WorldWideScience

Sample records for increased plastic ingestion

  1. Increasing frequency of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Piatt, John F.; Wohl, Kenton D.

    1995-01-01

    We examined gut contents of 1799 seabirds comprising 24 species collected in 1988-1990 to assess the types and quantities of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic waters of Alaska. Of the 15 species found to ingest plastic, most were surface-feeders (shearwaters, petrels, gulls) or plankton-feeding divers (auklets, puffins). Of 4417 plastic particles examined, 76% were industrial pellets and 21% were fragments of ‘user’ plastic. Ingestion rates varied geographically, but no trends were evident and rates of plastic ingestion varied far more among species within areas than within species among areas. Comparison with similar data from 1968 seabirds comprising 37 species collected in 1969-1977 revealed that plastic ingestion by seabirds has increased significantly during the 10–15-year interval between studies. This was demonstrated by: (i) an increase in the total number of species ingesting plastic; (ii) an increase in the frequency of occurrence of plastic particles within species that ingested plastic; and, (iii) an increase in the mean number of plastic particles ingested by individuals of those species.

  2. Linking plastic ingestion research with marine wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; Borrelle, Stephanie B; Provencher, Jennifer F

    2018-05-16

    Plastic is an increasingly pervasive marine pollutant. Concomitantly, the number of studies documenting plastic ingestion in wildlife is accelerating. Many of these studies aim to provide a baseline against which future levels of plastic ingestion can be compared, and are motivated by an underlying interest in the conservation of their study species and ecosystems. Although this research has helped to raise the profile of plastic as a pollutant of emerging concern, there is a disconnect between research examining plastic pollution and wildlife conservation. We present ideas to further discussion about how plastic ingestion research could benefit wildlife conservation by prioritising studies that elucidates the significance of plastic pollution as a population-level threat, identifies vulnerable populations, and evaluates strategies for mitigating impacts. The benefit of plastic ingestion research to marine wildlife can be improved by establishing a clearer understanding of how discoveries will be integrated into conservation and policy actions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Plastic ingestion by Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes): Implications for fledgling body condition and the accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavers, Jennifer L.; Bond, Alexander L.; Hutton, Ian

    2014-01-01

    To provide much needed quantitative data on the lethal and sublethal effects of plastic pollution on marine wildlife, we sampled breast feathers and stomach contents from Flesh-footed Shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) fledglings in eastern Australia. Birds with high levels of ingested plastic exhibited reduced body condition and increased contaminant load (p < 0.05). More than 60% of fledglings exceed international targets for plastic ingestion by seabirds, with 16% of fledglings failing these targets after a single feeding (range: 0.13–3.21 g of plastic/feeding). As top predators, seabirds are considered sentinels of the marine environment. The amount of plastic ingested and corresponding damage to Flesh-footed Shearwater fledglings is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate, suggesting the condition of the Australian marine environment is poor. These findings help explain the ongoing decline of this species and are worrying in light of increasing levels of plastic pollution in our oceans. - Highlights: • Proportion of the shearwater population ingesting plastic increased over four years. • Shearwater body condition is negatively influenced by the amount of ingested plastic. • Shearwater contaminant load is positively related to the amount of ingested plastic. • Many chicks exceed international targets for ingested plastic after a single feeding. • Plastic ingestion in this study is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate. - Flesh-footed Shearwaters ingest large quantities of marine plastic, which is correlated with poor body condition and increased concentrations of trace metals such as chromium

  4. Plastic and Non-plastic Debris Ingestion in Three Gull Species Feeding in an Urban Landfill Environment.

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    Seif, S; Provencher, J F; Avery-Gomm, S; Daoust, P-Y; Mallory, M L; Smith, P A

    2018-04-01

    Plastic debris is recognized as a widespread, common and problematic environmental pollutant. An important consequence of this pollution is the ingestion of plastic debris by wildlife. Assessing the degree to which different species ingest plastics, and the potential effects of these plastics on their health are important research needs for understanding the impacts of plastic pollution. We examined debris (plastic and other types) ingestion in three sympatric overwintering gull species (Herring gulls Larus smithsonianus, Great Black-backed Gulls Larus marinus, and Iceland Gulls Larus glaucoides) to understand how debris ingestion differs among species, age classes and sexes in gulls. We also assessed how plastic burdens were associated with body condition to investigate how gulls may be affected by debris ingestion. There were no differences among the species, age classes or sexes in the incidence of debris ingestion (plastic or otherwise), the mass or number of debris pieces ingested. We found no correlation between ingested plastics burdens and individual condition. Gulls ingested plastic debris, but also showed high levels of other debris types as well, including metal, glass and building materials, including a metal piece of debris found within an abscess in the stomach. Thus, when the health effects of debris ingestion on gulls, and other species that ingest debris, is of interest, either from a physical or chemical perspective, it may be necessary to consider all debris types and not just plastic burdens as is often currently done for seabirds.

  5. Marine debris ingestion and Thayer's law - The importance of plastic color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Robson G; Andrades, Ryan; Fardim, Lorena M; Martins, Agnaldo Silva

    2016-07-01

    In recent years marine plastic pollution has gained considerable attention as a significant threat to marine animals. Despite the abundant literature related to marine debris ingestion, only a few studies attempted to understand the factors involved in debris ingestion. Plastic ingestion is commonly attributed to visual similarities of plastic fragments to animal's prey items, such as plastic bags and jellyfish. However, this simple explanation is not always coherent with the variety of debris items ingested and with the species' main prey items. We assess differences in the conspicuousness of plastic debris related to their color using Thayer's law to infer the likelihood that visual foragers detect plastic fragments. We hypothesize that marine animals that perceive floating plastic from below should preferentially ingest dark plastic fragments, whereas animals that perceive floating plastic from above should select for paler plastic fragments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plastic ingestion by Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes): Implications for fledgling body condition and the accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Bond, Alexander L; Hutton, Ian

    2014-04-01

    To provide much needed quantitative data on the lethal and sublethal effects of plastic pollution on marine wildlife, we sampled breast feathers and stomach contents from Flesh-footed Shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) fledglings in eastern Australia. Birds with high levels of ingested plastic exhibited reduced body condition and increased contaminant load (p plastic ingestion by seabirds, with 16% of fledglings failing these targets after a single feeding (range: 0.13-3.21 g of plastic/feeding). As top predators, seabirds are considered sentinels of the marine environment. The amount of plastic ingested and corresponding damage to Flesh-footed Shearwater fledglings is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate, suggesting the condition of the Australian marine environment is poor. These findings help explain the ongoing decline of this species and are worrying in light of increasing levels of plastic pollution in our oceans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Plastic ingestion in marine-associated bird species from the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, S; Provencher, J F; Morgan, K H; Bertram, D F

    2013-07-15

    In addition to monitoring trends in plastic pollution, multi-species surveys are needed to fully understand the pervasiveness of plastic ingestion. We examined the stomach contents of 20 bird species collected from the coastal waters of the eastern North Pacific, a region known to have high levels of plastic pollution. We observed no evidence of plastic ingestion in Rhinoceros Auklet, Marbled Murrelet, Ancient Murrelet or Pigeon Guillemot, and low levels in Common Murre (2.7% incidence rate). Small sample sizes limit our ability to draw conclusions about population level trends for the remaining fifteen species, though evidence of plastic ingestion was found in Glaucous-Winged Gull and Sooty Shearwater. Documenting levels of plastic ingestion in a wide array of species is necessary to gain a comprehensive understanding about the impacts of plastic pollution. We propose that those working with bird carcasses follow standard protocols to assess the levels of plastic ingestion whenever possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bringing home the trash: do colony-based differences in foraging distribution lead to increased plastic ingestion in Laysan albatrosses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lindsay C; Vanderlip, Cynthia; Duffy, David C; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Shaffer, Scott A

    2009-10-28

    When searching for prey, animals should maximize energetic gain, while minimizing energy expenditure by altering their movements relative to prey availability. However, with increasing amounts of marine debris, what once may have been 'optimal' foraging strategies for top marine predators, are leading to sub-optimal diets comprised in large part of plastic. Indeed, the highly vagile Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) which forages throughout the North Pacific, are well known for their tendency to ingest plastic. Here we examine whether Laysan albatrosses nesting on Kure Atoll and Oahu Island, 2,150 km apart, experience different levels of plastic ingestion. Twenty two geolocators were deployed on breeding adults for up to two years. Regurgitated boluses of undigestable material were also collected from chicks at each site to compare the amount of plastic vs. natural foods. Chicks from Kure Atoll were fed almost ten times the amount of plastic compared to chicks from Oahu despite boluses from both colonies having similar amounts of natural food. Tracking data indicated that adults from either colony did not have core overlapping distributions during the early half of the breeding period and that adults from Kure had a greater overlap with the putative range of the Western Garbage Patch corroborating our observation of higher plastic loads at this colony. At-sea distributions also varied throughout the year suggesting that Laysan albatrosses either adjusted their foraging behavior according to constraints on time away from the nest or to variation in resources. However, in the non-breeding season, distributional overlap was greater indicating that the energy required to reach the foraging grounds was less important than the total energy available. These results demonstrate how a marine predator that is not dispersal limited alters its foraging strategy throughout the reproductive cycle to maximize energetic gain and how this has led to differences in plastic

  9. Bringing home the trash: do colony-based differences in foraging distribution lead to increased plastic ingestion in Laysan albatrosses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay C Young

    Full Text Available When searching for prey, animals should maximize energetic gain, while minimizing energy expenditure by altering their movements relative to prey availability. However, with increasing amounts of marine debris, what once may have been 'optimal' foraging strategies for top marine predators, are leading to sub-optimal diets comprised in large part of plastic. Indeed, the highly vagile Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis which forages throughout the North Pacific, are well known for their tendency to ingest plastic. Here we examine whether Laysan albatrosses nesting on Kure Atoll and Oahu Island, 2,150 km apart, experience different levels of plastic ingestion. Twenty two geolocators were deployed on breeding adults for up to two years. Regurgitated boluses of undigestable material were also collected from chicks at each site to compare the amount of plastic vs. natural foods. Chicks from Kure Atoll were fed almost ten times the amount of plastic compared to chicks from Oahu despite boluses from both colonies having similar amounts of natural food. Tracking data indicated that adults from either colony did not have core overlapping distributions during the early half of the breeding period and that adults from Kure had a greater overlap with the putative range of the Western Garbage Patch corroborating our observation of higher plastic loads at this colony. At-sea distributions also varied throughout the year suggesting that Laysan albatrosses either adjusted their foraging behavior according to constraints on time away from the nest or to variation in resources. However, in the non-breeding season, distributional overlap was greater indicating that the energy required to reach the foraging grounds was less important than the total energy available. These results demonstrate how a marine predator that is not dispersal limited alters its foraging strategy throughout the reproductive cycle to maximize energetic gain and how this has led to

  10. Ingestion and fragmentation of plastic carrier bags by the amphipod Orchestia gammarellus: Effects of plastic type and fouling load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, D J; Bréchon, A L; Thompson, R C

    2018-02-01

    Inappropriate disposal of plastic debris has led to the contamination of marine habitats worldwide. This debris can be ingested by organisms; however, the extent to which chewing and gut transit modifies plastic debris is unclear. Detritivores, such as amphipods, ingest and shred natural organic matter and are fundamental to its breakdown. Here we examine ingestion and shredding of plastic carrier bags by Orchestia gammarellus. A laboratory experiment showed these amphipods shredded plastic carrier bags, generating numerous microplastic fragments (average diameter 488.59μm). The presence of a biofilm significantly increased the amount of shredding, but plastic type (conventional, degradable and biodegradable) had no effect. Subsequent field observations confirmed similar shredding occurred on the strandline. Rates of shredding will vary according to amphipod density; however, our data indicates that shredding by organisms could substantially accelerate the formation microplastics in the environment. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Plastic microfibre ingestion by deep-sea organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. L.; Gwinnett, C.; Robinson, L. F.; Woodall, L. C.

    2016-09-01

    Plastic waste is a distinctive indicator of the world-wide impact of anthropogenic activities. Both macro- and micro-plastics are found in the ocean, but as yet little is known about their ultimate fate and their impact on marine ecosystems. In this study we present the first evidence that microplastics are already becoming integrated into deep-water organisms. By examining organisms that live on the deep-sea floor we show that plastic microfibres are ingested and internalised by members of at least three major phyla with different feeding mechanisms. These results demonstrate that, despite its remote location, the deep sea and its fragile habitats are already being exposed to human waste to the extent that diverse organisms are ingesting microplastics.

  12. Plastic ingestion by sea turtles in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Poli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, plastics are recognized as a major pollutant of the marine environment, representing a serious threat to ocean wildlife. Here, we examined the occurrence and effects of plastic ingestion by sea turtles found stranded along the coast of Paraíba State, Brazil from August 2009 to July 2010. Ninety-eight digestive tracts were examined, with plastic found in 20 (20.4%. Sixty five percent (n = 13 of turtles with plastic in the digestive tract were green turtles (Chelonia mydas, 25% (n = 5 were hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata, and 10% (n = 2 were olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea. More plastic was found in the intestine (85% than in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. We observed complete blockage of the gastrointestinal tract due to the presence of plastic in 13 of the 20 turtles that had ingested plastic. No correlation was found between the curved carapace length (CCL and the number or mass of the plastic ingested items. Significant differences were found between the intake of hard and soft plastic and the ingestion of white/transparent and colored plastic, with soft and white/transparent plastics being more commonly ingested. This study reveals the serious problem of plastic pollution to sea turtles at the area.

  13. Self-medication as adaptive plasticity: increased ingestion of plant toxins by parasitized caterpillars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Singer

    Full Text Available Self-medication is a specific therapeutic behavioral change in response to disease or parasitism. The empirical literature on self-medication has so far focused entirely on identifying cases of self-medication in which particular behaviors are linked to therapeutic outcomes. In this study, we frame self-medication in the broader realm of adaptive plasticity, which provides several testable predictions for verifying self-medication and advancing its conceptual significance. First, self-medication behavior should improve the fitness of animals infected by parasites or pathogens. Second, self-medication behavior in the absence of infection should decrease fitness. Third, infection should induce self-medication behavior. The few rigorous studies of self-medication in non-human animals have not used this theoretical framework and thus have not tested fitness costs of self-medication in the absence of disease or parasitism. Here we use manipulative experiments to test these predictions with the foraging behavior of woolly bear caterpillars (Grammia incorrupta; Lepidoptera: Arctiidae in response to their lethal endoparasites (tachinid flies. Our experiments show that the ingestion of plant toxins called pyrrolizidine alkaloids improves the survival of parasitized caterpillars by conferring resistance against tachinid flies. Consistent with theoretical prediction, excessive ingestion of these toxins reduces the survival of unparasitized caterpillars. Parasitized caterpillars are more likely than unparasitized caterpillars to specifically ingest large amounts of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This case challenges the conventional view that self-medication behavior is restricted to animals with advanced cognitive abilities, such as primates, and empowers the science of self-medication by placing it in the domain of adaptive plasticity theory.

  14. Plastic ingestion by fulmars and shearwaters at Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada.

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    Bond, Alexander L; Provencher, Jennifer F; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Lucas, Zoe N

    2014-10-15

    Plastic pollution is widespread in the marine environment, and plastic ingestion by seabirds is now widely reported for dozens of species. Beached Northern Fulmars, Great Shearwaters, Sooty Shearwaters and Cory's Shearwaters are found on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada regularly, and they can be used to assess plastic pollution. All species except Cory's Shearwaters contained plastic debris in their gastrointestinal tracts. Northern Fulmars, Sooty Shearwaters and Great Shearwaters all showed high prevalence of plastic ingestion (>72%), with Northern Fulmars having the highest number and mass of plastics among the species examined. There was no difference in plastic ingestion between sexes or age classes. In all species user plastics made up the majority of the pieces found, with industrial pellets representing only a small proportion in the samples. Sable Island could be an important monitoring site for plastic pollution in Atlantic Canada. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prey and plastic ingestion of Pacific Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis rogersii) from Monterey Bay, California.

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    Donnelly-Greenan, Erica L; Harvey, James T; Nevins, Hannahrose M; Hester, Michelle M; Walker, William A

    2014-08-15

    Marine plastic pollution affects seabirds, including Pacific Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis rodgersii), that feed at the surface and mistake plastic for prey or incidentally ingest it. Direct and indirect health issues can result, including satiety and possibly leading to inefficient foraging. Our objective was to examine fulmar body condition, identify cephalopod diet to species, enumerate and weigh ingested plastic, and determine if prey number and size were correlated with ingested plastics in beach-cast fulmars wintering in Monterey Bay California (2003, n=178: 2007, n=185). Fulmars consumed mostly Gonatus pyros, G. onyx, and G. californiensis of similar size for both years. We found a significant negative correlation between pectoral muscle index and average size of cephalopod beaks per stomach; a significant increase in plastic categories between 2003 and 2007; and no significant correlation between number and mass of plastic compared with number and size of prey for either year. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevated levels of ingested plastic in a high Arctic seabird, the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trevail, A.M.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Kuhn, S.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Plastic pollution is of worldwide concern; however, increases in international commercial activity in the Arctic are occurring without the knowledge of the existing threat posed to the local marine environment by plastic litter. Here, we quantify plastic ingestion by northern fulmars, Fulmarus

  17. Ingested plastic as a route for trace metals in Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) and Bonin Petrel (Pterodroma hypoleuca) from Midway Atoll.

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    Lavers, Jennifer L; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-09-15

    Seabirds are declining faster than any other group of birds, with plastic ingestion and associated contaminants linked to negative impacts on marine wildlife, including >170 seabird species. To provide quantitative data on the effects of plastic pollution, we sampled feathers and stomach contents from Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) and Bonin Petrel (Pterodroma hypoleuca) on Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean, and assessed our ability to detect change over time by synthesizing previous studies. Between 25 and 100% of fledglings exceed international targets for plastic ingestion by seabirds. High levels of ingested plastic were correlated with increased concentrations of chlorine, iron, lead, manganese, and rubidium in feathers. The frequency of plastic ingestion by Laysan Albatross and concentration of some elements in both species is increasing, suggesting deterioration in the health of the marine environment. Variability in the frequency of plastic ingestion by Laysan Albatross may limit their utility as an indicator species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plastic ingestion by fish in the Southern Hemisphere: A baseline study and review of methods.

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    Cannon, Seon M E; Lavers, Jennifer L; Figueiredo, Bianca

    2016-06-15

    Plastic ingestion is well documented among marine birds and sea turtles but fewer studies have investigated ingestion in fish, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigated the frequency of plastic ingestion in 21 species of fish and one species of cephalopod. The overall occurrence of plastic ingestion was 0.3%. Two micro-plastic items were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of a single Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni). Ingestion rates were similar to other studies of fish conducted in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, however comparisons across species and locations are challenging due to the lack of consistency in the identification and classification of plastic debris. In response, we propose a standardised sampling protocol based on the available literature to provide a stronger basis for comparisons among existing and future studies of plastic ingestion in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impacts of plastic ingestion on post-hatchling loggerhead turtles off South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G; Cole, Georgina; Spiby, Kevin; Nel, Ronel; Osborne, Alexis; Perold, Vonica

    2016-06-15

    Twenty-four of 40 (60%) loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta post-hatchlings (carapaceTurtles selected for white (38%) and blue (19%) items, but translucent items (23%) were under-represented compared to beach mesodebris. Ingested loads did not decrease up to 52days in captivity, indicating long retention times. Plastic killed 11 turtles by blocking their digestive tracts or bladders, and contributed to the deaths of five other turtles. Our results indicate that the amount and diversity of plastic ingested by post-hatchling loggerhead turtles off South Africa have increased over the last four decades, and now kill some turtles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Plastic ingestion in aquatic-associated bird species in southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Katy R; Lo Savio, Roberto; McQuaid, Christopher D; Madeira, Pedro; Valbusa, Ugo; Azevedo, Fábia; Casero, Maria; Lourenço, Carla; Zardi, Gerardo I

    2018-01-01

    Excessive use of plastics in daily life and the inappropriate disposal of plastic products are severely affecting wildlife species in both coastal and aquatic environments. Birds are top-predators, exposed to all threats affecting their environments, making them ideal sentinel organisms for monitoring ecosystems change. We set a baseline assessment of the prevalence of marine plastic litter affecting multi-species populations of aquatic birds in southern Portugal. By examining 160 stomach contents from 8 species of aquatic birds, we show that 22.5% were affected by plastic debris. Plastic was found in Ciconia ciconia, Larus fuscus and L. michahellis. Ciconia ciconia ingested the highest amount (number of items and total mass) of plastic debris. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, silicones) was the most abundant polymer and was recorded only in C. ciconia. Plastic ingestion baseline data are of crucial importance to evaluate changes through time and among regions and to define management and conservation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals in tissues of seabirds ingesting marine plastics.

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    Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige; Yamashita, Rei; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Fukuwaka, Masa-aki; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2013-04-15

    We analyzed polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in abdominal adipose of oceanic seabirds (short-tailed shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris) collected in northern North Pacific Ocean. In 3 of 12 birds, we detected higher-brominated congeners (viz., BDE209 and BDE183), which are not present in the natural prey (pelagic fish) of the birds. The same compounds were present in plastic found in the stomachs of the 3 birds. These data suggested the transfer of plastic-derived chemicals from ingested plastics to the tissues of marine-based organisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Plastic ingestion by a generalist seabird on the coast of Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Javier; Burgues, María Fernanda; Carrizo, Daniel; Machín, Emanuel; Teixeira-de Mello, Franco

    2016-06-15

    We analyzed plastic ingestion by Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus) from 806 pellets collected between 2011 and 2013. Employing a Raman spectroscopy, we characterized those polymers used to produce the plastics ingested. Debris was recorded in 143 pellets (%FO=17.7%, n=202, 92.58g). Plastic was found in 119 pellets (%FO=83%) and non-plastic occurred in 56 pellets (%FO=39%). The most important debris category was plastic film with 55.3% (n=79). Plastic bags were observed in 19 pellets (%FO=2.4%, weight=25.02g). Glass was the second most important component (%FO=18.9%) followed by plastic fragments (%FO=17.8%). Plastic debris represented the 65.3% of the debris fragments (n=132, weight=58.84g), and was composed by polyethylene (52%), polypropylene (26%), polyamide (12%), polystyrene (6%), polyvinyl chloride (2%), and polyethylene terephthalate (2%). How plastics were obtained by gulls and the effects on individuals are discussed, as well as environmental considerations about plastic pollution on coastal environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ingested plastic in a diving seabird, the thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), in the eastern Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Jennifer F; Gaston, Anthony J; Mallory, Mark L; O'hara, Patrick D; Gilchrist, H Grant

    2010-09-01

    Plastic debris has become ubiquitous in the marine environment and seabirds may ingest debris which can have deleterious effects on their health. In the North Atlantic Ocean, surface feeding seabirds typically ingest high levels of plastic, while the diving auks which feed in the water column typically have much lower levels. We examined 186 thick-billed murres from five colonies in the eastern Canadian Arctic for ingested plastic debris. Approximately 11% of the birds had at least one piece of plastic debris in their gastrointestinal tracts, with debris dominated by user plastics. This is the first report of ingested plastics in an auk species in Canada's Arctic, and the highest incidence of plastic ingestion to date for thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, C; Van Sebille, E; Hardesty, BD

    2015-01-01

    Plastic pollution in the ocean is a rapidly emerging global environmental concern, with high concentrations (up to 580,000 pieces per km2) and a global distribution, driven by exponentially increasing production. Seabirds are particularly vulnerable to this type of pollution and are widely observed to ingest floating plastic. We used a mixture of literature surveys, oceanographic modeling, and ecological models to predict the risk of plastic ingestion to 186 seabird species globally. Impacts ...

  5. Plastic debris ingestion by marine catfish: an unexpected fisheries impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possatto, Fernanda E; Barletta, Mário; Costa, Monica F; do Sul, Juliana A Ivar; Dantas, David V

    2011-05-01

    Plastic marine debris is a pervasive type of pollution. River basins and estuaries are a source of plastics pollution for coastal waters and oceans. Estuarine fauna is therefore exposed to chronic plastic pollution. Three important catfish species [Cathorops spixii (N=60), Cathorops agassizii (N=60) and Sciades herzbergii (N=62)] from South Western Atlantic estuaries were investigated in a tropical estuary of the Brazilian Northeast in relation to their accidental ingestion of plastic marine debris. Individuals from all three species had ingested plastics. In C. spixii and C. agassizii, 18% and 33% of individuals had plastic debris in their stomachs, respectively. S. herzbergii showed 18% of individuals were contaminated. All ontogenetic phases (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were contaminated. Nylon fragments from cables used in fishery activities (subsistence, artisanal and commercial) played a major role in this contamination. These catfish spend their entire life cycles within the estuary and are an important feeding resource for larger, economically important, species. It is not yet possible to quantify the scale and depth of the consequences of this type of pollution. However, plastics are well known threat to living resources in this and other estuaries. Conservation actions will need to from now onto take plastics pollution into consideration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Micro-plastic ingestion by waterbirds from contaminated wetlands in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Chevonne; Ryan, Peter G

    2018-01-01

    Despite a large literature on the impacts of micro-plastic pollution in marine ecosystems, very little research has focused on these pollutants in freshwater ecosystems. Recently, however, a few studies have demonstrated that micro-plastic pollutants are ingested by freshwater taxa, including birds. To explore this potential environmental threat in African freshwater systems we quantified micro-plastic pollutants in the faeces and feather brushings of seven southern African duck species. We analysed 283 faecal samples and 408 feather brushings, and found that 5% of faecal samples and 10% of feather samples contained micro-plastic fibres. The presence and abundance of micro-fibres differed between sampling sites, with significantly higher amounts recorded for the site that received effluent from a sewage treatment facility. Additionally, micro-fibre presence differed across duck species, indicating that foraging behaviour affects plastic ingestion. Our study confirms that African freshwater ecosystems and the biodiversity they support are under threat from micro-plastic contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Chris; Van Sebille, Erik; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-09-22

    Plastic pollution in the ocean is a global concern; concentrations reach 580,000 pieces per km(2) and production is increasing exponentially. Although a large number of empirical studies provide emerging evidence of impacts to wildlife, there has been little systematic assessment of risk. We performed a spatial risk analysis using predicted debris distributions and ranges for 186 seabird species to model debris exposure. We adjusted the model using published data on plastic ingestion by seabirds. Eighty of 135 (59%) species with studies reported in the literature between 1962 and 2012 had ingested plastic, and, within those studies, on average 29% of individuals had plastic in their gut. Standardizing the data for time and species, we estimate the ingestion rate would reach 90% of individuals if these studies were conducted today. Using these results from the literature, we tuned our risk model and were able to capture 71% of the variation in plastic ingestion based on a model including exposure, time, study method, and body size. We used this tuned model to predict risk across seabird species at the global scale. The highest area of expected impact occurs at the Southern Ocean boundary in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand, which contrasts with previous work identifying this area as having low anthropogenic pressures and concentrations of marine debris. We predict that plastics ingestion is increasing in seabirds, that it will reach 99% of all species by 2050, and that effective waste management can reduce this threat.

  8. Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Chris; Van Sebille, Erik; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-01-01

    Plastic pollution in the ocean is a global concern; concentrations reach 580,000 pieces per km2 and production is increasing exponentially. Although a large number of empirical studies provide emerging evidence of impacts to wildlife, there has been little systematic assessment of risk. We performed a spatial risk analysis using predicted debris distributions and ranges for 186 seabird species to model debris exposure. We adjusted the model using published data on plastic ingestion by seabirds. Eighty of 135 (59%) species with studies reported in the literature between 1962 and 2012 had ingested plastic, and, within those studies, on average 29% of individuals had plastic in their gut. Standardizing the data for time and species, we estimate the ingestion rate would reach 90% of individuals if these studies were conducted today. Using these results from the literature, we tuned our risk model and were able to capture 71% of the variation in plastic ingestion based on a model including exposure, time, study method, and body size. We used this tuned model to predict risk across seabird species at the global scale. The highest area of expected impact occurs at the Southern Ocean boundary in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand, which contrasts with previous work identifying this area as having low anthropogenic pressures and concentrations of marine debris. We predict that plastics ingestion is increasing in seabirds, that it will reach 99% of all species by 2050, and that effective waste management can reduce this threat. PMID:26324886

  9. Ingested microscopic plastic translocates to the circulatory system of the mussel, Mytilus edulis (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Mark A; Dissanayake, Awantha; Galloway, Tamara S; Lowe, David M; Thompson, Richard C

    2008-07-01

    Plastics debris is accumulating in the environment and is fragmenting into smaller pieces; as it does, the potential for ingestion by animals increases. The consequences of macroplastic debris for wildlife are well documented, however the impacts of microplastic (plastic fragments into smaller particles, the potential for accumulation in the tissues of an organism increases. The short-term pulse exposure used here did not result in significant biological effects. However, plastics are exceedingly durable and so further work using a wider range of organisms, polymers, and periods of exposure will be required to establish the biological consequences of this debris.

  10. Investigation of plastic debris ingestion by four species of sea turtles collected as bycatch in pelagic Pacific longline fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clukey, Katharine E; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Balazs, George H; Work, Thierry M; Lynch, Jennifer M

    2017-07-15

    Ingestion of marine debris is an established threat to sea turtles. The amount, type, color and location of ingested plastics in the gastrointestinal tracts of 55 sea turtles from Pacific longline fisheries from 2012 to 2016 were quantified, and compared across species, turtle length, body condition, sex, capture location, season and year. Six approaches for quantifying amounts of ingested plastic strongly correlated with one another and included: number of pieces, mass, volume and surface area of plastics, ratio of plastic mass to body mass, and percentage of the mass of gut contents consisting of plastic. All olive ridley (n=37), 90% of green (n=10), 80% of loggerhead (n=5) and 0% of leatherback (n=3) turtles had ingested plastic; green turtles ingested significantly more than olive ridleys. Most debris was in the large intestines. No adverse health impacts (intestinal lesions, blockage, or poor body condition) due directly to plastic ingestion were noted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. A study of wrecked Dovekies (Alle alle) in the western North Atlantic highlights the importance of using standardized methods to quantify plastic ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; Valliant, Michelle; Schacter, Carley R; Robbins, Katherine F; Liboiron, Max; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Rios, Lorena M; Jones, Ian L

    2016-12-15

    Quantification of plastic ingestion across a range of seabirds is required to assess the prevalence of plastics in marine food webs. We quantified plastic ingestion in beached Dovekies (Alle alle), following a wreck in Newfoundland, Canada. Of 171 birds, 30.4% had ingested plastic (mean 0.81±0.30 SE pieces per bird, mass 0.005±0.002 SE g per bird). Most plastics were fragments of polyethylene and polypropylene. Surprisingly, 37% were burned or melted, indicating a previously unreported source of ingested plastics (incinerated waste). We found no relationship between plastic ingestion and age, sex or body condition. By comparing our results with a similar nearby study, we illustrate the need for researchers to adopt standardized methods for plastic ingestion studies. We underline the importance of using histological techniques to reliably identify gastric pathologies, and advise caution when inferring population level trends in plastic ingestion from studies of emaciated, wrecked birds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Plastic ingestion by sea turtles in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Poli; Daniel Oliveira Mesquita; Cinthia Saska; Rita Mascarenhas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Currently, plastics are recognized as a major pollutant of the marine environment, representing a serious threat to ocean wildlife. Here, we examined the occurrence and effects of plastic ingestion by sea turtles found stranded along the coast of Paraíba State, Brazil from August 2009 to July 2010. Ninety-eight digestive tracts were examined, with plastic found in 20 (20.4%). Sixty five percent (n = 13) of turtles with plastic in the digestive tract were green turtles (Chelonia mydas...

  13. Plastic ingestion by harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo Rebolledo, E.; Franeker, van J.A.; Jansen, O.E.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abundance of ingested debris by seals has been mentioned as a potential indicator of marine litter in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). A sample of 107 stomachs, 100 intestines and 125 scats of harbour seals from the Netherlands was analysed for the presence of plastics.

  14. Ingested plastic transfers hazardous chemicals to fish and induces hepatic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Chelsea M.; Hoh, Eunha; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Teh, Swee J.

    2013-01-01

    Plastic debris litters aquatic habitats globally, the majority of which is microscopic (plastic and accumulated pollutants are largely unknown. Here, we show that fish, exposed to a mixture of polyethylene with chemical pollutants sorbed from the marine environment, bioaccumulate these chemical pollutants and suffer liver toxicity and pathology. Fish fed virgin polyethylene fragments also show signs of stress, although less severe than fish fed marine polyethylene fragments. We provide baseline information regarding the bioaccumulation of chemicals and associated health effects from plastic ingestion in fish and demonstrate that future assessments should consider the complex mixture of the plastic material and their associated chemical pollutants. PMID:24263561

  15. Ingestion of marine debris by the White-chinned Petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis): Is it increasing over time off southern Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Maria V; Benemann, Victória R F

    2017-04-15

    Seabirds are amongst the most affected organisms by plastic pollution worldwide. Ingestion of marine debris has been reported in at least 122 species, and owing to the increasing global production and persistence of these anthropogenic materials within the marine environment, it is expected to be a growing problem to the marine fauna. Here we report evidence of an increasing frequency in marine debris ingestion and a decrease in the amount of plastic pellets ingested by White-chinned Petrels attending south Brazilian waters during the last three decades. Future studies comprising large temporal scales and large sample sizes are needed to better understand the trends of marine debris ingestion by seabirds. We expect our findings to highlight the need for prevention policies and mitigation measures to reduce the amount of solid litter in the oceans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of ATR FT-IR to identify polymers of plastic marine debris, including those ingested by marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Melissa R.; Horgen, F. David; Orski, Sara V.; Rodriguez, Viviana; Beers, Kathryn L.; Balazs, George H.; Jones, T. Todd; Work, Thierry M.; Brignac, Kayla C.; Royer, Sarah-Jeanne; Hyrenbach, David K.; Jensen, Brenda A.; Lynch, Jennifer M.

    2018-01-01

    Polymer identification of plastic marine debris can help identify its sources, degradation, and fate. We optimized and validated a fast, simple, and accessible technique, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), to identify polymers contained in plastic ingested by sea turtles. Spectra of consumer good items with known resin identification codes #1–6 and several #7 plastics were compared to standard and raw manufactured polymers. High temperature size exclusion chromatography measurements confirmed ATR FT-IR could differentiate these polymers. High-density (HDPE) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) discrimination is challenging but a clear step-by-step guide is provided that identified 78% of ingested PE samples. The optimal cleaning methods consisted of wiping ingested pieces with water or cutting. Of 828 ingested plastics pieces from 50 Pacific sea turtles, 96% were identified by ATR FT-IR as HDPE, LDPE, unknown PE, polypropylene (PP), PE and PP mixtures, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, and nylon.

  17. The highest global concentrations and increased abundance of oceanic plastic debris in the North Pacific: Evidence from seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Gould, Patrick J.; Coe, James M.; Rogers, Donald B.

    1997-01-01

    Plastic pollution has risen dramatically with an increase in production of plastic resin during the past few decades. Plastic production in the United States increased from 2.9 million tons in I960 to 47.9 million tons in 1985 (Society of the Plastics Industry 1986). This has been paralleled by a significant increase in the concentration of plastic particles in oceanic surface waters of the North Pacific from the 1970s to the late 1980s (Day and Shaw 1987; Day et al. 1990a). Research during the past few decades has indicated two major interactions between marine life and oceanic plastic: entanglement and ingestion (Laist 1987). Studies in the last decade have documented the prevalence of plastic in the diets of many seabird species in the North Pacific and the need for further monitoring of those species and groups that ingest the most plastic (Day et al. 1985).

  18. Incidence, mass and variety of plastics ingested by Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis) and Black-footed Albatrosses (P. nigripes) recovered as by-catch in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Holly; Lattin, Gwendolyn L; Moore, Charles J

    2012-10-01

    Laysan Albatrosses (Phoebastria immutabilis) and Black-footed Albatrosses (P. nigripes) ingest plastic debris, as evidenced by studies showing plastic in the digestive contents of their chicks, but there is little documentation of the frequency and amount of ingested plastics carried in foraging adults. In this study, we quantify plastics among the digestive contents of 18 Laysan Albatrosses and 29 Black-footed Albatrosses collected as by-catch in the North Pacific Ocean. We found ingested plastic in 30 of the 47 birds examined, with Laysan Albatrosses exhibiting a greater frequency of plastic ingestion (83.3% n=18) than Black-footed Albatrosses (51.7% n=29) (X(2)=4.8, df=1, P=0.03). Though the mass of ingested plastic in both species (mean±SD=0.463g±1.447) was lower than previously noted among albatross chicks, the high frequency of ingested plastic we found in this study suggests that long-term effects, e.g. absorption of contaminants from plastics, may be of concern throughout the population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Persistent organic pollutants in fat of three species of Pacific pelagic longline caught sea turtles: Accumulation in relation to ingested plastic marine debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clukey, Katharine; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Balazs, George H.; Work, Thierry M.; Li, Qing X.; Bachman, Melanie J.; Lynch, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    In addition to eating contaminated prey, sea turtles may be exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from ingesting plastic debris that has absorbed these chemicals. Given the limited knowledge about POPs in pelagic sea turtles and how plastic ingestion influences POP exposure, our objectives were to: 1) provide baseline contaminant levels of three species of pelagic Pacific sea turtles; and 2) assess trends of contaminant levels in relation to species, sex, length, body condition and capture location. In addition, we hypothesized that if ingesting plastic is a significant source of POP exposure, then the amount of ingested plastic may be correlated to POP concentrations accumulated in fat. To address our objectives we compared POP concentrations in fat samples to previously described amounts of ingested plastic from the same turtles. Fat samples from 25 Pacific pelagic sea turtles [2 loggerhead (Caretta caretta), 6 green (Chelonia mydas) and 17 olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) turtles] were analyzed for 81 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 20 organochlorine pesticides, and 35 brominated flame-retardants. The olive ridley and loggerhead turtles had higher ΣDDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites) than ΣPCBs, at a ratio similar to biota measured in the South China Sea and southern California. Green turtles had a ratio close to 1:1. These pelagic turtles had lower POP levels than previously reported in nearshore turtles. POP concentrations were unrelated to the amounts of ingested plastic in olive ridleys, suggesting that their exposure to POPs is mainly through prey. In green turtles, concentrations of ΣPCBs were positively correlated with the number of plastic pieces ingested, but these findings were confounded by covariance with body condition index (BCI). Green turtles with a higher BCI had eaten more plastic and also had higher POPs. Taken together, our findings suggest that sea turtles accumulate most POPs through their prey rather

  20. The use of potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution as a suitable approach to isolate plastics ingested by marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Susanne; van Werven, Bernike; van Oyen, Albert; Meijboom, André; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa L; van Franeker, Jan A

    2017-02-15

    In studies of plastic ingestion by marine wildlife, visual separation of plastic particles from gastrointestinal tracts or their dietary content can be challenging. Earlier studies have used solutions to dissolve organic materials leaving synthetic particles unaffected. However, insufficient tests have been conducted to ensure that different categories of consumer products partly degraded in the environment and/or in gastrointestinal tracts were not affected. In this study 63 synthetic materials and 11 other dietary items and non-plastic marine debris were tested. Irrespective of shape or preceding environmental history, most polymers resisted potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution, with the exceptions of cellulose acetate from cigarette filters, some biodegradable plastics and a single polyethylene sheet. Exposure of hard diet components and other marine debris showed variable results. In conclusion, the results confirm that usage of KOH solutions can be a useful approach in general quantitative studies of plastic ingestion by marine wildlife. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The use of potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution as a suitable approach to isolate plastics ingested by marine organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühn, Susanne; Werven, Van Bernike; Oyen, Van Albert; Meijboom, André; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa L.; Franeker, Van Jan A.

    2017-01-01

    In studies of plastic ingestion by marine wildlife, visual separation of plastic particles from gastrointestinal tracts or their dietary content can be challenging. Earlier studies have used solutions to dissolve organic materials leaving synthetic particles unaffected. However, insufficient tests

  2. Leaching of plastic additives to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelmans, Albert A.; Besseling, Ellen; Foekema, Edwin M.

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that ingestion of microplastics by aquatic species leads to increased exposure to plastic additives. However, experimental data or model based evidence is lacking. Here we assess the potential of leaching of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the intestinal tracts of Arenicola marina (lugworm) and Gadus morhua (North Sea cod). We use a biodynamic model that allows calculations of the relative contribution of plastic ingestion to total exposure of aquatic species to chemicals residing in the ingested plastic. Uncertainty in the most crucial parameters is accounted for by probabilistic modeling. Our conservative analysis shows that plastic ingestion by the lugworm yields NP and BPA concentrations that stay below the lower ends of global NP and BPA concentration ranges, and therefore are not likely to constitute a relevant exposure pathway. For cod, plastic ingestion appears to be a negligible pathway for exposure to NP and BPA. - Highlights: • Uptake of plastic additives after plastic ingestion was modeled for worms and fish. • This was done for bisphenol A and nonylphenol. • Uncertainty was accounted for by Monte Carlo simulations. • It appeared that exposure by plastic ingestion was negligible for fish. • Plastic ingestion may occasionally be relevant for marine worms. - Leaching of nonylphenol and bisphenol A from ingested microplastic may be relevant for the lugworm, but is irrelevant for fish like cod

  3. Plastic ingestion in oceanic-stage loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) off the North Atlantic subtropical gyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Christopher K; Rodríguez, Yasmina; Dauphin, Axelle; Carriço, Rita; Frias, João P G L; Vandeperre, Frederic; Otero, Vanessa; Santos, Marco R; Martins, Helen R; Bolten, Alan B; Bjorndal, Karen A

    2017-08-15

    Juvenile oceanic-stage sea turtles are particularly vulnerable to the increasing quantity of plastic coming into the oceans. In this study, we analysed the gastrointestinal tracts of 24 juvenile oceanic-stage loggerheads (Caretta caretta) collected off the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, in the Azores region, a key feeding ground for juvenile loggerheads. Twenty individuals were found to have ingested marine debris (83%), composed exclusively of plastic items (primarily polyethylene and polypropylene) identified by μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Large microplastics (1-5mm) represented 25% of the total number of debris and were found in 58% of the individuals sampled. Average number of items was 15.83±6.09 (±SE) per individual, corresponding to a mean dry mass of 1.07±0.41g. The results of this study demonstrate that plastic pollution acts as another stressor for this critical life stage of loggerhead turtles in the North Atlantic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aging of microplastics promotes their ingestion by marine zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroom, Renske J E; Koelmans, Albert A; Besseling, Ellen; Halsband, Claudia

    2017-12-01

    Microplastics (microplastics to test their impacts, while aging processes such as weathering and biofouling alter the characteristics of plastic particles in the marine environment. We investigated zooplankton ingestion of polystyrene beads (15 and 30 μm) and fragments (≤30 μm), and tested the hypothesis that microplastics previously exposed to marine conditions (aged) are ingested at higher rates than pristine microplastics. Polystyrene beads were aged by soaking in natural local seawater for three weeks. Three zooplankton taxa ingested microplastics, excluding the copepod Pseudocalanus spp., but the proportions of individuals ingesting plastic and the number of particles ingested were taxon and life stage specific and dependent on plastic size. All stages of Calanus finmarchicus ingested polystyrene fragments. Aged microbeads were preferred over pristine ones by females of Acartia longiremis as well as juvenile copepodites CV and adults of Calanus finmarchicus. The preference for aged microplastics may be attributed to the formation of a biofilm. Such a coating, made up of natural microbes, may contain similar prey as the copepods feed on in the water column and secrete chemical exudates that aid chemodetection and thus increase the attractiveness of the particles as food items. Much of the ingested plastic was, however, egested within a short time period (2-4 h) and the survival of adult Calanus females was not affected in an 11-day exposure. Negative effects of microplastics ingestion were thus limited. Our findings emphasize, however, that aging plays an important role in the transformation of microplastics at sea and ingestion by grazers, and should thus be considered in future microplastics ingestion studies and estimates of microplastics transfer into the marine food web. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ingestion of plastic debris by Laysan albatrosses and wedge-tailed shearwaters in the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, D.M.; Fefer, S.I.; Sileo, L.

    1987-01-01

    Surveys of Laysan Albatross and Wedge-tailed Shearwaters on Midway and Oahu Island, Hawaii, identified a high proportion of birds with plastic in the upper gastrointestinal tract, representing hazards to the health of adult birds and their chicks. Fifty Laysan Albatross chicks were examined for plastic items lodged within the upper digestive tract. Forty-five (90%) contained plastic, including 3 chicks having proventricular impactions or ulcerative lesions. Plastic items in 21 live albatross chicks weighed a mean of 35.7 g chicka??1 (range 1a??175 g). Four dead birds contained 14a??175 g (mean 76.7 g). Two of four adult albatross examined contained plastic in the gut. Laysan albatross chicks have the highest reported incidence and amount of ingested plastic of any seabird species. Twelve of 20 adult Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (60%) contained plastic particles 2a??4 mm in diameter. Impaction did not appear to be a significant hazard for adult shearwaters. Shearwater chicks were not examined. Chemical toxicity of plastic polymers, plasticizers and antioxidant additives is low, although many pigments are toxic and plastics may serve as vehicles for the adsorption of organochlorine pollutants from sea water, and the toxicity of plastics is unlikely to pose significant hazard compared to obstruction and impaction of the gut.

  6. Plastic ingestion by Masked booby, Sula dactylatra Lesson, 1831, on Biological Reserve of Rocas Atoll, RN, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich de Freitas Mariano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Plastic particles are one of the most common pollutants in the marine environment and it is reaching regions with low human population density. These particles are frequently ingested by many marine organisms, causing digestive problems, which may lead to the weakening and death of the animal. In a research on the feeding of 631-masked boobies, Sula dactylatra from the Biological Reserve of Atol das Rocas, plastic particles were found in stomach contents of four adults. The artifacts found were made of transperant plastic, a piece of label of a mineral water bottle, two pieces of black plastic and a small hard and red piece. The flow of fishing and tourism boats on the Atol das Rocas Biological Reserve may be the source of origin of the plastic parts in both the stomach contents and those found on the islands of the reserve, which suggests that anthropogenic behaviour has already reached isolated areas which should have a high degree of biodiversity protection. Several measures can be taken to avoid deleterious events in the marine biota, but there is great difficulty in avoiding waste dumping from fishing and tourism ships/boats, in addition to that, there are many materials from the mainland, which requires an increase in awareness and supervision.

  7. Physical and chemical effects of ingested plastic debris on short-tailed shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris, in the North Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Rei; Takada, Hideshige; Fukuwaka, Masa-aki; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the plastics ingested by short-tailed shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris, that were accidentally caught during experimental fishing in the North Pacific Ocean in 2003 and 2005. The mean mass of plastics found in the stomach was 0.23 g per bird (n = 99). Plastic mass did not correlate with body weight. Total PCB (sum of 24 congeners) concentrations in the abdominal adipose tissue of 12 birds ranged from 45 to 529 ng/g-lipid. Although total PCBs or higher-chlorinated congeners, ...

  8. Contaminants in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) exposed to plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Ask, Amalie V.; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Herzke, Dorte; Trevail, Alice; Franeker, Jan Andries van; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2016-01-01

    Northern fulmars are seabirds which feed exclusively at sea, and as such, they are useful indicators of ocean health. Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing and global issue that affects the northern fulmar as they are frequently found to have ingested plastic. In this report we investigate whether the amount of ingested plastic affects the concentration of certain plastic-adsorbed toxicants in their tissues. Marine plastic pollution is a field of utmost importance. It is our hope tha...

  9. Ingestion and transfer of microplastics in the planktonic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setälä, Outi; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with different Baltic Sea zooplankton taxa to scan their potential to ingest plastics. Mysid shrimps, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, polychaete larvae and ciliates were exposed to 10 μm fluorescent polystyrene microspheres. These experiments showed ingestion of microspheres in all taxa studied. The highest percentage of individuals with ingested spheres was found in pelagic polychaete larvae, Marenzelleria spp. Experiments with the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the mysid shrimp Neomysis integer showed egestion of microspheres within 12 h. Food web transfer experiments were done by offering zooplankton labelled with ingested microspheres to mysid shrimps. Microscopy observations of mysid intestine showed the presence of zooplankton prey and microspheres after 3 h incubation. This study shows for the first time the potential of plastic microparticle transfer via planktonic organisms from one trophic level (mesozooplankton) to a higher level (macrozooplankton). The impacts of plastic transfer and possible accumulation in the food web need further investigations. -- Highlights: • Experiments show the potential of ingestion of plastics by various zooplankton taxa. • This ingestion of plastics can be indirect via other zooplankton organisms. • There may be several alternate routes for microplastic transfer in the food webs. -- Experiments with zooplankton and microspheres showed ingestion of spheres by zpl and the transfer of ingested microspheres to higher trophic level organisms via labelled zooplankton

  10. Northern fulmars as biological monitors of trends of plastic pollution in the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; O'Hara, Patrick D; Kleine, Lydia; Bowes, Victoria; Wilson, Laurie K; Barry, Karen L

    2012-09-01

    Marine plastic debris is a global issue, which highlights the need for internationally standardized methods of monitoring plastic pollution. The stomach contents of beached northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) have proven a cost-effective biomonitor in Europe. However, recent information on northern fulmar plastic ingestion is lacking in the North Pacific. We quantified the stomach contents of 67 fulmars from beaches in the eastern North Pacific in 2009-2010 and found that 92.5% of fulmars had ingested an average of 36.8 pieces, or 0.385 g of plastic. Plastic ingestion in these fulmars is among the highest recorded globally. Compared to earlier studies in the North Pacific, our findings indicate an increase in plastic ingestion over the past 40 years. This study substantiates the use of northern fulmar as biomonitors of plastic pollution in the North Pacific and suggests that the high levels of plastic pollution in this region warrant further monitoring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Global analysis of anthropogenic debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-02-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Marine debris ingestion by Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Sphenisciformes), from the Brazilian coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Martha L; Braga, Karina M; Luque, José L

    2011-10-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are non-breeding winter visitors to the Brazilian coast. In 2008 and 2010, plastic items and other marine debris were found in the stomachs and intestines of 15% of 175 dead penguins collected in the Lagos Region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. One bird had its stomach perforated by a plastic straw, which may have caused its death. There are few records of penguins ingesting plastic litter, but previous studies have found similar levels of debris ingestion among Magellanic penguins stranded on the Brazilian coast (35.8% of 397 birds). The high incidence of marine debris in this species in Brazil may result at least in part from the predominance of juveniles reaching these waters, as juvenile penguins may have a broader diet than adults. It is unclear to what extent plastic ingestion affects the mortality rate in this species and whether the incidence in stranded birds reflects that in the entire population. The present study addresses the increasing impact of plastic debris on marine life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk Analysis Reveals Global Hotspots for Marine Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Q. A.; Wilcox, C.; Townsend, K.; Wedemeyer-Strombel, K.; Balazs, G.; van Sebille, E.; Hardesty, B. D.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic marine debris pollution is rapidly becoming one of the critical environmental concerns facing wildlife in the 21st century. Here we present a risk analysis for plastic ingestion by sea turtles on a global scale. We combined global marine plastic distributions based on ocean drifter data with sea turtle habitat maps to predict exposure levels to plastic pollution. Empirical data from necropsies of deceased animals were then utilised to assess the consequence of exposure to plastics. We modelled the risk (probability of debris ingestion) by incorporating exposure to debris and consequence of exposure, and included life history stage, species of sea turtle, and date of stranding observation as possible additional explanatory factors. Life history stage is the best predictor of debris ingestion, but the best-fit model also incorporates encounter rates within a limited distance from stranding location, marine debris predictions specific to the date of the stranding study, and turtle species. There was no difference in ingestion rates between stranded turtles vs. those caught as bycatch from fishing activity, suggesting that stranded animals are not a biased representation of debris ingestion rates in the background population. Oceanic life-stage sea turtles are at the highest risk of debris ingestion, and olive ridley turtles are the most at-risk species. The regions of highest risk to global sea turtle populations are off of the east coasts of the USA, Australia, and South Africa; the east Indian Ocean, and Southeast Asia. Model results can be used to predict the number of sea turtles globally at risk of debris ingestion. Based on currently available data, initial calculations indicate that up to 52% of sea turtles may have ingested debris.

