study was to identify autonomic nerve activity changes during nondirective meditation. Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability (BPV), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were monitored in 27 middle-aged healthy participants of both genders, first during 20 min regular rest with eyes closed, thereafter practising Acem meditation for 20 min. Haemodynamic and autonomic data were collected continuously (beat-to-beat) and non-invasively. HRV and BPV parameters were estimated by power spectral analyses, computed by an autoregressive model. Spontaneous activity of baroreceptors were determined by the sequence method. Primary outcomes were changes in HRV, BPV, and BRS between rest and meditation. HRV increased in the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) bands during meditation, compared with rest (p = 0.014, 0.013, respectively). Power spectral density of the RR-intervals increased as well (p = 0.012). LF/HF ratio decreased non-significantly, and a reduction of LF-BPV power was observed during meditation (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in BRS. Respiration and heart rates remained unchanged. Blood pressure increased slightly during meditation. There is an increased parasympathetic and reduced sympathetic nerve activity and increased overall HRV, while practising the technique. Hence, nondirective meditation by the middle aged may contribute towards a reduction of cardiovascular risk.

  12. Socio-technical strategies and behavior change to increase the adoption and sustainability of wastewater resource recovery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Christine; Mohebbi, Shima; Zhang, Qiong

    2018-06-15

    Given the increasing vulnerability of communities to the negative impacts of untreated wastewater, resource recovery (RR) systems provide a paradigm shift away from a traditional approach of waste separation and treatment towards a productive recovery of water, energy and nutrients. The aim of this research is to understand the relationships between factors that influence the adoption and sustainability of wastewater-based RR systems to inform technology implementation strategies. The study presents a theory-informed, community-influenced system dynamics (SD) model to provide decision-makers with an adaptable tool that simulates system-level responses to the strategies that are developed for the coastal town of Placencia, Belize. The modeling framework is informed by literature-based theories such as the theory of diffusion of innovations (TDI) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Various methods, including surveys, interviews, participatory observations, and a water constituents mass balance analysis are used to validate relationships and numerically populate the model. The SD model was evaluated with field data and simulated to identify strategies that will improve the adoption and sustainability of RR systems. Site demonstrations (marketing strategy) made a significant impact on the stock of adopted RR systems. The stock of sustained RR systems is driven by the sustainability rate (i.e. economic and environmental viability) which can be improved by more site demonstrations and tank options (technical strategy). These strategies, however, only contributed to incremental improvements in the system's sustainability performance. This study shows that changing community behaviors (i.e. reporting the correct number of users and reclaiming resources), represented by structural change in the SD model, is the more significant way to influence the sustainable management of the community's wastewater resources. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Treadmill exercise induced functional recovery after peripheral nerve repair is associated with increased levels of neurotrophic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sung Park

    Full Text Available Benefits of exercise on nerve regeneration and functional recovery have been reported in both central and peripheral nervous system disease models. However, underlying molecular mechanisms of enhanced regeneration and improved functional outcomes are less understood. We used a peripheral nerve regeneration model that has a good correlation between functional outcomes and number of motor axons that regenerate to evaluate the impact of treadmill exercise. In this model, the median nerve was transected and repaired while the ulnar nerve was transected and prevented from regeneration. Daily treadmill exercise resulted in faster recovery of the forelimb grip function as evaluated by grip power and inverted holding test. Daily exercise also resulted in better regeneration as evaluated by recovery of compound motor action potentials, higher number of axons in the median nerve and larger myofiber size in target muscles. Furthermore, these observations correlated with higher levels of neurotrophic factors, glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, in serum, nerve and muscle suggesting that increase in muscle derived neurotrophic factors may be responsible for improved regeneration.

  14. Does sex speed up evolutionary rate and increase biodiversity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melian, Carlos J.; Alonso, David; Allesina, Stefano; Condit, Richard S.; Etienne, Rampal S.

    Most empirical and theoretical studies have shown that sex increases the rate of evolution, although evidence of sex constraining genomic and epigenetic variation and slowing down evolution also exists. Faster rates with sex have been attributed to new gene combinations, removal of deleterious

  15. Application of the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor to oil shale recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadekamper, D.C.; Arcilla, N.T.; Impellezzeri, J.R.; Taylor, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    Current oil shale recovery processes combust some portion of the products to provide energy for the recovery process. In an attempt to maximize the petroleum products produced during recovery, the potentials for substituting nuclear process heat for energy generated by combustion of petroleum were evaluated. Twelve oil shale recovery processes were reviewed and their potentials for application of nuclear process heat assessed. The High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor-Reformer/Thermochemical Pipeline (HTGR-R/TCP) was selected for interfacing process heat technology with selected oil shale recovery processes. Utilization of these coupling concepts increases the shale oil product output of a conventional recovery facility from 6 to 30 percent with the same raw shale feed rate. An additional benefit of the HTGR-R/TCP system was up to an 80 percent decrease in emission levels. A detailed coupling design for a typical counter gravity feed indirect heated retorting and upgrading process were described. Economic comparisons prepared by Bechtel Group Incorporated for both the conventional and HTGR-R/TCP recovery facility were summarized

  16. 75 FR 81003 - Rate Increase Disclosure and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... choice of any threshold makes it inevitable that unreasonable rate increases below the threshold will not... in the preliminary justification supplements, and does not conflict with, State laws specifying what...

  17. Acetone facilitated DNA sampling from electrical tapes improves DNA recovery and enables latent fingerprints development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feine, Ilan; Shpitzen, Moshe; Geller, Boris; Salmon, Eran; Peleg, Tsach; Roth, Jonathan; Gafny, Ron

    2017-07-01

    Electrical tapes (ETs) are a common component of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) used by terrorists or criminal organizations and represent a valuable forensic resource for DNA and latent fingerprints recovery. However, DNA recovery rates are typically low and usually below the minimal amount required for amplification. In addition, most DNA extraction methods are destructive and do not allow further latent fingerprints development. In the present study a cell culture based touch DNA model was used to demonstrate a two-step acetone-water DNA recovery protocol from ETs. This protocol involves only the adhesive side of the ET and increases DNA recovery rates by up to 70%. In addition, we demonstrated partially successful latent fingerprints development from the non-sticky side of the ETs. Taken together, this protocol maximizes the forensic examination of ETs and is recommended for routine casework processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Recovery of renal function among ESRD patients in the US medicare program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Mohan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients started on long term hemodialysis have typically had low rates of reported renal recovery with recent estimates ranging from 0.9-2.4% while higher rates of recovery have been reported in cohorts with higher percentages of patients with acute renal failure requiring dialysis. STUDY DESIGN: Our analysis followed approximately 194,000 patients who were initiated on hemodialysis during a 2-year period (2008 & 2009 with CMS-2728 forms submitted to CMS by dialysis facilities, cross-referenced with patient record updates through the end of 2010, and tracked through December 2010 in the CMS SIMS registry. RESULTS: We report a sustained renal recovery (i.e no return to ESRD during the available follow up period rate among Medicare ESRD patients of > 5% - much higher than previously reported. Recovery occurred primarily in the first 2 months post incident dialysis, and was more likely in cases with renal failure secondary to etiologies associated with acute kidney injury. Patients experiencing sustained recovery were markedly less likely than true long-term ESRD patients to have permanent vascular accesses in place at incident hemodialysis, while non-White patients, and patients with any prior nephrology care appeared to have significantly lower rates of renal recovery. We also found widespread geographic variation in the rates of renal recovery across the United States. CONCLUSIONS: Renal recovery rates in the US Medicare ESRD program are higher than previously reported and appear to have significant geographic variation. Patients with diagnoses associated with acute kidney injury who are initiated on long-term hemodialysis have significantly higher rates of renal recovery than the general ESRD population and lower rates of permanent access placement.

  19. Increasing Nucleosome Occupancy Is Correlated with an Increasing Mutation Rate so Long as DNA Repair Machinery Is Intact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jared F.; Khattab, Omar S.; Chen, Yu-Han; Chen, Yumay; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Wang, Ping H.

    2015-01-01

    Deciphering the multitude of epigenomic and genomic factors that influence the mutation rate is an area of great interest in modern biology. Recently, chromatin has been shown to play a part in this process. To elucidate this relationship further, we integrated our own ultra-deep sequenced human nucleosomal DNA data set with a host of published human genomic and cancer genomic data sets. Our results revealed, that differences in nucleosome occupancy are associated with changes in base-specific mutation rates. Increasing nucleosome occupancy is associated with an increasing transition to transversion ratio and an increased germline mutation rate within the human genome. Additionally, cancer single nucleotide variants and microindels are enriched within nucleosomes and both the coding and non-coding cancer mutation rate increases with increasing nucleosome occupancy. There is an enrichment of cancer indels at the theoretical start (74 bp) and end (115 bp) of linker DNA between two nucleosomes. We then hypothesized that increasing nucleosome occupancy decreases access to DNA by DNA repair machinery and could account for the increasing mutation rate. Such a relationship should not exist in DNA repair knockouts, and we thus repeated our analysis in DNA repair machinery knockouts to test our hypothesis. Indeed, our results revealed no correlation between increasing nucleosome occupancy and increasing mutation rate in DNA repair knockouts. Our findings emphasize the linkage of the genome and epigenome through the nucleosome whose properties can affect genome evolution and genetic aberrations such as cancer. PMID:26308346

  20. Increasing Nucleosome Occupancy Is Correlated with an Increasing Mutation Rate so Long as DNA Repair Machinery Is Intact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puya G Yazdi

    Full Text Available Deciphering the multitude of epigenomic and genomic factors that influence the mutation rate is an area of great interest in modern biology. Recently, chromatin has been shown to play a part in this process. To elucidate this relationship further, we integrated our own ultra-deep sequenced human nucleosomal DNA data set with a host of published human genomic and cancer genomic data sets. Our results revealed, that differences in nucleosome occupancy are associated with changes in base-specific mutation rates. Increasing nucleosome occupancy is associated with an increasing transition to transversion ratio and an increased germline mutation rate within the human genome. Additionally, cancer single nucleotide variants and microindels are enriched within nucleosomes and both the coding and non-coding cancer mutation rate increases with increasing nucleosome occupancy. There is an enrichment of cancer indels at the theoretical start (74 bp and end (115 bp of linker DNA between two nucleosomes. We then hypothesized that increasing nucleosome occupancy decreases access to DNA by DNA repair machinery and could account for the increasing mutation rate. Such a relationship should not exist in DNA repair knockouts, and we thus repeated our analysis in DNA repair machinery knockouts to test our hypothesis. Indeed, our results revealed no correlation between increasing nucleosome occupancy and increasing mutation rate in DNA repair knockouts. Our findings emphasize the linkage of the genome and epigenome through the nucleosome whose properties can affect genome evolution and genetic aberrations such as cancer.

  1. Increasing inhibitory input increases neuronal firing rate: why and when? Diffusion process cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jianfeng [COGS, Sussex University (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jf218@cam.ac.uk; Wei Gang [Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail gwei@math.hkbu.edu.hk

    2001-09-21

    Increasing inhibitory input to single neuronal models, such as the FitzHugh-Nagumo model and the Hodgkin-Huxley model, can sometimes increase their firing rates, a phenomenon which we term inhibition-boosted firing (IBF). Here we consider neuronal models with diffusion approximation inputs, i.e. they share the identical first- and second-order statistics of the corresponding Poisson process inputs. Using the integrate-and-fire model and the IF-FHN model, we explore theoretically how and when IBF can happen. For both models, it is shown that there is a critical input frequency at which the efferent firing rate is identical when the neuron receives purely excitatory inputs or exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory inputs. When the input frequency is lower than the critical frequency, IBF occurs. (author)

  2. Pollution control and metal resource recovery for low grade automobile shredder residue: a mechanism, bioavailability and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) is considered as hazardous waste in Japan and European countries due to presence of heavy metals. This study was carried on the extraction characteristics of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr) from automobile shredder residue (ASR). The effects of pH, temperature, particle size, and liquid/solid ratio (L/S) on the extraction of heavy metals were investigated. The recovery rate of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr increased with increasing extraction temperature and L/S ratio. The lowest pH 2, the highest L/S ratio, and the smallest particle size showed the highest recovery of heavy metals from ASR. The highest recovery rates were in the following order: Mn > Ni > Cr > Fe. Reduction of mobility factor for the heavy metals was observed in all the size fractions after the recovery. The results of the kinetic analysis for various experimental conditions supported that the reaction rate of the recovery process followed a second order reaction model (R(2) ⩾ 0.95). The high availability of water-soluble fractions of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr from the low grade ASR could be potential hazards to the environment. Bioavailability and toxicity risk of heavy metals reduced significantly with pH 2 of distilled water. However, water is a cost-effective extracting agent for the recovery of heavy metals and it could be useful for reducing the toxicity of ASR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stored energy recovery of irradiated copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, R.T.; Chaplin, R.L.; Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Kerchner, H.R.; Klabunde, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The stored energy released in Stage I recovery of reactor neutron irradiated copper was measured by differential thermal analysis calorimetry for three fluences up to a maximum of 3.5 x 10 18 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV) after irradiation at temperatures of less than 10 K. The dependence of the stored energy upon fluence, and a tendency toward saturation, were observed. Theoretical reaction rate processes were compared directly with the experimental rates of stored energy release, and the parameters associated with the theory were compared with results from previous resistivity measurements. Good agreement was found for several parameters, but major differences with previous D + E substage results lead to the conclusion that the point defect model may not describe materials experiencing severe neutron damage. Computer studies of warmup rates were made for first and second order and for correlated recovery processes as a function of defect concentration and of external power input. First and second order processes show definite distortion in their recovery rate curves for high defect concentrations; the correlated recovery process shows a much less pronounced effect. This investigation of stored energy used several new approaches. The use of induced radioactivity within the sample as the heating source, and the use of computer generated theoretical stored energy release curves to analyze the data were unique. (author)

  4. A practical trial to increase the coal recovery in highwall auger mining in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Matsui; A. Yabuki; H. Shimada; T. Sasaoka; T. Ueda; T. Yuasa

    2003-07-01

    The basic concept of auger mining is to extract coal beyond the economic limits of surface mining technology by drilling holes of an appropriate diameter size into the exposed seam of the highwall as deep as is technically, economically and operationally feasible. This method of mining is used at the final highwall of typical surface mining operations. This paper describes the auger mining systems and discusses the methods to increase the coal recovery in auger mining from a field trial at Muswell Brook mine in Hunter Valley, NSW in Australia. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. CLINSULF sub-dew-point process for sulphur recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisel, M.; Marold, F.

    1988-01-01

    In a 2-reactor system, the CLINSULF process allows very high sulphur recovery rates. When operated at 100/sup 0/C at the outlet, i.e. below the sulphur solidification point, a sulphur recovery rate of more than 99.2% was achieved in a 2-reactor series. Assuming a 70% sulphur recovery in an upstream Claus furnace plus sulphur condenser, an overall sulphur recovery of more than 99.8% results for the 2-reactor system. This is approximately 2% higher than in conventional Claus plus SDP units, which mostly consist of 4 reactors or more. This means the the CLINSULF SSP process promises to be an improvement both in respect of efficiency and low investment cost.

  6. Glucagon infusion increases rate of purine synthesis de novo in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itakura, Mitsuo; Maeda, Noriaki; Tsuchiya, Masami; Yamashita, Kamejiro

    1987-01-01

    Based on the parallel increases of glucagon, the second peak of hepatic cAMP, and the rate of purine synthesis de novo in the prereplicative period in regenerating rate liver after a 70% hepatectomy, it was hypothesized that glucagon is responsible for the increased rate of purine synthesis de novo. To test this hypothesis, the effect of glucagon or dibutyryl cAMP infusion on the rate of purine synthesis de novo in rat liver was studied. Glucagon infusion but not insulin or glucose infusion increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo, which was assayed by [ 14 C]glycine or [ 14 C]formate incorporation, by 2.7- to 4.3-fold. Glucagon infusion increased cAMP concentrations by 4.9-fold and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate concentrations by 1.5-fold in liver but did not change the specific activity of amidophosphoribosyltransferase or purine ribonucleotide concentrations. Dibutyryl cAMP infusion also increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo by 2.2- to 4.0-fold. Because glucagon infusion increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo in the presence of unchanged purine ribonucleotide concentrations, it is concluded that glucagon after infusion or in animals after a 70% hepatectomy is playing an anabolic role to increase the rate of purine synthesis de novo by increasing cAMP and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate concentrations

  7. Modeling Soil Quality Thresholds to Ecosystem Recovery at Fort Benning, Georgia, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten Jr., C.T.

    2004-03-08

    The objective of this research was to use a simple model of soil C and N dynamics to predict nutrient thresholds to ecosystem recovery on degraded soils at Fort Benning, Georgia, in the southeastern USA. The model calculates aboveground and belowground biomass, soil C inputs and dynamics, soil N stocks and availability, and plant N requirements. A threshold is crossed when predicted soil N supplies fall short of predicted N required to sustain biomass accrual at a specified recovery rate. Four factors were important to development of thresholds to recovery: (1) initial amounts of aboveground biomass, (2) initial soil C stocks (i.e., soil quality), (3) relative recovery rates of biomass, and (4) soil sand content. Thresholds to ecosystem recovery predicted by the model should not be interpreted independent of a specified recovery rate. Initial soil C stocks influenced the predicted patterns of recovery by both old field and forest ecosystems. Forests and old fields on soils with varying sand content had different predicted thresholds to recovery. Soil C stocks at barren sites on Fort Benning generally lie below predicted thresholds to 100% recovery of desired future ecosystem conditions defined on the basis of aboveground biomass (18000 versus 360 g m{sup -2} for forests and old fields, respectively). Calculations with the model indicated that reestablishment of vegetation on barren sites to a level below the desired future condition is possible at recovery rates used in the model, but the time to 100% recovery of desired future conditions, without crossing a nutrient threshold, is prolonged by a reduced rate of forest growth. Predicted thresholds to ecosystem recovery were less on soils with more than 70% sand content. The lower thresholds for old field and forest recovery on more sandy soils are apparently due to higher relative rates of net soil N mineralization in more sandy soils. Calculations with the model indicate that a combination of desired future

  8. Oil recovery from refinery oily sludge via ultrasound and freeze/thaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju; Li, Jianbing; Thring, Ronald W; Hu, Xuan; Song, Xinyuan

    2012-02-15

    The effective disposal of oily sludge generated from the petroleum industry has received increasing concerns, and oil recovery from such waste was considered as one feasible option. In this study, three different approaches for oil recovery were investigated, including ultrasonic treatment alone, freeze/thaw alone and combined ultrasonic and freeze/thaw treatment. The results revealed that the combined process could achieve satisfactory performance by considering the oil recovery rate and the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations in the recovered oil and wastewater. The individual impacts of five different factors on the combined process were further examined, including ultrasonic power, ultrasonic treatment duration, sludge/water ratio in the slurry, as well as bio-surfactant (rhamnolipids) and salt (NaCl) concentrations. An oil recovery rate of up to 80.0% was observed with an ultrasonic power of 66 W and an ultrasonic treatment duration of 10 min when the sludge/water ratio was 1:2 without the addition of bio-surfactant and salt. The examination of individual factors revealed that the addition of low concentration of rhamnolipids (treatment process. The experimental results also indicated that ultrasound and freeze/thaw could promote the efficiency of each other, and the main mechanism of oil recovery enhancement using ultrasound was through enhanced desorption of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from solid particles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates......, the first question posed in this assignment, and the scope for overshooting (the second question), and then make some illustrative predictions of future interest rates in the euro area. We find a wide range of effects from rising interest rates, mostly small and mostly negative, focused on investment...... till the emerging European recovery is on a firmer basis and capable of overcoming increases in the cost of borrowing and shrinking fiscal space. There is also an implication that worries about rising/overshooting interest rates often reflect the fact that inflation risks are unequally distributed...

  10. Nesting Bird “Host Funnel” Increases Mosquito-Bird Contact Rate

    OpenAIRE

    CAILLOUËT, KEVIN A.; RIGGAN, ANNA E.; BULLUCK, LESLEY P.; CARLSON, JOHN C.; SABO, ROY T.

    2013-01-01

    Increases in vector-host contact rates can enhance arbovirus transmission intensity. We investigated weekly fluctuations in contact rates between mosquitoes and nesting birds using the recently described Nest Mosquito Trap (NMT). The number of mosquitoes per nestling increased from < 1 mosquito per trap night to 36.2 in the final 2 wk of the nesting season. Our evidence suggests the coincidence of the end of the avian nesting season and increasing mosquito abundances may have caused a “host f...

  11. Increased degradation rate of nitrososureas in media containing carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidegård, Janeric; Grönquist, Lena; Tuvesson, Helen; Gunnarsson, Per-Olov

    2009-01-01

    The stability of two nitrosoureas, tauromustine and lomustine, has been investigated in different media and buffers. All media tested, except Leibovitz's L-15 medium, significantly increased the degradation rate of the investigated nitrosoureas at pH 7.4. Sodium bicarbonate seems to be the cause of the observed increase of the degradation rate, since it provides the main buffering capacity of all the media except for Leibovitz's L-15 medium, which is based on phosphate buffer. Other ingredients in the media, such as amino acids, vitamins, and inorganic salts, or the ionic strength of a buffer, did not have any major effect on the degradation rate of the nitrosoureas. These results suggest that media containing carbonated buffer should be avoided when the anti-tumor effect of nitrosoureas is to be investigated in different cell cultures.

  12. The Effect of Valsartan on Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate Recovery in Patients with Mild to Moderate Mitral Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Metin Esen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Atrial fibrillation (AF is known to be one of the most important complications of mitral stenosis (MS. It has been reported that autonomic nervous system (ANS had an effect on AF development, heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate recovery (HRR were under the control of ANS, and their disorders were present in MS. We studied the effect of Valsartan on HRV and HRT, and thus its effect on ANS. Methods: Eleven patients (39±8 years, 10 females with mild to moderate MS were included in the study. Sixteen volunteers (38±8 years, 14 females matched for age and sex were selected for control group. All subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE, symptom-limited treadmill test and 24 hour Holter monitorization.The patients were administered 160 mg of Valsartan daily for 14 weeks. TTE, treadmill test and Holter monitorization were repeated at the end of treatment period. In Holter monitorization, the time and frequency domain analysis of HRV and in exercise test, HRR at first and third minutes (HRR1 and HRR3 were examined. Results: Before Valsartan treatment, no significant difference was found in HRR and HRV parameters between the two groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and also HRR1values were significantly decreased after treatment of Valsartan (117±6 vs. 107±4 mmHg p<0.002, 76±6 vs. 69±9 mmHg p<0.044, 44±14 vs. 33±12 p< 0.014, respectively, while the exercise time was significantly increased (786±114 vs. 846±95 sn p< 0.044. In Holter analysis neither time nor frequency domain of HRV parameters showed a meaningful change. Conclusion: In moderate MS, treatment with Valsartan improved the effort capacity, while autonomic function parameters have been defined on the base of HRV and HRR were not significantly different.

  13. Effect of ultrasonic intensity and frequency on oil/heavy-oil recovery from different wettability rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naderi, K.; Babadagli, T. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    This study identified the mechanisms that are responsible for additional oil recovery that is often observed following an earthquake. It focused on the theory that harmonics of low frequency waves create high frequency waves as they penetrate into rock formations. A series of experiments were conducted on oil-wet rocks with high oil viscosities. The objective was to better understand how ultrasonic energy affects oil recovery at core and pore scale. Cylindrical sandstone cores were placed in imbibition cells to examine how the presence of initial water saturation can affect recovery, and how the recovery changes for different oil viscosities. An increase in oil recovery was observed with ultrasonic energy in all cases. The additional recovery with ultrasonic energy lessened as the oil viscosity increased. Ultrasonic intensity and frequency were shown to be critical to the performance, which is important since ultrasonic waves have limited penetration into porous medium. This is a key disadvantage for commercializing this promising process for well stimulation. Therefore, the authors designed a set-up to measure the ultrasonic energy penetration capacity in different media, notably air, water and slurry. The set-up could identify which types of reservoirs are most suitable for ultrasonic application. Imbibition experiments revealed that ultrasonic radiation increases recovery, and is much more significant in oil wet cases, where initial water saturation facilitate oil recovery. Higher frequency showed a higher rate of recovery compared to lower frequency, but the ultimate recovery was not changed substantially. 46 refs., 1 tab., 16 figs.

  14. Species recovery in the United States: Increasing the effectiveness of the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel M. Evans; Judy P. Che-Castaldo; Deborah Crouse; Frank W. Davis; Rebecca Epanchin-Niell; Curtis H. Flather; R. Kipp Frohlich; Dale D. Goble; Ya-Wei Li; Timothy D. Male; Lawrence L. Master; Matthew P. Moskwik; Maile C. Neel; Barry R. Noon; Camille Parmesan; Mark W. Schwartz; J. Michael Scott; Byron K. Williams

    2016-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) has succeeded in shielding hundreds of species from extinction and improving species recovery over time. However, recovery for most species officially protected by the ESA - i.e., listed species - has been harder to achieve than initially envisioned. Threats to species are persistent and pervasive, funding has been insufficient...

  15. The Development of Functional Overreaching Is Associated with a Faster Heart Rate Recovery in Endurance Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaël Aubry

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate whether heart rate recovery (HRR may represent an effective marker of functional overreaching (f-OR in endurance athletes.Thirty-one experienced male triathletes were tested (10 control and 21 overload subjects before (Pre, and immediately after an overload training period (Mid and after a 2-week taper (Post. Physiological responses were assessed during an incremental cycling protocol to exhaustion, including heart rate, catecholamine release and blood lactate concentration. Ten participants from the overload group developed signs of f-OR at Mid (i.e. -2.1 ± 0.8% change in performance associated with concomitant high perceived fatigue. Additionally, only the f-OR group demonstrated a 99% chance of increase in HRR during the overload period (+8 ± 5 bpm, large effect size. Concomitantly, this group also revealed a >80% chance of decreasing blood lactate (-11 ± 14%, large, plasma norepinephrine (-12 ± 37%, small and plasma epinephrine peak concentrations (-51 ± 22%, moderate. These blood measures returned to baseline levels at Post. HRR change was negatively correlated to changes in performance, peak HR and peak blood metabolites concentrations.These findings suggest that i a faster HRR is not systematically associated with improved physical performance, ii changes in HRR should be interpreted in the context of the specific training phase, the athletes perceived level of fatigue and the performance response; and, iii the faster HRR associated with f-OR may be induced by a decreased central command and by a lower chemoreflex activity.

  16. Recovery of uranium from crude uranium tetrafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S K; Bellary, M P; Keni, V S [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    An innovative process has been developed for recovery of uranium from crude uranium tetrafluoride cake. The process is based on direct dissolution of uranium tetrafluoride in nitric acid in presence of aluminium hydroxide and use of solvent extraction for removal of fluorides and other bulk impurities to make uranium amenable for refining. It is a simple process requiring minimum process step and has advantage of lesser plant corrosion. This process can be applied for processing of uranium tetrafluoride generated from various sources like uranium by-product during thorium recovery from thorium concentrate, first stage product of uranium recovery from phosphoric acid by OPPA process and off grade uranium tetrafluoride material. The paper describes the details of the process developed and demonstrated on bench and pilot scale and its subsequent modification arising out of bulky solid waste generation. The modified process uses a lower quantity of aluminium hydroxide by allowing a lower dissolution of uranium per cycle and recycles the undissolved material to the next cycle, maintaining the overall recovery at high level. This innovation has reduced the solid waste generated by a factor of four at the cost of a slightly larger dissolution vessel and its increased corrosion rate. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Recovery of uranium from crude uranium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.K.; Bellary, M.P.; Keni, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    An innovative process has been developed for recovery of uranium from crude uranium tetrafluoride cake. The process is based on direct dissolution of uranium tetrafluoride in nitric acid in presence of aluminium hydroxide and use of solvent extraction for removal of fluorides and other bulk impurities to make uranium amenable for refining. It is a simple process requiring minimum process step and has advantage of lesser plant corrosion. This process can be applied for processing of uranium tetrafluoride generated from various sources like uranium by-product during thorium recovery from thorium concentrate, first stage product of uranium recovery from phosphoric acid by OPPA process and off grade uranium tetrafluoride material. The paper describes the details of the process developed and demonstrated on bench and pilot scale and its subsequent modification arising out of bulky solid waste generation. The modified process uses a lower quantity of aluminium hydroxide by allowing a lower dissolution of uranium per cycle and recycles the undissolved material to the next cycle, maintaining the overall recovery at high level. This innovation has reduced the solid waste generated by a factor of four at the cost of a slightly larger dissolution vessel and its increased corrosion rate. (author)

  18. Saturation-recovery metabolic‐exchange rate imaging with hyperpolarized [1‐13C] pyruvate using spectral‐spatial excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulte, Rolf F.; Sperl, Jonathan I.; Weidl, Eliane

    2013-01-01

    ‐resolved, multislice chemical shift imaging of the injected substrate and obtained downstream metabolites. Using spectral‐spatial excitation in combination with single‐shot spiral data acquisition, the overall encoding is evenly distributed between excitation and signal reception, allowing the encoding of one full two...... a simplified two‐site exchange model. This novel contrast is an important step toward more quantitative metabolic imaging. Goal of this work was to derive, analyze, and implement this “saturation‐recovery metabolic exchange rate imaging” and demonstrate its capabilities in four rats bearing subcutaneous tumors...

  19. Improved NGL recovery designs maximize operating flexibility and product recoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, J.D.; Hudson, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the historically cyclical nature in the market for ethane and propane has demonstrated the need for flexible natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery plants. NEwly developed and patented processes are now available which can provide ultra-high recovery of ethane (95%+) when demand for ethane is high and provide essentially complete ethane rejection without the normally concomitant reduction in propane recovery. This provides plant operators the flexibility to respond more readily to NGL market conditions, thus maximizing plant operating profits. The new process designs provide this flexibility without increasing utility requirements. In fact, utility consumption is often lower when compared to conventional designs. This same process technology can also be easily retrofit into existing plants with relatively quick payout of the modifications from both recovery and efficiency improvements

  20. Relationship Between Blood Flow and Performance Recovery: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borne, Rachel; Hausswirth, Christophe; Bieuzen, François

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of different limb blood-flow levels on cycling-performance recovery, blood lactate concentration, and heart rate. Thirty-three high-intensity intermittent-trained athletes completed two 30-s Wingate anaerobic test sessions, 3 × 30-s (WAnT 1-3) and 1 × 30-s (WAnT 4), on a cycling ergometer. WAnT 1-3 and WAnT 4 were separated by a randomly assigned 24-min recovery intervention selected from among blood-flow restriction, passive rest, placebo stimulation, or neuromuscular electrical-stimulation-induced blood flow. Calf arterial inflow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography at regular intervals throughout the recovery period. Performance was measured in terms of peak and mean power output during WAnT 1 and WAnT 4. After the recovery interventions, a large (r = .68 [90% CL .42; .83]) and very large (r = .72 (90% CL .49; .86]) positive correlation were observed between the change in calf arterial inflow and the change in mean and peak power output, respectively. Calf arterial inflow was significantly higher during the neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation recovery intervention than with the blood-flow-restriction, passive-rest, and placebo-stimulation interventions (P .05). No recovery effect was linked to heart rate or blood lactate concentration levels. For the first time, these data support the existence of a positive correlation between an increase in blood flow and performance recovery between bouts of high-intensity exercise. As a practical consideration, this effect can be obtained by using neuromuscular electrical stimulation-induced blood flow since this passive, simple strategy could be easily applied during short-term recovery.

  1. Effects of Adiposity and Prader-Willi Syndrome on Postexercise Heart Rate Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diobel M. Castner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate recovery (HRR is an indicator of all-cause mortality in children and adults. We aimed to determine the effect of adiposity and Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS, a congenital form of obesity, on HRR. Sixteen children of normal weight (NW = body fat % ≤85th percentile, 9.4 ± 1.1 y, 18 children with obesity (OB = body fat % >95th percentile, 9.3 ± 1.1 y, and 11 PWS youth (regardless of body fat %; 11.4 ± 2.5 y completed peak and submaximal bike tests on separate visits. HRR was recorded one minute following peak and submaximal exercises. All groups displayed similar HRR from peak exercise, while NW (54 ± 16 beats and OB (50 ± 12 beats exhibited a significantly faster HRR from submaximal exercise than PWS (37 ± 14 beats. These data suggest that excess adiposity does not influence HRR in children, but other factors such as low cardiovascular fitness and/or autonomic dysfunction might be more influential.

  2. Performance evaluation and experiment system for waste heat recovery of diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzhi, Gao; Junmeng, Zhai; Guanghua, Li; Qiang, Bian; Liming, Feng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a waste heat recovery system is proposed where a high speed turbocharged diesel engine acts as the topper of a combined cycle with exhaust gases used for a bottoming Rankine cycle. The paper describes a mathematical model to evaluate the performance of Rankine cycle system with a reciprocating piston expander. The paper focuses on the performance evaluation and parameter selection of the heat exchanger and reciprocating piston expander that are suitable to waste heat recovery of ICE (internal combustion engine). The paper also describes the experimental setup and the preliminary results. The simulation results show that a proper intake pressure should be 4–5 MPa at its given mass flow rate of 0.015–0.021 kg/s depending on the waste heat recovery of a turbocharged diesel engine (80 kW/2590 rpm). The net power and net power rise rate at various ICE rotation speeds are calculated. The result shows that introducing heat recovery system can increase the engine power output by 12%, when diesel engine operates at 80 kW/2590 rpm. The preliminary experimental results indirectly prove the simulation model by two negative work loops in the P–V curve, under a low intake pressure and steam flow rate condition. - Highlights: • We investigate waste heat recovery through secondary fluid power cycle. • We establish a thermodynamic model of reciprocating steam engine. • We conduct the performance evaluation and experimental system development. • Primary parameters of the heat exchangers and expander are determined

  3. Faster recovery of a diatom from UV damage under ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaping; Campbell, Douglas A; Gao, Kunshan

    2014-11-01

    Diatoms are the most important group of primary producers in marine ecosystems. As oceanic pH declines and increased stratification leads to the upper mixing layer becoming shallower, diatoms are interactively affected by both lower pH and higher average exposures to solar ultraviolet radiation. The photochemical yields of a model diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, were inhibited by ultraviolet radiation under both growth and excess light levels, while the functional absorbance cross sections of the remaining photosystem II increased. Cells grown under ocean acidification (OA) were less affected during UV exposure. The recovery of PSII under low photosynthetically active radiation was much faster than in the dark, indicating that photosynthetic processes were essential for the full recovery of photosystem II. This light dependent recovery required de novo synthesized protein. Cells grown under ocean acidification recovered faster, possibly attributable to higher CO₂ availability for the Calvin cycle producing more resources for repair. The lower UV inhibition combined with higher recovery rate under ocean acidification could benefit species such as P.tricornutum, and change their competitiveness in the future ocean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Recovery from episodes during the course of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Mortensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether the duration of treated episodes changes during the course of unipolar and bipolar affective disorder. METHOD: The rate of recovery from successive hospitalized episodes was estimated with survival analyses in a case-register study...... including all hospital admissions with primary affective disorder in Denmark during the period 1971-1993. RESULTS: A total of 9174 patients with recurrent episodes were followed from their first admission. The rate of recovery from hospitalized episodes did not change with the number of episodes in unipolar...... or bipolar disorder. Furthermore, the rate of recovery was constant across episodes, regardless of the combination of age, gender and type of disorder. Initially in the course of the illness, the rate was a little faster for bipolar than for unipolar patients, but later in the course of the illness the rate...

  5. The effects of multiple anaesthetic episodes on equine recovery quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, J P; Simon, B T; Coleman, M; Martinez, E A; Lepiz, M A; Watts, A E

    2018-01-01

    Although rare, 70% of equine fatalities during recovery from general anaesthesia (GA) are due to catastrophic fractures from poor recovery quality. To determine the effect of repeated GA recovery on GA recovery quality. Experimental blinded trial. Eight adult horses underwent six GA events on sevoflurane for distal limb MRI examination over a 14-week period. Prior to GA recovery, xylazine was administered. Randomly ordered video-recorded GA recoveries were scored by three blinded board certified veterinary anaesthesiologists, unaware of patient identity or GA event number, for nine parameters using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) where 0 = worst and 100 = best. The number of attempts to stand, duration of lateral and sternal recumbency, total recovery duration and physiologic parameters during each GA event were recorded. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to detect differences. Agreement between observer VAS scores was determined via inter-rater reliability using an intraclass correlation. With GA recovery experience, VAS scores for balance and coordination, knuckling, and overall quality of recovery were improved and the duration of lateral recumbency was increased. There were no differences in total recovery duration, number of attempts to stand, physiologic parameters other than heart rate during GA, or VAS scores for activity in lateral recumbency, move to sternal, move to stand, or strength. Each GA event was relatively short and there was no surgical stimulation. The same results may not occur if there was surgical stimulation and pain during each GA event. Recovery from GA improves with multiple anaesthetic episodes in horses. Clinicians can advise clients that horses are likely to have better GA recovery on repeated GA recovery due to improved balance and coordination and reduced knuckling. Additionally, there is no change in anaesthetic morbidity with six repeated GA events over a 14-week period. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Infuences of Rice Husk Biochar (RHB on Rice Growth Performance and Fertilizer Nitrogen Recovery up to Maximum Tillering Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniel Anak Sang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A pot study was carried out to investigate the effects of rice husk biochar addition on rice growth performance and fertilizer nitrogen recovery. The biochar effect was studied by using 15N labelled fertilizer urea (10 atom% 15N, as isotopic tracer, until maximum tillering stage (75 days after sowing. Rice husk biochar (RHB was applied at rates of 0, 5, 10 and 20 Mg ha-1 and laid in randomized complete block design with four replications. The result showed that biochar application significantly improved soil chemical properties (pH, total C, total N, and available P compared to control treatment. Biochar addition increased number of tiller and root dry matter weight up to 4% and 35%, respectively, compared to un-amended pot. Likewise, application of biochar significantly increased N, P and K uptake by 3%, 19% and 33%, respectively, as compared to the nutrient uptake from the control treatment. Biochar treatment had no significant impact on fertilizer nitrogen recovery in aboveground biomass, in the range of 41% and 42%, in comparison to the control. However, nitrogen fertilizer recovery in soil significantly increased by 47% over the control at application rate of 20 Mg ha-1 RHB.  Increased fertilizer N recovery in soil possibly reduced N losses to the environment from volatilization and denitrification processes. Total 15N fertilizer recovery also found increase at highest application of RHB biochar with an increment of 16%. In general, addition of biochar appeared to enhance crop growth performance but its effect on fertilizer N recovery in plant requires further study up to maturity of rice plant.

  7. Free product recovery at spill sites with fluctuating water tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Katyal, A.K.; Zhu, J.L.; Kremesec, V.J.; Hockman, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    Spills and leaks of hydrocarbons from underground storage tanks, pipelines and other facilities pose a serious potential for groundwater contamination which can be very costly to remediate. The severity of the impacts and the cost of remediation can be reduced by various means. Lateral spreading of free phase hydrocarbons on the groundwater table can be prevented by pumping water to control the hydraulic gradient. Recovery of floating product may be performed by skimming hydrocarbons from wells, usually in combination with water pumping to increase the gradient. The environmental variables (water table gradient, water table fluctuations due to regional recovery wells, rates of water pumping)

  8. Enhanced oil recovery using flash-driven steamflooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Steven D.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a novel steamflooding process which utilizes three specific stages of steam injection for enhanced oil recovery. The three stages are as follows: As steam is being injected into an oil-bearing reservoir through an injection well, the production rate of a production well located at a distance from the injection well is gradually restricted to a point that the pressure in the reservoir increases at a predetermined rate to a predetermined maximum value. After the maximum pressure has been reached, the production rate is increased to a value such that the predetermined maximum pressure value is maintained. Production at maximum pressure is continued for a length of time that will be unique for each individual reservoir. In some cases, this step of the steamflooding process of the invention may be omitted entirely. In the third stage of the steamflooding process of the invention, production rates at the producing well are increased gradually to allow the pressure to decrease down from the maximum pressure value to the original pressure value at the producing well. The rate of pressure reduction will be unique for each reservoir. After completing stage three, the three stages can be repeated or the steamflood may be terminated as considered desirable.

  9. Cost recovery of NGO primary health care facilities: a case study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Khurshid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the cost recovery of primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. This study estimated the cost recovery of a primary health care facility run by Building Resources Across Community (BRAC, a large NGO in Bangladesh, for the period of July 2004 - June 2005. This health facility is one of the seven upgraded BRAC facilities providing emergency obstetric care and is typical of the government and private primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. Given the current maternal and child mortality in Bangladesh and the challenges to addressing health-related Millennium Development Goal (MDG targets the financial sustainability of such facilities is crucial. Methods The study was designed as a case study covering a single facility. The methodology was based on the 'ingredient approach' using the allocation techniques by inpatient and outpatient services. Cost recovery of the facility was estimated from the provider's perspective. The value of capital items was annualized using 5% discount rate and its market price of 2004 (replacement value. Sensitivity analysis was done using 3% discount rate. Results The cost recovery ratio of the BRAC primary care facility was 59%, and if excluding all capital costs, it increased to 72%. Of the total costs, 32% was for personnel while drugs absorbed 18%. Capital items were17% of total costs while operational cost absorbed 12%. Three-quarters of the total cost was variable costs. Inpatient services contributed 74% of total revenue in exchange of 10% of total utilization. An average cost per patient was US$ 10 while it was US$ 67 for inpatient and US$ 4 for outpatient. Conclusion The cost recovery of this NGO primary care facility is important for increasing its financial sustainability and decreasing donor dependency, and achieving universal health coverage in a developing country setting. However, for improving the cost recovery of the health facility, it needs to increase

  10. Resistivity recovery of neutron-irradiated and cold-worked thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    Recovery of neutron-irradiated and cold-worked thorium was studied using electrical resistivity measurements. Thorium wires containing 30 and 300 wt ppM carbon were irradiated to fast neutron fluence of 1.3 x 10 18 n/cm 2 (E greater than 0.1 MeV). Another group of thorium wires containing 45, 300 and 600 wt ppM carbon were laterally compressed 5 to 40 percent. Both irradiation and cold-working were performed at liquid nitrogen temperature. The induced resistivity was found to increase with carbon content for both treatments. Isochronal recovery studies were performed in the 120--420 0 K temperature range. Two recovery stages (II and III) were found for both cold-worked and irradiated samples. In all cases the activation energies were determined by use of the ratio-of-slope method. Consistent results were observed for both irradiated and cold-worked specimens within the experimental error in the two stages. Other methods were also used in determining the activation energy of stage III for irradiated samples. All analysis methods indicated that the activation energies decreased with increasing carbon content for differently treated specimens. Possible reasons for such behavior are discussed. The annealing data obtained do not fit a simple chemical rate equation but follow the empirical exponential equation proposed by Avrami. A model of detrapping of interstitials from impurities is suggested for stage II recovery. On the basis of the observed low activation energy and high retention of defects above stage III, a divacancy migration model is proposed for stage III recovery

  11. Building addiction recovery capital through online participation in a recovery community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Best, David; Iqbal, Muhammad; Upton, Katie

    2017-11-01

    This study examines how online participation in a community of recovery contributes to personal journeys of recovery. It investigates whether recovery capital building - as indicated by increased levels and quality of online social interactions - and markers of positive identity development predict retention in a recovery program designed around fostering community involvement for early stage recovery addicts. It was predicted that online participation on the group's Facebook page and positive identity development are associated to retention in the program. To map how participants interact online, social network analysis (SNA) based on naturally occurring online data (N = 609) on the Facebook page of a recovery community was conducted. Computerised linguistic analyses evaluated sentiment of the textual data (capturing social identity markers). Linear regression analyses evaluated whether indicators of recovery capital predict program retention. To illustrate the findings in the context of the specific recovery community, presented are two case studies of key participants who moved from the periphery to the centre of the social network. By conducting in-depth interviews with these participants, personal experiences of engagement in the online community of group members who have undergone the most significant changes since joining the community are explored. Retention in the program was determined by a) the number of comment 'likes' and all 'likes' received on the Facebook page; b) position in the social network (degree of centrality); and c) linguistic content around group identity and achievement. Positive online interactions between members of recovery communities support the recovery process through helping participants to develop recovery capital that binds them to groups supportive of positive change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Particle-size effect on the rate of TiO2 carbonizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lekanova, T.L.; Ryabkov, Yu.I.; Sevbo, O.A.

    2003-01-01

    Dependence of recovery rate constant of titanium dioxide in TiO 2 -C system on the value of specific surface initial components at 1300 deg C was studied. It is shown that decrease in equivalent particle size of titanium dioxide and carbon particles in the range of 500-100 μm has a similar effect on increase in titanium dioxide recovery rate. Analysis of kinetic equations suggests diffusion character of titanium dioxide carbonizing at the values of initial components specific surface in excess of 100 m 2 /g [ru

  13. Effect of hydrotherapy on recovery from fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaile, J; Halson, S; Gill, N; Dawson, B

    2008-07-01

    The present study investigated the effects of three hydrotherapy interventions on next day performance recovery following strenuous training. Twelve cyclists completed four experimental trials differing only in 14-min recovery intervention: cold water immersion (CWI), hot water immersion (HWI), contrast water therapy (CWT), or passive recovery (PAS). Each trial comprised five consecutive exercise days of 105-min duration, including 66 maximal effort sprints. Additionally, subjects performed a total of 9-min sustained effort (time trial - TT). After completing each exercise session, athletes performed one of four recovery interventions (randomly assigned to each trial). Performance (average power), core temperature, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout each session. Sprint (0.1 - 2.2 %) and TT (0.0 - 1.7 %) performance were enhanced across the five-day trial following CWI and CWT, when compared to HWI and PAS. Additionally, differences in rectal temperature were observed between interventions immediately and 15-min post-recovery; however, no significant differences were observed in HR or RPE regardless of day of trial/intervention. Overall, CWI and CWT appear to improve recovery from high-intensity cycling when compared to HWI and PAS, with athletes better able to maintain performance across a five-day period.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of an in-cylinder waste heat recovery system for internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Sipeng; Deng, Kangyao; Qu, Shuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an in-cylinder waste heat recovery system especially for turbocharged engines is proposed to improve the thermal efficiencies of internal combustion engines. Simplified recovery processes can be described as follows: superheated steam generated by engine waste heat is injected into the pipe before the turbine to increase the boost pressure of the fresh air; intake valve close timing is adjusted to control the amount of fresh air as the original level, and thus the higher pressure charged air expands in the intake stroke and transfers the pressure energy directly to the crankshaft. In this way, the increased turbine output by the pre-turbine steam injection is finally recovered in the cylinder, which is different from the traditional Rankine cycle. The whole energy transfer processes are studied with thermodynamic analyses and numerical simulations. The results show that the mass flow rate of the injected steam has the biggest influence on the energy transfer processes followed by the temperature of the injected steam. With this in-cylinder waste heat recovery system, the fuel economy of a selected turbocharged diesel engine can be improved by 3.2% at the rated operating point when the injected mass flow ratio is set to be 0.1. - Highlights: • An in-cylinder waste heat recovery system is proposed. • Effects of injected parameters are studied with energy and exergy balance theories. • Variations of operating points on the compressor map are studied in detail. • The fuel economy is improved by 3.2% at the rated operating point

  15. Recovery of Copper from Slow Cooled Ausmelt Furnace Slag by Floatation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ping; Li, Guangqiang; Qin, Qingwei

    Ausmelt furnace slag contains about 0.9% Cu (mass %). With increasing the amount of Ausmelt furnace slag, the recovery of copper from it will produce an enormous economic yield. The recovery of copper by floatation from slow cooled Ausmelt furnace slag was studied in this paper. The phases and composition of the slow cooled slag were analyzed. The factors which affected the copper recovery efficiency such as grinding fineness, pH value of flotation medium, different collectors and floating process were investigated. It was shown that the size distribution of the primary grinding and secondary grinding of middling were 75% for particles less than 0.074mm and 82% for particles less than 0.043mm respectively. The closed-circuit experimental results with butyl xanthate as collector in laboratory showed that the copper grade reached 16.11% and the recovery rate of copper reached 69.90% and the copper grade of tailings was only 0.2%.

  16. Global patterns of drought recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Michalak, Anna M.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Biondi, Franco; Koch, George; Litvak, Marcy; Ogle, Kiona; Shaw, John D.; Wolf, Adam; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schaefer, Kevin; Cook, Robert; Wei, Yaxing; Fang, Yuanyuan; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Jain, Atul; Tian, Hanqin

    2017-08-09

    Drought is a recurring multi-factor phenomenon with major impacts on natural and human systems1-3. Drought is especially important for land carbon sink variability, influencing climate regulation of the terrestrial biosphere4. While 20th Century trends in drought regime are ambiguous, “more extreme extremes” as well as more frequent and severe droughts3,7 are expected in the 21st Century. Recovery time, the length of time an ecosystem requires to revert to its pre-drought functional state, is a critical metric of drought impact. Yet the spatiotemporal patterning and controls of drought recovery are largely unknown. Here we use three distinct global datasets of gross primary productivity to show that across diverse terrestrial ecosystems drought recovery times are driven by biological productivity and biodiversity, with drought length and severity of secondary importance. Recovery time, especially for extreme droughts, and the areal extent of ecosystems in recovery from drought generally increase over the 20th Century, supporting an increase globally in drought impact8. Our results indicate that if future Anthropocene droughts become more widespread as expected, that droughts will become more frequent relative to recovery time. This increases the risk of entering a new regime where vegetation never recovers to its original state and widespread degradation of the land carbon sink ensues.

  17. Multimedia Exercise Training Program Improves Distance Walked, Heart Rate Recovery, and Self-efficacy in Cardiac Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Wei; Ou, Shu-Hua; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Chang, Yue-Cune; Kao, Chi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Patient education has been shown to be more effective when delivered using multimedia than written materials. However, the effects of using multimedia to assist patients in cardiac rehabilitation have not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of an inpatient multimedia exercise training program on distance walked in the 6-minute walking test (6MWT), heart rate recovery, and walking self-efficacy of patients who had undergone heart surgery. For this longitudinal quasi-experimental study, 60 consecutive patients were assigned to an experimental (n = 20; inpatient multimedia exercise training program) or control (n = 40; routine care) group. Data were collected at 3 times (before surgery, 1 to 2 days before hospital discharge, and 1 month after hospital discharge) and analyzed with the generalized estimating equation approach. Most subjects were men (66.7%), had a mean age of 61.32 ± 13.4 years and left ventricular ejection fraction of 56.96% ± 13.28%, and underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (n = 34, 56.7%). Subjects receiving the exercise training program showed significantly greater improvement than those in the control group in the 6MWT walking distance (P self-efficacy (P = .002) at hospital discharge. Furthermore, the intervention effects on 6MWT distance (P self-efficacy (P exercise training program safely improved distance walked in the 6MWT, heart rate recovery, and self-efficacy at hospital discharge in patients after heart surgery and maintained their improvement in 6MWT and self-efficacy 1 month later.

  18. Silicate fertilization of tropical soils: silicon availability and recovery index of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Sartori de Camargo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is considered a Si-accumulating plant, but in Brazil, where several soil types are used for cultivation, there is little information about silicon (Si fertilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the silicon availability, uptake and recovery index of Si from the applied silicate on tropical soils with and without silicate fertilization, in three crops. The experiments in pots (100 L were performed with specific Si rates (0, 185, 370 and 555 kg ha-1 Si, three soils (Quartzipsamment-Q, 6 % clay; Rhodic Hapludox-RH, 22 % clay; and Rhodic Acrudox-RA, 68 % clay, with four replications. The silicon source was Ca-Mg silicate. The same Ca and Mg quantities were applied to all pots, with lime and/or MgCl2, when necessary. Sugarcane was harvested in the plant cane and first- and second-ratoon crops. The silicon rates increased soil Si availability and Si uptake by sugarcane and had a strong residual effect. The contents of soluble Si were reduced by harvesting and increased with silicate application in the following decreasing order: Q>RH>RA. The silicate rates promoted an increase in soluble Si-acetic acid at harvest for all crops and in all soils, except RA. The amounts of Si-CaCl2 were not influenced by silicate in the ratoon crops. The plant Si uptake increased according to the Si rates and was highest in RA at all harvests. The recovery index of applied Si (RI of sugarcane increased over time, and was highest in RA.

  19. Thermal recovery characteristics of Kori-unit 1 linde 80 weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, S. H.; Hong, J. H.; Kuk, I. H.; Kim, I. S.

    1997-01-01

    The recovery activation energy, the order of reaction and the characteristic recovery rate constant were determined by isochronal (573K -823K) and isothermal (723K - 775K) annealing experiments on specimens made from a broken half of a Kori-Unit 1 surveillance weld specimen (fluence: 1.21 x 10 23 n/m 2 , E (1MeV, Cu: 0.29 wt%) to investigate the recovery characteristics of a high copper weld of neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Vickers microhardness tests were conducted to trace the recovery behavior after heat treatments. The results were analyzed in terms of recovery stages, behavior of responsible defects and recovery kinetics. It was shown that recovery occurred through two annealing stages (stage I: 673K - 753K, stage II: 753K - 823K) with recovery activation energies of 2.68 eV and 2.83 eV for stage I and II, respectively. The isothermal hardness recovery at 723 K and 775 K coincided with the ratio of the characteristic rate constant for each recovery stage. The order of reaction was 2 for both recovery stages. The recovery activation energies of present specimens are approximately equal to that of copper diffusion in α-iron in the presence of vacancies, suggesting that recovery may occur through the diffusion of copper atoms. The present results strongly support the copper precipitate coarsening model. (author)

  20. Effect of bleeding on recovery of erythropoiesis in mice after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Nobuo

    1975-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of bleeding was studied by depleting 0.4 ml of blood immediately after whole body irradiation. As the indicator in this experiment, 30-day survival rate was used. To analyse the effect of bleeding, erythropoietic recovery after irradiation was examined. Before these experiments, erythropoietic activity after the depletion was examined in non-irradiated mice. Also, radioactive iron uptake was measured in the femur and spleen as an indicator of erythropoietic activity in both irradiated and non-irradiated groups. An increase in the 30-day survival rate was noted: 40% in the group with blood depletion after 700 R irradiation, but only 15% in the group without blood depletion. In blood depleted mice, marked erythropoietic activity was observed in the spleen, but this activity was not increased in the femur bone marrow. Gradual and relatively early increase in iron-59 uptake was observed immediately after irradiation in the blood-depleted mice but not in those with irradiation alone. This phenomenon indicated early recovery of erythropoietic repopulation in the spleen. The mean number of endogenous spleen colonies was 13 and 27 respectively, in the mice without and with blood depletion immediately after 750 R irradiation. (author)

  1. Unequivocal detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic Ozone Hole through significant increases in atmospheric layers with minimum ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    An important new landmark in present day ozone research is presented through MLS satellite observations of significant ozone increases during the ozone hole season that are attributed unequivocally to declining ozone depleting substances. For many decades the Antarctic ozone hole has been the prime example of both the detrimental effects of human activities on our environment as well as how to construct effective and successful environmental policies. Nowadays atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are on the decline and first signs of recovery of stratospheric ozone and ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole have been observed. The claimed detection of significant recovery, however, is still subject of debate. In this talk we will discuss first current uncertainties in the assessment of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole by using multi-variate regression methods, and, secondly present an alternative approach to identify ozone hole recovery unequivocally. Even though multi-variate regression methods help to reduce uncertainties in estimates of ozone recovery, great care has to be taken in their application due to the existence of uncertainties and degrees of freedom in the choice of independent variables. We show that taking all uncertainties into account in the regressions the formal recovery of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole cannot be established yet, though is likely before the end of the decade (before 2020). Rather than focusing on time and area averages of total ozone columns or ozone profiles, we argue that the time evolution of the probability distribution of vertically resolved ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole contains a better fingerprint for the detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole. The advantages of this method over more tradition methods of trend analyses based on spatio-temporal average ozone are discussed. The 10-year record of MLS satellite measurements of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole shows a

  2. MARKETING STRATEGY TO INCREASE BED OCCUPANCY RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A hospital is an institution for health care providing treatment by specialized staff and equipment, more often but not always providing for longer-term patient stays. Today, hospitals are very complex institution, not only survive in dynamic environment but also make a profit based on their services. The aimed of this research was to know marketing mix concept (product, price, place, promotion, people, process and provision of customer service in formulating marketing strategy to increased Bed Occupancy Rate of Obstetric Gynecology Ward 2. Method: The population are health care personnel including midwife, midwife associate, administrator and also client or consumer. The variable were product, price, place, promotion, people, process and provision of customer service. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire. Result: The result showed that product (type of services, infrastructure and facility, relative price, comfortable and safe place, targeted promotion, trained human resources, standard process and provision of customer service are an important aspect to implement strategy marketing to increase Bed Occupancy Rate. Analysis: The result of this study has enlightened the importance of strategy marketing in health care services based on seven principle of marketing mix. Discussion: Implementation of marketing mix in obstetric gynecology ward 2 need to be considered.

  3. The Effect of Temperature and Injection Rate during Water Flooding Using Carbonate Core Samples: An Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Ahmadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In many reservoirs, after water flooding, a large volume of oil is still left behind. Hot water injection is the most basic type of thermal recovery which increase recovery by improved sweep efficiency and thermal expansion of crude.In the present work, the effects of injection rate and the temperature of the injected water were surveyed by using core flooding apparatus. Water flooding was performed at different rates (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 cc/min and temperatures (20 and 90 °C, and the reservoir temperature was about 63 °C. Oil recovery during hot water injection was more than water injection. Moreover, it was concluded that at injection rates of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 cc/min breakthrough time in hot water injection occurred 10 min later in comparison to water injection. The results showed that higher oil recovery and longer breakthrough time were obtained as a result of reducing injection rate. In the first 50 minutes, the oil recovery at injection rates of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 cc/min was 27.5, 34, and 46% respectively. It was found that at the beginning of injection, thermal and non-thermal injection recovery factors are approximately equal. Moreover, according to the results, recovery factor at the lowest rate in hot water (T=90 °C and q=0.2 cc/min is the best condition to obtain the highest recovery.

  4. High job control enhances vagal recovery in media work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Harri; Sinisalo, Juha; Ahlberg, Jari; Jahkola, Antti; Partinen, Markku; Hublin, Christer; Savolainen, Aslak

    2009-12-01

    Job strain has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In modern media work, time pressures, rapidly changing situations, computer work and irregular working hours are common. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been widely used to monitor sympathovagal balance. Autonomic imbalance may play an additive role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. To study the effects of work demands and job control on the autonomic nervous system recovery among the media personnel. From the cross-sectional postal survey of the employees in Finnish Broadcasting Company (n = 874), three age cohorts (n = 132) were randomly selected for an analysis of HRV in 24 h electrocardiography recordings. In the middle-aged group, those who experienced high job control had significantly better vagal recovery than those with low or moderate control (P work rather than low demands seemed to enhance autonomic recovery in middle-aged media workers. This was independent of poor health habits such as smoking, physical inactivity or alcohol consumption.

  5. Strontium-90 and promethium-147 recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoisington, J.E.; McDonell, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and promethium-147 are fission product radionuclides with potential for use as heat source materials in high reliability, non-interruptible power supplies. Interest has recently been expressed in their utilization for Department of Defense (DOD) applications. This memorandum summarizes the current inventories, the annual production rates, and the possible recovery of Sr-90 and Pm-147 from nuclear materials production operations at Hanford and Savannah River. Recovery of these isotopes from LWR spend fuel utilizing the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant (BNFP) is also considered. Unit recovery costs at each site are provided

  6. Compression and information recovery in ptychography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetgering, L.; Treffer, D.; Wilhein, T.

    2018-04-01

    Ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging (PCDI) is a scanning microscopy modality that allows for simultaneous recovery of object and illumination information. This ability renders PCDI a suitable technique for x-ray lensless imaging and optics characterization. Its potential for information recovery typically relies on large amounts of data redundancy. However, the field of view in ptychography is practically limited by the memory and the computational facilities available. We describe techniques that achieve robust ptychographic information recovery at high compression rates. The techniques are compared and tested with experimental data.

  7. Rate of initial recovery and subsequent radar monitoring performance following a simulated emergency involving startle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    The present study employed auditory startle to simulate the principal components (unexpectedness, fear, and physiological arousal) that are common to many types of sudden emergencies and compared performance recovery following startle with recovery f...

  8. Rapid Recovery Gene Downregulation during Excess-Light Stress and Recovery in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Peter A; Ganguly, Diep R; Smith, Aaron B; Murray, Kevin D; Estavillo, Gonzalo M; Searle, Iain; Ford, Ethan; Bogdanović, Ozren; Lister, Ryan; Borevitz, Justin O; Eichten, Steven R; Pogson, Barry J

    2017-08-01

    Stress recovery may prove to be a promising approach to increase plant performance and, theoretically, mRNA instability may facilitate faster recovery. Transcriptome (RNA-seq, qPCR, sRNA-seq, and PARE) and methylome profiling during repeated excess-light stress and recovery was performed at intervals as short as 3 min. We demonstrate that 87% of the stress-upregulated mRNAs analyzed exhibit very rapid recovery. For instance, HSP101 abundance declined 2-fold every 5.1 min. We term this phenomenon rapid recovery gene downregulation (RRGD), whereby mRNA abundance rapidly decreases promoting transcriptome resetting. Decay constants ( k ) were modeled using two strategies, linear and nonlinear least squares regressions, with the latter accounting for both transcription and degradation. This revealed extremely short half-lives ranging from 2.7 to 60.0 min for 222 genes. Ribosome footprinting using degradome data demonstrated RRGD loci undergo cotranslational decay and identified changes in the ribosome stalling index during stress and recovery. However, small RNAs and 5'-3' RNA decay were not essential for recovery of the transcripts examined, nor were any of the six excess light-associated methylome changes. We observed recovery-specific gene expression networks upon return to favorable conditions and six transcriptional memory types. In summary, rapid transcriptome resetting is reported in the context of active recovery and cellular memory. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of mental workload on muscle endurance, fatigue, and recovery during intermittent static work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K; Agnew, Michael J

    2012-08-01

    Most occupational tasks involve some level of mental/cognitive processing in addition to physical work; however, the etiology of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) due to these demands remains unclear. The aim of this study was to quantify the interactive effects of physical and mental workload on muscle endurance, fatigue, and recovery during intermittent work. Twelve participants, balanced by gender, performed intermittent static shoulder abductions to exhaustion at 15, 35, and 55% of individual maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), in the absence (control) and presence (concurrent) of a mental arithmetic task. Changes in muscular capacity were determined using endurance time, strength decline, electromyographic (EMG) fatigue indicators, muscle oxygenation, and heart rate measures. Muscular recovery was quantified through changes in strength and physiological responses. Mental workload was associated with shorter endurance times, specifically at 35% MVC, and greater strength decline. EMG and oxygenation measures showed similar changes during fatigue manifestation during concurrent conditions compared to the control, despite shorter endurance times. Moreover, decreased heart rate variability during concurrent demand conditions indicated increased mental stress. Although strength recovery was not influenced by mental workload, a slower heart rate recovery was observed after concurrent demand conditions. The findings from this study provide fundamental evidence that physical capacity (fatigability and recovery) is adversely affected by mental workload. Thus, it is critical to determine or evaluate occupational demands based on modified muscular capacity (due to mental workload) to reduce risk of WMSD development.

  10. Value assessment for reservoir recovery optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, R.; De Castro, G.N.; Mezzomo, C.; Schiozer, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the managerial flexibility embedded in oil and gas exploration and production. The analysis includes the economic impact of using different production techniques on the valuation of oil reserves. Two methodologies are used to evaluate the simulation of engineering techniques: (1) the real option approach; and (2) the discounted cash flow (DCF) method. Given the external variables (e.g., oil price, interest rate), this paper evaluates the best engineering technique for oil recovery by using a valuation approach. We conclude that by appropriately combining different production techniques, the value of oil reserves can increase under the real option approach and can be higher than the value assessed under the DCF method. Since oil recovery includes many managerial choices, we argue that the real option approach is more appropriate than the DCF method. The paper concludes that concession time and dividend yield are the most sensitive parameters for the valuation of oil reserves

  11. Value assessment for reservoir recovery optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, R.; De Castro, G.N. [EAESP/FGV, Av. Nove de Julho, 2029-10 andar, 01313-902, SP Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mezzomo, C.; Schiozer, D.J. [Fundacao Getulio Vargas, Avenida Nove de Julho, 2029, 10th floor, 01313-902, SP Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2001-12-29

    This paper analyzes the managerial flexibility embedded in oil and gas exploration and production. The analysis includes the economic impact of using different production techniques on the valuation of oil reserves. Two methodologies are used to evaluate the simulation of engineering techniques: (1) the real option approach; and (2) the discounted cash flow (DCF) method. Given the external variables (e.g., oil price, interest rate), this paper evaluates the best engineering technique for oil recovery by using a valuation approach. We conclude that by appropriately combining different production techniques, the value of oil reserves can increase under the real option approach and can be higher than the value assessed under the DCF method. Since oil recovery includes many managerial choices, we argue that the real option approach is more appropriate than the DCF method. The paper concludes that concession time and dividend yield are the most sensitive parameters for the valuation of oil reserves.