  14. Risk analysis reveals global hotspots for marine debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar A; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy A; Wedemeyer-Strombel, Kathryn R; Balazs, George; van Sebille, Erik; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2016-02-01

    Plastic marine debris pollution is rapidly becoming one of the critical environmental concerns facing wildlife in the 21st century. Here we present a risk analysis for plastic ingestion by sea turtles on a global scale. We combined global marine plastic distributions based on ocean drifter data with sea turtle habitat maps to predict exposure levels to plastic pollution. Empirical data from necropsies of deceased animals were then utilised to assess the consequence of exposure to plastics. We modelled the risk (probability of debris ingestion) by incorporating exposure to debris and consequence of exposure, and included life history stage, species of sea turtle and date of stranding observation as possible additional explanatory factors. Life history stage is the best predictor of debris ingestion, but the best-fit model also incorporates encounter rates within a limited distance from stranding location, marine debris predictions specific to the date of the stranding study and turtle species. There is no difference in ingestion rates between stranded turtles vs. those caught as bycatch from fishing activity, suggesting that stranded animals are not a biased representation of debris ingestion rates in the background population. Oceanic life-stage sea turtles are at the highest risk of debris ingestion, and olive ridley turtles are the most at-risk species. The regions of highest risk to global sea turtle populations are off of the east coasts of the USA, Australia and South Africa; the east Indian Ocean, and Southeast Asia. Model results can be used to predict the number of sea turtles globally at risk of debris ingestion. Based on currently available data, initial calculations indicate that up to 52% of sea turtles may have ingested debris. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Plastic debris in great skua (Stercorarius skua) pellets corresponds to seabird prey species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, S; Nager, R G; Johnson, P C D; Furness, R W; Provencher, J F

    2016-02-15

    Plastic is a common item in marine environments. Studies assessing seabird ingestion of plastics have focused on species that ingest plastics mistaken for prey items. Few studies have examined a scavenger and predatory species that are likely to ingest plastics indirectly through their prey items, such as the great skua (Stercorarius skua). We examined 1034 regurgitated pellets from a great skua colony in the Faroe Islands for plastics and found approximately 6% contained plastics. Pellets containing remains of Northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) had the highest prevalence of plastic. Our findings support previous work showing that Northern fulmars have higher loads of plastics than other sympatric species. This study demonstrates that marine plastic debris is transferred from surface feeding seabird species to predatory great skuas. Examination of plastic ingestion in species that do not ingest plastics directly can provide insights into how plastic particles transfer vertically within the food web. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How quickly do albatrosses and petrels digest plastic particles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how rapidly seabirds excrete or regurgitate ingested plastic items is important for their use as monitors of marine debris. van Franeker and Law (2015) inferred that fulmarine petrels excrete ∼75% of plastic particles within a month of ingestion based on decreases in the amounts of plastic in the stomachs of adult petrels moving to relatively clean environments to breed. However, similar decreases occur among resident species due to adults passing plastic loads to their chicks. The few direct measures of wear rates and retention times of persistent stomach contents suggest longer plastic residence times in most albatrosses and petrels. Residence time presumably varies with item size, type of plastic, the amount and composition of other persistent stomach contents, and the size at which items are excreted, which may vary among taxa. Accurate measures of ingested plastic retention times are needed to better understand temporal and spatial patterns in ingested plastic loads within marine organisms, especially if they are to be used as indicators of plastic pollution trends. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemoreception drives plastic consumption in a hard coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Austin S; Seymour, Alexander C; Rittschof, Daniel

    2017-11-15

    The drivers behind microplastic (up to 5mm in diameter) consumption by animals are uncertain and impacts on foundational species are poorly understood. We investigated consumption of weathered, unfouled, biofouled, pre-production and microbe-free National Institute of Standards plastic by a scleractinian coral that relies on chemosensory cues for feeding. Experiment one found that corals ingested many plastic types while mostly ignoring organic-free sand, suggesting that plastic contains phagostimulents. Experiment two found that corals ingested more plastic that wasn't covered in a microbial biofilm than plastics that were biofilmed. Additionally, corals retained ~8% of ingested plastic for 24h or more and retained particles appeared stuck in corals, with consequences for energetics, pollutant toxicity and trophic transfer. The potential for chemoreception to drive plastic consumption in marine taxa has implications for conservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contaminants in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) exposed to plastic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ask, A.; Anker-Nilssen, T.; Herzke, D.; Trevail, Alice; Franeker, van J.A.; Gabrielsen, G.W.

    2016-01-01

    Northern fulmars are seabirds which feed exclusively at sea, and as such, they are useful indicators of ocean health. Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing and global issue that affects the northern fulmar as they are frequently found to have ingested plastic. In this report we investigate

  19. Impact of marine debris on Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella at Cape Shirreff: diet dependent ingestion and entanglement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa; Franeker, van J.A.

    2015-01-01

    For several decades it has been known that plastics in the marine environment can harm marine organisms, most visibly birds, turtles and mammals (Shomura and Yoshida, 1985). These animals can become entangled in this synthetic debris and can ingest macro- and micro-plastics. Recently, increased

  20. Seabirds and marine plastic debris in the northeastern Atlantic: A synthesis and recommendations for monitoring and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Nina J; James, Neil A; Masden, Elizabeth A; Bond, Alexander L

    2017-12-01

    Marine plastic pollution is an increasing, and global, environmental issue. Numerous marine species are affected by plastic debris through entanglement, nest incorporation, and ingestion, which can lead to lethal and sub-lethal impacts. However, in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, an area of international importance for seabirds, there has been little effort to date to assess information from studies of wildlife and plastic to better understand the spatiotemporal variation of how marine plastic affects different seabird species. To improve our understanding of seabirds and marine plastic in this region, we completed a synthesis of the published and grey literature to obtain information on all known documented cases of plastic ingestion and nest incorporation by this group. We found that of 69 seabird species that commonly occur in the northeastern Atlantic, 25 had evidence of ingesting plastic. However, data on plastic ingestion was available for only 49% of all species, with 74% of investigated species recorded ingesting plastic. We found only three published studies on nest incorporation, for the Northern Gannet (Morus bassanus) and Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla). For many species, sample sizes were small or not reported, and only 39% of studies were from the 21st century, whilst information from multiple countries and years was only available for 11 species. This indicates that we actually know very little about the current prevalence of plastic ingestion and nest incorporation for many species, several of them globally threatened. Furthermore, in the majority of studies, the metrics reported were inadequate to carry out robust comparisons among locations and species or perform meta-analyses. We recommend multi-jurisdictional collaboration to obtain a more comprehensive and current understanding of how marine plastic is affecting seabirds in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp. ingest microplastic debris in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam C. Goldstein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Substantial quantities of small plastic particles, termed “microplastic,” have been found in many areas of the world ocean, and have accumulated in particularly high densities on the surface of the subtropical gyres. While plastic debris has been documented on the surface of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG since the early 1970s, the ecological implications remain poorly understood. Organisms associated with floating objects, termed the “rafting assemblage,” are an important component of the NPSG ecosystem. These objects are often dominated by abundant and fast-growing gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp., which predate on plankton and larval fishes at the sea surface. To assess the potential effects of microplastic on the rafting community, we examined the gastrointestinal tracts of 385 barnacles collected from the NPSG for evidence of plastic ingestion. We found that 33.5% of the barnacles had plastic particles present in their gastrointestinal tract, ranging from one plastic particle to a maximum of 30 particles. Particle ingestion was positively correlated to capitulum length, and no blockage of the stomach or intestines was observed. The majority of ingested plastic was polyethylene, with polypropylene and polystyrene also present. Our results suggest that barnacle ingestion of microplastic is relatively common, with unknown trophic impacts on the rafting community and the NPSG ecosystem.

  2. Monitoring plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franeker, Jan A. van, E-mail: Jan.vanfraneker@wur.nl [IMARES Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies, Wageningen-UR, PO Box 167, 1790AD Den Burg, Texel (Netherlands); Blaize, Christine [Le CHENE, Centre de Sauvegarde de la Faune Sauvage et Musee de la Nature, 12 Rue du Musee, F-76190 Allouville-Bellefosse (France); Danielsen, Johannis [Norouri i Sundum 7, FO-410 Kollafjorour (Faroe Islands); Fairclough, Keith [Fairclough Ecological Orkney FEO Viewforth, Swannay by Evie, Orkney, KW17 2NR, Scotland (United Kingdom); Gollan, Jane [Kermouroux, FR-56 470 Saint Philibert (France); Guse, Nils [Research and Technology Centre West coast FTZ, University of Kiel, Hafentoern 1, D-25761 Buesum (Germany); Hansen, Poul-Lindhard [Naturhistorisk Museum Skagen, Skagen Naturcenter, Flagbakkevej 30, DK-9990 Skagen (Denmark); Heubeck, Martin [University of Aberdeen (SOTEAG), Sumburgh Head Lighthouse, Virkie, Shetland ZE3 9JN, Scotland (United Kingdom); Jensen, Jens-Kjeld [Zoological conservator, I Geilini 37, FO-270 Nolsoy (Faroe Islands); Le Guillou, Gilles [Groupe Ornithologique Normand, 118 route d' ORCHER, F-76700 Gonfreville l' Orcher (France); Olsen, Bergur [Faroe Marine Research Institute c/o Natturugripasavnio, Futalag 40, FO-100 Torshavn (Faroe Islands); Olsen, Kare-Olav [Postveien 43, N-4563 Borhaug (Norway); Pedersen, John [Skagen Uddannelsescenter SUC, Vestmolen 15, DK-9990 Skagen (Denmark); Stienen, Eric W.M. [Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Kliniekstraat 25, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Turner, Daniel M. [9 Haswell Gardens, North Shields, Tyne and Wear, NE30 2DP, England (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    The abundance of plastics in stomachs of northern fulmars from the North Sea is used in the OSPAR Ecological Quality Objective (EcoQO) for marine litter. The preliminary EcoQO defines acceptable ecological quality as the situation where no more than 10% of fulmars exceed a critical level of 0.1 g of plastic in the stomach. During 2003-2007, 95% of 1295 fulmars sampled in the North Sea had plastic in the stomach (on average 35 pieces weighing 0.31 g) and the critical level of 0.1 g of plastic was exceeded by 58% of birds, with regional variations ranging from 48 to 78%. Long term data for the Netherlands since the 1980s show a decrease of industrial, but an increase of user plastics, with shipping and fisheries as the main sources. The EcoQO is now also used as an indicator for Good Environmental Status in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive. - Highlights: > Trends in marine debris can be monitored by plastics in stomachs of seabirds. > In the North Sea 95% of Fulmars has plastic in the stomach (35 particles; 0.31 g). > The policy target is that less than 10% of Fulmars has over 0.1 g of plastic. > Currently 58% of North Sea fulmars exceeds the 0.1 g critical limit. > Over the past 30 years industrial plastics decreased and user plastic increased. - Trends and patterns in the abundance of plastics in northern fulmar stomachs show that seabirds can be a valuable tool for monitoring marine litter.

  3. Monitoring plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis in the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franeker, Jan A. van; Blaize, Christine; Danielsen, Johannis; Fairclough, Keith; Gollan, Jane; Guse, Nils; Hansen, Poul-Lindhard; Heubeck, Martin; Jensen, Jens-Kjeld; Le Guillou, Gilles; Olsen, Bergur; Olsen, Kare-Olav; Pedersen, John; Stienen, Eric W.M.; Turner, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of plastics in stomachs of northern fulmars from the North Sea is used in the OSPAR Ecological Quality Objective (EcoQO) for marine litter. The preliminary EcoQO defines acceptable ecological quality as the situation where no more than 10% of fulmars exceed a critical level of 0.1 g of plastic in the stomach. During 2003-2007, 95% of 1295 fulmars sampled in the North Sea had plastic in the stomach (on average 35 pieces weighing 0.31 g) and the critical level of 0.1 g of plastic was exceeded by 58% of birds, with regional variations ranging from 48 to 78%. Long term data for the Netherlands since the 1980s show a decrease of industrial, but an increase of user plastics, with shipping and fisheries as the main sources. The EcoQO is now also used as an indicator for Good Environmental Status in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive. - Highlights: → Trends in marine debris can be monitored by plastics in stomachs of seabirds. → In the North Sea 95% of Fulmars has plastic in the stomach (35 particles; 0.31 g). → The policy target is that less than 10% of Fulmars has over 0.1 g of plastic. → Currently 58% of North Sea fulmars exceeds the 0.1 g critical limit. → Over the past 30 years industrial plastics decreased and user plastic increased. - Trends and patterns in the abundance of plastics in northern fulmar stomachs show that seabirds can be a valuable tool for monitoring marine litter.

  4. Microplastics ingestion by a common tropical freshwater fishing resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline Santos; Silva, José Diego B; França, Elton José de; Araújo, Maria Christina Barbosa de; Gusmão, Felipe

    2017-02-01

    Microplastics pollution is widespread in marine ecosystems and a major threat to biodiversity. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the impacts of microplastics in freshwater environments and biota is still very limited. The interaction of microplastics with freshwater organisms and the risks associated with the human consumption of organisms that ingested microplastics remain major knowledge gaps. In this study, we assessed the ingestion of microplastics by Hoplosternum littorale, a common freshwater fish heavily consumed by humans in semi-arid regions of South America. We assessed the abundance and diversity of both plastic debris and other food items found in the gut of fishes caught by local fishermen. We observed that 83% of the fish had plastic debris inside the gut, the highest frequency reported for a fish species so far. Most of the plastic debris (88.6%) recovered from the guts of fish were microplastics (microplastics at the urbanized sections of the river, and that the ingestion of microplastics was negatively correlated with the diversity of other food items in the gut of individual fish. Nevertheless, microplastics ingestion appears to have a limited impact on H. littorale, and the consequences of human consumption of this fish were not assessed. Our results suggest freshwater biota are vulnerable to microplastics pollution and that urbanization is a major factor contributing to the pollution of freshwater environments with microplastics. We suggest the gut content of fish could be used as a tool for the qualitative assessment of microplastics pollution in freshwater ecosystems. Further research is needed to determine the processes responsible for the high incidence of microplastics ingestion by H. littorale, and to evaluate the risk posed to humans by the consumption of freshwater fish that ingested microplastics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. What Happens to Bio-degradables in the Ocean? Due to the increasing amount of plastic that ends up in the ocean there is much alarm about it killing sea life from ingestion and changing chemical properties of the ocean. But what really happens t these products in the ocean, and how do they affect the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, A.

    2016-12-01

    What Happens to Bio-degradables in the Ocean? Due to the increasing amount of plastic that ends up in the ocean there is much alarm about it killing sea life from entanglement and ingestion and changing chemical properties of the ocean. Our society is trying to take action by purchasing and using materials that claim to be biodegradable. But how long do these materials take to degrade in ocean water and do they actually change the water composition? Answering these questions will determine if one should invest in these materials as an alternative to plastic.

  6. Incidence of plastic fragments among burrow-nesting seabird colonies on offshore islands in northern New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Rachel T; Currey, Caitlin A; Lyver, Philip O'B; Jones, Christopher J

    2013-09-15

    Marine plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the world's oceans, and has been found in high concentrations in oceanic gyres of both the northern and southern hemispheres. The number of studies demonstrating plastic debris at seabird colonies and plastic ingestion by adult seabirds has increased over the past few decades. Despite the recent discovery of a large aggregation of plastic debris in the South Pacific subtropical gyre, the incidence of plastics at seabird colonies in New Zealand is unknown. Between 2011 and 2012 we surveyed six offshore islands on the northeast coast of New Zealand's North Island for burrow-nesting seabird colonies and the presence of plastic fragments. We found non-research related plastic fragments (0.031 pieces/m(2)) on one island only, Ohinau, within dense flesh-footed shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) colonies. On Ohinau, we found a linear relationship between burrow density and plastic density, with 3.5 times more breeding burrows in areas with plastic fragments found. From these data we conclude that plastic ingestion is a potentially a serious issue for flesh-footed shearwaters in New Zealand. Although these results do not rule out plastic ingestion by other species, they suggest the need for further research on the relationship between New Zealand's pelagic seabirds and marine plastic pollution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Leaching of Plastic Additives to Marine Organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Besseling, E.; Foekema, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that ingestion of microplastics by aquatic species leads to increased exposure to plastic additives. However, experimental data or model based evidence is lacking. Here we assess the potential of leaching of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the intestinal tracts of

  8. Bringing home the trash: Do colony-based differences in foraging distribution lead to increased plastic ingestion in Laysan albatrosses?

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Lindsay C.; Vanderlip, Cynthia; Duffy, David C.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Shaffer, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    When searching for prey, animals should maximize energetic gain, while minimizing energy expenditure by altering their movements relative to prey availability. However, with increasing amounts of marine debris, what once may have been 'optimal' foraging strategies for top marine predators, are leading to sub-optimal diets comprised in large part of plastic. Indeed, the highly vagile Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) which forages throughout the North Pacific, are well known for their...

  9. Risk analysis reveals global hotspots for marine debris ingestion by sea turtles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuyler, Qamar A.; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy A.; Wedemeyer-Strombel, Kathryn R.; Balazs, George; van Sebille, Erik|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831921; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2016-01-01

    Plastic marine debris pollution is rapidly becoming one of the critical environmental concerns facing wildlife in the 21st century. Here we present a risk analysis for plastic ingestion by sea turtles on a global scale. We combined global marine plastic distributions based on ocean drifter data with

  10. Odours from marine plastic debris induce food search behaviours in a forage fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoca, Matthew S; Tyson, Chris W; McGill, Michael; Slager, Christina J

    2017-08-16

    Plastic pollution is an anthropogenic stressor in marine ecosystems globally. Many species of marine fish (more than 50) ingest plastic debris. Ingested plastic has a variety of lethal and sublethal impacts and can be a route for bioaccumulation of toxic compounds throughout the food web. Despite its pervasiveness and severity, our mechanistic understanding of this maladaptive foraging behaviour is incomplete. Recent evidence suggests that the chemical signature of plastic debris may explain why certain species are predisposed to mistaking plastic for food. Anchovy ( Engraulis sp.) are abundant forage fish in coastal upwelling systems and a critical prey resource for top predators. Anchovy ingest plastic in natural conditions, though the mechanism they use to misidentify plastic as prey is unknown. Here, we presented wild-caught schools of northern anchovy ( Engraulis mordax ) with odour solutions made of plastic debris and clean plastic to compare school-wide aggregation and rheotactic responses relative to food and food odour presentations. Anchovy schools responded to plastic debris odour with increased aggregation and reduced rheotaxis. These results were similar to the effects food and food odour presentations had on schools. Conversely, these behavioural responses were absent in clean plastic and control treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence that adult anchovy use odours to forage. We conclude that the chemical signature plastic debris acquires in the photic zone can induce foraging behaviours in anchovy schools. These findings provide further support for a chemosensory mechanism underlying plastic consumption by marine wildlife. Given the trophic position of forage fish, these findings have considerable implications for aquatic food webs and possibly human health. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Inhibition of ghrelin O-acyltransferase attenuates food deprivation-induced increases in ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Brett J W; Garretson, John T; Hwang, Yousang; Cole, Philip A; Bartness, Timothy J

    2013-04-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach in direct proportion to the time since the last meal and has therefore been called a 'hunger signal'. The octanoylation of ghrelin is critical for its orexigenic functions and is dependent upon ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) catalyzation. The GOAT inhibitor, GO-CoA-Tat, decreases the circulating concentrations of octanoylated ghrelin and attenuates weight gain on a high fat diet in mice. Unlike rats and mice, Siberian hamsters and humans do not increase food intake after food deprivation, but increase food hoarding after food deprivation. In Siberian hamsters, exogenous ghrelin increases ingestive behaviors similarly to 48-56 h food deprivation. Therefore, we tested the necessity of increased ghrelin in food-deprived Siberian hamsters to stimulate ingestive behaviors. To do so we used our simulated natural housing system that allows hamsters to forage for and hoard food. Animals were given an injection of GO-CoA-Tat (i.p., 11 μmol/kg) every 6h because that is the duration of its effective inhibition of octanoylated ghrelin concentrations during a 48 h food deprivation. We found that GO-CoA-Tat attenuated food foraging (0-1h), food intake (0-1 and 2-4h), and food hoarding (0-1h and 2 and 3 days) post-refeeding compared with saline treated animals. This suggests that increased octanoylated ghrelin concentrations play a role in the food deprivation-induced increases in ingestive behavior. Therefore, ghrelin is a critical aspect of the multi-faceted mechanisms that stimulate ingestive behaviors, and might be a critical point for a successful clinical intervention scheme in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Increase of methanol in exhaled breath quantified by SIFT-MS following aspartame ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Vicherková, Petra; Smith, David

    2015-11-19

    Aspartame, methyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninate, is used worldwide as a sweetener in foods and drinks and is considered to be safe at an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 40 mg per kg of body weight. This compound is completely hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract to aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol, each being toxic at high levels. The objective of the present study was to quantify the volatile methanol component in the exhaled breath of ten healthy volunteers following the ingestion of a single ADI dose of aspartame. Direct on-line measurements of methanol concentration were made in the mouth and nose breath exhalations using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, several times before aspartame ingestion in order to establish individual pre-dose (baseline) levels and then during two hours post-ingestion to track their initial increase and subsequent decrease. The results show that breath methanol concentrations increased in all volunteers by 1082   ±   205 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) from their pre-ingestion values, which ranged from 193 to 436 ppbv to peak values ranging from 981-1622 ppbv, from which they slowly decreased. These observations agree quantitatively with a predicted increase of 1030 ppbv estimated using a one-compartment model of uniform dilution of the methanol generated from a known amount of aspartame throughout the total body water (including blood). In summary, an ADI dose of aspartame leads to a 3-6 fold increase of blood methanol concentration above the individual baseline values.

  13. The plastic-associated microorganisms of the North Pacific Gyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Henry S; Nerheim, Magnus S; Carroll, Katherine A; Eriksen, Marcus

    2013-10-15

    Microorganisms likely mediate processes affecting the fate and impacts of marine plastic pollution, including degradation, chemical adsorption, and colonization or ingestion by macroorganisms. We investigated the relationship between plastic-associated microorganism communities and factors such as location, temperature, salinity, plankton abundance, plastic concentration, item size, surface roughness, and polymer type. Small plastic items from the surface of the North Pacific Gyre in 2011 were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Bacillus bacteria (mean 1664 ± 247 individuals mm(-2)) and pennate diatoms (1097 ± 154 mm(-2)) were most abundant, with coccoid bacteria, centric diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccolithophores, and radiolarians present. Bacterial abundance was patchy, but increased on foamed polystyrene. Diatom abundance increased on items with rough surfaces and at sites with high plastic concentrations. Morphotype richness increased slightly on larger fragments, and a biogeographic transition occurred between pennate diatom groups. Better characterizing this community will aid in understanding how it interacts with plastic pollution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Plastic consumption and diet of Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindborg, Valerie A; Ledbetter, Julia F; Walat, Jean M; Moffett, Cinamon

    2012-11-01

    We analyzed dietary habits and presence of plastic in 589 boluses of Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) as one of two studies on the impact of plastics on marine life in the US Salish Sea. Volunteers dissected boluses collected (2007-2010) from Protection Island, Washington. Components were separated into 23 food and non-food categories. Plastic was found in 12.2% of boluses, with plastic film being the most common plastic form. No diet specialization was observed. Vegetation was the most abundant component, found in 91.3% of boluses. No relationship was observed between any dietary items and occurrence or type of plastic found. Load and potential ecological impact in the marine environment can be expected to increase concurrently with increasing plastic use and number and variety of plastic sources. Future studies are necessary to understand the impacts of plastic ingestion on this species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Plastics and microplastics in the oceans: From emerging pollutants to emerged threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avio, Carlo Giacomo; Gorbi, Stefania; Regoli, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    Plastic production has increased dramatically worldwide over the last 60 years and it is nowadays recognized as a serious threat to the marine environment. Plastic pollution is ubiquitous, but quantitative estimates on the global abundance and weight of floating plastics are still limited, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere and the more remote regions. Some large-scale convergence zones of plastic debris have been identified, but there is the urgency to standardize common methodologies to measure and quantify plastics in seawater and sediments. Investigations on temporal trends, geographical distribution and global cycle of plastics have management implications when defining the origin, possible drifting tracks and ecological consequences of such pollution. An elevated number of marine species is known to be affected by plastic contamination, and a more integrated ecological risk assessment of these materials has become a research priority. Beside entanglement and ingestion of macro debris by large vertebrates, microplastics are accumulated by planktonic and invertebrate organisms, being transferred along food chains. Negative consequences include loss of nutritional value of diet, physical damages, exposure to pathogens and transport of alien species. In addition, plastics contain chemical additives and efficiently adsorb several environmental contaminants, thus representing a potential source of exposure to such compounds after ingestion. Complex ecotoxicological effects are increasingly reported, but the fate and impact of microplastics in the marine environment are still far to be fully clarified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How marine debris ingestion differs among megafauna species in a tropical coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Awabdi, Danielle Rodrigues

    2014-11-15

    The marine debris ingested by megafauna species (Trichiurus lepturus, Chelonia mydas, Pontoporia blainvillei, and Sotalia guianensis) was recorded in a coastal area of southeastern Brazil (21-23°S). Marine debris was recorded in all species, mainly consisting of plastic material (flexible and hard plastics - clear, white, and colored- and nylon filaments). The 'pelagic predators' T. lepturus and S. guianesis showed the lowest percent frequencies of debris ingestion (0.7% and 1.3%, respectively), followed by the 'benthic predator' P. blainvillei (15.7%) and the 'benthic herbivorous C. mydas (59.2%). The debris found in C. mydas stomachs was opportunistically ingested during feeding activities on local macroalgal banks. In the study area, the benthic environment accumulates more anthropogenic debris than the pelagic environment, and benthic/demersal feeders are more susceptible to encounters and ingestion. The sub-lethal effects observed in C. mydas, such as intestinal obstruction due to hardened fecal material, should be considered a local conservation concern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The plastic-associated microorganisms of the North Pacific Gyre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, Henry S.; Nerheim, Magnus S.; Carroll, Katherine A.; Eriksen, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Microorganisms mediate processes affecting the fate and impacts of marine plastic. • North Pacific Gyre (NPG) plastics were examined with scanning-electron microscopy. • Bacillus bacteria and pennate diatoms dominated the NPG plastic fouling community. • Bacterial abundance was patchily distributed but increased on foamed polystyrene. • Diatom abundance increased on rough surfaces and at sites with high plastic density. -- Abstract: Microorganisms likely mediate processes affecting the fate and impacts of marine plastic pollution, including degradation, chemical adsorption, and colonization or ingestion by macroorganisms. We investigated the relationship between plastic-associated microorganism communities and factors such as location, temperature, salinity, plankton abundance, plastic concentration, item size, surface roughness, and polymer type. Small plastic items from the surface of the North Pacific Gyre in 2011 were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Bacillus bacteria (mean 1664 ± 247 individuals mm −2 ) and pennate diatoms (1097 ± 154 mm −2 ) were most abundant, with coccoid bacteria, centric diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccolithophores, and radiolarians present. Bacterial abundance was patchy, but increased on foamed polystyrene. Diatom abundance increased on items with rough surfaces and at sites with high plastic concentrations. Morphotype richness increased slightly on larger fragments, and a biogeographic transition occurred between pennate diatom groups. Better characterizing this community will aid in understanding how it interacts with plastic pollution

  18. White-faced storm-petrels Pelagodroma marina predated by gulls as biological monitors of plastic pollution in the pelagic subtropical Northeast Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Ricardo; Menezes, Dilia; Santos, Carolina Jardim; Catry, Paulo

    2016-11-15

    Marine plastic pollution is rapidly growing and is a source of major concern. Seabirds often ingest plastic debris and are increasingly used as biological monitors of plastic pollution. However, virtually no studies have assessed plastics in seabirds in the deep subtropical North Atlantic. We investigated whether remains of white-faced storm-petrels (WFSP) present in gull pellets could be used for biomonitoring. We analysed 263 pellets and 79.0% of these contained plastic debris originating in the digestive tract of WFSP. Pellets with no bird prey did not contain plastics. Most debris were fragments (83.6%) with fewer plastic pellets (8.2%). Light-coloured plastics predominated (71.0%) and the most frequent polymer was HDPE (73.0%). Stable isotopes in toe-nails of WFSP containing many versus no plastics did not differ, indicating no individual specialisation leading to differential plastic ingestion. We suggest WFSP in pellets are highly suitable to monitor the little known pelagic subtropical Northeast Atlantic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental implications of plastic debris in marine settings--entanglement, ingestion, smothering, hangers-on, hitch-hiking and alien invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Murray R

    2009-07-27

    Over the past five or six decades, contamination and pollution of the world's enclosed seas, coastal waters and the wider open oceans by plastics and other synthetic, non-biodegradable materials (generally known as 'marine debris') has been an ever-increasing phenomenon. The sources of these polluting materials are both land- and marine-based, their origins may be local or distant, and the environmental consequences are many and varied. The more widely recognized problems are typically associated with entanglement, ingestion, suffocation and general debilitation, and are often related to stranding events and public perception. Among the less frequently recognized and recorded problems are global hazards to shipping, fisheries and other maritime activities. Today, there are rapidly developing research interests in the biota attracted to freely floating (i.e. pelagic) marine debris, commonly known as 'hangers-on and hitch-hikers' as well as material sinking to the sea floor despite being buoyant. Dispersal of aggressive alien and invasive species by these mechanisms leads one to reflect on the possibilities that ensuing invasions could endanger sensitive, or at-risk coastal environments (both marine and terrestrial) far from their native habitats.

  20. Environmental implications of plastic debris in marine settings—entanglement, ingestion, smothering, hangers-on, hitch-hiking and alien invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Murray R.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past five or six decades, contamination and pollution of the world’s enclosed seas, coastal waters and the wider open oceans by plastics and other synthetic, non-biodegradable materials (generally known as ‘marine debris’) has been an ever-increasing phenomenon. The sources of these polluting materials are both land- and marine-based, their origins may be local or distant, and the environmental consequences are many and varied. The more widely recognized problems are typically associated with entanglement, ingestion, suffocation and general debilitation, and are often related to stranding events and public perception. Among the less frequently recognized and recorded problems are global hazards to shipping, fisheries and other maritime activities. Today, there are rapidly developing research interests in the biota attracted to freely floating (i.e. pelagic) marine debris, commonly known as ‘hangers-on and hitch-hikers’ as well as material sinking to the sea floor despite being buoyant. Dispersal of aggressive alien and invasive species by these mechanisms leads one to reflect on the possibilities that ensuing invasions could endanger sensitive, or at-risk coastal environments (both marine and terrestrial) far from their native habitats. PMID:19528053

  1. Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-12-02

    The indiscriminate disposal of plastic to the environment is of concern. Microscopic plastic litter (environment, originating from the fragmentation of plastic items and from industry and personal-care products [1]. On highly impacted beaches, microplastic concentrations (impacts remain understudied [1]. Here, we show that deposit-feeding marine worms maintained in sediments spiked with microscopic unplasticised polyvinylchloride (UPVC) at concentrations overlapping those in the environment had significantly depleted energy reserves by up to 50% (Figure 1). Our results suggest that depleted energy reserves arise from a combination of reduced feeding activity, longer gut residence times of ingested material and inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Feeding type and development drive the ingestion of microplastics by freshwater invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Christian; Brennholt, Nicole; Reifferscheid, Georg; Wagner, Martin

    2017-12-05

    Microscopic plastic items (microplastics) are ubiquitously present in aquatic ecosystems. With decreasing size their availability and potential to accumulate throughout food webs increase. However, little is known on the uptake of microplastics by freshwater invertebrates. To address this, we exposed species with different feeding strategies to 1, 10 and 90 µm fluorescent polystyrene spheres (3-3 000 particles mL -1 ). Additionally, we investigated how developmental stages and a co-exposure to natural particles (e.g., food) modulate microplastic ingestion. All species ingested microplastics in a concentration-dependent manner with Daphnia magna consuming up to 6 180 particles h -1 , followed by Chironomus riparius (226 particles h -1 ), Physella acuta (118 particles h -1 ), Gammarus pulex (10 particles h -1 ) and Lumbriculus variegatus (8 particles h -1 ). D. magna did not ingest 90 µm microplastics whereas the other species preferred larger microplastics over 1 µm in size. In C. riparius and D. magna, size preference depended on the life stage with larger specimens ingesting more and larger microplastics. The presence of natural particles generally reduced the microplastics uptake. Our results demonstrate that freshwater invertebrates have the capacity to ingest microplastics. However, the quantity of uptake depends on their feeding type and morphology as well as on the availability of microplastics.

  3. Selectivity of flesh-footed shearwaters for plastic colour: Evidence for differential provisioning in adults and fledglings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-02-01

    The ingestion of plastic by seabirds has been used as an indicator of population and ocean health. However, few studies have examined adults and juveniles of the same species concurrent with the availability of plastic in the local marine environment. In King George Sound (KGS), Western Australia, 13% of adult flesh-footed shearwaters (Ardenna carneipes) and 90% of fledglings contained plastic items in their digestive tract. On Lord Howe Island (LHI), New South Wales, 75% of adult shearwaters and 100% of fledglings contained plastic. Ingested items were assessed using Jaccard's Index (where J = 0 indicates complete dissimilarity and J = 1 complete similarity). The colour of items ingested by self- and chick-provisioning shearwaters from KGS exhibited broad overlap with plastic available in the local environment (J = 0.78-0.80), and plastic in adults and fledglings from LHI were less similar to those available (J = 0.31-0.58). Additional data on seabird colour selection would improve our understanding of the factors influencing the behaviour of ingesting plastic, and its contribution to the decline of some species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derraik, José G B

    2002-09-01

    The deleterious effects of plastic debris on the marine environment were reviewed by bringing together most of the literature published so far on the topic. A large number of marine species is known to be harmed and/or killed by plastic debris, which could jeopardize their survival, especially since many are already endangered by other forms of anthropogenic activities. Marine animals are mostly affected through entanglement in and ingestion of plastic litter. Other less known threats include the use of plastic debris by "invader" species and the absorption of polychlorinated biphenyls from ingested plastics. Less conspicuous forms, such as plastic pellets and "scrubbers" are also hazardous. To address the problem of plastic debris in the oceans is a difficult task, and a variety of approaches are urgently required. Some of the ways to mitigate the problem are discussed.

  5. Short-term fructose ingestion affects the brain independently from establishment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Maldonado, Alberto; Ying, Zhe; Byun, Hyae Ran; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Chronic fructose ingestion is linked to the global epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and poses a serious threat to brain function. We asked whether a short period (one week) of fructose ingestion potentially insufficient to establish peripheral metabolic disorder could impact brain function. We report that the fructose treatment had no effect on liver/body weight ratio, weight gain, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, was sufficient to reduce several aspects of hippocampal plasticity. Fructose consumption reduced the levels of the neuronal nuclear protein NeuN, Myelin Basic Protein, and the axonal growth-associated protein 43, concomitant with a decline in hippocampal weight. A reduction in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha and Cytochrome c oxidase subunit II by fructose treatment is indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the GLUT5 fructose transporter was increased in the hippocampus after fructose ingestion suggesting that fructose may facilitate its own transport to brain. Fructose elevated levels of ketohexokinase in the liver but did not affect SIRT1 levels, suggesting that fructose is metabolized in the liver, without severely affecting liver function commensurable to an absence of metabolic syndrome condition. These results advocate that a short period of fructose can influence brain plasticity without a major peripheral metabolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Medication organizers (pill minders) increase the risk for unintentional pediatric ingestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George Sam; Hoppe, Jason A; Brou, Lina; Heard, Kennon J

    2017-09-01

    Medication organizers may help improve medication compliance; however, they may increase the risk of having an unintentional pediatric exposure. The objective of this study was to measure the association between a pediatric emergency department (ED) visit for an unintentional pharmaceutical ingestion and the use of a medication organizer in the household. This was a cross-sectional case control study at a tertiary care children's hospital ED. Cases included subjects organizer was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.3, 2.9). After adjusting for the presence of prescription medications in the home, the OR of risk for ingestion remained statistically significant at 1.8 (95% CI, 1.1, 2.7). The child obtained the exposure medication from the medication organizer in 63% of cases where a medication organizer was present in the home. Cases were more likely to have knowledge of, and previous contact with poison control centers (PCC) than non-injury controls. Overall, a large number of caregivers (36%) did not have any knowledge of PCC. There were also differences in smoking and use of seat belts between cases and controls. The use of medication organizers may be a risk factor for unintentional pediatric pharmaceutical ingestions, even when controlling for the use of prescription medications in the home. Further research is needed to evaluate the specific role of medication organizers, and subsequently, improve prevention strategies.

  7. Quantifying ingested debris in marine megafauna: a review and recommendations for standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Provencher, Jennifer F.; Bond, Alexander L.; Avery-gomm, Stephanie; Borrelle, Stephanie B.; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa L.; Hammer, Sjúrður; Kühn, Suse; Lavers, Jennifer L.; Mallory, Mark L.; Trevail, Alice; Franeker, van, Jan A.

    2017-01-01

    Plastic pollution has become one of the largest environmental challenges we currently face. The United\\ud Nations Environment Program (UNEP) has listed it as a critical problem, comparable to climate change,\\ud demonstrating both the scale and degree of the environmental problem. Mortalities due to entanglement\\ud in plastic fishing nets and bags have been reported for marine mammals, turtles and seabirds, and to date\\ud over 690 marine species have been reported to ingest plastics. The body ...

  8. Plastics in the Ocean: More Than a Litter Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Environmental Education, Washington, DC.

    Environmental impacts arise from entanglement of marine animals in plastic debris and from ingestion of plastics by marine organisms. Plastic debris can cause potential threats to humans when divers become entangled or vessels become fouled in debris. The depletion of fishery resources, vessel damage, and aesthetic degradation resulting in lost…

  9. Plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) in Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehn, S.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from Iceland were used to test the hypothesis that plastic debris decreases at northern latitudes in the Atlantic when moving away from major human centres of coastal and marine activities. Stomach analyses of Icelandic fulmars confirm that plastic

  10. White-faced storm-petrels Pelagodroma marina predated by gulls as biological monitors of plastic pollution in the pelagic subtropical Northeast Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, Ricardo; Menezes, Dilia; Santos, Carolina Jardim; Catry, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic pollution is rapidly growing and is a source of major concern. Seabirds often ingest plastic debris and are increasingly used as biological monitors of plastic pollution. However, virtually no studies have assessed plastics in seabirds in the deep subtropical North Atlantic. We investigated whether remains of white-faced storm-petrels (WFSP) present in gull pellets could be used for biomonitoring. We analysed 263 pellets and 79.0% of these contained plastic debris originating in the digestive tract of WFSP. Pellets with no bird prey did not contain plastics. Most debris were fragments (83.6%) with fewer plastic pellets (8.2%). Light-coloured plastics predominated (71.0%) and the most frequent polymer was HDPE (73.0%). Stable isotopes in toe-nails of WFSP containing many versus no plastics did not differ, indicating no individual specialisation leading to differential plastic ingestion. We suggest WFSP in pellets are highly suitable to monitor the little known pelagic subtropical Northeast Atlantic. - Highlights: • Plastics in gull pellets reflect contamination of their avian prey. • 79% of white-faced storm petrels in the Northeast Atlantic contain plastics. • Gull pellets are suitable to monitor the little known subtropical NE Atlantic.

  11. Using Expert Elicitation to Estimate the Impacts of Plastic Pollution on Marine Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallos, N. J.; Wilcox, C.; Leonard, G. H.; Rodriquez, A. G.; Hardesty, B. D.

    2016-02-01

    With the rapid increase in global plastics production and the resulting large volume of litter that enters the marine environment, determining the consequences of this debris on marine fauna and ocean health has now become a critical environmental priority, particularly for threatened and endangered species. However, there are limited data about the impacts on debris on marine species from which to draw conclusions about the population consequences of anthropogenic debris. To address this knowledge gap, information was elicited from experts on the ecological threat of entanglement, ingestion and chemical contamination for three major marine taxa: seabirds, sea turtles and marine mammals. The threat assessment focused on the most common types of litter that are found along the world's coastlines, based on data gathered during three decades of international coastal clean-up efforts. Fishing related gear, balloons and plastic bags were estimated to pose the greatest entanglement risk to marine fauna. In contrast, experts identified a broader suite of items of concern for ingestion, with plastic bags and plastic utensils ranked as the greatest threats. Entanglement and ingestion affected a similar range of taxa, although entanglement was slightly worse as it is more likely to be lethal. Contamination was scored the lowest in terms of its impact, affecting a smaller portion of the taxa and being rated as having solely non-lethal impacts. Research designed to better understand and quantify the impacts of chemical contamination on marine fauna at individual, population and species levels should be a priority for conservation biologists. This work points towards a number of opportunities for both policy-based and consumer-driven changes in plastics use that could have demonstrable affects for a range of taxa that are ecologically important and serve as indicators of marine ecosystem health. Based on threat rankings, entanglement and ingestion should be a similar priority

  12. White-faced storm-petrels Pelagodroma marina predated by gulls as biological monitors of plastic pollution in the pelagic subtropical northeast atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, Ricardo Miranda; Menezes, Dilia; Santos, Carolina Jardim; Catry, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic pollution is rapidly growing and is a source of major concern. Seabirds often ingest plastic debris and are increasingly used as biological monitors of plastic pollution. However, virtually no studies have assessed plastics in seabirds in the deep subtropical North Atlantic. We investigated whether remains of white-faced storm-petrels (WFSP) present in gull pellets could be used for biomonitoring. We analysed 263 pellets and 79.0% of these contained plastic debris originating i...

  13. Plastics in the marine environment: the dark side of a modern gift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Jort; Kraak, Michiel H S; Parsons, John R

    2012-01-01

    Plastics are cheap, strong, and durable and offer considerable benefits to humanity. They potentially can enhance the benefits that both medical and scientific technology will bestow to humankind. However, it has now been several decades since the use of plastics exploded, and we have evidence that our current approach to production, use, transport and disposal of plastic materials has caused, and is still causing serious effects on wildlife, and is not sustainable. Because of frequent inappropriate waste management practices, or irresponsible human behavior, large masses of plastic items have been released into the environment, and thereby have entered the world's oceans. Moreover, this process continues, and in some places is even increasing. Most plastic debris that now exists in the marine environment originated from ocean-based sources such as the fishing industry. Plastics accumulate in coastal areas, at the ocean surface and on the seabed. Because 70% of all plastics are known to eventually sink, it is suspected that ever increasing amounts of plastic items are accumulating in seabed sediments. Plastics do not biodegrade, although, under the influence of solar UV radiations, plastics do degrade and fragment into small particles, termed microplastics. Our oceans eventually serve as a sink for these small plastic particles and in one estimate, it is thought that 200,000 microplastics per km(2) of the ocean's surface commonly exist. The impact of plastic debris has been studied since the beginning of the 1960's. To date, more than 267 species in the marine environment are known to have been affected by plastic entanglement or ingestion. Marine mammals are among those species that are most affected by entanglement in plastic debris. By contrast, marine birds suffer the most from ingestion of plastics. Organisms can also be seriously absorbed by floating plastic debris, or the contaminants may derive from plastic additives that are leached to the environment

  14. Expectancy of ergogenicity from sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases high-intensity cycling capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Matthew F; Shabir, Akbar

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether expectancy of ergogenicity of a commonly used nutritional supplement (sodium bicarbonate; NaHCO3) influenced subsequent high-intensity cycling capacity. Eight recreationally active males (age, 21 ± 1 years; body mass, 75 ± 8 kg; height, 178 ± 4 cm; WPEAK = 205 ± 22 W) performed a graded incremental test to assess peak power output (WPEAK), one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling at 100% WPEAK to volitional exhaustion (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting either a placebo (PLA: 0.1 g·kg(-1) sodium chloride (NaCl), 4 mL·kg(-1) tap water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash) or a sham placebo (SHAM: 0.1 g·kg(-1) NaCl, 4 mL·kg(-1) carbonated water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash). SHAM aimed to replicate the previously reported symptoms of gut fullness (GF) and abdominal discomfort (AD) associated with NaHCO3 ingestion. Treatments were administered double blind and accompanied by written scripts designed to remain neutral (PLA) or induce expectancy of ergogenicity (SHAM). After SHAM mean TLIM increased by 9.5% compared to PLA (461 ± 148 s versus 421 ± 150 s; P = 0.048, d = 0.3). Ratings of GF and AD were mild but ~1 unit higher post-ingestion for SHAM. After 3 min TLIM overall ratings of perceived exertion were 1.4 ± 1.3 units lower for SHAM compared to PLA (P = 0.020, d = 0.6). There were no differences between treatments for blood lactate, blood glucose, or heart rate. In summary, ergogenicity after NaHCO3 ingestion may be influenced by expectancy, which mediates perception of effort during subsequent exercise. The observed ergogenicity with SHAM did not affect our measures of cardiorespiratory physiology or metabolic flux.

  15. Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: a rapidly increasing, long-term threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charles James

    2008-10-01

    Synthetic polymers, commonly known as plastics, have been entering the marine environment in quantities paralleling their level of production over the last half century. However, in the last two decades of the 20th Century, the deposition rate accelerated past the rate of production, and plastics are now one of the most common and persistent pollutants in ocean waters and beaches worldwide. Thirty years ago the prevailing attitude of the plastic industry was that "plastic litter is a very small proportion of all litter and causes no harm to the environment except as an eyesore" [Derraik, J.G.B., 2002. The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 44(9), 842-852]. Between 1960 and 2000, the world production of plastic resins increased 25-fold, while recovery of the material remained below 5%. Between 1970 and 2003, plastics became the fastest growing segment of the US municipal waste stream, increasing nine-fold, and marine litter is now 60-80% plastic, reaching 90-95% in some areas. While undoubtedly still an eyesore, plastic debris today is having significant harmful effects on marine biota. Albatross, fulmars, shearwaters and petrels mistake floating plastics for food, and many individuals of these species are affected; in fact, 44% of all seabird species are known to ingest plastic. Sea turtles ingest plastic bags, fishing line and other plastics, as do 26 species of cetaceans. In all, 267 species of marine organisms worldwide are known to have been affected by plastic debris, a number that will increase as smaller organisms are assessed. The number of fish, birds, and mammals that succumb each year to derelict fishing nets and lines in which they become entangled cannot be reliably known; but estimates are in the millions. We divide marine plastic debris into two categories: macro, >5 mm and micro, plastic micro-debris by filter feeders at the base of the food web is known to occur, but has not been quantified

  16. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin eKeen-Rhinehart

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e. food stored for future consumption and endogenous (i.e. body fat stores fuel availability. Motivated behaviors like eating occur in two phases. The appetitive phase brings animals into contact with food (e.g. foraging, food hoarding, and the more reflexive consummatory phase results in ingestion (e.g., chewing, swallowing. Quantifiable appetitive behaviors are part of many the natural ingestive behavioral repertoire of species such as hamsters and humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about neuroendocrine regulators of ingestive behavior, with an emphasis appetitive behavior. We will discuss hormonal regulators of appetitive ingestive behaviors, including the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, which potently stimulates foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters. This section includes a discussion of the hormone leptin, its relation to endogenous fat stores, and its role in food deprivation-induced increases in appetitive ingestive behaviors. Next, we discuss how hormonal regulators interact with neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviors, such as NPY, AgRP and alpha-MSH, to regulate ingestive behavior. Finally, we discuss the potential impact that perinatal nutrient availability can have on the neuroendocrine regulation of ingestive behavior. Understanding the hormonal mechanisms that connect metabolic fuel availability to central appetite regulatory circuits should provide a better understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of the motivation to engage in ingestive

  17. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases glycolytic contribution and improves performance during simulated taekwondo combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, João Paulo; Da Silva Santos, Jonatas Ferreira; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Loturco, Irineu; Abbiss, Chris; Franchini, Emerson

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) on performance and estimated energy system contribution during simulated taekwondo combat. Nine taekwondo athletes completed two experimental sessions separated by at least 48 h. Athletes consumed 300 mg/kg body mass of NaHCO 3 or placebo (CaCO 3 ) 90 min before the combat simulation (three rounds of 2 min separated by 1 min passive recovery), in a double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures crossover design. All simulated combat was filmed to quantify the time spent fighting in each round. Lactate concentration [La - ] and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured before and after each round, whereas heart rate (HR) and the estimated contribution of the oxidative (W OXI ), ATP (adenosine triphosphate)-phosphocreatine (PCr) (W PCR ), and glycolytic (W [ La - ] ) systems were calculated during the combat simulation. [La - ] increased significantly after NaHCO 3 ingestion, when compared with the placebo condition (+14%, P = 0.04, d = 3.70). NaHCO 3 ingestion resulted in greater estimated glycolytic energy contribution in the first round when compared with the placebo condition (+31%, P = 0.01, d = 3.48). Total attack time was significantly greater after NaHCO 3 when compared with placebo (+13%, P = 0.05, d = 1.15). W OXI , W PCR , VO 2 , HR and RPE were not different between conditions (P > 0.05). NaHCO 3 ingestion was able to increase the contribution of glycolytic metabolism and, therefore, improve performance during simulated taekwondo combat.