  12. Short-run Distributional Effects of VAT Rate Change: Evidence from a consumption tax rate increase in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    David CASHIN; UNAYAMA Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Households will purchase more items than usual prior to a value added tax (VAT) rate increase in order to avoid taxation. Since this type of arbitrage requires resources such as shopping time and storage space, the impacts of tax increases vary across households, which has brought distributional effects in the short-run. Using the case of a consumption tax rate increase in Japan in 1997, we show that households who are non-working, with non-working spouses and residing in larger houses, benef...

  13. Organic carbon recovery modeling for a rotating belt filter and its impact assessment on a plant-wide scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behera, Chitta Ranjan; Santoro, Domenico; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we perform a systematic plant-wide assessment of the organic carbon recovery concept on wastewater treatment plants by an advanced cellulose recovery enabling technology called rotating belt filter (RBF). To this end, first, an empirical model is developed to describe organic carbon...... recovery by the RBF, which is then used for the plant-wide performance evaluation to further understand the impact of organic carbon recovery by framing four different scenarios. The key features of the scenario analysis are: (i) an RBF operating with thick mat increases methane production (around 10...... %) and brings down aeration energy demand (by 8 %) compared to the primary clarifier (PC) and, (ii) the sludge retention time (SRT) of the activated sludge (AS) tank increases by 55 % when an RBF runs with thick mat and therefore promotes higher nitrification rate, (iii) organic carbon recovery by the RBF does...

  14. Coping and recovery in whiplash-associated disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Linda J; Ferrari, Robert; Cassidy, John David

    2014-01-01

    Management Inventory, and neck pain recovery was assessed at each subsequent follow-up, using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Disability was assessed at each follow-up using the Pain Disability Index (PDI). Pain recovery was defined as a VAS score of 0 to 10; disability recovery was defined as a PDI...... recovery, reductions in neck pain, and in disability. METHODS: A population-based prospective cohort study design was used to study 2986 adults with traffic-related WAD. Participants were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 4, 8, and 12 months postinjury. Coping was measured at 6 weeks using the Pain...... score of 0 to 4. Data analysis used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Those using high versus low levels of passive coping at 6 weeks postinjury experienced 28% slower pain recovery and 43% slower disability recovery. Adjusted hazard rate ratios for pain recovery and disability...

  15. Recovery of soil nitrification after long-term zinc exposure and its co-tolerance to Cu in different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aiju; Fang, Dianmei; Wang, Chao; Li, Menghong; Young, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Soils sampled from different locations of China were used to manipulate soil microbial diversity and to assess the effect of the diversity of the soil nitrifying community on the recovery of the soil nitrification to metal stress (zinc). Ten treatments were either or not amended with ZnCl2. Subsequently, a spike-on-spike assay was set up to test for the tolerance of soil nitrification to zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Initially, Zn amendment completely inhibited nitrification. After a year of Zn exposure, recovery of the potential nitrification rate in Zn-amended soils ranged from 28 to 126% of the potential nitrification rate in the corresponding Zn-nonamended soils. This recovery was strongly related to the potential nitrification rate before Zn amendment and soil pH. Increased Zn tolerance of the soil nitrification was consistently observed in response to corresponding soil contamination. Co-tolerance to Cu was obtained in all 1,000-mg kg(-1) Zn-amended soils. This tolerance was also strongly related to the potential nitrification rate before Zn amendment and soil pH. Our data indicate that inherently microbial activity can be a significant factor for the recovery of soil functioning derived from metal contamination.

  16. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey Jr., Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah

  17. Improvement in deuterium recovery from water–isotope mixture by thermal diffusion in the device of branch columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Ching-Chun; Yeh, Ho-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Recovery of deuterium by thermal diffusion from water–isotope mixture has been investigated. • The undesirable remixing effect can be reduced by employing the device of branch columns. • Deuterium recoveries were compared with that in a single column of the same total column length. • Considerable recovery improvement is obtainable in the device of branch columns, instead of in a single-column device. - Abstract: Deuterium recovery from water–isotopes mixture using thermal diffusion can be improved by employing the branch column device, instead of single column devices, with the same total column length. The remixing effect due to convection currents in a thermal diffusion column for heavy water enrichment is thus reduced and separation improvement increases when the flow rate or the total column length increases. The improvement in separation can reach about 50% for the numerical example given

  18. Estimation of free-hydrocarbon recovery from dual-pump systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbeneau, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Free-product hydrocarbon which floats on the water table may be recovered using single-pump and dual-pump systems. The factors that affect the long-term free-product recovery using dual-pump systems include the free-product thickness as measured in monitoring wells, the ground-water pumping rate, hydrocarbon density and viscosity, and the soil permeability. This paper presents a simple model for prediction of free-product recovery using dual-pump systems. The model predicts the long-term rather than short-term recovery rates, and lends itself to spreadsheet calculations on microcomputers. A particularly simple form arises for cases where the drawdown is small. An application for estimating recovery from a dual-pump system is presented, and limitations of the model are summarized

  19. Enhanced Recovery Pathways for Improving Outcomes After Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Oncology Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jocelyn S; Roddy, Erika; Ueda, Stefanie; Brooks, Rebecca; Chen, Lee-Lynn; Chen, Lee-May

    2016-07-01

    To estimate whether an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway facilitates early recovery and discharge in gynecologic oncology patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery. This was a retrospective case-control study. Consecutive gynecologic oncology patients undergoing laparoscopic or robotic surgery between July 1 and November 5, 2014, were treated on an enhanced recovery pathway. Enhanced recovery pathway components included patient education, multimodal analgesia, opioid minimization, nausea prophylaxis as well as early catheter removal, ambulation, and feeding. Cases were matched in a one-to-two ratio with historical control patients on the basis of surgery type and age. Primary endpoints were length of hospital stay, rates of discharge by noon, 30-day hospital readmission rates, and hospital costs. There were 165 patients included in the final cohort, 55 of whom were enhanced recovery pathway patients. Enhanced recovery patients were more likely to be discharged on postoperative day 1 compared with patients in the control group (91% compared with 60%, Pcontrol patients (P=.03). Postoperative pain scores decreased (2.6 compared with 3.12, P=.03) despite a 30% reduction in opioid use. Average total hospital costs were decreased by 12% in the enhanced recovery group ($13,771 compared with $15,649, P=.01). Readmission rates, mortality, and reoperation rates did not differ between the two groups. An enhanced recovery pathway in patients undergoing gynecologic oncology minimally invasive surgery is associated with significant improvements in recovery time, decreased pain despite reduced opioid use, and overall lower hospital costs.

  20. Dose Rate Effects in Linear Bipolar Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Allan; Swimm, Randall; Harris, R. D.; Thorbourn, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Dose rate effects are examined in linear bipolar transistors at high and low dose rates. At high dose rates, approximately 50% of the damage anneals at room temperature, even though these devices exhibit enhanced damage at low dose rate. The unexpected recovery of a significant fraction of the damage after tests at high dose rate requires changes in existing test standards. Tests at low temperature with a one-second radiation pulse width show that damage continues to increase for more than 3000 seconds afterward, consistent with predictions of the CTRW model for oxides with a thickness of 700 nm.

  1. An inpatient lifestyle-change programme improves heart rate recovery in overweight and obese children and adolescents (LOGIC Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Désirée C; Rank, Melanie; Christle, Jeff; Langhof, Helmut; Siegrist, Monika; Halle, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Impaired heart rate recovery (HRR) is a strong predictor of overall mortality and cardio-metabolic risk. This study aimed at investigating (1) the effect of participation in a lifestyle-change programme for weight loss on HRR in overweight and obese children and (2) potential associations between the changes in one minute HRR (HRR1) and fitness, weight loss and cardio-metabolic risk. The analysis included 429 individuals (169 boys) aged 13.9 ± 2.3 years who participated in an inpatient weight loss programme for four to six weeks. At baseline and the end of the programme clinical investigations were performed, including blood analyses, blood pressure, anthropometry and maximal cycle ergometer exercise testing with continuous heart rate (HR) monitoring. HRR was calculated as the difference between the highest exercising HR and HR at one, three and five minutes post-exercise. Average body weight decreased from 90.7 ± 22.5 kg to 81.9 ± 20.0 kg and peak exercise capacity increased from 1.66 ± 0.38 W/kg to 2.05 ± 0.45 W/kg (p exercise capacity (p inpatient weight loss programme in overweight and obese children. This was not associated with improvements in body weight and cardio-metabolic risk; hence HRR would be a valuable addition to cardiovascular risk assessment in this group. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012.

  2. Does mobility explain variation in colonisation and population recovery among stream fishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Albanese, Brett; Peterson, James T.

    2009-01-01

    1. Colonisation and population recovery are crucial to species persistence in environmentally variable ecosystems, but are poorly understood processes. After documenting movement rates for several species of stream fish, we predicted that this variable would influence colonisation rates more strongly than local abundance, per cent occupancy, body size and taxonomic family. We also predicted that populations of species with higher movement rates would recover more rapidly than species with lower movement rates and that assemblage structure would change accordingly. 2. To test these predictions, we removed fishes from a headwater and a mainstem creek in southwest Virginia and monitored colonisation over a 2-year period. Using an information–theoretic approach, we evaluated the relative plausibility of 15 alternative models containing different combinations of our predictor variables. Our best-supported model contained movement rate and abundance and was 41 times more likely to account for observed patterns in colonisation rates than the next-best model. Movement rate and abundance were both positively related to colonisation rates and explained 88% of the variation in colonisation rates among species. 3. Population recovery, measured as the per cent of initial abundance restored, was also positively associated with movement rate. One species recovered within 3 months, most recovered within 2 years, but two species still had not recovered after 2 years. Despite high variation in recovery, the removal had only a slight impact on assemblage structure because species that were abundant in pre-removal samples were also abundant in post-removal samples. 4. The significance of interspecific variation in colonisation and recovery rates has been underappreciated because of the widely documented recovery of stream fish assemblages following fish kills and small-scale experimental defaunations. Our results indicate that recovery of the overall assemblage does not imply

  3. Technology strategy for enhanced recovery; Technology Target Areas; TTA3 - enhanced recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) is facing new challenges in reserve replacement and improved recovery in order to maintain the overall oil production rate from the area. A new target for an increase in oil reserves of 800 million Sm3 of oil (5 billion barrels) by year 2015 has been set by NPD. This is an ambitious goal considering several of the large fields are on a steep decline, and most of the recent discoveries are relatively small. A significant part of these increased reserves will have to come from fields currently on production, from reservoir areas that have been partly or fully swept, and it is therefore evident that Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods have to play a key role in achieving this target. EOR methods can be divided into gas based EOR methods and water based EOR methods. Thermal methods are not considered applicable on the NCS due to the relatively light oils present, and the depth of the reservoirs. Gas Based EOR; Water Based EOR; CO{sub 2} injection; Surfactants; Air injection; Polymer; Nitrogen injection; Alkaline; Flue gas injection; Polymer gels; WAG; MEOR; FAWAG. The former OG21 strategy document gave high priority to Water Alternating Gas (WAG) methods and CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced recovery. A lot of research and development and evaluation projects on CO{sub 2} injection were launched and are on-going, most of these are being CO{sub 2} WAG studies. The main challenge now in order to realize CO{sub 2} injection on the NCS is on CO{sub 2} availability and transport. It is also believed that increasing gas prices will limit the availability of hydrocarbon gas for injection purposes in the future. There is, however, a clear need for developing alternative cost efficient EOR methods that can improve the sweep efficiency significantly. Since a majority of the fields on the NCS are being produced under water flooding (or WAG), methods that can improve the water flooding efficiency by chemical additives are of special interest and

  4. Increased effects of machining damage in beryllium observed at high strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitscher, S.; Brewer, A.W.; Corle, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Tensile tests at both low and high strain rates, and also impact shear tests, were performed on a weldable grade powder-source beryllium. Impact energies increased by a factor of 2 to 3 from the as-machined level after etching or annealing. Similar increases in the ductility from machining damage removal were observed from the tensile data at the higher strain rate (10 s -1 ) while an insignificant increase in elongation was measured at the lower strain rate (10 -4 s -1 ). High strain-rate tests appear to be more sensitive and reliable for evaluating machining practice and damage removal methods for beryllium components subjected to sudden loads. 2 tables

  5. Recovery rate of children with moderate acute malnutrition treated with ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) or improved corn-soya blend (CSB+): a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoua, Gabriel Nama; Ntsama, Patricia M; Ndzana, Anne Christine A; Essa'a, Véronique J; Tsafack, Julie Judith T; Dimodi, Henriette T

    2016-02-01

    To compare an improved corn-soya blend (CSB+) with a ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) to test the hypothesis that satisfactory recovery rate will be achieved with CSB+ or RUSF when these foods provide 50 % of the child's energy requirement, the 50 % remaining coming from usual diet. A comparative efficacy trial study was conducted with moderately wasted children, using a controlled randomized design, with parallel assignment for RUSF or CSB+. Every child received a daily ration of 167 kJ (40 kcal)/kg body weight during 56 d with a follow-up performed every 14 d. Every caregiver received nutrition counselling at enrolment and at each follow-up visit. Health districts of Mvog-Beti and Evodoula in the Centre region of Cameroon. Eight hundred and thirty-three children aged 6-59 months were screened and eighty-one malnourished children (weight-for-height Z-score between -3 and -2) aged 25-59 months were selected. Of children treated with CSB+ and RUSF, 73 % (95 % CI 59 %, 87 %) and 85 % (95 % CI 73 %, 97 %), respectively, recovered from moderate acute malnutrition, with no significant difference between groups. The mean duration of treatment required to achieve recovery was 44 d in the RUSF group and 51 d in the CSB+ group (log-rank test, P=0·0048). There was no significant difference in recovery rate between the groups. Both CSB+ and RUSF were relatively successful for the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition in children. Despite the relatively low ration size provided, the recovery rates observed for both groups were comparable to or higher than those reported in previous studies, a probable effect of nutrition education.

  6. 78 FR 57101 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... rate currently in effect. The quantity of assessable walnuts for the 2013-14 marketing year is... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-13-0056; FV13-984-1 PR] Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  7. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Vaaben, Bo

    Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker cons...... consumption and the impact on the remaining network and the customer service level. The model is applied to 4 real cases from Maersk Line. Solutions are comparable or superior to those chosen by operations managers. Cost savings of up to 58% may be achieved.......Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker...

  8. Acclimation to and recovery from cadmium and zinc exposure by a freshwater cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jin; Yang Liuyan; Wang Wenxiong

    2009-01-01

    To understand the metal tolerance of a bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, we investigated its acclimation to and recovery from cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) exposure. The intracellular Cd and Zn (intra-Cd and intra-Zn) quotas increased upon acclimation to increased metal concentrations and were reduced following 1-day or 5-day recovery. Different acclimation to varying metal concentrations or durations (5 days or 15 days) did not have significant effects on the short-term uptake of Cd or Zn, whereas a 1-day recovery period promoted Cd or Zn uptake significantly. The values of median growth-inhibition concentrations (free ion concentration or intracellular quota) increased when the cyanobacterial cells were acclimated to higher Cd or Zn concentrations, indicating that M. aeruginosa became more tolerant to these metals. Consistent with the significant increase in metal uptake, the cyanobacteria become very sensitive to metals following 1-day recovery. A longer recovery (5 days) led to comparable uptake and toxicity responses to the controls. The efflux rate constants were not significantly different following metal acclimation. In the subcellular metal measurements, Cd was mostly distributed in the soluble fraction, whereas Zn was distributed evenly in the adsorbed, insoluble and soluble fractions of the cells. This study suggested the strong ability of these cyanobacteria to acclimate to different environments.

  9. Investigation of aeration rate on Uranium bio leaching in internal airlift bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolala, M. R.; Safdari, S. J.; Haghighi Asl, A.; Rashidi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium is leached from the uranium ore of the second anomaly of Saghand by the Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans bacteria in an internal airlift bio-reactor. This study has been made to find the effect of aeration rate as well as its optimal value. The experiments have been carried out at 4 aeration rates to find the best recovery results in the least possible time duration. The results showed that the most percentage of the uranium recovery is in the superficial gas velocity of 0.010 m/s. The recovery at this aeration rate has an efficiency of more than 95 p ercent i n 11 days. Also, the best range for aeration study in the airlift bio-reactor is calculated with a minimum value of 0.0065 m/s which is the critical value of the uranium particle suspension as well as the maximum value of 0.015 m/s. The stress on the bacteria increases the recovery time process in velocities of more than 0.015 m/s.

  10. Numerical approach for enhanced oil recovery with surfactant flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Keshtkar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The remained oil in the reservoir after conventional water-flooding processes, forms a dispersed phase in the form of oil drops which is trapped by capillary forces and is almost about 70% of the original oil in the place (OOIP. To reduce oil residual saturation in laboratory experiments and field projects, surfactant flooding is effective via decreasing the interfacial tension mobility ratio between oil and water phases. Estimation of the role of design variables, like chemical concentrations, partition coefficient and injection rate in different performance quantities, considering a heterogeneous and multiphase oil reservoir is a critical stage for optimal design. Increasing demand for oil production from water-flooded reservoirs has caused an increasing interest in surfactant-polymer (SP and alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP. Modeling minimizes the risk of high cost of chemicals by improving our insight of process. In the present paper, a surfactant compositional flood model for a three-component (water, petroleum and surfactant, two phase (aqueous and oleic system is studied. A homogeneous, two-dimensional, isothermal reservoir with no free gas or alkali is assumed. The governing equations are in three categories: the continuity equations for the transport of each component, Darcy's equation for the transport of each phase and other auxiliary equations. The equations are solved by finite-differences using a procedure implicit in pressure and explicit in saturation. The validation of the model is achieved through comparing the modeling results with CMG simulators and Buckley–Leverett theory. The results of modeling showed good agreement with CMG results, and the comparison with Buckley–Leverett theory is explained according to different assumptions. After validation of the model, in order to investigate sensitivity analysis, the effects of system variables (partition coefficient, surface tension, oil viscosity and surface injection

  11. Enhancing recovery of ammonia from swine manure anaerobic digester effluent using gas-permeable membrane technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, P J; Vanotti, M B; Szogi, A A; García-González, M C

    2016-03-01

    Gas-permeable membrane technology is useful to recover ammonia from manure. In this study, the technology was enhanced using aeration instead of alkali chemicals to increase pH and the ammonium (NH4(+)) recovery rate. Digested effluents from covered anaerobic swine lagoons containing 1465-2097 mg NH4(+)-N L(-1) were treated using submerged membranes (0.13 cm(2) cm(-3)), low-rate aeration (120 mL air L-manure(-1) min(-1)) and nitrification inhibitor (22 mg L(-1)) to prevent nitrification. The experiment included a control without aeration. The pH of the manure with aeration rose from 8.6 to 9.2 while the manure without aeration decreased from 8.6 to 8.1. With aeration, 97-99% of the NH4(+) was removed in about 5 days of operation with 96-98% recovery efficiency. In contrast, without aeration it took 25 days to treat the NH4(+). Therefore, the recovery of NH4(+) was five times faster with the low-rate aeration treatment. This enhancement could reduce costs by 70%. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Optical processes in the performance and recovery of gas-phase switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundersen, M.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper several optical processes that may be used to affect gas-phase switch performance and operation are discussed, and approaches using a laser to increase recovery rates of switches are presented. In the latter the laser is used during the recovery phase rather than the conductive or closure phase. This papper suggests that it should be possible to use a low-power laser (e.g., one that is technologically feasible to use as part of a switch) to assist in opening the switch by quenching excited atomic and/or molecular species. The application of laser-induced energy extraction to gas-phase switches is also discussed

  13. The influence of cold on the recovery of three neuromuscular blocking agents in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, A J; Wu, X; Richards, K M; Redai, I; Feldman, S A

    1996-03-01

    The Arrhenius hypothesis suggests that change in temperature has a less marked effect on the rate of physical processes than on biological reactions. We have investigated the process underlying recovery from neuromuscular block in man by studying the effect of cooling on the rate of recovery from depolarising and non-depolarising block. Vecuronium, rocuronium and decamethonium (C10) neuromuscular block were investigated using the isolated forearm technique on awake human volunteers. In these experiments, one arm was cooled whilst the other was used as control. Moderate hypothermia decreased the rate of recovery from all three agents, but this was significantly less marked with the depolarising drug. The mean Q10 (the anticipated change in rate of a reaction across of 10 degrees C temperature gradient) of the rate of recovery for vecuronium was 3.21, rocuronium 2.86 and decamethonium 1.29. This suggests a different process in the recovery of these two types of drug. According to the Arrhenius hypothesis this would suggest that the recovery from non-depolarising drugs is likely to involve a biochemical mechanism and that recovery from decamethonium is controlled by a physical process.

  14. The long-term power purchase: Recovery of capacity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    As electric utilities increase their reliance on the long-term power purchase as an alternative to utility-owned generation, the appropriate rate treatment of the costs established in the purchase agreement assumes growing importance. In the November 9, 1989, issue, the authors examined the recent trend among state regulators to treat the long-term purchase in a manner similar to the addition by a utility of a new plant, including a full-scale prudence review. This installment will review recent rulings on the related issue of rate recovery of long-term capacity costs through the fuel cost adjustment clause

  15. Recovery time of high temperature superconducting tapes exposed in liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Jie; Zeng, Weina; Yao, Zhihao; Zhao, Anfeng; Hu, Daoyu; Hong, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel method based on a sequence of AC pulses is presented. • Liquid nitrogen temperature is used as criterion to judge whether the sample has recovered. • Recovery time of some tape doesn't increase with the amplitude of fault current. • This phenomenon is caused by boiling heat transfer process of liquid nitrogen. • This phenomenon can be used in optimizing both the limiting rate and reclosing system. - Abstract: The recovery time is a crucial parameter to high temperature superconducting tapes, especially in power applications. The cooperation between the reclosing device and the superconducting facilities mostly relies on the recovery time of the superconducting tapes. In this paper, a novel method is presented to measure the recovery time of several different superconducting samples. In this method criterion used to judge whether the sample has recovered is the liquid nitrogen temperature, instead of the critical temperature. An interesting phenomenon is observed during the testing of superconducting samples exposed in the liquid nitrogen. Theoretical explanations of this phenomenon are presented from the aspect of heat transfer. Optimization strategy of recovery characteristics based on this phenomenon is also briefly discussed.

  16. Long-term administration of theophylline and glucose recovery after hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, A; Rosenfalck, A; Christensen, N J

    1998-01-01

    .0241) but there were no concomitant significant increases in plasma c-AMP or in endogenous glucose production rate. Whether the increase in glucose recovery is large enough to suggest that chronic theophylline administration will protect against insulin-induced hypoglycaemia remains unsettled....... hormone secretion. In this study we tested the hypothesis that long-term administration of theophylline might augment glucose recovery after insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Eleven healthy subjects and 8 patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus were made hypoglycaemic by 60 min insulin infusion (40 mU m(-2...

  17. High-threshold motor unit firing reflects force recovery following a bout of damaging eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, Lewis J; Hunter, Angus M

    2018-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is associated with impaired muscle function and reduced neuromuscular recruitment. However, motor unit firing behaviour throughout the recovery period is unclear. EIMD impairment of maximal voluntary force (MVC) will, in part, be caused by reduced high-threshold motor unit firing, which will subsequently increase to recover MVC. Fourteen healthy active males completed a bout of eccentric exercise on the knee extensors, with measurements of MVC, rate of torque development and surface electromyography performed pre-exercise and 2, 3, 7 and 14 days post-exercise, on both damaged and control limb. EIMD was associated with decreased MVC (235.2 ± 49.3 Nm vs. 161.3 ± 52.5 Nm; p exercise. Mean motor unit firing rate was reduced (16.4 ± 2.2 Hz vs. 12.6 ± 1.7 Hz; p motor units only, 48h post-exercise, and common drive was elevated (0.36 ± 0.027 vs. 0.56 ± 0.032; pexercise. The firing rate of high-threshold motor units was reduced in parallel with impaired muscle function, whilst early recruited motor units remained unaltered. Common drive of motor units increased in offset to the firing rate impairment. These alterations correlated with the recovery of force decrement, but not of pain elevation. This study provides fresh insight into the central mechanisms associated with EIMD recovery, relative to muscle function. These findings may in turn lead to development of novel management and preventative procedures.

  18. Recovery of ammonia from swine manure using gas-permeable membranes: Effect of aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas-permeable membranes can recover ammonia from manure, reducing pollution whilst converting ammonia into ammonium salt fertilizer. The process involves manure pH control to increase ammonium (NH4) recovery rate that is normally carried out using an alkali. In this study a new strategy to avoid the...

  19. Recovery boiler model; Soodakattilan kehitystyoe III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, K.; Ylitalo, M.; Sundstroem, K.; Helke, R.; Heinola, M. [Kvaerner Pulping Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The recovery boiler model was further tested and developed. At this moment the model includes submodels for: droplet drying, pyrolysis, char burning, gas burning and for droplet trajectory. During 1996 the formation of CH{sub 4} during pyrolysis and release of sulfur was included to the model. Further the formation of NO from fuel nitrogen and formation of thermal- NO were included to the model using Arrhenius type reaction rate equations. The calculated results are realistic and the model is used as a tool to find out methods to increase the efficiency and availability and decrease the emissions. Analysing the results of the earlier field study of 8 boilers showed that the furnace heat load, fuming rate, find the black liquor composition have influence on the enrichment of the potassium to the fly ash. (orig.)

  20. Phosphorus recovery from municipal wastewater: An integrated comparative technological, environmental and economic assessment of P recovery technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, L; Rechberger, H; Krampe, J; Zessner, M

    2016-11-15

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential and limited resource. Municipal wastewater is a promising source of P via reuse and could be used to replace P derived from phosphate rocks. The agricultural use of sewage sludge is restricted by legislation or is not practiced in several European countries due to environmental risks posed by organic micropollutants and pathogens. Several technologies have been developed in recent years to recover wastewater P. However, these technologies target different P-containing flows in wastewater treatment plants (effluent, digester supernatant, sewage sludge, and sewage sludge ash), use diverse engineering approaches and differ greatly with respect to P recycling rate, potential of removing or destroying pollutants, product quality, environmental impact and cost. This work compares 19 relevant P recovery technologies by considering their relationships with existing wastewater and sludge treatment systems. A combination of different methods, such as material flow analysis, damage units, reference soil method, annuity method, integrated cost calculation and a literature study on solubility, fertilizing effects and handling of recovered materials, is used to evaluate the different technologies with respect to technical, ecological and economic aspects. With regard to the manifold origins of data an uncertainty concept considering validity of data sources is applied. This analysis revealed that recovery from flows with dissolved P produces clean and plant-available materials. These techniques may even be beneficial from economic and technical perspectives under specific circumstances. However, the recovery rates (a maximum of 25%) relative to the wastewater treatment plant influent are relatively low. The approaches that recover P from sewage sludge apply complex technologies and generally achieve effective removal of heavy metals at moderate recovery rates (~40-50% relative to the WWTP input) and comparatively high costs. Sewage sludge ash is

  1. Recovery of uranium from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabushi, Iwao; Kobuke, Yoshiaki

    1984-01-01

    The present status of technology for the recovery of uranium has been reviewed. Adsorbent qualities were discussed in terms of three important criteria: adsorption rate, equilibrium adsorption and chemical as well as physical stability. It was elucidated that a significant improvement of the adsorption rate is most important. Efforts were made to clarify factors influencing the adsorption rate. A method to treat a tremendous amount of sea water is of much importance as well. Pumping-up and direct use of sea currents were compared with each other. It has been emphasized that the active utilization of the various advantages of the latter method is crucial for the realization of the recovery project. The physical capability of the method was illustrated. Some composite systems with electric power generation plants were also discussed. (author)

  2. Cooling energy efficiency and classroom air environment of a school building operated by the heat recovery air conditioning unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Zhao, Fu-Yun; Kuckelkorn, Jens; Liu, Di; Liu, Li-Qun; Pan, Xiao-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    The recently-built school buildings have adopted novel heat recovery ventilator and air conditioning system. Heat recovery efficiency of the heat recovery facility and energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit were analytically modeled, taking the ventilation networks into account. Following that, school classroom displacement ventilation and its thermal stratification and indoor air quality indicated by the CO 2 concentration have been numerically modeled concerning the effects of delivering ventilation flow rate and supplying air temperature. Numerical results indicate that the promotion of mechanical ventilation rate can simultaneously boost the dilution of indoor air pollutants and the non-uniformity of indoor thermal and pollutant distributions. Subsequent energy performance analysis demonstrates that classroom energy demands for ventilation and cooling could be reduced with the promotion of heat recovery efficiency of the ventilation facility, and the energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit decreases with the increasing temperatures of supplying air. Fitting correlations of heat recovery ventilation and cooling energy conservation have been presented. - Highlights: • Low energy school buildings and classroom environment. • Heat recovery facility operating with an air conditioning unit. • Displacement ventilation influenced by the heat recovery efficiency. • Energy conservation of cooling and ventilation through heat recovery. • Enhancement of classroom environment with reduction of school building energy

  3. Recovery of the proliferative and functional integrity of mouse bone marrow in long-term cultures established after whole-body irradiation at different doses and dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierkens, J.G.; Hendry, J.H.; Testa, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    Injury inflicted upon the bone marrow stroma following whole-body irradiation and its repair over a 1-year period has been assessed in murine long-term bone marrow cultures established at increasing time intervals after irradiation. Different doses at different dose rates (10 Gy at 0.05 cGy/min, 4.5 Gy and 10 Gy at 1.6 cGy/min, and 4 x 4.5 Gy [3 weeks between doses] at 60 cGy/min) were chosen so as to maximize differences in effect in the stroma. The cellularity of the adherent layer in long-term cultures established 1 month after irradiation was reduced by 40%-90% depending on the dose and dose rate. Simultaneous with the poor ability of the marrow to form adherent layers, the cumulative spleen colony-forming unit (CFU-S) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cell (GM-CFC) production over a 7-week period was reduced to 0% and 30% of control cultures, respectively. The slow recovery of the adherent layer was paralleled by an increase in the numbers of CFU-S and GM-CFC in the supernatant. Cultures established from repeatedly irradiated mice performed poorly over the entire 1-year period. Whereas the regeneration of the stroma was near complete 1 year after irradiation, the CFU-S and GM-CFC levels reached only between 50% and 80% of control cultures, respectively. Also, the concentration of CFU-S and GM-CFC in the supernatant remained persistently lower in cultures established from irradiated mice as compared to control cultures. The levels of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, which have been implicated in the establishment of the functional integrity of the microenvironment, were not reduced in the adherent layers at any time after irradiation. These results indicate that the regeneration of the stroma is accompanied by an incomplete recovery of active hemopoiesis in vitro

  4. Long recovery VLF perturbations associated with lightning discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salut, M. M.; Abdullah, M.; Graf, K. L.; Cohen, M. B.; Cotts, B. R. T.; Kumar, Sushil

    2012-08-01

    Long D-region ionospheric recovery perturbations are a recently discovered and poorly understood subcategory of early VLF events, distinguished by exceptionally long ionospheric recovery times of up to 20 min (compared to more typical ˜1 min recovery times). Characteristics and occurrence rates of long ionospheric recovery events on the NWC transmitter signal recorded at Malaysia are presented. 48 long recovery events were observed. The location of the causative lightning discharge for each event is determined from GLD360 and WWLLN data, and each discharge is categorized as being over land or sea. Results provide strong evidence that long recovery events are attributed predominately to lightning discharges occurring over the sea, despite the fact that lightning activity in the region is more prevalent over land. Of the 48 long recovery events, 42 were attributed to lightning activity over water. Analysis of the causative lightning of long recovery events in comparison to all early VLF events reveals that these long recovery events are detectable for lighting discharges at larger distances from the signal path, indicating a different scattering pattern for long recovery events.

  5. Plasma glucagon and glucose recovery after hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Holst, Janett

    1991-01-01

    ) and of isolated alpha-adrenergic blockade on hormonal responses to hypoglycemia and on blood glucose recovery after hypoglycemia in healthy subjects. Neither of the pharmacological blockades had any significant effects on plasma glucagon responses to hypoglycemia nor had they any effect on the rate of blood...... glucose recovery after hypoglycemia. We conclude that the autonomic nervous system has no major influence on the glucagon response to hypoglycemia in healthy man. Changes in autonomic nervous activity are not essential for blood glucose recovery after hypoglycemia in healthy man....

  6. Recovery of silver from X-ray washings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, S.; Zeb, P.A.; Sharif, Q.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the enhanced recovery of silver from polymers and gelatin in X-ray washings by treating with activated carbon at different temperatures and optimizing the parameters as temperature, pH and acid base concentrations. It was found that at pilot scale silver recovery increased through treatment with activated carbon and in comparison to the temperature of 20 degree C, at 50 degree C, the recovery increased from 82.57% to 94.04%. (author)

  7. Rising Tide II: Do Black Students Benefit as Grad Rates Increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Andrew Howard; Eberle-Sudré, Kimberlee; Welch, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    "Rising Tide II: Do Black Students Benefit as Grad Rates Increase?" looks at a decade of graduation rates for African American students at four-year, public institutions that improved student success during the past decade. It shows that while a majority (almost 70 percent) of institutions we examined improved graduation rates for black…

  8. Relationship between perceived exertion during exercise and subsequent recovery measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TN Mann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The return towards resting homeostasis in the post-exercise period has the potential to represent the internal training load of the preceding exercise bout. However, the relative potential of metabolic and autonomic recovery measurements in this role has not previously been established. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate which of 4 recovery measurements was most closely associated with Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE, a measurement widely acknowledged as an integrated measurement of the homeostatic stress of an exercise bout. A heterogeneous group of trained and untrained participants (n = 36 completed a bout of exercise on the treadmill (3 km at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by 1 hour of controlled recovery. Expired respiratory gases and heart rate (HR were measured throughout the exercise and recovery phases of the trial with recovery measurements used to calculate the magnitude of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOCMAG, the time constant of the EPOC curve (EPOCτ, 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR60s and the time constant of the HR recovery curve (HRRτ for each participant. RPE taken in the last minute of exercise was significantly associated with HRR60s (r=-0.69, EPOCτ (r=0.52 and HRRτ (r=0.43 but not with EPOCMAG. This finding suggests that, of the 4 recovery measurements under investigation, HRR60s shows modest potential to represent inter-individual variation in the homeostatic stress of a standardized exercise bout, in a group with a range of fitness levels.

  9. Nesting bird "host funnel" increases mosquito-bird contact rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillouët, Kevin A; Riggan, Anna E; Bulluck, Lesley P; Carlson, John C; Sabo, Roy T

    2013-03-01

    Increases in vector-host contact rates can enhance arbovirus transmission intensity. We investigated weekly fluctuations in contact rates between mosquitoes and nesting birds using the recently described Nest Mosquito Trap (NMT). The number of mosquitoes per nestling increased from nesting season. Our evidence suggests the coincidence of the end of the avian nesting season and increasing mosquito abundances may have caused a "host funnel," concentrating host-seeking mosquitoes to the few remaining nestlings. The relative abundance of mosquitoes collected by the NMT suggests that significantly more Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex pipiens (L.) /restuans (Theobald) sought nesting bird bloodmeals than were predicted by their relative abundances in CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light and gravid traps. Culex salinarius (Coquillett) and Culex erraticus Dyar and Knab were collected in NMTs in proportion to their relative abundances in the generic traps. Temporal host funnels and nesting bird host specificity may enhance arbovirus amplification and explain observed West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus amplification periods.

  10. Laboratory investigation of the factors impact on bubble size, pore blocking and enhanced oil recovery with aqueous Colloidal Gas Aphron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shenglong; Wang, Yefei; Li, Zhongpeng; Chen, Qingguo; Zhao, Zenghao

    Colloidal Gas Aphron as a mobility control in enhanced oil recovery is becoming attractive; it is also designed to block porous media with micro-bubbles. In this paper, the effects of surfactant concentration, polymer concentration, temperature and salinity on the bubble size of the Colloidal Gas Aphron were studied. Effects of injection rates, Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid composition, heterogeneity of reservoir on the resistance to the flow of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid through porous media were investigated. Effects of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid composition and temperature on residual oil recovery were also studied. The results showed that bubble growth rate decreased with increasing surfactant concentration, polymer concentration, and decreasing temperature, while it decreased and then increased slightly with increasing salinity. The obvious increase of injection pressure was observed as more Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid was injected, indicating that Colloidal Gas Aphron could block the pore media effectively. The effectiveness of the best blend obtained through homogeneous sandpack flood tests was modestly improved in the heterogeneous sandpack. The tertiary oil recovery increased 26.8 % by Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid as compared to 20.3 % by XG solution when chemical solution of 1 PV was injected into the sandpack. The maximum injected pressure of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid was about three times that of the XG solution. As the temperature increased, the Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid became less stable; the maximum injection pressure and tertiary oil recovery of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid decreased.

  11. A Loss in the Plasma Membrane ATPase Activity and Its Recovery Coincides with Incipient Freeze-Thaw Injury and Postthaw Recovery in Onion Bulb Scale Tissue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rajeev; Palta, Jiwan P.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma membrane ATPase has been proposed to be functionally altered during early stages of injury caused by a freeze-thaw stress. Complete recovery from freezing injury in onion cells during the postthaw period provided evidence in support of this proposal. During recovery, a simultaneous decrease in ion leakage and disappearance of water soaking (symptoms of freeze-thaw injury) has been noted. Since reabsorption of ions during recovery must be an active process, recovery of plasma membrane ATPase (active transport system) functions has been implicated. In the present study, onion (Allium cepa L. cv Downing Yellow Globe) bulbs were subjected to a freeze-thaw stress which resulted in a reversible (recoverable) injury. Plasma membrane ATPase activity in the microsomes (isolated from the bulb scales) and ion leakage rate (efflux/hour) from the same scale tissue were measured immediately following thawing and after complete recovery. In injured tissue (30-40% water soaking), plasma membrane ATPase activity was reduced by about 30% and this was paralleled by about 25% higher ion leakage rate. As water soaking disappeared during recovery, the plasma membrane ATPase activity and the ion leakage rate returned to about the same level as the respective controls. Treatment of freeze-thaw injured tissue with vanadate, a specific inhibitor of plasma membrane ATPase, during postthaw prevented the recovery process. These results indicate that recovery of freeze-injured tissue depends on the functional activity of plasma membrane ATPase. PMID:16668063

  12. Characterization of a symbol rate timing recovery technique for a 2B1Q digital receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulnasr, T.; Hage, M.; Sayar, B.; Aly, S.

    1994-02-01

    This paper presents a study of several implementations of the Mueller and Muller symbol rate timing recovery algorithm for ISDN transmission over digital subscriber loops (DSL). Implementations of this algorithm using various estimates of a specified timing function are investigated. It will be shown that despite the fact that all of the estimates considered are derived based on one set of conditions, their performance varies widely in a real system. The intrinsic properties of these estimates are first analyzed, then their performance on real subscriber loops is studied through extensive simulations of a practical digital receiver. The effect of various system parameters such as channel distortion and additive noise are included. Possible sources of convergence problems are also identified and corrective action proposed.

  13. Damage Recovery in Carrara Marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G.; Brantut, N.; Mitchell, T. M.; Meredith, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the effect of confining pressure on the recovery of elastic wave velocities following deformation episodes in Carrara Marble. Dry Carrara Marble cores were deformed in the ductile regime (Pc = 40 MPa) up to 3% axial strain. After deformation, samples were held at constant stress conditions for extended periods of time (5-8 days) whilst continuously recording volumetric strain and seismic wave velocities. The velocity data were used to invert for microcrack densities using an effective medium approach. Finally, thin sections were produced to characterise the microstructures after recovery. During deformation, elastic wave speeds decreased with increasing strain by more than 30% of the value for the intact rock due to the formation of distributed microcracks. Under constant hydrostatic pressure, wave speeds progressively recovered 12-90% of the initial drop, depending on the applied confining pressure. In contrast, the strain recovery (deformation towards the initial shape of the sample) during holding time is negligible (of the order of 10-4). Tests performed under nonhydrostatic (triaxial) stress conditions during recovery showed some time-dependent creep deformation together with very significant recovery of wave velocities. The recovery is interpreted as a progressive reduction in crack density within the sample. The process is highly dependent on confining pressure, which favours it. We propose that the driving process for wave speed recovery is the time-dependent increase of contact area between crack surfaces due to the formation and growth of asperity contacts. We develop a micromechanical model for crack closure driven by asperity creep, which shows a good fit to the experimental data. Most of the recovery is achieved in the initial few hours, implying it is the fastest recovery or healing process, and thus occurs prior to any chemical healing or mineral precipitation. Our data corroborate field observations of post-seismic fault behavior.

  14. Viewing nature scenes positively affects recovery of autonomic function following acute-mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel K; Barton, Jo L; Gladwell, Valerie F

    2013-06-04

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor.

  15. The Intertemporal Substitution and Income Effects of a VAT Rate Increase: Evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    David CASHIN; UNAYAMA Takashi

    2011-01-01

    One of the biggest political issues in Japan is an increase in the rate of value added tax (VAT). In this paper, we evaluate its impact on household expenditure, using Japan's April 1997 VAT rate increase from three to five percent as a case study. A rate increase induces price hikes, and provided this increase in price levels is anticipated, households should engage in intertemporal substitution of purchases. In addition, if households are not compensated for the rate increase, it has the po...

  16. The validity of the BioForce Heart Rate Variability System and the use of heart rate variability and recovery to determine the fitness levels of a cohort of university-level rugby players / Christo Alfonzo Bisschoff

    OpenAIRE

    Bisschoff, Christo Alfonzo

    2013-01-01

    The potential to track changes in training status and fitness levels of especially team sport participants by making use of more time efficient and accessible methods such as heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) cannot be overlooked and needs to be considered. However, studies that have investigated this aspect in team sport participants are scarce. It is against this background that the main objectives of this study were firstly, to determine the relation...

  17. Associations of physical activity, fitness, and body composition with heart rate variability-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisala, Tiina; Mutikainen, Sara; Tolvanen, Asko; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Leskinen, Tuija; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Rusko, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and body composition are associated with heart rate variability (HRV)-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays. Additionally, we evaluated the association of objectively measured stress with self-reported burnout symptoms. Participants of this cross-sectional study were 81 healthy males (age range 26-40 y). Stress and recovery on workdays were measured objectively based on HRV recordings. CRF and anthropometry were assessed in laboratory conditions. The level of PA was based on a detailed PA interview (MET index [MET-h/d]) and self-reported activity class. PA, CRF, and body composition were significantly associated with levels of stress and recovery on workdays. MET index (P stress during working hours whereas body fat percentage (P = 0.005) was positively associated. Overall, 27.5% of the variance of total stress on workdays (P = 0.001) was accounted for by PA, CRF, and body composition. Body fat percentage and body mass index were negatively associated with night-time recovery whereas CRF was positively associated. Objective work stress was associated (P = 0.003) with subjective burnout symptoms. PA, CRF, and body composition are associated with HRV-based stress and recovery levels, which needs to be taken into account in the measurement, prevention, and treatment of work-related stress. The HRV-based method used to determine work-related stress and recovery was associated with self-reported burnout symptoms, but more research on the clinical importance of the methodology is needed.

  18. Picturing recovery: a photovoice exploration of recovery dimensions among people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Nicasio, Andel; Whitley, Rob

    2013-09-01

    Recovery from mental disorders encompasses multiple interrelated dimensions. This study used photovoice to explore how individuals with serious mental illness and a history of substance abuse and homelessness envisioned their recovery. A dimensional recovery model was applied to examine how the interrelationships between recovery dimensions supported consumers' recovery journeys. Photovoice is a participatory research method that empowers people by giving them cameras to document their experiences and inform social action. Sixteen consumers recruited from two supported housing agencies participated in six weekly sessions to which they brought photographs that they took of persons and events in their lives that reflected recovery and wellness and discussed the meaning of the photographs in individual interviews and group sessions. The authors used pile-sorting, grounded theory, and a deductive template-analytic technique to analyze narrative and visual data. Spirituality, life achievements, and receiving and providing support were the most salient themes that emerged from the analysis and illustrate beneficial interrelationships between recovery dimensions. Participants discussed how they relied on their spirituality to support their sobriety and cope with addictions-aspects of clinical recovery. Educational and vocational achievements represented gains in functioning that contributed to increasing self-esteem and self-agency and reducing self-stigma. Social dimensions of recovery, such as receiving and giving support to loved ones, rippled through consumers' lives reducing isolation and enhancing their self-worth. The findings illustrate the value of participatory methods to understand what recovery signified to people with serious mental illness and how understanding the interrelationships between recovery dimensions can inform recovery-oriented services.

  19. Increased traffic accident rates associated with shale gas drilling in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jove; Irving, Jennifer; Tang, Xiaoqin; Sellers, Stephen; Crisp, Joshua; Horwitz, Daniel; Muehlenbachs, Lucija; Krupnick, Alan; Carey, David

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between shale gas drilling and motor vehicle accident rates in Pennsylvania. Using publicly available data on all reported vehicle crashes in Pennsylvania, we compared accident rates in counties with and without shale gas drilling, in periods with and without intermittent drilling (using data from 2005 to 2012). Counties with drilling were matched to non-drilling counties with similar population and traffic in the pre-drilling period. Heavily drilled counties in the north experienced 15-23% higher vehicle crash rates in 2010-2012 and 61-65% higher heavy truck crash rates in 2011-2012 than control counties. We estimated 5-23% increases in crash rates when comparing months with drilling and months without, but did not find significant effects on fatalities and major injury crashes. Heavily drilled counties in the southwest showed 45-47% higher rates of fatal and major injury crashes in 2012 than control counties, but monthly comparisons of drilling activity showed no significant differences associated with drilling. Vehicle accidents have measurably increased in conjunction with shale gas drilling. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Coal flotation optimization using modified flotation parameters and combustible recovery in a Jameson cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapur, Hueseyin; Bayat, Oktay; Ucurum, Metin

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses a new coal flotation optimization approach. It is conducted using modified flotation parameters and combustible recovery. The experimental work was evaluated in two stages. In the first stage, recoveries (1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 min of flotation times) of Jameson flotation operating parameters were fitted to first-order kinetic model, R = R ∞ [1 - exp (-kt)] where R was recovery at t time, R ∞ was ultimate recovery and k was the first-order rate constant to draw the time recovery curves in the experimental study. Two parameters, the ultimate recovery (R ∞ ) and first-order rate constant (k), were then obtained from the model to fit an experimental time recovery curve. A modified flotation rate constant (K m ) defined as product of R ∞ and k, i.e., K m = R ∞ * k, and selectivity index (SI) defined as the ratio of the modified rate constant of coal to the modified rate constant of ash (SI)=K m of Coal/K m of Ash), which could be collectively called 'modified flotation parameters'. It was used to determine of the sub and upper values of operation variables. In the second one, combustible recovery (%) and ash content (%) were used to optimization of the Jameson flotation variables and it was found that d 80 = 0.250 mm particle size, 1/1 vegetable oil acids/kerosene ratio, 20% solids pulp density, 0.600 L/min wash water rate and 40 cm downcomer immersion dept could be used to separate efficiently coal from ash. Final concentrate was obtained with 94.83% combustible recovery and 17.86% ash content at optimum conditions after 8 min flotation time.

  1. Prospect of shale gas recovery enhancement by oxidation-induced rock burst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun You

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available By horizontal well multi-staged fracturing technology, shale rocks can be broken to form fracture networks via hydraulic force and increase the production rate of shale gas wells. Nonetheless, the fracturing stimulation effect may be offset by the water phase trapping damage caused by water retention. In this paper, a technique in transferring the negative factor of fracturing fluid retention into a positive factor of changing the gas existence state and facilitating shale cracking was discussed using the easy oxidation characteristics of organic matter, pyrite and other minerals in shale rocks. Furthermore, the prospect of this technique in tackling the challenges of large retention volume of hydraulic fracturing fluid in shale gas reservoirs, high reservoir damage risks, sharp production decline rate of gas wells and low gas recovery, was analyzed. The organic matter and pyrite in shale rocks can produce a large number of dissolved pores and seams to improve the gas deliverability of the matrix pore throats to the fracture systems. Meanwhile, in the oxidation process, released heat and increased pore pressure will make shale rock burst, inducing expansion and extension of shale micro-fractures, increasing the drainage area and shortening the gas flowing path in matrix, and ultimately, removing reservoir damage and improving gas recovery. To sum up, the technique discussed in the paper can be used to “break” shale rocks via hydraulic force and to “burst” shale rocks via chemical oxidation by adding oxidizing fluid to the hydraulic fracturing fluid. It can thus be concluded that this method can be a favorable supplementation for the conventional hydraulic fracturing of shale gas reservoirs. It has a broad application future in terms of reducing costs and increasing profits, maintaining plateau shale gas production and improving shale gas recovery.

  2. Does sex speed up evolutionary rate and increase biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melián, Carlos J; Alonso, David; Allesina, Stefano; Condit, Richard S; Etienne, Rampal S

    2012-01-01

    Most empirical and theoretical studies have shown that sex increases the rate of evolution, although evidence of sex constraining genomic and epigenetic variation and slowing down evolution also exists. Faster rates with sex have been attributed to new gene combinations, removal of deleterious mutations, and adaptation to heterogeneous environments. Slower rates with sex have been attributed to removal of major genetic rearrangements, the cost of finding a mate, vulnerability to predation, and exposure to sexually transmitted diseases. Whether sex speeds or slows evolution, the connection between reproductive mode, the evolutionary rate, and species diversity remains largely unexplored. Here we present a spatially explicit model of ecological and evolutionary dynamics based on DNA sequence change to study the connection between mutation, speciation, and the resulting biodiversity in sexual and asexual populations. We show that faster speciation can decrease the abundance of newly formed species and thus decrease long-term biodiversity. In this way, sex can reduce diversity relative to asexual populations, because it leads to a higher rate of production of new species, but with lower abundances. Our results show that reproductive mode and the mechanisms underlying it can alter the link between mutation, evolutionary rate, speciation and biodiversity and we suggest that a high rate of evolution may not be required to yield high biodiversity.

  3. Increasing rate of middle ear ventilation tube insertion in children in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    ventilation tube insertions distributed among 269,459 different children were identified. From 1997 to 2010 the age standardized incidence rate in 0-15-year-olds increased from 26 to 40 per 1000 person years with an estimated annual increase of 2.0% (95% confidence interval 1.9-2.1%). The largest increase...... in incidence rate was found in 1-year-olds with an annual increase of 4.5% (95% confidence interval 4.4-4.6%). Age-specific incidence rates remained at maximum around the age of 14 months throughout the period. The cumulative incidence proportion for the 2010 birth cohort by the time they reach the age of 5......OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence rates of middle ear ventilation tube insertion in children aged 0 to 15 years in Denmark from 1997 to 2010. METHODS: Using two national registers, the Danish National Health Service Register and the Danish National Patient Register, practically all cases of middle...

  4. Patients' pretreatment beliefs about recovery influence outcome of a pain rehabilitation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrick, D; Sjölund, B H

    2009-01-01

    hospital setting. Demographic data and patient beliefs about recovery recorded on a five-category scale were collected before the program. Pain intensity (VAS), Disability Rating Index (DRI) and life satisfaction (LiSat-11) were collected before, immediately after and one year after the program. Partial....../sports'' improved significantly after rehabilitation (Wilcoxon's test; P=0.0009), and remained improved one year later (P=0.0144). Life satisfaction in the physical and psychological domains increased after the program. A clinically meaningful reduction in pain intensity (10 mm) was reported by 43% of patients...... at the one-year follow-up. This group had significant increases in life satisfaction. Only patients with positive beliefs about recovery before rehabilitation showed a decrease in pain intensity at the one-year follow-up (Plife satisfaction and...

  5. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jr., Chidsey, Thomas C.; Allison, M. Lee

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced- oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah

  6. 50 CFR 260.81 - Readjustment and increase in hourly rates of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of fees. 260.81 Section 260.81 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL... Certification of Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Fees and Charges § 260.81 Readjustment and increase in hourly rates of fees. (a) When Federal Pay Act increases occur, the hourly rates...

  7. Recovery of severely compacted soils in the Mojave Desert, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    Often as a result of large-scale military maneuvers in the past, many soils in the Mojave Desert are highly vulnerable to soil compaction, particularly when wet. Previous studies indicate that natural recovery of severely compacted desert soils is extremely slow, and some researchers have suggested that subsurface compaction may not recover. Poorly sorted soils, particularly those with a loamy sand texture, are most vulnerable to soil compaction, and these soils are the most common in alluvial fans of the Mojave Desert. Recovery of compacted soil is expected to vary as a function of precipitation amounts, wetting-and-drying cycles, freeze-thaw cycles, and bioturbation, particularly root growth. Compaction recovery, as estimated using penetration depth and bulk density, was measured at 19 sites with 32 site-time combinations, including the former World War II Army sites of Camps Ibis, Granite, Iron Mountain, Clipper, and Essex. Although compaction at these sites was caused by a wide variety of forces, ranging from human trampling to tank traffic, the data do not allow segregation of differences in recovery rates for different compaction forces. The recovery rate appears to be logarithmic, with the highest rate of change occurring in the first few decades following abandonment. Some higher-elevation sites have completely recovered from soil compaction after 70 years. Using a linear model of recovery, the full recovery time ranges from 92 to 100 years; using a logarithmic model, which asymptotically approaches full recovery, the time required for 85% recovery ranges from 105-124 years.

  8. Recovery of molybdenum and cobalt powders from spent hydrogenation catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, M.A.; Hewaidy, I.F.; Farghaly, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    Free powders as well as compact shapes of molybdenum and cobalt have been successfully recovered from spent hydrogenation and desulphurization catalysts. A process flow sheet was followed involving crushing, milling, particle sizing, hydrometallurgical acid leaching roasting of the obtained salts in an atmospheric oxygen to obtain the respective oxides. These were reduced by hydrogen gas at 110 degree C and 900 degree C respectively. Parameters affecting the properties of the products and the recovery efficiency value such as acid concentration, particle diameter of the solid catalyst, temperature time under a constant mass flow rate the hydrogen gas, have been investigated. A mixture of concentration.sulphuric and nitric acids (3:1 by volume) achieved adequate recovery of both metals. The latter increased with the increase in acid concentration, time up 10 3 hours and temperature: 100 degree C and with the decrease in particle diameter of the spent catalyst. The PH of the obtained filtrate was adjusted to 2 with ammonia to precipitate insoluble ammonium molybdate and a solution of cobalt sulphate. Cobalt hydroxide can be precipitate from the latter solution at a PH = 7.6 using excess ammonium hydroxide solution. The obtained results showed that the metallic products are technically pure meeting the standard specifications. Compact shapes of molybdenum acquire density values increasing with the increase of the pressing load whereby a maximum density value of 2280 kg/m 3 is attained at 0.75 MPa. Maximum recovery efficiency amounts to 96%. 10 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Characterization of rapid recovery from γ-ray damage in plateau-phase human diploid fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, A.W.; Tomkinson, K.N.; Little, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid recovery was investigated in density-inhibited, stationary-phase human diploid cells subcultured to low density at various times after a single dose of radiation. The influence of total dose, postirradiation temperature, and cell-to-cell contact on recovery was examined. The cultures were exposed to 60 Co γ rays at a dose rate of 50 rad per second. When the irradiation and postirradiation temperatures were maintained at 25 or 37 0 C, recovery, as manifested by an enhancement in survival, was similar during the first 30 min, whereas it was reduced at later times in the 25 0 C compared with the 37 0 C cultures. This result suggests the existence of different rapidly and slowly acting components to recovery. No recovery was noted at any time with incubation at 4 0 C. The recovery observed in density-inhibited cultures was consistently greater than that in less dense cultures, suggesting an effect of cell-to-cell contact and cell cycle distribution. Following single doses of 200 to 900 rad, progressive enhancement in relative recovery occurred with increasing doses over a period of 2 to 90 min, illustrating the importance of the relationship of the dose to the rapid recovery process

  10. Natural bodybuilding competition preparation and recovery: a 12-month case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Lindy M; Fukuda, David H; Fahs, Christopher A; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2013-09-01

    Bodybuilding is a sport in which competitors are judged on muscular appearance. This case study tracked a drug-free male bodybuilder (age 26-27 y) for the 6 mo before and after a competition. The aim of this study was to provide the most comprehensive physiological profile of bodybuilding competition preparation and recovery ever compiled. Cardiovascular parameters, body composition, strength, aerobic capacity, critical power, mood state, resting energy expenditure, and hormonal and other blood parameters were evaluated. Heart rate decreased from 53 to 27 beats/min during preparation and increased to 46 beats/min within 1 mo after competition. Brachial blood pressure dropped from 132/69 to 104/56 mmHg during preparation and returned to 116/64 mmHg at 6 mo after competition. Percent body fat declined from 14.8% to 4.5% during preparation and returned to 14.6% during recovery. Strength decreased during preparation and did not fully recover during 6 months of recovery. Testosterone declined from 9.22 to 2.27 ng/mL during preparation and returned back to the baseline level, 9.91 ng/mL, after competition. Total mood disturbance increased from 6 to 43 units during preparation and recovered to 4 units 6 mo after competition. This case study provides a thorough documentation of the physiological changes that occurred during natural bodybuilding competition and recovery.

  11. 5 CFR 530.304 - Establishing or increasing special rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... involved (including exposure to toxic substances or other occupational hazards); or (4) Any other... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing or increasing special rates. 530.304 Section 530.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE...

  12. Bypass valve and coolant flow controls for optimum temperatures in waste heat recovery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P

    2013-10-08

    Implementing an optimized waste heat recovery system includes calculating a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a heat exchanger of a waste heat recovery system, and predicting a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a material flowing through a channel of the waste heat recovery system. Upon determining the rate of change in the temperature of the material is predicted to be higher than the rate of change in the temperature of the heat exchanger, the optimized waste heat recovery system calculates a valve position and timing for the channel that is configurable for achieving a rate of material flow that is determined to produce and maintain a defined threshold temperature of the heat exchanger, and actuates the valve according to the calculated valve position and calculated timing.

  13. Social modernization and the increase in the divorce rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, H

    1993-03-01

    The author develops a micro-model of marital interactions that is used to analyze factors affecting the divorce rate in modern industrialized societies. The core of the model is the concept of production of marital gain and mutual control of this production. "The increase of divorce rates, then, is explained by a steady decrease of institutional and social embeddedness, which helps to solve this kind of an 'assurance game.' The shape of the individual risk is explained by the typical form of change of the 'production functions' of marriages within the first period of adaptation. The inconsistent results concerning womens' labor market participation in linear regression models are explained as a consequence of the (theoretical and statistical) 'interaction' of decreases in embeddedness and increases in external alternatives for women." Comments are included by Karl-Dieter Opp (pp. 278-82) and Ulrich Witt (pp. 283-5). excerpt

  14. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion augments the increase in PGC-1α mRNA expression during recovery from intense interval exercise in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Michael E; Martin, Brian J; Gillen, Jenna B; Skelly, Lauren E; MacInnis, Martin J; Green, Alex E; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2015-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) prior to an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would augment signaling cascades and gene expression linked to mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle. On two occasions separated by ∼1 wk, nine men (mean ± SD: age 22 ± 2 yr, weight 78 ± 13 kg, V̇O(2 peak) 48 ± 8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed 10 × 60-s cycling efforts at an intensity eliciting ∼90% of maximal heart rate (263 ± 40 W), interspersed with 60 s of recovery. In a double-blind, crossover manner, subjects ingested a total of 0.4 g/kg body weight NaHCO3 before exercise (BICARB) or an equimolar amount of a placebo, sodium chloride (PLAC). Venous blood bicarbonate and pH were elevated at all time points after ingestion (P 0.05). However, the increase in PGC-1α mRNA expression after 3 h of recovery was higher in BICARB vs. PLAC (approximately sevenfold vs. fivefold compared with rest, P < 0.05). We conclude that NaHCO3 before HIIT alters the mRNA expression of this key regulatory protein associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. The elevated PGC-1α mRNA response provides a putative mechanism to explain the enhanced mitochondrial adaptation observed after chronic HIIT supplemented with NaHCO3 in rats. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Association between recovery from Bell's palsy and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S A; Shim, H S; Jung, J Y; Kim, H J; Kim, S H; Byun, J Y; Park, M S; Yeo, S G

    2017-06-01

    Although many factors have been found to be involved in recovery from Bell's palsy, no study has investigated the association between recovery from Bell's palsy and obesity. This study therefore evaluated the association between recovery from Bell's palsy and body mass index (BMI). Subjects were classified into five groups based on BMI (kg/m 2 ). Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared among these groups. Assessed factors included sex, age, time from paralysis to visiting a hospital, the presence of comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, degree of initial facial nerve paralysis by House-Brackmann (H-B) grade and neurophysiological testing, and final recovery rate. Based on BMI, 37 subjects were classified as underweight, 169 as normal weight, 140 as overweight, 155 as obese and 42 as severely obese. Classification of the degree of initial facial nerve paralysis as moderate or severe, according to H-B grade and electroneurography, showed no difference in severity of initial facial paralysis among the five groups (P > 0.05). However, the final recovery rate was significantly higher in the normal weight than in the underweight or obese group (P < 0.05). Obesity or underweight had no effect on the severity of initial facial paralysis, but the final recovery rate was lower in the obese and underweight groups than in the normal group. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Music and psychophysiological recovery from stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radstaak, Mirjam; Geurts, Sabine A E; Brosschot, Jos F; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2014-09-01

    This experimental study examined whether listening to self-chosen music after stress exposure improves mood, decreases subjective arousal and rumination, and facilitates cardiovascular recovery. Participants (N = 123) were exposed to a mental arithmetic task with harassment to induce stress. Afterward, participants were randomly assigned to one of four "recovery" conditions where they (1) listened to self-chosen relaxing music, (2) listened to self-chosen happy music, (3) listened to an audio book, or (4) sat in silence. After this 5-minute "recovery manipulation period," participants sat in silence for another 5 minutes. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were continuously measured. The recovery conditions caused differences in positive affect (F(3,119) = 13.13, p music or happy music. The conditions showed no differences in subjective arousal (F(3,117) = 2.03, p = .11) and rumination (F(3,119) = 1.10, p = .35). Systolic blood pressure recovery, however, differed between the conditions (linear time trend: F(3,116) = 4.50, p = .005; quadratic time trend: F(3,115) = 5.24, p = .002). Listening to both relaxing and happy music delayed systolic blood pressure recovery when compared with both control conditions. Listening to self-selected music is an effective mood enhancer, but it delays blood pressure recovery.

  17. Effect of integrated N management on the recovery of fertilizer N by rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarika, S.; Sarkar, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in the kharif season of 1992 on a moderately well drained silt loam (Typic Ustochrept) to study the 15 N recovery from urea applied 60, 120 and 180 kg N/ha to flooded rice (var. Basmati-1) under various N management practices. The results revealed that green manure plus urea registered highest recovery of fertilizer N by rice. The application of coated calcium carbide along with urea reduced the N loss and increased the fertilizer N recovery by rice. Integrated use of manure and urea reduced the N loss to a considerable extent. Green manure was more efficient than farmyard manure in minimizing the loss of fertilizer N. The loss of fertilizer N increased with the increasing rate of urea application. All the sources of N were effective in influencing the N uptake and grain yield of rice but the variations among the sources were not significant. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  18. A simplified time-dependent recovery model as applied to RCP seal LOCAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.; Bozoki, G.; Fitzpatrick, R.