  18. Global Analysis of Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. Análisis Global de la Ingesta de Residuos Antropogénicos por Tortugas Marinas La ingesta de residuos marinos puede tener efectos letales y subletales sobre las tortugas marinas y otros animales. Aunque hay investigadores que han reportado la ingesta de residuos antropogénicos por tortugas marinas y la incidencia de la ingesta de residuos ha incrementado con el tiempo, no ha habido una síntesis global del fenómeno desde 1985. Por esto analizamos 37 estudios publicados, desde

  19. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Ondek, Katelynn; Schneider, Jill E

    2013-11-15

    Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e., food stored for future consumption) and endogenous (i.e., body fat stores) fuel availability. Motivated behaviors like eating occur in two phases. The appetitive phase brings animals into contact with food (e.g., foraging, food hoarding), and the more reflexive consummatory phase results in ingestion (e.g., chewing, swallowing). Quantifiable appetitive behaviors are part of the natural ingestive behavioral repertoire of species such as hamsters and humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about neuroendocrine regulators of ingestive behavior, with an emphasis appetitive behavior. We will discuss hormonal regulators of appetitive ingestive behaviors, including the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, which potently stimulates foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters. This section includes a discussion of the hormone leptin, its relation to endogenous fat stores, and its role in food deprivation-induced increases in appetitive ingestive behaviors. Next, we discuss how hormonal regulators interact with neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviors, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), to regulate ingestive behavior. Finally, we discuss the potential impact that perinatal nutrient availability can have on the neuroendocrine regulation of ingestive behavior. Understanding the hormonal mechanisms that connect metabolic fuel availability to central appetite regulatory circuits should provide a better understanding of the

  20. Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta): A target species for monitoring litter ingested by marine organisms in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiddi, Marco; Hochsheid, Sandra; Camedda, Andrea; Baini, Matteo; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Serena, Fabrizio; Tomassetti, Paolo; Travaglini, Andrea; Marra, Stefano; Campani, Tommaso; Scholl, Francesco; Mancusi, Cecilia; Amato, Ezio; Briguglio, Paolo; Maffucci, Fulvio; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Bentivegna, Flegra; de Lucia, Giuseppe Andrea

    2017-11-01

    Marine litter is any persistent, manufactured or processed solid material discarded, disposed of or abandoned in the marine and coastal environment. Ingestion of marine litter can have lethal and sub-lethal effects on wildlife that accidentally ingests it, and sea turtles are particularly susceptible to this threat. The European Commission drafted the 2008/56/EC Marine Strategy Framework Directive with the aim to achieve a Good Environmental Status (GES), and the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta, Linnaeus 1758) was selected for monitoring the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals. An analogous decision has been made under the UNEP/MAP Barcelona Convention for the protection of the Mediterranean Sea, following the Ecosystem Approach. This work provides for the first time, two possible scenarios for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive GES, both related to "Trends in the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals" in the Mediterranean Sea. The study validates the use of the loggerhead turtle as target indicator for monitoring the impact of litter on marine biota and calls for immediate use of this protocol throughout the Mediterranean basin and European Region. Both GES scenarios are relevant worldwide, where sea turtles and marine litter are present, for measuring the impact of ingested plastics and developing policy strategies to reduce it. In the period between 2011 and 2014, 150 loggerhead sea turtles, found dead, were collected from the Italian Coast, West Mediterranean Sea Sub-Region. The presence of marine litter was investigated using a standardized protocol for necropsies and lab analysis. The collected items were subdivided into 4 main categories, namely, IND-Industrial plastic, USE-User plastic, RUB-Non plastic rubbish, POL-Pollutants and 14 sub-categories, to detect local diversity. Eighty-five percent of the individuals considered (n = 120) were found to have ingested an average of 1.3 ± 0.2 g of

  1. Auklet (Charadriiformes: Alcidae, Aethia spp.) chick meals from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, have a very low incidence of plastic marine debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Jones, Ian L; Williams, Jeffrey C; Byrd, G Vernon

    2010-08-01

    The ingestion of plastic marine debris is a chronic problem for some of the world's seabird species, contributing to reduced chick survival, population declines, and deposition of contaminants via absorption in birds' gastrointestinal tract. We analysed the frequency of ingested plastic in chick meals delivered by adults in four species of auklet - Crested (Aethia cristatella), Least (A. pusilla), Parakeet (A. psittacula), and Whiskered (A. pygmaea) - from three breeding colonies in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA over a 14-year period from 1993 to 2006. Among 2541 chick meals, we found plastic in only one - from a Whiskered Auklet on Buldir Island in 1993. While adult Parakeet Auklets have a high frequency of plastic ingestion (over 90%), no chick meals contained plastic. Unlike other seabirds, the planktivorous auklets do not appear to offload plastic to their chicks, and we conclude that auklet chicks are probably at a low risk of contamination from plastic debris. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Ondek, Katelynn; Schneider, Jill E.

    2013-01-01

    Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e., food stored for future consumption) and endo...

  3. Unwitnessed lithium ion disc battery ingestion: case report and review of best practice management of an increasing clinical concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawe, N; Puvanendran, M; Flood, L

    2013-01-01

    To describe a case of unwitnessed lithium ion disc battery ingestion, with a review of radiology findings and current best practice management. A three-year-old girl presented following ingestion of a foreign body, which her four-year-old brother claimed was a one pound coin. The patient was managed non-urgently and transferred for specialist ENT assessment 6 hours following the initial ingestion, with no evidence of airway compromise. A corroded battery was removed from the level of the cricopharyngeus after 8 hours, with an associated circumferential mucosal burn. There is increasing concern regarding the acknowledged rising incidence of lithium ion disc battery ingestion. The lack of a high index of suspicion and the inability to recognise subtleties on imaging may lead to suboptimal management with a higher degree of unnecessary immediate and delayed morbidity. The recently published American Academy of Pediatrics Guidelines may guide the approach to managing battery ingestions.

  4. High prevalence of parental delivery of plastic debris in Cory's shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Airam; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Nazaret Carrasco, María

    2012-10-01

    Plastic ingestion by adult Procellariiformes has been widely recorded, but few studies have evaluated intergenerational transfer. We assessed the prevalence of plastic particles, as well as their basic characteristics, in the gut content of dead Cory's shearwater fledglings stranded by light pollution on Canary Islands. Eighty-three percent of birds were affected, containing on average 8.0 plastic pieces per bird. The average plastic weight per bird was low (2.97±3.97mg) compared with other petrel species. We found no relationships between plastic loads and body condition or body size, but negative effects may be hidden or delayed. We propose to use the fledglings stranded by light pollution to carry out more precise studies to understand the potential hidden costs of plastic ingestion; and to monitor in a long-term the marine debris to develop management actions for the control of pollution at the marine environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phenotypic plasticity of fine root growth increases plant productivity in pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grissom James E

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plastic response of fine roots to a changing environment is suggested to affect the growth and form of a plant. Here we show that the plasticity of fine root growth may increase plant productivity based on an experiment using young seedlings (14-week old of loblolly pine. We use two contrasting pine ecotypes, "mesic" and "xeric", to investigate the adaptive significance of such a plastic response. Results The partitioning of biomass to fine roots is observed to reduce with increased nutrient availability. For the "mesic" ecotype, increased stem biomass as a consequence of more nutrients may be primarily due to reduced fine-root biomass partitioning. For the "xeric" ecotype, the favorable influence of the plasticity of fine root growth on stem growth results from increased allocation of biomass to foliage and decreased allocation to fine roots. An evolutionary genetic analysis indicates that the plasticity of fine root growth is inducible, whereas the plasticity of foliage is constitutive. Conclusions Results promise to enhance a fundamental understanding of evolutionary changes of tree architecture under domestication and to design sound silvicultural and breeding measures for improving plant productivity.

  6. Plastic pollution in the Labrador Sea: An assessment using the seabird northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis as a biological monitoring species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; Provencher, Jennifer F; Liboiron, Max; Poon, Florence E; Smith, Paul A

    2018-02-01

    Plastic is now one among one of the most pervasive pollutants on the planet, and ocean circulation models predict that the Arctic will become another accumulation zone. As solutions to address marine plastic emerge, is essential that baselines are available to monitor progress towards targets. The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), a widely-distributed seabird species, has been used as a biological monitor for plastic pollution in the North Sea, and could be a useful monitoring species elsewhere. We quantified plastic ingested by northern fulmars from the southeastern Canadian waters of the Labrador Sea with the objective of establishing a standardized baseline for future comparisons. Over two years we sampled 70 fulmars and found that 79% had ingested plastic, with an average of 11.6 pieces or 0.151g per bird. Overall, 34% of all fulmars exceeded the Ecological Quality Objective for marine litter, having ingested >0.1g of plastic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative analysis of plastic debris on recreational beaches in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-12-15

    Plastic litter was quantified on four sandy beaches in Mumbai. The mean abundance of 7.49 g and 68.83 items per square metre was recorded. The abundance of plastics significantly varied among the beaches showing an increasing trend in the southern part. The abundance of plastics by weight in Dadar was significantly higher than that in Aksa. The size fractionation of plastics proved that small particles (1-20 mm) are predominant with 41.85% microplastics (1-5 mm) which emphasizes the high risk to marine organisms due to possible ingestion. The highest quantity of microplastics was seen in Juhu beach (55.33%) followed by Versova, Aksa and Dadar. The major contributing factors for the abundance are beach usage for different activities such as recreational, religious and fishing which suggest that the land-based sources provide major inputs to plastic pollution in these beaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased use-dependent plasticity in chronic insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Rachel E; Galea, Joseph M; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Gamaldo, Charlene E; Allen, Richard P; Smith, Michael T; Cantarero, Gabriela; Lam, Barbara D; Celnik, Pablo A

    2014-03-01

    During normal sleep several neuroplasticity changes occur, some of which are considered to be fundamental to strengthen memories. Given the evidence linking sleep to neuroplasticity, it is conceivable that individuals with chronic sleep disruption, such as patients with chronic insomnia (CI), would experience abnormalities in neuroplastic processes during daytime. Protocols testing use-dependent plasticity (UDP), one of the mechanisms underlying formation of motor memories traces, provide a sensitive measure to assess neuroplasticity in the context of motor training. A well-established transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm was used to evaluate the ability of patients with CI and age-matched good sleeper controls to undergo UDP. We also investigated the effect of insomnia on intracortical motor excitability measures reflecting GABAergic and glutamatergic mechanisms. Human Brain Physiology Laboratory, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. We found that patients with CI experienced increased UDP changes relative to controls. This effect was not due to differences in motor training. In addition, patients with CI showed enhanced intracortical facilitation relative to controls, in the absence of changes in intracortical inhibitory measures. This study provides the first evidence that patients with chronic insomnia have an increased plasticity response to physical exercise, possibly due to larger activation of glutamatergic mechanisms. This suggests a heightened state of neuroplasticity, which may reflect a form of maladaptive plasticity, similar to what has been described in dystonia patients and chronic phantom pain after amputation. These results could lead to development of novel treatments for chronic insomnia.

  9. Ingestion of Wheat Protein Increases In Vivo Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates in Healthy Older Men in a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Stefan Hm; Horstman, Astrid Mh; Franssen, Rinske; Crombag, Julie Jr; Langer, Henning; Bierau, Jörgen; Respondek, Frederique; van Loon, Luc Jc

    2016-09-01

    Muscle mass maintenance is largely regulated by basal muscle protein synthesis and the capacity to stimulate muscle protein synthesis after food intake. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response is modulated by the amount, source, and type of protein consumed. It has been suggested that plant-based proteins are less potent in stimulating postprandial muscle protein synthesis than animal-derived proteins. However, few data support this contention. We aimed to assess postprandial plasma amino acid concentrations and muscle protein synthesis rates after the ingestion of a substantial 35-g bolus of wheat protein hydrolysate compared with casein and whey protein. Sixty healthy older men [mean ± SEM age: 71 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 25.3 ± 0.3] received a primed continuous infusion of l-[ring-(13)C6]-phenylalanine and ingested 35 g wheat protein (n = 12), 35 g wheat protein hydrolysate (WPH-35; n = 12), 35 g micellar casein (MCas-35; n = 12), 35 g whey protein (Whey-35; n = 12), or 60 g wheat protein hydrolysate (WPH-60; n = 12). Plasma and muscle samples were collected at regular intervals. The postprandial increase in plasma essential amino acid concentrations was greater after ingesting Whey-35 (2.23 ± 0.07 mM) than after MCas-35 (1.53 ± 0.08 mM) and WPH-35 (1.50 ± 0.04 mM) (P protein synthesis rates increased after ingesting MCas-35 (P protein synthesis rates above basal rates (0.049% ± 0.007%/h; P = 0.02). The myofibrillar protein synthetic response to the ingestion of 35 g casein is greater than after an equal amount of wheat protein. Ingesting a larger amount of wheat protein (i.e., 60 g) substantially increases myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in healthy older men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01952639. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. A taste of plastic - quantifying micro- and nanoplastic ingestion and interactions with feeding in daphnia magna (E)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Sinja; Baun, Anders; Hartmann, Nanna B.

    Aquatic ecosystems worldwide are polluted by microplastics and they are ingested by a broad range of organisms. Although research so far mainly focused on marine ecosystems, freshwater organisms are just as affected. Approaches to study microplastic ingestion are predominantly qualitative since...... exposed to a particle concentration of 1 mg/l for 24 h (uptake) and thereafter transferred to clean medium for another 24 h (depuration). During both phases animals were sampled and particle body burdens were determined by measuring particle fluorescence in the dissolved tissue. To analyze the influence...... of particle size, the study was done with beads of 2 µm and 100 nm. It was furthermore analyzed how the processes are affected by food availability and how the particles in turn affect the feeding rate of D. magna. Both particle sizes were readily taken up and body burdens increased with exposure time. The 2...

  11. Meal ingestion markedly increases liver stiffness suggesting the need for liver stiffness determination in fasting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Daniel; Orozco, Federico; Mella, José María; Anders, Maria; Antinucci, Florencia; Mastai, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of noninvasive liver stiffness (LS) determination has heralded a new stage in the diagnosis and treatment of liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of food intake on LS in patients with different degrees of liver disease. We evaluated 24 patients (F≤1, n=11 and F> 1, n=13). LS (Fibroscan®) and portal blood flow (PBF) (Doppler ultrasound) were studied before and 30min after ingestion of a standard liquid meal. Food intake increased PBF (51±10%, p1). Hemodynamic and LS values returned to baseline pre-meal levels within 2hours. LS increases markedly after ingestion of a standard meal, irrespective of the degree of fibrosis. Our results strongly suggest that LS should be measured in fasting conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  12. Plastic ingestion by juvenile polar cod (Boreogadus saida) in the Arctic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühn, Susanne; Schaafsma, Fokje L.; Werven, van Bernike; Flores, Hauke; Bergmann, Melanie; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Tekman, Mine B.; Franeker, van Jan A.

    2018-01-01

    One of the recently recognised stressors in Arctic ecosystems concerns plastic litter. In this study, juvenile polar cod (Boreogadus saida) were investigated for the presence of plastics in their stomachs. Polar cod is considered a key species in the Arctic ecosystem. The fish were collected both

  13. Acute ingestion of beetroot juice increases exhaled nitric oxide in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet L Kroll

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO plays an important role in the airways' innate immune response, and the fraction of exhaled NO at a flow rate of 50mL per second (FENO50 has been utilized to capture NO. Deficits in NO are linked to loss of bronchoprotective effects in airway challenges and predict symptoms of respiratory infection. While beetroot juice supplements have been proposed to enhance exercise performance by increasing dietary nitrate consumption, few studies have examined the impact of beetroot juice or nitrate supplementation on airway NO in contexts beyond an exercise challenge, which we know influences FENO50.We therefore examined the influence of a beetroot juice supplement on FENO50 in healthy males and females (n = 38 during periods of rest and in normoxic conditions. FENO50, heart rate, blood pressure, and state affect were measured at baseline, 45 minutes, and 90 minutes following ingestion of 70ml beetroot juice (6.5 mmol nitrate. Identical procedures were followed with ingestion of 70ml of water on a control day.After beetroot consumption, average values of the natural log of FENO50 (lnFENO50 increased by 21.3% (Cohen's d = 1.54, p < .001 45 minutes after consumption and by 20.3% (Cohen's d = 1.45, p < .001 90 min after consumption. On the other hand, only very small increases in FENO50 were observed after consumption of the control liquid (less than 1% increase. A small subset (n = 4 of participants completed an extended protocol lasting over 3 hours, where elevated levels of FENO50 persisted. No significant changes in cardiovascular measures were observed with this small single dose of beetroot juice.As NO serves a key role in innate immunity, future research is needed to explore the potential clinical utility of beetroot and dietary nitrate to elevate FENO50 and prevent respiratory infection.

  14. Occurrence and amount of microplastic ingested by fishes in watersheds of the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Melissa B; Bonner, Timothy H

    2015-11-15

    Ingestion of microplastics by fishes could be an emerging environmental crisis because of the proliferation of plastic pollution in aquatic environments. Microplastics in marine ecosystems are well documented, however only one study has reported percent occurrence of microplastics in freshwater fishes. The purpose of this study was to quantify the occurrences and types of microplastics ingested by fishes within several freshwater drainages of the Gulf of Mexico and an estuary of the Gulf of Mexico. Among 535 fishes examined in this study, 8% of the freshwater fishes and 10% of the marine fishes had microplastics in their gut tract. Percentage occurrence of microplastics ingested by fishes in non-urbanized streams (5%) was less than that of one of the urbanized streams (Neches River; 29%). Percent occurrence of microplastics by habitat (i.e., benthic, pelagic) and trophic guilds (herbivore/omnivore, invertivore, carnivore) were similar. Low but widespread occurrences among drainages, habitat guilds, and trophic guilds indicate proliferation of plastic pollution within watersheds of the Gulf of Mexico, but consequences to fish health are unknown at this time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sodium acetate induces a metabolic alkalosis but not the increase in fatty acid oxidation observed following bicarbonate ingestion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon I; Jeukendrup, Asker E; Ball, Derek

    2007-07-01

    We conducted this study to quantify the oxidation of exogenous acetate and to determine the effect of increased acetate availability upon fat and carbohydrate utilization in humans at rest. Eight healthy volunteers (6 males and 2 females) completed 2 separate trials, 7 d apart in a single-blind, randomized, crossover design. On each occasion, respiratory gas and arterialized venous blood samples were taken before and during 180 min following consumption of a drink containing either sodium acetate (NaAc) or NaHCO3 at a dose of 2 mmol/kg body mass. Labeled [1,2 -13C] NaAc was added to the NaAc drink to quantify acetate oxidation. Both sodium salts induced a mild metabolic alkalosis and increased energy expenditure (P < 0.05) to a similar magnitude. NaHCO3 ingestion increased fat utilization from 587 +/- 83 kJ/180 min to 693 +/- 101 kJ/180 min (P = 0.01) with no change in carbohydrate utilization. Following ingestion of NaAc, the amount of fat and carbohydrate utilized did not differ from the preingestion values. However, oxidation of the exogenous acetate almost entirely (90%) replaced the additional fat that had been oxidized during the bicarbonate trial. We determined that 80.1 +/- 2.3% of an exogenous source of acetate is oxidized in humans at rest. Whereas NaHCO3 ingestion increased fat oxidation, a similar response did not occur following NaAc ingestion despite the fact both sodium salts induced a similar increase in energy expenditure and shift in acid-base balance.

  16. Pediatric magnet ingestions: the dark side of the force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie C; Otjen, Jeffrey P; Drugas, George T

    2014-05-01

    Pediatric magnet ingestions are increasing. Commercial availability of rare-earth magnets poses a serious health risk. This study defines incidence, characteristics, and management of ingestions over time. Cases were identified by searching radiology reports from June 2002 to December 2012 at a children's hospital and verified by chart and imaging review. Relative risk (RR) regressions determined changes in incidence and interventions over time. In all, 98% of ingestions occurred since 2006; 57% involved multiple magnets. Median age was 8 years (range 0 to 18); 0% of single and 56% of multiple ingestions required intervention. Compared with 2007 to 2009, ingestions increased from 2010 to 2012 (RR = 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 3.0). Intervention proportion was unchanged (RR = .94, 95% confidence interval .4 to 2.2). Small spherical magnets comprised 26.8% of ingestions since 2010; 86% involved multiple magnets and 47% required intervention. Pediatric magnet ingestions and interventions have increased. Multiple ingestions prompt more imaging and surgical interventions. Magnet safety standards are needed to decrease risk to children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Can plastic bag derived-microplastics act as vectors for metal exposure in terrestrial invertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Hodson, Mark; Duffus-Hodson, Calum A.; Prendergast-Miller, Miranda; Thorpe, Karen

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics are widely reported contaminants in marine and freshwater ecosystems and studies have shown that they can be ingested by aquatic organisms and lead to potential negative effects on health. The effects can arise from the physical effects of the plastics (e.g. food displacement and blockages of the digestive tract) and from their potential to adsorb contaminants, primarily organic compounds, resulting in an increased exposure of the organism to toxic contaminants. Studies are beginning to emerge that also show a high abundance of microplastics in the terrestrial environment but there remains a lack of data on the impacts of these terrestrial microplastics or their interaction with other terrestrial pollutants. We conducted Zn adsorption experiments using HDPE microplastics, derived from plastic bags. Zinc adsorption to microplastics was similar to that observed in soils, but in the presence of both soil and microplastics, preferential adsorption onto the soil was observed. In desorption experiments, desorption of Zn from microplastics and soils was minimal (soils. In earthworm exposure experiments Lumbricus terrestris earthworms cultivated in soils containing 0.35% by mass of Zn-bearing plastic (236 - 4505 mg kg-1) ingested the microplastics with no evidence for either preferential feeding or avoidance. There was no evidence for an accumulation of the microplastics in the earthworm gut or for signs of toxicity. Our experiments demonstrate that earthworms will ingest microplastics and that microplastics can adsorb metals and act as vectors for metal exposure in soil invertebrates. However, for Zn, the risk associated with this exposure appears to be minimal.

  18. Description of plastic remains found in the stomach contents of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas landed in Ecuador during 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Luis, Rigoberto

    2016-12-15

    Squids are active and opportunistic predators that feed on a wide range of prey. Their active movements in the water column and their voracity promote a high consumption of food. In the pelagic environment off Ecuador, marine pollution is characterized by plastic debris with a mainland origin, including plastics trash of fishing gears. The objective of this work was to describe the presence of plastic remains in the stomach contents of Dosidicus gigas caught off the coast of Ecuador. Results demonstrated that 12% of the stomachs contained plastic remains. These plastics were identified as multifilament of polyethylene lines and polyvinyl chloride remains. Findings of this work could be related to an increase in the discharge of solid materials in the water column, increasing the probability to be ingested by the jumbo squid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Too attractive: the growing problem of magnet ingestions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie C; Otjen, Jeffrey P; Drugas, George T

    2013-11-01

    Small, powerful magnets are increasingly available in toys and other products and pose a health risk. Small spherical neodymium magnets marketed since 2008 are of particular concern. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, characteristics, and management of single and multiple-magnet ingestions over time. Magnet ingestion cases at a tertiary children's hospital were identified using radiology reports from June 2002 to December 2012. Cases were verified by chart and imaging review. Relative risk regressions were used to determine changes in the incidence of ingestions and interventions over time. Of 56 cases of magnet ingestion, 98% occurred in 2006 or later, and 57% involved multiple magnets. Median age was 8 years (range, 0-18 years). Overall, 21% of single and 88% of multiple ingestions had 2 or more imaging series obtained, whereas no single and 56.3% of multiple ingestions required intervention (25.0% endoscopy, 18.8% surgery, 12.5% both). Magnet ingestions increased in 2010 to 2012 compared with 2007 to 2009 (relative risk, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.0). Small, spherical magnets likely from magnet sets comprised 27% of ingestions, all ingested 2010 or later: 86% involved multiple magnets, 50% of which required intervention. Excluding these cases, ingestions of other magnets did not increase in 2010 to 2012 compared with 2007 to 2009 (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.4). The incidence of pediatric magnet ingestions and subsequent interventions has increased over time. Multiple-magnet ingestions result in high utilization of radiological imaging and surgical interventions. Recent increases parallel the increased availability of small, spherical magnet sets. Young and at-risk children should not have access to these and other small magnets. Improved regulation and magnet safety standards are needed.

  20. Behavioral Plasticity in Probing by Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera, Liviidae): Ingestion from Phloem Versus Xylem is Influenced by Leaf Age and Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Timothy A; Backus, Elaine A; Shugart, Holly J; Rogers, Michael E

    2018-01-01

    Diaphorina citri is a major pest of citrus because it transmits Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, a phloem-limited bacterium that putatively causes Huanglongbing (HLB). The disease moves slowly through a tree, and the vector facilitates further within-tree movement via transmission of the pathogen. However, this only happens when D. citri stylets contact the phloem, to inoculate bacteria during phloem salivation and acquire bacteria during phloem sap ingestion. Behavioral changes in D. citri associated with different plant parts would affect how long it takes to reach phloem and how long the psyllids stays in phloem to ingest, thereby influencing the risk of disease spread. D. citri feeding was recorded on the abaxial and adaxial surfaces of mature and immature citrus leaves. Adults in the field can be found on these surfaces at all times of year. On abaxial surface of immature leaves, phloem salivation would occur after 11 h on average, but rarely as soon as 0.56 h. The corresponding values on mature leaves were 16 and 2.7. In general, psyllids spent more time ingesting phloem sap on immature leaves than on mature leaves. Psyllids on abaxial surfaces spent more time ingesting from phloem, though the strength of this effect was less than for immature versus mature leaves. In contrast, xylem ingestion increased on mature leaves compared with young. The biological differences that could produce this outcome are discussed. The results discussed herein are of relevance to further studies on the efficacy of an insecticide to act quickly enough to prevent pathogen transmission.

  1. Ingestion of marine litter by loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, in Portuguese continental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Lídia; Marçalo, Ana; Ferreira, Marisa; Sá, Sara; Vingada, José; Eira, Catarina

    2016-02-15

    The accumulation of litter in marine and coastal environments is a major threat to marine life. Data on marine litter in the gastrointestinal tract of stranded loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, found along the Portuguese continental coast was presented. Out of the 95 analysed loggerheads, litter was present in 56 individuals (59.0%) and most had less than 10 litter items (76.8%) and less than 5 g (dm) (96.8%). Plastic was the main litter category (frequency of occurrence=56.8%), while sheet (45.3%) was the most relevant plastic sub-category. There was no influence of loggerhead stranding season, cause of stranding or size on the amount of litter ingested (mean number and dry mass of litter items per turtle). The high ingested litter occurrence frequency in this study supports the use of the loggerhead turtle as a suitable tool to monitor marine litter trends, as required by the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased DNA methylation of scavenger receptor class B type I contributes to inhibitory effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol uptake and steroidogenesis in fetal adrenals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dong-Mei; He, Zheng; Ma, Liang-Peng; Wang, Lin-Long [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, Jie, E-mail: pingjie@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Steroid hormones synthesized from cholesterol in the fetal adrenal are crucial for fetal development. We have observed the inhibited fetal adrenal corticosterone synthesis and increased intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rate in rats under prenatal caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol supply in fetal adrenal steroidogenesis in rats and explore the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with 60 mg/kg·d caffeine from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD17. Histological changes of fetal adrenals and increased IUGR rates were observed in the caffeine group. There were significantly decreased steroid hormone contents and cholesterol supply in caffeine-treated fetal adrenals. Data from the gene expression array suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion caused increased expression of genes related to DNA methylation and decreased expression of genes related to cholesterol uptake. The following conjoint analysis of DNA methylation array with these differentially expressed genes suggested that scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) may play an important role in caffeine-induced cholesterol supply deficiency. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection certified the inhibitory effects of caffeine on both mRNA expression and protein expression of SR-BI in the fetal adrenal. And the increased DNA methylation frequency in the proximal promoter of SR-BI was confirmed by bisulfite-sequencing PCR. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine ingestion can induce DNA hypermethylation of the SR-BI promoter in the rat fetal adrenal. These effects may lead to decreased SR-BI expression and cholesterol uptake, which inhibits steroidogenesis in the fetal adrenal. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits steroid hormone production in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits cholesterol uptake in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine

  3. Increased DNA methylation of scavenger receptor class B type I contributes to inhibitory effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol uptake and steroidogenesis in fetal adrenals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dong-Mei; He, Zheng; Ma, Liang-Peng; Wang, Lin-Long; Ping, Jie; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones synthesized from cholesterol in the fetal adrenal are crucial for fetal development. We have observed the inhibited fetal adrenal corticosterone synthesis and increased intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rate in rats under prenatal caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol supply in fetal adrenal steroidogenesis in rats and explore the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with 60 mg/kg·d caffeine from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD17. Histological changes of fetal adrenals and increased IUGR rates were observed in the caffeine group. There were significantly decreased steroid hormone contents and cholesterol supply in caffeine-treated fetal adrenals. Data from the gene expression array suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion caused increased expression of genes related to DNA methylation and decreased expression of genes related to cholesterol uptake. The following conjoint analysis of DNA methylation array with these differentially expressed genes suggested that scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) may play an important role in caffeine-induced cholesterol supply deficiency. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection certified the inhibitory effects of caffeine on both mRNA expression and protein expression of SR-BI in the fetal adrenal. And the increased DNA methylation frequency in the proximal promoter of SR-BI was confirmed by bisulfite-sequencing PCR. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine ingestion can induce DNA hypermethylation of the SR-BI promoter in the rat fetal adrenal. These effects may lead to decreased SR-BI expression and cholesterol uptake, which inhibits steroidogenesis in the fetal adrenal. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits steroid hormone production in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits cholesterol uptake in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine

  4. Opportunistic sampling to quantify plastics in the diet of unfledged Black Legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) and Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampora, Heidi; Newton, Stephen; O'Connor, Ian

    2017-06-30

    Seabirds can interact with marine litter, mainly by entanglement or ingestion. The ingestion of plastics can lead to starvation or physical damage to the digestive tract. For chicks, it could additionally lead to reduced growth, affecting survival and fledging. This study quantified the ingestion of plastics by seabird chicks via an opportunistic sampling strategy. When ringing is carried out at colonies, birds may spontaneously regurgitate their stomach contents due to the stress or as a defence mechanism. Regurgitates were collected from nestlings of three different species: Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla, n=38), Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis, n=14) and Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo, n=28). Plastic was present in all species, with the highest frequency of occurrence (FO) in Northern Fulmar chicks (28.6%), followed by Black-legged Kittiwakes (7.9%) and Great Cormorants (7.1%). The observed load of plastics on chicks, which have not yet left the nest, highlights the pervasive nature of plastic pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Soy-dairy protein blend and whey protein ingestion after resistance exercise increases amino acid transport and transporter expression in human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, P. T.; Walker, D. K.; Dickinson, J. M.; Gundermann, D. M.; Drummond, M. J.; Timmerman, K. L.; Cope, M. B.; Mukherjea, R.; Jennings, K.; Volpi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing amino acid availability (via infusion or ingestion) at rest or postexercise enhances amino acid transport into human skeletal muscle. It is unknown whether alterations in amino acid availability, from ingesting different dietary proteins, can enhance amino acid transport rates and amino acid transporter (AAT) mRNA expression. We hypothesized that the prolonged hyperaminoacidemia from ingesting a blend of proteins with different digestion rates postexercise would enhance amino acid transport into muscle and AAT expression compared with the ingestion of a rapidly digested protein. In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we studied 16 young adults at rest and after acute resistance exercise coupled with postexercise (1 h) ingestion of either a (soy-dairy) protein blend or whey protein. Phenylalanine net balance and transport rate into skeletal muscle were measured using stable isotopic methods in combination with femoral arteriovenous blood sampling and muscle biopsies obtained at rest and 3 and 5 h postexercise. Phenylalanine transport into muscle and mRNA expression of select AATs [system L amino acid transporter 1/solute-linked carrier (SLC) 7A5, CD98/SLC3A2, system A amino acid transporter 2/SLC38A2, proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1/SLC36A1, cationic amino acid transporter 1/SLC7A1] increased to a similar extent in both groups (P protein blend resulted in a prolonged and positive net phenylalanine balance during postexercise recovery compared with whey protein (P protein synthesis increased similarly between groups. We conclude that, while both protein sources enhanced postexercise AAT expression, transport into muscle, and myofibrillar protein synthesis, postexercise ingestion of a protein blend results in a slightly prolonged net amino acid balance across the leg compared with whey protein. PMID:24699854

  6. Dairy cows increase ingestive mastication and reduce ruminative chewing when grazing chicory and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorini, P; Minnee, E M K; Griffiths, W; Lee, J M

    2013-01-01

    Although the nutritive value of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) has been thoroughly studied, little is known about the grazing behavior of cattle feeding on chicory and plantain swards. The objective of the present study was to assess and describe the grazing behavior of dairy cows as affected by dietary proportions of chicory and plantain fed as monocultures for part of the day. Ninety Holstein-Friesian cows (489±42 kg of body weight; 4.1±0.3 body condition score, and 216±15 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 15 groups (6 cows per group) and grazed according to 7 treatments: control (CTL, 3 groups), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) dominant sward (24-h pasture strip); 3 chicory treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of chicory to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment); and 3 plantain treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of plantain to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment). Four focal animals per group were equipped with 3-dimensional motion sensors, which provided the number of steps taken at each minute of the day. These cows were also fitted with automatic jaw-movement recorders that identified bites, mastication during ingestion, chewing during rumination, and determined grazing, rumination and idling times and bouts. Daily grazing time and bouts were not affected by treatments but rumination time differed and was reduced by up to 90 min when cows were allocated to chicory and plantain as 60% of their diet. Ruminative chewing was reduced in cows grazing chicory and plantain by up to 20% in cows allocated to the 60% treatments. Compared with perennial ryegrass, as the dietary proportion of chicory and plantain increased, cows spent more time idling and less time ruminating

  7. Distribution and biological implications of plastic pollution on the fringing reef of Mo'orea, French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Elizabeth J

    2017-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific are extremely vulnerable to plastic pollution from oceanic gyres and land-based sources. To describe the extent and impact of plastic pollution, the distribution of both macro- (>5 mm) and microplastic (plastic plastic was categorized by site type and by the presence of Turbinaria ornata, a common macroalgae on Mo'orea. Microplastics were discovered in the water column of the fringing reef of the island, at a concentration of 0.74 pieces m -2 . Additionally, this study reports for the first time the ingestion of microplastic by the corallimorpha Discosoma nummiforme. Microplastics were made available to corallimorph polyps in a laboratory setting over the course of 108 h. Positively and negatively buoyant microplastics were ingested, and a microplastic particle that was not experimentally introduced was also discovered in the stomach cavity of one organism. This study indicates that plastic pollution has the potential to negatively impact coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific, and warrants further study to explore the broader potential impacts of plastic pollution on coral reef ecosystems.

  8. Distribution and biological implications of plastic pollution on the fringing reef of Mo’orea, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific are extremely vulnerable to plastic pollution from oceanic gyres and land-based sources. To describe the extent and impact of plastic pollution, the distribution of both macro- (>5 mm) and microplastic (plastic plastic was categorized by site type and by the presence of Turbinaria ornata, a common macroalgae on Mo’orea. Microplastics were discovered in the water column of the fringing reef of the island, at a concentration of 0.74 pieces m−2. Additionally, this study reports for the first time the ingestion of microplastic by the corallimorpha Discosoma nummiforme. Microplastics were made available to corallimorph polyps in a laboratory setting over the course of 108 h. Positively and negatively buoyant microplastics were ingested, and a microplastic particle that was not experimentally introduced was also discovered in the stomach cavity of one organism. This study indicates that plastic pollution has the potential to negatively impact coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific, and warrants further study to explore the broader potential impacts of plastic pollution on coral reef ecosystems. PMID:28875079

  9. Intake and ingestive behavior of rams fed with increasing inclusions of babassu endocarp meal I in their diet (Orbignya spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sá,Hemilly Cristina Menezes de; Borges,Iran; Macedo Junior,Gilberto de Lima; Neiva,José Neuman Miranda; Silva,Veridiana Basoni; Sousa,Jhone Tallison Lira de

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the ingestive behavior of sheep fed with different inclusions of babassu endocarp meal I. The animals receive isofibrous, isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets containing the by-product in increasing levels of inclusion (zero; 7,5%; 15%; 22,5%). Twenty rams were used in this study and distributed in four treatments with five repetitions each. The ingestive behavior was conducted over a period of 24 hours, with visual observations at 5 minutes inte...

  10. Dose-dependent increases in flow-mediated dilation following acute cocoa ingestion in healthy older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feehan, Robert P.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Preston, Amy G.; Miller, Debra L.; Lott, Mary E. J.

    2011-01-01

    An inverse relation exists between intake of flavonoid-rich foods, such as cocoa, and cardiovascular-related mortality. Favorable effects of flavonoids on the endothelium may underlie these associations. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to test the hypothesis that acute cocoa ingestion dose dependently increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation, as measured by an increase in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), in healthy older adults. Measurements were obtained before (preingestion) and after (1- and 2-h postingestion) ingestion of 0 (placebo), 2, 5, 13, and 26 g of cocoa in 23 adults (63 ± 2 yr old, mean ± SE). Changes in brachial artery FMD 1- and 2-h postingestion compared with preingestion were used to determine the effects of cocoa. FMD was unchanged 1 (Δ−0.3 ± 0.2%)- and 2-h (Δ0.1 ± 0.1%) after placebo (0 g cocoa). In contrast, FMD increased both 1-h postingestion (2 g cocoa Δ0.0 ± 0.2%, 5 g cocoa Δ0.8 ± 0.3%, 13 g cocoa Δ1.0 ± 0.3%, and 26 g cocoa Δ1.6 ± 0.3%: P FMD 1- and 2-h postingestion (r = 0.44–0.48; both P FMD in healthy older humans. These responses may help to explain associations between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular-related mortality in humans. PMID:21903881

  11. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults.Methods: Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured.Results: Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decrease...

  12. High prevalence of parental delivery of plastic debris in Cory’s shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Airam; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Carrasco, María Nazaret

    2012-01-01

    Plastic ingestion by adult Procellariiformes has been widely recorded, but few studies have evaluated intergenerational transfer. We assessed the prevalence of plastic particles, as well as their basic character- istics, in the gut content of dead Cory’s shearwater fledglings stranded by light pollution on Canary Islands. Eighty-three percent of birds were affected, containing on average 8.0 plastic pieces per bird. The average plastic weight per bird was low (2.97 ± 3.97 mg) compared with ...

  13. Review of the partitioning of chemicals into different plastics: Consequences for the risk assessment of marine plastic debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, Isabel A.; Golsteijn, Laura; Hendriks, A. Jan

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic debris are found worldwide in oceans and coastal areas. They degrade only slowly and contain chemicals added during manufacture or absorbed from the seawater. Therefore, they can pose a long-lasting contaminant source and potentially transfer chemicals to marine organisms when ingested. In order to assess their risk, the contaminant concentration in the plastics needs to be estimated and differences understood. We collected from literature plastic water partition coefficients of various organic chemicals for seven plastic types: polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), high-density, low-density and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (LDPE, HDPE, UHMWPE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Most data was available for PDMS (1060) and LDPE (220), but much less for the remaining plastics (73). Where possible, regression models were developed and the partitioning was compared between the different plastic types. The partitioning of chemicals follows the order of LDPE ≈ HDPE ≥ PP > PVC ≈ PS. Data describing the impact of weathering are urgently needed. - Highlights: • Comparison of organic chemicals partitioning into seven plastic types • Linear correlation between plastic-water partition coefficient K pw and K ow • More data is needed for polypropylene, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride. • In all plastic types, most K pw were similar to/smaller than the corresponding K ow .

  14. Relating plastic in the ocean to ecological harm, a review of recent progress in risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Q. A.; Hardesty, B. D.; Wilcox, C.; van Sebille, E.; Mallos, N. J.; Leonard, G. H.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic pollution in the ocean is emerging as a global environmental concern. Estimates suggest that we dump on the order of 8.4 million tons of plastic in the ocean each year. This plastic reaches substantial concentrations, with at sea sampling measuring densities over 580,000 items per square kilometer. However, it is difficult to relate this exposure to resulting ecological impacts. Animals dying due to plastic ingestion or entanglement may not was ahsore, and sampling at sea is expensive and infrequent. Thus demonstrating a direct relationship between plastic in the envioronment and harm to marine wildlife is challenging. Here we review current progress on risk assessment for impacts to marine wildlife from plastic pollution. The analyses we review range from expert elicitation to integrated statistical and physical models. They range widely in scope, from estimates at the individual level to who taxa analysis. Some of the analyses reach only to exposure to the pressure, whie others carry through to estimate demographic impacts and even mortality due to ingestion of or entanglement in plastic debris in the ocean. We summarize the results of these studies, and provide a roadmap for future contributions toward estimating the actual ecological impact of plastic pollution.

  15. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S; Swan, Shanna H

    2009-07-27

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  16. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  17. No increase in marine microplastic concentration over the last three decades - A case study from the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Sabrina; Garm, Anders; Huwer, Bastian

    2018-01-01

    Microplastic is considered a potential threat to marine life as it is ingested by a wide variety of species. Most studies on microplastic ingestion are short-term investigations and little is currently known about how this potential threat has developed over the last decades where global plastic......% contained plastic particles, of which 95% were characterized as microplastic (...

  18. Wakefulness delta waves increase after cortical plasticity induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenza, G; Pellegrino, G; Tombini, M; Di Pino, G; Di Lazzaro, V

    2015-06-01

    Delta waves (DW) are present both during sleep and in wakefulness. In the first case, DW are considered effectors of synaptic plasticity, while in wakefulness, when they appear in the case of brain lesions, their functional meaning is not unanimously recognized. To throw light on the latter, we aimed to investigate the impact on DW exerted by the cortical plasticity-inducing protocol of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS). Twenty healthy subjects underwent iTBS (11 real iTBS and nine sham iTBS) on the left primary motor cortex with the aim of inducing long-term potentiation (LTP)-like phenomena. Five-minute resting open-eye 32-channel EEG, right opponens pollicis motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), and alertness behavioral scales were collected before and up to 30 min after the iTBS. Power spectral density (PSD), interhemispheric coherence between homologous sensorimotor regions, and intrahemispheric coherence were calculated for the frequency bands ranging from delta to beta. Real iTBS induced a significant increase of both MEP amplitude and DW PSD lasting up to 30 min after stimulation, while sham iTBS did not. The DW increase was evident over frontal areas ipsilateral and close to the stimulated cortex (electrode F3). Neither real nor sham iTBS induced significant modifications in the PSD of theta, alpha, and beta bands and in the interhemispheric coherence. Behavioral visuo-analogic scales score did not demonstrate changes in alertness after stimulations. No correlations were found between MEP amplitude and PSD changes in the delta band. Our data showed that LTP induction in the motor cortex during wakefulness, by means of iTBS, is accompanied by a large and enduring increase of DW over the ipsilateral frontal cortex. The present results are strongly in favor of a prominent role of DW in the neural plasticity processes taking place during the awake state. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland

  19. Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochman, Chelsea M., E-mail: cmrochman@ucdavis.edu; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J.

    2014-09-15

    Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (< 1 mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ERα) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research. - Highlights: • We saw down-regulation of Chg H in males exposed to marine plastic. • We saw down-regulation of Vtg I, Chg H and ERα in females exposed to plastic. • We saw abnormal proliferation of germ cells in a male exposed to marine plastic. • Our results suggest that the ingestion of plastic may alter endocrine system function.

  20. Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochman, Chelsea M.; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J.

    2014-01-01

    Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (< 1 mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ERα) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research. - Highlights: • We saw down-regulation of Chg H in males exposed to marine plastic. • We saw down-regulation of Vtg I, Chg H and ERα in females exposed to plastic. • We saw abnormal proliferation of germ cells in a male exposed to marine plastic. • Our results suggest that the ingestion of plastic may alter endocrine system function

  1. Caustic Ingestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rafeey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevention has a main role in reducing the occurrence of corrosive ingestion especially in children, yet this goal is far from being reached in developing countries, where such injuries are largely unreported and their true prevalence simply cannot be extrapolated from random articles or personal experience. Because of the accidental nature of the ingestions, the case fatality rate for pediatric patients is significantly less than that of adolescents and adults.  Currently, esophagoscopy is recommended for all patients with a history of caustic substance ingestion because clinical criteria have not proved to be reliable predictors of esophageal injury. The presence or absence of three serious signs and symptoms-vomiting, drooling, and stridor—as well as the presence and location of oropharyngeal burns could be  compared with the findings on subsequent esophagoscopy. Medical or endoscopic prevention of stricture is debatable, yet esophageal stents, absorbable or not, show promising data. The purpose of this lecture is to outline the current epidemiology, mechanism of injury, clinical manifestations, management and long-term complications of caustic ingestions in pediatric patients.   Key Words: Caustic, Children, Ingestions.

  2. As main meal for sperm whales: plastics debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Stephanis, Renaud; Giménez, Joan; Carpinelli, Eva; Gutierrez-Exposito, Carlos; Cañadas, Ana

    2013-04-15

    Marine debris has been found in marine animals since the early 20th century, but little is known about the impacts of the ingestion of debris in large marine mammals. In this study we describe a case of mortality of a sperm whale related to the ingestion of large amounts of marine debris in the Mediterranean Sea (4th published case worldwide to our knowledge), and discuss it within the context of the spatial distribution of the species and the presence of anthropogenic activities in the area that could be the source of the plastic debris found inside the sperm whale. The spatial distribution modelled for the species in the region shows that these animals can be seen in two distinct areas: near the waters of Almería, Granada and Murcia and in waters near the Strait of Gibraltar. The results shows how these animals feed in waters near an area completely flooded by the greenhouse industry, making them vulnerable to its waste products if adequate treatment of this industry's debris is not in place. Most types of these plastic materials have been found in the individual examined and cause of death was presumed to be gastric rupture following impaction with debris, which added to a previous problem of starvation. The problem of plastics arising from greenhouse agriculture should have a relevant section in the conservation plans and should be a recommendation from ACCOBAMS due to these plastics' and sperm whales' high mobility in the Mediterranean Sea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Progresses in Polystyrene Biodegradation and Prospects for Solutions to Plastic Waste Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. S.; Brandon, A. M.; Xing, D. F.; Yang, J.; Pang, J. W.; Criddle, C. S.; Ren, N. Q.; Wu, W. M.

    2018-05-01

    Petroleum-based plastic pollution has been a global environmental concern for decades. The obvious contrast between the remarkable durability of the plastics and their short service time leads to the increasing accumulation of plastic wastes in the environment. A cost-effective, sustainable strategy to solve the problem should focus on source control and clean up. Polystyrene (PS) wastes, a recalcitrant plastic polymer, are among the wide spread man-made plastic pollutants. Destruction of PS wastes can be achieved using various abiotic methods such as incineration but such methods release potential air pollution and generation of hazardous by-products. Biodegradation and bioremediation has been proposed for years. Since the 1970’s, the microbial biodegradation of plastics, including PS, has been evaluated with mixed and isolated cultures from different sources such as activated sludge, trash, soil, and manure. To date, PS biodegradation by these microbial cultures is still quite slow. Recently, the larvae of yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus) have demonstrated promising PS biodegradation performance. Mealworms have demonstrated the ability to chew and ingest PS foam as food and are capable of degrading and mineralizing PS into CO2 via microbe-dependent activities within the gut in less than the 12-15 hrs gut retention time. These research results have revealed a potential for microbial biodegradation and bioremediation of plastic pollutants.

  4. Serious complications after button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krom, Hilde; Visser, Margot; Hulst, Jessie M; Wolters, Victorien M; Van den Neucker, Anita M; de Meij, Tim; van der Doef, Hubert P J; Norbruis, Obbe F; Benninga, Marc A; Smit, Margot J M; Kindermann, Angelika

    2018-05-02

    Serious and fatal complications after button battery ingestion are increasing worldwide. The aim of this study is to describe serious complications after battery ingestion in children in the Netherlands.All pediatric gastroenterologists in the Netherlands performing upper endoscopies were asked to report all serious complications after battery ingestion in children (0-18 years) between 2008 and 2016 retrospectively.Sixteen serious complications were reported: death after massive bleeding through esophageal-aortal fistula (n = 1), esophageal-tracheal fistula (n = 5), stenosis after (suspected) perforation and mediastinitis (n = 5), (suspected) perforation and mediastinitis (n = 3), vocal cord paralysis (n = 1), and required reintubation for dyspnea and stridor (n = 1). The median time interval between ingestion and presentation was 5 (IQR 2-258) h. All children were ≤ 5 (median 1.4; IQR 0.9-2.1) years. Vomiting (31.3%), swallowing/feeding problems (31.3%), and fever (31.3%) were the most common presenting symptoms; however, 18.8% of the patients were asymptomatic (n = 1 missing). All batteries were button batteries (75% ≥ 20 mm; 18.8% batteries were removed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (50%) and rigid endoscopy (37.5%) or surgically (12.5%). Sixteen serious complications occurred after small and large button batteries ingestion between 2008 and 2016 in both symptomatic and asymptomatic children in the Netherlands. Therefore, immediate intervention after (suspected) button battery ingestion is required. What is Known: • Button battery ingestion may result in serious and fatal complications. • Serious and fatal complications after button battery ingestion are increasing worldwide. What is New: • Sixteen serious complications after button battery ingestion occurred during 2008-2016 in children in the Netherlands. • Serious complications were also caused by small batteries (< 20 mm) in the Netherlands and also occurred

  5. Distribution and biological implications of plastic pollution on the fringing reef of Mo’orea, French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Connors

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific are extremely vulnerable to plastic pollution from oceanic gyres and land-based sources. To describe the extent and impact of plastic pollution, the distribution of both macro- (>5 mm and microplastic (plastic < 5 mm of the fringing reef of an isolated South Pacific island, Mo’orea, French Polynesia was quantified. Macroplastic was found on every beach on the island that was surveyed. The distribution of this plastic was categorized by site type and by the presence of Turbinaria ornata, a common macroalgae on Mo’orea. Microplastics were discovered in the water column of the fringing reef of the island, at a concentration of 0.74 pieces m−2. Additionally, this study reports for the first time the ingestion of microplastic by the corallimorpha Discosoma nummiforme. Microplastics were made available to corallimorph polyps in a laboratory setting over the course of 108 h. Positively and negatively buoyant microplastics were ingested, and a microplastic particle that was not experimentally introduced was also discovered in the stomach cavity of one organism. This study indicates that plastic pollution has the potential to negatively impact coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific, and warrants further study to explore the broader potential impacts of plastic pollution on coral reef ecosystems.

  6. Magnet ingestions in children presenting to US emergency departments, 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mazen I; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Choi, Joon; Lustik, Michael; Gilger, Mark A; Noel, R Adam; Schwarz, Kathleen; Nylund, Cade M

    2013-07-01

    In the last 10 years, there have been an increasing number of case reports concerning gastrointestinal injury related to magnet ingestions; however, the magnitude of the problem remains to be clearly defined. The aim of the study was to examine the epidemiology of magnet ingestion-related emergency department (ED) visits among children in the United States. We performed a trend analysis using a nationally representative sample from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission, National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database for ED visits involving magnet ingestion in children younger than 18 years from 2002 to 2011. A national estimate of 16,386 (95% CI 12,175-20,598) children younger than 18 years presented to EDs in the United States during the 10-year study period with possible magnet ingestion. The incidence of visits increased 8.5-fold (from 0.45/100,000 to 3.75/100,000) from 2002 to 2011 with a 75% average annual increase per year. The majority of patients reported to have ingested magnets were younger than 5 years (54.7%). From 2009 to 2011 there was an increase in older children ingesting multiple small and/or round magnets, with a mean average age of 7.1 ± 0.56 years during the study period. There has been an alarming increase in ED visits for magnet ingestion in children. Increased public education and prevention efforts are needed.

  7. Ingestion of caustic substances and its complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Celso Martins Mamede

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Caustic substances cause tissue destruction through liquefaction or coagulation reactions and the intensity of destruction depends on the type, concentration, time of contact and amount of the substance ingested. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the complications in patients who ingested caustic substances and correlate them with the amount of caustic soda ingested. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: University hospital, a referral center. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 239 patients who ingested caustic soda. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The amount of granulated caustic substance ingested was measured as tablespoonfuls and the following complications were analyzed: esophagitis, esophageal stenosis and progression to cancer, fistulas, perforations, stomach lesions, brain abscesses, and death. Stenosis was classified as mild, moderate or severe according to the radiological findings. RESULTS: We observed an 89.3% incidence of esophagitis; 72.6% of the cases involved progression to stenosis and 1% died during the acute phase. Stenosis was mild in 17.6% of cases, moderate in 59.3% and severe in 23%. The incidence of stenosis was 80.8% in women and 62.5% in men. The incidence of stenosis was 46.9% in the group that ingested "fragments" and 93.6% in the group that ingested one or more tablespoonfuls of caustic substances. Among subjects who ingested one or more tablespoonfuls, 32.2% developed lesions of the stomach-duodenum, whereas the ingestion of "fragments" was not sufficient to induce these lesions. There was no correlation between the intensity of lesions of the esophagus and of the stomach. Progression to cancer of the esophagus occurred in 1.8% of cases, death during the chronic phase in 1.4%, perforations in 4.6%, fistulas in 0.9%, and brain abscesses in 1.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The complications were related to the amount of caustic soda ingested. Small amounts caused esophagitis or stenosis and large amounts increased the risk of fistulas, perforations and

  8. Energy intake and obesity: ingestive frequency outweighs portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Energy intake is a function of the quantity of energy consumed per ingestive event and the number of these events. The marked increase of energy intake and body weight over the past 35 years indicates that there has been poor precision in the reciprocity of these two facets of intake. With recent study of the associations between gut "satiation" peptides and energy intake, there has been an emphasis on the contribution of portion size to positive energy balance. However, this orientation may not appropriately weight the contribution of ingestive frequency. Gut peptides are not purely satiation factors and metabolic and environmental cues may more strongly guide the onset and number of ingestive events. Evidence is presented that while both portion size and ingestive frequency have increased in the population, the latter may be more problematic for weight gain. The magnitude and time course of increments in ingestive frequency map better onto energy intake and BMI trends than changes of portion size. This may occur, in part, because dietary compensation and thermogenic effects are weaker for increases in ingestive frequency than portion size. Though not to the exclusion of consideration of portion size effects, improved weight management may be achieved with greater attention to the drivers of eating and drinking frequency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Seabirds indicate changes in the composition of plastic litter in the Atlantic and south-western Indian Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G

    2008-08-01

    I compare plastic ingested by five species of seabirds sampled in the 1980s and again in 1999-2006. The numbers of ingested plastic particles have not changed significantly, but the proportion of virgin pellets has decreased 44-79% in all five species: great shearwater Puffinus gravis, white-chinned petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis, broad-billed prion Pachyptila vittata, white-faced storm petrel Pelagodroma marina and white-bellied storm petrel Fregetta grallaria. The populations sampled range widely in the South Atlantic and western Indian Oceans. The most marked reduction occurred in great shearwaters, where the average number of pellets per bird decreased from 10.5 to 1.6. This species migrates between the South and North Atlantic each year. Similar decreases in virgin pellets have been recorded in short-tailed shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris in the Pacific Ocean and northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis in the North Sea. More data are needed on the relationship between plastic loads in seabirds and the density of plastic at sea in their foraging areas, but the consistent decrease in pellets in birds suggests there has been a global change in the composition of small plastic debris at sea over the last two decades.

  10. Urbanization is a major influence on microplastic ingestion by sunfish in the Brazos River Basin, Central Texas, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Colleen A.; Bratton, Susan P.

    2016-01-01

    Microplastics, degraded and weathered polymer-based particles, and manufactured products ranging between 50 and 5000 μm in size, are found within marine, freshwater, and estuarine environments. While numerous peer-reviewed papers have quantified the ingestion of microplastics by marine vertebrates, relatively few studies have focused on microplastic ingestion by freshwater organisms. This study documents microplastic and manufactured fiber ingestion by bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and longear (Lepomis megalotis) sunfish (Centrarchidae) from the Brazos River Basin, between Lake Whitney and Marlin, Texas, USA. Fourteen sample sites were studied and categorized into urban, downstream, and upstream areas. A total of 436 sunfish were collected, and 196 (45%) stomachs contained microplastics. Four percent (4%) of items sampled were debris on the macro size scale (i.e. >5 mm) and consisted of masses of plastic, metal, Styrofoam, or fishing material, while 96% of items sampled were in the form of microplastic threads. Fish length was statistically correlated to the number of microplastics detected (p = 0.019). Fish collected from urban sites displayed the highest mean number of microplastics ingested, followed by downstream and upstream sites. Microplastics were associated with the ingestion of other debris items (e.g. sand and wood) and correlated to the ingestion of fish eggs, earthworms, and mollusks, suggesting that sunfish incidentally ingest microplastics during their normal feeding methods. The high frequency of microplastic ingestion suggest that further research is needed to determine the residence time of microplastics within the stomach and gut, potential for food web transfer, and adverse effects on wildlife and ecosystemic health. - Highlights: • Sunfish ingest microplastics and manufactured materials at significant levels. • Local urbanization influences microplastic ingestion. • Sunfish incidentally ingest microplastics during their normal

  11. Foreign-body ingestion: characteristics and outcomes in a lower socioeconomic population with predominantly intentional ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Renee; Sahota, Amandeep; Bemarki, Ali; Salama, Paul; Simpson, Nicole; Laine, Loren

    2009-03-01

    Previous reports of foreign-body ingestions focused primarily on accidental ingestions. To describe the characteristics and management of foreign-body ingestions, with predominantly intentional ingestion, in a lower socioeconomic status population. A retrospective case series. An urban county hospital. Patients >/=17 years old, with foreign-body ingestions between 2000 and 2006. Characteristics of ingestion cases, endoscopic extraction, need for surgery, and complications. Among 262 cases, 92% were intentional, 85% involved psychiatric patients, and 84% occurred in patients with prior ingestions. The time from ingestion to presentation was >48 hours in 168 cases (64%). The overall success rate for endoscopic extraction was 90% (165/183 cases). Surgery was performed in 30 cases (11%) and was more common for objects beyond the pylorus versus objects above the pylorus (16/43 [37%] vs 10/151 [7%], respectively) and in cases with a greater delay from ingestion to presentation (25/168 [15%] if >48 hours vs 4/77 [5%] if 48 hours vs 14/165 [8%] if ingestions in an urban county hospital occurred primarily in psychiatric patients who had repeated episodes of intentional ingestions. Endoscopic extraction was unsuccessful in 10% of cases. Long delays from ingestion to presentation and intervention may account for relatively high rates of surgery and perforation. Strategies to prevent ingestions and delays in endoscopic management are needed in this population.

  12. Presence of plastic particles in waterbirds faeces collected in Spanish lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Delgado, J A; Guijarro, D; Gosálvez, R U; López-Iborra, G M; Ponz, A; Velasco, A

    2017-01-01

    Plastic intake by marine vertebrates has been widely reported, but information about its presence in continental waterfowl is scarce. Here we analyzed faeces of waterbirds species (European coot, Fulica atra, mallard, Anas platyrhynchos and shelduck, Tadorna tadorna) for plastic debris in five wetlands in Central Spain. We collected 89 faeces of shelduck distributed in four lakes, 43.8% of them presented plastic remnants. Sixty percent of 10 faeces of European coot and 45% of 40 faeces of mallard contained plastic debris. Plastic debris found was of two types, threads and fragments, and were identified as remnants of plastic objects used in agricultural fields surrounding the lakes. Differences in prevalence of plastic in faeces, number of plastic pieces per excrement and size of the plastic pieces were not statistically significant between waterfowl species. Thus, our results suggest that plastic may also be frequently ingested by waterfowl in continental waters, at least in our study area. Future studies should address this potential problem for waterbird conservation in other wetlands to evaluate the real impact of this pollutant on waterbirds living in inland water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mitigation measures to avert the impacts of plastics and microplastics in the marine environment (a review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunola, Oluniyi Solomon; Onada, Olawale Ahmed; Falaye, Augustine Eyiwunmi

    2018-04-01

    The increasing demand for and reliance on plastics as an everyday item, and rapid rise in their production and subsequent indiscriminate disposal, rise in human population and industrial growth, have made the material an important environmental concern and focus of interest of many research. Historically, plastic production has increased tremendously to over 250 million tonnes by 2009 with an annual increased rate of 9%. In 2015, the global consumption of plastic materials was reported to be > 300 million tonnes and is expected to surge exponentially. Because plastic polymers are ubiquitous, highly resistant to degradation, the influx of these persistent, complex materials is a risk to human and environmental health. Because microplastics are principally generated from the weathering or breakdown of larger plastics (macroplastics), it is noteworthy and expedient to discuss in detail, expatiate, and tackle this main source. Macro- and microplastic pollution has been reported on a global scale from the poles to the equator. The major problem of concern is that they strangulate and are ingested by a number of aquatic biota especially the filter feeders, such as molluscs, mussels, oysters, from where it enters the food chain and consequently could lead to physical and toxicological effects on aquatic organisms and human being as final consumers. To this end, in order to minimise the negative impacts posed by plastic pollution (macro- and microplastics), a plethora of strategies have been developed at various levels to reduce and manage the plastic wastes. The objective of this paper is to review some published literature on management measures of plastic wastes to curb occurrence and incidents of large- and microplastics pollution in the marine environments.

  14. Plasticizers increase adhesion of the deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans to polyvinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J S; Van der Mei, H C; Nixon, M; Eastwood, I M; Greenhalgh, M; Read, S J; Robson, G D; Handley, P S

    1999-08-01

    Initial adhesion of fungi to plasticized polyvinyl chloride (pPVC) may determine subsequent colonization and biodeterioration processes. The deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was used to investigate the physicochemical nature of adhesion to both unplasticized PVC (uPVC) and pPVC containing the plasticizers dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and dioctyl adipate (DOA). A quantitative adhesion assay using image analysis identified fundamental differences in the mechanism of adhesion of A. pullulans blastospores to these substrata. Adhesion to pPVC was greater than that to uPVC by a maximum of 280% after a 4-h incubation with 10(8) blastospores ml(-1). That plasticizers enhance adhesion to PVC was confirmed by incorporating a dispersion of both DOA and DOP into the blastospore suspension. Adhesion to uPVC was increased by up to 308% in the presence of the dispersed plasticizers. Hydrophobic interactions were found to dominate adhesion to uPVC because (i) a strong positive correlation was observed between substratum hydrophobicity (measured by using a dynamic contact angle analyzer) and adhesion to a range of unplasticized polymers including uPVC, and (ii) neither the pH nor the electrolyte concentration of the suspension buffer, both of which influence electrostatic interactions, affected adhesion to uPVC. In contrast, adhesion to pPVC is principally controlled by electrostatic interactions. Enhanced adhesion to pPVC occurred despite a relative reduction of 13 degrees in the water contact angle of pPVC compared to that of uPVC. Furthermore, adhesion to pPVC was strongly dependent on both the pH and electrolyte concentration of the suspension medium, reaching maximum levels at pH 8 and with an electrolyte concentration of 10 mM NaCl. Plasticization with DOP and DOA therefore increases adhesion of A. pullulans blastospores to pPVC through an interaction mediated by electrostatic forces.

  15. Plastic in the Ocean: A Report on What It Is and a Short Survey on Miyazaki’s Seashore

    OpenAIRE

    Passos, Anderson; Martini, Erika; Mitsuo, Hiroshi; Hirai, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Plastic in the ocean is an environmental issue that has been gaining attention in recent years. It not only affects marine habitats, but ingestion or entanglement can also kill marine life. The final destination of plastic waste is not yet known, but some researchers believe that such debris may be entering our food chain as plastic molecules are broken down and absorbed by marine life. In this study, we are going to discuss some of the effects that plastic in the ocean may have on marine env...

  16. Plastics Distribution and Degradation on Lake Huron Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbyszewski, M.; Corcoran, P.

    2009-05-01

    The resistivity of plastic debris to chemical and mechanical weathering processes poses a serious threat to the environment. Numerous marine beaches are littered with plastic fragments that entangle and become ingested by organisms including birds, turtles and plankton. Although many studies have been conducted to determine the amount and effects of plastics pollution on marine organisms, relatively little is known about the distribution and quantity of polymer types along lacustrine beaches. Plastic particles sampled from selected beaches on Lake Huron were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine polymer composition. The majority of the plastic fragments are industrial pellets composed of polypropylene and polyethylene. Varying degrees of oxidation are indicated by multiple irregular peaks in the lower wavenumber region on the FTIR spectra. The oxidized pellets also represent the plastic particles with the most pronounced surface textures, as identified using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Crazes and flakey, fibrous, or granular textures are consistent with chemical weathering processes, whereas gauges and pits occur through abrasion during mechanical weathering. Further textural and compositional analysis will indicate which polymer types are more resistant to weathering processes. Additional investigation of the distribution of plastic debris along the beaches of Lake Huron will indicate the amount and primary transport directions of resistant plastic debris polluting one of Ontario's Great Lakes.

  17. Long-term field measurement of sorption of organic contaminants to five types of plastic pellets: implications for plastic marine debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Hoh, Eunha; Hentschel, Brian T; Kaye, Shawn

    2013-02-05

    Concerns regarding marine plastic pollution and its affinity for chemical pollutants led us to quantify relationships between different types of mass-produced plastic and organic contaminants in an urban bay. At five locations in San Diego Bay, CA, we measured sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) throughout a 12-month period to the five most common types of mass-produced plastic: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and polypropylene (PP). During this long-term field experiment, sorption rates and concentrations of PCBs and PAHs varied significantly among plastic types and among locations. Our data suggest that for PAHs and PCBs, PET and PVC reach equilibrium in the marine environment much faster than HDPE, LDPE, and PP. Most importantly, concentrations of PAHs and PCBs sorbed to HDPE, LDPE, and PP were consistently much greater than concentrations sorbed to PET and PVC. These data imply that products made from HDPE, LDPE, and PP pose a greater risk than products made from PET and PVC of concentrating these hazardous chemicals onto fragmented plastic debris ingested by marine animals.

  18. Fetal rat metabonome alteration by prenatal caffeine ingestion probably due to the increased circulatory glucocorticoid level and altered peripheral glucose and lipid metabolic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yansong; Xu, Dan; Feng, Jianghua; Kou, Hao; Liang, Gai; Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Chen, Liaobin; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the metabonome alteration in fetal rats after prenatal caffeine ingestion and to explore the underlying mechanism pertaining to the increased fetal circulatory glucocorticoid (GC). Pregnant Wistar rats were daily intragastrically administered with different doses of caffeine (0, 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20. Metabonome of fetal plasma and amniotic fluid on GD20 were analyzed by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics. Gene and protein expressions involved in the GC metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways in fetal liver and gastrocnemius were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Fetal plasma metabonome were significantly altered by caffeine, which presents as the elevated α- and β‐glucose, reduced multiple lipid contents, varied apolipoprotein contents and increased levels of a number of amino acids. The metabonome of amniotic fluids showed a similar change as that in fetal plasma. Furthermore, the expressions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD-2) were decreased, while the level of blood GC and the expressions of 11β-HSD-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were increased in fetal liver and gastrocnemius. Meanwhile, the expressions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor were decreased, while the expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptors and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 were increased after caffeine treatment. Prenatal caffeine ingestion characteristically change the fetal metabonome, which is probably attributed to the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways induced by increased circulatory GC, activated GC metabolism and enhanced GR expression in peripheral metabolic tissues. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion altered the metabonome of IUGR fetal rats. ► Caffeine altered the glucose and lipid metabolic pathways of IUGR fetal rats. ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion

  19. Time-divided ingestion pattern of casein-based protein supplement stimulates an increase in fat-free body mass during resistance training in young untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Andres; Timpmann, Saima; Medijainen, Luule; Vähi, Mare; Oöpik, Vahur

    2009-06-01

    We hypothesized that during prolonged resistance training, time-divided ingestion pattern of casein-based protein supplement is of superior efficiency in comparison with the ingestion of the same supplement immediately before each training session. In a crossover study, 13 men aged 18 to 19 years were evaluated during 2 well-controlled, 8-week training and supplementation periods. In the time-focused supplementation regimen (TFR), the subjects consumed the supplement in the morning and in the afternoon, immediately before the training session. Time-divided supplementation regimen (TDR) included 1 morning dose, whereas the second dose was ingested in the evening, 5 hours after training. The daily dose of the supplement contained approximately 70 g of protein (82% casein) and less than 1 g of carbohydrate and fat. Body mass, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanned), and one-repetition maximum (1RM) for bench press and squat were determined at the beginning and at the end of both 8-week training and supplementation periods. Training produced a significant increase in 1RM strength both in the bench press (9.4% and 7.2%) and the squat exercise (10.7% and 17.8%) in the TFR and TDR, respectively, with no differences between the supplementation regimens. Fat-free mass increased from 62.4 +/- 1.2 to 63.5 +/- 1.3 kg (P = .046) with TDR, whereas no change was evident with TFR. The increase in 1RM strength in the squat exercise was related to the increase in fat-free mass in TDR (r = 0.569; P = .041). These findings may have practical implications for the timing of ingestion of protein supplements to enhance the efficacy of resistance training.

  20. Surgical management and morbidity of pediatric magnet ingestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Alicia M; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Thorne, Vivian; Bousvaros, Athos; Noel, R Adam; Beierle, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Foreign body ingestion remains a common reason for emergency room visits and operative interventions in the pediatric population. Rare earth magnet ingestion represents a low percentage of all foreign bodies swallowed by children; however, magnets swallowed in multiplicity can result in severe injuries. Pediatric surgeons with membership in the Surgical Section of the American Academy of Pediatrics were surveyed to determine the magnitude and consequences of magnet ingestions in the pediatric population. About 100 (16%) participant responses reported on 99 magnet ingestions. The median age at ingestion was 3.7 y, and the majority of ingestions (71%) occurred after year 2010. Thirty-two children underwent endoscopy with successful removal in 70% of cases, and multiple magnets were found in 65% of these patients. Seventy-three children required either laparotomy (51) or laparoscopy (22) for magnet removal, and 90% of these children were discovered to have ingested more than one magnet. In addition, 17% of the children were found to have at least one perforation or fistula, and 34% of the children had multiple perforations or fistulae. Nine children required long-term care for their injuries including repeat endoscopies. One child died after hemorrhage from an esophago-aortic fistula. These results demonstrated the increasing need for magnet regulations and public awareness to prevent potentially serious complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic alcohol ingestion increases mortality and organ injury in a murine model of septic peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoseph, Benyam P; Breed, Elise; Overgaard, Christian E; Ward, Christina J; Liang, Zhe; Wagener, Maylene E; Lexcen, Daniel R; Lusczek, Elizabeth R; Beilman, Greg J; Burd, Eileen M; Farris, Alton B; Guidot, David M; Koval, Michael; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2013-01-01

    Patients admitted to the intensive care unit with alcohol use disorders have increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine how chronic alcohol ingestion alters the host response to sepsis in mice. Mice were randomized to receive either alcohol or water for 12 weeks and then subjected to cecal ligation and puncture. Mice were sacrificed 24 hours post-operatively or followed seven days for survival. Septic alcohol-fed mice had a significantly higher mortality than septic water-fed mice (74% vs. 41%, p = 0.01). This was associated with worsened gut integrity in alcohol-fed mice with elevated intestinal epithelial apoptosis, decreased crypt proliferation and shortened villus length. Further, alcohol-fed mice had higher intestinal permeability with decreased ZO-1 and occludin protein expression in the intestinal tight junction. The frequency of splenic and bone marrow CD4+ T cells was similar between groups; however, splenic CD4+ T cells in septic alcohol-fed mice had a marked increase in both TNF and IFN-γ production following ex vivo stimulation. Neither the frequency nor function of CD8+ T cells differed between alcohol-fed and water-fed septic mice. NK cells were decreased in both the spleen and bone marrow of alcohol-fed septic mice. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase levels and BAL levels of G-CSF and TFG-β were higher in alcohol-fed mice. Pancreatic metabolomics demonstrated increased acetate, adenosine, xanthine, acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and betaine in alcohol-fed mice and decreased cytidine, uracil, fumarate, creatine phosphate, creatine, and choline. Serum and peritoneal cytokines were generally similar between alcohol-fed and water-fed mice, and there were no differences in bacteremia, lung wet to dry weight, or pulmonary, liver or splenic histology. When subjected to the same septic insult, mice with chronic alcohol ingestion have increased mortality. Alterations in intestinal integrity, the host immune response, and

  2. Chronic alcohol ingestion increases mortality and organ injury in a murine model of septic peritonitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyam P Yoseph

    Full Text Available Patients admitted to the intensive care unit with alcohol use disorders have increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine how chronic alcohol ingestion alters the host response to sepsis in mice.Mice were randomized to receive either alcohol or water for 12 weeks and then subjected to cecal ligation and puncture. Mice were sacrificed 24 hours post-operatively or followed seven days for survival.Septic alcohol-fed mice had a significantly higher mortality than septic water-fed mice (74% vs. 41%, p = 0.01. This was associated with worsened gut integrity in alcohol-fed mice with elevated intestinal epithelial apoptosis, decreased crypt proliferation and shortened villus length. Further, alcohol-fed mice had higher intestinal permeability with decreased ZO-1 and occludin protein expression in the intestinal tight junction. The frequency of splenic and bone marrow CD4+ T cells was similar between groups; however, splenic CD4+ T cells in septic alcohol-fed mice had a marked increase in both TNF and IFN-γ production following ex vivo stimulation. Neither the frequency nor function of CD8+ T cells differed between alcohol-fed and water-fed septic mice. NK cells were decreased in both the spleen and bone marrow of alcohol-fed septic mice. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase levels and BAL levels of G-CSF and TFG-β were higher in alcohol-fed mice. Pancreatic metabolomics demonstrated increased acetate, adenosine, xanthine, acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and betaine in alcohol-fed mice and decreased cytidine, uracil, fumarate, creatine phosphate, creatine, and choline. Serum and peritoneal cytokines were generally similar between alcohol-fed and water-fed mice, and there were no differences in bacteremia, lung wet to dry weight, or pulmonary, liver or splenic histology.When subjected to the same septic insult, mice with chronic alcohol ingestion have increased mortality. Alterations in intestinal integrity, the host immune

  3. Prevention of ingestion injuries in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aspiration include attention-deficit hyperactivity syndrome,[9] low levels of parental ... the environment combined with inadequate caregiver supervision put children ... Increased primary prevention of ingestion through community awareness ...

  4. Plastic waste in the marine environment: A review of sources, occurrence and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W C; Tse, H F; Fok, L

    2016-10-01

    This review article summarises the sources, occurrence, fate and effects of plastic waste in the marine environment. Due to its resistance to degradation, most plastic debris will persist in the environment for centuries and may be transported far from its source, including great distances out to sea. Land- and ocean-based sources are the major sources of plastic entering the environment, with domestic, industrial and fishing activities being the most important contributors. Ocean gyres are particular hotspots of plastic waste accumulation. Both macroplastics and microplastics pose a risk to organisms in the natural environment, for example, through ingestion or entanglement in the plastic. Many studies have investigated the potential uptake of hydrophobic contaminants, which can then bioaccumulate in the food chain, from plastic waste by organisms. To address the issue of plastic pollution in the marine environment, governments should first play an active role in addressing the issue of plastic waste by introducing legislation to control the sources of plastic debris and the use of plastic additives. In addition, plastics industries should take responsibility for the end-of-life of their products by introducing plastic recycling or upgrading programmes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The anesthetic management of button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Richard J; Hoagland, Monica; Mayes, Lena; Twite, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Injuries related to button battery ingestion are common in children. This review provides an outline of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, management, and anesthetic implications in children who have ingested a button battery. A literature search was conducted in the United States National Library of Medicine PubMed database using the terms "button battery ingestion" and "children' and "removal" and "surgery" and "anesthesia". Ninety-six articles published in English were found from 1983-2017, and 62 of these articles were incorporated into this review. Additionally, the Internet was searched with the terms "button battery ingestion and children" to identify further entities, organizations, and resources affiliated with button battery ingestion in children. These additional sources were studied and included in this review. Button batteries are ubiquitous in homes and electronic devices. Since 2006, larger-diameter and higher-voltage batteries have become available. These are more likely to become impacted in the esophagus after ingestion and lead to an increase in severe morbidity and mortality due to caustic tissue injury. Children at the highest risk for complications are those under six years of age who have ingested batteries > 20 mm in diameter and sustain prolonged esophageal impaction at the level of the aortic arch with the negative pole oriented anteriorly. Anesthesiologists need to know about the epidemiology, pathophysiology, complications, and anesthetic management of children who have ingested button batteries.

  6. Urbanization is a major influence on microplastic ingestion by sunfish in the Brazos River Basin, Central Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Colleen A; Bratton, Susan P

    2016-03-01

    Microplastics, degraded and weathered polymer-based particles, and manufactured products ranging between 50 and 5000 μm in size, are found within marine, freshwater, and estuarine environments. While numerous peer-reviewed papers have quantified the ingestion of microplastics by marine vertebrates, relatively few studies have focused on microplastic ingestion by freshwater organisms. This study documents microplastic and manufactured fiber ingestion by bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and longear (Lepomis megalotis) sunfish (Centrarchidae) from the Brazos River Basin, between Lake Whitney and Marlin, Texas, USA. Fourteen sample sites were studied and categorized into urban, downstream, and upstream areas. A total of 436 sunfish were collected, and 196 (45%) stomachs contained microplastics. Four percent (4%) of items sampled were debris on the macro size scale (i.e. >5 mm) and consisted of masses of plastic, metal, Styrofoam, or fishing material, while 96% of items sampled were in the form of microplastic threads. Fish length was statistically correlated to the number of microplastics detected (p = 0.019). Fish collected from urban sites displayed the highest mean number of microplastics ingested, followed by downstream and upstream sites. Microplastics were associated with the ingestion of other debris items (e.g. sand and wood) and correlated to the ingestion of fish eggs, earthworms, and mollusks, suggesting that sunfish incidentally ingest microplastics during their normal feeding methods. The high frequency of microplastic ingestion suggest that further research is needed to determine the residence time of microplastics within the stomach and gut, potential for food web transfer, and adverse effects on wildlife and ecosystemic health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Plastic Pollution at a Sea Turtle Conservation Area in NE Brazil: Contrasting Developed and Undeveloped Beaches.

    OpenAIRE

    SUL, J. A. I. do.; SANTOS, I. R.; FRIEDRICH, A. C.; MATTHIENSEN, A.; FILLMANN, G.

    2011-01-01

    Sea turtles are highly susceptible to plastic ingestion and entanglement. Beach debris were surveyed along the most important sea turtle nesting beaches in Brazil (Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia State). No significant differences among developed and undeveloped beaches were observed in terms of total number of items. Local sources (tourism activities) represented 70% of debris on developed beaches, where cigarette butts, straws, paper fragments, soft plastic fragments, and food packaging...

  8. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao P. Lopes-Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1 or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05. At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%. There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  9. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-22

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  10. The use of beached bird surveys for marine plastic litter monitoring in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, Heidi; Lyashevska, Olga; Franeker, van J.A.; O'Connor, I.

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic litter has become a major threat to wildlife. Marine animals are highly susceptible to entanglement and ingestion of debris at sea. Governments all around the world are being urged to monitor litter sources and inputs, and to mitigate the impacts of marine litter, which is primarily

  11. Fetal rat metabonome alteration by prenatal caffeine ingestion probably due to the increased circulatory glucocorticoid level and altered peripheral glucose and lipid metabolic pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yansong [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Kou, Hao; Liang, Gai [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Chen, Liaobin [Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China)

    2012-07-15

    The aims of this study were to clarify the metabonome alteration in fetal rats after prenatal caffeine ingestion and to explore the underlying mechanism pertaining to the increased fetal circulatory glucocorticoid (GC). Pregnant Wistar rats were daily intragastrically administered with different doses of caffeine (0, 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20. Metabonome of fetal plasma and amniotic fluid on GD20 were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics. Gene and protein expressions involved in the GC metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways in fetal liver and gastrocnemius were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Fetal plasma metabonome were significantly altered by caffeine, which presents as the elevated α- and β‐glucose, reduced multiple lipid contents, varied apolipoprotein contents and increased levels of a number of amino acids. The metabonome of amniotic fluids showed a similar change as that in fetal plasma. Furthermore, the expressions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD-2) were decreased, while the level of blood GC and the expressions of 11β-HSD-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were increased in fetal liver and gastrocnemius. Meanwhile, the expressions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor were decreased, while the expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptors and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 were increased after caffeine treatment. Prenatal caffeine ingestion characteristically change the fetal metabonome, which is probably attributed to the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways induced by increased circulatory GC, activated GC metabolism and enhanced GR expression in peripheral metabolic tissues. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion altered the metabonome of IUGR fetal rats. ► Caffeine altered the glucose and lipid metabolic pathways of IUGR fetal rats. ► Prenatal caffeine

  12. [Magnet ingestions in children: a French multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talvard, M; Mouttalib, S; Flaum, V; Viala, J; Galinier, P; Olives, J-P; Mas, E

    2015-01-01

    Digestive complications related to the ingestion of magnetic foreign bodies in children are increasing, especially in Asia and North America. In France, several case reports have been reported since 2008. We conducted a retrospective multicentric study to evaluate the frequency of ingestion of magnet foreign bodies and to describe the complicated cases that have occurred in France over the last 5 years. We report 40 cases of which 60% were multiple magnet ingestions. Eighty-eight percent of the children of the group who had swallowed multiple magnets needed interventional management by endoscopy (33%) or surgery (58%). Only two children (12.5%) of the group who swallowed one magnet required removal. This problem is not uncommon in France (2% of the 1132 foreign bodies investigated in the Toulouse center over 5 years), which justifies clear information for healthcare professionals and caregivers in order to avoid potential intestinal complications. We suggest interventional management or very close monitoring in the cases of multiple magnet ingestion. Meanwhile, in the majority of confirmed cases of simple magnet ingestions, we propose home monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute Sodium Ingestion Before Exercise Increases Voluntary Water Consumption Resulting In Preexercise Hyperhydration and Improvement in Exercise Performance in the Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David M; Huot, Joshua R; Jetton, Adam M; Collier, Scott R; Utter, Alan C

    2015-10-01

    Dehydration has been shown to hinder performance of sustained exercise in the heat. Consuming fluids before exercise can result in hyperhydration, delay the onset of dehydration during exercise and improve exercise performance. However, humans normally drink only in response to thirst, which does not result in hyperhydration. Thirst and voluntary fluid consumption have been shown to increase following oral ingestion or infusion of sodium into the bloodstream. We measured the effects of acute sodium ingestion on voluntary water consumption and retention during a 2-hr hydration period before exercise. Subjects then performed a 60-min submaximal dehydration ride (DR) followed immediately by a 200 kJ performance time trial (PTT) in a warm (30 °C) environment. Water consumption and retention during the hydration period was greater following sodium ingestion (1380 ± 580 mL consumed, 821 ± 367 ml retained) compared with placebo (815 ± 483 ml consumed, 244 ± 402 mL retained) and no treatment (782 ± 454 ml consumed, 148 ± 289 mL retained). Dehydration levels following the DR were significantly less after sodium ingestion (0.7 ± 0.6%) compared with placebo (1.3 ± 0.7%) and no treatment (1.6 ± 0.4%). Time to complete the PTT was significantly less following sodium consumption (773 ± 158 s) compared with placebo (851 ± 156 s) and no treatment (872 ± 190 s). These results suggest that voluntary hyperhydration can be induced by acute consumption of sodium and has a favorable effect on hydration status and performance during subsequent exercise in the heat.

  14. The rising incidence of intentional ingestion of ethanol-containing hand sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Nicole J; Bronstein, Alvin C; Rasimas, Joseph J; Pao, Maryland; Wratney, Angela T; Sun, Junfeng; Austin, Howard A; Suffredini, Anthony F

    2012-01-01

    To describe a case of intentional ingestion of hand sanitizer in our hospital and to review published cases and those reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System. A case report, a literature review of published cases, and a query of the National Poison Data System. Medical intensive care unit. Seventeen-yr-old male 37-kg with an intentional ingestion of a hand sanitizer product into his gastrostomy tube. Intubation, ventilation, and hemodialysis. Incidence and outcome of reported cases of unintentional and intentional ethanol containing-hand sanitizer ingestion in the United States from 2005 through 2009. A literature search found 14 detailed case reports of intentional alcohol-based hand sanitizer ingestions with one death. From 2005 to 2009, the National Poison Data System received reports of 68,712 exposures to 96 ethanol-based hand sanitizers. The number of new cases increased by an average of 1,894 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1266-2521) cases per year (p =.002). In 2005, the rate of exposures, per year, per million U.S. residents was 33.7 (95% CI 28.4-39.1); from 2005 to 2009, this rate increased on average by 5.87 per year (95% CI 3.70-8.04; p = .003). In 2005, the rate of intentional exposures, per year, per million U.S. residents, was 0.68 (95% CI 0.17-1.20); from 2005 to 2009, this rate increased on average by 0.32 per year (95% CI 0.11-0.53; p = .02). The number of new cases per year of intentional hand sanitizer ingestion significantly increased during this 5-yr period. Although the majority of cases of hand sanitizer ingestion have a favorable outcome, 288 moderate and 12 major medical outcomes were reported in this National Poison Data System cohort. Increased awareness of the risks associated with intentional ingestion is warranted, particularly among healthcare providers caring for persons with a history of substance abuse, risk-taking behavior, or suicidal ideation.

  15. A method of increasing the depth of the plastically deformed layer in the roller burnishing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalik, Marek; Trzepiecinski, Tomasz

    2018-05-01

    The subject of this paper is an analysis of the determination of the depth of the plastically deformed layer in the process of roller burnishing a shaft using a newly developed method in which a braking moment is applied to the roller. It is possible to increase the depth of the plastically deformed layer by applying the braking moment to the roller during the burnishing process. The theoretical considerations presented are based on the Hertz-Bielayev and Huber-Mises theories and permit the calculation of the depth of plastic deformation of the top layer of the burnished shaft. The theoretical analysis has been verified experimentally and using numerical calculations based on the finite element method using the Msc.MARC program. Experimental tests were carried out on ring-shaped samples made of C45 carbon steel. The samples were burnished at different values of roller force and different values of braking moment. A significant increase was found in the depth of the plastically deformed surface layer of roller burnished shafts. Usage of the phenomenon of strain hardening of steel allows the technology presented here to increase the fatigue life of the shafts.

  16. Buried straw layer and plastic mulching increase microlfora diversity in salinized soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-yi; PANG Huan-cheng; HAN Xiu-fang; YAN Shou-wei; ZHAO Yong-gan; WANG Jing; ZHAI Zhen; ZHANG Jian-li

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress has been increasingly constraining crop productivity in arid lands of the world. In our recent study, salt stress was aleviated and crop productivity was improved remarkably by straw layer burial plus plastic iflm mulching in a saline soil. However, its impact on the microlfora diversity is not wel documented. Field micro-plot experiments were conducted from 2010 to 2011 using four tilage methods: (i) deep tilage with plastic iflm mulching (CK), (i) straw layer burial at 40 cm (S), (ii) straw layer burial plus surface soil mulching with straw material (S+S), and (iv) plastic iflm mulching plus buried straw layer (P+S). Culturable microbes and predominant bacterial communities were studied; based on 16S rDNA, bacterial com-munity structure and abundance were characterized using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results showed that P+S was the most favorable for culturable bacteria, actinomyces and fungi and induced the most diverse genera of bacteria compared to other tilage methods. Soil temperature had signiifcant positive correlations with the number of bacteria, actinomyces and fungi (P<0.01). However, soil water was poorly correlated with any of the microbes. Salt content had a signiifcant negative correlation with the number of microbers, especialy for bacteria and fungi (P<0.01). DGGE analysis showed that the P+S exhibited the highest diversity of bacteria with 20 visible bands folowed by S+S, S and CK. Moreover, P+S had the highest similarity (68%) of bacterial communities with CK. The major bacterial genera in al soil samples wereFirmicutes,Proteobacteria andActinobacteria. Given the considerable increase in microbial growth, the combined use of straw layer burial and plastic iflm mulching could be a practical option for aleviating salt stress effects on soil microbial community and thereby improving crop production in arid saline soils.

  17. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Lin, Ja-Liang

    2011-11-01

    In May 2011, the illegal use of the phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in clouding agents for use in foods and beverages was reported in Taiwan. This food scandal has caused shock and panic among the majority of Taiwanese people and has attracted international attention. Phthalate exposure is assessed by ambient monitoring or human biomonitoring. Ambient monitoring relies on measuring chemicals in environmental media, foodstuff and consumer products. Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens. In mammalian development, the fetus is set to develop into a female. Because the female phenotype is the default, impairment of testosterone production or action before the late phase may lead to feminizing characteristics. Phthalates disrupt the development of androgen-dependent structures by inhibiting fetal testicular testosterone biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects obtained following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities with the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and shorter gestational age, shorter anogenital distance, shorter penis, incomplete testicular descent, sex hormone alteration, precocious puberty, pubertal gynecomastia, premature thelarche, rhinitis, eczema, asthma, low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence quotient, thyroid hormone alteration, and hypospadias in infants and children. Furthermore, many studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and increased sperm DNA damage, decreased proportion of sperm with normal morphology, decreased sperm concentration, decreased sperm morphology, sex hormone alteration, decreased pulmonary function, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, breast cancer, obesity, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid hormone alteration in adults. Finally, the number of

  18. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzung-Hai Yen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In May 2011, the illegal use of the phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate in clouding agents for use in foods and beverages was reported in Taiwan. This food scandal has caused shock and panic among the majority of Taiwanese people and has attracted international attention. Phthalate exposure is assessed by ambient monitoring or human biomonitoring. Ambient monitoring relies on measuring chemicals in environmental media, foodstuff and consumer products. Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens. In mammalian development, the fetus is set to develop into a female. Because the female phenotype is the default, impairment of testosterone production or action before the late phase may lead to feminizing characteristics. Phthalates disrupt the development of androgen-dependent structures by inhibiting fetal testicular testosterone biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects obtained following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities with the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and shorter gestational age, shorter anogenital distance, shorter penis, incomplete testicular descent, sex hormone alteration, precocious puberty, pubertal gynecomastia, premature thelarche, rhinitis, eczema, asthma, low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence quotient, thyroid hormone alteration, and hypospadias in infants and children. Furthermore, many studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and increased sperm DNA damage, decreased proportion of sperm with normal morphology, decreased sperm concentration, decreased sperm morphology, sex hormone alteration, decreased pulmonary function, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, breast cancer, obesity, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid hormone alteration in adults

  19. Esophageal button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şencan, Arzu; Genişol, İncinur; Hoşgör, Münevver

    2017-07-01

    Button battery lodged in the esophagus carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to present cases of patients with esophageal button battery ingestion treated at our clinic and to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Records of patients admitted to our hospital for foreign body ingestion between January 2010 and May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases with button battery lodged in the esophagus were included in the study. Patient data regarding age, sex, length of time after ingestion until admission, presenting clinical symptoms, type and localization of the battery, management, and prognosis were analyzed. Among 1891 foreign body ingestions, 71 were localized in the esophagus, and 8 of those (11.2%) were cases of button battery ingestion. Mean age was 1.7 years. Admission was within 6 hours of ingestion in 5 cases, after 24 hours had elapsed in 2, and 1 month after ingestion in 1 case. All patients but 1 knew the history of ingestion. Prompt endoscopic removal was performed for all patients. Three patients developed esophageal stricture, which responded to dilatation. Early recognition and timely endoscopic removal is mandatory in esophageal button battery ingestion. It should be suspected in the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  20. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F. S.; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. PMID:27818542

  1. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  2. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F S; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  3. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle, E-mail: gabrielnicolodi@gmail.com [Hospital Sao Vicente - Funef, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  4. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cleve Nicolodi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases, increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases, identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases, and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case. Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  5. No increase in marine microplastic concentration over the last three decades - A case study from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Sabrina; Garm, Anders; Huwer, Bastian; Dierking, Jan; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2018-04-15

    Microplastic is considered a potential threat to marine life as it is ingested by a wide variety of species. Most studies on microplastic ingestion are short-term investigations and little is currently known about how this potential threat has developed over the last decades where global plastic production has increased exponentially. Here we present the first long-term study on microplastic in the marine environment, covering three decades from 1987 to 2015, based on a unique sample set originally collected and conserved for food web studies. We investigated the microplastic concentration in plankton samples and in digestive tracts of two economically and ecologically important planktivorous forage fish species, Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and European sprat (Sprattus sprattus), in the Baltic Sea, an ecosystem which is under high anthropogenic pressure and has undergone considerable changes over the past decades. Surprisingly, neither the concentration of microplastic in the plankton samples nor in the digestive tracts changed significantly over the investigated time period. Average microplastic concentration in the plankton samples was 0.21±0.15particlesm -3 . Of 814 fish examined, 20% contained plastic particles, of which 95% were characterized as microplastic (plastic content between species, locations, or time of day the fish were caught. However, fish size and microplastic in the digestive tracts were positively correlated, and the fish contained more plastic during summer than during spring, which may be explained by increased food uptake with size and seasonal differences in feeding activity. This study highlights that even though microplastic has been present in the Baltic environment and the digestive tracts of fishes for decades, the levels have not changed in this period. This underscores the need for greater understanding of how plastic is cycled through marine ecosystems. The stability of plastic concentration and contamination over time

  6. Monitoring plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.; Blaize, C.; Danielsen, J.

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of plastics in stomachs of northern fulmars from the North Sea is used in the OSPAR Ecological Quality Objective (EcoQO) for marine litter. The preliminary EcoQO defines acceptable ecological quality as the situation where no more than 10% of fulmars exceed a critical level of 0.1 g of

  7. Transmesocolic double gastro-enteric fistulas due to ingestion of 28 magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Surd

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accidental ingestion of magnetic foreign bodies has become more common due to increased availability of objects and toys with magnetic elements. The majority of them traverse the gastrointestinal system spontaneously without complication. However, ingestion of multiple magnets may require surgical resolution. Magnet ingestion usually does not cause serious complications, but in case of multiple magnet ingestion or ingestion of magnet and a metal object, it could cause intestinal obstruction, fistula formation or even perforation. Case report: We report case of a transmesocolic double gastro-enteric fistula formation following ingestion of 28 small magnets in a 17 months old boy. No history of foreign body ingestion could be obtained from parents therefore the patient was treated conservatively in a pediatric clinic for vomiting, dehydration, upper respiratory tract infection and suspicion of upper digestive tract bleeding. After 48 h he was sent in our clinic for surgical evaluation. Intraoperatively double transmesocolic gastro-enteric fistula was found. After separation of de gastric and enteral walls, resection of gastric wall and intestinal segment containing the two perforations was performed, followed by gastric suture in two layers and entero-enteric anastomosis. A total of 28 magnets were removed from the stomach and small intestine. Conclusion: Single magnet ingestion is treated as non-magnetic foreign body. Multiple magnet ingestion should be closely monitored and surgical approach could be the best option to prevent or to cure its complications. Keywords: Ingestion, Magnetic foreign body, Multiple magnets, Intestinal fistula, Children

  8. Retrospective evaluation of xylitol ingestion in dogs: 192 cases (2007-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuHadway, Meghan R; Sharp, Claire R; Meyers, Katherine E; Koenigshof, Amy M

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the signalment, clinical signs, prevalence of decreased blood glucose concentration (BG), prevalence of increased liver values, treatment, and outcome in dogs known to have ingested xylitol. Retrospective study from December 2007 to February 2012 SETTING: Three university teaching hospitals. One hundred ninety-two client-owned dogs with known or suspected xylitol ingestion. None. The median ingested xylitol dose was 0.32 g/kg (range 0.03-3.64 g/kg). Clinical signs were present in 39 (20%) dogs on presentation to the veterinary teaching hospitals. The most common clinical sign was vomiting (n = 25), followed by lethargy (12). The median duration of clinical signs prior to presentation was 93 minutes (range 0-5,040 minutes). Dogs that developed clinical signs ingested a significantly higher dose of xylitol than those that were asymptomatic. Thirty dogs became hypoglycemic (BG ≤ 3.3 mmol/L [60 mg/dL]) at some time point during their hospitalization. When evaluating all dogs, there was a significant difference between the initial and lowest BGs. Thirty dogs had increased alanine aminotransferase activity or total serum bilirubin concentration. Dogs with increases in alanine aminotransferase activity or total serum bilirubin concentration had a significantly lower nadir BG. All dogs survived to discharge and 158 were known to be alive at 28 days. The rest were lost to follow up. The prognosis for dogs evaluated by a veterinarian that ingest lower doses of xylitol and do not develop liver failure is excellent. Dogs ingesting xylitol should be hospitalized and monitored for variations in BG, because BG drops in most dogs following presentation. Additional studies are needed in dogs ingesting higher doses of xylitol before correlations between dose and the development of clinical signs or liver failure can be established. Treatment and prognosis for these dogs warrants further investigation. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  9. Marine debris ingestion by the South American Fur Seal from the Southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denuncio, Pablo; Mandiola, María Agustina; Pérez Salles, Sofía Belén; Machado, Rodrigo; Ott, Paulo H; De Oliveira, Larissa Rosa; Rodriguez, Diego

    2017-09-15

    In this paper, we examined the ingestion of marine debris (MD) in South American fur seals (SAFS), Arctocephalus australis, found dead in coastal beaches of northern Argentina and southern Brazil. Seven percent of 133 SAFS analyzed presented marine debris in their stomach (n=10), with no differences between sampling countries (Brazil n=7, Argentina n=3) and sexes (female=3; male=6). However, significant differences were observed between ages classes, with MD exclusively present in stomach contents of young specimens. Plastics represents 90% of MD ingested by the SAFS, whereas regarding the source, fishery-related items (e.g. monofilament lines) were the main MD (70%), with a lesser proportion of packaging (e.g. pieces of bags). Low numbers but large size pieces of MD were found in each stomach affected. Negative effects on the individuals could not be fully evaluated. Therefore, the potential impacts of the marine debris to the SAFS deserve further elucidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rare-earth magnet ingestion: a childhood danger reaches adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Beesan Shalabi; Sturm, Jesse J; Costello, Brian E

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of multiple magnets may cause serious gastrointestinal morbidity, such as pressure necrosis, perforation, fistula formation, or intestinal obstruction due to forceful attraction across bowel wall. Although the consequences of multiple magnet ingestion are well documented in young children, the current popularity of small, powerful rare-earth magnets marketed as "desk toys" has heightened this safety concern in all pediatric age groups. A recent US Consumer Product Safety Commission product-wide warning additionally reports the adolescent practice of using toy high-powered, ball-bearing magnets to simulate tongue and lip piercings, a behavior that may increase risk of inadvertent ingestion. We describe 2 cases of older children (male; aged 10 and 13 years, respectively) with unintentional ingestion of multiple rare-earth magnets. Health care providers should be alerted to the potential for misuse of these high-powered, ball-bearing magnets among older children and adolescents.

  11. Automatic ingestion monitor: a novel wearable device for monitoring of ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Juan M; Farooq, Muhammad; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-06-01

    Objective monitoring of food intake and ingestive behavior in a free-living environment remains an open problem that has significant implications in study and treatment of obesity and eating disorders. In this paper, a novel wearable sensor system (automatic ingestion monitor, AIM) is presented for objective monitoring of ingestive behavior in free living. The proposed device integrates three sensor modalities that wirelessly interface to a smartphone: a jaw motion sensor, a hand gesture sensor, and an accelerometer. A novel sensor fusion and pattern recognition method was developed for subject-independent food intake recognition. The device and the methodology were validated with data collected from 12 subjects wearing AIM during the course of 24 h in which both the daily activities and the food intake of the subjects were not restricted in any way. Results showed that the system was able to detect food intake with an average accuracy of 89.8%, which suggests that AIM can potentially be used as an instrument to monitor ingestive behavior in free-living individuals.

  12. Effects of kale ingestion on pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Izumi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Kale is a cruciferous vegetable (Brassicaceae) that contains a large amount of health-promoting phytochemicals. The chronic ingestion of cabbage of the same family is known to accelerate conjugating acetaminophen (AA) and decrease the plasma AA level. Therefore, we examined to clarify the effects of kale on the pharmacokinetics of AA, its glucuronide (AA-G) and sulfate (AA-S). AA was orally administered to rats pre-treated with kale or cabbage (2000 mg/kg/day) for one week. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, and the concentrations of AA, AA-G and AA-S were determined. In results, kale ingestion induced an increase in the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and a decrease in the clearance of AA, whereas cabbage had almost no influence. In addition, there were significant differences in the AUC of AA-G between the control and kale groups. mRNA expression levels of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, the enzymes involved in glucuronidation, in the kale group were significantly higher than those in the control group. In conclusion, kale ingestion increased the plasma concentrations of both AA and AA-G. The results suggest that kale ingestion accelerates the glucuronidation of AA, but an increase of plasma AA levels has a different cause than the cause of glucuronidation.