    1991-01-01

    In Westinghouse-designed reactors, the reactor coolant pump (RCP) seals constantly require a modest amount of cooling. This cooling function depends on the service water (SW) system. Upon the loss of the cooling function due to the unavailability of the SW, component cooling water system or electrical power (station blackout), the RCP seals may degrade, resulting in a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Recent studies indicate that the frequency of the loss of SW initiating events is higher than previously thought. This change significantly increases the core damage frequency contribution from RCP seal failure. The most critical/dominant element in the loss of SW events was found to be the SW-induced RCP seal failure. For these potential accident scenarios, there are large uncertainties regarding the actual frequency of RCP seal LOCA, the resulting leakage rate, and time-dependent behavior. The roles of various recovery options based on the time evolution of the seal LOCA have been identified and taken into account in recent NUREG-1150 probabilistic risk assessment PRA analyses. In this paper, a consistent time-dependent recovery model is described that takes into account the effects of various recovery actions based on explicit considerations given to a spectrum of time- and flow-rate dependencies. The model represents a simplified approach but is especially useful when extensive seal leak rate and core uncovery information is unavailable

  19. Nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency, recovery and leaching of an alexandergrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Ricardo Sartor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen usually determines the productive potential of forage crops, although it is highly unstable in the environment. Studies on recovery rates and use efficiency are important for more reliable fertilizer recommendations to reduce costs and avoid environmental pollution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate N use efficiency and recovery rate of Alexandergrass pasture (Brachiaria - Syn. Urochloa plantaginea as well as N-NO3- and N-NH4+ soil concentrations using different levels of N fertilization under two grazing intensities. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design in a factorial scheme with three replications. Treatments consisted of three N rates (0, 200 and 400 kg ha-1 N and two grazing intensities termed low mass (LM; forage mass of 2,000 kg ha-1 of DM and high mass (HM; forage mass of 3,600 kg ha-1 of DM under continuous stocking and variable stocking rates. Results of N fertilization with 200 kg ha-1 were better than with 400 kg ha-1 N. There was a significant effect of N rates on soil N-NO3-concentration with higher levels in the first layer of the soil profile in the treatment with 400 kg ha-1 N. Grazing intensity also affected soil N-NO3- concentration, by increasing the levels under the higher stocking rate (lower forage mass.

  20. Does sex speed up evolutionary rate and increase biodiversity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J Melián

    Full Text Available Most empirical and theoretical studies have shown that sex increases the rate of evolution, although evidence of sex constraining genomic and epigenetic variation and slowing down evolution also exists. Faster rates with sex have been attributed to new gene combinations, removal of deleterious mutations, and adaptation to heterogeneous environments. Slower rates with sex have been attributed to removal of major genetic rearrangements, the cost of finding a mate, vulnerability to predation, and exposure to sexually transmitted diseases. Whether sex speeds or slows evolution, the connection between reproductive mode, the evolutionary rate, and species diversity remains largely unexplored. Here we present a spatially explicit model of ecological and evolutionary dynamics based on DNA sequence change to study the connection between mutation, speciation, and the resulting biodiversity in sexual and asexual populations. We show that faster speciation can decrease the abundance of newly formed species and thus decrease long-term biodiversity. In this way, sex can reduce diversity relative to asexual populations, because it leads to a higher rate of production of new species, but with lower abundances. Our results show that reproductive mode and the mechanisms underlying it can alter the link between mutation, evolutionary rate, speciation and biodiversity and we suggest that a high rate of evolution may not be required to yield high biodiversity.

  1. The role of life histories and trophic interactions in population recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audzijonyte, Asta; Kuparinen, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Factors affecting population recovery from depletion are at the focus of wildlife management. Particularly, it has been debated how life-history characteristics might affect population recovery ability and productivity. Many exploited fish stocks have shown temporal changes towards earlier maturation and reduced adult body size, potentially owing to evolutionary responses to fishing. Whereas such life-history changes have been widely documented, their potential role on stock's ability to recover from exploitation often remains ignored by traditional fisheries management. We used a marine ecosystem model parameterized for Southeastern Australian ecosystem to explore how changes towards "faster" life histories might affect population per capita growth rate r. We show that for most species changes towards earlier maturation during fishing have a negative effect (3-40% decrease) on r during the recovery phase. Faster juvenile growth and earlier maturation were beneficial early in life, but smaller adult body sizes reduced the lifetime reproductive output and increased adult natural mortality. However, both at intra- and inter-specific level natural mortality and trophic position of the species were as important in determining r as species longevity and age of maturation, suggesting that r cannot be predicted from life-history traits alone. Our study highlights that factors affecting population recovery ability and productivity should be explored in a multi-species context, where both age-specific fecundity and survival schedules are addressed simultaneously. It also suggests that contemporary life-history changes in harvested species are unlikely to increase their resilience and recovery ability. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Soil Bacterial and Fungal Communities Show Distinct Recovery Patterns during Forest Ecosystem Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shan; Li, Song; Avera, Bethany N; Strahm, Brian D; Badgley, Brian D

    2017-07-15

    Bacteria and fungi are important mediators of biogeochemical processes and play essential roles in the establishment of plant communities, which makes knowledge about their recovery after extreme disturbances valuable for understanding ecosystem development. However, broad ecological differences between bacterial and fungal organisms, such as growth rates, stress tolerance, and substrate utilization, suggest they could follow distinct trajectories and show contrasting dynamics during recovery. In this study, we analyzed both the intra-annual variability and decade-scale recovery of bacterial and fungal communities in a chronosequence of reclaimed mined soils using next-generation sequencing to quantify their abundance, richness, β-diversity, taxonomic composition, and cooccurrence network properties. Bacterial communities shifted gradually, with overlapping β-diversity patterns across chronosequence ages, while shifts in fungal communities were more distinct among different ages. In addition, the magnitude of intra-annual variability in bacterial β-diversity was comparable to the changes across decades of chronosequence age, while fungal communities changed minimally across months. Finally, the complexity of bacterial cooccurrence networks increased with chronosequence age, while fungal networks did not show clear age-related trends. We hypothesize that these contrasting dynamics of bacteria and fungi in the chronosequence result from (i) higher growth rates for bacteria, leading to higher intra-annual variability; (ii) higher tolerance to environmental changes for fungi; and (iii) stronger influence of vegetation on fungal communities. IMPORTANCE Both bacteria and fungi play essential roles in ecosystem functions, and information about their recovery after extreme disturbances is important for understanding whole-ecosystem development. Given their many differences in phenotype, phylogeny, and life history, a comparison of different bacterial and fungal recovery

  3. Perceptions about recovery needs and drug-avoidance recovery behaviors among youth in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Rachel; Anglin, M Douglas; Glik, Deborah C; Zavalza, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This study used mixed methods to explore youth attitudes about recovery-related needs and important drug-avoidance behaviors after treatment. Focus groups were conducted with 118 substance using youth in treatment (four residential and 10 outpatient settings) throughout Los Angeles County. The average age was 17.4 (SD = 2.9); 78.3% were male, 66.1% Latino; and most were in treatment for primary marijuana (40.9%) or methamphetamine (30.4%) abuse. Quantitatve results from the drug-avoidance activity survey identified the following factors youth rated as important to their recovery after treatment: lifestyle improvement activities (95.7%); changing personal drug behaviors (89.6%); drug environment/culture change activities (82.5%); with the least important being therapeutic activities (78.5%). Qualitative findings from focus groups that asked what youth think are important for recovery programs to address after treatment revealed the following four areas: (1) recovery promotion to developmentally appropriate activities (95%); (2) facilitating the use of coping skills to deal with stress (85%); (3) offering alternative recovery support options (not just abstinence only) (75%); and (4) continuing to provide substance use education (65%). Findings highlight essential aspects of recovery in terms of need and drug-avoidance behaviors considered important to youth in treatment. Such information will help to better address clinical and recovery support models aimed at relapse prevention to ensure that the perceived problems of substance-abusing youth are adequately met.

  4. Experimental study of solvent-based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in Alaska North Slope area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, F.; Mamora, D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a chemical enhanced oil recovery method to overcome some of the technical challenges associated with thermal recovery in the Alaska North Slope (ANS). This paper described the second stage research of an experimental study on nano-particle and surfactant-stabilized solvent-based emulsions for the ANS area. Four successful core flood experiments were performed using heavy ANS oil. The runs included water flooding followed by emulsion flooding; and pure emulsion injection core flooding. The injection rate and core flooding temperature remained constant and only 1 PV micro-emulsion was injected after breakthrough under water flooding or emulsion flooding. Oil recovery increased by 26.4 percent from 56.2 percent original oil in place (OOIP) with waterflooding to 82.6 percent OOIP with injection of emulsion following water flooding. Oil recovery was slightly higher with pure emulsion flooding, at 85.8 percent OOIP. The study showed that low permeability generally resulted in a higher shear rate, which is favourable for in-situ emulsification and higher displacement efficiency. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  5. Inhibition of 14q32 MicroRNAs miR-329, miR-487b, miR-494, and miR-495 Increases Neovascularization and Blood Flow Recovery After Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welten, S. M. J.; Bastiaansen, Ajnm; de Jong, R. C. M.

    2014-01-01

    in mice after single femoral artery ligation. Methods and Results: Gene silencing oligonucleotides (GSOs) were used to inhibit 4 14q32 microRNAs, miR-329, miR-487b, miR-494, and miR-495, 1 day before double femoral artery ligation. Blood flow recovery was followed by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. All 4...... GSOs clearly improved blood flow recovery after ischemia. Mice treated with GSO-495 or GSO-329 showed increased perfusion already after 3 days (30% perfusion versus 15% in control), and those treated with GSO-329 showed a full recovery of perfusion after 7 days (versus 60% in control). Increased...

  6. Changes in transcription during recovery from heat injury in Salmonella typhimurium and effects of BCAA on recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu-Ming, Wen; Naito, Kimitaka; Kinoshita, Yoshimasa; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Honjoh, Ken-ichi; Tashiro, Kousuke; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2012-06-01

    Mechanisms of recovery from heat injury in Salmonella typhimurium were elucidated. Recovery of the heat-injured S. typhimurium cells in TSB resulted in full recovery after 3 h of incubation at 37°C. The DNA microarray analysis of 30- and 60-min recovering cells resulted in an increase in transcription of 89 and 141 genes, respectively. Among them, 15 genes, with known function, seemed to be somewhat involved in recovery. They encoded proteins involved in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) transport (livJ, livH), cell envelope integrity (ddg), heat-shock response (cpxP, rrmJ), phage shock protein (pspA), ribosome modulation factor (rmf), virulence (sseB) transcriptional regulation (rpoE, rpoH, rseA, rseB, rseC) and ArcB signal transduction (sixA) and cytoplasmic membrane protein (fxsA). Among them, the effects of BCAA supplementation on recovery from heat injury were studied to confirm the importance of the BCAA transport liv genes during recovery. It was found that supplementation of TSB with 0.1% BCAA resulted in an enhanced recovery of injured cells in comparison to those recovered in TSB without BCAA. Supplementation of BCAA at 0.1% resulted in a cell count increase 4.4-fold greater than that of the control after 1 h incubation. It seems that BCAA promoted the recovery by promoting protein synthesis either directly through their use in translation or indirectly through stimulation of protein synthesis by activation of the Lrp protein.

  7. Principles of heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szasz, S.E.; Thomas, G.W.

    1965-10-01

    Rising exploration costs have prompted greater interest in the large known deposits of heavy oil in North America. Because of high oil viscosities in such reservoirs, recoveries are poor, fluid drives are inefficient and production rates are uneconomical. Viscosity reduction can best be accomplished by heating the reservoir. The basic aspects of reservoir heating are reviewed and those processes which are of practical importance in heavy oil reservoirs are discussed. Wellbore heating frequently can be applied to heavy oil reservoirs to increase production rates. In hot waterflooding, the water requirements are much higher than an ordinary waterflood. Steam floods are more attractive, but operating costs are generally high. Conduction heating processes appear most promising. Among these is included the cyclic steam-soak process. A simple method is presented for estimating the performance from the first cycle of steam injection into the formation, assuming gravity as the only driving energy. An example calculation for a typical heavy oil reservoir is given. (26 refs.)

  8. Effects of chronic irradiation on spermatogenesis: recovery phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, P.A.; Shifrine, M.; Overstreet, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of sperm production was not seen in four beagles rendered azoospermic or severely oligospermic by exposure to 183 R of gamma radiation given at a dose rate of 1 R/day. Two other dogs from the same group showed a partial recovery, but with very low sperm counts and many abnormal spermatozoa. 1 figure

  9. Changes in muscle activity and stature recovery after active rehabilitation for chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sandra; Holmes, Paul; Woby, Steve; Hindle, Jackie; Fowler, Neil

    2014-06-01

    Patients with low back pain often demonstrate elevated paraspinal muscle activity compared to asymptomatic controls. This hyperactivity has been associated with a delayed rate of stature recovery following spinal loading tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in muscle activity and stature recovery in patients with chronic low back pain following an active rehabilitation programme. The body height recovery over a 40-min unloading period was assessed via stadiometry and surface electromyograms were recorded from the paraspinal muscles during standing. The measurements were repeated after patients had attended the rehabilitation programme and again at a six-month follow-up. Analysis was based on 17 patients who completed the post-treatment analysis and 12 of these who also participated in the follow-up. By the end of the six months, patients recovered significantly more height during the unloading session than at their initial visit (ES = 1.18; P < 0.01). Greater stature recovery immediately following the programme was associated with decreased pain (r = -0.55; P = 0.01). The increased height gain after six months suggests that delayed rates of recovery are not primarily caused by disc degeneration. Muscle activity did not decrease after treatment, perhaps reflecting a period of adaptation or altered patterns of motor control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Recovery of uranium from seawater by composite fiber adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubuke, Y.; Aoki, T.; Tanaka, H.; Tabushi, I.; Kamaishi, T.; Hagiwara, I.

    1991-01-01

    The authors of this paper developed a composite fiber adsorbent (CFA) to entrap finely powdered amidoxime into fibrils of supporting material with silica in a previous report. This was further tested for uranyl recovery directly from seawater. The adsorption rate showed a flow rate dependence with almost a saturation value of ∼100 μg of U/g of CFA at a mean flow rate of sea current. Chemical as well as physical deterioration was overcome by using 1 N NaHCO 3 and 0.72 M NaCl as liberating and washing agents, to keep the pH and ionic strength, respectively, constant, and the initial adsorption rate was maintained even after a recycle time of 50. A continuous passage of seawater showed a linear increase of the adsorption to afford 1560 μg of U/g of CFA after 3 weeks

  11. High-threshold motor unit firing reflects force recovery following a bout of damaging eccentric exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, Lewis J.

    2018-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is associated with impaired muscle function and reduced neuromuscular recruitment. However, motor unit firing behaviour throughout the recovery period is unclear. EIMD impairment of maximal voluntary force (MVC) will, in part, be caused by reduced high-threshold motor unit firing, which will subsequently increase to recover MVC. Fourteen healthy active males completed a bout of eccentric exercise on the knee extensors, with measurements of MVC, rate of torque development and surface electromyography performed pre-exercise and 2, 3, 7 and 14 days post-exercise, on both damaged and control limb. EIMD was associated with decreased MVC (235.2 ± 49.3 Nm vs. 161.3 ± 52.5 Nm; p motor unit firing rate was reduced (16.4 ± 2.2 Hz vs. 12.6 ± 1.7 Hz; p motor units only, 48h post-exercise, and common drive was elevated (0.36 ± 0.027 vs. 0.56 ± 0.032; pmotor units was reduced in parallel with impaired muscle function, whilst early recruited motor units remained unaltered. Common drive of motor units increased in offset to the firing rate impairment. These alterations correlated with the recovery of force decrement, but not of pain elevation. This study provides fresh insight into the central mechanisms associated with EIMD recovery, relative to muscle function. These findings may in turn lead to development of novel management and preventative procedures. PMID:29630622

  12. Binding proteins enhance specific uptake rate by increasing the substrate-transporter encounter rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdriesz, Evert; Magnúsdóttir, Stefanía; Bruggeman, Frank J; Teusink, Bas; Molenaar, Douwe

    2015-06-01

    Microorganisms rely on binding-protein assisted, active transport systems to scavenge for scarce nutrients. Several advantages of using binding proteins in such uptake systems have been proposed. However, a systematic, rigorous and quantitative analysis of the function of binding proteins is lacking. By combining knowledge of selection pressure and physiochemical constraints, we derive kinetic, thermodynamic, and stoichiometric properties of binding-protein dependent transport systems that enable a maximal import activity per amount of transporter. Under the hypothesis that this maximal specific activity of the transport complex is the selection objective, binding protein concentrations should exceed the concentration of both the scarce nutrient and the transporter. This increases the encounter rate of transporter with loaded binding protein at low substrate concentrations, thereby enhancing the affinity and specific uptake rate. These predictions are experimentally testable, and a number of observations confirm them. © 2015 FEBS.

  13. Human thermoregulatory function during exercise and immersion after 35 days of horizontal bed-rest and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekjavic, Igor B; Golja, Petra; Tipton, Michael J; Eiken, Ola

    2005-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of 35 days of experimental horizontal bed-rest on exercise and immersion thermoregulatory function. Fifteen healthy male volunteers were assigned to either a Control (n = 5) or Bed-rest (n = 10) group. Thermoregulatory function was evaluated during a 30-min bout of submaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer, followed immediately by a 100-min immersion in 28 degrees C water. For the Bed-rest group, exercise and immersion thermoregulatory responses observed post-bed-rest were compared with those after a 5 week supervised active recovery period. In both trials, the absolute work load during the exercise portion of the test was identical. During the exercise and immersion, we recorded skin temperature, rectal temperature, the difference in temperature between the forearm and third digit of the right hand (DeltaT(forearm-fingertip))--an index of skin blood flow, sweating rate from the forehead, oxygen uptake and heart rate at minute intervals. Subjects provided ratings of temperature perception and thermal comfort at 5-min intervals. Exercise thermoregulatory responses after bed-rest and recovery were similar. Subjective ratings of temperature perception and thermal comfort during immersion indicated that subjects perceived similar combinations of Tsk and Tre to be warmer and thermally less uncomfortable after bed-rest. The average (SD) exercise-induced increase in Tre relative to resting values was not significantly different between the Post-bed-rest (0.4 (0.2) degrees C) and Recovery (0.5 (0.2) degrees C) trials. During the post-exercise immersion, the decrease in Tre, relative to resting values, was significantly (P forearm-fingertip) was 5.2 (0.9) degrees C and 5.8 (1.0) degrees C at the end of the post-bed-rest and recovery immersions, respectively. The gain of the shivering response (increase in VO(2) relative to the decrease in Tre; VO(2)/Tre) was 1.19 l min(-1) degrees C(-1) in the Recovery trial, and was significantly

  14. A study on increasing the breeding rate of chicks with low-dosage stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuyu; Zhang Hongwei; Cui Zaijiu; Liu Dashen; Zhang Peng; Yi Jun

    1991-10-01

    During the years 1985 ∼ 1990, the semen of male fowl was irradiated by β-rays, the survival time of the spermatozoa was prolonged and fertility increased by 2% to 5%. The breeding eggs of 'Harbin White hen' were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays to stimulate the growth of the blastoderm of fertilized eggs, the hatching rate increased by 6.86%, the healthy bird rate increased by 5.52%, and the chick weight increased by 5% to 6%. The egg production rate of the first irradiated generation hens increased by 8.03%, the first-egg age of the second irradiated generation hens shifted 6 to 7 weeks earlier and the egg production period prolonged. 72-week egg production was raised by 10.48%

  15. [Recovery and light microscopic evaluation of follicular oocytes of swine and relationship between the degeneration rate of oocytes and the estrus phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurrbusch, U; Schmette, C; Elze, K

    1990-10-01

    Cumulus-oocyte complexes were recovered from 25 gilts by aspiration of follicular fluid or cutting of follicles from all Graafian follicles of greater than or equal to 3 mm in diameter during diestrus, proestrus or estrus. In 5 gilts the oocytes were collected post ovulation by flushing of oviducts. The recovery rate of follicular oocytes differed between 75.5% during the late diestrus (days 13-17) and 43.5% during the proestrus (days 18-21). During the proestrus and on day 1 of the estrus the recovery of oocytes was more difficult as a result of the higher viscosity of follicular fluid and the mucification of cumulus-oocyte complexes. The degeneration rate of oocytes was high during the diestrus with a peak at the time of regression of corpora lutea. From diestrus to the estrus the degeneration rate decreased. Following degeneration rates were found in the oocytes during the cycle: days 7-12: 38.8%, days 13-17: 50.0%, days 18-21: 29.6%, day 1 of the estrus: 10.8%, day 2 of the estrus ante ovulation: 11.8%, day 2 of the estrus post ovulation: 6.2%. Signs of degeneration were: Loss of cumulus cells (during diestrus and proestrus), damaged zona pellucida, enlargement of perivitelline space, deformation of oocyte, alteration of structure of the ooplasm, diameter of vitellus less than 100 microns. It was concluded that the selection of dominant follicles takes place in pigs during a long time of the cycle, especially during the diestrus. There were not any indications of a 2-wave hypothesis of follicular growth during the cycle in pig.

  16. Influence of taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Choi, Pan-Am

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine the influence of Taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen healthy university students were recruited and divided into an exercise group and a control group (n = 7 in each group). The subjects who participated in the experiment were subjected to an exercise loading test in which anaerobic threshold, value of ventilation, oxygen uptake, maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate were measured during the exercise, immediately after maximum exercise loading, and at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 min of recovery. [Results] At the anaerobic threshold time point, the exercise group showed a significantly longer time to reach anaerobic threshold. The exercise group showed significantly higher values for the time to reach VO2max, maximal values of ventilation, maximal oxygen uptake and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate. Significant changes were observed in the value of ventilation volumes at the 1- and 5-min recovery time points within the exercise group; oxygen uptake and maximal oxygen uptake were significantly different at the 5- and 10-min time points; heart rate was significantly different at the 1- and 3-min time points; and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate was significantly different at the 5-min time point. The exercise group showed significant decreases in blood lactate levels at the 15- and 30-min recovery time points. [Conclusion] The study results revealed that Taekwondo as a security martial arts training increases the maximal oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold and accelerates an individual's recovery to the normal state of cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate level. These results are expected to contribute to the execution of more effective security services in emergencies in which violence can occur.

  17. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which

  18. Leading a Recovery-oriented Social Enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeburn, Toby; Hungerford, Catherine; Sayers, Jan; Escott, Phil; Lopez, Violeta; Cleary, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Recovery-oriented mental health services promote the principles of recovery, such as hope and optimism, and are characterized by a personalized approach to developing consumer self-determination. Nurse leaders are increasingly developing such services as social enterprises, but there is limited research on the leadership of these programs. Leading a recovery-oriented mental health nurse social enterprise requires visionary leadership, collaboration with consumers and local health providers, financial viability, and commitment to recovery-focused practice. This article describes the framework of an Australian mental health nursing social enterprise, including the service attributes and leadership lessons that have been learned from developing program sustainability.

  19. Obesity is associated with lack of inhibitory control and impaired heart rate variability reactivity and recovery in response to food stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitoni, Grazia Fernanda; Ottaviani, Cristina; Petta, Anna Maria; Zingaretti, Pietro; Aragona, Massimiliano; Sarnicola, Antonio; Antonucci, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    Recent theories compare obesity with addiction in terms of lack of inhibitory control in both clinical populations. The present study hypothesized impaired inhibition in obese patients reflected both in executive functions and reduced vagal tone (indexed by a decrease in heart rate variability; HRV) in response to food stimuli. Twenty-four inpatients with obesity (19 women) and 37 controls (24 women) underwent ECG monitoring during baseline, food stimuli viewing, and a recovery phase. Tests and questionnaires assessing inhibitory control and psychopathological dispositions were also administered. As hypothesized, patients were characterized by deficits in all the tests measuring inhibitory capacities. Results also show greater HRV reduction and impaired HRV recovery in response to food stimuli in obese patients compared to controls. The drive to eat experienced by obese patients in the absence of caloric need may rely on impairments in inhibitory and vagal functioning. Results are discussed in terms of implications for therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Fusion yield rate recovery by escaping hot-spot fast ions in the neighboring fuel layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian-Zhu; McDevitt, C. J.; Guo, Zehua; Berk, H. L.

    2014-02-01

    Free-streaming loss by fast ions can deplete the tail population in the hot spot of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target. Escaping fast ions in the neighboring fuel layer of a cryogenic target can produce a surplus of fast ions locally. In contrast to the Knudsen layer effect that reduces hot-spot fusion reactivity due to tail ion depletion, the inverse Knudsen layer effect increases fusion reactivity in the neighboring fuel layer. In the case of a burning ICF target in the presence of significant hydrodynamic mix which aggravates the Knudsen layer effect, the yield recovery largely compensates for the yield reduction. For mix-dominated sub-ignition targets, the yield reduction is the dominant process.

  1. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, M. Lee; Chidsey, Thomas Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million bbl of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO-) flood 2 project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals

  2. Recovery of quenched-in vacancies of TiCsub(1-x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iseki, Michio; Kirihara, Tomoo; Kojima, Kazuaki; Funahashi, Hideyuki; Yamada, Takashi.

    1984-01-01

    The electrical resistivity of TiCsub(1-x)(x=0.6-0.9) in the range from room temperature to 1273K was measured, and a recovery stage and the activation energy of the migration of vacancies were determined after quenching from 2000K. Specimens were prepared from buttons manufactured by plasma-jet melting. All specimens except that of TiCsub(0.9) revealed the order-disorder transformation above 873K in the electrical resistivity. The variation of resistivity due to the transformation decreased with the decrease of a value of x in TiCsub(1-x). Apparent activation energies obtained by the slope ratio method yielded values from 18 to 167 kJ/mol with increasing measuring temperature because of the variation of entropy accompanying the transformation. A rather reasonable value of 220 kJ/mol was assigned from the rate constant of the recovery at higher temperatures. From this value it is concluded that the recovery step obtained in this experiment is caused by the migration of carbon accompanied by the order-disorder change. (author)

  3. Nutrient recovery from the dry grind process using sequential micro and ultrafiltration of thin stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Dien, Bruce S; Belyea, Ronald L; Singh, Vijay; Tumbleson, M E; Rausch, Kent D

    2010-06-01

    The effectiveness of microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) for nutrient recovery from a thin stillage stream was determined. When a stainless steel MF membrane (0.1microm pore size) was used, the content of solids increased from 7.0% to 22.8% with a mean permeate flux rate of 45L/m(2)/h (LMH), fat increased and ash content decreased. UF experiments were conducted in batch mode under constant temperature and flow rate conditions. Permeate flux profiles were evaluated for regenerated cellulose membranes (YM1, YM10 and YM100) with molecular weight cut offs of 1, 10 and 100kDa. UF increased total solids, protein and fat and decreased ash in retentate stream. When permeate streams from MF were subjected to UF, retentate total solids concentrations similar to those of commercial syrup (23-28.8%) were obtained. YM100 had the highest percent permeate flux decline (70% of initial flux) followed by YM10 and YM1 membranes. Sequential filtration improved permeate flux rates of the YM100 membrane (32.6-73.4LMH) but the percent decline was also highest in a sequential MF+YM100 system. Protein recovery was the highest in YM1 retentate. Removal of solids, protein and fat from thin stillage may generate a permeate stream that may improve water removal efficiency and increase water recycling. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cost Recovery Through Depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Robert T.; Wesolowski, Leonard V.

    1983-01-01

    The approach of adopting depreciation rather than use allowance in order to recover more accurately the cost of college buildings and equipment used on federal projects is considered. It is suggested that depreciation will offer most colleges and universities a higher annual recovery rate, and an opportunity for better facilities planning. For…

  5. Liquid holding recovery kinetics in yeast cells with regard to radiation quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Byoung Hun; Petin, Vladislav G.

    2004-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the RBE of ionizing radiation with a high linear energy transfer (LET) is dependent both on the increased probability of primary damage production (physical events) and the reduced ability of a cell for post-irradiation recovery (biological events). A relatively unexpected role of the specific repair pathways in the RBE of high-LET radiation was demonstrated for bacterial, yeast and mammalian cells. It seems to exist a common agreement that high-LET radiations produce more portion of damage that are considered to be irreversible compared with low-LET radiation such as photons. Cellular recovery and repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) could be also dependent upon radiation quality. Studies concerning the rate of the recovery and repair from radiation damage produced with low- and high-LET radiations in cells of various origins on the survival and macromolecular level have also revealed that in general at a high ionization density, these processes may be reduced or even absent. When irradiated yeast cells are held in a liquid non-nutrient media at 30 .deg. C before planting on to a growth medium, their survival increases. This phenomena is known as liquid holding recovery (LHR). A quantitative approach describing the LHR kinetics of the yeast cells was described, which enables the estimation of the probability of the recovery per unit time and the fraction of the irreversible damage. The main goals of this study were (i) to answer the question whether or not high-LET radiation affects the recovery process itself or if it only produces a higher level of severe irreversible damage that cannot be repaired at all; (ii) to elucidate the role of irreversible damage and the probability of recovery in some rad mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the liquid-holing recovery will serve as an indicator of the cellular repair activity

  6. Treatment of moderate acute malnutrition with ready-to-use supplementary food results in higher overall recovery rates compared with a corn-soya blend in children in southern Ethiopia: an operations research trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal; van den Briel, Tina; Stephens, Derek; Zlotkin, Stanley

    2012-10-01

    Moderate and severe acute malnutrition affects 13% of children malnutrition affects fewer children but is associated with higher rates of mortality and morbidity. Supplementary feeding programs aim to treat moderate acute malnutrition and prevent the deterioration to severe acute malnutrition. The aim was to compare recovery rates of children with moderate acute malnutrition in supplementary feeding programs by using the newly recommended ration of ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) and the more conventional ration of corn-soya blend (CSB) in Ethiopia. A total of 1125 children aged 6-60 mo with moderate acute malnutrition received 16 wk of CSB or RUSF. Children were randomly assigned to receive one or the other food. The daily rations were purposely based on the conventional treatment rations distributed at the time of the study in Ethiopia: 300 g CSB and 32 g vegetable oil in the control group (1413 kcal) and 92 g RUSF in the intervention group (500 kcal). The higher ration size of CSB was provided because of expected food sharing. The HR for children in the CSB group was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.99), which indicated that they had 15% lower recovery (P = 0.039). Recovery rates of children at the end of the 16-wk treatment period trended higher in the RUSF group (73%) than in the CSB group (67%) (P = 0.056). In comparison with CSB, the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition with RUSF resulted in higher recovery rates in children, despite the large ration size and higher energy content of the conventional CSB ration.

  7. Dynamic recovery in nanocrystalline Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.; Van Petegem, S.; Cervellino, A.; Durst, K.; Blum, W.; Van Swygenhoven, H.

    2015-01-01

    The constant flow stress reached during uniaxial deformation of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni reflects a quasi-stationary balance between dislocation slip and grain boundary (GB) accommodation mechanisms. Stress reduction tests allow to suppress dislocation slip and bring recovery mechanisms into the foreground. When combined with in situ X-ray diffraction it can be shown that grain boundary recovery mechanisms play an important role in producing plastic strain while hardening the microstructure. This result has a significant consequence for the parameters of thermally activated glide of dislocations, such as athermal stress and activation volume, which are traditionally derived from stress/strain rate change tests

  8. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip J. van Mantgem; Nathan L. Stephenson; John C. Byrne; Lori D. Daniels; Jerry F. Franklin; Peter Z. Fule; Mark E. Harmon; Andrew J. Larson; Jeremy M. Smith; Alan H. Taylor; Thomas T. Veblen

    2009-01-01

    Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 to 29...

  9. Increased rates of cesarean sections and large families: a potentially dangerous combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed M; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Ahmed, Badreldeen

    2017-07-26

    Rates of cesarean sections have been on the rise over the past three decades all over the world, despite the ideal rate of 10-15% that had been set by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1985, in Fortaleza, Brazil. This epidemic increase in the rate of cesarean delivery is due to many factors which include, cesarean delivery on request, advanced maternal age at first pregnancy, decrease in number of patients who are willing to try vaginal birth after cesarean delivery, virtual disappearance of vaginal breech delivery, perceived increase in the weight of the fetus and increase in the number of women with chronic medical conditions such as Diabetes Mellitus and congenital heart disease in the reproductive age. There is no doubt that cesarean delivery is a safe procedure and it is getting safer and safer for many reasons. However, like all other surgical procedures it is not without risks both to the mother and the new born. There is a substantial increase in the incidence of morbidly adherent placenta and the risk of scar pregnancy. In the Middle East and many African and Asian countries women tend to have large families. The number of previous cesarean section deliveries is directly proportional to the risk of developing morbidly adherent placenta. Morbidly adherent placenta is the most common cause of emergency postpartum hysterectomy, which is often associated with multiple surgical complications, severe maternal morbidity and mortality. The increased rates of cesarean sections lead to increased rates of scar pregnancies, which can have lethal consequences. Cesarean delivery has a negative impact on the infant immune system. This effect on the infant led to the introduction of a new concept called "Vaginal seeding". This refers to the practice of transferring some maternal vaginal fluid to the infant born via cesarean section in an effort to enhance its immune system.

  10. Increased cleavage and blastocyst rate in ewes treated with bovine somatotropin 5 days before the end of progestin-based estrous synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Pardo, A; Hernández-Cerón, J; Rojas-Maya, S; Valencia, J; Rodríguez-Cortez, A; Gutiérrez, C G

    2011-05-01

    Treatment with bovine somatotropin (bST) during estrous synchronization increased fertility and prolificacy in sheep. In the present study, a single dose of bST 5 days before the end of progestin treatment improved cleavage and embryo development. Stage of estrous cycle was synchronized in ewes (n=32) with progestin and superovulation was induced by use of FSH. Five days before the end of progestin treatment, ewes were randomly assigned to two groups: bST group (n=16) received a depot injection of 125 mg of bST sc (Lactotropina, Elanco, México) and the control group (n=16) received saline solution. Estrous was detected with rams fitted with an apron every 2 h and estrous sheep were mated every 8 h whilst in estrous. Embryos were recovered on Day 7 post mating, assessed microscopically and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. Cell number in blastocysts was counted after Hoechst 33342 staining. Plasma concentrations of IGF-I, insulin and progesterone were determined in eight sheep per group from the day of bST treatment to the day of embryo recovery. Cleavage rate, percentage of transferable embryos (transferable embryos/cleaved) and percentage of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage (blastocyst/cleaved) were compared between groups by logistic regression. IGF-I, insulin and progesterone plasma concentrations were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measurements and cell number by ANOVA. Cleavage rate was greater (Psheep. Plasma concentrations of IGF-I and insulin were greater (Pprogesterone concentrations (P=0.5). It is concluded that bST injection 5 days before progestin removal increases cleavage rate and the proportion of embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. These effects are associated with an increase in IGF-I and insulin concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Transformation-Induced Relaxation and Stress Recovery of TiNi Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Takeda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The transformation-induced stress relaxation and stress recovery of TiNi shape memory alloy (SMA in stress-controlled subloop loading were investigated based on the local variation in temperature and transformation band on the surface of the tape in the tension test. The results obtained are summarized as follows. (1 In the loading process, temperature increases due to the exothermic martensitic transformation (MT until the holding strain and thereafter temperature decreases while holding the strain constant, resulting in stress relaxation due to the MT; (2 In the unloading process, temperature decreases due to the endothermic reverse transformation until the holding strain and thereafter temperature increases while holding the strain constant, resulting in stress recovery due to the reverse transformation; (3 Stress varies markedly in the initial stage followed by gradual change while holding the strain constant; (4 If the stress rate is high until the holding strain in the loading and unloading processes, both stress relaxation and stress recovery are large; (5 It is important to take into account this behavior in the design of SMA elements, since the force of SMA elements varies even if the atmospheric temperature is kept constant.

  12. The utility of harvest recoveries of marked individuals to assess polar bear (Ursus maritimus) survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Elizabeth; Laake, Jeff; Laidre, Kristin L.; Born, Erik W.; Atkinson, Stephen N.

    2012-01-01

    Management of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) populations requires the periodic assessment of life history metrics such as survival rate. This information is frequently obtained during short-term capture and marking efforts (e.g., over the course of three years) that result in hundreds of marked bears remaining in the population after active marking is finished. Using 10 additional years of harvest recovery subsequent to a period of active marking, we provide updated estimates of annual survival for polar bears in the Baffin Bay population of Greenland and Canada. Our analysis suggests a decline in survival of polar bears since the period of active marking that ended in 1997; some of the decline in survival can likely be attributed to a decline in springtime ice concentration over the continental shelf of Baffin Island. The variance around the survival estimates is comparatively high because of the declining number of marks available; therefore, results must be interpreted with caution. The variance of the estimates of survival increased most substantially in the sixth year post-marking. When survival estimates calculated with recovery-only and recapture-recovery data sets from the period of active marking were compared, survival rates were indistinguishable. However, for the period when fewer marks were available, survival estimates were lower using the recovery-only data set, which indicates that part of the decline we detected for 2003 – 09 may be due to using only harvest recovery data. Nevertheless, the decline in the estimates of survival is consistent with population projections derived from harvest numbers and earlier vital rates, as well as with an observed decline in the extent of sea ice habitat.

  13. Increasing low birth weight rates: deliveries in a tertiary hospital in istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Yasemin; Cömert, Serdar; Turan, Cem; Unal, Orhan; Piçak, Abdülkadir; Ger, Lale; Telatar, Berrin

    2010-09-01

    Prevalence of low birth weight deliveries may vary across different environments. The necessity of determination of regional data prompted this study. Information of all deliveries from January 2004 to December 2008 was obtained from delivery registry records retrospectively. Initial data including birth weight, vital status, sex, maternal age and mode of delivery were recorded using medical files. The frequency of low birth weight, very low birth weight, extremely low birth weight and stillbirth deliveries were determined. Among 19,533 total births, there were 450 (23.04 per 1000) stillbirths. Low birth weight rate was 10.61%. A significant increase in yearly distribution of low birth weight deliveries was observed (Pbirth weight and extremely low birth weight delivery rates were 3.14% and 1.58% respectively. Among 2073 low birth weight infants, 333 (16.06%) were stillbirths. The stillbirth delivery rate and the birth of a female infant among low birth weight deliveries were significantly higher than infants with birth weight ≥2500g (Pbirth weight and maternal age. The rate of cesarean section among low birth weight infants was 49.4%. High low birth weight and stillbirth rates, as well as the increase in low birth weight deliveries over the past five years in this study are striking. For reduction of increased low birth weight rates, appropriate intervention methods should be initiated.

  14. Lifestyle Intervention Improves Heart Rate Recovery from Exercise in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Ribisl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aims of this paper were (1 to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI compared with diabetes support and education (DSE upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR from graded exercise testing (GXT and (2 to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and fitness changes upon HRR. In 4503 participants (45–76 years who completed 1 year of intervention, HRR was measured after a submaximal GXT to compare the influence of (ILI with (DSE upon HRR. Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (P<0.001 while mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9% versus 5.8% in DSE (P<0.001. At Year 1, all exercise and HRR variables in ILI improved (P<0.0001 versus DSE: heart rate (HR at rest was lower (72.8±11.4 versus 77.7±11.7 b/min, HR range was greater (57.7±12.1 versus 53.1±12.4 b/min, HR at 2 minutes was lower (89.3±21.8 versus 93.0±12.1 b/min, and HRR was greater (41.25±22.0 versus 37.8±12.5 b/min. Weight loss and fitness gain produced significant separate and independent improvements in HRR.

  15. Study of the fast inversion recovery pulse sequence. With reference to fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery and fast short TI inversion recovery pulse sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Maki, Toshio; Suzuki, Takeshi

    1997-01-01

    The fast inversion recovery (fast IR) pulse sequence was evaluated. We compared the fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery (fast FLAIR) pulse sequence in which inversion time (TI) was established as equal to the water null point for the purpose of the water-suppressed T 2 -weighted image, with the fast short TI inversion recovery (fast STIR) pulse sequence in which TI was established as equal to the fat null point for purpose of fat suppression. In the fast FLAIR pulse sequence, the water null point was increased by making TR longer. In the FLAIR pulse sequence, the longitudinal magnetization contrast is determined by TI. If TI is increased, T 2 -weighted contrast improves in the same way as increasing TR for the SE pulse sequence. Therefore, images should be taken with long TR and long TI, which are longer than TR and longer than the water null point. On the other hand, the fat null point is not affected by TR in the fast STIR pulse sequence. However, effective TE was affected by variation of the null point. This increased in proportion to the increase in effective TE. Our evaluation indicated that the fast STIR pulse sequence can control the extensive signals from fat in a short time. (author)

  16. Electrodialytic recovery of phosphorus from chemically precipitated sewage sludge ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Phosphorus scarcity requires improved recover and reuse of urban sources; the recycling of this nutrient from sewage sludge has become increasingly important in the last years. Using an innovative electrodialytic process, the present study shows the potential for P separation from Fe and Al...... precipitated sewage sludge ash using this technique, with a recovery rate of around 70%. Furthermore, heavy metals were removed from the phosphorous fraction, producing a pure and safe phosphorus source in the end....

  17. Electrodialytic recovery of phosphorus from chemically precipitated sewage sludge ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viader, Raimon Parés; Erland Jensen, Pernille; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Phosphorus scarcity requires improved recover and reuse of urban sources; the recycling of this nutrient from sewage sludge has become increasingly important in the last years. Using an innovative electrodialytic process, the present study shows the potential for P separation from Fe and Al...... precipitated sewage sludge ash using this technique, with a recovery rate of around 70%. Furthermore, heavy metals were removed from the phosphorous fraction, producing a pure and safe phosphorus source in the end...

  18. Managing individual nests promotes population recovery of a top predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jennyffer; Windels, Steve K.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Crimmins, Shawn M.; Grim, Leland; Zuckerberg, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Threatened species are managed using diverse conservation tactics implemented at multiple scales ranging from protecting individuals, to populations, to entire species. Individual protection strives to promote recovery at the population‐ or species‐level, although this is seldom evaluated.After decades of widespread declines, bald eagles, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, are recovering throughout their range due to legal protection and pesticide bans. However, like other raptors, their recovery remains threatened by human activities. Bald eagle nests are commonly managed using buffer zones to minimize human disturbance, but the benefits of this practice remain unquantified.Within Voyageurs National Park (VNP), Minnesota, USA, managers have monitored bald eagle populations for over 40 years, and since 1991, have protected at‐risk nests from human disturbance using buffer zones (200 and 400 m radius). We aimed to (1) quantify the recovery of bald eagles in VNP (1973–2016), and (2) provide a first‐ever evaluation of the individual‐ and population‐level effects of managing individual nests. To do so, we developed Bayesian Integrated Population Models combining observations of nest occupancy and reproductive output (metrics commonly collected for raptors) to estimate nest‐level probabilities of occupancy, nest success, and high productivity (producing ≥2 nestlings), as well as population‐level estimates of abundance and growth.The breeding population of bald eagles at VNP increased steadily from management significantly improved occupancy and success. At the population‐level, management led to 8% and 13% increases in nest success and productivity rates, respectively, resulting in a 37% increase in breeding pair abundance.Synthesis and applications. There is a clear need to evaluate how management approaches at multiple scales assist in species recovery. Our study uses an Integrated Population Model to reveal the population‐level benefits of a widely

  19. The coffee diterpene cafestol increases plasma triacylglycerol by increasing the production rate of large VLDL apolipoprotein B in healthy normolipidemic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de B.; Caslake, M.J.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Bedford, D.; Demacker, P.N.; Katan, M.B.; Packard, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Cafestol is a diterpene in unfiltered coffee that raises plasma triacylglycerol in humans. Objective: We studied whether cafestol increases plasma triacylglycerol by increasing the production rate or by decreasing the fractional catabolic rate of VLDL1 [Svedberg flotation unit (Sf)

  20. Opening Doors to Recovery: Recidivism and Recovery Among Persons With Serious Mental Illnesses and Repeated Hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Kelley, Mary E; Pope, Alicia; Smith, Kelly; Broussard, Beth; Reed, Thomas A; DiPolito, June A; Druss, Benjamin G; Li, Charles; Lott Haynes, Nora

    2016-02-01

    Repeated hospitalizations and arrests or incarcerations diminish the ability of individuals with serious mental illnesses to pursue recovery. Community mental health systems need new models to address recidivism as well as service fragmentation, lack of engagement by local stakeholders, and poor communication between mental health providers and the police. This study examined the initial effects on institutional recidivism and measures of recovery among persons enrolled in Opening Doors to Recovery, an intensive, team-based community support program for persons with mental illness and a history of inpatient psychiatric recidivism. A randomized controlled trial of the model is underway. The number of hospitalizations, days hospitalized, and arrests (all from state administrative sources) in the year before enrollment and during the first 12 months of enrollment in the program were compared. Longitudinal trajectories of recovery-using three self-report and five clinician-rated measures-were examined. Analyses accounted for baseline symptom severity and intensity of involvement in the program. One hundred participants were enrolled, and 72 were included in the analyses. Hospitalizations decreased, from 1.9±1.6 to .6±.9 (precovery measures, and trajectories of improvement were apparent across the entire follow-up period. Opening Doors to Recovery holds promise as a new service approach for reducing hospital recidivism and promoting recovery in community mental health systems and is deserving of further controlled testing.

  1. Perspective: Ecological recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    A series of field and laboratory studies were designed to characterize the initial effects and subsequent rate of ecosystem recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. These studies were organized within an ecological risk assessment framework wherein measurements of residual spill hydrocarbons from specific environmental compartments were correlated with observed biological effects for resident species and communities. This allowed an assessment of the likelihood of spill-related effects vs. effects of natural ecosystem variability. Measurement of polycyclic automatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were made from throughout the spill-affected area for water column, intertidal shoreline sediments and deep subtidal sediments. Data document the expected high levels of PAH in 1989 with rapid PAH decreases in following years from all compartments reflecting natural assimilation and dissipation via chemical, physical and biological processes. Parallel investigations of risks to biological resources representing major trophic levels were conducted to quantify recovery rates of spill impacted habitats and resident species. Results are summarized documenting respective recovery rates for key trophic levels including intertidal flora and fauna, benthic invertebrates and infauna, herring and salmon, shorebirds and colonial seabirds and sea otters. Quantitative data developed for these species support the conclusion that the effects of oil spills are largely short-term acute events, and the Prince William Sound recovery was well advanced by 1991

  2. Obesity and Prader-Willi Syndrome Affect Heart Rate Recovery from Dynamic Resistance Exercise in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diobel M. Castner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following exercise, heart rate decline is initially driven by parasympathetic reactivation and later by sympathetic withdrawal. Obesity delays endurance exercise heart rate recovery (HRR in both children and adults. Young people with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS, a congenital cause for obesity, have shown a slower 60-s endurance exercise HRR compared to lean and obese children, suggesting compromised regulation. This study further evaluated effects of obesity and PWS on resistance exercise HRR at 30 and 60 s in children. PWS (8–18 years and lean and obese controls (8–11 years completed a weighted step-up protocol (six sets x 10 reps per leg, separated by one-minute rest, standardized using participant stature and lean body mass. HRR was evaluated by calculated HRR value (HRRV = difference between HR at test termination and 30 (HRRV30 and 60 (HRRV60 s post-exercise. PWS and obese had a smaller HRRV30 than lean (p < 0.01 for both. Additionally, PWS had a smaller HRRV60 than lean and obese (p = 0.01 for both. Obesity appears to delay early parasympathetic reactivation, which occurs within 30 s following resistance exercise. However, the continued HRR delay at 60 s in PWS may be explained by either blunted parasympathetic nervous system reactivation, delayed sympathetic withdrawal and/or poor cardiovascular fitness.

  3. Association between body mass index and recovery from whiplash injuries: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Côté, Pierre; Cassidy, J David; Carroll, Linda

    2007-05-01

    It is hypothesized that excess weight is a risk factor for delayed recovery from neck pain, such as from whiplash injuries. However, the association between obesity and recovery from whiplash injury has not been studied. The authors examined the association between body mass index and time to recovery from whiplash injuries in a population-based cohort study of traffic injuries in Saskatchewan, Canada. The cohort included 4,395 individuals who made an insurance claim to Saskatchewan Government Insurance and were treated for whiplash injury between July 1, 1994, and December 31, 1995. Of those, 87.7% had recovered by November 1, 1997. No association was found between baseline body mass index and time to recovery. Compared with individuals with normal weight, those who were underweight (hazard rate ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.73, 1.06), overweight (hazard rate ratio = 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.94, 1.09), and obese (hazard rate ratio = 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.90, 1.08) had similar rates of recovery, even after adjustment for other factors. The results do not support the hypothesis that individuals who are overweight or obese have a worse prognosis for whiplash.

  4. Spray method for recovery of heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Kyeong-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Oh; Park, Ki-Hwan; Chung, Myung-Sub; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    Selective agar is inadequate for supporting recovery of injured cells. During risk assessment of certain foods, both injured and noninjured cells must be enumerated. In this study, a new method (agar spray method) for recovering sublethally heat-injured microorganisms was developed and used for recovery of heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes. Molten selective agar was applied as an overlay to presolidified nonselective tryptic soy agar (TSA) by spray application. Heat-injured cells (55°C for 10 min in 0.1% peptone water or 55°C for 15 min in sterilized skim milk) were inoculated directly onto solidified TSA. After a 2-h incubation period for cell repair, selective agar was applied to the TSA surface with a sprayer, and the plates were incubated. The recovery rate for heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes with the spray method was compared with the corresponding rates associated with TSA alone, selective media alone, and the conventional overlay method (selective agar poured on top of resuscitated cells grown on TSA and incubated for 2 h). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in pathogen recovery obtained with TSA, the overlay method, and the spray method. However, a lower recovery rate (P recovery and detection of injured cells.

  5. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revealed that, compared with the control, the beverage was consumed fastest in the two music conditions. Interestingly, whereas arousal and negative mood declined in the control condition, this was not the case for either of the music conditions, suggesting a downregulation of alcohol effects. We additionally found evidence for music to disrupt sensory systems in that, counterintuitively, faster consumption was driven by increases in perceived alcohol strength, which, in turn, predicted lower breath alcohol level (BrAL). These findings suggest a unique interaction of music environment and psychoactive effects of alcohol itself on consumption rate. Because alcohol consumed at a faster rate induces greater intoxication, these findings have implications for applied and theoretical work. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Does stoma site specimen extraction increase postoperative ileostomy complication rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanglin; Benlice, Cigdem; Stocchi, Luca; Kessler, Hermann; Gorgun, Emre; Costedio, Meagan

    2017-09-01

    Minimizing incisions has the potential to decrease hernia formation and wound complications following laparoscopic surgery. It is currently unknown if using the stoma site for specimen extraction affects outcomes. This study aims to evaluate the impact of stoma site extraction on postoperative complication rates in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. After IRB approval, a retrospective comparative review of 738 consecutive patients (405 M) who underwent laparoscopic colorectal surgery with ileostomy between January 2008 and December 2014 was performed. Patients who had a minimally invasive surgery that required an ileostomy were included. Patients were classified into two groups: stoma site extraction (SSE) or non-stoma site extraction (NSSE) and compared by body mass index (BMI), age, comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, length of stay, estimated blood loss, parastomal complications, and hernia rate. The parastomal hernia rate was 10.1% for the SSE group (n = 14) and 4.2% for the NSSE group (n = 25) (p = 0.007). The need for additional surgeries was 7/139 (5.0%) for the SSE group and 27/599 (4.5%) for the NSSE group (p = 0.79). There was no difference in the hernia rate after stoma closure in either group. There was no difference in single incision laparoscopic surgery versus conventional laparoscopy or robotic-assisted laparoscopy on stoma site complications in patients with SSE. SSE, transfusion, and BMI >30 were found to be independent factors associated with increased stoma site complications. SSE does increase stoma site complications. SSE should be used with caution, or in conjunction with other techniques to reduce hernias in patients requiring a permanent stoma or with an elevated BMI. The increase in stoma site complications does not translate into additional surgeries or postoperative sequelae following stoma reversal and is a reasonable option in patients requiring a temporary stoma.

  7. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  8. Sigh rate and respiratory variability during mental load and sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlemincx, Elke; Taelman, Joachim; De Peuter, Steven; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous breathing consists of substantial correlated variability: Parameters characterizing a breath are correlated with parameters characterizing previous and future breaths. On the basis of dynamic system theory, negative emotion states are predicted to reduce correlated variability whereas sustained attention is expected to reduce total respiratory variability. Both are predicted to evoke sighing. To test this, respiratory variability and sighing were assessed during a baseline, stressful mental arithmetic task, nonstressful sustained attention task, and recovery in between tasks. For respiration rate (excluding sighs), reduced total variability was found during the attention task, whereas correlated variation was reduced during mental load. Sigh rate increased during mental load and during recovery from the attention task. It is concluded that mental load and task-related attention show specific patterns in respiratory variability and sigh rate. Copyright © 2010 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Computer program for sizing residential energy recovery ventilator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, M.D.; Lee, S.M.; Spears, J.W.; Kesselring, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Energy recovery ventilators offer the prospect of tighter control over residential ventilation rates than manual methods, such as opening windows, with a lesser energy penalty. However, the appropriate size of such a ventilator is not readily apparent in most situations. Sizing of energy recovery ventilation software was developed to calculate the size of ventilator necessary to satisfy ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for Acceptable Air Quality, or a user-specified air exchange rate. Inputs to the software include house location, structural characteristics, house operations and energy costs, ventilation characteristics, and HVAC system COP/efficiency. Based on these inputs, the program estimates the existing air exchange rate for the house, the ventilation rate required to meet the ASHRAE standard or user-specified air exchange rate, the size of the ventilator needed to meet the requirement, and the expected changes in indoor air quality and energy consumption. In this paper an illustrative application of the software is provided

  10. Analysis of swirl recovery vanes for increased propulsive efficiency in tractor propeller aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, L.L.M.; Stokkermans, T.C.A.; Sinnige, T.; Eitelberg, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address a preliminary assessment of the performance effects of swirl recovery vanes (SRVs) in a installed and uninstalled tractor propeller arrangement. A numerical analysis was performed on a propeller and a propeller-wing configuration after the SRVs were optimized first in a

  11. Recovery in soccer : part ii-recovery strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue, and then to regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. Fatigue following competition is multifactorial and mainly related to dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. Recovery strategies should consequently be targeted against the major causes of fatigue. Strategies reviewed in part II of this article were nutritional intake, cold water immersion, sleeping, active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. Some strategies such as hydration, diet and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Providing milk drinks to players at the end of competition and a meal containing high-glycaemic index carbohydrate and protein within the hour following the match are effective in replenishing substrate stores and optimizing muscle-damage repair. Sleep is an essential part of recovery management. Sleep disturbance after a match is common and can negatively impact on the recovery process. Cold water immersion is effective during acute periods of match congestion in order to regain performance levels faster and repress the acute inflammatory process. Scientific evidence for other strategies reviewed in their ability to accelerate the return to the initial level of performance is still lacking. These include active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. While this does not mean that these strategies do not aid the recovery process, the protocols implemented up until

  12. Transformation-Induced Creep and Creep Recovery of Shape Memory Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kohei; Tobushi, Hisaaki; Pieczyska, Elzbieta A

    2012-05-22

    If the shape memory alloy is subjected to the subloop loading under the stress-controlled condition, creep and creep recovery can appear based on the martensitic transformation. In the design of shape memory alloy elements, these deformation properties are important since the deflection of shape memory alloy elements can change under constant stress. The conditions for the progress of the martensitic transformation are discussed based on the kinetics of the martensitic transformation for the shape memory alloy. During loading under constant stress rate, temperature increases due to the stress-induced martensitic transformation. If stress is held constant during the martensitic transformation stage in the loading process, temperature decreases and the condition for the progress of the martensitic transformation is satisfied, resulting in the transformation-induced creep deformation. If stress is held constant during the reverse transformation stage in the unloading process, creep recovery appears due to the reverse transformation. The details for these thermomechanical properties are investigated experimentally for TiNi shape memory alloy, which is most widely used in practical applications. The volume fraction of the martensitic phase increases in proportion to an increase in creep strain.

  13. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  14. Binocular Rivalry Measured 2 Hours After Occlusion Therapy Predicts the Recovery Rate of the Amblyopic Eye in Anisometropic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, Claudia; Morrone, Maria Concetta; Secci, Jacopo; Caputo, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies on adults have shown that short-term monocular deprivation boosts the deprived eye signal in binocular rivalry, reflecting homeostatic plasticity. Here we investigate whether homeostatic plasticity is present also during occlusion therapy for moderate amblyopia. Binocular rivalry and visual acuity (using Snellen charts for children) were measured in 10 children (mean age 6.2 ± 1 years) with moderate anisometropic amblyopia before the beginning of treatment and at four intervals during occlusion therapy (2 hours, 1, 2, and 5 months). Visual stimuli were orthogonal gratings presented dichoptically through ferromagnetic goggles and children reported verbally visual rivalrous perception. Bangerter filters were applied on the spectacle lens over the best eye for occlusion therapy. Two hours of occlusion therapy increased the nonamblyopic eye predominance over the amblyopic eye compared with pretreatment measurements, consistent with the results in adults. The boost of the nonamblyopic eye was still present after 1 month of treatment, steadily decreasing afterward to reach pretreatment levels after 2 months of continuous occlusion. Across subjects, the increase in nonamblyopic eye predominance observed after 2 hours of occlusion correlated (rho = -0.65, P = 0.04) with the visual acuity improvement of the amblyopic eye measured after 2 months of treatment. Homeostatic plasticity operates during occlusion therapy for moderate amblyopia and the increase in nonamblyopic eye dominance observed at the beginning of treatment correlates with the amblyopic eye recovery rate. These results suggest that binocular rivalry might be used to monitor visual cortical plasticity during occlusion therapy, although further investigations on larger clinical populations are needed to validate the predictive power of the technique.

  15. Carbon footprint of urban source separation for nutrient recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerstadius, H; Bernstad Saraiva, A; Spångberg, J; Davidsson, Å

    2017-07-15

    Source separation systems for the management of domestic wastewater and food waste has been suggested as more sustainable sanitation systems for urban areas. The present study used an attributional life cycle assessment to investigate the carbon footprint and potential for nutrient recovery of two sanitation systems for a hypothetical urban area in Southern Sweden. The systems represented a typical Swedish conventional system and a possible source separation system with increased nutrient recovery. The assessment included the management chain from household collection, transport, treatment and final return of nutrients to agriculture or disposal of the residuals. The results for carbon footprint and nutrient recovery (phosphorus and nitrogen) concluded that the source separation system could increase nutrient recovery (0.30-0.38 kg P capita -1 year -1 and 3.10-3.28 kg N capita -1 year -1 ), while decreasing the carbon footprint (-24 to -58 kg CO 2 -eq. capita -1 year -1 ), compared to the conventional system. The nutrient recovery was increased by the use of struvite precipitation and ammonium stripping at the wastewater treatment plant. The carbon footprint decreased, mainly due to the increased biogas production, increased replacement of mineral fertilizer in agriculture and less emissions of nitrous oxide from wastewater treatment. In conclusion, the study showed that source separation systems could potentially be used to increase nutrient recovery from urban areas, while decreasing the climate impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Recovery of plasma volume after 1 week of exposure at 4,350 m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robach, Paul; Lafforgue, Eric; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2002-01-01

    Plasma volume (PV) decreases at high altitude, but is rapidly restored upon return to sea-level (RSL). The aim of this study was (1) to describe PV recovery upon RSL with concomitant changes in major fluid regulating hormones, and (2) to test the hypothesis that PV recovery is promoted...... natriuretic factor (ANF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) were measured at rest and during exercise. The subjects were divided into two groups 1 h before RSL, one group receiving PV expansion (475+/-219 ml) to ensure normovolemia (PVX, n=6), the others serving as controls (Control, n=4). PV decreased by 13...... groups, whereas water output dropped in RSL. PVX increased urine flow rate in RSL1 compared with subjects not given PVX. The present results suggest that PV recovery during early RSL is mainly due to a decreased diuresis, promoted at least in part by changes in fluid regulating hormones. However, neither...

  17. New filtration system for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J. A.; Riber, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    -)cysts (1x10(2); 10 replicates) was successfully amplified using real-time PCR.ConclusionsThe use of a metallic filter, sonication and air backwash' were key factors for creating a highly efficient system for recovery of apparently undamaged protozoa.Significance and Impact of the StudyThis reagent......AimsTo develop a filtration unit for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts ((oo-)cysts) in drinking water.Methods and ResultsThis unit utilizes a metallic filter and an ultrasound transducer for eluting (oo-)cysts, with a fixed retentate backwash volume; approx....... 400l. Changes in the viability was evaluated by seeding wild type (oo-)cysts (1x10(4)) followed by sonication for 5, 10, 20 or 40s (five replicates for each period). Flow cytometry analysis showed negligible increase in the mortality of (oo-)cysts exposed to 5-10s of sonication. Recovery rate...

  18. 78 FR 57099 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 915 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-13-0054; FV13-915-2 PR] Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased... rule would increase the assessment rate established for the Avocado Administrative Committee (Committee... Florida avocados handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order, which regulates the...

  19. Is Increasing Coal Seam Gas Well Development Activity Associated with Increasing Hospitalisation Rates in Queensland, Australia? An Exploratory Analysis 1995-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Angela K; Cameron, Cate M; Watt, Kerrianne; Vink, Sue; Jagals, Paul; Page, Andrew

    2017-05-18

    The majority of Australia's coal seam gas (CSG) reserves are in Queensland, where the industry has expanded rapidly in recent years. Despite concerns, health data have not been examined alongside CSG development. This study examined hospitalisation rates as a function of CSG development activity in Queensland, during the period 1995-2011. Admissions data were examined with CSG well numbers, which served as a proxy for CSG development activity. Time series models were used to assess changes in hospitalisation rates for periods of "low", "medium", "high", and "intense" activity compared to a period of "very low" activity, adjusting for covariates. "All-cause" hospitalisation rates increased monotonically with increasing gas well development activity in females (324.0 to 390.3 per 1000 persons) and males (294.2 to 335.4 per 1000 persons). Hospitalisation rates for "Blood/immune" conditions generally increased for both sexes. Female and male hospitalisation rates for "Circulatory" conditions decreased with increasing CSG activity. Hospitalisation rates were generally low for reproductive and birth outcomes; no clear associations were observed. This study showed some outcomes were associated with increasing CSG development activity. However, as a condition of data access, the population and outcomes were aggregated to a broad geographic study area rather than using higher geographic resolution data. Higher resolution data, as well as other data sources, should be explored. Further research should be conducted with an expanded time period to determine if these trends continue as the industry grows.