  13. Environmental implications of plastic debris in marine settings—entanglement, ingestion, smothering, hangers-on, hitch-hiking and alien invasions

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Murray R.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past five or six decades, contamination and pollution of the world’s enclosed seas, coastal waters and the wider open oceans by plastics and other synthetic, non-biodegradable materials (generally known as ‘marine debris’) has been an ever-increasing phenomenon. The sources of these polluting materials are both land- and marine-based, their origins may be local or distant, and the environmental consequences are many and varied. The more widely recognized problems are typically associ...

  14. Increased incidence of infertility treatment among women working in the plastics industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K.S.; Hannerz, H.; Feveile, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several plastic chemicals adversely affect reproductive ability. This study examined the possible association between employment in the plastics industry and infertility. Dynamic cohorts of economically active women and men were followed for hospital contacts due to infertility in the Danish Occu...... in female plastics workers motivates more specific studies of reproductive occupational health in the plastics industry. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2009/4...

  15. Long-term ingestion dose monitoring in a population group with increased 137Cs intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartuskova, M.; Lusnak, J.; Malatova, I.; Pfeiferova, V.; Pospisilova, H.

    2008-01-01

    137 Cs amounts and ingestion doses in Czech population have been monitored by whole-body counting since the Chernobyl accident. Indirect estimation of the retention through measurement of 137 Cs excreted with urine in 24 hours has also been performed since 1987. The 137 Cs content in human body can be calculated from the urine data provided that the intake of 137 Cs during the period of interest is constant. In a semi-natural environment, the 137 Cs content in mushrooms, wild berries and game decreases due to its natural decay solely. The 137 Cs content in people who mostly consume venison and have been living in an area with elevated contamination has been monitored, mostly through measurement of 137 Cs in urine. In parallel, measurements with a mobile whole-body counter have also been performed. Currently, annual doses from the ingestion of 137 Cs in the inhabitants are very low (0.001 to 0.002 mSv.year -1 ). In a group of hunters in the Jeseniky Mountains (Northern Moravia) the doses were estimated to 0.10 mSv.year -1 . (orig.)

  16. plastic waste recycling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    incinerators is increasing around the world. Discarded plastic products ... Agency (EPA) estimated that the amount of plastics throw away is. 50 % greater in the ... The waste plastics were identified using the Society of the Plastic. Industry (SPI) ...

  17. X-ray diffraction analysis of particles ingested by filter-feeding animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, R.W.; Gersabeck, E.F.; Ross, D.H.; Mortland, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    The size and relative abundance of mineral particles ingested by two filter-feeding aquatic insects, Simulium vittatum Zett. (Diptera: Simuliidae) and Aedes triseriatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) were determined by X-ray diffraction methods. Different minerals representing different particle size categories were supplied larval black flies and mosquitoes. Since minerals possess characteristic diffraction properties, their presence and relative abundance can be determined. Early instars of the black fly ingested and retained particles of three different size ranges: however, more coarse particles relative to fine particles were retained by smaller instars as compared with the larger instars. With mosquito larvae, there was a proportional increase in coarser material ingested with increasing age and size of larvae. Other applications of this method are discussed. (Auth.)

  18. Developmental plasticity in vision and behavior may help guppies overcome increased turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlman, Sean M; Sandkam, Benjamin A; Breden, Felix; Sih, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Increasing turbidity in streams and rivers near human activity is cause for environmental concern, as the ability of aquatic organisms to use visual information declines. To investigate how some organisms might be able to developmentally compensate for increasing turbidity, we reared guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in either clear or turbid water. We assessed the effects of developmental treatments on adult behavior and aspects of the visual system by testing fish from both developmental treatments in turbid and clear water. We found a strong interactive effect of rearing and assay conditions: fish reared in clear water tended to decrease activity in turbid water, whereas fish reared in turbid water tended to increase activity in turbid water. Guppies from all treatments decreased activity when exposed to a predator. To measure plasticity in the visual system, we quantified treatment differences in opsin gene expression of individuals. We detected a shift from mid-wave-sensitive opsins to long wave-sensitive opsins for guppies reared in turbid water. Since long-wavelength sensitivity is important in motion detection, this shift likely allows guppies to salvage motion-detecting abilities when visual information is obscured in turbid water. Our results demonstrate the importance of developmental plasticity in responses of organisms to rapidly changing environments.

  19. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  20. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, A. [ARM Climate Reesearch Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [ARM Climate Reesearch Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  1. The effect of free glutamine and peptide ingestion on the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Saris, W H; van de Schoor, P A

    2000-01-01

    hydrolysate (26% glutamine) and 3) a whey hydrolysate (6.6% glutamine). Plasma glutamine, decreased by approximately 20% during recovery with ingestion of the control drink, no changes with ingestion of the protein hydrolysates drinks, and a 2-fold increase with ingestion of the free glutamine drinks....... The rate of glycogen resynthesis was not significantly different in the four tests: 28 +/- 5, 26 +/- 6, 33 +/- 4, and 34 +/- 3 mmol glucosyl units x kg(-1) dry weight muscle x h(-1) for the control, glutamine, wheat- and whey hydrolysate ingestion, respectively. It is concluded that ingestion...... of a glutamine/carbohydrate mixture does not increase the rate of glycogen resynthesis in muscle. Glycogen resynthesis rates were higher, although not statistically significant, after ingestion of the drink containing the wheat (21 +/- 8%) and whey protein hydrolysate (20 +/- 6%) compared to ingestion...

  2. Ingestive behavior of grazing steers fed increasing levels of concentrate supplementation with different crude protein contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fabrício Bacelar Lima; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Fabiano Ferreira; Lins, Túlio Otávio Jardim D Almeida; da Silva, Anderson Luiz Nascimento; Macedo, Venício; Abreu Filho, George; de Souza, Sinvaldo Oliveira; Guimarães, Joanderson Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ingestive behavior of steers on Brachiaria brizantha pasture fed diets with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Thirty-two crossbred steers in the finishing phase with average weight of 420 ± 8 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replicates per treatment. Their behavior was assessed every 5 min for 24 h, in the middle of the experimental period. Variance and regression analyses at 0.05 % probability were adopted. The times spent grazing and ruminating reduced linearly (P <0.05), whereas the times spent at the trough (eating) and on other activities increased linearly (P <0.05) as the supplementation levels were elevated. The total feeding and chewing times decreased linearly (P <0.05) as the concentrate levels in the diet were elevated. By increasing the supplementation levels, the number of bites per day decreased linearly (P <0.05), and the feed efficiency of dry matter increased quadratically. Rumination efficiency of dry matter increased linearly (P <0.05) with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Grazing and rumination activities are reduced when the time devoted to other activities and at the trough are increased, as a result of the substitution effect.

  3. Sugar ingestion and dichotic listening: Increased perceptual capacity is more than motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H; Ambrose, Aimee L

    2014-01-01

    Participants ingested a sugar drink or a sugar-free drink and then engaged in a pair of dichotic listening tasks. Tasks presented category labels then played a series of word pairs, one in the left ear and one in the right. Participants attempted to identify pairs containing a target category member. Target category words were homonyms. For example, arms appeared as a target in the "body parts" category. Nontargets that played along with targets were related to a category-appropriate version of the target (e.g., sleeves), a category-inappropriate version (e.g., weapons), or were unrelated to either version of the target (e.g., plant). Hence, an effect of nontarget type on number of targets missed was evidence that participants processed nontargets for meaning. In the divided attention task, participants monitored both ears. In the focused attention task, participants monitored the left ear. Half the participants in each group had the divided attention task before the focused attention task; the other half had the focused attention task before the divided attention task. We set task lengths to about 12 min so working on the first task would give sufficient time for metabolizing sugar from the drink before the start of the second task. Nontarget word type significantly affected targets missed in both tasks. Drink type affected performance in the divided attention task only after sufficient time for converting sugar into blood glucose. The result supports an energy model for the effect of sugar ingestion on perceptual tasks rather than a motivational model.

  4. Marine microplastics - Method development for detection of plastic particles from sea water down to 10 μm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, Robin; Enders, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    During the past few years and especially in 2014, plastic pollution has gained a lot of media attention and public awareness is rising. Management plans and policies start to adopt strategies for mitigating effects and reducing entry of marine litter and beached plastic. Strangled seals or plastic...... ingesting seabirds are perceived easily by the broad public through emotionally charged photographs and personal experiences on beaches all around the globe. Monitoring programs, beach clean-ups, source elimination, and societal changes such as local bans of single-use plastic bags or outphasing...... on the bottom of the food web, whose existence and importance we are rarely aware of. There are chances for severe impacts in plastic accumulating ocean gyres which are of oligotrophic nature and consequently low food availability. So far the concentrations, biological impact and the fate of disintegrating...

  5. Appetite influences the responses to meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribic, T; Nieto, A; Hernandez, L; Malagelada, C; Accarino, A; Azpiroz, F

    2017-08-01

    We have previously shown that the postprandial experience includes cognitive sensations, such as satiety and fullness, with a hedonic dimension involving digestive well-being and mood. Preload conditioning has been shown to modulate appetite and food consumption under certain conditions, but its effects on the responses to meal ingestion are not clear. We hypothesized that appetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and the emotive responses to meal ingestion. The effects of preload conditioning (ingestion of a low- vs a high-calorie breakfast) on appetite and on the cognitive and emotive responses to a comfort probe meal ingested 2 hours later (ham and cheese sandwich with orange juice; 300 mL, 425 Kcal) was tested in healthy subjects (n=12) in a cross-over design. Sensations were measured at regular intervals 15 minutes before and 60 minutes after the probe meal. As compared to the low-calorie breakfast, the high-calorie breakfast reduced basal hunger sensation and influenced the responses to the subsequent probe meal: it increased satiety (4.3±0.2 score vs 2.7±0.2 score; PAppetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and emotive responses to a meal. Preload conditioning of the postprandial experience may be applicable to dietary planning and prevention of postprandial symptoms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Caffeine Ingestion Increases Estimated Glycolytic Metabolism during Taekwondo Combat Simulation but Does Not Improve Performance or Parasympathetic Reactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Lopes-Silva

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caffeine ingestion on performance and estimated energy system contribution during simulated taekwondo combat and on post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation.Ten taekwondo athletes completed two experimental sessions separated by at least 48 hours. Athletes consumed a capsule containing either caffeine (5 mg∙kg-1 or placebo (cellulose one hour before the combat simulation (3 rounds of 2 min separated by 1 min passive recovery, in a double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures crossover design. All simulated combat was filmed to quantify the time spent fighting in each round. Lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion were measured before and after each round, while heart rate (HR and the estimated contribution of the oxidative (WAER, ATP-PCr (WPCR, and glycolytic (W[La-] systems were calculated during the combat simulation. Furthermore, parasympathetic reactivation after the combat simulation was evaluated through 1 taking absolute difference between the final HR observed at the end of third round and the HR recorded 60-s after (HRR60s, 2 taking the time constant of HR decay obtained by fitting the 6-min post-exercise HRR into a first-order exponential decay curve (HRRτ, or by 3 analyzing the first 30-s via logarithmic regression analysis (T30.Caffeine ingestion increased estimated glycolytic energy contribution in relation to placebo (12.5 ± 1.7 kJ and 8.9 ± 1.2 kJ, P = 0.04. However, caffeine did not improve performance as measured by attack number (CAF: 26. 7 ± 1.9; PLA: 27.3 ± 2.1, P = 0.48 or attack time (CAF: 33.8 ± 1.9 s; PLA: 36.6 ± 4.5 s, P = 0.58. Similarly, RPE (CAF: 11.7 ± 0.4 a.u.; PLA: 11.5 ± 0.3 a.u., P = 0.62, HR (CAF: 170 ± 3.5 bpm; PLA: 174.2 bpm, P = 0.12, oxidative (CAF: 109.3 ± 4.5 kJ; PLA: 107.9 kJ, P = 0.61 and ATP-PCr energy contributions (CAF: 45.3 ± 3.4 kJ; PLA: 46.8 ± 3.6 kJ, P = 0.72 during the combat simulation were unaffected. Furthermore

  7. Caffeine Ingestion Increases Estimated Glycolytic Metabolism during Taekwondo Combat Simulation but Does Not Improve Performance or Parasympathetic Reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, João Paulo; Silva Santos, Jonatas Ferreira da; Branco, Braulio Henrique Magnani; Abad, César Cavinato Cal; Oliveira, Luana Farias de; Loturco, Irineu; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caffeine ingestion on performance and estimated energy system contribution during simulated taekwondo combat and on post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation. Ten taekwondo athletes completed two experimental sessions separated by at least 48 hours. Athletes consumed a capsule containing either caffeine (5 mg∙kg-1) or placebo (cellulose) one hour before the combat simulation (3 rounds of 2 min separated by 1 min passive recovery), in a double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures crossover design. All simulated combat was filmed to quantify the time spent fighting in each round. Lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion were measured before and after each round, while heart rate (HR) and the estimated contribution of the oxidative (WAER), ATP-PCr (WPCR), and glycolytic (W[La-]) systems were calculated during the combat simulation. Furthermore, parasympathetic reactivation after the combat simulation was evaluated through 1) taking absolute difference between the final HR observed at the end of third round and the HR recorded 60-s after (HRR60s), 2) taking the time constant of HR decay obtained by fitting the 6-min post-exercise HRR into a first-order exponential decay curve (HRRτ), or by 3) analyzing the first 30-s via logarithmic regression analysis (T30). Caffeine ingestion increased estimated glycolytic energy contribution in relation to placebo (12.5 ± 1.7 kJ and 8.9 ± 1.2 kJ, P = 0.04). However, caffeine did not improve performance as measured by attack number (CAF: 26. 7 ± 1.9; PLA: 27.3 ± 2.1, P = 0.48) or attack time (CAF: 33.8 ± 1.9 s; PLA: 36.6 ± 4.5 s, P = 0.58). Similarly, RPE (CAF: 11.7 ± 0.4 a.u.; PLA: 11.5 ± 0.3 a.u., P = 0.62), HR (CAF: 170 ± 3.5 bpm; PLA: 174.2 bpm, P = 0.12), oxidative (CAF: 109.3 ± 4.5 kJ; PLA: 107.9 kJ, P = 0.61) and ATP-PCr energy contributions (CAF: 45.3 ± 3.4 kJ; PLA: 46.8 ± 3.6 kJ, P = 0.72) during the combat simulation were unaffected

  8. Plastic waste as a resource. Strategies for reduction and utilization of plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqual i Camprubí, Gemma

    2010-01-01

    Plastic materials have experienced a spectacular rate of growth in recent decades, consequently, production of plastics, and likewise their consumption, has increased markedly since 1950. Moreover, they are lightweight and durable, as well as can be moulded into a variety of products that can be manufactured in many different types of plastic and in a wide range of applications. Inevitably, continually increasing amounts of used plastic are originating daily, resulting in a plastic waste prob...

  9. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Connor, E.E.; Gerould, S.

    1994-01-01

    Many wildlife species ingest soil while feeding, but ingestion rates are known for only a few species. Knowing ingestion rates may be important for studies of environmental contaminants. Wildlife may ingest soil deliberately, or incidentally, when they ingest soil-laden forage or animals that contain soil. We fed white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing 0-15% soil to relate the dietary soil content to the acid-insoluble ash content of scat collected from the mice. The relation was described by an equation that required estimates of the percent acid-insoluble ash content of the diet, digestibility of the diet, and mineral content of soil. We collected scat from 28 wildlife species by capturing animals, searching appropriate habitats for scat, or removing material from the intestines of animals collected for other purposes. We measured the acid-insoluble ash content of the scat and estimated the soil content of the diets by using the soil-ingestion equation. Soil ingestion estimates should be considered only approximate because they depend on estimated rather than measured digestibility values and because animals collected from local populations at one time of the year may not represent the species as a whole. Sandpipers (Calidris spp.), which probe or peck for invertebrates in mud or shallow water, consumed sediments at a rate of 7-30% of their diets. Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, soil = 17% of diet), American woodcock (Scolopax minor, 10%), and raccoon (Procyon lotor, 9%) had high rates of soil ingestion, presumably because they ate soil organisms. Bison (Bison bison, 7%), black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus, 8%), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis, 8%) consumed soil at the highest rates among the herbivores studied, and various browsers studied consumed little soil. Box turtle (Terrapene carolina, 4%), opossum (Didelphis virginiana, 5%), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, 3%), and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, 9%) consumed soil

  10. Microplastic ingestion in fish larvae in the western English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Madeleine; Cole, Matthew; Thompson, Richard C; Lindeque, Penelope K

    2017-07-01

    Microplastics have been documented in marine environments worldwide, where they pose a potential risk to biota. Environmental interactions between microplastics and lower trophic organisms are poorly understood. Coastal shelf seas are rich in productivity but also experience high levels of microplastic pollution. In these habitats, fish have an important ecological and economic role. In their early life stages, planktonic fish larvae are vulnerable to pollution, environmental stress and predation. Here we assess the occurrence of microplastic ingestion in wild fish larvae. Fish larvae and water samples were taken across three sites (10, 19 and 35 km from shore) in the western English Channel from April to June 2016. We identified 2.9% of fish larvae (n = 347) had ingested microplastics, of which 66% were blue fibres; ingested microfibers closely resembled those identified within water samples. With distance from the coast, larval fish density increased significantly (P < 0.05), while waterborne microplastic concentrations (P < 0.01) and incidence of ingestion decreased. This study provides baseline ecological data illustrating the correlation between waterborne microplastics and the incidence of ingestion in fish larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hemorrhagic shock secondary to button battery ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Andreia Takesaki

    Full Text Available CONTEXT:Button battery ingestion is a frequent pediatric complaint. The serious complications resulting from accidental ingestion have increased significantly over the last two decades due to easy access to gadgets and electronic toys. Over recent years, the increasing use of lithium batteries of diameter 20 mm has brought new challenges, because these are more detrimental to the mucosa, compared with other types, with high morbidity and mortality. The clinical complaints, which are often nonspecific, may lead to delayed diagnosis, thereby increasing the risk of severe complications.CASE REPORT:A five-year-old boy who had been complaining of abdominal pain for ten days, was brought to the emergency service with a clinical condition of hematemesis that started two hours earlier. On admission, he presented pallor, tachycardia and hypotension. A plain abdominal x-ray produced an image suggestive of a button battery. Digestive endoscopy showed a deep ulcerated lesion in the esophagus without active bleeding. After this procedure, the patient presented profuse hematemesis and severe hypotension, followed by cardiorespiratory arrest, which was reversed. He then underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy and presented a new episode of cardiorespiratory arrest, which he did not survive. The battery was removed through rectal exploration.CONCLUSION:This case describes a fatal evolution of button battery ingestion with late diagnosis and severe associated injury of the digestive mucosa. A high level of clinical suspicion is essential for preventing this evolution. Preventive strategies are required, as well as health education, with warnings to parents, caregivers and healthcare professionals.

  12. Branch-specific plasticity of a bifunctional dopamine circuit encodes protein hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qili; Tabuchi, Masashi; Liu, Sha; Kodama, Lay; Horiuchi, Wakako; Daniels, Jay; Chiu, Lucinda; Baldoni, Daniel; Wu, Mark N

    2017-05-05

    Free-living animals must not only regulate the amount of food they consume but also choose which types of food to ingest. The shifting of food preference driven by nutrient-specific hunger can be essential for survival, yet little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We identified a dopamine circuit that encodes protein-specific hunger in Drosophila The activity of these neurons increased after substantial protein deprivation. Activation of this circuit simultaneously promoted protein intake and restricted sugar consumption, via signaling to distinct downstream neurons. Protein starvation triggered branch-specific plastic changes in these dopaminergic neurons, thus enabling sustained protein consumption. These studies reveal a crucial circuit mechanism by which animals adjust their dietary strategy to maintain protein homeostasis. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Glucose ingestion during endurance training in men attenuates expression of myokine receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Petersen, Anne Marie Winther

    2009-01-01

    -leg) while ingesting a glucose solution (Glc) and ingested a placebo (Plc) while training the other leg (Plc-leg). Endurance training increased peak power by 14% and reduced the exercise-induced gene expression of IL-6 and IL-6Ralpha in skeletal muscle and IL-6 plasma concentration. The IL-6Ralpha density...

  14. Ingested foreign bodies in the paediatric patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, G C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Paediatric foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common problem and while most can be managed conservatively, a sub-population require intervention. AIMS: To establish clear guidelines for management of paediatric FB ingestion. METHODS: A retrospective chart review analysing all paediatric admissions with FB ingestion over a 10-year period from 1990 to 1999. RESULTS: Of 339 patients presenting to the accident and emergency department with FB ingestion, 59 required admission. Ingestion was accidental in 93.0% of patients. The reasons for admission were as follows: large FBs; dangerous FBs; and living far from the hospital. Nineteen patients (32.2%) were discharged without intervention. Thirty-seven (62.7%) required endoscopic retrieval. In two, the FB was not identified at endoscopy. Only three (5%) required surgery. CONCLUSION: Conservative management of FB ingestion in the paediatric population is possible in the majority of cases. However, a minority require intervention. While guidelines for intervention are ill-defined, definitive indications include symptomatic patients, or dangerous objects.

  15. Ingestion of a cold temperature/menthol beverage increases outdoor exercise performance in a hot, humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Trong, Than; Riera, Florence; Rinaldi, Kévin; Briki, Walid; Hue, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A recent laboratory study demonstrated that the ingestion of a cold/menthol beverage improved exercise performance in a hot and humid environment during 20 km of all-out cycling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the ingestion of cold water/ice-slurry with menthol would improve performance in hot and humid outdoor conditions. Ten trained males completed three trials of five blocks consisting of 4-km cycling and 1.5-km running. During warm-up, every block and recovery, the athletes drank 190 ml of aromatized (i.e., with 0.05 mL of menthol) beverage at three temperatures: Neutral (ambient temperature) (28.7°C±0. 5°C), Cold (3.1°C±0.6°C) or Ice-slurry (0.17°C±0.07°C). Trial time, core temperature (Tco), heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) were assessed. Ice-slurry/menthol increased performance by 6.2% and 3.3% compared with neutral water/menthol and cold water/menthol, respectively. No between-trial differences were noted for Tco, HR, RPE, TC and TS was lower with ice-slurry/menthol and cold water/menthol compared with neutral water/menthol. A low drink temperature combined with menthol lessens the performance decline in hot/humid outdoor conditions (i.e., compared with cold water alone). Performances were better with no difference in psycho-physiological stress (Tco, HR and RPE) between trials. The changes in perceptual parameters caused by absorbing a cold/menthol beverage reflect the psychological impact. The mechanism leading to these results seems to involve brain integration of signals from physiological and psychological sources.

  16. Glucose ingestion stimulates atherothrombotic inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, John P.; Rote, Neal S.; Minium, Judi

    2013-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low-grade inflammation that can increase the risk of atherothrombosis. We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the effect of glucose ingestion on markers of atherothrombotic inflammation in mononuclear cells (MNC) of 16 women with PCOS (8 lean, 8 obese) and 16 weight-matched controls. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation and the protein content of early growth response-1 (EGR-1), matrix matalloproteinases-2 (MMP2), and tissue factor (TF) were quantified from MNC obtained from blood drawn fasting and 2 h after glucose ingestion. Plasma MMP9 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured from fasting blood samples. Truncal fat was determined by DEXA. Lean women with PCOS exhibited greater AP-1 activation and MMP2 protein content after glucose ingestion and higher plasma MMP9 and CRP levels than lean controls. Obese women with PCOS exhibited greater EGR-1 and TF protein content after glucose ingestion, and plasma CRP levels were even higher compared with lean subjects regardless of PCOS status. Truncal fat correlated with MMP9 and CRP levels and glucose-stimulated increases in AP-1 activation and EGR-1 and TF protein content. Testosterone correlated with glucose-stimulated AP-1 activation, and androstenedione correlated with MMP9 and CRP levels and glucose-stimulated AP-1 activation. Thus, both PCOS and obesity contribute to an atherothrombotic state in which excess abdominal adiposity and hyperandrogenism may be specific risk factors for developing atherothrombosis. PMID:23249695

  17. 210Pb ingestion in Akita City, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, Shunichi; Takizawa, Yukio; Komura, Kazuhisa; Tada, Tetsuo.

    1992-01-01

    Ingestion of 210 Pb in Akita City, northern Japan was studied with food category samples and total diet samples by means of a low energy photon spectrometry. Results for food category samples revealed that the contribution of marine products to total 210 Pb ingestion was the largest. Mean 210 Pb ingestion of the two total diet samples was found to be 0.19 Bq d -1 , and approximately 1/3 of a previous reported value which was cited in an UNSCEAR report as an example of high 210 Pb ingestion by marine foods consumption. (author)

  18. Ingestion of marine plastic debris by green turtle(Chelonia mydas) in davao gulf, Mindanao, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreo, Neil A.S.; Macusi, Edison D.; Blatchley, Darrell D.

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic debris is a global problem that is threatening marine biodiversity. Different marine organisms have been exposed to the lethal and sub-lethal effects of this problem. Sub-lethal effects include reduced fitness due to reduced feeding, reduced reproductive output, limb amputation,

  19. Gasoline ingestion: a rare cause of pancytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ifad; Narasimhan, Kanakasabai; Aziz, Shahid; Owens, William

    2009-11-01

    The majority of reported cases of gasoline intoxication involves inhalation or percutaneous absorption. Data are scarce on complications and outcomes after gasoline poisoning by oral ingestion. The major cause of mortality and morbidity associated with the ingestion of gasoline is related to pulmonary aspiration. Despite the high frequency of the ingestions, there is little documentation of nonpulmonary toxic effects of gasoline. After ingestion, the principal toxicity is aspiration pneumonia, but any documented extra pulmonary manifestations of this condition may be important in the overall management of these patients. We are reporting a rare case of pancytopenia along with aspiration pneumonia and multisystem organ failure in a 58-year-old male after prolonged intentional ingestion of gasoline. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of gasoline toxicity causing pancytopenia.

  20. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergul Corduk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  1. Fallout 3H ingestion in Akita, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.; Abe, T.; Katsumata, T.

    1987-01-01

    To study fallout 3 H ingestion in Japan, 16 separate food group samples were collected from Akita during 1985. The 3 H concentration in free water and that in a tissue-bound form were determined separately. The average 3 H concentration in the tissue-bound form was 2.2 Bq L-1, 1.7 times higher than in the free water of the food. The ingestions of 3 H in the tissue-bound form and as free water in the diet were 0.60 Bq d-1 and 1.0 Bq d-1, respectively. Cereals represented the food group that contributed the most to the ingestion of tissue-bound 3 H. Total 3 H ingestion was estimated to be 4.1 Bq d-1. The contribution of the tissue-bound form to the total ingestion was 15%, considerably lower than reported for Italian diets. The ratio of 3 H ingestion in the tissue-bound form to the free water form in the diet was similar to the ratio reported for New York City

  2. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  3. The effect of caffeine ingestion on functional performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, M J; Clarke, N D; Tallis, J; Guimarães-Ferreira, L; Leddington Wright, S

    2014-12-01

    Caffeine is a widely used nutritional supplement which has been shown to enhance both physical and cognitive performance in younger adults. However, few studies have assessed the effect of caffeine ingestion on performance, particularly functional performance in older adults. The present study aims to assess the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on functional performance, manual dexterity and readiness to invest effort in older adults. 19 apparently healthy, volunteers (10 females and 9 males aged 61-79; 66 ± 2 years) performed tests of functional fitness and manual dexterity post ingestion of caffeine (3mg*kg-1) or placebo in a randomised order. Pre and 60 minutes post ingestion, participants also completed measures of readiness to invest physical (RTIPE) and mental (RTIME) effort. A series of repeated measures ANOVAS indicated enhanced performance in the following functional fitness tests; arm curls (P = .04), 8 foot up and go (P = .007), six minute walk (P = .016). Manual dexterity was also improved in the presence of caffeine (P = .001). RTIME increased (P = .015) pre to post ingestion in the caffeine condition but not in the placebo condition. There were no significant main effects or interactions for RTIPE or gender in any analysis (all P > .05). The results of this study suggest that acute caffeine ingestion positively enhances functional performance, manual dexterity and readiness to invest effort in apparently healthy older adults.

  4. Does the evidence about health risks associated with nitrate ingestion warrant an increase of the nitrate standard for drinking water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Hans JM; Ward, Mary H; Benjamin, Nigel; de Kok, Theo M

    2006-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that it is safe to raise the health standard for nitrate in drinking water, and save money on measures associated with nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The major argument has been that the epidemiologic evidence for acute and chronic health effects related to drinking water nitrate at concentrations near the health standard is inconclusive. With respect to the chronic effects, the argument was motivated by the absence of evidence for adverse health effects related to ingestion of nitrate from dietary sources. An interdisciplinary discussion of these arguments led to three important observations. First, there have been only a few well-designed epidemiologic studies that evaluated ingestion of nitrate in drinking water and risk of specific cancers or adverse reproductive outcomes among potentially susceptible subgroups likely to have elevated endogenous nitrosation. Positive associations have been observed for some but not all health outcomes evaluated. Second, the epidemiologic studies of cancer do not support an association between ingestion of dietary nitrate (vegetables) and an increased risk of cancer, because intake of dietary nitrate is associated with intake of antioxidants and other beneficial phytochemicals. Third, 2–3 % of the population in Western Europe and the US could be exposed to nitrate levels in drinking water exceeding the WHO standard of 50 mg/l nitrate, particularly those living in rural areas. The health losses due to this exposure cannot be estimated. Therefore, we conclude that it is not possible to weigh the costs and benefits from changing the nitrate standard for drinking water and groundwater resources by considering the potential consequences for human health and by considering the potential savings due to reduced costs for nitrate removal and prevention of nitrate pollution. PMID:16989661

  5. Does the evidence about health risks associated with nitrate ingestion warrant an increase of the nitrate standard for drinking water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Hans J M; Ward, Mary H; Benjamin, Nigel; de Kok, Theo M

    2006-09-21

    Several authors have suggested that it is safe to raise the health standard for nitrate in drinking water, and save money on measures associated with nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The major argument has been that the epidemiologic evidence for acute and chronic health effects related to drinking water nitrate at concentrations near the health standard is inconclusive. With respect to the chronic effects, the argument was motivated by the absence of evidence for adverse health effects related to ingestion of nitrate from dietary sources. An interdisciplinary discussion of these arguments led to three important observations. First, there have been only a few well-designed epidemiologic studies that evaluated ingestion of nitrate in drinking water and risk of specific cancers or adverse reproductive outcomes among potentially susceptible subgroups likely to have elevated endogenous nitrosation. Positive associations have been observed for some but not all health outcomes evaluated. Second, the epidemiologic studies of cancer do not support an association between ingestion of dietary nitrate (vegetables) and an increased risk of cancer, because intake of dietary nitrate is associated with intake of antioxidants and other beneficial phytochemicals. Third, 2-3 % of the population in Western Europe and the US could be exposed to nitrate levels in drinking water exceeding the WHO standard of 50 mg/l nitrate, particularly those living in rural areas. The health losses due to this exposure cannot be estimated. Therefore, we conclude that it is not possible to weigh the costs and benefits from changing the nitrate standard for drinking water and groundwater resources by considering the potential consequences for human health and by considering the potential savings due to reduced costs for nitrate removal and prevention of nitrate pollution.

  6. Does the evidence about health risks associated with nitrate ingestion warrant an increase of the nitrate standard for drinking water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Nigel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several authors have suggested that it is safe to raise the health standard for nitrate in drinking water, and save money on measures associated with nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The major argument has been that the epidemiologic evidence for acute and chronic health effects related to drinking water nitrate at concentrations near the health standard is inconclusive. With respect to the chronic effects, the argument was motivated by the absence of evidence for adverse health effects related to ingestion of nitrate from dietary sources. An interdisciplinary discussion of these arguments led to three important observations. First, there have been only a few well-designed epidemiologic studies that evaluated ingestion of nitrate in drinking water and risk of specific cancers or adverse reproductive outcomes among potentially susceptible subgroups likely to have elevated endogenous nitrosation. Positive associations have been observed for some but not all health outcomes evaluated. Second, the epidemiologic studies of cancer do not support an association between ingestion of dietary nitrate (vegetables and an increased risk of cancer, because intake of dietary nitrate is associated with intake of antioxidants and other beneficial phytochemicals. Third, 2–3 % of the population in Western Europe and the US could be exposed to nitrate levels in drinking water exceeding the WHO standard of 50 mg/l nitrate, particularly those living in rural areas. The health losses due to this exposure cannot be estimated. Therefore, we conclude that it is not possible to weigh the costs and benefits from changing the nitrate standard for drinking water and groundwater resources by considering the potential consequences for human health and by considering the potential savings due to reduced costs for nitrate removal and prevention of nitrate pollution.

  7. Loss of catecholaminergic neuromodulation of persistent forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity with increasing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Twarkowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuromodulation by means of the catecholaminergic system is a key component of motivation-driven learning and behaviorally modulated hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In particular, dopamine acting on D1/D5 receptors and noradrenaline acting on beta-adrenergic receptors exert a very potent regulation of forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity that last for very long-periods of time (>24h, and occur in conjunction with novel spatial learning. Antagonism of these receptors not only prevents long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD, but prevents the memory of the spatial event that, under normal circumstances, leads to the perpetuation of these plasticity forms. Spatial learning behavior that normally comes easily to rats, such as object-place learning and spatial reference learning, becomes increasingly impaired with aging. Middle-aged animals display aging-related deficits of specific, but not all, components of spatial learning, and one possibility is that this initial manifestation of decrements in learning ability that become manifest in middle-age relate to changes in motivation, attention and/or the regulation by neuromodulatory systems of these behavioral states.Here, we compared the regulation by dopaminergic D1/D5 and beta-adrenergic receptors of persistent LTP in young (2-4 month old and middle-aged (8-14 month old rats. We observed in young rats, that weak potentiation that typically lasts for ca. 2h could be strengthened into persistent (>24h LTP by pharmacological activation of either D1/D5 or beta-adrenergic receptors. By contrast, no such facilitation occurred in middle-aged rats. This difference was not related to an ostensible learning deficit: a facilitation of weak potentiation into LTP by spatial learning was possible both in young and middle-aged rats. It was also not directly linked to deficits in LTP: strong afferent stimulation resulted in equivalent LTP in both age groups. We postulate that this change in

  8. Muscle glycogen resynthesis during recovery from cycle exercise: no effect of additional protein ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Shirreffs, S M; Calbet, J A

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the effect of carbohydrate and protein hydrolysate ingestion on muscle glycogen resynthesis during 4 h of recovery from intense cycle exercise. Five volunteers were studied during recovery while they ingested, immediately after exercise, a 600-ml bolus......, and 18 +/- 6 for the first 1.5 h of recovery and decreased to 30 +/- 6, 36 +/- 3, and 8 +/- 6 mmol. kg dry muscle(-1). h(-1) between 1.5 and 4 h for CHO/protein, CHO, and water ingestion, respectively. No differences could be observed between CHO/protein and CHO ingestion ingestion. It is concluded...... and then every 15 min a 150-ml bolus containing 1) 1.67 g. kg body wt(-1). l(-1) of sucrose and 0.5 g. kg body wt(-1). l(-1) of a whey protein hydrolysate (CHO/protein), 2) 1.67 g. kg body wt(-1). l(-1) of sucrose (CHO), and 3) water. CHO/protein and CHO ingestion caused an increased arterial glucose...

  9. Ingestion of a cold temperature/menthol beverage increases outdoor exercise performance in a hot, humid environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Than Tran Trong

    Full Text Available A recent laboratory study demonstrated that the ingestion of a cold/menthol beverage improved exercise performance in a hot and humid environment during 20 km of all-out cycling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the ingestion of cold water/ice-slurry with menthol would improve performance in hot and humid outdoor conditions.Ten trained males completed three trials of five blocks consisting of 4-km cycling and 1.5-km running. During warm-up, every block and recovery, the athletes drank 190 ml of aromatized (i.e., with 0.05 mL of menthol beverage at three temperatures: Neutral (ambient temperature (28.7°C±0. 5°C, Cold (3.1°C±0.6°C or Ice-slurry (0.17°C±0.07°C. Trial time, core temperature (Tco, heart rate (HR, rate of perceived exertion (RPE, thermal sensation (TS and thermal comfort (TC were assessed.Ice-slurry/menthol increased performance by 6.2% and 3.3% compared with neutral water/menthol and cold water/menthol, respectively. No between-trial differences were noted for Tco, HR, RPE, TC and TS was lower with ice-slurry/menthol and cold water/menthol compared with neutral water/menthol.A low drink temperature combined with menthol lessens the performance decline in hot/humid outdoor conditions (i.e., compared with cold water alone. Performances were better with no difference in psycho-physiological stress (Tco, HR and RPE between trials. The changes in perceptual parameters caused by absorbing a cold/menthol beverage reflect the psychological impact. The mechanism leading to these results seems to involve brain integration of signals from physiological and psychological sources.

  10. Linking plant functional trait plasticity and the large increase in forest water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrotheodoros, Theodoros; Pappas, Christoforos; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo; Keenan, Trevor F.; Gentine, Pierre; Gough, Christopher M.; Fatichi, Simone

    2017-09-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce stomatal conductance, thus increasing plant water use efficiency. A recent study based on eddy covariance flux observations from Northern Hemisphere forests showed a large increase in inherent water use efficiency (IWUE). Here we used an updated version of the same data set and robust uncertainty quantification to revisit these contemporary IWUE trends. We tested the hypothesis that the observed IWUE increase could be attributed to interannual trends in plant functional traits, potentially triggered by environmental change. We found that IWUE increased by 1.3% yr-1, which is less than previously reported but still larger than theoretical expectations. Numerical simulations with the Tethys-Chloris ecosystem model using temporally static plant functional traits cannot explain this increase. Simulations with plant functional trait plasticity, i.e., temporal changes in model parameters such as specific leaf area and maximum Rubisco capacity, match the observed trends in IWUE. Our results show that trends in plant functional traits, equal to 1.0% yr-1, can explain the observed IWUE trends. Thus, at decadal or longer time scales, trait plasticity could potentially influence forest water, carbon, and energy fluxes with profound implications for both the monitoring of temporal changes in plant functional traits and their representation in Earth system models.

  11. Glucose ingestion during endurance training does not alter adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Fischer, Christian P; Plomgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    , 2) lower citrate synthase (CS) and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (beta-HAD) activity and glycogen content in skeletal muscle, and 3) attenuated endurance performance enhancement in the trained state. To investigate this we studied nine male subjects who performed 10 wk of one-legged knee...... extensor training. They trained one leg while ingesting a 6% glucose solution (Glc) and ingested a sweetened placebo while training the other leg (Plc). The subjects trained their respective legs 2 h at a time on alternate days 5 days a week. Endurance training increased peak power (P(max)) and time...

  12. A case of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Sari Dogan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute hepatitis is characterized by liver inflammation and liver cell necrosis. The most frequently observed underlying cause thereof is viruses, but various other causes, such as alcohol, medication, or toxins may also lead thereto.In this paper, a case of acute hepatitis presenting with bradycardia, hypotension, and a prominent increase in liver enzymes following mad honey ingestion is discussed. Since there are only few cases of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion in the literature, we want to present this subject matter. Keywords: Mad honey poisoning, Mad honey intoxication, Bradycardia, Hypotension, Acute hepatitis

  13. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  14. The plasticity of clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group, F.F.

    1905-01-01

    (1) Sand injures plasticity little at first because the grains are suspended in a plastic mass. It is only when grains are abundant enough to come in contact with their neighbors, that the effect becomes serious, and then both strength and amount of possible flow are injured. (2) Certain rare organic colloids increase the plasticity by rendering the water viscous. (3) Fineness also tends to increase plasticity. (4) Plane surfaces (plates) increase the amount of possible flow. They also give a chance for lubrication by thinner films, thus increasing the friction of film, and the strength of the whole mass. The action of plates is thus twofold ; but fineness may be carried to such an extent as to break up plate-like grains into angular fragments. The beneficial effects of plates are also decreased by the fact that each is so closely surrounded by others in the mass. (5) Molecular attraction is twofold in increasing plasticity. As the attraction increases, the coherence and strength of the mass increase, and the amount of possible deformation before crumbling also increases. Fineness increases this action by requiring more water. Colloids and crystalloids in solution may also increase the attraction. It is thus seen to be more active than any other single factor.

  15. Comparison of the fates of ingested leucine and ingested 2-ketoisocaproate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, K.; Walser, M. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    We previously reported that the ratio, R, of 14C to 3H in the leucine of whole body protein, measured 6 h after ingestion of (3H)leucine and (1-14C)2-ketoisocaproate is equal to ratio of the dose of leucine to the dose of 2-ketoisocaproate (KIC) (on a leucine-free diet) required to achieve the same rate of growth. To determine whether R is dependent on the interval between injection and sampling, R was measured at intervals in purified whole body protein after oral injection of these isotopes in groups of rats; it was constant from 1 h onward for 1 wk, averaging 0.64 +/- 0.01 (means +/- SEM). Thus, the extent of incorporation into the leucine of whole body protein of ingested KIC remains close to 64% of the incorporation of ingested leucine administered as such simultaneously, from 1 h onward for at least 1 wk.

  16. Disc battery ingestion; a single event with different outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sindi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body (FB ingestion is a common problem especially in children below the age of 5 years. This is fueled by their curiosity to explore their surroundings. The ingested foreign body finds its way out of the gastrointestinal tract without any serious consequences most of the time. On the other hand, disc battery ingestion has been reported to cause serious harm when ingested including death. We report two patients who had ingested disc batteries and their respective outcomes.

  17. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion augments the increase in PGC-1α mRNA expression during recovery from intense interval exercise in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Michael E; Martin, Brian J; Gillen, Jenna B; Skelly, Lauren E; MacInnis, Martin J; Green, Alex E; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2015-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) prior to an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would augment signaling cascades and gene expression linked to mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle. On two occasions separated by ∼1 wk, nine men (mean ± SD: age 22 ± 2 yr, weight 78 ± 13 kg, V̇O(2 peak) 48 ± 8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed 10 × 60-s cycling efforts at an intensity eliciting ∼90% of maximal heart rate (263 ± 40 W), interspersed with 60 s of recovery. In a double-blind, crossover manner, subjects ingested a total of 0.4 g/kg body weight NaHCO3 before exercise (BICARB) or an equimolar amount of a placebo, sodium chloride (PLAC). Venous blood bicarbonate and pH were elevated at all time points after ingestion (P 0.05). However, the increase in PGC-1α mRNA expression after 3 h of recovery was higher in BICARB vs. PLAC (approximately sevenfold vs. fivefold compared with rest, P < 0.05). We conclude that NaHCO3 before HIIT alters the mRNA expression of this key regulatory protein associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. The elevated PGC-1α mRNA response provides a putative mechanism to explain the enhanced mitochondrial adaptation observed after chronic HIIT supplemented with NaHCO3 in rats. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Button battery ingestion: the Greek experience and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanatidou, Virginia; Sofidiotou, Vassiliki; Fountas, Kostas; Kalostou, Angeliki; Tsamadou, Athina; Papathanassiou, Vassiliki; Neou, Polyxeni

    2011-03-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common cause of admission in the pediatric emergency room. In the past, button batteries accounted for less than 2% of the foreign bodies ingested by small children, but in the last 2 decades, they show a rapidly increased frequency. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential risk after button battery ingestion in relation with the clinical manifestations and to perform a treatment-observation protocol in accordance with the international procedure. In a prospective observational analysis from November 2007 through February 2008, 31 cases of button battery ingestion were recorded by the Greek Poison Information Center. The interval between the accidental ingestion and first medical contact ranged from 5 minutes to 10 days. After initial evaluation including clinical examination and radiological localization of the foreign body, all cases were treated as outpatients. Reported complications included "black stools" in 9% and diarrhea in 3% of cases. In 1 case, the battery was endoscopically removed. The role of primary care physicians in informing the public about the potential danger of button battery digestion is crucial. Pediatricians should educate the parents about this hazard, as part of the routine guidelines for childproofing at home. Once again, prolepsis is the best policy.

  19. Interaction between repeated restraint stress and concomitant midazolam administration on sweet food ingestion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira P.P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional changes can influence feeding behavior. Previous studies have shown that chronically stressed animals present increased ingestion of sweet food, an effect reversed by a single dose of diazepam administered before testing the animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the response of animals chronically treated with midazolam and/or submitted to repeated restraint stress upon the ingestion of sweet food. Male adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: controls and exposed to restraint 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 40 days. Both groups were subdivided into two other groups treated or not with midazolam (0.06 mg/ml in their drinking water during the 40-day treatment. The animals were placed in a lighted area in the presence of 10 pellets of sweet food (Froot loops®. The number of ingested pellets was measured during a period of 3 min, in the presence or absence of fasting. The group chronically treated with midazolam alone presented increased ingestion when compared to control animals (control group: 2.0 ± 0.44 pellets and midazolam group: 3.60 ± 0.57 pellets. The group submitted to restraint stress presented an increased ingestion compared to controls (control group: 2.0 ± 0.44 pellets and stressed group: 4.18 ± 0.58 pellets. Chronically administered midazolam reduced the ingestion in stressed animals (stressed/water group: 4.18 ± 0.58 pellets; stressed/midazolam group: 3.2 ± 0.49 pellets. Thus, repeated stress increases appetite for sweet food independently of hunger and chronic administration of midazolam can decrease this behavioral effect.

  20. Soil ingestion: a concern for acute toxicity in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, E J; Stanek, E J; James, R C; Roberts, S M

    1997-01-01

    Several soil ingestion studies have indicated that some children ingest substantial amounts of soil on given days. Although the EPA has assumed that 95% of children ingest 200 mg soil/day or less for exposure assessment purposes, some children have been observed to ingest up to 25-60 g soil during a single day. In light of the potential for children to ingest such large amounts of soil, an assessment was made of the possibility for soil pica episodes to result in acute intoxication from conta...

  1. Metabolic Fate of Fructose Ingested with and without Glucose in a Mixed Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Theytaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of pure fructose stimulates de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. This may however not be relevant to typical nutritional situations, where fructose is invariably ingested with glucose. We therefore assessed the metabolic fate of fructose incorporated in a mixed meal without or with glucose in eight healthy volunteers. Each participant was studied over six hours after the ingestion of liquid meals containing either 13C-labelled fructose, unlabeled glucose, lipids and protein (Fr + G or 13C-labelled fructose, lipids and protein, but without glucose (Fr, or protein and lipids alone (ProLip. After Fr + G, plasma 13C-glucose production accounted for 19.0% ± 1.5% and 13CO2 production for 32.2% ± 1.3% of 13C-fructose carbons. After Fr, 13C-glucose production (26.5% ± 1.4% and 13CO2 production (36.6% ± 1.9% were higher (p < 0.05 than with Fr + G. 13C-lactate concentration and very low density lipoprotein VLDL 13C-palmitate concentrations increased to the same extent with Fr + G and Fr, while chylomicron 13C-palmitate tended to increase more with Fr + G. These data indicate that gluconeogenesis, lactic acid production and both intestinal and hepatic de novo lipogenesis contributed to the disposal of fructose carbons ingested together with a mixed meal. Co-ingestion of glucose decreased fructose oxidation and gluconeogenesis and tended to increase 13C-pamitate concentration in gut-derived chylomicrons, but not in hepatic-borne VLDL-triacylglycerol (TG. This trial was approved by clinicaltrial. gov. Identifier is NCT01792089.

  2. Increase of gastric area and weight gain in rats submitted to the ingestion of gasified water Aumento de área gástrica e ganho de peso em ratos submetidos à ingestão de água gaseificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Ferreira Santiago

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Due to the progressive increasing in the use of gasified drinks and weight gain in the Brazilian population, in addition to the fact that carbonic gas is present in all soft drinks, an experimental study was conducted using rats as the subject to investigate the effects of gasified water in the hydric ingestion and food intake, weight gain, gastric area, blood sugar, hematocrit, and hemoglobin. METHODS: Four groups of 12 rats were studied for 36 days while receiving the following daily diet, four times per day: Group 1 - 35g/day of rat food "ad libitum" and 20ml of non-gasified water; Group 2 - 35g/day of rat food "ad libitum" and 20 ml of gasified water; Group 3 - 10g/day of rat food "ad libitum" and 20ml of non-gasified water; and Group 4 - 10g/day of rat food "ad libitum" and 20ml of gasified water. RESULTS: The results showed that the animals submitted to the treatment with gasified water (Groups 2 and 4, presented a larger volume of hydric ingestion and significant increase of the gastric area (pOBJETIVO: Em virtude do aumento progressivo da utilização de bebidas gaseificadas e do ganho de peso na população brasileira, e sabendo-se que os refrigerantes têm no gás carbônico um fator em comum, planejou-se um estudo experimental em ratos para investigar os efeitos da água gaseificada na ingestão hídrica e alimentar, ganho de peso, área gástrica, glicemia, hematócrito e hemoglobina. MÉTODOS: Foram constituídos 4 grupos de 12 ratos acompanhados por 36 dias. Ao Grupo-1 foi oferecido 35 g/dia de ração "ad libitum" e 20 ml de água não gaseificada em 4 períodos diários, ao Grupo-2 foi oferecido 35 g/dia de ração "ad libitum" e 20 ml de água gaseificada em 4 períodos diários, ao Grupo-3 foi oferecido 10 g/dia de ração "ad libitum" e 20 ml de água não gaseificada em 4 períodos diários e ao Grupo-4 foi oferecido 10 g/dia de ração "ad libitum" e 20 ml de água gaseificada em 4 períodos diários. RESULTADOS: Os

  3. Caustic Ingestion in the Elderly: Influence of Age on Clinical Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazena Caganova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Caustic poisonings are still associated with many fatalities. Studies focusing on the elderly are rare. The purpose of the present study was to compare the clinical outcomes of caustic ingestion injury in elderly and non-elderly adults with regard to gender, intent of exposure, substance ingested, severity of mucosal injury, complications, and mortality. Caustic substance exposures reported to the National Toxicological Information Centre in Slovakia during 1998–2015 were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups: the non-elderly (<60 years and elderly adults (≥60 years. The mortality rate in the elderly was significantly higher (elderly 23.0% vs. non-elderly 11.3%; p = 0.041. The risk of fatal outcome in the elderly was increased by acid ingestion (OR = 7.822; p = 0.002, particularly hydrochloric acid (OR = 5.714, p = 0.006. The incidence of respiratory complications was almost two times higher in the elderly was 31.1% vs. 17.4% for the non-elderly (p = 0.037. Respiratory complications significantly correlated with an increased mortality rate (p = 0.001 in the elderly whereas there was no association between GI complications and mortality in the elderly (p = 0.480. Elderly patients with respiratory complications had the poorest clinical outcomes. The highest risk of complications and fatalities was observed in patients after hydrochloric acid ingestion.