  20. Injury Risk Is Increased by Changes in Perceived Recovery of Team Sport Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, Henrike Teunisje Dorothe; Brink, Michel Sanne; Otter, Ruby Tina Ardi; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen Alfons Plechelmus Marie

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate if changes in perceived stress and recovery over the course of a season are risk factors for acute and overuse injuries. Design: A prospective nonexperimental cohort design. Setting: Data were gathered at the SportsFieldLab Groningen and at the

  1. Attenuated Heart Rate Recovery After Exercise Testing and Risk of Incident Hypertension in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Sae Young; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Fadel, Paul J; Fernhall, Bo; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Park, Jeong Bae; Franklin, Barry A

    2016-09-01

    Although attenuated heart rate recovery (HRR) and reduced heart rate (HR) reserve to maximal exercise testing are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, their relation to incident hypertension in healthy normotensive populations is unclear. We examined the hypothesis that both attenuated HRR and reduced HR reserve to exercise testing are associated with incident hypertension in men. A total of 1,855 participants were selected comprising of healthy, initially normotensive men who underwent peak or symptom-limited treadmill testing at baseline. HRR was calculated as the difference between peak HR during exercise testing and the HR at 2 minutes after exercise cessation. HR reserve was calculated as the percentage of HR reserve (peak HR - resting HR)/(220 - age - resting HR) × 100. During an average 4-year follow-up, 179 (9.6%) men developed hypertension. Incident hypertension was associated with HRR quartiles (Q1 (57 bpm) 8.3%; P = 0.05 for trend). The relative risk (RR) of the incident hypertension in the slowest HRR quartile vs. the fastest HRR quartile was 1.78 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-2.78) after adjustment for confounders. Every 1 bpm increment in HRR was associated with a 2% (RR 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-0.99) lower risk of incident hypertension after adjusting for potential confounders. In contrast, reduced HR reserve did not predict the risk of incident hypertension. Slow HRR after exercise testing is independently associated with the development of hypertension in healthy normotensive men. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Recovery and decision-making involvement in people with severe mental illness from six countries: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Sabine; Clarke, Eleanor; Jordan, Harriet; Puschner, Bernd; Fiorillo, Andrea; Luciano, Mario; Ivánka, Tibor; Magyar, Erzsébet; Krogsgaard-Bording, Malene; Østermark-Sørensen, Helle; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram; Mayer, Benjamin; Slade, Mike

    2017-01-23

    Clinical decision-making is the vehicle of health care provision, and level of involvement predicts implementation and satisfaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of decision-making experience on recovery. Data derived from an observational cohort study "Clinical decision making and outcome in routine care for people with severe mental illness" (CEDAR). Adults (aged 18-60) meeting standardised criteria for severe mental illness were recruited from caseloads of outpatient and community mental health services in six European countries. After consenting, they were assessed using standardised measures of decision-making, clinical outcome and stage of recovery at baseline and 1 year later. Latent class analysis was used to identify course of recovery, and proportional odds models to investigate predictors of recovery stage and change. Participants (n = 581) clustered into three stages of recovery at baseline: Moratorium (N = 115; 19.8%), Awareness/Preparation (N = 145; 25.0%) and Rebuilding/Growth (N = 321; 55.2%). Higher stage was cross-sectionally associated with being male, married, living alone or with parents, and having better patient-rated therapeutic alliance and fewer symptoms. The model accounted for 40% of the variance in stage of recovery. An increased chance of worse outcome (change over 1 year to lower stage of recovery) was found for patients with active involvement compared with either shared (OR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.15-2.94) or passive (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.00-2.95) involvement. Overall, both process (therapeutic relationship) and outcome (symptomatology) are cross-sectionally associated with stage of recovery. Patient-rated decision-making involvement and change in stage of recovery are associated. Joint consideration of decision practise within the recovery process between patient and clinician is supposed to be a useful strategy to improve clinical practice (ISRCTN registry: ISRCTN75841675

  3. Increase of propylene production and recovery in a PETROBRAS FCC units; Aumento da producao e recuperacao de propeno em uma Unidade de FCC da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penna, Elisangela Melo; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende; Wolff, Marcelo Straubel [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Propylene is one of the major petrochemical raw materials and its demand has been growing rapidly in recent years. Projections for future years indicate that the growth in propylene production via pyrolysis tends to be lower than the growth in the demand for ethylene, creating a supply deficit of this product. The FCC units are in a unique position to meet this increase in propylene demand due to its operational flexibility. Although their primary function in recent decades has been the gasoline production, FCC units are often operated for maximizing other products, such as LPG or distillates. At the FCC conversion section, the increase of propylene yield requires some increase in reaction severity, which can be obtained by increasing reactor riser temperature, and the use of catalyst additives based on ZSM-5. However, besides maximizing the propylene production in the reactor, a second objective should be pursued: the propylene recovery increase in the gas recovery section. In this section, the yield is affected by the gas compressor performance, the equipment design and process scheme. Eventually, new equipment may be installed, such as chillers, aimed at improving the absorption system. Predicting a real increase in propylene demand in the Brazilian market, this study aims to evaluate the adequacy of the gas recovery section of a PETROBRAS FCC unit, analyzing the impacts that a new products yields profile, which bend the propylene production compared to a conventional operation, would cause on this unit. In this paper, the main limitations and modifications that would be needed for an operation were identified, aiming at maximizing the propylene production, as well as proposed changes in the hardware of the unit. (author)

  4. Multiple coronary stenting negatively affects myocardial recovery after coronary bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Shin; Yoshioka, Daisuke; Fukushima, Satsuki; Toda, Koichi; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Yasushi; Hata, Hiroki; Saito, Shunsuke; Domae, Keitaro; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2018-05-14

    We aimed to elucidate the relationship between the magnitude of myocardial recovery after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and the prognosis and to explore the predictors of myocardial non-recovery. Eighty-one patients with a preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40% who underwent isolated CABG between 2002 and 2015 and had undergone echocardiographic follow-up (median follow-up, 3.1 years; interquartile range 1.2-6.0 years) were analyzed. The Recovery group comprised patients with LVEF improvement ≥ 10%, whereas the Non-recovery group comprised those with an LVEF improvement events (MACEs), and readmission due to heart failure were evaluated. In addition, the risk factors for LVEF non-recovery were evaluated in a multivariate analysis. A total of 39 patients (48%) were in the Recovery group, whereas 42 patients (52%) were in the Non-recovery group. Although the survival and freedom from MACE rates were comparable, the rate of freedom from heart failure requiring hospitalization at 1, 5, and 8 years of follow-up was significantly lower in the Non-recovery group than in the Recovery group (p = 0.012). A history of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was an exclusive independent risk factor for post-CABG myocardial non-recovery (odds ratio, 16.0; 95% confidence interval, 3.44-125). Furthermore, the number of coronary stents was negatively correlated with LVEF recovery (r = - 0.460, p = 0.024). Great consideration should be taken when performing CABG in patients with left ventricular dysfunction and a history of PCI, particularly in those with multiple coronary stents.

  5. Recovery from nonlinear creep provides a window into physics of polymer glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruthers, James; Medvedev, Grigori

    Creep under constant applied stress is one of the most basic mechanical experiments, where it exhibits extremely rich relaxation behavior for polymer glasses. As many as five distinct stages of nonlinear creep are observed, where the rate of creep dramatically slows down, accelerates and then slows down again. Modeling efforts to-date has primarily focused on predicting the intricacies of the nonlinear creep curve. We argue that as much attention should be paid to the creep recovery response, when the stress is removed. The experimental creep recovery curve is smooth, where the rate of recovery is initially quite rapid and then progressively decreases. In contrast, the majority of the traditional constitutive models predict recovery curves that are much too abrupt. A recently developed stochastic constitutive model that takes into account the dynamic heterogeneity of glasses produces a smooth creep recovery response that is consistent with experiment.

  6. Narrowband interference parameterization for sparse Bayesian recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Anum

    2015-09-11

    This paper addresses the problem of narrowband interference (NBI) in SC-FDMA systems by using tools from compressed sensing and stochastic geometry. The proposed NBI cancellation scheme exploits the frequency domain sparsity of the unknown signal and adopts a Bayesian sparse recovery procedure. This is done by keeping a few randomly chosen sub-carriers data free to sense the NBI signal at the receiver. As Bayesian recovery requires knowledge of some NBI parameters (i.e., mean, variance and sparsity rate), we use tools from stochastic geometry to obtain analytical expressions for the required parameters. Our simulation results validate the analysis and depict suitability of the proposed recovery method for NBI mitigation. © 2015 IEEE.

  7. Autonomic Recovery Is Delayed in Chinese Compared with Caucasian following Treadmill Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sun

    Full Text Available Caucasian populations have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD when compared with their Chinese counterparts and CVD is associated with autonomic function. It is unknown whether autonomic function during exercise recovery differs between Caucasians and Chinese. The present study investigated autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise in healthy Caucasians and Chinese. Sixty-two participants (30 Caucasian and 32 Chinese, 50% male performed an acute bout of treadmill exercise at 70% of heart rate reserve. Heart rate variability (HRV and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS were obtained during 5-min epochs at pre-exercise, 30-min, and 60-min post-exercise. HRV was assessed using frequency [natural logarithm of high (LnHF and low frequency (LnLF powers, normalized high (nHF and low frequency (nLF powers, and LF/HF ratio] and time domains [Root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD, natural logarithm of RMSSD (LnRMSSD and R-R interval (RRI]. Spontaneous BRS included both up-up and down-down sequences. At pre-exercise, no group differences were observed for any HR, HRV and BRS parameters. During exercise recovery, significant race-by-time interactions were observed for LnHF, nHF, nLF, LF/HF, LnRMSSD, RRI, HR, and BRS (up-up. The declines in LnHF, nHF, RMSSD, RRI and BRS (up-up and the increases in LF/HF, nLF and HR were blunted in Chinese when compared to Caucasians from pre-exercise to 30-min to 60-min post-exercise. Chinese exhibited delayed autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise. This delayed autonomic recovery may result from greater sympathetic dominance and extended vagal withdrawal in Chinese.Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-IPR-15006684.

  8. Autonomic Recovery Is Delayed in Chinese Compared with Caucasian following Treadmill Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Baynard, Tracy; Hu, Min; Li, Shichang; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Caucasian populations have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) when compared with their Chinese counterparts and CVD is associated with autonomic function. It is unknown whether autonomic function during exercise recovery differs between Caucasians and Chinese. The present study investigated autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise in healthy Caucasians and Chinese. Sixty-two participants (30 Caucasian and 32 Chinese, 50% male) performed an acute bout of treadmill exercise at 70% of heart rate reserve. Heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were obtained during 5-min epochs at pre-exercise, 30-min, and 60-min post-exercise. HRV was assessed using frequency [natural logarithm of high (LnHF) and low frequency (LnLF) powers, normalized high (nHF) and low frequency (nLF) powers, and LF/HF ratio] and time domains [Root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), natural logarithm of RMSSD (LnRMSSD) and R-R interval (RRI)]. Spontaneous BRS included both up-up and down-down sequences. At pre-exercise, no group differences were observed for any HR, HRV and BRS parameters. During exercise recovery, significant race-by-time interactions were observed for LnHF, nHF, nLF, LF/HF, LnRMSSD, RRI, HR, and BRS (up-up). The declines in LnHF, nHF, RMSSD, RRI and BRS (up-up) and the increases in LF/HF, nLF and HR were blunted in Chinese when compared to Caucasians from pre-exercise to 30-min to 60-min post-exercise. Chinese exhibited delayed autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise. This delayed autonomic recovery may result from greater sympathetic dominance and extended vagal withdrawal in Chinese. Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-IPR-15006684.

  9. Declines revisited: Long-term recovery and spatial population dynamics oftailed frog larvae after wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, Blake R.; Honeycutt, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Drought has fueled an increased frequency and severity of large wildfires in many ecosystems. Despite an increase in research on wildfire effects on vertebrates, the vast majority of it has focused on short-term (effects and there is still little information on the time scale of population recovery for species that decline in abundance after fire. In 2003, a large wildfire in Montana (USA) burned the watersheds of four of eight streams that we sampled for larval Rocky Mountain tailed frogs (Ascaphus montanus) in 2001. Surveys during 2004–2005 revealed reduced abundance of larvae in burned streams relative to unburned streams, with greater declines associated with increased fire extent. Rocky Mountain tailed frogs have low vagility and have several unusual life-history traits that could slow population recovery, including an extended larval period (4 years), delayed sexual maturity (6–8 years), and low fecundity (negative effects of burn extent on larval abundance weakened> 58% within 12 years after the fire. We also found moderate synchrony among populations in unburned streams and negative spatial autocorrelation among populations in burned streams. We suspect negative spatial autocorrelation among spatially-clustered burned streams reflected increased post-fire patchiness in resources and different rates of local recovery. Our results add to a growing body of work that suggests populations in intact ecosystems tend to be resilient to habitat changes caused by wildfire. Our results also provide important insights into recovery times of populations that have been negatively affected by severe wildfire.

  10. Rapid recovery programmes for hip and knee arthroplasty. An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molko, S; Combalia, A

    Fast-track surgery, or enhanced recovery, has appeared in the last 20 years or so as a combination of the optimisation of clinical protocols and organisational processes, pursuing the reduction in surgical stress with the aim of reducing peri-operative comorbidities, convalescence time, and functional recovery, resulting in a reduction in admission time. After a review of the European literature available on this subject, this article attempts to present an update. It highlights its interest and origins, basically being set out as a response to the question: 'Why is this patient in Hospital today?' It also attempts to summarise the essence of such programmes: the search for immediate post-surgical mobilisation, being supported in a multidisciplinary approach. This includes a multimodal intervention and analgesia, a limitation in the use of opiates, and the active participation by the patients in their own recovery. Furthermore, mention is made of the initiatives by European State organisation as a boost to enhanced recovery programmes in their respective countries, as is the case in Denmark, France, and the United Kingdom. The clinical outcomes published up to September 2015 have been reviewed. A subsequent decrease in mean hospital stay is observed in 11 studies, achieving patient satisfaction, low complication rates, a reduction in the transfusion rates, and with no apparent increase in re-admissions. Mention is also made of the financial consequences, and how to implement these protocols. As a conclusion, an analysis is made of the future challenges fast-track surgery, such as the possibility of moving towards outpatient surgery, or the obtaining of a surgery 'with no risk or pain' in general, for which there are other still open lines of work. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Questions about the reliability of recovery boilers of steel smelting units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazykin, Yu K; Mukhametzyanov, N K

    1979-01-01

    Because the main reason for failure of recovery boilers is contamination of the heating surfaces, the operational conditions of individual elements of boiler units, equipped with vibrational and pulsed cleaning are analyzed and the reliability of the cleaning systems in use today is evaluated. The recovery boilers from open hearth furnaces and two bath steel smelting units from the Magnitogorsk Metallurgic Combine were selected as the subjects of the study. It is established that the boiler heating surface cleaning system has a quite large number of failures. The vibrational cleaning readiness factor is rated at 0.9323 and that of the pulsed cleaning system, 0.9698. For the KU-100 recovery boilers with a mean productivity of 18-20 t/h, the losses caused by failures during operation with vibration and pulsed cleaning were 3,200 and 1,700 rubles per year, respectively. With reconstruction of the boilers, which is associated with an increase in their reliability, the vibration cleaning of the heating surface was replaced by pulsed cleaning.

  12. Expectations for recovery important in the prognosis of whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Lena W; Carroll, Linda J; Cassidy, J David; Skillgate, Eva; Ahlbom, Anders

    2008-05-13

    Individuals' expectations on returning to work after an injury have been shown to predict the duration of time that a person with work-related low back pain will remain on benefits; individuals with lower recovery expectations received benefits for a longer time than those with higher expectations. The role of expectations in recovery from traumatic neck pain, in particular whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), has not been assessed to date to our knowledge. The aim of this study was to investigate if expectations for recovery are a prognostic factor after experiencing a WAD. We used a prospective cohort study composed of insurance claimants in Sweden. The participants were car occupants who filed a neck injury claim (i.e., for WAD) to one of two insurance companies between 15 January 2004 and 12 January 2005 (n = 1,032). Postal questionnaires were completed shortly (average 23 d) after the collision and then again 6 mo later. Expectations for recovery were measured with a numerical rating scale (NRS) at baseline, where 0 corresponds to "unlikely to make a full recovery" and 10 to "very likely to make a full recovery." The scale was reverse coded and trichotomised into NRS 0, 1-4, and 5-10. The main outcome measure was self-perceived disability at 6 mo postinjury, measured with the Pain Disability Index, and categorised into no/low, moderate, and high disability. Multivariable polytomous logistic regression was used for the analysis. There was a dose response relationship between recovery expectations and disability. After controlling for severity of physical and mental symptoms, individuals who stated that they were less likely to make a full recovery (NRS 5-10), were more likely to have a high disability compared to individuals who stated that they were very likely to make a full recovery (odds ratio [OR] 4.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1 to 8.5]. For the intermediate category (NRS 1-4), the OR was 2.1 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.2). Associations between expectations and

  13. Does unconscious stress play a role in prolonged cardiovascular stress recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosschot, J F; Geurts, S A E; Kruizinga, I; Radstaak, M; Verkuil, B; Quirin, M; Kompier, M A J

    2014-08-01

    According to recent insights, humans might not be aware of a substantial part of their cognitive stress representations while these still have prolonged physiological effects. 'Unconscious stress' can be measured by implicit affect (IA) tests. It was shown that IA predicts physiological stress responses, in fact better than explicit ('conscious') affect. It is not known yet whether IA is associated with concurrent prolonged stress responses. In two studies (n = 62 and 123), anger harassment was used to induce stress. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously. During BP and HR recovery, IA was measured by an 'anger' version of the implicit association test (IAT) or the implicit positive and negative affect test (IPANAT). Blood pressure and HR increased during anger harassment and recovery afterwards. When using the IPANAT BP recovery levels were lower when positive IA was high and higher when negative IA was high, independent of explicit affect and rumination. These results were not found using the IAT. These results provide preliminary evidence that physiological stress recovery is associated with IA. This is in line with the theory that unconscious stress is responsible for a-possibly considerable-part of unhealthy prolonged stress-related physiological activity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Efficiency of two-step solar thermochemical non-stoichiometric redox cycles with heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapp, J.; Davidson, J.H.; Lipiński, W.

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in the effectiveness of solid phase heat recovery and in the thermodynamic properties of metal oxides are the most important paths to achieving unprecedented thermal efficiencies of 10% and higher in non-stoichiometric solar redox reactors. In this paper, the impact of solid and gas phase heat recovery on the efficiency of a non-stoichiometric cerium dioxide-based H 2 O/CO 2 splitting cycle realized in a solar-driven reactor are evaluated in a parametric thermodynamic analysis. Application of solid phase heat recovery to the cycling metal oxide allows for lower reduction zone operating temperatures, simplifying reactor design. An optimum temperature for metal oxide reduction results from two competing phenomena as the reduction temperature is increased: increasing re-radiation losses from the reactor aperture and decreasing heat loss due to imperfect solid phase heat recovery. Additionally, solid phase heat recovery increases the efficiency gains made possible by gas phase heat recovery. -- Highlights: ► Both solid and gas phase heat recovery are essential to achieve high thermal efficiency in non-stoichiometric ceria-based solar redox reactors. ► Solid phase heat recovery allows for lower reduction temperatures and increases the gains made possible by gas phase heat recovery. ► The optimum reduction temperature increases with increasing concentration ratio and decreasing solid phase heat recovery effectiveness. ► Even moderate levels of heat recovery dramatically improve reactor efficiency from 3.5% to 16%.

  15. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Magera

    Full Text Available Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1 publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2 abundance trends and recovery status, and (3 historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%, Significantly Decreasing (10%, Non-Significant Change (28% and Unknown (20%. Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47, larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular

  16. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Warming, soil moisture, and loss of snow increase Bromus tectorum’s population growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Compagnoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Climate change threatens to exacerbate the impacts of invasive species. In temperate ecosystems, direct effects of warming may be compounded by dramatic reductions in winter snow cover. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum is arguably the most destructive biological invader in basins of the North American Intermountain West, and warming could increase its performance through direct effects on demographic rates or through indirect effects mediated by loss of snow. We conducted a two-year experimental manipulation of temperature and snow pack to test whether 1 warming increases cheatgrass population growth rate and 2 reduced snow cover contributes to cheatgrass’ positive response to warming. We used infrared heaters operating continuously to create the warming treatment, but turned heaters on only during snowfalls for the snowmelt treatment. We monitored cheatgrass population growth rate and the vital rates that determine it: emergence, survival and fecundity. Growth rate increased in both warming and snowmelt treatments. The largest increases occurred in warming plots during the wettest year, indicating that the magnitude of response to warming depends on moisture availability. Warming increased both fecundity and survival, especially in the wet year, while snowmelt contributed to the positive effects of warming by increasing survival. Our results indicate that increasing temperature will exacerbate cheatgrass impacts, especially where warming causes large reductions in the depth and duration of snow cover.

  18. Therapeutic alliance in schizophrenia: the role of recovery orientation, self-stigma, and insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvrgic, Sara; Cavelti, Marialuisa; Beck, Eva-Marina; Rüsch, Nicolas; Vauth, Roland

    2013-08-30

    The present study examined variables related to the quality of the therapeutic alliance in out-patients with schizophrenia. We expected recovery orientation and insight to be positively, and self-stigma to be negatively associated with a good therapeutic alliance. We expected these associations to be independent from age, clinical symptoms (i.e. positive and negative symptoms, depression), and more general aspects of relationship building like avoidant attachment style and the duration of treatment by the current therapist. The study included 156 participants with DSM-IV diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in the maintenance phase of treatment. Therapeutic alliance, recovery orientation, self-stigma, insight, adult attachment style, and depression were assessed by self-report. Symptoms were rated by interviewers. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that more recovery orientation, less self-stigma, and more insight independently were associated with a better quality of the therapeutic alliance. Clinical symptoms, adult attachment style, age, and the duration of treatment by current therapist were unrelated to the quality of the therapeutic alliance. Low recovery orientation and increased self-stigma might undermine the therapeutic alliance in schizophrenia beyond the detrimental effect of poor insight. Therefore in clinical settings, besides enhancing insight, recovery orientation, and self-stigma should be addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Methods to maximise recovery of environmental DNA from water samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rheyda Hinlo

    Full Text Available The environmental DNA (eDNA method is a detection technique that is rapidly gaining credibility as a sensitive tool useful in the surveillance and monitoring of invasive and threatened species. Because eDNA analysis often deals with small quantities of short and degraded DNA fragments, methods that maximize eDNA recovery are required to increase detectability. In this study, we performed experiments at different stages of the eDNA analysis to show which combinations of methods give the best recovery rate for eDNA. Using Oriental weatherloach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus as a study species, we show that various combinations of DNA capture, preservation and extraction methods can significantly affect DNA yield. Filtration using cellulose nitrate filter paper preserved in ethanol or stored in a -20°C freezer and extracted with the Qiagen DNeasy kit outperformed other combinations in terms of cost and efficiency of DNA recovery. Our results support the recommendation to filter water samples within 24hours but if this is not possible, our results suggest that refrigeration may be a better option than freezing for short-term storage (i.e., 3-5 days. This information is useful in designing eDNA detection of low-density invasive or threatened species, where small variations in DNA recovery can signify the difference between detection success or failure.

  20. [Voluntary alpha-power increasing training impact on the heart rate variability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock

  1. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas L. Stöggl; Glenn Björklund; Glenn Björklund

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high ...

  2. [Recovery: systematic review of a concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccari, Ivana Oliveira Preto; Campos, Rosana Teresa Onocko; Stefanello, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    The concept of recovery has been described in papers as a state of psychic, physical and social recuperation of day-to-day functions. The scope of this article is to analyze the concepts of the term in different research methodologies and the paradigmatic evolution of the recovery concept. Systematic bibliographical research was conducted in the Pubmed database using the words "recovery + schizophrenia" limited to freely available full papers published in the previous two years. Nineteen papers were analyzed. The majority of the papers sought associations between characteristic data and recovery; few papers discussed the concept in a way to distinguish it from other words like cure or rehabilitation. Recovery as a state in which people with severe mental illness can feel like the creators of their own itinerary tend to be found in qualitative studies and in bibliographic reviews in which the meaning of recovery is not related to the lack of symptoms and tends to prioritize how participative the life of an individual can be despite the disease. Some quantitative studies detect this conceptual difference. In qualitative research there is an increase in the concept of recovery and in ways of promoting it.

  3. Changes in transcriptional orientation are associated with increases in evolutionary rates of enterobacterial genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiung Chao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in transcriptional orientation (“CTOs” occur frequently in prokaryotic genomes. Such changes usually result from genomic inversions, which may cause a conflict between the directions of replication and transcription and an increase in mutation rate. However, CTOs do not always lead to the replication-transcription confrontation. Furthermore, CTOs may cause deleterious disruptions of operon structure and/or gene regulations. The currently existing CTOs may indicate relaxation of selection pressure. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate whether CTOs have an independent effect on the evolutionary rates of the affected genes, and whether these genes are subject to any type of selection pressure in prokaryotes. Methods Three closely related enterbacteria, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, were selected for comparisons of synonymous (dS and nonsynonymous (dN substitution rate between the genes that have experienced changes in transcriptional orientation (changed-orientation genes, “COGs” and those that do not (same-orientation genes, “SOGs”. The dN/dS ratio was also derived to evaluate the selection pressure on the analyzed genes. Confounding factors in the estimation of evolutionary rates, such as gene essentiality, gene expression level, replication-transcription confrontation, and decreased dS at gene terminals were controlled in the COG-SOG comparisons. Results We demonstrate that COGs have significantly higher dN and dS than SOGs when a series of confounding factors are controlled. However, the dN/dS ratios are similar between the two gene groups, suggesting that the increase in dS can sufficiently explain the increase in dN in COGs. Therefore, the increases in evolutionary rates in COGs may be mainly mutation-driven. Conclusions Here we show that CTOs can increase the evolutionary rates of the affected genes. This effect is independent of the

  4. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California olive... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-09-0089; FV10-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  5. 76 FR 67320 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California walnut handlers are subject to... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0062; FV11-984-1 FR] Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  6. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California olive handlers are... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0093; FV12-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  7. Increasing freshwater recovery upon aquifer storage : A field and modelling study of dedicated aquifer storage and recovery configurations in brackish-saline aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, Koen

    2016-01-01

    The subsurface may provide opportunities for robust, effective, sustainable, and cost-efficient freshwater management solutions. For instance, via aquifer storage and recovery (ASR; Pyne, 2005): “the storage of water in a suitable aquifer through a well during times when water is available, and the

  8. Proteomic analysis of soybean hypocotyl during recovery after flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mudassar Nawaz; Sakata, Katsumi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-05-21

    Soybean is a nutritionally important crop, but exhibits reduced growth and yields under flooding stress. To investigate soybean responses during post-flooding recovery, a gel-free proteomic technique was used to examine the protein profile in the hypocotyl. Two-day-old soybeans were flooded for 2 days and hypocotyl was collected under flooding and during the post-flooding recovery period. A total of 498 and 70 proteins were significantly changed in control and post-flooding recovering soybeans, respectively. Based on proteomic and clustering analyses, three proteins were selected for mRNA expression and enzyme activity assays. Pyruvate kinase was increased under flooding, but gradually decreased during post-flooding recovery period at protein abundance, mRNA, and enzyme activity levels. Nucleotidylyl transferase was decreased under flooding and increased during post-flooding recovery at both mRNA expression and enzyme activity levels. Beta-ketoacyl reductase 1 was increased under flooding and decreased during recovery at protein abundance and mRNA expression levels, but its enzyme activity gradually increased during the post-flooding recovery period. These results suggest that pyruvate kinase, nucleotidylyl transferase, and beta-ketoacyl reductase play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean hypocotyl by promoting glycolysis for the generation of ATP and regulation of secondary metabolic pathways. This study analyzed post-flooding recovery response mechanisms in soybean hypocotyl, which is a model organ for studying secondary growth, using a gel-free proteomic technique. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins extracted from soybean hypocotyls identified 20 common proteins between control and flooding-stressed soybeans that changed significantly in abundance over time. The hypocotyl proteins that changed during post-flooding recovery were assigned to protein, development, secondary metabolism, and glycolysis categories. The analysis revealed that three

  9. Increased Frame Rate for Plane Wave Imaging Without Loss of Image Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2015-01-01

    Clinical applications of plane wave imaging necessitate the creation of high-quality images with the highest possible frame rate for improved blood flow tracking and anatomical imaging. However, linear array transducers create grating lobe artefacts, which degrade the image quality especially...... in the near field for λ-pitch transducers. Artefacts can only partly be suppressed by increasing the number of emissions, and this paper demonstrates how the frame rate can be increased without loss of image quality by using λ/2-pitch transducers. The number of emissions and steering angles are optimized...

  10. The recovery of Bt toxin content after temperature stress termination in transgenic cotton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.; Wen, Y.; Zhang, X.; Wang, Y.; Chen, D.

    2013-06-01

    The insecticidal efficacy of Bt cotton under different environments has generated controversy in recent years. The objective of this study was to investigate possible reasons of the conflicting results caused by temperature stress. Two different types of Bt transgenic cotton cultivars (a Bt cultivar, Sikang1, and an hybrid Bt cultivar, Sikang3) were selected. The plants of the two Bt cultivars were exposed to high temperature (37 degree centigrade), low temperature (18 degree centigrade), and the control (27 degree centigrade) for short (24 h) and long (48 h) periods of stress at peak boll stage, and then moved to the glasshouse where the control plants were maintained. The results showed that the leaf insecticidal toxin content fully recovered within 24 h to the level of control after the end of short duration high-temperature treatment, and recovered mostly within 48 h of the termination of 24 h low-temperature stress. Under long duration high temperature treatment the Bt toxin content required longer recovery periods (48 and 72 h for Sikang3 and Sikang1, respectively) to reach the control level. The Bt protein content only recovered partially at 96 h after the end of the long-duration low-temperature stress, and the concentrations of the Cry1Ac protein were 74% and 77% of the corresponding control for Sikang1 and Sikang3, respectively. The different recovery and increase slowly of the leaf nitrogen metabolic rates after ceasing the heat and cold stress may be possible reason for the above difference. In summary, the duration and type of temperature (cold or heat) stress may cause different Bt insecticidal protein recovery rate due to different recovery rate of enzymes. (Author) 31 refs.

  11. A randomized-controlled trial of intensive case management emphasizing the recovery model among patients with severe and enduring mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S; McFarland, J; Kealy, B; Pullela, A; Saunders, J; Cullen, W; Meagher, D

    2012-09-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of recovery principles in mental health services. We studied the implementation of a programme of intensive case management (ICM) emphasizing recovery principles in a community mental health service in Ireland. Eighty service attenders with severe and enduring illness characterized by significant ongoing disability were randomized into (1) a group receiving a programme of ICM and (2) a group receiving treatment as usual (TAU). Groups were compared before and after the programme for general psychopathology using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) (clinician rated) and How are You? scale (self-rated). The Functional Analysis of Care Environments (FACE) scale provided assessment of multiple functional domains. The overall group (mean age 44.5 ± 13.2 years; 60% male) had mean total Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS) scale scores of 10.5 ± 4.6, with problems in social functioning especially prominent (mean social subscale score 5.0 ± 2.7). The ICM group were younger (p recovery principles resulted in significant improvement across psychopathological and functional domains. Improvements were linked to enhanced engagement with structured daily activities. Recovery-oriented practices can be integrated into existing mental health services and provided alongside traditional models of care.

  12. Dual-earner couples' weekend recovery support, state of recovery, and work engagement: Work-linked relationship as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoungAh; Haun, Verena C

    2017-10-01

    Despite growing recovery research, little is known about couple-dyadic processes of recovery from work. Given that dual-earner couples experience most of their recovery opportunities during nonwork times when they are together, partners in a couple relationship may substantially affect recovery and work engagement. In this study, we propose a couple-dyadic model in which weekend partner recovery support (reported by the recipient partner) is positively related to the recipient partner's state of recovery after the weekend which, in turn, increases the recipient's work engagement the following week (actor-actor mediation effect). We also test the effect of one's state of recovery on the partner's subsequent work engagement (partner effect). Additionally, work-linked relationship status is tested as a moderator of the partner effect. Actor-partner interdependence mediation modeling is used to analyze the data from 167 dual-earner couples who answered surveys on 4 measurement occasions. The results support the indirect effect of partner recovery support on work engagement through the postweekend state of recovery. Multigroup analysis results reveal that the partner effect of state of recovery on work engagement is significant for work-linked couples only and is absent for non-work-linked couples. Theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Thermal recovery gaining importance, says expert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-12-21

    In a forecast presented to the Calgary section CIM- AIME at a recent monthly technical meeting, J.V. Howard, Core Labs. Inc., predicted that within the next 2 to 5 yr, California oil production will come from thermal recovery schemes to the extent of 200,000 bpd. One American major oil company is planning a fire flood in a heavy oil reservoir at 12,000 ft depth, where primary recovery is estimated as only 3% of original oil in place. It is estimated that the minimum oil saturation feasible for thermal recovery is 950 bbl per acre-ft. The larger number of variables that will determine the success or failure of thermal recovery makes it essential to have thorough and complete studies of all the thermal processes before one is selected for a given set of reservoir and economic conditions. The number of thermal recovery projects will increase rapidly and the success of any project will depend upon the proper application of experience and technology in thermal recovery.