  4. Spent shot availability and ingestion on areas managed for mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, J.H.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Washburn, B.E.; Wester, G.R.; Lanigan, J. T.; Franson, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) hunting is becoming increasingly popular, especially in managed shooting fields. Given the possible increase in the availability of lead (Pb) shot on these areas, our objective was to estimate availability and ingestion of spent shot at the Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area (EBCA, hunted with nontoxic shot) and the James A. Reed Memorial Wildlife Area (JARWA, hunted with Pb shot) in Missouri. During 1998, we collected soil samples one or 2 weeks prior to the hunting season (prehunt) and after 4 days of dove hunting (posthunt). We also collected information on number of doves harvested, number of shots fired, shotgun gauge, and shotshell size used. Dove carcasses were collected on both areas during 1998-99. At EBCA, 60 hunters deposited an estimated 64,775 pellets/ha of nontoxic shot on or around the managed field. At JARWA, approximately 1,086,275 pellets/ha of Pb shot were deposited by 728 hunters. Our posthunt estimates of spent-shot availability from soil sampling were 0 pellets/ha for EBCA and 6,342 pellets/ha for JARWA. Our findings suggest that existing soil sampling protocols may not provide accurate estimates of spent-shot availability in managed dove shooting fields. During 1998-99, 15 of 310 (4.8%) mourning doves collected from EBCA had ingested nontoxic shot. Of those doves, 6 (40.0%) contained a?Y7 shot pellets. In comparison, only 2 of 574 (0.3%) doves collected from JARWA had ingested Pb shot. Because a greater proportion of doves ingested multiple steel pellets compared to Pb pellets, we suggest that doves feeding in fields hunted with Pb shot may succumb to acute Pb toxicosis and thus become unavailable to harvest, resulting in an underestimate of ingestion rates. Although further research is needed to test this hypothesis, our findings may partially explain why previous studies have shown few doves with ingested Pb shot despite their feeding on areas with high Pb shot availability.

  5. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion | Corduk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  6. Liquid nitrogen ingestion followed by gastric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrizbeitia, Luis D; Calello, Diane P; Dhir, Nisha; O'Reilly, Colin; Marcus, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Ingestion of liquid nitrogen is rare but carries catastrophic complications related to barotrauma to the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a case of ingestion of liquid nitrogen followed by gastric perforation and respiratory insufficiency and discuss the mechanism of injury and management of this condition. Liquid nitrogen is widely available and is frequently used in classroom settings, in gastronomy, and for recreational purposes. Given the potentially lethal complications of ingestion, regulation of its use, acquisition, and storage may be appropriate.

  7. Ingestion of swimming pool water by recreational

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Swimming pool water ingestion data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Dufour, A., L. Wymer, M. Magnuson, T. Behymer, and R. Cantu. Ingestion...

  8. Plastics in the Marine Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-03

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence-albeit limited-of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  9. Plastics in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-01

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence—albeit limited—of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  10. Retrospective study of mistletoe ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, H A; Willias, D B; Gorman, S E; Sanftleban, J

    1996-01-01

    There are limited data concerning accidental exposure to Phoradendron flavescens (Phoradendron serotinum, American Mistletoe). The only published reports include a review of 14 cases which revealed no symptoms and a single fatality from an intentional ingestion of an unknown amount of an elixir brewed from the berries. The risk of serious toxicity from accidental exposure to this plant appears to be minimal, yet it continues to be regarded as a dangerous plant. We reviewed charts for four years (1990-1993) from three poison centers where Phoradendron flavescens is indigenous. Ninety-two human cases were located. Age ranged from four months to 42 years, with a mean of six years (SD 8.8) and median of two years. There were 14 symptomatic cases of which 11 were determined to be related to mistletoe exposure. There were six gastrointestinal upset, two mild drowsiness, one eye irritation, one ataxia (21 months), one seizure (13 months). Treatments included gastrointestinal decontamination in 54 patients (59%), ocular irrigation in one and IV benzodiazepine in one. Decontamination did not appear to affect outcome. Amount ingested ranged from one berry or leaf to more than 20 berries or five leaves. In cases with a known amount ingested, eight of ten cases with > or = 5 berries remained symptom free. In the 11 cases with leaf-only ingestion (range 1-5 leaves), three patients had gastrointestinal upset. The one case with five leaves ingested remained asymptomatic. The infant with seizures was an unwitnessed exposure, found with both berries and leaves in the crib. No arrhythmias or cardiovascular changes were reported in any case. All symptomatic cases had onset of symptoms in Cardiovascular effects were not seen.

  11. Gastrobronchial fistula after toothbrush ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Jan Christoph; von Buch, Christoph; Waag, Karl-Ludwig; Reinshagen, Konrad

    2006-10-01

    Gastrobronchial fistulous communications are uncommon complications of disease processes with only 36 previously reported cases. Described as complication of a number of conditions, such as previous gastroesophageal surgery, subphrenic abscess, and gastric ulcers (Jha P, Deiraniya A, Keeling-Robert C, et al. Gastrobronchial fistula--a recent series. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Sur 2003;2:6-8), we report a case of fistulization caused by ingestion of a foreign body. A patient with mental retardation, admitted for the treatment of osteomyelitis, presented during hospitalization symptoms of high fever, vomiting, and respiratory distress. Endoscopy showed the presence of a gastrobronchial fistula, which developed after ingestion of a toothbrush. The toothbrush was extracted endoscopically, and the fistula was subsequently closed by surgery. The patient recovered completely. We report the first case of a gastrobronchial fistula as a complication of foreign body ingestion.

  12. Clinical evaluation of disc battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshemirani, AliReza; Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Ahmad; Kouranloo, Jaefar; Sadeghian, Naser; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Roshanzamir, Fatolah; Razavi, Sajad; Sayary, Ali Akbar; Imanzadeh, Farid

    2012-04-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics, management, and outcomes of disc battery ingestion in children. METHODS We reviewed the medical records of children admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital due to disc battery ingestion from January 2006 to January 2010. Clear history, clinical symptoms and results of imaging studies revealed diagnosis of disc battery ingestion in suspected patients. The clinical data reviewed included age, gender, clinical manifestation, radiologic findings, location of disc battery, duration of ingestion, endoscopic results and surgical treatment. RESULTS We found 22 cases (11 males and 11 females) of disc battery ingestion with a mean age of 4.3 years (range: 9 months to 12 years). Common symptoms were vomiting, cough, dysphagia, and dyspnea. The mean duration of ingestion was 2.7 days (4 hours to 1.5 months). A total of 19 patients had histories of disc battery ingestion, but three cases referred with the above symptoms, and the batteries were accidentally found by x-ray. Only three cases had batteries impacted in the esophagus. Twelve batteries were removed endoscopically, 6 batteries spontaneously passed through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract within 5 to 7 days, and 4 patients underwent surgery due to complications: 3 due to tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF) and 1 due to intestinal perforation. There was no mortality in our study. CONCLUSION Most cases of disc battery ingestion run uneventful courses, but some may be complicated. If the battery lodges in the esophagus, emergency endoscopic management is necessary. However, once in the stomach, it will usually pass through the GI tract.

  13. Vegetative and reproductive evaluation of hot peppers under different plastic mulches in poly/plastic tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Q.; Amjad, M.; Ahmad, R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning of civilization, the man has developed technologies to increase the efficiency of food production. The use of plastic mulch in commercial vegetable production is one of these traditional techniques that have been used for centuries. Studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of plastic mulch on growth and yield of two hot pepper hybrids, viz. Sky Red and Maha in poly/plastic tunnel. The treatments were black plastic mulch, clear plastic mulch and bare soil as control. Both hot pepper hybrids mulched with black plastic showed significantly better vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area etc) and fruit yield. Clear plastic mulch significantly increased soil temperature and reduced the number of days to first flower than black plastic mulch and bare soil. However, fruit yield was higher by 39.56 and 36.49% respectively in both hybrids when they were grown on black and clear plastic mulch as compared to bare soil. Overall results indicated that the use of plastic mulch is an ideal option to maximize hot pepper productivity as well as to extend their production season in poly/plastic tunnels. (author)

  14. Imaging pediatric magnet ingestion with surgical-pathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otjen, Jeffrey P; Rohrmann, Charles A; Iyer, Ramesh S

    2013-07-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common problem in the pediatric population and a frequent cause for emergency room visits. Magnets are common household objects that when ingested can bring about severe, possibly fatal gastrointestinal complications. Radiography is an integral component of the management of these children. Pediatric and emergency radiologists alike must be aware of imaging manifestations of magnet ingestion, as their identification drives decision-making for consulting surgeons and gastroenterologists. Radiology can thus substantially augment the clinical history and physical exam, facilitating appropriate management. This manuscript sequentially presents cases of magnet ingestion featuring imaging findings coupled with surgical and pathological correlation. Each case is presented to highlight ways in which the radiologist can make impactful contributions to diagnosis and management. Clinical overview with pitfalls of magnet ingestion imaging and an imaging decision tree will also be presented.

  15. Imaging pediatric magnet ingestion with surgical-pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otjen, Jeffrey P.; Iyer, Ramesh S.; Rohrmann, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common problem in the pediatric population and a frequent cause for emergency room visits. Magnets are common household objects that when ingested can bring about severe, possibly fatal gastrointestinal complications. Radiography is an integral component of the management of these children. Pediatric and emergency radiologists alike must be aware of imaging manifestations of magnet ingestion, as their identification drives decision-making for consulting surgeons and gastroenterologists. Radiology can thus substantially augment the clinical history and physical exam, facilitating appropriate management. This manuscript sequentially presents cases of magnet ingestion featuring imaging findings coupled with surgical and pathological correlation. Each case is presented to highlight ways in which the radiologist can make impactful contributions to diagnosis and management. Clinical overview with pitfalls of magnet ingestion imaging and an imaging decision tree will also be presented. (orig.)

  16. Occurrence of plastic particles in procellariiforms, south of São Paulo state (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Barbieri

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds ingest plastic particles floating on the surface of the world's oceans. The birds can ingest plastic particles that they mistakenly identify as prey items. Alternatively, plastics can be taken up in the stomach contents of prey species. Plastic is often passed from parents to chicks in regurgitated food. In this study, individual petrels and albatrosses brought in by the tide onto Ilha Comprida beach between January 2000 and December 2002 were collected. Ilha Comprida, a barrier island in southern São Paulo, Brazil, was traversed by car along a transect of 70 kilometers. A total of 110 birds of 10 species were collected and 64.54% had plastic particles in their stomach. Frequencies of occurrence were Macronectes giganteus (64.28%, Thalassarche melanophrys (73.07%, Thalassarche chlororhinchos (44.44%, Puffinus puffinus (85.71%, Puffinus gravis (7.41%, Puffinus griseus (63.63%, Fumarus glacialoides (33.33%, Daption capensis (75%, Pachyptila belcheri (33.33%, Procellaria aequinoctialis (25%. These results demonstrated the extent of contamination with plastic and the possible harmful effects on seabirds.As aves marinhas ingerem partículas plásticas que ficam flutuando na superfície dos oceanos. Estes animais podem ingerir as partículas plásticas confundindo com as presas. Alternativamente os plásticos podem vir de presas, as quais os contêm em seus estômagos. Os plásticos podem ainda, serem passados dos pais para os ninhegos, quando regurgitam o alimento. Neste trabalho foram coletados indivíduos de petréis e albatrozes ao longo da praia da Ilha Comprida entre janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2002. Para tanto a Ilha Comprida, uma ilha de barreira situada no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, foi percorrida de carro ao longo de um transecção de 70 quilômetros.Foram coletados 110 indivíduos de aves de 10 espécies, das quais 64.54% continham partículas plásticas em seus estômagos. As Freqüências de ocorrências foram

  17. Simple battery armor to protect against gastrointestinal injury from accidental ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulicht, Bryan; Traverso, Giovanni; Deshpande, Vikram; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2014-11-18

    Inadvertent battery ingestion in children and the associated morbidity and mortality results in thousands of emergency room visits every year. Given the risk for serious electrochemical burns within hours of ingestion, the current standard of care for the treatment of batteries in the esophagus is emergent endoscopic removal. Safety standards now regulate locked battery compartments in toys, which have resulted in a modest reduction in inadvertent battery ingestion; specifically, 3,461 ingestions were reported in 2009, and 3,366 in 2013. Aside from legislation, minimal technological development has taken place at the level of the battery to limit injury. We have constructed a waterproof, pressure-sensitive coating, harnessing a commercially available quantum tunneling composite. Quantum tunneling composite coated (QTCC) batteries are nonconductive in the low-pressure gastrointestinal environment yet conduct within the higher pressure of standard battery housings. Importantly, this coating technology enables most battery-operated equipment to be powered without modification. If these new batteries are swallowed, they limit the external electrolytic currents responsible for tissue injury. We demonstrate in a large-animal model a significant decrease in tissue injury with QTCC batteries compared with uncoated control batteries. In summary, here we describe a facile approach to increasing the safety of batteries by minimizing the risk for electrochemical burn if the batteries are inadvertently ingested, without the need for modification of most battery-powered devices.

  18. Simple battery armor to protect against gastrointestinal injury from accidental ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulicht, Bryan; Deshpande, Vikram; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Inadvertent battery ingestion in children and the associated morbidity and mortality results in thousands of emergency room visits every year. Given the risk for serious electrochemical burns within hours of ingestion, the current standard of care for the treatment of batteries in the esophagus is emergent endoscopic removal. Safety standards now regulate locked battery compartments in toys, which have resulted in a modest reduction in inadvertent battery ingestion; specifically, 3,461 ingestions were reported in 2009, and 3,366 in 2013. Aside from legislation, minimal technological development has taken place at the level of the battery to limit injury. We have constructed a waterproof, pressure-sensitive coating, harnessing a commercially available quantum tunneling composite. Quantum tunneling composite coated (QTCC) batteries are nonconductive in the low-pressure gastrointestinal environment yet conduct within the higher pressure of standard battery housings. Importantly, this coating technology enables most battery-operated equipment to be powered without modification. If these new batteries are swallowed, they limit the external electrolytic currents responsible for tissue injury. We demonstrate in a large-animal model a significant decrease in tissue injury with QTCC batteries compared with uncoated control batteries. In summary, here we describe a facile approach to increasing the safety of batteries by minimizing the risk for electrochemical burn if the batteries are inadvertently ingested, without the need for modification of most battery-powered devices. PMID:25368176

  19. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Ingestion Stimulates Muscle Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis following Resistance Exercise in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Jackman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ingestion of intact protein or essential amino acids (EAA stimulates mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis (MPS following resistance exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of myofibrillar-MPS to ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs only (i.e., without concurrent ingestion of other EAA, intact protein, or other macronutrients following resistance exercise in humans. Ten young (20.1 ± 1.3 years, resistance-trained men completed two trials, ingesting either 5.6 g BCAA or a placebo (PLA drink immediately after resistance exercise. Myofibrillar-MPS was measured during exercise recovery with a primed, constant infusion of L-[ring13C6] phenylalanine and collection of muscle biopsies pre and 4 h-post drink ingestion. Blood samples were collected at time-points before and after drink ingestion. Western blotting was used to measure the phosphorylation status of mTORC1 signaling proteins in biopsies collected pre, 1-, and 4 h-post drink. The percentage increase from baseline in plasma leucine (300 ± 96%, isoleucine (300 ± 88%, and valine (144 ± 59% concentrations peaked 0.5 h-post drink in BCAA. A greater phosphorylation status of S6K1Thr389 (P = 0.017 and PRAS40 (P = 0.037 was observed in BCAA than PLA at 1 h-post drink ingestion. Myofibrillar-MPS was 22% higher (P = 0.012 in BCAA (0.110 ± 0.009%/h than PLA (0.090 ± 0.006%/h. Phenylalanine Ra was ~6% lower in BCAA (18.00 ± 4.31 μmol·kgBM−1 than PLA (21.75 ± 4.89 μmol·kgBM−1; P = 0.028 after drink ingestion. We conclude that ingesting BCAAs alone increases the post-exercise stimulation of myofibrillar-MPS and phosphorylation status mTORC1 signaling.

  20. Hadoop Tutorial - Efficient data ingestion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Baranowski, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The Hadoop ecosystem is the leading opensource platform for distributed storage and processing of "big data". The Hadoop platform is available at CERN as a central service provided by the IT department. Real-time data ingestion to Hadoop ecosystem due to the system specificity is non-trivial process and requires some efforts (which is often underestimated) in order to make it efficient (low latency, optimize data placement, footprint on the cluster). In this tutorial attendees will learn about: The important aspects of storing the data in Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS).  Data ingestion techniques and engines that are capable of shipping data to Hadoop in an efficient way. Setting up a full data ingestion flow into a Hadoop Distributed Files System from various sources (streaming, log files, databases) using the best practices and components available around the ecosystem (including Sqoop, Kite, Flume, Kafka...

  1. Seasonal-dial shifts of ichthyoplankton assemblages and plastic debris around an Equatorial Atlantic archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Araújo Lima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality was a stronger influence in the ichthyoplankton assemblages around the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA than distance from the islands. Plastic debris were ubiquitous and although it presented diel trends, no other spatiotemporal patterns was showed. Larval Oxyporhamphus micropterus was the most important taxa (29.37% of the total catch, followed by Ceratoscopelus warmingii and Entomacrodus vomerianus. Exocoetidae eggs represented 41.01%. Mesopelagic fish larvae dominated the community. Myctophidae had the highest species richness (15. Four larval fish assemblages occured: (1 nighttime demersal/bathydemersal (Anguillidae, Congridae; (2 daytime mesopelagic/bathypelagic/epipelagic (Myctophidae, Cyclothone acclinidens; (3 daytime epipelagic (Exocoetidae, Coryphaena hippurus, Thunnus albacares and (4 nighttime reef and demersal (Blennidae, Pomacentridae, Lutjanidae. The dry season (lower temperature, higher chlorophyll a and higher SW wind velocity influenced the first two assemblages. The rainy season (higher temperatures and lower NW wind velocity influenced the last two. Nighttime abundance of dominant species in the rainy season suggests diel vertical migration nearshore. Plastics were 2.12 times more abundant than the most abundant fish larvae. Comparable amounts of larvae and plastics in the water column increase the chances of interaction between these two compartments and might disturb the local marine food web and promote the transfer of microplastic from one habitat to another, especially when smaller taxa contaminated by ingested fragments are preyed by migratory animals such as marine birds and tuna. A study around the area concluded that at least a part of the plastic debris can have local source due to fishing activities. Small-scale oceanographic mechanisms such as the interaction between the topography and currents (SEC and EUC seem to be responsible for the retention of fish eggs, fish larvae and plastics

  2. Carbohydrate co-ingestion with protein does not further augment post-prandial muscle protein accretion in older men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamer Henrike M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A blunted muscle protein synthetic response to protein ingestion may contribute to the age related loss of muscle tissue. We hypothesized that the greater endogenous insulin release following co-ingestion of carbohydrate facilitates post-prandial muscle protein accretion after ingesting a meal-like bolus of protein in older males. Methods Twenty-four healthy older men (75±1 y were randomly assigned to ingest 20 g intrinsically L-[1-13C] phenylalanine-labeled casein protein with (PRO-CHO or without (PRO 40 g carbohydrate. Ingestion of specifically produced intrinsically L-[1-13C] phenylalanine labeled protein allowed us to assess post-prandial incorporation of dietary protein derived amino acids into muscle protein. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals, with muscle biopsies being obtained prior to and 2 and 6 h after protein ingestion. Results Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations showed a greater increase in PRO-CHO compared with PRO (P13C] phenylalanine enrichments tended to increase to a greater extent in PRO-CHO compared with PRO during the first 2 h after protein ingestion (0.0072±0.0013 vs 0.0046±0.010 MPE, respectively; P=0.13. However, 6 h after protein ingestion, differences in muscle protein-bound L-[1-13C] phenylalanine enrichments were no longer observed between experiments (0.0213±0.0024 vs 0.0185±0.0010 MPE, respectively; P=0.30. Conclusions This study shows that carbohydrate ingestion may accelerate, but does not further augment post-prandial incorporation of dietary protein derived amino acids into muscle protein in healthy elderly men.

  3. Foreign Body Ingestion in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyuk Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body (FB ingestion in children is common and most children are observed to be between 6 months and 3 years of age. Although most FBs in the gastrointestinal tract pass spontaneously without complications, endoscopic or surgical removal may be required in a few children. Thus, FB ingestion presents a significant clinical difficulty in pediatric gastroenterological practice. Parameters that need to be considered regarding the timing of endoscopic removal of ingested FBs in children are the children’s age or body weight, the clinical presentation, time lapse since ingestion, time of last meal, type as well as size and shape of the FB, and its current location in the gastrointestinal tract. Esophageal button batteries require emergency removal regardless of the presence of symptoms because they can cause serious complications. Coins, magnets, or sharp FBs in the esophagus should be removed within 2 hours in symptomatic and within 24 hours in asymptomatic children. Among those presenting with a single or multiple magnets and a metallic FB that have advanced beyond the stomach, symptomatic children need a consultation with a pediatric surgeon for surgery, and asymptomatic children may be followed with serial X-rays to assess progression. Sharp or pointed, and long or large and wide FBs located in the esophagus or stomach require endoscopic removal.

  4. Button battery ingestion in children: An emerging hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Button battery ingestion is an emerging hazard. In this retrospective study, we report six cases of lithium button battery ingestion in pediatric age group (mean age 2.8 years. Three button batteries were removed from stomach and three from esophagus. Esophageal site was associated with significant local injury, and one button battery was impacted in the esophagus, requiring rigid esophagoscopy for removal. Small battery size, used batteries, and early removal (<12 h after ingestion were associated with lesser mucosal injury. No long-term complications were noted. Our study emphasizes that early diagnosis and urgent removal of ingested button battery are the only measures which prevent complications.

  5. Vascular ring complicates accidental button battery ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Ronald W; Schwartz, Matthew C; Stephany, Joshua; Donnelly, Lane F; Franciosi, James P; Epelman, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Button battery ingestion can lead to dangerous complications, including vasculoesophageal fistula formation. The presence of a vascular ring may complicate battery ingestion if the battery lodges at the level of the ring and its important vascular structures. We report a 4-year-old boy with trisomy 21 who was diagnosed with a vascular ring at the time of button battery ingestion and died 9 days after presentation due to massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding from esophageal erosion and vasculoesophageal fistula formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Toxicological significance of soil ingestion by wild and domestic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Fries, George F.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Most wild and domestic animals ingest some soil or sediment, and some species may routinely, or under special circumstances, ingest considerable amounts. Ingested soil supplies nutrients, exposes animals to parasites and pathogens, and may play a role in developing immune systems.1 Soil ingestion is also sometimes the principal route of exposure to various environmental contaminants.2-7 Ingestion of soil and earthy material is defined as geophagy and may be either intentional or unintentional, occurring as an animal eats or grooms.

  7. Metabolic and exercise endurance effects of coffee and caffeine ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, T E; Hibbert, E; Sathasivam, P

    1998-09-01

    Caffeine (Caf) ingestion increases plasma epinephrine (Epi) and exercise endurance; these results are frequently transferred to coffee (Cof) consumption. We examined the impact of ingestion of the same dose of Caf in Cof or in water. Nine healthy, fit, young adults performed five trials after ingesting (double blind) either a capsule (Caf or placebo) with water or Cof (decaffeinated Cof, decaffeinated with Caf added, or regular Cof). In all three Caf trials, the Caf dose was 4.45 mg/kg body wt and the volume of liquid was 7.15 ml/kg. After 1 h of rest, the subject ran at 85% of maximal O2 consumption until voluntary exhaustion (approximately 32 min in the placebo and decaffeinated Cof tests). In the three Caf trials, the plasma Caf and paraxanthine concentrations were very similar. After 1 h of rest, the plasma Epi was increased (P capsules than with Cof. During the exercise there were no differences in Epi among the three Caf trials, and the Epi values were all greater (P capsule trial; there were no differences among the other four tests. One cannot extrapolate the effects of Caf to Cof; there must be a component(s) of Cof that moderates the actions of Caf.

  8. A review of soil and dust ingestion studies for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Jacqueline; Phillips, Linda

    2014-11-01

    Soil and dust ingestion by children may be important pathways of exposure to environmental contaminants. Contaminated soil and dust may end up on children's hands and objects, because they play close to the ground. These contaminants can be ingested by children, because they have a tendency to place objects, including their fingers, in their mouths. Assessing exposure through this pathway requires information about the amount of soil and dust ingested by children. Estimates of soil and dust ingestion and information on the prevalence of the behavior have been published in the literature, but research in this area is generally limited. Three methodologies have been used to quantify soil and dust ingestion rates. In this paper, these are referred to as the tracer element method, the biokinetic model comparison method, and the activity pattern method. This paper discusses the information available on the prevalence of soil and dust ingestion behavior, summarizes the three methodologies for quantifying soil and dust ingestion, and discusses their limitations. Soil ingestion data derived from studies that use these methodologies are also summarized. Although they are based on different estimation approaches, the central tendency estimates of soil and dust ingestion derived from the three methodologies are generally comparable.

  9. Ingestion of High Molecular Weight Carbohydrate Enhances Subsequent Repeated Maximal Power: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Oliver

    Full Text Available Athletes in sports demanding repeat maximal work outputs frequently train concurrently utilizing sequential bouts of intense endurance and resistance training sessions. On a daily basis, maximal work within subsequent bouts may be limited by muscle glycogen availability. Recently, the ingestion of a unique high molecular weight (HMW carbohydrate was found to increase glycogen re-synthesis rate and enhance work output during subsequent endurance exercise, relative to low molecular weight (LMW carbohydrate ingestion. The effect of the HMW carbohydrate, however, on the performance of intense resistance exercise following prolonged-intense endurance training is unknown. Sixteen resistance trained men (23±3 years; 176.7±9.8 cm; 88.2±8.6 kg participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized 3-way crossover design comprising a muscle-glycogen depleting cycling exercise followed by ingestion of placebo (PLA, or 1.2 g•kg•bw-1 of LMW or HMW carbohydrate solution (10% with blood sampling for 2-h post-ingestion. Thereafter, participants performed 5 sets of 10 maximal explosive repetitions of back squat (75% of 1RM. Compared to PLA, ingestion of HMW (4.9%, 90%CI 3.8%, 5.9% and LMW (1.9%, 90%CI 0.8%, 3.0% carbohydrate solutions substantially increased power output during resistance exercise, with the 3.1% (90% CI 4.3, 2.0% almost certain additional gain in power after HMW-LMW ingestion attributed to higher movement velocity after force kinematic analysis (HMW-LMW 2.5%, 90%CI 1.4, 3.7%. Both carbohydrate solutions increased post-exercise plasma glucose, glucoregulatory and gut hormones compared to PLA, but differences between carbohydrates were unclear; thus, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Ingestion of a HMW carbohydrate following prolonged intense endurance exercise provides superior benefits to movement velocity and power output during subsequent repeated maximal explosive resistance exercise. This study was registered

  10. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Eren Cevik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  11. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  12. A Fatal Case of Lithium Battery Ingestion in a 2-Month-Old Child: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Safi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of batteries by children became more frequent in recent years, due to the increasing accessibility of electronic toys and devices to children. We report a fatal evolution of battery ingestion in a 2-month-old boy.Lithium battery ingestion is a serious condition with high risk of life-threatening complications in childhood and it can be fatal especially in extreme age, under 6 months. Urgent endoscopic removal is the best treatment to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality.

  13. Knowledge, attitude, and practices on usage, disposal, and effect of plastic bags on sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsyina, H R; Nguhiu-Mwangi, J; Mogoa, E G M; Mbuthia, P G; Ogara, W O

    2018-02-08

    The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in the Nairobi and Kajiado Counties, Kenya, on the usage, disposal, and effect of plastic waste on sheep and goats (shoats). A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 384 respondents in four communities in the two counties. Most of the people irrespective of their age, occupation, and educational status used plastic bags of some type on a daily basis. A high proportion of the respondents (37.0%, 142) used plastic bags because of the low cost. Approximately, 79.1% (304) disposed used plastic bags in open dumps. A total of 147 (38.3%) households kept shoats. Out of these, 38.1% (56) purchased feed and also allowed their animals to roam. Most of them (45.3%, 174) thought that lack of feed for the animals was the main reason why shoats roam and scavenge at refuse dump sites and road sides. A large proportion of the respondents (44.5%, 143) mentioned death of animals as the ultimate consequence of ingestion of waste plastic bags. Though, the respondents were aware that indiscriminate disposal of used plastic bags could result in death of the animals from which they derive their livelihoods, they nevertheless continued with the practice. There is a need for a paradigm shift in the way and manner plastic bags are used and disposed.

  14. [Application of biodegradable plastic film to reduce plastic film residual pollution in Chinese agriculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Changrong; He, Wenqing; Xue, Yinghao; Liu, Enke; Liu, Qin

    2016-06-25

    Plastic film has become an important agriculture production material in recent years. Over the past three decades, the amount and application area of plastic film have increased steadily, and in 2014, which are 1.4 million tons and more than 180 million hm² respectively. It plays a key role for ensuring the supply of agricultural goods in China. Meanwhile, plastic film residual pollution becomes more and more serious, and in some regions, the amount of plastic film residues has reached over 250 kg/hm². In part of the Northwest region, soil structure of farmland has been destroyed by plastic film residues and then crop growth and farming operations were suppressed. It is recognized as a good choice to replace plastic film with biodegradable plastic film, an effective measure to solve the plastic film residue pollution. Now, it is in a critical stage of study and assessment of biodegradable plastic film in China and fortunately some biodegradable plastic films show effects in the production of potatoes, peanuts and tobacco. Overall, a series of challenges has still been faced by the biodegradable plastic film, mainly including improving the quality of biodegradable plastic products, such as tensile strength, flexibility, improving the controllability of rupture and degradation, enhancing the ability of increasing soil temperature and preserving soil moisture, and to satisfy the demand of crops production with mulching. In addition, it is essential to reduce the cost of the biodegradable film and promote the application of biodegradable film on large-scale. With the development of biodegradable plastic technology and agricultural production environment, the application of the biodegradable film will have a good future.

  15. Development of an Ingestion Pathway Model for AXAIRQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1999-01-13

    AXAIRQ is a dose mode code used for prospective accident assessment at the Savannah River Site and is primarily used to show regulatory compliance. For completeness of pathway analysis, an ingestion model, AXINGST, has been developed for use with, and incorporation in, AXAIRQ. Currently available ingestion models were referenced as a basis for AXINGST. AXINGST calculates a conservative ingestion dose following an atmospheric release of radionuclides and includes site specific variables where applicable.

  16. Intake and ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing ammoniated buffel grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Alexandre Fernandes; de Paula Homem Neto, Sansão; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Santos, Edson Mauro; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; de Oliveira, Juliana Silva; Bezerra, Higor Fábio Carvalho; Campos, Fleming Sena; de Freitas Junior, José Esler

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of diets with ammoniated buffel grass hay on the ingestive behavior of feedlot lambs. Thirty-two sheep of no defined breed with an average body weight of 17.7 ± 1.8 kg were used. A completely randomized design with four treatments (0, 18, 36, and 54 g/kg dry matter (DM) basis) and eight repetitions was used. Ingestive behavior, rumination, and idle time were similar (P > 0.05) among the diets containing ammoniated buffel grass hay, with mean values of 294.5, 554.44, and 594.25 min per day, respectively. Regarding the chews, all of the variables resulted in similar behavior (P > 0.05). The quadratic effect (P  0.05) on the efficiency of DM and NDF consumption. However, the rumination efficiency of DM and NDF showed a quadratic effect (P ingestive behavior by increasing the rumination efficiency, increased intake, and feed utilization.

  17. Improvements on neuromuscular performance with caffeine ingestion depend on the time-of-day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G; López-Gullón, José María; López-Samanes, Álvaro; Fernández-Elías, Valentín E; Ortega, Juan F

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether the ergogenic effects of caffeine ingestion on neuromuscular performance are similar when ingestion takes place in the morning and in the afternoon. Double blind, cross-over, randomized, placebo controlled design. Thirteen resistance-trained males carried out bench press and full squat exercises against four incremental loads (25%, 50%, 75% and 90% 1RM), at maximal velocity. Trials took place 60 min after ingesting either 6 mg kg(-1) of caffeine or placebo. Two trials took place in the morning (AMPLAC and AMCAFF) and two in the afternoon (PMPLAC and PMCAFF), all separated by 36-48 h. Tympanic temperature, plasma caffeine concentration and side-effects were measured. Plasma caffeine increased similarly during AMCAFF and PMCAFF. Tympanic temperature was lower in the mornings without caffeine effects (36.7±0.4 vs. 37.0±0.5°C for AM vs. PM; pperformance, but increases the rate of negative side-effects reported. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ACIDIC AND NEUTRAL LIQUID INGESTION IN PATIENTS WITH GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Calsoni GOMES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Sour acidic liquid has a slower distal esophageal transit than a neutral liquid. Our hypothesis was that an acidic sour bolus has a different ingestion dynamic than a neutral bolus. Method In 50 healthy volunteers and 29 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, we evaluated the ingestion dynamics of 100 mL of acidic sour liquid (concentrated lemon juice, pH: 3.0 and 100 mL of water (pH: 6.8. The time to ingest the total volume, the number of swallows to ingest the volume, the interval between swallows, the flux of ingestion and the volume ingested in each swallow was measured. Results In both groups, healthy volunteers and patients in treatment for GERD, the acidic liquid took longer to be ingested, a higher number of swallows, a slower flux of ingestion and a smaller volume in each swallow than the neutral bolus. There was no difference between healthy volunteers and patients with GERD. The ingestion in women was longer than in men for acidic and neutral liquids. Conclusion Acidic liquid has a different dynamic of ingestion than the neutral liquid, which may be consequence of the slower transit through the distal esophageal body or an anticipation to drink a sour bolus. Patients with GERD have the same prolonged ingestion of the acidic liquid bolus as seen in healthy volunteers.

  19. Acidic and neutral liquid ingestion in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Dafne Calsoni; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Sour acidic liquid has a slower distal esophageal transit than a neutral liquid. Our hypothesis was that an acidic sour bolus has a different ingestion dynamic than a neutral bolus. In 50 healthy volunteers and 29 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), we evaluated the ingestion dynamics of 100 mL of acidic sour liquid (concentrated lemon juice, pH: 3.0) and 100 mL of water (pH: 6.8). The time to ingest the total volume, the number of swallows to ingest the volume, the interval between swallows, the flux of ingestion and the volume ingested in each swallow was measured. In both groups, healthy volunteers and patients in treatment for GERD, the acidic liquid took longer to be ingested, a higher number of swallows, a slower flux of ingestion and a smaller volume in each swallow than the neutral bolus. There was no difference between healthy volunteers and patients with GERD. The ingestion in women was longer than in men for acidic and neutral liquids. Acidic liquid has a different dynamic of ingestion than the neutral liquid, which may be consequence of the slower transit through the distal esophageal body or an anticipation to drink a sour bolus. Patients with GERD have the same prolonged ingestion of the acidic liquid bolus as seen in healthy volunteers.

  20. Thermal degradation and plasticizing mechanism of poly(vinyl chloride) plasticized with a novel cardanol derived plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Nie, X. A.; Jiang, J. C.; Zhou, Y. H.

    2018-01-01

    A natural plasticizer cardanol derivatives glycidyl ether (CGE) was synthesized and employed as a plasticizer for the poly(vinyl chloride). The effect of CGE on thermal degradation of PVC films and its plasticizing mechanism were firstly reported. The molecular structure of CGE was characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Thermal properties, degradation properties and compatibility of the PVC films were investigated by Differential scanning calorimeter analysis (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and FTIR, respectively. Compared with the commercial plasticizers dioctylphthalate (DOP), CGE can endow PVC film with a decrease of 4.31 °C in glass transition temperature (Tg), an increase of 24.01 °C and 25.53 °C in 10% weight loss (T 10) and 50% weight loss (T 50) respectively, and a higher activetion energy of thermal degradation (Ea ).

  1. Prevalence, clinical features and management of pediatric magnetic foreign body ingestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavarez, Melissa M; Saladino, Richard A; Gaines, Barbara A; Manole, Mioara D

    2013-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestions are frequent in children. Whereas the majority of FBs pass spontaneously through the gastrointestinal tract, ingestion of magnetic FBs pose a particular risk for obstruction due to proximate attraction through the intestinal wall. We aimed to identify the prevalence, clinical presentation, and management of magnetic FB ingestions at our tertiary care institution. We performed a retrospective chart review of medical records of patients presenting to the pediatric Emergency Department (ED) or admitted to the hospital with FB ingestions from June 2003-July 2009. From those cases, patients with magnetic FB ingestions were identified. During the study period, 337,839 patients presented to the ED; 38 cases of magnetic FB ingestion were identified (prevalence 0.01%). Abdominal radiography was obtained in all cases. Ingestion of a single magnet occurred in 30 of 38 cases (79%). Of those, 4 patients underwent endoscopic removal due to signs of FB impaction in the esophagus or pylorus; no complications were noted. Ingestion of multiple magnets (range 2-6) occurred in 8 of 38 cases. Four of the 8 patients with multiple magnetic FBs (50%) presented with signs of peritonitis and required operative repair of multiple intestinal perforations. No deaths were identified. Although ingestion of a single magnetic FB may, in most cases, be managed as a simple FB ingestion, the ingestion of multiple magnetic FB is associated with a high risk of complication and requires aggressive management. We propose an algorithm for management of children with magnetic FB ingestions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of preliminary plastic deformation on plasticity characteristics and structure of armco-iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergazov, A.N.; Rybin, V.V.; Meshkov, Yu.Ya.; Moskvina, V.A.; Serditova, T.N.

    1990-01-01

    Effect of preliminary plastic deformation (PPD) by drawing on the maximum plasticity characteristics (critical rupture strain) ε c , general δ and uniform δ p relative elongation and on the structure of armco-iron in a wide range of PPD degree change (e=0-4.6) is studied. It is ascertained that with e growth the metal plastic properties at T test =77 and 293 K change in a different way. In particular, the critical strain ε c increases monotonously at 77 K and reduces at 293 K. It is shown that all changes of mechanical characteristics observed with e increase are conditioned by the development of fragmentation process in armco-iron. The data obtained are discussed from the veiwpoint of the developed plastic deformation physics concepts

  3. Chronic effects of cesium-137 ingestion on physiological systems in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voisin, Philippe; Grignard, Elise; Souidi, Maamar; Gueguen, Yann; Lestaevel, Philippe; Grandcolas, Line; Grison, Stephane; Dublineau, Isabelle; Gourmelon, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The post-Chernobyl contamination by cesium-137 is of particular concern for public health. Several diseases have been reported in populations living in contaminated territories, such as behavior disorders, anxiety symptoms, cardiovascular diseases, perturbations of endocrine and reproductive status, immunity disturbances. The objective of this study was to determine in a rat model the effects of 137 Cs contamination by ingestion of post-accidental dose (6500 Bq/L) on several physiological systems, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, steroidogenesis, intestinal functions, and metabolism of cholesterol and of vitamin D. The animals were chronically and sub chronically contaminated via drinking water (∼150Bq per day). These experiments demonstrated that chronic ingestion of 137 Cs induced modifications of these physiological systems. A decrease in blood pressure was observed in contaminated animals. At the same time, changes in cardiac function were evidenced via increased plasma levels of CK and CK-MB and variations in gene expression of proteins involved in vascular tonus and of K + channels in cardiac left ventricle. Vitamin D metabolism was also modified by 137 Cs with a diminution of plasma level of Vitamin D (1,25(OH)D3), and changes in mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 CYP27B1 and CYP2R1 in brain and liver. Concerning cholesterol metabolism, no changes in plasma lipid levels were noted, although increased gene expression of liver X receptor α (LXRα), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB). In addition, steroidogenesis seemed to be modified, since decreased plasma level of 17β-estradiol and increased corticosterone plasma level were observed following chronic 137 Cs ingestion. These changes were associated with modification of mRNA levels of nuclear receptors in testis and of cytochrome P450 CYP11a1 in adrenal. Evaluation of intestine function demonstrated few effects of 137 Cs after chronic ingestion, except

  4. The effects of smoking and nicotine ingestion on exercise heat tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Amit; Atias, Danit; Ketko, Itay; Cohen-Sivan, Yoav; Heled, Yuval

    2017-03-01

    Smoking has a thermogenic effect and is associated with low physical performance. Nevertheless, a direct, quantitative effect of acute smoking on exercise heat tolerance has not been reported. Sixteen healthy young male volunteers, eight cigarette smokers, and eight non-smokers participated in the study. All subjects performed a maximal oxygen consumption test (VO2max) and a standardized heat tolerance test (HTT) after at least 12 h without smoking under the following conditions: no nicotine exposure, 10 min after nicotine exposure (2 mg nicotine lozenge), and 10 min after smoking two cigarettes (0.8 mg nicotine in each cigarette, smokers only). There was no significant effect of nicotine exposure on physiological performance and heat tolerance in the non-smokers group. In the smokers group, cigarette smoking, but not nicotine ingestion, resulted with higher heart rate (by 9±9 bpm) at the end of the HTT (psmoking and nicotine ingestion increased smokers' rectal temperature at the end of the HTT (by 0.24±0.16°C and 0.21±0.26°C, respectively, psmoking in the smokers group compared with no exposure (2.13±2.57 and 2.48±2.76, respectively, psmoking and nicotine ingestion increase the physiological strain during a HTT in smokers. Acute smoking may, therefore, increase heat intolerance and the risk to heat injuries.

  5. Rates of ingestion and their variability between individual calanoid copepods: Direct observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.; Lewis, K.D. [Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, Savannah, GA (United States); Bundy, M.H. [Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, Savannah, GA (United States)]|[Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany). Inst. fuer Fernerkundung (IFE); Metz, C. [Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany). Inst. fuer Fernerkundung (IFE)

    1995-12-01

    The goals of this study were to determine rates of ingestion and fecal pellet release, and their variability, for individual planktonic copepods over extended periods of time (>20 min). Ingestions and rejections of individual cells of the diatom Thalassiosira eccentrica by a adult females of the calanoid Paracalanus aculeatus were directly quantified by observing individual copepods continuously at cell concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}. Average ingestion rates increased with increasing food concentration, but were not significantly different between 0.3 and 1.0 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1} (9.8 and 32.7 {mu}g Cl{sup {minus}1}) of T.eccentrica. Rates of cell rejections were low and similar at 0.1 and 0.3. but were significantly higher at 1.0 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}. The coefficients of variation for average ingestion rates of individual copepods hardly differed between food concentrations, ranging from 17 to 22%, and were close to those for average fecal pellet release intervals which ranged from 15 to 21%. A comparison between individuals at each food concentration found no significant differences at 1.0; at 0.1 and 0.3 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}, respectively, ingestion rates of four out of five females did not differ significantly from each other. Average intervals between fecal pellet releases were similar at 0.3 and 1.0 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}. Fecal pellet release intervals between individuals were significantly different at each food concentration; these significant differences were attributed to rather narrow ranges of pellet release intervals of each individual female. Potential sources/causes of variability in the sizes and rates of copepods in the ocean are evaluated.

  6. The effect of carbohydrate ingestion on performance during a simulated soccer match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, Julia H; White, Nicholas J; Chicktay, Waheed; Mahomed, Hafsa; Durandt, Justin; Lambert, Michael I

    2013-12-16

    This study investigated how performance was affected after soccer players, in a postprandial state, ingested a 7% carbohydrate (CHO) solution compared to a placebo (0% CHO) during a simulated soccer match. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 22 trained male league soccer players (age: 24 ± 7 years, wt: 73.4 ± 12.0 kg, VO2max: 51.8 ± 4.3 mL O2/kg/min) completed two trials, separated by 7 days, during which they ingested, in random order, 700 mL of either a 7% CHO or placebo drink during a simulated soccer match. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), agility, timed and run to fatigue were measured during the trials. Change in agility times was not altered by CHO vs. placebo ingestion (0.57 ± 1.48 vs. 0.66 ± 1.00, p = 0.81). Timed runs to fatigue were 381 ± 267 s vs. 294 ± 159 s for the CHO and placebo drinks, respectively (p = 0.11). Body mass modified the relationship between time to fatigue and drink ingestion (p = 0.02 for drink × body mass), such that lower body mass was associated with increased time to fatigue when the players ingested CHO, but not placebo. RPE values for the final stage of the simulated soccer match were 8.5 ± 1.7 and 8.6 ± 1.5 for the CHO and placebo drinks respectively (p = 0.87). The group data showed that the 7% CHO solution (49 g CHO) did not significantly improve performance during a simulated soccer match in league soccer players who had normal pre-match nutrition. However, when adjusting for body mass, increasing CHO intake was associated with improved time to fatigue during the simulated soccer match.

  7. The Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion on Performance during a Simulated Soccer Match

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia H. Goedecke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study investigated how performance was affected after soccer players, in a postprandial state, ingested a 7% carbohydrate (CHO solution compared to a placebo (0% CHO during a simulated soccer match. Methods: Using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 22 trained male league soccer players (age: 24 ± 7 years, wt: 73.4 ± 12.0 kg, VO2max: 51.8 ± 4.3 mL O2/kg/min completed two trials, separated by 7 days, during which they ingested, in random order, 700 mL of either a 7% CHO or placebo drink during a simulated soccer match. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, agility, timed and run to fatigue were measured during the trials. Results: Change in agility times was not altered by CHO vs. placebo ingestion (0.57 ± 1.48 vs. 0.66 ± 1.00, p = 0.81. Timed runs to fatigue were 381 ± 267 s vs. 294 ± 159 s for the CHO and placebo drinks, respectively (p = 0.11. Body mass modified the relationship between time to fatigue and drink ingestion (p = 0.02 for drink × body mass, such that lower body mass was associated with increased time to fatigue when the players ingested CHO, but not placebo. RPE values for the final stage of the simulated soccer match were 8.5 ± 1.7 and 8.6 ± 1.5 for the CHO and placebo drinks respectively (p = 0.87. Conclusions: The group data showed that the 7% CHO solution (49 g CHO did not significantly improve performance during a simulated soccer match in league soccer players who had normal pre-match nutrition. However, when adjusting for body mass, increasing CHO intake was associated with improved time to fatigue during the simulated soccer match.

  8. Thermal Tolerance in Widespread and Tropical Drosophila Species: Does Phenotypic Plasticity Increase with Latitude?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Mitchell, Katherin A

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of insects can often be related to variation in their response to thermal extremes, which in turn may reflect differences in plastic responses or innate variation in resistance. Species with widespread distributions are expected to have evolved higher levels of plasticity than....... The results do not support the hypothesis that widely distributed species have larger phenotypic plasticity for thermal tolerance limits, and Drosophila species distributions are therefore more closely linked to differences in innate thermal tolerance limits....

  9. Gastrointestinal bleeding following NSAID ingestion in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both presented with a history of fever and passage of bloody stools. There was a positive history of NSAID ingestion in both patients that was prescribed in the referring hospitals. ..... Bostwick HE, Halata MS, Feerick J, Newman LJ, Medow MS. Gastrointestinal bleeding in children following ingestion of low-dose. Ibuprofen.

  10. Suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals: a rare encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A C; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals. After treatment, the patient was discharged home on the 8(th) day after admission. So we conclude that Emergency endoscopy has a significant role in diagnosis and management of potassium permanganate ingestion.

  11. Ingestion of microplastics by commercial fish off the Portuguese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diogo; Sobral, Paula; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Pereira, Tânia

    2015-12-15

    The digestive tract contents of 263 individuals from 26 species of commercial fish were examined for microplastics. These were found in 17 species, corresponding to 19.8% of the fish of which 32.7% had ingested more than one microplastic. Of all the fish that ingested microplastics, 63.5% was benthic and 36.5% pelagic species. A total of 73 microplastics were recorded, 48 (65.8%) being fibres and 25 (34.2%) being fragments. Polymers were polypropylene, polyethylene, alkyd resin, rayon, polyester, nylon and acrylic. The mean of ingested microplastics was 0.27 ± 0.63 per fish, (n=263). Pelagic fish ingested more particles and benthic fish ingested more fibres, but no significant differences were found. Fish with the highest number of microplastics were from the mouth of the Tagus river. Scomber japonicus registered the highest mean of ingested microplastics, suggesting its potential as indicator species to monitor and investigate trends in ingested litter, in the MSFD marine regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring water ingestion from spray exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Martha; Roddick, Felicity; Nguyen, Thang; O'Toole, Joanne; Leder, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Characterisation of exposure levels is an essential requirement of health risk assessment; however for water exposures other than drinking, few quantitative exposure data exist. Thus, regulatory agencies must use estimates to formulate policy on treatment requirements for non-potable recycled water. We adapted the use of the swimming pool chemical cyanuric acid as a tracer of recreational water ingestion to permit detection of small water volumes inadvertently ingested from spray exposures. By using solutions of 700-1000 mg/L cyanuric acid in an experimental spray exposure scenario, we were able to quantify inadvertent water ingestion in almost 70% of participants undertaking a 10 min car wash activity using a high pressure spray device. Skin absorption was demonstrated to be negligible under the experimental conditions, and the measured ingestion volumes ranged from 0.06 to 3.79 mL. This method could be applied to a range of non-potable water use activities to generate exposure data for risk assessment processes. The availability of such empirical measurements will provide greater assurance to regulatory agencies and industry that potential health risks from exposure to non-potable water supplies are well understood and adequately managed to protect public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-05-01

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.

  14. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M

    2014-05-15

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.

  15. Impact of Bio-Based Plastics on Current Recycling of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Alaerts

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based plastics are increasingly appearing in a range of consumption products, and after use they often end up in technical recycling chains. Bio-based plastics are different from fossil-based ones and could disturb the current recycling of plastics and hence inhibit the closure of plastic cycles, which is undesirable given the current focus on a transition towards a circular economy. In this paper, this risk has been assessed via three elaborated case studies using data and information retrieved through an extended literature search. No overall risks were revealed for bio-based plastics as a group; rather, every bio-based plastic is to be considered as a potential separate source of contamination in current recycling practices. For PLA (polylactic acid, a severe incompatibility with PET (polyethylene terephthalate recycling is known; hence, future risks are assessed by measuring amounts of PLA ending up in PET waste streams. For PHA (polyhydroxy alkanoate there is no risk currently, but it will be crucial to monitor future application development. For PEF (polyethylene furanoate, a particular approach for contamination-related issues has been included in the upcoming market introduction. With respect to developing policy, it is important that any introduction of novel plastics is well guided from a system perspective and with a particular eye on incompatibilities with current and upcoming practices in the recycling of plastics.

  16. Unintentional Cannabis Ingestion in Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John R; Smith, Nishelle E; Moulin, Aimee K

    2017-11-01

    To analyze published reports of unintentional cannabis ingestions in children to determine presenting signs and symptoms, route of exposure, treatment, and outcome. PubMed, OpenGrey, and Google Scholar were systematically searched. Articles were selected, reviewed, and graded using Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines. Of 3316 articles, 44 were included (3582 children age ≤12 years). We found no high quality (Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine level I or II) studies and 10 level III studies documenting lethargy as the most common presenting sign and confirming increasing incidence of unintentional ingestion in states having decriminalized medical and recreational cannabis. We identified 16 level IV case series, and 28 level V case reports with 114 children, mean age 25.2 ± 18.7 months, range 8 months to 12 years, and 50 female children (44%). The most common ingestion (n = 43, 38%) was cannabis resin, followed by cookies and joints (both n = 15, 13%). Other exposures included passive smoke, medical cannabis, candies, beverages, and hemp oil. Lethargy was the most common presenting sign (n = 81, 71%) followed by ataxia (n = 16, 14%). Tachycardia, mydriasis, and hypotonia were also commonly observed. All cases were cared for in the emergency department or admitted, and mean length of stay was 27.1 ± 27.0 hours. Twenty (18%) were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, and 7 (6%) were intubated. Unintentional cannabis ingestion by children is a serious public health concern and is well-documented in numerous studies and case reports. Clinicians should consider cannabis toxicity in any child with sudden onset of lethargy or ataxia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong Gi Hyeon

    1987-04-01

    This book deals with plastic, which includes introduction for plastic, chemistry of high polymers, polymerization, speciality and structure of a high molecule property of plastic, molding, thermosetting plastic, such as polyethylene, polyether, polyamide and polyvinyl acetyl, thermal plastic like phenolic resins, xylene resins, melamine resin, epoxy resin, alkyd resin and poly urethan resin, new plastic like ionomer and PPS resin, synthetic laminated tape and synthetic wood, mixed materials in plastic, reprocessing of waste plastic, polymer blend, test method for plastic materials and auxiliary materials of plastic.

  18. A review of plastic waste biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Yanful, Ernest K; Bassi, Amarjeet S

    2005-01-01

    With more and more plastics being employed in human lives and increasing pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. This review looks at the technological advancement made in the development of more easily biodegradable plastics and the biodegradation of conventional plastics by microorganisms. Additives, such as pro-oxidants and starch, are applied in synthetic materials to modify and make plastics biodegradable. Recent research has shown that thermoplastics derived from polyolefins, traditionally considered resistant to biodegradation in ambient environment, are biodegraded following photo-degradation and chemical degradation. Thermoset plastics, such as aliphatic polyester and polyester polyurethane, are easily attacked by microorganisms directly because of the potential hydrolytic cleavage of ester or urethane bonds in their structures. Some microorganisms have been isolated to utilize polyurethane as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen source. Aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters have active commercial applications because of their good mechanical properties and biodegradability. Reviewing published and ongoing studies on plastic biodegradation, this paper attempts to make conclusions on potentially viable methods to reduce impacts of plastic waste on the environment.

  19. Influence on the mouse immune system of chronic ingestion of 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertho, Jean-Marc; Faure, Marie-Cecile; Louiba, Sonia; Tourlonias, Elie; Stefani, Johanna; Siffert, Baptiste; Paquet, Francois; Dublineau, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the possible occurrence of damage to the immune system during the course of chronic ingestion of 137 Cs. BALB/C mice were used, with 137 Cs intake via drinking water at a concentration of 20 kBq l -1 . Adults received 137 Cs before mating and offspring were sacrificed at various ages between birth and 20 weeks. Phenotypic analysis of circulating blood cells and thymocytes did not show any significant modification of immune cell populations in animals ingesting 137 Cs as compared with control animals, with the exception of a slight increase in Treg percentage at the age of 12 weeks. Functional tests, including proliferative response to mitogens such as phytohaemagglutinin, response to alloantigens in mixed lymphocyte reaction and immunoglobulin response to vaccine antigens such as tetanus toxin and keyhole limpet haemocyanin did not show any significant functional modification of the immune system in 137 Cs-ingesting animals as compared with control animals. Overall, our results suggest that chronic ingestion of a low concentration of 137 Cs in drinking water in the long term does not have any biologically relevant effect on the immune system.

  20. Successful treatment of rare-earth magnet ingestion via minimally invasive techniques: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosut, Jessica S; Johnson, Sidney M; King, Jeremy L; Garnett, Gwendolyn; Woo, Russell K

    2013-04-01

    Cases of rare-earth magnet ingestions have been increasingly reported in the literature. However, these descriptions have focused on the severity of the injuries, rather than the clinical presentation and/or therapeutic approach. We report a series of eight children, ranging in age from 2 to 10 years, who ingested powerful rare-earth magnets. The rare-earth magnets were marketed in 2009 under the trade name Buckyballs(®) (Maxfield & Oberton, New York, NY). They are about 5 mm in size, spherical, and brightly colored, making them appealing for young children to play with and place in their mouths. Three children presented within hours of ingestion, and the magnets were successfully removed via endoscopy in two, whereas the third child required laparoscopy. No fistulas were found in these children. A fourth child presented 2 days after ingestion with evidence of bowel wall erosion, but without fistula formation; the magnets were removed via laparoscopy. A fifth child ingested nine magnets in a ring formation, which were removed via colonoscopy without evidence of injury or fistula formation. The three remaining children presented late (5-8 days after ingestion) and were found to have associated fistulas. They were treated successfully with a combination of endoscopy and laparoscopy with fluoroscopy. None of the children in our series required an open surgical procedure. All children were discharged home without complications. This case series highlights the potential dangers of rare-earth magnet ingestion in children. Our experience suggests that prompt intervention using minimally invasive approaches can lead to successful outcomes.

  1. Pediatric zolpidem ingestion demonstrating zero-order kinetics treated with flumazenil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Stephen L; Negus, Elezer; Carstairs, Shaun D

    2013-11-01

    Zolpidem is a widely prescribed anti-insomnia agent. Although most pediatric zolpidem ingestions are benign, large ingestions can cause significant central nervous system (CNS) depression. Flumazenil has been reported to reverse the CNS effects of zolpidem. We describe a case of a large pediatric zolpidem ingestion resulting in profound CNS depression that responded to flumazenil administration. Serial zolpidem serum levels confirmed the ingestion. A 10-year-old boy with trisomy 21 presented to the emergency department 1 hour after he was found sedate with several zolpidem 5-mg tablets in his mouth. Seventeen tables (85 mg) were unaccounted for from a prescription bottle. He became unarousable approximately 2 hours after his ingestion. Flumazenil 0.2 mg intravenously was given with rapid return to his baseline mental status. He became resedate 1 hour later but was arousable. Sixteen hours after his presentation, he was asymptomatic. Serial zolpidem serum levels were obtained, showed an initial level of 310 ng/mL, and demonstrated zero-order kinetics. Zolpidem is an imidazopyridine, which binds to the benzodiazepine receptor. It is rapidly absorbed and has a short-half life. Unintentional pediatric ingestions of zolpidem are typically well tolerated. However, this case demonstrates that large ingestions may cause significant and prolonged CNS depression. Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, has been described to reverse the effects of zolpidem in adult ingestions. There are few published reports describing flumazenil use in pediatric ingestion patients. This case suggests that flumazenil may be an effective treatment for zolpidem-induced CNS depression in the pediatric patient.

  2. Polyuria, acidosis, and coma following massive ibuprofen ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michael; Khurana, Amandeep; Ruha, Anne-Michelle

    2010-09-01

    Ibuprofen was the first over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug available in the United States. Despite being a common agent of ingestion, significant toxicity in overdose is rare. We report a case of a massive ibuprofen ingestion who developed polyuria, acidosis, and coma but survived, despite having a serum ibuprofen concentration greater than previous fatal cases. A 19-year-old man ingested 90 g (1,200 mg/kg) ibuprofen. He was initially awake and alert, but his level of consciousness deteriorated over several hours. Seven hours following the ingestion, he was intubated and mechanically ventilated secondary to loss of airway reflexes. He developed a lactic acidosis and polyuria, which lasted for nearly 24 h. His serum creatinine peaked at 1.12 mg/dL. An ibuprofen level drawn 7 h postingestion was 739.2 mg/L (therapeutic 5-49 mg/L). We describe a case of a massive ibuprofen overdose characterized by metabolic acidosis, coma, and a state of high urine output who survived with aggressive supportive care. This case is unique in several ways. First, ibuprofen levels this high have only rarely been described. Second, polyuria is very poorly described following ibuprofen ingestions.

  3. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  4. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra, and /sup 228/Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior.

  5. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including 224 Ra, 226 Ra, and 228 Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior

  6. Detection of β-lactoglobulin in human breast-milk 7 days after cow milk ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matangkasombut, Ponpan; Padungpak, Savitree; Thaloengsok, Sasikanya; Kamchaisatian, Wasu; Sasisakulporn, Cherapat; Jotikasthira, Wanlapa; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Manuyakorn, Wiparat

    2017-08-01

    β-lactoglobulin (BLG), a major allergen in cow milk (CM) can be detected in human breast-milk (BM) and is associated with exacerbation of symptoms in breastfed infants with cow milk protein allergy (CMPA). Currently, it is not known how long lactating mothers who consume dairy products need to withhold breastfeeding. To elucidate the kinetics of BLG in BM after maternal ingestion of a single dose of CM. Nineteen lactating mothers, four of whom had infants with CMPA, were instructed to avoid CM for 7 days before ingesting a single dose of CM and to continue to withhold CM thereafter throughout the study period. BLG was measured by ELISA in BM from 15 mothers of healthy infants before and at 3, 6 and 24 h, and 3 and 7 days after CM ingestion. Four pairs of mothers and CMPA infants were enrolled for BM challenge after the mothers had ingested CM. After CM ingestion, the level of BLG in BM increased significantly from 0.58 ng/ml (0.58 g/L) (IQR 0.38-0.88) to a peak level of 1.23 ng/ml (IQR 1.03-2.29), p < 0.001. The BLG level on day 3 (1.15 ng/ml, IQR 0.89-1.45) and day 7 (1.08 ng/ml (IQR 0.86-1.25) after CM ingestion was significantly higher than baseline (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively). BLG was detected in all BM samples from the four mothers of CMPA infants after CM ingestion, and the level was not different from that in the mothers of the 15 healthy infants. Three of the four CMPA infants developed symptoms such as maculopapular rash and hypersecretion in the airways after BM challenge. BLG can be detected in BM up to 7 days after CM ingestion. Lactating mothers should suspend breastfeeding to CMPA infants more than 7 days after CM ingestion.

  7. POSTFUNDOPLICATION DYSPHAGIA CAUSES SIMILAR WATER INGESTION DYNAMICS AS ACHALASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira DANTAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background - After surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease dysphagia is a symptom in the majority of patients, with decrease in intensity over time. However, some patients may have persistent dysphagia. Objective - The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the dynamics of water ingestion in patients with postfundoplication dysphagia compared with patients with dysphagia caused by achalasia, idiopathic or consequent to Chagas' disease, and controls. Methods - Thirty-three patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, assessed more than one year after surgery, together with 50 patients with Chagas' disease, 27 patients with idiopathic achalasia and 88 controls were all evaluated by the water swallow test. They drunk, in triplicate, 50 mL of water without breaks while being precisely timed and the number of swallows counted. Also measured was: (a inter-swallows interval - the time to complete the task, divided by the number of swallows during the task; (b swallowing flow - volume drunk divided by the time taken; (c volume of each swallow - volume drunk divided by the number of swallows. Results - Patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, Chagas' disease and idiopathic achalasia took longer to ingest all the volume, had an increased number of swallows, an increase in interval between swallows, a decrease in swallowing flow and a decrease in water volume of each swallow compared with the controls. There was no difference between the three groups of patients. There was no correlation between postfundoplication time and the results. Conclusion - It was concluded that patients with postfundoplication dysphagia have similar water ingestion dynamics as patients with achalasia.

  8. POSTFUNDOPLICATION DYSPHAGIA CAUSES SIMILAR WATER INGESTION DYNAMICS AS ACHALASIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Roberto Oliveira; Santos, Carla Manfredi; Cassiani, Rachel Aguiar; Alves, Leda Maria Tavares; Nascimento, Weslania Viviane

    2016-01-01

    - After surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease dysphagia is a symptom in the majority of patients, with decrease in intensity over time. However, some patients may have persistent dysphagia. - The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the dynamics of water ingestion in patients with postfundoplication dysphagia compared with patients with dysphagia caused by achalasia, idiopathic or consequent to Chagas' disease, and controls. - Thirty-three patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, assessed more than one year after surgery, together with 50 patients with Chagas' disease, 27 patients with idiopathic achalasia and 88 controls were all evaluated by the water swallow test. They drunk, in triplicate, 50 mL of water without breaks while being precisely timed and the number of swallows counted. Also measured was: (a) inter-swallows interval - the time to complete the task, divided by the number of swallows during the task; (b) swallowing flow - volume drunk divided by the time taken; (c) volume of each swallow - volume drunk divided by the number of swallows. - Patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, Chagas' disease and idiopathic achalasia took longer to ingest all the volume, had an increased number of swallows, an increase in interval between swallows, a decrease in swallowing flow and a decrease in water volume of each swallow compared with the controls. There was no difference between the three groups of patients. There was no correlation between postfundoplication time and the results. - It was concluded that patients with postfundoplication dysphagia have similar water ingestion dynamics as patients with achalasia.

  9. Prediction of complications following caustic ingestion in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, H B

    1995-01-01

    The records of 86 adults admitted to hospital following caustic ingestion were reviewed. Eighteen patients (21%) developed complications; of these, six were fatal. Patients without symptoms or signs did not develop complications. Complications occurred only following lye ingestion, or intentional...

  10. Effects of Caffeine Ingestion on Skill Performance During an International Female Rugby Sevens Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Javier; Del Coso, Juan; Abián-Vicén, Javier

    2017-12-01

    Portillo, J, Del Coso, J, and Abián-Vicén, J. Effects of caffeine ingestion on skill performance during an international female rugby sevens competition. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3351-3357, 2017-The aim of this study was to establish the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on skills and technical performance during a match in female elite rugby sevens players. On 2 nonconsecutive days of a friendly tournament, 16 women from the Spanish national rugby sevens team (mean age = 23 ± 2 years) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kilogram of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo drink). After 60 minutes for caffeine absorption, participants played 3 rugby sevens matches against another national team. Body impacts during the matches were assessed by triaxial accelerometers. The matches were videotaped, and each individual technical action was notated afterward by 2 experienced observers. In comparison with the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased the rate of body impacts in zone 1 (16.1 ± 4.9 vs. 20.8 ± 9.9 impacts/min, p rugby-specific technical actions during the games. In conclusion, the ingestion of 3 mg·kg of caffeine in the form of an energy drink increased the number of body impacts during a rugby sevens international competition which suggests a higher engagement of the players during the game. However, the caffeine ingestion did not influence the quality of the technical actions performed during the competition.

  11. Acute Intoxication following Dimethyltryptamine Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Kristan V.; Wiegand, Timothy J.; Gorodetsky, Rachel M.

    2018-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic tea that is most commonly comprised of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi alone or in combination with other plants such as Psychotria viridis. This concoction results in an orally active form of dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a hallucinogenic amine. Despite use in South America as a medicinal agent and component in religious ceremonies, interest in its recreational use and spiritual effects has led to increased use in the United States. We describe a unique case following ingestion of ayahuasca tea in a patient with history of schizophrenia resulting in personal injury and property damage. A review of ayahuasca toxicity and evaluation of serious adverse effects is also presented. PMID:29682363

  12. Oxycodone Ingestion Patterns in Acute Fracture Pain With Digital Pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Peter R; Carreiro, Stephanie; Innes, Brendan J; Chapman, Brittany; Schreiber, Kristin L; Edwards, Robert R; Carrico, Adam W; Boyer, Edward W

    2017-12-01

    Opioid analgesics are commonly prescribed on an as-needed (PRN) basis for acute painful conditions. Uncertainty of how patients actually take PRN opioids, coupled with a desire to completely cover pain, leads to variable and overly generous opioid prescribing practices, resulting in a surplus of opioids. This opioid surplus becomes a source for diversion and nonmedical opioid use. Understanding patterns of actual opioid ingestion after acute painful conditions can help clinicians counsel patients on safe opioid use, and allow timely recognition and intervention when escalating opioid self-dosing occurs, to prevent tolerance and addiction. We used a novel oxycodone digital pill system (ingestible biosensor within a standard gelatin capsule combined with 5-mg oxycodone) that when ingested, is activated by the chloride ion gradient in the stomach thereby emitting a radiofrequency signal captured by a wearable reader. The reader relays ingestion data to a cloud-based server that displays ingestion events to the study team. We deployed the oxycodone digital pill among opioid-naive individuals discharged from the emergency department with acute fracture pain. Participants were trained on digital pill operation and discharged with twenty-one 5-mg oxycodone digital pills. They were instructed to take digital pills PRN for pain on discharge. We conducted a brief interview 7 days after study enrollment, at which point participants returned the digital pill system. We identified oxycodone ingestion events in real time by data from the digital pill system and performed pill counts at the return visit to validate digital pill reporting of medication ingestion. In this study, 26 individuals were approached; 16 enrolled with 15 completing the study. Participants ingested a median of 6 (3-9.5) oxycodone digital pills over the course of 7 days, with 82% of the oxycodone dose ingested in the first 3 days. In individuals who required operative repair, 86% (N = 6) continued to ingest

  13. Dose-Response of Sodium Bicarbonate Ingestion Highlights Individuality in Time Course of Blood Analyte Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca Louise; Stellingwerff, Trent; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Saunders, Bryan; Cooper, Simon; Sale, Craig

    2016-10-01

    To defend against hydrogen cation accumulation and muscle fatigue during exercise, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) ingestion is commonplace. The individualized dose-response relationship between NaHCO 3 ingestion and blood biochemistry is unclear. The present study investigated the bicarbonate, pH, base excess and sodium responses to NaHCO 3 ingestion. Sixteen healthy males (23 ± 2 years; 78.6 ± 15.1 kg) attended three randomized order-balanced, nonblinded sessions, ingesting a single dose of either 0.1, 0.2 or 0.3 g·kg -1 BM of NaHCO 3 (Intralabs, UK). Fingertip capillary blood was obtained at baseline and every 10 min for 1 hr, then every 15 min for a further 2 hr. There was a significant main effect of both time and condition for all assessed blood analytes (p ≤ .001). Blood analyte responses were significantly lower following 0.1 g·kg -1 BM compared with 0.2 g·kg -1 BM; bicarbonate concentrations and base excess were highest following ingestion of 0.3 g·kg -1 BM (p ≤ .01). Bicarbonate concentrations and pH significantly increased from baseline following all doses; the higher the dose the greater the increase. Large interindividual variability was shown in the magnitude of the increase in bicarbonate concentrations following each dose (+2.0-5; +5.1-8.1; and +6.0-12.3 mmol·L -1 for 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 g·kg -1 BM) and in the range of time to peak concentrations (30-150; 40-165; and 75-180 min for 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 g·kg -1 BM). The variability in bicarbonate responses was not affected by normalization to body mass. These results challenge current practices relating to NaHCO 3 supplementation and clearly show the need for athletes to individualize their ingestion protocol and trial varying dosages before competition.

  14. Effects of p-Synephrine and Caffeine Ingestion on Substrate Oxidation during Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Hellín, Jorge; Del Coso, Juan

    2018-04-27

    Caffeine and p-synephrine are substances usually included in commercially-available products for weight loss because of their purported thermogenic effects. However, scientific information is lacking about the effects of combining these substances on substrate oxidation during exercise. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the isolated and combined effects of p-synephrine and caffeine on fat oxidation rate during exercise. In a double-blind randomized experiment, 13 healthy subjects participated in 4 experimental trials after the ingestion of a capsule containing either a placebo, 3 mg·kg of caffeine, 3 mg·kg of p-synephrine, or the combination of these doses of caffeine and p-synephrine. Energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rates were measured by indirect calorimetry during a cycle ergometer ramp test from 30 to 90% of VO2max. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of caffeine, p-synephrine, or p-synephrine+caffeine did not alter total energy expenditure or heart rate during the whole exercise test. However, the ingestion of caffeine (0.44 ± 0.15 g·min, P = 0.03), p-synephrine (0.43 ± 0.19 g·min, P < 0.01), and p-synephrine+caffeine (0.45 ± 0.15 g·min, P = 0.02) increased the maximal rate of fat oxidation during exercise when compared to the placebo (0.30 ± 0.12 g·min). The exercise intensity that elicited maximal fat oxidation was similar in all trials (~46.2 ± 10.2% of VO2max). Caffeine, p-synephrine and p-synephrine+caffeine increased the maximal rate of fat oxidation during exercise compared to a placebo, without modifying energy expenditure or heart rate. However, the co-ingestion of p-synephrine and caffeine did not present an additive effect to further increase fat oxidation during exercise.

  15. Ingestion of branched-chain amino acids and tryptophan during sustained exercise in man: failure to affect performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Raaymakers, J S; Saris, W H

    1995-01-01

    1. An increased uptake of tryptophan in the brain may increase serotoninergic activity and recently has been suggested to be a cause of fatigue during prolonged exercise. The present study, therefore, investigates whether ingestion of tryptophan or the competing branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs......) affect performance. Ten endurance-trained male athletes were studied during cycle exercise at 70-75% maximal power output, while ingesting, ad random and double-blind, drinks that contained 6% sucrose (control) or 6% sucrose supplemented with (1) tryptophan (3 g l-1), (2) a low dose of BCAA (6 g l-1...... tryptophan ingestion caused a 7- to 20-fold increase. Exercise time to exhaustion was not different between treatments (122 +/- 3 min). 3. The data suggest that manipulation of tryptophan supply to the brain either has no additional effect upon serotoninergic activity during prolonged exhaustive exercise...

  16. Characteristics of hand sanitizer ingestions by adolescents reported to poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2015-02-01

    There had been reports of adolescents using hand sanitizers to obtain alcohol and ending up in emergency departments with alcohol poisoning. This study aimed to describe the pattern of adolescent ingestions of hand sanitizers reported to a statewide poison center system. Our study subjects included patients aged 13-19 years who reported hand sanitizer ingestions as reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2013. The distribution of the ingestions was determined for various demographic and clinical factors. Of 385 total cases, 61% of the patients were male, and the mean age was 15.3 years. The ingestion reason was unintentional (61%), intentional abuse/misuse (18%), and malicious (10%). Ingestion site was most frequently reported to be the patient's own residence (53%), followed by school (35%). About 77% of the patients were managed on site. The medical outcome was serious (moderate effect or unable to follow-potentially toxic) in 5% of the cases. The most frequently reported adverse clinical effects were vomiting (5%), abdominal pain (4%), nausea (4%), throat irritation (4%), and drowsiness (2%). Adolescents who ingested hand sanitizers were more likely to be male and younger. One-third of the ingestions occurred at school, suggesting that school personnel might be made aware of the potential problem of hand sanitizer ingestions by adolescents. Nevertheless, despite the potential for serious outcomes from adolescent hand sanitizer ingestion, most of the ingestions reported to poison centers are not likely to be serious and can be successfully managed outside of a healthcare facility.

  17. Chemical Hand Warmer Packet Ingestion: A Case of Elemental Iron Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Jessica L; Sherrow, Leighanne K; Jayant, Deepak A; Katz, Kenneth D

    2017-09-01

    For individuals who work outdoors in the winter or play winter sports, chemical hand warmers are becoming increasingly more commonplace because of their convenience and effectiveness. A 32-year-old woman with a history of chronic pain and bipolar disorder presented to the emergency department complaining of a "warm sensation" in her mouth and epigastrium after reportedly ingesting the partial contents of a chemical hand warmer packet containing between 5 and 8 g of elemental iron. She had been complaining of abdominal pain for approximately 1 month and was prescribed unknown antibiotics the previous day. The patient denied ingestion of any other product or medication other than what was prescribed. A serum iron level obtained approximately 6 hours after ingestion measured 235 micrograms/dL (reference range 40-180 micrograms/dL). As the patient demonstrated no new abdominal complaints and no evidence of systemic iron toxicity, she was discharged uneventfully after education. However, the potential for significant iron toxicity exists depending on the extent of exposure to this or similar products. Treatment for severe iron toxicity may include fluid resuscitation, whole bowel irrigation, and iron chelation therapy with deferoxamine. Physicians should become aware of the toxicity associated with ingestion of commercially available hand warmers. Consultation with a medical toxicologist is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling the role of microplastics in Bioaccumulation of organic chemicals to marine aquatic organisms. Critical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that ingestion of microplastics may increase bioaccumulation of organic chemicals by aquatic organisms. This paper critically reviews the literature on the effects of plastic ingestion on the bioaccumulation of organic chemicals, emphasizing quantitative approaches and mechanistic

  19. Ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon U; Rasmussen, Morten; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2010-01-01

    We report a suicidal ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries, in combination with overdosed prescription medicine and smoking of cannabis.......We report a suicidal ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries, in combination with overdosed prescription medicine and smoking of cannabis....

  20. Ingestão de ração e comportamento de larvas de pacu em resposta a estímulos químicos e visuais Diet ingestion rate and pacu larvae behavior in response to chemical and visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borges Tesser

    2006-10-01

    obtained with Artemia visual stimulus. Ingestion rate increased as age increased. Chemical and visual stimuli from nauplii and visual stimuli from diet increased microencapsulated diet ingestion by pacu larvae. Artemia nauplii offered before the artificial diet may assist weaning. These results opens new study possibilities with Neotropical fish larvae precocious weaning.

  1. Plastic with personality: Increasing student engagement with manikins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Tamara; Virdun, Claudia; White, Haidee; Hayes, Carolyn; Parker, Nicola; Kelly, Michelle; Disler, Rebecca; Cottle, Amanda

    2016-03-01

    Simulation allows students to practice key psychomotor skills and gain technical proficiency, fostering the development of clinical reasoning and student confidence in a low risk environment. Manikins are a valuable learning tool; yet there is a distinct lack of empirical research investigating how to enhance engagement between nursing students and manikins. To describe student perspectives of a layered, technology enhanced approach to improve the simulation learning experience. Tanner's Model of Clinical Judgment underpins the entire curriculum. This study additionally drew on the principles of narrative pedagogy. Across ten teaching weeks, five separate case studies were introduced to students through short vignettes. Students viewed the vignettes prior to their laboratory class. In the labs, manikins were dressed in the props used in the vignettes. The innovation was trialed in a second year core subject of a Bachelor of Nursing program in a large urban university in the autumn semester of 2014. Following ethics approval, students were emailed a participant information sheet. A focus group of nine students was held. The discussion was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim prior to being subject to thematic analysis. Students' comments (143) about the vignettes in their standard subject specific student feedback surveys were also considered as data. Four themes were identified: Getting past the plastic; knowing what to say; connecting and caring; and, embracing diversity. The feedback indicated that these measures increased students ability to suspend disbelief, feel connected to, and approach the manikins in a more understanding and empathetic fashion. In addition to achieving increased engagement with manikins, other advantages such as students reflecting on their own values and pre-conceived notions of people from diverse backgrounds were realized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Curcuma longa ingestion protects in vitro hepatocyte membrane peroxidation Ingestão de Curcuma longa protege contra peroxidação de membrana de hepatócito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Torquato Paolinelli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of turmeric ingestion on lipid peroxidation and GSH content, promoted by in vitro acetaminophen, on hepatocytes primary culture from well-nourished and malnourished rats. Four groups of Holtzman male rats were used: 1 WNG, well-nourished, fed lab chow diet ad libitum; 2 MNG, malnourished, fed 60% of the diet consumed by WNG; 3 WNG+T fed the same diet of WNG, but containing 1% of turmeric; 4 MNG+T fed 60% of the diet consumed by WNG+T. The animals were sacrificed at 90 days of age, the livers excised and hepatocytes primary cultures were prepared. Half of the plates of hepatocytes culture were treated with acetaminophen. Dose-response curve showed that 6 mM acetaminophen increased peroxidation around 54% and decreased GSH content around 63%. The model of malnutrition used, by restricting food ingestion (40%, decreased body weight in 33% and peroxidation index around 42% and increased GSH content around 43%. Turmeric ingestion decreased hepatocyte peroxidation in both well-nourished (42% and malnourished rats (33% and was able to avoid the acetaminophen pro-oxidant effect in both well-nourished and malnourished animals. Turmeric ingestion played a beneficial role to the organism and, therefore, can be considered a functional food.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito da ingestão de cúrcuma sobre a peroxidação lipídica e conteúdo de GSH, por ação tóxica in vitro de paracetamol, utilizando cultura primária de hepatócitos. Quatro grupos de ratos Holtzman foram usados: 1 GNN, normonutrido, alimentado ad libitum com ração de laboratório; 2 GDN, desnutrido, alimentado com 60% da quantidade de ração consumida por GNN; 3 GNN+C, alimentado como GNN, mas contendo 1% de cúrcuma na dieta; 4 GDN+C, alimentado como GDN, mas contendo 1% de cúrcuma na dieta. Os animais foram sacrificados aos 90 dias de vida, e cultura de hepatócitos preparada. Metade das placas de cultura foi

  3. Chronic metals ingestion by prairie voles produces sex-specific deficits in social behavior: an animal model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J Thomas; Hood, Amber N; Chen, Yue; Cobb, George P; Wallace, David R

    2010-11-12

    We examined the effects of chronic metals ingestion on social behavior in the normally highly social prairie vole to test the hypothesis that metals may interact with central dopamine systems to produce the social withdrawal characteristic of autism. Relative to water-treated controls, 10 weeks of chronic ingestion of either Hg(++) or Cd(++) via drinking water significantly reduced social contact by male voles when they were given a choice between isolation or contact with an unfamiliar same-sex conspecific. The effects of metals ingestion were specific to males: no effects of metals exposure were seen in females. Metals ingestion did not alter behavior of males allowed to choose between isolation or their familiar cage-mates, rather than strangers. We also examined the possibility that metals ingestion affects central dopamine functioning by testing the voles' locomotor responses to peripheral administration of amphetamine. As with the social behavior, we found a sex-specific effect of metals on amphetamine responses. Males that consumed Hg(++) did not increase their locomotor activity in response to amphetamine, whereas similarly treated females and males that ingested only water significantly increased their locomotor activities. Thus, an ecologically relevant stimulus, metals ingestion, produced two of the hallmark characteristics of autism - social avoidance and a male-oriented bias. These results suggest that metals exposure may contribute to the development of autism, possibly by interacting with central dopamine function, and support the use of prairie voles as a model organism in which to study autism. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Core Characteristics Deterioration due to Plastic Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaido, Chikara; Arai, Satoshi

    This paper discusses the effect of plastic deformation at core manufacturing on the characteristics of cores where non-oriented electrical steel sheets are used as core material. Exciting field and iron loss increase proportionally to plastic deformation in the case of rPeddy currents increase because plastic deformations of crystalline grains are distributed and then the flux distribution is induced. In the case of rP>20, the deterioration tend to saturate, and the increases in magnetic field and iron loss are 1000 to 1500A/m and 2 to 4W/kg. They are related to grain size, and high grade with larger grain may have lager field increase and smaller iron loss increase. Anomalous eddy current losses scarcely increase in this region. In actual motors, the plastic deformation affects iron loss increase although exciting current increases a little.

  5. Esophageal button battery ingestions: decreasing time to operative intervention by level I trauma activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robert T; Griffin, Russell L; Weinstein, Elizabeth; Billmire, Deborah F

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of button battery ingestions is increasing and injury due to esophageal impaction begins within minutes of exposure. We changed our management algorithm for suspected button battery ingestions with intent to reduce time to evaluation and operative removal. A retrospective study was performed to identify and evaluate time to treatment and outcome for all esophageal button battery ingestions presenting to a major children's hospital emergency room from February 1, 2010 through February 1, 2012. During the first year, standard emergency room triage (ST) was used. During the second year, the triage protocol was changed and Trauma I triage (TT) was used. 24 children had suspected button battery ingestions with 11 having esophageal impaction. One esophageal impaction was due to 2 stacked coins. Time from arrival in emergency room to battery removal was 183minutes in ST group (n=4) and 33minutes in TT group (n=7) (p=0.04). One patient in ST developed a tracheoesophageal fistula. There were no complications in the TT group. The use of Trauma 1 activations for suspected button battery ingestions has led to more expedient evaluation and shortened time to removal of impacted esophageal batteries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Food control concept: Food safety/ingestion issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, B.

    1995-01-01

    This talk outlines the issues in food safety/ingestion in the case of radiation accidents at nuclear power plants and how emergency preparedness plans can/should be tailored. The major topics are as follows: In Washington: food safety/ingestion issues exist at transition between response and regulatory worlds; agricultural concerns; customer concerns; Three Mile Island: detailed maps; development of response procedures; development of tools; legal issues

  7. Can plastic mulching replace irrigation in dryland agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Daryanto, S.; Jacinthe, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing water use efficiency (WUE) is a key strategy to maintaining crops yield without over-exploiting the scarce water resource. Plastic mulching technology for wheat and maize has been commonly used in China, but their effect on yield, soil moisture, evapotranspiration (ET), and WUE has not been compared with traditional irrigation method. Using a meta-analysis approach, we quantitatively examined the efficacy of plastic mulching in comparison with traditional irrigation in dryland agriculture. Our results showed that plastic mulching technique resulted in yield increase comparable to irrigated crops but used 24% less water. By covering the ridges with plastic and channeling rainwater into a very narrow planting zone (furrow), plastic mulching increased WUE and available soil moisture. Higher WUE in plastic-mulched croplands was likely a result of greater proportion of available water being used for transpiration than evaporation. If problems related to production costs and residual plastic pollution could be managed, plastic mulching technology would become a promising strategy for dryland farming in other regions.

  8. Refractory priapism associated with ingestion of yohimbe extract

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Amy; Barrueto, Fermin

    2009-01-01

    Extracts of the bark of the central African treePausinystalia yohimbe contain yohimbine, an indole alkaloid, which is used to treat erectile dysfunction. The reported side effects of over-the-counter preparations of yohimbine include gastrointestinal upset, anxiety, increased blood pressure, headache, agitation, rash, tachycardia, and frequent urination. In this report, we describe a severe case of intractable priapism associated with the ingestion of yohimbe extract. Management required inse...

  9. Plastics additives in the indoor environment-flame retardants and plasticizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wensing, M.; Uhde, E.; Salthammer, T.

    2005-01-01

    Phthalic acid esters and phosphororganic compounds (POC) are generally known as semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and are frequently utilized as plasticizers and flame retardants in commercial products. In the indoor environment, both compound groups are released from a number of sources under normal living conditions and accumulate in air and dust. Therefore, inhalation of air and ingestion of house dust have to be considered as important pathways for the assessment of exposure in living habitats. Especially in the case of very young children, the oral and dermal uptake from house dust might be of relevance for risk assessment. A critical evaluation of indoor exposure to phthalates and POC requires the determination of the target compounds in indoor air and house dust as well as emission studies. The latter are usually carried out under controlled conditions in emission test chambers or cells. Furthermore, chamber testing enables the determination of condensable compounds by fogging sampling. In the case of automobiles, specific scenarios have been developed to study material emissions on a test stand or to evaluate the exposure of users while the vehicle is driving. In this review, results from several studies are summarized and compared for seven phthalic esters and eight POC. The available data for room air and dust differ widely depending on investigated compound and compartment. Room air studies mostly include only a limited number of measurements, which makes a statistical evaluation difficult. The situation is much better for house dust measurements. However, the composition of house dust is very inhomogeneous and the result is strongly dependent on the particle size distribution used for analysis. Results of emission studies are presented for building products, electronic equipment, and automobiles. Daily rates for inhalation and dust ingestion of phthalic esters and POC were calculated from 95-percentiles or maximum values. A comparison of the data

  10. Ketone Diester Ingestion Impairs Time-Trial Performance in Professional Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill J. Leckey

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of pre- “race” ingestion of a 1,3-butanediol acetoacetate diester on blood ketone concentration, substrate metabolism and performance of a cycling time trial (TT in professional cyclists. In a randomized cross-over design, 10 elite male cyclists completed a ~31 km laboratory-based TT on a cycling ergometer programmed to simulate the 2017 World Road Cycling Championships course. Cyclists consumed a standardized meal [2 g/kg body mass (BM carbohydrate (CHO] the evening prior to a trial day and a CHO breakfast (2 g/kg BM CHO with 200 mg caffeine on the morning of a trial day. Cyclists were randomized to consume either the ketone diester (2 × 250 mg/kg or a placebo drink, followed immediately by 200 mL diet cola, given ~ 30 min before and immediately prior to commencing a 20 min incremental warm-up. Blood samples were collected prior to and during the warm-up, pre- and post- TT and at regular intervals after the TT. Urine samples were collected pre- and post- warm-up, immediately post TT and 60 min post TT. Pre-exercise ingestion of the diester resulted in a 2 ± 1% impairment in TT performance that was associated with gut discomfort and higher perception of effort. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate, serum acetoacetate, and urine ketone concentrations increased from rest following ketone ingestion and were higher than placebo throughout the trial. Ketone ingestion induces hyperketonemia in elite professional cyclists when in a carbohydrate fed state, and impairs performance of a cycling TT lasting ~50 min.

  11. EFFECT OF THE VOLUME OF FLUID INGESTED ON URINE CONCENTRATING ABILITY DURING PROLONGED HEAVY EXERCISE IN A HOT ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Otani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of the volume of fluid ingested on urine concentrating ability during prolonged heavy exercise in a hot environment at low levels of dehydration. Seven healthy males performed 105 min of intermittent cycle exercise at 70% maximum oxygen uptake (32°C, 60% relative humidity while receiving no fluid ingestion (NF, voluntary fluid ingestion (VF, partial fluid ingestion equivalent to one-half of body mass loss (PF, and full fluid ingestion equivalent to body mass loss (FF. Fluid (5°C, 3.4% carbohydrate, 10.5 mmol·L-1 sodium was ingested just before commencing exercise and at 15, 33, 51, 69, and 87 min of exercise, and the total amount of fluid ingested in PF and FF was divided into six equal volumes. During exercise, body mass loss was 2.2 ± 0.2, 1.1 ± 0.5, 1.1 ± 0.2, and 0.1 ± 0.2% in NF, VF, PF, and FF, respectively, whereas total sweat loss was about 2% of body mass in each trial. Subjects in VF ingested 719 ± 240 ml of fluid during exercise; the volume of fluid ingested was 1.1 ± 0.4% of body mass. Creatinine clearance was significantly higher and free water clearance was significantly lower in FF than in NF during exercise. Urine flow rate during exercise decreased significantly in NF. There were significant decreases in creatinine and osmolar clearance and was a significant increase in free water clearance during exercise in NF and VF. Creatinine clearance decreased significantly and free water clearance increased significantly during exercise in PF. There was no statistical change in urinary indices of renal function during exercise in FF. The findings suggest that full fluid ingestion equivalent to body mass loss has attenuated the decline in urine concentrating ability during prolonged heavy exercise in a hot environment at low levels of dehydration.

  12. Effects of submaximal exercise with water ingestion on intraocular pressure in healthy human males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exercise and water replacement on intraocular pressure (IOP have not been well established. Furthermore, it is not known whether the temperature of the fluid ingested influences the IOP response. In the present study we determined the effect of water ingestion at three temperatures (10, 24 and 38ºC; 600 ml 15 min before and 240 ml 15, 30 and 45 min after the beginning of each experimental session on the IOP of six healthy male volunteers (age = 24.0 ± 3.5 years, weight = 67.0 ± 4.8 kg, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak = 47.8 ± 9.1 ml kg-1 min-1. The subjects exercised until exhaustion on a cycle ergometer at a 60% VO2peak in a thermoneutral environment. IOP was measured before and after exercise and during recovery (15, 30 and 45 min using the applanation tonometry method. Skin and rectal temperatures, heart rate and oxygen uptake were measured continuously. IOP was similar for the right eye and the left eye and increased post-water ingestion under both exercising and resting conditions (P<0.05 but did not differ between resting and exercising situations, or between the three water temperatures. Time to exhaustion was not affected by the different water temperatures. Rectal temperature, hydration status, heart rate, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide extraction and lactate concentration were increased by exercise but were not affected by water temperature. We conclude that IOP was not affected by exercise and that water ingestion increased IOP as expected, regardless of water temperature.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Boundary Layer Ingesting (BLI) Inlet-Fan Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, James; Chen, Jen-Ping; Beach, Timothy; Bakhle, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Future civil transport designs may incorporate engine inlets integrated into the body of the aircraft to take advantage of efficiency increases due to weight and drag reduction. Additional increases in engine efficiency are predicted if the inlet ingests the lower momentum boundary layer flow. Previous studies have shown, however, that efficiency benefits of Boundary Layer Ingesting (BLI) ingestion are very sensitive to the magnitude of fan and duct losses, and blade structural response to the non-uniform flow field that results from a BLI inlet has not been studied in-depth. This paper presents an effort to extend the modeling capabilities of an existing rotating turbomachinery unsteady analysis code to include the ability to solve the external and internal flow fields of a BLI inlet. The TURBO code has been a successful tool in evaluating fan response to flow distortions for traditional engine/inlet integrations, such as the development of rotating stall and inlet distortion through compressor stages. This paper describes the first phase of an effort to extend the TURBO model to calculate the external and inlet flowfield upstream of fan so that accurate pressure distortions that result from BLI configurations can be computed and used to analyze fan aerodynamics and structural response. To validate the TURBO program modifications for the BLI flowfield, experimental test data obtained by NASA for a flushmounted S-duct with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion was modeled. Results for the flow upstream and in the inlet are presented and compared to experimental data for several high Reynolds number flows to validate the modifications to the solver. Quantitative data is presented that indicates good predictive capability of the model in the upstream flow. A representative fan is attached to the inlet and results are presented for the coupled inlet/fan model. The impact on the total pressure distortion at the AIP after the fan is attached is examined.

  14. Ingested Fish Bone: An Unusual Mechanism of Duodenal Perforation and Pancreatic Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Symeonidis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of gastrointestinal foreign bodies represents a challenging clinical scenario. Increased morbidity is the price for the delayed diagnosis of complications and timely treatment. We present a case of 57-year-old female patient which was admitted in the emergency room department complaining of a mid-epigastric pain over the last twenty-four hours. Based on the patient's history, physical examination and elevated serum amylase levels, a false diagnosis of pancreatitis, was initially adopted. However, a CT scan confirmed the presence of a radiopaque foreign body in the pancreatic head and the presence of air bubbles outside the intestinal lumen. The patient was unaware of the ingestion of the foreign body. At laparotomy, after an oblique duodenotomy, a fish bone pinned in the pancreatic head after the penetration of the medial aspect of the second portion of the duodenal wall was identified and successfully removed. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery. Wide variation in clinical presentation characterizes the complicated fish bone ingestions. The strategically located site of penetration in the visceral wall is responsible for the often extraordinary gastrointestinal tract injury patterns. Increased level of suspicion is of paramount importance for the timely diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Plastic photochromic eyewear: a status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crano, John C.; Elias, Richard C.

    1991-12-01

    An estimated 10 million pairs of photochromic prescription lenses were dispensed in the United States in 1989, essentially all based on a silver halide system suspended in an inorganic glass. A significant trend within the ophthalmic industry has been the growth of light-weight plastic lenses. In the United States market, the percentage of prescription eyewear made of plastic is now greater than 70%. With this increasing market penetration of plastic lenses, the desire for an acceptable plastic photochromic lens has also increased. As with any commercial product, in order to achieve consumer acceptance there exist several technical requirements for a plastic photochromic lens. These include the light transmission and color of the lens in both the unactivated and activated states, the speeds of darkening and fading, and the fatigue resistance or lifetime of the photochromic system. These requirements will be defined along with approaches to achieving them. The properties of the commercially available plastic photochromic lenses will be compared with the defined requirements.

  16. Acute Intoxication following Dimethyltryptamine Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H. Bilhimer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic tea that is most commonly comprised of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi alone or in combination with other plants such as Psychotria viridis. This concoction results in an orally active form of dimethyltryptamine (DMT, a hallucinogenic amine. Despite use in South America as a medicinal agent and component in religious ceremonies, interest in its recreational use and spiritual effects has led to increased use in the United States. We describe a unique case following ingestion of ayahuasca tea in a patient with history of schizophrenia resulting in personal injury and property damage. A review of ayahuasca toxicity and evaluation of serious adverse effects is also presented.

  17. Effects of Whey Protein Hydrolysate Ingestion on Postprandial Aminoacidemia Compared with a Free Amino Acid Mixture in Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Nakayama

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To stimulate muscle protein synthesis, it is important to increase the plasma levels of essential amino acids (EAA, especially leucine, by ingesting proteins. Protein hydrolysate ingestion can induce postprandial hyperaminoacidemia; however, it is unclear whether protein hydrolysate is associated with higher levels of aminoacidemia compared with a free amino acid mixture when both are ingested orally. We assessed the effects of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH ingestion on postprandial aminoacidemia, especially plasma leucine levels, compared to ingestion of a free amino acid mixture. This study was an open-label, randomized, 4 × 4 Latin square design. After 12–15 h of fasting, 11 healthy young men ingested the WPH (3.3, 5.0, or 7.5 g of protein or the EAA mixture (2.5 g. Blood samples were collected before ingestion and at time points from 10 to 120 min after ingestion, and amino acids, insulin, glucose and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 concentrations in plasma were measured. Even though the EAA mixture and 5.0 g of the WPH contained similar amounts of EAA and leucine, the WPH was associated with significantly higher plasma EAA and leucine levels. These results suggest that the WPH can induce a higher level of aminoacidemia compared with a free amino acid mixture when both are ingested orally.

  18. USE OF THE DEVICE TO INCREASE THE PLASTIC PROPERTIES OF COLD-SHAPED FITTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Akhmetov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of influence of the relationship of a limit of fluidity and full relative lengthening at the maximum load on deformation energy before destruction are considered in the article. Use of the block to decrease of internal tension in production of cold-shaped fittings allows to increase significantly its plastic properties, i. e. a power factor. At the same time combination of such device with the straightening unit similar to one used in production of thin wire and also minimization of specific reduction opens prospects for obtaining all necessary parameters of the fittings of a class «B» produced by cold rolling. 

  19. Acute renal failure after ingestion of guaifenesin and dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Evan; Sandefur, Benjamin J

    2014-07-01

    Guaifenesin is a common nonprescription medication that has been implicated in drug-induced nephrolithiasis. Dextromethorphan, a nonprescription antitussive found in some guaifenesin-containing preparations, is increasingly recognized as a substance of abuse by many youth and young adults. Renally excreted medications known to have poor solubility in urine have the potential to precipitate when ingested in large quantity, leading to acute obstruction of the ureters and renal failure. We describe the case of a 22-year-old male who developed severe bilateral flank pain, hematuria, and oliguria after an isolated recreational ingestion of guaifenesin and dextromethorphan. The patient was found to have bilateral ureteral obstruction and acute renal failure, suspected to be secondary to precipitation of medication metabolites in the urine. This case highlights the potential for acute renal failure secondary to guaifenesin and dextromethorphan abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sharp foreign body ingestion by a young girl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riyadh Mohamad Hasan

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... Sharp foreign body ingestion by a young girl. Riyadh Mohamad Hasan. University of Baghdad ... ray imaging and retrieved with the aid of C-arm fluoroscope at a laparotomy. Her postoperative period ... In our patient the foreign bodies were long sharp ones (sewing needles). Foreign body ingestion can be ...

  1. Caustic ingestion injuries-at military hospital rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, O.; Razzaq, K.; Abbas, W.; Zarrin, F.

    2015-01-01

    To study the pattern and endoscopic severity of caustic ingestion injuries presenting at Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Medical and Gastroenterology Department Military Hospital Rawalpindi from August 2012 to April 2013. Material and Methods: Patients were selected from those who presented with caustic ingestion history in Medical OPD, ER and in medical wards. After informed consent the patient underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) Endoscopy. Endoscopic findings were recorded. Results: Out of 50 patients, 21(42%) were males and 29 (58%) were females. Ingestion was accidental in 19 (38%) and was with intent of suicide or self-harm in 31(62%) patients. Mean age was 33.2 years (SD ± 13.2). All the patients were subjected to upper GI endoscopy and findings were recorded. Endoscopic findings were grade 0 in 4 (8%), Grade 1 in 6 (12%), grade 2a in 7 (14%), grade 2b in 10 (20%), grade 3a in 6 (12%) and grade 3b in 17 (34%) patients. Conclusion: Caustic ingestion injuries were seen more in younger females with predominant cause as suicidal intent. On endoscopic examination severe corrosive injuries were more frequent. (author)

  2. Does microplastic induce oxidative stress in marine invertebrates?

    OpenAIRE

    Riesbeck, Sarah; Gutow, Lars; Saborowski, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades the production of plastic increased continuously. Simultaneously, environmental pollution by plastic became a rising issue. Marine litter can have adverse effects on animals. Some species may get trapped in lost fishing nets or they may starve to death upon ingestion of plastic which may clog their digestive tracts. Degradation of plastic items generates a continuously increasing number of smaller-sized particles. Microplastic, finally ranging in the µm-size classes can ha...

  3. An Ingested Orthodontic Wire Fragment: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puryer, James; McNamara, Catherine; Sandy, Jonathan; Ireland, Tony

    2016-08-01

    Accidental ingestion or inhalation of foreign bodies has been widely documented, including incidents which occur whilst undertaking dental treatment. Most ingested objects pass through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) spontaneously, but approximately 10%-20% need to be removed endoscopically and 1% require surgery. This case reports a complication arising from the accidental loss of an archwire fragment during maxillary archwire placement. It describes the immediate and subsequent management, including the use of radiographs to track the passage of the fragment through the gastro-intestinal tract. This case stresses the vigilance that dentists must take to prevent inhalation or ingestion of foreign bodies and the consequences of time-delays when management decisions are needed.

  4. Modulation of synaptic plasticity by stress hormone associates with plastic alteration of synaptic NMDA receptor in the adult hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiu Chung Tse

    Full Text Available Stress exerts a profound impact on learning and memory, in part, through the actions of adrenal corticosterone (CORT on synaptic plasticity, a cellular model of learning and memory. Increasing findings suggest that CORT exerts its impact on synaptic plasticity by altering the functional properties of glutamate receptors, which include changes in the motility and function of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid subtype of glutamate receptor (AMPAR that are responsible for the expression of synaptic plasticity. Here we provide evidence that CORT could also regulate synaptic plasticity by modulating the function of synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs, which mediate the induction of synaptic plasticity. We found that stress level CORT applied to adult rat hippocampal slices potentiated evoked NMDAR-mediated synaptic responses within 30 min. Surprisingly, following this fast-onset change, we observed a slow-onset (>1 hour after termination of CORT exposure increase in synaptic expression of GluN2A-containing NMDARs. To investigate the consequences of the distinct fast- and slow-onset modulation of NMDARs for synaptic plasticity, we examined the formation of long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD within relevant time windows. Paralleling the increased NMDAR function, both LTP and LTD were facilitated during CORT treatment. However, 1-2 hours after CORT treatment when synaptic expression of GluN2A-containing NMDARs is increased, bidirectional plasticity was no longer facilitated. Our findings reveal the remarkable plasticity of NMDARs in the adult hippocampus in response to CORT. CORT-mediated slow-onset increase in GluN2A in hippocampal synapses could be a homeostatic mechanism to normalize synaptic plasticity following fast-onset stress-induced facilitation.