  14. Increasing recruitment rates in an inpatient clinical research study using quality improvement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauers, Hadley S; Beck, Andrew F; Kahn, Robert S; Simmons, Jeffrey M

    2014-11-01

    One important benefit of successful patient recruitment is increased generalizability of findings. We sought to optimize enrollment of children admitted with asthma as part of a population-based, prospective, observational cohort study with the goal of enrolling at least 60% of all eligible and staffed patients. Quality improvement methods were used to improve cohort recruitment. Weekly meetings with study staff and study leadership were held to plan and discuss how to maximize recruitment rates. Significant initial variability in recruitment success prompted the team to use small-scale tests of change to increase recruitment numbers. A number of tests were trialed, focusing primarily on reducing patient refusals and improving recruitment process efficiency. Recruitment rates were calculated by dividing eligible by enrolled patients and displayed using annotated Shewhart control charts. Control charts were used to illustrate week-to-week variability while also enabling differentiation of common-cause and special-cause variation. The study enrolled 774 patients, representing 54% of all eligible and 59% of those eligible for whom staff were available to enroll. Our mean weekly recruitment rate increased from 55% during the first 3 months of the study to a statistically significant sustained rate of 61%. This was sustained given numerous obstacles, such as departing and hiring of staff and adding a second recruitment location. Implementing quality improvement methods within a larger research study led to an increase in the rate of recruitment as well as the stability in recruitment rates from week-to-week. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Recovery Responses to Maximal Exercise in Healthy-Weight Children and Children with Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Elizabeth A.; Black, W. Scott; Bailey, Alison L.; Lennie, Terry A.; Sims, Wilma J.; Clasey, Jody L.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in heart rate recovery (HRRec) and oxygen consumption recovery (VO2 recovery) between young healthy-weight children and children with obesity following a maximal volitional graded exercise test (GXTmax). Method: Twenty healthy-weight children and 13 children with obesity completed body…

  16. Experimental investigations of argon spark gap recovery times by developing a high voltage double pulse generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C S; Patel, A S; Naresh, P; Sharma, Archana; Mittal, K C

    2014-06-01

    The voltage recovery in a spark gap for repetitive switching has been a long research interest. A two-pulse technique is used to determine the voltage recovery times of gas spark gap switch with argon gas. First pulse is applied to the spark gap to over-volt the gap and initiate the breakdown and second pulse is used to determine the recovery voltage of the gap. A pulse transformer based double pulse generator capable of generating 40 kV peak pulses with rise time of 300 ns and 1.5 μs FWHM and with a delay of 10 μs-1 s was developed. A matrix transformer topology is used to get fast rise times by reducing L(l)C(d) product in the circuit. Recovery Experiments have been conducted for 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm gap length with 0-2 bars pressure for argon gas. Electrodes of a sparkgap chamber are of rogowsky profile type, made up of stainless steel material, and thickness of 15 mm are used in the recovery study. The variation in the distance and pressure effects the recovery rate of the spark gap. An intermediate plateu is observed in the spark gap recovery curves. Recovery time decreases with increase in pressure and shorter gaps in length are recovering faster than longer gaps.

  17. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.

    2003-07-01

    The efficient recovery of energy and improvements in the handling of nutrients from manure have attracted increased research focus during recent decades. Anaerobic digestion is a key process in any strategy for the recovery of energy, while slurry separation is an important component in an improved nutrient-handling strategy. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first deals mainly with nutrient recovery strategies and the second examines biological degradation processes, including controlled anaerobic digestion. (au)

  18. Effectiveness of worksite interventions to increase influenza vaccination rates among employees and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofstead, Cori L; Sherman, Bruce W; Wetzler, Harry P; Dirlam Langlay, Alexandra M; Mueller, Natalie J; Ward, Jeremy M; Ritter, Daniel R; Poland, Gregory A

    2013-02-01

    To increase influenza vaccination rates among industrial employees and their families through a campaign at a large corporation. This prospective, multisite study used employee surveys and claims data to evaluate an evidence-based worksite vaccination program. Vaccination rates among insured employees and dependents (N = 13,520) increased significantly after the intervention (P employees received vaccine at employer-sponsored events. There was a strong association between employee and family vaccination status. Primary reasons for receiving the vaccine were economic (free 84%; convenient 80%; avoid absenteeism 82%), rather than health-related. Knowledge was associated with vaccination, but customized education did not change beliefs. Worksite programs can demonstrably increase vaccination rates among industrial employees and families. Consideration should be given to repositioning vaccination from medical treatment to community initiatives offered with other worksite health promotion programs.

  19. Disaster Recovery Planning as part of Business Continuity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Pinta, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, a well functioning ICT infrastructure belongs to the most critical factors of companies across all branches of business. An importance of ensuring the continued operation of information systems, or the rapid recovery of the systems in the case of emergency, has increased. These needs require creating business continuity management plan and disaster recovery planning. This paper describes the creation of emergency and recovery plans and setting recovery objectives significantly affec...

  20. Recovery Ce from Ce - TBP Used Oxalic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwani, MV; Subagiono, R.; Suyanti

    2007-01-01

    Recovery or stripping Ce from Ce - TBP product of monazite sand used oxalic acid. Ce - TBP as organic phase and oxalic acid as aqueous phase and as strong precipitant compound to precipitate metal element. The stripping product as Ce - oxalic precipitate. The influence parameter were percentage of oxalic acid, volume ratio of Ce-TBP with oxalic acid, time and rate of stripping. At stripping of 25 ml Ce - TBP used oxalic acid, the optimum condition were achieve at using 5% oxalic acid, volume ratio of Ce - TBP : 5% oxalic acid = 1 : 1, time of stripping 7.5 minute and rate of stripping 150 rpm. At the optimum condition was obtained the recovery efficiency was 100%. (author)

  1. Surviving ICU: Stories of recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewens, Beverley A; Hendricks, Joyce M; Sundin, Deborah

    2018-02-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate stories of recovery through the lens of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Survival from ICUs is increasing, as are associated physical and psychological complications. Despite the significant impact on survivors, there is inadequate support provision in Australia and world-wide for this population. An interpretive biographical approach of intensive care survivors' experiences of recovery. Data were collected during 2014-2015 from diaries, face to face interviews, memos and field notes. Six participants diarized for 3 months commencing 2 months after hospital discharge. At 5 months, participants were interviewed about the content of their diaries and symbols and signifiers in them to create a shared meaning. Analysis of diaries and interviews were undertaken using two frameworks to identify themes throughout participants' stories and provides a unique portrait of recovery through their individual lens. Participants considered their lives had irreparably changed and yet felt unsupported by a healthcare system that had "saved" them. This view through their lens identified turmoil, which existed between their surface and inner worlds as they struggled to conform to what recovery "should be". The novel biographical methods provided a safe and creative way to reveal survivors' inner thoughts and feelings. Participants' considered creating their stories supported their recovery process and in particular enabled them to reflect on their progress. Findings from this study may lead to increased awareness among health care providers about problems survivors face and improved support services more broadly, based on frameworks appropriate for this population. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Localized Discovery and Recovery for Query Packet Losses in Wireless Sensor Networks with Distributed Detector Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu Miura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An essential application of wireless sensor networks is to successfully respond to user queries. Query packet losses occur in the query dissemination due to wireless communication problems such as interference, multipath fading, packet collisions, etc. The losses of query messages at sensor nodes result in the failure of sensor nodes reporting the requested data. Hence, the reliable and successful dissemination of query messages to sensor nodes is a non-trivial problem. The target of this paper is to enable highly successful query delivery to sensor nodes by localized and energy-efficient discovery, and recovery of query losses. We adopt local and collective cooperation among sensor nodes to increase the success rate of distributed discoveries and recoveries. To enable the scalability in the operations of discoveries and recoveries, we employ a distributed name resolution mechanism at each sensor node to allow sensor nodes to self-detect the correlated queries and query losses, and then efficiently locally respond to the query losses. We prove that the collective discovery of query losses has a high impact on the success of query dissemination and reveal that scalability can be achieved by using the proposed approach. We further study the novel features of the cooperation and competition in the collective recovery at PHY and MAC layers, and show that the appropriate number of detectors can achieve optimal successful recovery rate. We evaluate the proposed approach with both mathematical analyses and computer simulations. The proposed approach enables a high rate of successful delivery of query messages and it results in short route lengths to recover from query losses. The proposed approach is scalable and operates in a fully distributed manner.

  3. Sleep restriction increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases by augmenting proinflammatory responses through IL-17 and CRP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel M A van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep restriction, leading to deprivation of sleep, is common in modern 24-h societies and is associated with the development of health problems including cardiovascular diseases. Our objective was to investigate the immunological effects of prolonged sleep restriction and subsequent recovery sleep, by simulating a working week and following recovery weekend in a laboratory environment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: After 2 baseline nights of 8 hours time in bed (TIB, 13 healthy young men had only 4 hours TIB per night for 5 nights, followed by 2 recovery nights with 8 hours TIB. 6 control subjects had 8 hours TIB per night throughout the experiment. Heart rate, blood pressure, salivary cortisol and serum C-reactive protein (CRP were measured after the baseline (BL, sleep restriction (SR and recovery (REC period. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were collected at these time points, counted and stimulated with PHA. Cell proliferation was analyzed by thymidine incorporation and cytokine production by ELISA and RT-PCR. CRP was increased after SR (145% of BL; p<0.05, and continued to increase after REC (231% of BL; p<0.05. Heart rate was increased after REC (108% of BL; p<0.05. The amount of circulating NK-cells decreased (65% of BL; p<0.005 and the amount of B-cells increased (121% of BL; p<0.005 after SR, but these cell numbers recovered almost completely during REC. Proliferation of stimulated PBMC increased after SR (233% of BL; p<0.05, accompanied by increased production of IL-1beta (137% of BL; p<0.05, IL-6 (163% of BL; p<0.05 and IL-17 (138% of BL; p<0.05 at mRNA level. After REC, IL-17 was still increased at the protein level (119% of BL; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: 5 nights of sleep restriction increased lymphocyte activation and the production of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1beta IL-6 and IL-17; they remained elevated after 2 nights of recovery sleep, accompanied by increased heart rate and serum CRP, 2 important risk

  4. Actual and potential use of population viability analyses in recovery of plant species listed under the US endangered species act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Sara L; Che-Castaldo, Judy P; Neel, Maile C

    2013-12-01

    Use of population viability analyses (PVAs) in endangered species recovery planning has been met with both support and criticism. Previous reviews promote use of PVA for setting scientifically based, measurable, and objective recovery criteria and recommend improvements to increase the framework's utility. However, others have questioned the value of PVA models for setting recovery criteria and assert that PVAs are more appropriate for understanding relative trade-offs between alternative management actions. We reviewed 258 final recovery plans for 642 plants listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act to determine the number of plans that used or recommended PVA in recovery planning. We also reviewed 223 publications that describe plant PVAs to assess how these models were designed and whether those designs reflected previous recommendations for improvement of PVAs. Twenty-four percent of listed species had recovery plans that used or recommended PVA. In publications, the typical model was a matrix population model parameterized with ≤5 years of demographic data that did not consider stochasticity, genetics, density dependence, seed banks, vegetative reproduction, dormancy, threats, or management strategies. Population growth rates for different populations of the same species or for the same population at different points in time were often statistically different or varied by >10%. Therefore, PVAs parameterized with underlying vital rates that vary to this degree may not accurately predict recovery objectives across a species' entire distribution or over longer time scales. We assert that PVA, although an important tool as part of an adaptive-management program, can help to determine quantitative recovery criteria only if more long-term data sets that capture spatiotemporal variability in vital rates become available. Lacking this, there is a strong need for viable and comprehensive methods for determining quantitative, science-based recovery criteria for

  5. Sports massage with ozonised oil or non-ozonised oil: Comparative effects on recovery parameters after maximal effort in cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Bianco, Antonino; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bellafiore, Marianna; Grainer, Alessandro; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Cardoso, Claudia C; Dall'aglio, Roberto; Palma, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    To study the effects of passive rest (PR) and sports massage with (SMOZO) and without (SM) ozonised oil on sports performance psycho-physiological indices in competitive amateur cyclists after 3 pre-fatiguing Wingate cycle and post-recovery ramp tests. An intra-subjects experimental design with repeated measures. Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, University of Padua. Fifteen male competitive cyclists (age: 27 ± 3.5 years, body weight: 77.6 ± 8.3 kg, height: 178 ± 7.7 cm) were studied. Subjects' power output (P), heart rate (HR), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and blood lactate (BL) clearance in response to PR, SMOZO and SM recoveries were compared. There were no significant differences in cyclists' heart rate patterns in the three experimental conditions (p > 0.05). After SMOZO recovery, athletes showed a higher Pmax (p oil during sports massage increases blood lactate removal, improves performance and reduces the perception of fatigue in cyclists from 3 Wingate tests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Measuring personal recovery - psychometric properties of the Swedish Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery (QPR-Swe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentzell, Elisabeth; Hultqvist, Jenny; Neil, Sandra; Eklund, Mona

    2017-10-01

    Personal recovery, defined as an individual process towards meaning, is an important target within mental health services. Measuring recovery hence requires reliable and valid measures. The Process of Recovery Questionnaire (QPR) was developed for that purpose. The aim was to develop a Swedish version of the QPR (QPR-Swe) and explore its psychometric properties in terms of factor structure, internal consistency, construct validity and sensitivity to change. A total of 226 participants entered the study. The factor structure was investigated by Principal Component Analysis and Scree plot. Construct validity was addressed in terms of convergent validity against indicators of self-mastery, self-esteem, quality of life and self-rated health. A one-factor solution of QPR-Swe received better support than a two-factor solution. Good internal consistency was indicated, α = 0.92, and construct validity was satisfactory. The QPR-Swe showed preliminary sensitivity to change. The QPR-Swe showed promising initial psychometric properties in terms of internal consistency, convergent validity and sensitivity to change. The QPR-Swe is recommended for use in research and clinical contexts to assess personal recovery among people with mental illness.

  7. Shoreline recovery from storms on the east coast of Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, S.; Stretch, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Episodic extreme waves due to sea storms can cause severe coastal erosion. The recovery times of such events are important for the analysis of risk and coastal vulnerability. The recovery period of a storm damaged coastline represents a time when the coastline is most vulnerable and nearby infrastructure is at the greatest risk. We propose that identification of the beach recovery period can be used as a coastal management tool when determining beach usage. As a case study, we analyse 37 yr of beach profile data on the east coast of South Africa. Considering beach length and cross-sectional area, we establish a global recovery period and rate and identify the physical characteristics of the coastlines that either accelerate or retard recovery. The beaches in the case study were found to take an average of two years to recover at a rate of approximately 90 m3 m-1 yr-1. Beach profiles with vegetated dunes recovered faster than urbanized beaches. Perpendicular beach structures have both positive and negative effects on beach recovery. Coastlines with rock outcrops in the surf zone tend to recover slowly and long-term sediment loss was identified in cases where storm damaged beaches have not recovered to pre-erosion levels.

  8. Auditory processing during deep propofol sedation and recovery from unconsciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Heinke, Wolfgang; Sammler, Daniela; Olthoff, Derk

    2006-08-01

    Using evoked potentials, this study investigated effects of deep propofol sedation, and effects of recovery from unconsciousness, on the processing of auditory information with stimuli suited to elicit a physical MMN, and a (music-syntactic) ERAN. Levels of sedation were assessed using the Bispectral Index (BIS) and the Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation Scale (MOAAS). EEG-measurements were performed during wakefulness, deep propofol sedation (MOAAS 2-3, mean BIS=68), and a recovery period. Between deep sedation and recovery period, the infusion rate of propofol was increased to achieve unconsciousness (MOAAS 0-1, mean BIS=35); EEG measurements of recovery period were performed after subjects regained consciousness. During deep sedation, the physical MMN was markedly reduced, but still significant. No ERAN was observed in this level. A clear P3a was elicited during deep sedation by those deviants, which were task-relevant during the awake state. As soon as subjects regained consciousness during the recovery period, a normal MMN was elicited. By contrast, the P3a was absent in the recovery period, and the P3b was markedly reduced. Results indicate that the auditory sensory memory (as indexed by the physical MMN) is still active, although strongly reduced, during deep sedation (MOAAS 2-3). The presence of the P3a indicates that attention-related processes are still operating during this level. Processes of syntactic analysis appear to be abolished during deep sedation. After propofol-induced anesthesia, the auditory sensory memory appears to operate normal as soon as subjects regain consciousness, whereas the attention-related processes indexed by P3a and P3b are markedly impaired. Results inform about effects of sedative drugs on auditory and attention-related mechanisms. The findings are important because these mechanisms are prerequisites for auditory awareness, auditory learning and memory, as well as language perception during anesthesia.

  9. Use of coal-oil agglomerates for particulate gold recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvez, J.P.S.; Kim, M.J.; Wong, P.L.M.; Tran, T. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry

    1998-09-01

    The underlying principles by which gold is recovered by coal-oil agglomerates was investigated. The effects of various parameters such as oil:coal ratios, agglomerate:ore ratios, pH and coal particle size on gold recovery were evaluated using synthetic gold bearing samples, bituminous coal, and diesel oil and kerosene. The effects of sulfides on gold recovery and the depth of gold particle penetration within the agglomerates were also investigated. Results showed that gold recovery was increased by increasing agglomerate:ore ratio, decreasing oil:coal ratio and decreasing coal particle size. There was no significant difference in gold recoveries at pH range of 4-12 and at up to 5% sulfides in the feed.

  10. Luteal phase of the menstrual cycle increases sweating rate during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia A.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated whether the luteal phase elevation of body temperature would be offset during exercise by increased sweating, when women are normally hydrated. Eleven women performed 60 min of cycling exercise at 60% of their maximal work load at 32ºC and 80% relative air humidity. Each subject participated in two identical experimental sessions: one during the follicular phase (between days 5 and 8 and the other during the luteal phase (between days 22 and 25. Women with serum progesterone >3 ng/mL, in the luteal phase were classified as group 1 (N = 4, whereas the others were classified as group 2 (N = 7. Post-exercise urine volume (213 ± 80 vs 309 ± 113 mL and specific urine gravity (1.008 ± 0.003 vs 1.006 ± 0.002 changed (P < 0.05 during the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase in group 1. No menstrual cycle dependence was observed for these parameters in group 2. Sweat rate was higher (P < 0.05 in the luteal (3.10 ± 0.81 g m-2 min-1 than in the follicular phase (2.80 ± 0.64 g m-2 min-1 only in group 1. During exercise, no differences related to menstrual cycle phases were seen in rectal temperature, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, mean skin temperature, and pre- and post-exercise body weight. Women exercising in a warm and humid environment with water intake seem to be able to adapt to the luteal phase increase of basal body temperature through reduced urinary volume and increased sweating rate.

  11. Electrochemical reactor with rotating cylinder electrode for optimum electrochemical recovery of nickel from plating rinsing effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández-Tapia, J.R.; Vazquez-Arenas, J., E-mail: jgva@xanum.uam.mx; González, I.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Rotating cylinder cathode enhanced mass transport rates of Ni(II) species. • pH control around 4 is crucial to recover high purity nickel. • Increasing cathodic currents increased energy consumptions for nickel recovery. • Specific energy consumptions increase drastically at the end of electrolysis. -- Abstract: This study is devoted to analyze the metallic electrochemical recovery of nickel from synthetic solutions simulating plating rinsing discharges, in order to meet the water recycling policies implemented in these industries. These effluents present dilute Ni(II) concentrations (100 and 200 ppm) in chloride and sulfate media without supporting electrolyte (397–4202 μS cm{sup −1}), which stems poor current distribution, limited mass transfer, ohmic drops and enhancement of parasitic reactions. An electrochemical reactor with rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) and a pH controller were utilized to overcome these problems. The pH control around 4 was crucial to yield high purity nickel, and thus prevent the precipitation of hydroxides and oxides. Macroelectrolysis experiments were systematically conducted to analyze the impacts of the applied current density in the recovery efficiency and energy consumption, particularly for very diluted effluents (100 and 200 ppm Ni(II)), which present major recovery problems. Promising nickel recoveries in the order of 90% were found in the former baths using a current density of −3.08 mA cm{sup −2}, and with overall profits of 9.64 and 14.69 USD kg{sup −1}, respectively. These estimations were based on the international market price for nickel ($18 USD kg{sup −1})

  12. Recovery of ammonia and production of high-grade phosphates from digester effluents (municipal and livestock)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus (P) recovery of anaerobically digested swine wastewater and side-stream municipal wastewater via magnesium precipitation was enhanced by combining it with the recovery of ammonia (NH3) through gas-permeable membranes and low-rate aeration. The low-rate aeration stripped the natural carbon...

  13. Factors predicting recovery from suicide in attempted suicide patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fan-Ko; Lu, Chu-Yun; Tseng, Yun Shan; Chiang, Chun-Ying

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the factors predicting suicide recovery and to provide guidance for healthcare professionals when caring for individuals who have attempted suicide. The high rate of suicide is a global health problem. Suicide prevention has become an important issue in contemporary mental health. Most suicide research has focused on suicidal prevention and care. There is a lack of research on the factors predicting suicidal recovery. A cross-sectional design was adopted. A correlational study with a purposive sample of 160 individuals from a suicide prevention centre in southern Taiwan was conducted. The questionnaires included the Brief Symptom Rating Scale-5, Suicidal Recovery Assessment Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Descriptive statistics and linear regressions were used for the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 40.2 years. Many participants were striving to make changes to create a more stable and fulfilling life, had an improved recovery from suicide and had a good ability to adapt or solve problems. The linear regression showed that the Beck Hopelessness Scale scores (ß = -.551, p suicidal behaviour (ß = -.145, p = .008) were significant predictors of individuals' recovery from suicide. They accounted for 57.1% of the variance. Suicidal individuals who have a lower level of hopelessness, a better ability to cope with their mental condition and fewer past suicidal behaviours may better recover from suicide attempts. The nurses could use the results of this study to predict recovery from suicide in patients with attempted suicide. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Prostaglandin-mediated recovery from bacteremia delays larval development in fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Ringbauer, Joseph A; Goodman, Cynthia L; Reall, Tamra; Jiang, Xing-Fu; Stanley, David

    2018-04-01

    Insect immunity includes a surveillance system that detects and signals infections, coupled with hemocytic and humoral immune functions. These functions are signaled and coordinated by several biochemicals, including biogenic amines, insect cytokines, peptides, and prostaglandins (PGs). The actions of these mediators are coordinated within cells by various forms of cross-talk among the signaling systems and they result in effective reactions to infection. While this is well understood, we lack information on how immune-mediated recovery influences subsequent juvenile development in surviving insects. We investigated this point by posing the hypothesis that PG signaling is necessary for larval recovery, although the recovery imposes biological costs, registered in developmental delays and failures in surviving individuals. Here, we report that nodulation responses to infections by the bacterium, Serratia marcescens, increased over time up to 5 h postinfection, with no further nodulation; it increased in a linear manner with increasing bacterial dosages. Larval survivorship decreased with increasing bacterial doses. Treating larvae with the PG-biosynthesis inhibitor, indomethacin, led to sharply decreased nodulation reactions to infection, which were rescued in larvae cotreated with indomethacin and the PG-precursor, arachidonic acid. Although nodulation was fully rescued, all bacterial challenged larvae suffered reduced survivorship compared to controls. Bacterial infection led to reduced developmental rates in larvae, but not pupae. Adult emergence from pupae that developed from experimental larvae was also decreased. Taken together, our data potently bolster our hypothesis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Can cognitive activities during breaks in repetitive manual work accelerate recovery from fatigue? A controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Hallman, David M; Lyskov, Eugene; Hygge, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiologic theory and some empirical evidence suggest that fatigue caused by physical work may be more effectively recovered during "diverting" periods of cognitive activity than during passive rest; a phenomenon of great interest in working life. We investigated the extent to which development and recovery of fatigue during repeated bouts of an occupationally relevant reaching task was influenced by the difficulty of a cognitive activity between these bouts. Eighteen male volunteers performed three experimental sessions, consisting of six 7-min bouts of reaching alternating with 3 minutes of a memory test differing in difficulty between sessions. Throughout each session, recordings were made of upper trapezius muscle activity using electromyography (EMG), heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) using electrocardiography, arterial blood pressure, and perceived fatigue (Borg CR10 scale and SOFI). A test battery before, immediately after and 1 hour after the work period included measurements of maximal shoulder elevation strength (MVC), pressure pain threshold (PPT) over the trapezius muscles, and a submaximal isometric contraction. As expected, perceived fatigue and EMG amplitude increased during the physical work bouts. Recovery did occur between the bouts, but fatigue accumulated throughout the work period. Neither EMG changes nor recovery of perceived fatigue during breaks were influenced by cognitive task difficulty, while heart rate and HRV recovered the most during breaks with the most difficult task. Recovery of perceived fatigue after the 1 hour work period was also most pronounced for the most difficult cognitive condition, while MVC and PPT showed ambiguous patterns, and EMG recovered similarly after all three cognitive protocols. Thus, we could confirm that cognitive tasks between bouts of fatiguing physical work can, indeed, accelerate recovery of some factors associated with fatigue, even if benefits may be moderate and some responses may be

  16. Significance of the Capacity Recovery Effect in Pouch Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Zhang, Teng; Stroe, Daniel Loan

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) batteries are an emerging energy storage technology, which is technically-attractive due to its high theoretical limits; practically, it is expected that Li-S batteries will result into lighter energy storage devices with higher capacities than traditional Lithium-ion...... batteries. One of the actual disadvantages for this technology is the highly pronounced rate capacity effect, which reduces the available capacity to be discharged when high currents are used. This drawback might be addressed by the use of the capacity recovery effect, which by introducing relaxation...... periods between consecutive pulse discharges of the battery, increases the available discharge capacity of the cell. The capacity recovery effect of the Li-S cell is studied in this paper using the pulse discharge technique, considering its dependence on the applied current, discharge step length...

  17. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-06

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  18. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  19. Carbon Consequences of Forest Disturbance and Recovery Across the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher A.; Collatz, G. James; Masek, Jeffrey; Goward, Samuel N.

    2012-01-01

    Forests of North America are thought to constitute a significant long term sink for atmospheric carbon. The United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program has developed a large data base of stock changes derived from consecutive estimates of growing stock volume in the US. These data reveal a large and relatively stable increase in forest carbon stocks over the last two decades or more. The mechanisms underlying this national increase in forest stocks may include recovery of forests from past disturbances, net increases in forest area, and growth enhancement driven by climate or fertilization by CO2 and Nitrogen. Here we estimate the forest recovery component of the observed stock changes using FIA data on the age structure of US forests and carbon stocks as a function of age. The latter are used to parameterize forest disturbance and recovery processes in a carbon cycle model. We then apply resulting disturbance/recovery dynamics to landscapes and regions based on the forest age distributions. The analysis centers on 28 representative climate settings spread about forested regions of the conterminous US. We estimate carbon fluxes for each region and propagate uncertainties in calibration data through to the predicted fluxes. The largest recovery-driven carbon sinks are found in the South central, Pacific Northwest, and Pacific Southwest regions, with spatially averaged net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of about 100 g C / square m / a driven by forest age structure. Carbon sinks from recovery in the Northeast and Northern Lake States remain moderate to large owing to the legacy of historical clearing and relatively low modern disturbance rates from harvest and fire. At the continental scale, we find a conterminous U.S. forest NEP of only 0.16 Pg C/a from age structure in 2005, or only 0.047 Pg C/a of forest stock change after accounting for fire emissions and harvest transfers. Recent estimates of NEP derived from inventory stock change

  20. Potassium improves photosynthetic tolerance to and recovery from episodic drought stress in functional leaves of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Rizwan; Zhao, Wenqing; Dong, Haoran; Snider, John L; Abid, Muhammad; Iqbal, Babar; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-10-01

    To investigate whether potassium (K) application enhances the potential of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants to maintain physiological functions during drought and recovery, low K-sensitive (Siza 3) and -tolerant (Simian 3) cotton cultivars were exposed to three K rates (0, 150, and 300 K 2 O kg ha -1 ) and either well-watered conditions or severe drought stress followed by a recovery period. Under drought stress, cotton plants showed a substantial decline in leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, and the maximum and actual quantum yield of PSII, resulting in greater non-photochemical quenching and lipid peroxidation as compared to well-watered plants. However, plants under K application not only showed less of a decline in these traits but also displayed greater potential to recover after rewatering as compared to the plants without K application. Plants receiving K application showed lower lipid peroxidation, higher antioxidant enzyme activities, and increased proline accumulation as compared to plants without K application. Significant relationships between rates of photosynthetic recovery and K application were observed. The cultivar Siza 3 exhibited a more positive response to K application than Simian 3. The results suggest that K application enhances the cotton plant's potential to maintain functionality under drought and facilitates recovery after rewatering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased rate of treatment with antidepressants in patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Harhoff, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of depression and anxiety is increased in patients with multiple sclerosis, but it has not been investigated whether these conditions are treated in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the rate of treatment with antidepressants is increased...... in patients with multiple sclerosis compared with patients with other chronic illnesses and compared with the general population. By linkage of nationwide case registers, all patients were identified, who had received a main diagnosis of multiple sclerosis or osteoarthritis at first admission or during...... outpatient contact in the period 1995-2000 in Denmark. Rates of subsequent purchase of antidepressants for these patients were calculated. In total, 417 patients with a main diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and 12 127 patients with a main diagnosis of osteoarthritis, at first discharge from hospital...

  2. Cost Scaling of a Real-World Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Generator: A Deeper Dive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Yee, Shannon; LeBlanc, Saniya

    2015-01-01

    Cost is equally important to power density or efficiency for the adoption of waste heat recovery thermoelectric generators (TEG) in many transportation and industrial energy recovery applications. In many cases the system design that minimizes cost (e.g., the $/W value) can be very different than the design that maximizes the system's efficiency or power density, and it is important to understand the relationship between those designs to optimize TEG performance-cost compromises. Expanding on recent cost analysis work and using more detailed system modeling, an enhanced cost scaling analysis of a waste heat recovery thermoelectric generator with more detailed, coupled treatment of the heat exchangers has been performed. In this analysis, the effect of the heat lost to the environment and updated relationships between the hot-side and cold-side conductances that maximize power output are considered. This coupled thermal and thermoelectric treatment of the exhaust waste heat recovery thermoelectric generator yields modified cost scaling and design optimization equations, which are now strongly dependent on the heat leakage fraction, exhaust mass flow rate, and heat exchanger effectiveness. This work shows that heat exchanger costs most often dominate the overall TE system costs, that it is extremely difficult to escape this regime, and in order to achieve TE system costs of $1/W it is necessary to achieve heat exchanger costs of $1/(W/K). Minimum TE system costs per watt generally coincide with maximum power points, but Preferred TE Design Regimes are identified where there is little cost penalty for moving into regions of higher efficiency and slightly lower power outputs. These regimes are closely tied to previously-identified low cost design regimes. This work shows that the optimum fill factor Fopt minimizing system costs decreases as heat losses increase, and increases as exhaust mass flow rate and heat exchanger effectiveness increase. These findings have

  3. Economic analysis vs. capital-recovery requirements of power reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    As a consultant to electric utilities the author often becomes involved in the development of policy for capital recovery and in the determination of depreciation rates that will implement the policy. Utility capital recovery is controlled by generally accepted depreciation accounting practices and by regulatory commission accounting rules and, as a result, can differ significantly from engineering economics. Those involved with decommissioning of power reactors should be aware of the depreciation accounting and regulatory framework that dictates capital recovery requirements, whether their involvement is related to engineering economics or capital recovery. This presentation defines that framework, points out several significant implications (particularly tax), describes several conforming capital-recovery methods, describes several techniques that have been used with the decommissioning component in economic analysis of alternative energy sources, and discusses why those involved in economic analysis should learn the accounting and regulatory framework for capital recovery

  4. Supporting recovery in patients with psychosis through care by community-based adult mental health teams (REFOCUS): a multisite, cluster, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Mike; Bird, Victoria; Clarke, Eleanor; Le Boutillier, Clair; McCrone, Paul; Macpherson, Rob; Pesola, Francesca; Wallace, Genevieve; Williams, Julie; Leamy, Mary

    2015-06-01

    Mental health policy in many countries is oriented around recovery, but the evidence base for service-level recovery-promotion interventions is lacking. We did a cluster, randomised, controlled trial in two National Health Service Trusts in England. REFOCUS is a 1-year team-level intervention targeting staff behaviour to increase focus on values, preferences, strengths, and goals of patients with psychosis, and staff-patient relationships, through coaching and partnership. Between April, 2011, and May, 2012, community-based adult mental health teams were randomly allocated to provide usual treatment plus REFOCUS or usual treatment alone (control). Baseline and 1-year follow-up outcomes were assessed in randomly selected patients. The primary outcome was recovery and was assessed with the Questionnaire about Processes of Recovery (QPR). We also calculated overall service costs. We used multiple imputation to estimate missing data, and the imputation model captured clustering at the team level. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN02507940. 14 teams were included in the REFOCUS group and 13 in the control group. Outcomes were assessed in 403 patients (88% of the target sample) at baseline and in 297 at 1 year. Mean QPR total scores did not differ between the two groups (REFOCUS group 40·6 [SD 10·1] vs control 40·0 [10·2], adjusted difference 0·68, 95% CI -1·7 to 3·1, p=0·58). High team participation was associated with higher staff-rated scores for recovery-promotion behaviour change (adjusted difference -0·4, 95% CI -0·7 to -0·2, p=0·001) and patient-rated QPR interpersonal scores (-1·6, -2·7 to -0·5, p=0·005) at follow-up than low participation. Patients treated in the REFOCUS group incurred £1062 (95% CI -1103 to 3017) lower adjusted costs than those in the control group. Although the primary endpoint was negative, supporting recovery might, from the staff perspective, improve functioning and reduce needs</