  5. Rare-earth magnet ingestion-related injuries among children, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roo, Ana C; Thompson, Meghan C; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Xiang, Huiyun; Cowles, Nancy A; Shmuylovskaya, Liliya; Smith, Gary A

    2013-11-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of rare-earth magnet ingestion by children by retrospectively analyzing 72 cases of magnet ingestion collected from Saferproducts.gov and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission from 2000 through 2012. The mean child age was 6.4 years. Patients ingested between 1 and 40 magnets, most often 1 to 4 magnets. Unique circumstances of ingestion included faux piercing (19.4%) and mistaking magnets for candy (6.9%). Surgery was required in 69.7% of cases where treatment was reported. Fifty-three patients were hospitalized (73.6%), and the length of hospital stay was reported in 58.5% of those cases, ranging from 1 to 54 days. Approximately half (50.7%) of the magnets causing injury were products intended for use by adults. Study findings demonstrate that pediatric ingestion of rare-earth magnets can cause serious gastrointestinal injury. Establishing a performance standard that limits the attraction force of these magnets offers the best prevention solution to this important pediatric public health problem.

  6. Esophageal perforation following foreign body ingestion in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esophageal perforation following foreign body ingestion in children: report of three cases. O Abdelhadi, AE Ali, O Taha, A Abdalla, F Nugud. Abstract. We report three cases of foreign body esophagus, in two of them the foreign body was a coin, and the third child ingested a disc battery. In all three cases the foreign body ...

  7. Effects of chronic cesium-137 ingestion on physiological system in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voisin, Philippe; Grignard, Elise; Souidi, Maamar; Gueguen, Yann; Lestaevel, Philippe; Grandcolas, Line; Grison, Stephane; Dublineau, Isabelle; Gourmelon, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Several diseases have been reported in populations living in contaminated territories in the vicinity of Chernobyl, such as behavior disorders, anxiety symptoms, cardiovascular diseases, perturbations of endocrine and reproductive status, immunity disturbances. Therefore, the post-Chernobyl contamination by 137 Cs is of particular concern for public health. The objective of this study was to determine in a rat model the effects of 137 Cs contamination by ingestion of 6500 Bq/L on several physiological systems, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, steroidogenesis, intestinal functions, metabolism of cholesterol and of vitamin D. The animals were chronically and sub-chronically contaminated via drinking water (∼150 Bq per day) at a post-accidental dose level. Our experiments demonstrated that chronic ingestion of 137 Cs induced some disturbances of these systems. A decrease in blood pressure was observed in contaminated animals. At the same time, changes in cardiac function were evidenced via increased plasma levels of CK and CK-MB and variations in gene expression of proteins involved in vascular tonus (Gueguen et al. Toxicol Lett 2007), and of K + channels in cardiac left ventricle. Vitamin D metabolism was also modified by 137 Cs with a diminution of plasma level of Vitamin D (1,25(OH)D3), and changes in mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 CYP27B1 and CYP2R1 in brain and liver (Tissandie et al. Toxicology 2006). Concerning cholesterol metabolism, no changes in plasma lipid levels were noted, although increased gene expression of liver X receptor α (LXRα), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) (Souidi et al. Int J Toxicol 2006). In addition, steroidogenesis seemed to be modified, since decreased plasma level of 17β-estradiol and increased corticosterone plasma level were observed following chronic 137 Cs ingestion. These changes were associated with modification of mRNA levels of nuclear receptors in testis and of

  8. Environment friendly solutions of plastics waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirzada, F.N.; Riffat, T.; Pirzada, M.D.S.

    1997-01-01

    The use of plastics is growing worldwide. Consequently, the volume of plastic waste is also increasing. Presently, more than 100 million tons per year of plastic is being produced globally. In U.S. alone more than 10 million tons of plastic is being dumped in landfills as waste, where it can persist for decades. This has resulted in exhausting old landfills. Public awareness on environment is also making it difficult to find new sites for landfills. This has led to increased emphasis on treatment and recycling of plastic wastes. Volume reduction of plastic waste has some unique problems. They arise from the intrinsic chemical inertness of polymeric materials and toxic nature of their degradation byproducts. The paper reviews the present state of plastic waste management including land filling, incineration and recycling technologies. The technical problems associated with each of these processes have been discussed. There is also brief description of ongoing R and D for finding improved methods of plastic waste handling with their promises and problems. The role of tougher legislation in developing better recycling methods and degradable plastics has also been evaluated. The claims made by the proponents of degradable polymers have also been critically reviewed. (authors)

  9. Apllication of plastic scintillators with light intensifiers in photographic dosemeters to increase the sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, C.H. de; Hamada, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effect of a light converter (plastic scintillator) to use as badge in the conventional photographic dosimeter. In this dosimeter the light is a new component of emulsion sensibilization. So, even radiations that are not able to reach the photographic emulsion can be detected by producing photons in the plastic scintillator. (author) [pt

  10. Mechanisms of GABAergic Homeostatic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wenner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic plasticity ensures that appropriate levels of activity are maintained through compensatory adjustments in synaptic strength and cellular excitability. For instance, excitatory glutamatergic synapses are strengthened following activity blockade and weakened following increases in spiking activity. This form of plasticity has been described in a wide array of networks at several different stages of development, but most work and reviews have focussed on the excitatory inputs of excitatory neurons. Here we review homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic neurons and their synaptic connections. We propose a simplistic model for homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic components of the circuitry (GABAergic synapses onto excitatory neurons, excitatory connections onto GABAergic neurons, cellular excitability of GABAergic neurons: following chronic activity blockade there is a weakening of GABAergic inhibition, and following chronic increases in network activity there is a strengthening of GABAergic inhibition. Previous work on GABAergic homeostatic plasticity supports certain aspects of the model, but it is clear that the model cannot fully account for some results which do not appear to fit any simplistic rule. We consider potential reasons for these discrepancies.

  11. The complex interaction between marine debris and toxic chemicals in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Richard E

    2012-11-20

    Marine debris, especially plastic debris, is widely recognized as a global environmental problem. There has been substantial research on the impacts of plastic marine debris, such as entanglement and ingestion. These impacts are largely due to the physical presence of plastic debris. In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the impacts of toxic chemicals as they relate to plastic debris. Some plastic debris acts as a source of toxic chemicals: substances that were added to the plastic during manufacturing leach from plastic debris. Plastic debris also acts as a sink for toxic chemicals. Plastic sorbs persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic substances (PBTs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, from the water or sediment. These PBTs may desorb when the plastic is ingested by any of a variety of marine species. This broad look at the current research suggests that while there is significant uncertainty and complexity in the kinetics and thermodynamics of the interaction, plastic debris appears to act as a vector transferring PBTs from the water to the food web, increasing risk throughout the marine food web, including humans. Because of the extremely long lifetime of plastic and PBTs in the ocean, prevention strategies are vital to minimizing these risks.

  12. Heartburn and regurgitation in pregnancy: the effect of fat ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Alba, Valesca; Fornari, Fernando; Krahe, Cláudio; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia Maria; Silva de Barros, Sérgio Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Reflux symptoms are common in pregnancy, but their association with fat ingestion is unclear. To investigate an association of dietary fats with heartburn and regurgitation in pregnancy. This is a prospective study in which 89 pregnant women (gestational age 34 +/- 4 weeks) attending a low-risk prenatal outpatient clinic were asked to provide information on the frequency they experienced heartburn and regurgitation. Fat ingestion was estimated by means of a 24-h diet record. Symptomatic patients were compared with those with no reflux symptoms (n = 20). Heartburn once a week or more often occurred in 56 of the 89 patients (63%). The ingested amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids was higher in patients with heartburn (11.2 +/- 6.4 vs. 7.7 +/- 3.5 mg; P = 0.022) than in controls after adjusting for age, gain weight during pregnancy, ingestion of caffeine and vitamin C, and total energetic intake. The ingestion of monounsaturated fatty acids was higher in patients with heartburn, but with a borderline statistical significance (16.1 +/- 11 vs. 11.8 +/- 6.5 mg; P = 0.061). No association was observed between the consumption of fats and regurgitation. This study suggests that heartburn in the third trimester of pregnancy is associated with the ingestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  13. Ingestion of magnetic toys: report of serious complications requiring surgical intervention and a proposed management algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jerry; Shaul, Donald B; Sydorak, Roman M; Lau, Stanley T; Akmal, Yasir; Rodriguez, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Increasing popularity of strong magnets as toys has led to their ingestion by children, putting them at risk of potentially harmful gastrointestinal tract injuries. To heighten physician awareness of the potential complications of magnetic foreign body ingestion, and to provide an updated algorithm for management of a patient who is suspected to have ingested magnets. A retrospective review of magnet ingestions treated over a two-year period at our institutions in the Southern California Permanente Medical Group. Data including patient demographics, clinical information, radiologic images, and surgical records were used to propose a management strategy. Five patients, aged 15 months to 18 years, presented with abdominal symptoms after magnet ingestion. Four of the 5 patients suffered serious complications, including bowel necrosis, perforation, fistula formation, and obstruction. All patients were successfully treated with laparoscopic-assisted exploration with or without endoscopy. Total days in the hospital averaged 5.2 days (range = 3 to 9 days). Average time to discharge following surgery was 4 days (range = 2 to 7 days). Ex vivo experimentation with toy magnetic beads were performed to reveal characteristics of the magnetic toys. Physicians should have a heightened sense of caution when treating a patient in whom magnetic foreign body ingestion is suspected, because of the potential gastrointestinal complications. An updated management strategy is proposed that both prevents delays in surgical care and avoids unnecessary surgical exploration.

  14. Distribution of tritium in the different organs of calves and pigs after ingestion of various tritiated feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchmann, R.; Charles, P.; Bruwaene, R. van; Remy, J.; Koch, G.; Hoek, J. van den

    1978-01-01

    The studies reported here are related to the distribution of tritium in the organs of farm animals contaminated in various ways. Two young male calves ingested tritiated milk; the daily intake of 3 H-organic form was about 15 μCi for each calf and the total activity ingested until the sacrifice was 482 μCi. Three male pigs from the same litter and about 7 weeks old were used for each experiment of the administration of tritium under different forms. It was verified that the chemical form of 3 H present in the food is of great importance for the incorporation of 3 H in the organic matter of the animal organs. The total incorporation increases by a factor 5.6 when 3 H is ingested as tritiated milkpowder by pigs as compared to HTO and with a factor 15 for calves. When tritiated potatoes were ingested by pigs a factor 15.6 was found. The transfer of 3 H from HTO and milk feed ingested in the organic fraction of organs is lower for pig than for calf. (Auth.)

  15. [From the French Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery to the French Society of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicenstein, J

    2004-04-01

    (The) 3rd December 1952, 11 surgeons and other specialists found the French Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (SFCPR) which was officially published on (the) 28 September 1953. The first congress was during October 1953 and the first president as Maurice Aubry. The first secretary was Daniel Morel Fatio. The symposiums were after about three of four times each year and the thematic subjects were initially according the reconstructive surgery. The review "Annales de chirurgie plastique" was free in 1956. The members of the Society were about 30 initially, but their plastic surgery in the big hospitals at Paris and other big towns in France. The "specialty" of plastic surgery was created in 1971. On "syndicate", one French board of plastic reconstructive and aesthetic surgery, the increasing of departments of plastic surgery were the front of increasing of the plastic surgery in French and of the number of the French Society of Plastic Reconstructive surgery (580 in 2003). The French Society organized the International Congress of Plastic Surgery in 1975. The society SFCPR became the French Society of plastic reconstruction and Aesthetic Surgery (SFCPRE) in 1983 and the "logo" (front view) was in the 1994 SOF.CPRE.

  16. Biological degradation of plastics: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aamer Ali; Hasan, Fariha; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmed, Safia

    2008-01-01

    Lack of degradability and the closing of landfill sites as well as growing water and land pollution problems have led to concern about plastics. With the excessive use of plastics and increasing pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. Awareness of the waste problem and its impact on the environment has awakened new interest in the area of degradable polymers. The interest in environmental issues is growing and there are increasing demands to develop material which do not burden the environment significantly. Biodegradation is necessary for water-soluble or water-immiscible polymers because they eventually enter streams which can neither be recycled nor incinerated. It is important to consider the microbial degradation of natural and synthetic polymers in order to understand what is necessary for biodegradation and the mechanisms involved. This requires understanding of the interactions between materials and microorganisms and the biochemical changes involved. Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. This paper reviews the current research on the biodegradation of biodegradable and also the conventional synthetic plastics and also use of various techniques for the analysis of degradation in vitro.

  17. Ingestion of glucose or sucrose prevents liver but not muscle glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise in trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Javier T; Fuchs, Cas J; Smith, Fiona E; Thelwall, Pete E; Taylor, Roy; Stevenson, Emma J; Trenell, Michael I; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to define the effect of glucose ingestion compared with sucrose ingestion on liver and muscle glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise. Fourteen cyclists completed two 3-h bouts of cycling at 50% of peak power output while ingesting either glucose or sucrose at a rate of 1.7 g/min (102 g/h). Four cyclists performed an additional third test for reference in which only water was consumed. We employed (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine liver and muscle glycogen concentrations before and after exercise. Expired breath was sampled during exercise to estimate whole body substrate use. After glucose and sucrose ingestion, liver glycogen levels did not show a significant decline after exercise (from 325 ± 168 to 345 ± 205 and 321 ± 177 to 348 ± 170 mmol/l, respectively; P > 0.05), with no differences between treatments. Muscle glycogen concentrations declined (from 101 ± 49 to 60 ± 34 and 114 ± 48 to 67 ± 34 mmol/l, respectively; P glycogen concentrations declined during exercise when only water was ingested. Both glucose and sucrose ingestion prevent liver glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise. Sucrose ingestion does not preserve liver glycogen concentrations more than glucose ingestion. However, sucrose ingestion does increase whole body carbohydrate utilization compared with glucose ingestion. This trial was registered at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02110836. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Influence on the mouse immune system of chronic ingestion of {sup 137}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertho, Jean-Marc; Faure, Marie-Cecile; Louiba, Sonia; Tourlonias, Elie; Stefani, Johanna; Siffert, Baptiste; Paquet, Francois; Dublineau, Isabelle, E-mail: Jean-marc.bertho@irsn.fr [IRSN, Laboratoire de Radiotoxicologie Experimentale, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the possible occurrence of damage to the immune system during the course of chronic ingestion of {sup 137}Cs. BALB/C mice were used, with {sup 137}Cs intake via drinking water at a concentration of 20 kBq l{sup -1}. Adults received {sup 137}Cs before mating and offspring were sacrificed at various ages between birth and 20 weeks. Phenotypic analysis of circulating blood cells and thymocytes did not show any significant modification of immune cell populations in animals ingesting {sup 137}Cs as compared with control animals, with the exception of a slight increase in Treg percentage at the age of 12 weeks. Functional tests, including proliferative response to mitogens such as phytohaemagglutinin, response to alloantigens in mixed lymphocyte reaction and immunoglobulin response to vaccine antigens such as tetanus toxin and keyhole limpet haemocyanin did not show any significant functional modification of the immune system in {sup 137}Cs-ingesting animals as compared with control animals. Overall, our results suggest that chronic ingestion of a low concentration of {sup 137}Cs in drinking water in the long term does not have any biologically relevant effect on the immune system.

  19. Attempted Suicide by Massive Warfarin Ingestion Conservatively Managed Using Phytonadione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L. March

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment strategies for acute toxicity following massive ingestion of warfarin are not well described in the literature. Warfarin is the primary oral anticoagulation agent used in the treatment of thromboembolic disease, and patients with acute toxicity are at risk for life-threatening hemorrhages. Treatment options include phytonadione (vitamin K1, fresh frozen plasma (FFP, and prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs used alone or in combination. FFP and PCC can be associated with volume complications, undesirable thromboembolic events, and increased costs. We describe the case of a 63-year-old female with acute warfarin toxicity following a massive ingestion of warfarin (420 mg–450 mg in an attempt to commit suicide. Upon arrival to the emergency department, serial INR checks were initiated to help guide dosing strategy and later adjusted based on INR response to treatment using only phytonadione.

  20. Modeling the drift of plastics in the Adriatic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Lecci, Rita; Creti, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    among the Adriatic subregions are quantified in terms of impact matrices. The results obtained can be used to monitor the floating debris, plan cleanups, and make policy-relevant decisions. The methodology could be further improved by including consideration of plastic particles sinking, breaking into microplastics, and being ingested by biota. Furthermore, we believe that in the future, higher resolution current data will enhance the Lagrangian representation of floating plastic transport. This work has been supported by the DeFishGear (Derelict Fishing Gear Management System in the Adriatic Region (http://www.defishgear.net/) IPA Adriatic strategic project 1° str/00010 implemented with co-funding by the European Union, Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA). References De Dominicis, M., Pinardi, N., Zodiatis, G., Lardner, R., 2013. MEDSLIK-II, a Lagrangian marine surface oil spill model for short term forecasting - Part 1: Theory. Geosci. Model Dev. 6, 1851-1869. Guarnieri, A., Oddo, P., Pastore, M., Pinardi, N., 2010. The Adriatic Basin Forecasting System new model and system development, in: Coastal to Global Operational Oceanography: Achievements and Challenges, 184-190. Liubartseva, S., Coppini, G., Lecci, R., Creti, S., Regional approach to modeling the transport of floating plastic debris in the Adriatic Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.12.031.

  1. Prediction of complications following unintentional caustic ingestion in children. Is endoscopy always necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, H B

    1995-01-01

    The records of 115 children hospitalized following caustic ingestion over an 18.5-year period from 1976 to 1994 were reviewed. The relationship between types of product ingested, signs and symptoms, degree of esophageal injury and complications was analyzed. All complications were the result...... of strong alkali ingestion (sensitivity = 1.0). Among the 102 incident patients, 36.8% of lye ingestions resulted in complications, whereas only 2.7% (one) of automatic dishwasher detergent (ADD) ingestions caused any complications (p

  2. After the Recall: Reexamining Multiple Magnet Ingestion at a Large Pediatric Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Daniel; Strickland, Matt; Hepburn, Charlotte Moore

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a mandatory product recall on the frequency of multiple mini-magnet ingestion at a large tertiary pediatric hospital, and to examine the morbidity and mortality associated with these ingestions. In this retrospective chart review, we searched our institution's electronic patient record for patients aged magnetic foreign bodies between 2002 and 2015, a period that included the mandatory product recall. We compared the frequency and character of ingestions before and after the recall. Comparing the postrecall years (January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2015) with the 2 years immediately preceding the recall year (January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012) yields an incidence rate ratio of 0.34 (95% CI, 0.18-0.64) for all magnet ingestions and 0.20 (95% CI, 0.08-0.53) for ingestion of multiple magnets. Based on the Fisher exact test, the incidence of both magnet ingestion (P magnet ingestion (P magnet ingestion decreased. There were no deaths in either study period. There was a significant decrease in multiple mini-magnet ingestion following a mandatory product recall. This study supports the effectiveness of the recall, which should bolster efforts to keep it in place in jurisdictions where it is being appealed. More broadly, the result provides general evidence of a recall helping decrease further harm from a product that carries a potential hazard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnet foreign body ingestion: rare occurrence but big consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Richard; Rosenfeld, Eric H; Yu, Yangyang R; St Peter, Shawn D; Shah, Sohail R

    2017-08-24

    To review the outcomes of magnet ingestions from two children's hospitals and develop a clinical management pathway. Children magnet were reviewed from 1/2011 to 6/2016 from two tertiary center children's hospitals. Demographics, symptoms, management and outcomes were analyzed. From 2011 to 2016, there were 89 magnet ingestions (50 from hospital 1 and 39 from hospital 2); 50 (56%) were males. Median age was 7.9 (4.0-12.0) years; 60 (67%) presented with multiple magnets or a magnet and a second metallic co-ingestion. Suspected locations found on imaging were: stomach (53%), small bowel (38%), colon (23%) and esophagus (3%). Only 35 patients (39%) presented with symptoms and the most common symptom was abdominal pain (33%). 42 (47%) patients underwent an intervention, in which 20 (23%) had an abdominal operation. For those undergoing abdominal surgery, an exact logistic regression model identified multiple magnets or a magnet and a second metallic object co-ingestion (OR 12.9; 95% CI, 2.4 - Infinity) and abdominal pain (OR 13.0; 95% CI, 3.2-67.8) as independent risk factors. Magnets have a high risk of requiring surgical intervention for removal. Therefore, we developed a management algorithm for magnet ingestion. Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Paraffin ingestion - the problem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of paraffin ingestion is higher in the summer months. This is because ... where the average cost per patient was R348 per day. The total cost to ... petroleum companies and/or entrepreneurs and distributed ... paraffin, coal and gas. As South Africa ... and more people become involved, making control difficult.

  5. Ingestible capsule for remote controlled release of a substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The application relates to an ingestible capsule (102) for delivery of a substance e.g. a pharmaceutical drug, to a human or animal. The ingestible capsule comprises a capsule wall structure (202) forming a substantially sealed reservoir or lumen holding the substance (204). An electrical resonance...

  6. Joining by plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Ken-ichiro; Bay, Niels; Fratini, Livan

    2013-01-01

    As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating opportuni......As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating...

  7. Severe neurotoxicity following ingestion of tetraethyl lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Brandon K; Christensen, Jason; Mazzoncini, Joe; Miller, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Organic lead compounds are potent neurotoxins which can result in death even from small exposures. Traditionally, these compounds are found in fuel stabilizers, anti-knock agents, and leaded gasoline. Cases of acute organic lead intoxication have not been reported for several decades. We report a case of a 13-year-old Iraqi male who unintentionally ingested a fuel stabilizer containing 80-90% tetraethyl lead, managed at our combat support hospital. The patient developed severe neurologic symptoms including agitation, hallucinations, weakness, and tremor. These symptoms were refractory to escalating doses of benzodiazepines and ultimately required endotracheal intubation and a propofol infusion. Adjunctive therapies included chelation, baclofen, and nutrition provided through a gastrostomy tube. The patient slowly recovered and was discharged in a wheelchair 20 days after ingestion, still requiring tube feeding. Follow-up at 62 days post-ingestion revealed near-resolution of symptoms with residual slurred speech and slight limp. This case highlights the profound neurotoxic manifestations of acute organic lead compounds.

  8. Plastic waste associated with disease on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Joleah B; Willis, Bette L; Fiorenza, Evan A; Couch, Courtney S; Howard, Robert; Rader, Douglas N; True, James D; Kelly, Lisa A; Ahmad, Awaludinnoer; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Harvell, C Drew

    2018-01-26

    Plastic waste can promote microbial colonization by pathogens implicated in outbreaks of disease in the ocean. We assessed the influence of plastic waste on disease risk in 124,000 reef-building corals from 159 reefs in the Asia-Pacific region. The likelihood of disease increases from 4% to 89% when corals are in contact with plastic. Structurally complex corals are eight times more likely to be affected by plastic, suggesting that microhabitats for reef-associated organisms and valuable fisheries will be disproportionately affected. Plastic levels on coral reefs correspond to estimates of terrestrial mismanaged plastic waste entering the ocean. We estimate that 11.1 billion plastic items are entangled on coral reefs across the Asia-Pacific and project this number to increase 40% by 2025. Plastic waste management is critical for reducing diseases that threaten ecosystem health and human livelihoods. Copyright © 2018, The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  9. Intestinal volvulus and perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilçe, Zekeriya; Samsum, Hakan; Mammadov, Emil; Celayir, Sinan

    2007-01-01

    Ingested magnets can cause intestinal fistulas, perforation, and obstruction. There have been reports of magnet ingestion causing intestinal volvulus, but multiple magnet ingestion causing perforation and intestinal volvulus in a child is very unusual. We report the case of a 4-year-old girl, who ingested four magnets she acquired as toys, which caused intestinal volvulus and perforation as a result of pressure necrosis, several days after ingestion. At surgery we repaired two perforations, but additional bowel resection was not required. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 10. If multiple magnet ingestion is suspected in a child, the child must be monitored carefully. If there are signs of obstruction, emergency surgery is mandatory.

  10. EFFECTS OF SODIUM BICARBONATE INGESTION ON SWIM PERFORMANCE IN YOUTH ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Langfort

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg·kg-1 b.w. on swim performance in competitive, (training experience of 6.6 ± 0.6 years youth, (15.1 ± 0.6 years male swimmers. The subjects completed a test trial, in a double blind fashion, on separate days, consisting of 4 x 50m front crawl swims with a 1st minute passive rest interval twice, on two occasions: after ingestion of bicarbonate or placebo, 72 hours apart, at the same time of the day. Blood samples were drawn from the finger tip three times during each trial; upon arrival to the laboratory, 60 min after ingestion of placebo or the sodium bicarbonate solution and after the 4 x 50m test, during the 1st min of recovery. Plasma lactate concentration, blood pH, standard bicarbonate and base excess were evaluated. The total time of the 4 x 50 m test trial improved from 1.54.28 to 1.52.85s, while statistically significant changes in swimming speed were recorded only during the first 50m sprint (1.92 vs. 1.97 m·s-1, p < 0.05. Resting blood concentration of HCO-3 increased following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate from 25.13 to 28.49 mM (p < 0.05. Sodium bicarbonate intake had a statistically significant effect on resting blood pH (7.33 vs. 7.41, p < .05 as well as on post exercise plasma lactate concentration (11.27 vs. 13.06 mM, p < 0.05. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate in youth athletes is an effective buffer during high intensity interval swimming and suggest that such a procedure can be used in youth athletes to increase training intensity as well as swimming performance in competition at distances from 50 to 200 m

  11. USE OF SINGLE-MINUTE EXCHANGE OF DIE – SMED – AS A STRATEGY TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY IN A PLASTIC BOTTLE LABELER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teonas Bartz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the production and sale of food products stored in plastic containers, which serve different markets, caused the company researched departed in search of new concepts to increase the productivity of production equipment. With the increase of productivity, there is greater flexibility in planning and scheduling of production and exchange of tools. The implementation of the methodology of Single-Minute Exchange of Die – SMED reduces the setup time of equipment, maximizing the period of machine operation. With this the company more flexible production process and can reduce production batches, increasing operating rates, productivity and competitiveness of organizations. In this paper, we present the steps necessary for the implementation of the SMED in a labeling machine for plastic bottles. To this end, there were activities analysis, suggestions for improvements in machinery and procedures, timing of the steps before and after the improvements implemented and analyzes of the times obtained. After that, we obtained a significant reduction in setup time machine studied.

  12. Plastic solid waste utilization technologies: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Arun Kumar; Shivashankar, Murugesh; Majumder, Suman

    2017-11-01

    Plastics are used in more number of applications in worldwide and it becomes essential part of our daily life. In Indian cities and villages people use the plastics in buying vegetable as a carry bag, drinking water bottle, use of plastic furniture in home, plastics objects uses in kitchen, plastic drums in packing and storage of the different chemicals for industrial use, use plastic utensils in home and many more uses. After usage of plastics it will become part of waste garbage and create pollution due to presence of toxic chemicals and it will be spread diseases and give birth to uncontrolled issues in social society. In current scenario consumption of plastic waste increasing day by day and it is very difficult to manage the plastic waste. There are limited methodologies available for reutilization of plastic waste again. Such examples are recycling, landfill, incineration, gasification and hydrogenation. In this paper we will review the existing methodologies of utilization of plastic waste in current scenario

  13. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  14. Refractory priapism associated with ingestion of yohimbe extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Amy; Barrueto, Fermin

    2009-12-01

    Extracts of the bark of the central African tree Pausinystalia yohimbe contain yohimbine, an indole alkaloid, which is used to treat erectile dysfunction. The reported side effects of over-the-counter preparations of yohimbine include gastrointestinal upset, anxiety, increased blood pressure, headache, agitation, rash, tachycardia, and frequent urination. In this report, we describe a severe case of intractable priapism associated with the ingestion of yohimbe extract. Management required insertion of a proximal cavernosal spongiosum shunt (Quackles shunt) in the operating room.

  15. New Histologic Findings in Idiopathic Mesenteric Phlebosclerosis: Clues to Its Pathogenesis and Etiology—Probably Ingested Toxic Agent-related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ming Chang

    2007-06-01

    Conclusion: A pathogenesis is suggested for at least a subgroup of cases of IMP: the disease is initiated by a slow but longstanding direct hypoxic injury to the venous muscular layer, which leads to gradual mummification and then sclerosis and calcification of the venous muscle. This is followed by the repeated same damage of the subsequent reactively hyper-plastic myointima in the veins, and these changes finally result in gradual venous occlusion. Certain toxins or biochemi-cals, probably existing in the frequently ingested contents and absorbed to the venous return, may play the most important role in this damage. However, analysis of more cases is required to support the proposal, and if such support is found, the toxic agents remain to be clarified via further laboratory investigations.

  16. Effects of 4-week continuous ingestion of champignon extract on halitosis and body and fecal odor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nishihira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This was placebo-controlled double-blind parallel-group comparative clinical trial targeting 80 men and women aged 50–79 years with halitosis and body and fecal odor. We investigated whether daily champignon extract ingestion for 4 weeks improved these conditions. Subjects were divided into four groups: a placebo group and 50, 500, and 1000 mg/day ingestion groups. No severe adverse events or side effects were noted during the study period. Compared with the placebo group, all champignon extract ingestion groups showed improvement or tendency toward improvement in halitosis and body and fecal odor. Furthermore, our results suggested that the effectiveness of champignon extract in alleviating odors is dose-dependent, i.e., it increases with the dosage.

  17. Plastic Debris Is a Human Health Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vethaak, A.D.; Leslie, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    The global threat of highly persistent plastic waste accumulating and fragmenting in the world’s oceans, inland waters and terrestrial environments is becoming increasingly evident.1−3 Humans are being exposed to both plastic particles and chemical additives being released from the plastic debris of

  18. Gastric Perforation and Phlegmon Formation by Foreign Body Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Alejandro Avila Alvarez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of foreign body ingestion in a suicide attempt resulting in gastric perforation and phlegmon formation during a subsequent 6 month period that eventually required surgical intervention. The patient had a prolonged course because she did not report a history of foreign body ingestion and the initial evaluating physicians had no suspicion about possible foreign body ingestion and may have missed important findings on physical examination. Gastric perforation by a foreign object  may have a slow course rather than presenting acute abdomen. The realization of a proper physical examination in the emergency department is key to an accurate diagnosis.

  19. The ingestion of plutonium and americium by range cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincoe, C.; Bohman, V.R.; Smith, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The intake of plutonium and americium in the diet of cattle grazing on plutonium contaminated desert range was determined. Daily feed intake of the grazing animals was also determined so that the amount of nuclides ingested daily could be ascertained. Soil ingested by range cattle constituted the principal and possibly only source of ingested plutonium and americium and resulted in a daily intake of 3600-6600 pCi 238 Pu, 85,000-400,000 pCi 239 Pu, and 11,000-31,000 pCi 241 Am daily. Determining transuranic intake by direct measurement and from the composition and contamination of the diet gave identical results. (author)

  20. Ingestion modelling in COSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, Sorin; Angelescu, Tatiana

    2003-01-01

    One of the aims in the design of the COSYMA ingestion model was the ability to cope in a flexible manner with the various food chain related data and results at different stages of an accident consequence assessment. Since dynamic foodchain transport models themselves are normally rather complex and require significant computation times, they are usually not included in ACA codes, but are used to calculate and tabulate the needed information in the form of data libraries. Such data files contain specific activity concentrations in the foodstuff and their time integral normalised to unit deposit or unit air concentration for a series of times after the accident.They allow for calculations taking into account food restrictions. In an ACA run, the actual specific concentrations in the foodstuffs are obtained by multiplying the normalized concentrations taken from the data library by the ground or air concentrations in each grid point predicted with an atmospheric transport and deposition model. The paper presents the structure of the ingestion model: structure, methods and the libraries used for a nuclear accident consequences assessment. (authors)

  1. Ingestion of a carbonated beverage decreases lower esophageal sphincter pressure and increases frequency of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Akash; Meshram, Megha; Gopan, Amrit; Ganjewar, Vaibhav; Kumar, Praveen; Bhatia, Shobna J

    2012-06-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (tLESR) and decreased basal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure are postulated mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). There is conflicting evidence on the effect of carbonated drinks on lower esophageal sphincter function. This study was conducted to assess the effect of a carbonated beverage on tLESR and LES pressure. High resolution manometry tracings (16 channel water-perfused, Trace 1.2, Hebbard, Australia) were obtained in 18 healthy volunteers (6 men) for 30 min each at baseline, and after 200 mL of chilled potable water and 200 mL of chilled carbonated cola drink (Pepsi [Pepsico India Ltd]). The sequence of administration of the drinks was determined by random number method generated by a computer. The analysis of tracings was done using TRACE 1.2 software by a physician who was unaware of the sequence of administration of fluids. The mean (SD) age of the participant was 37.3 (12.9) years. The median (range) frequency of tLESr was higher after the carbonated beverage (10.5 [0-26]) as compared to baseline (0 [0-3], p = 0.005) as well as after water (1 [0-14], p = 0.010). The LES pressure decreased after ingestion of the carbonated beverage (18.5 [11-37] mmHg) compared to baseline (40.5 [25-66] mmHg, p = 0.0001) and after water (34 [15-67] mmHg, p = 0.003). Gastric pressure was not different in the three groups. Ingestion of a carbonated beverage increases tLESr and lowers LES pressure in healthy subjects.

  2. The effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on back squat and bench press exercise to failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Weldon, Anthony; Price, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the acute effects of NaHCO3 ingestion on repetitions to failure and rating of perceived exertion in the back squat and bench press in trained men. Eight resistance-trained men took part in this double-blind, randomized crossover experimental study whereby they ingested NaHCO3 (0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass) or placebo (sodium chloride NaCl: 0.045 g·kg(-1) body mass) solution 60 minutes before completing a bout of resistance exercise (3 sets of bench press and back squat exercise to failure at an intensity of 80% 1 repetition maximum). Experimental conditions were separated by at least 48 hours. Participants completed more repetitions to failure in the back squat after NaHCO3 ingestion (p = 0.04) but not for bench press (p = 0.679). Mean ± SD of total repetitions was 31.3 ± 15.3 and 24.6 ± 16.2 for back squat and 28.7 ± 12.2 and 26.7 ± 10.2 for bench press in NaHCO3 and placebo conditions, respectively. Repetitions to failure decreased as set increased for the back squat and bench press (p = 0.001, both). Rating of perceived exertion significantly increased with set for the back squat and bench press (p = 0.002, both). There was no significant change in blood lactate across time or between conditions. There were however treatment × time interactions for blood pH (p = 0.014) and blood HCO3 concentration (p = 0.001). After ingestion, blood pH and HCO3 (p = 0.008) concentrations were greater for the NaHCO3 condition compared with the placebo condition (p < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that sodium bicarbonate ingestion can enhance resistance exercise performance using a repetition to failure protocol in the first exercise in a resistance exercise session.

  3. The degree of saturation of fatty acids in dietary fats does not affect the metabolic response to ingested carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Angela; Hassan, Youssef; Gannon, Mary C; Nuttall, Frank Q

    2009-06-01

    We are interested in the metabolic response to ingested macronutrients, and the interaction between macronutrients in meals. Previously, we and others reported that the postprandial rise in serum glucose following ingestion of 50 g carbohydrate, consumed as potato, was markedly attenuated when butter was ingested with the carbohydrate, whereas the serum insulin response was little affected by the combination. To determine whether a similar response would be observed with three other dietary fats considerably different in fatty acid composition. Nine healthy subjects received lard, twelve received olive oil and eleven received safflower oil as a test meal. The subjects ingested meals of 25 g fat (lard, olive oil or safflower oil), 50 g CHO (potato), 25 g fat with 50 g CHO or water only. Glucose, C peptide, insulin, triacylglycerols and nonesterified fatty acids were determined. Ingestion of lard, olive oil or safflower oil with potato did not affect the quantitative glucose and insulin responses to potato alone. However, the responses were delayed, diminished and prolonged. All three fats when ingested alone modestly increased the insulin concentration when compared to ingestion of water alone. When either lard, olive oil or safflower oil was ingested with the potato, there was an accelerated rise in triacylglycerols. This was most dramatic with safflower oil. Our data indicate that the glucose and insulin response to butter is unique when compared with the three other fat sources varying in their fatty acid composition.

  4. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to pro...

  5. Experimental degradation of polymer shopping bags (standard and degradable plastic, and biodegradable) in the gastrointestinal fluids of sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christin; Townsend, Kathy; Matschullat, Jörg

    2012-02-01

    The persistence of marine debris such as discarded polymer bags has become globally an increasing hazard to marine life. To date, over 177 marine species have been recorded to ingest man-made polymers that cause life-threatening complications such as gut impaction and perforation. This study set out to test the decay characteristics of three common types of shopping bag polymers in sea turtle gastrointestinal fluids (GIF): standard and degradable plastic, and biodegradable. Fluids were obtained from the stomachs, small intestines and large intestines of a freshly dead Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) and a Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta). Controls were carried out with salt and freshwater. The degradation rate was measured over 49 days, based on mass loss. Degradation rates of the standard and the degradable plastic bags after 49 days across all treatments and controls were negligible. The biodegradable bags showed mass losses between 3 and 9%. This was a much slower rate than reported by the manufacturers in an industrial composting situation (100% in 49 days). The GIF of the herbivorous Green turtle showed an increased capacity to break down the biodegradable polymer relative to the carnivorous Loggerhead, but at a much lower rate than digestion of natural vegetative matter. While the breakdown rate of biodegradable polymers in the intestinal fluids of sea turtles is greater than standard and degradable plastics, it is proposed that this is not rapid enough to prevent morbidity. Further study is recommended to investigate the speed at which biodegradable polymers decompose outside of industrial composting situations, and their durability in marine and freshwater systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ingested razor blades within the appendix: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Cui

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foreign body ingestion is a common clinical presentation with less than 1% of the cases requiring surgical intervention. In this report, we present a rare case of razor blades lodged in the appendix as a result of intentional ingestion. Presentation of case: A 25 year old male prisoner presented to our hospital with persistent right iliac fossa pain after razor blade ingestion. After 5 days of conservative management, there was no sign of transition on serial X-Rays. Laparoscopy with intraoperative image intensification confirmed the presence of the razor blades in the appendix and appendicectomy was subsequently performed without complications. Discussion: Most ingested objected with diameter less than 2.5 cm and length less than 6 cm can pass through the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously in less than one week. The entry of foreign objects into the appendix is thought to be due to relative low motility of the caecum, the dependent position of the appendix and the size of the appendiceal orifice. Radiographic localisation to the appendiceal lumen was complicated by metallic artefact, but was consistent with failure to transit. Appendicectomy was felt to be the safest mode of retrieval. Conclusion: Ingested foreign body lodged in the appendix is a rare event. Once the exact location is confirmed, a simple laparoscopic appendicectomy can be performed to facilitate the removal. Keywords: Appendicitis, Laparoscopy, Appendicectomy, Foreign body ingestion, Razor blades, Case report

  7. Caffeine ingestion enhances Wingate performance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgic, Jozo

    2018-03-01

    The positive effects of caffeine ingestion on aerobic performance are well-established; however, recent findings are suggesting that caffeine ingestion might also enhance components of anaerobic performance. A commonly used test of anaerobic performance and power output is the 30-second Wingate test. Several studies explored the effects of caffeine ingestion on Wingate performance, with equivocal findings. To elucidate this topic, this paper aims to determine the effects of caffeine ingestion on Wingate performance using meta-analytic statistical techniques. Following a search through PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and SportDiscus ® , 16 studies were found meeting the inclusion criteria (pooled number of participants = 246). Random-effects meta-analysis of standardized mean differences (SMD) for peak power output and mean power output was performed. Study quality was assessed using the modified version of the PEDro checklist. Results of the meta-analysis indicated a significant difference (p = .005) between the placebo and caffeine trials on mean power output with SMD values of small magnitude (0.18; 95% confidence interval: 0.05, 0.31; +3%). The meta-analysis performed for peak power output indicated a significant difference (p = .006) between the placebo and caffeine trials (SMD = 0.27; 95% confidence interval: 0.08, 0.47 [moderate magnitude]; +4%). The results from the PEDro checklist indicated that, in general, studies are of good and excellent methodological quality. This meta-analysis adds on to the current body of evidence showing that caffeine ingestion can also enhance components of anaerobic performance. The results presented herein may be helpful for developing more efficient evidence-based recommendations regarding caffeine supplementation.

  8. Laboratory-measured grazing and ingestion rates of the salp, Thalia democratica Forskal, and the doliolid, Dolioletta gegenbauri Uljanin (Tunicata, Thaliacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deibel, D.

    1982-01-01

    Grazing and ingestion rates of laboratory-born Thalia democratica aggregates and Dolioletta gegenbauri gonozooids, phorozooids and oozooids were determined while fed Isochrysis galbana (4-5 ..mu..m diameter) alone or in combination with Peridinium trochoideum (16-18 ..mu..m diameter) at concentrations of 0.15-0.70 mm/sup 3/ x 1/sup -1/. Grazing rates (ml x zooid/sup -1/ x 24 h/sup -1/) ranged from 10 to 355, and at zooid weights greater than 5..mu..g carbon were in order oozooid > gonozooid > aggregate. Grazing rates increased exponentially with increasing zooid weight. Weight-specific grazing rates (ml x ..mu..gC/sup -1/ x 24 h/sup -1/) were independent of the four-fold initial food concentration. Mean weight-specific grazing rates increased linearly with increasing zooid weight for the aggregates and oozooids, but gonozooid mean rates were independent of zooid weight. Aggregate and gonozooid ingestion rates (10/sup 6/..mu..m/sup 3/ x zooid/sup -1/ x 24 h/sup -1/) ranged from 4 to 134 while oozooid rates ranged from 3 to 67. All ingestion rates were independent of the initial food concentration but increased linearly with increasing zooid weight at similar rates. All mean weight-specific ingestion rates (ml x ..mu..gC/sup -1/ x 24 h/sup -1/) were independent of zooid weight. The mean aggregate daily ration (..mu..gC ingested x ..mu..g body C/sup -1/) was 59% and the mean doliolid ration was 132%. Field studies indicate that normal concentrations of D. gegenbauri in the Georgia Bight clear their resident water volume (1 m/sup 3/) in about 4 months, but that highly concentrated, swarm populations which occur along thermohaline fronts clear their resident water volume in less than 1 day.

  9. Does plasticity in plant physiological traits explain the rapid increase in water use efficiency? An ecohydrological modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrotheodoros, Theodoros; Fatichi, Simone; Pappas, Christoforos; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The rise of atmospheric CO2 concentration is expected to stimulate plant productivity by enhancing photosynthesis and reducing stomatal conductance and thus increasing plant water use efficiency (WUE) worldwide. An analysis of eddy covariance flux tower data from 21 forested ecosystems across the north hemisphere detected an unexpectedly large increase in WUE (Keenan et al, 2013), which was six times larger than the increase found by most previous studies based on controlled experiments (e.g., FACE), leaf-scale analyses, and numerical modelling. This increase could be solely attributed to the increase in atmospheric CO2 since other confounding factors were ruled out. Here, we investigate the potential contribution of plant plasticity, reflected in the temporal adjustment of major plant physiological traits, on changes in WUE using the ecohydrological model Tethys and Chloris (T&C). We hypothesize that the increase in WUE can be attributed to small variations in plant physiological traits, undetectable through observations, eventually triggered by the atmospheric CO2 increase. Data from the 21 sites in the above mentioned study are used to force the model. Simulation results with and without plasticity in the physiological traits (i.e., model parameters in our numerical experiments) are compared with the observed trends in WUE. We test several plant adaptation strategies in being effective in explaining the observed increase in WUE using a multifactorial numerical experiment in which we perturb in a systematic way selected plant parameters. Keenan, T. F., Hollinger, D. Y., Bohrer, G., Dragoni, D., Munger, J. W., Schmid, H. P., and Richardson, A. D. (2013). Increase in forest water-use efficiency as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise. Nature, 499(7458), 324-7.

  10. Effects of Fluid Ingestion on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Cognition During Exercise in the Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roh Hee-Tae

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of fluid ingestion during exercise in different environments on the serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cognition among athletes. Ten collegiate male athletes (soccer, n = 5; rugby, n = 5 were enrolled, and they completed running tests in the following four conditions (60 min each: 1 thermoneutral temperature at 18°C (group 18; 2 high ambient temperature at 32°C without fluid ingestion (group 32; 3 high ambient temperature at 32°C with water ingestion (group 32+W; and 4 high ambient temperature at 32°C with sports drink ingestion (group 32+S. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels significantly increased in group 18 immediately after exercise when compared with those at rest and were significantly higher than those in group 32 immediately and 60 min after exercise (p < 0.05. In the Stroop Color and Word Test, significantly increased Word, Color, and Color-Word scores were observed in group 18 immediately after exercise compared to those at rest (p < 0.05. However, the Color-Word score appeared to be significantly lower in group 32 immediately after exercise compared to the other groups (p < 0.05 and at 60 min post-exercise compared to group 18 (p < 0.05. We found that the exercise performed in a thermoneutral environment improved cognitive function, but the exercise performed in a hot environment did not. The differences according to the exercise environment would be largely affected by brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and fluid ingestion regardless of the type of drink (water or sports beverage was assumed to have contributed to the improvement in cognitive function caused by exercising in a hot environment.

  11. Trichloroacetic Acid Ingestion: Self-Harm Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Black

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA, or trichloroethanoic acid, is a chemical analogue of acetic acid where three methyl group hydrogen atoms are replaced by chlorine. TCAAs are also abbreviated and referred to as TCAs, causing confusion with the psychiatric antidepressant drug class, especially among patients. TCAAs exist in dermatological treatments such as chemical peels or wart chemoablation medication. TCAA ingestion or overdose can cause gastric irritation symptoms including vomiting, diarrhea, or lassitude. This symptomatology is less severe than TCA overdose, where symptoms may include elevated body temperature, blurred vision, dilated pupils, sleepiness, confusion, seizures, rapid heart rate, and cardiac arrest. Owing to the vast difference in symptoms, the need for clinical intervention differs greatly. While overdose of either in a self-harm attempt can warrant psychiatric hospital admission, the risk of death in TCAA ingestion is far less. Case Report. A patient ingested TCAA in the form of a commercially available dermatological chemical peel as a self-harm attempt, thinking that it was a more injurious TCA. Conclusion. Awareness among physicians, particularly psychiatrists, regarding this relatively obscure chemical compound (TCAA and its use by suicidal patients mistakenly believing it to be a substance that can be significantly more lethal (TCA, is imperative.

  12. Characterization and evaluation physical properties biodegradable plastic composite from seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deni, Glar Donia; Dhaningtyas, Shalihat Afifah; Fajar, Ibnu; Sudarno

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and evaluation of biodegradable plastic composed of a mixture PVA - carrageenan - chitosan was conducted in this study. Obtained data were then compared to commercial biodegradable plastic. Characteristic of plastic was mechanical tested such as tensile - strength and elongation. Plastic degradation was studied using composting method for 7 days and 14 days. The results showed that the increase carrageenan will decrease tensile-strength and elongation plastic composite. In addition, increase carrageenan would increase the degraded plastics composite.

  13. DDT vs. wildlife: Relationships between quantities ingested, toxic effects and tissue storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Mangan, G.F.

    1955-01-01

    Symptoms appeared when quail and pheasants were fed diets containing 0.025-0.050% DDT. Symptoms appeared sooner as percentages increased. Young birds seemed more resistant than adults. Median lethal quantity for adult quail was about 1,200 mg./Kg. Young quail showed no ill-effects after ingesting 3,000 mg./Kg. during 10-week period. Adult pheasants died after ingesting 200-300 mg./Kg. Approximately 600 mg./Kg. were required to kill young pheasants. Quantities of DDT stored in tissues were not proportional to amounts administered or to duration of exposure, but were related to severity of symptoms. Concentration of DDT in breast muscles of birds killed by DDT was about 34 micrograms/Gm. in adult quail and 22 micrograms/Gm. in adult pheasants.

  14. Occurrence of microplastics in the gastrointestinal tract of pelagic and demersal fish from the English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusher, A L; McHugh, M; Thompson, R C

    2013-02-15

    Microplastics are present in marine habitats worldwide and laboratory studies show this material can be ingested, yet data on abundance in natural populations is limited. This study documents microplastics in 10 species of fish from the English Channel. 504 Fish were examined and plastics found in the gastrointestinal tracts of 36.5%. All five pelagic species and all five demersal species had ingested plastic. Of the 184 fish that had ingested plastic the average number of pieces per fish was 1.90±0.10. A total of 351 pieces of plastic were identified using FT-IR Spectroscopy; polyamide (35.6%) and the semi-synthetic cellulosic material, rayon (57.8%) were most common. There was no significant difference between the abundance of plastic ingested by pelagic and demersal fish. Hence, microplastic ingestion appears to be common, in relatively small quantities, across a range of fish species irrespective of feeding habitat. Further work is needed to establish the potential consequences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of acute beer ingestion on the liver: studies in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanuri, Giridhar; Wagnerberger, Sabine; Landmann, Marianne; Prigl, Eva; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bischoff, Stephan C; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether the effects of acute consumption of stout or pilsner beer on the liver differ from those of plain ethanol in a mouse model. Seven-week-old female C57BL/6J mice received either ethanol, stout or pilsner beer (ethanol content: 6 g/kg body weight) or isocaloric maltodextrin solution. Plasma alanine transaminase, markers of steatosis, lipogenesis, activation of the toll-like receptor-4 signaling cascade as well as lipid peroxidation and fibrogenesis in the liver were measured 12 h after acute ethanol or beer intake. Acute alcohol ingestion caused a marked ~11-fold increase in hepatic triglyceride accumulation in comparison to controls, whereas in mice exposed to stout and pilsner beer, hepatic triglyceride levels were increased only by ~6.5- and ~4-fold, respectively. mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthase in the liver did not differ between alcohol and beer groups. In contrast, expression of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, inducible nitric oxide synthases, but also the concentrations of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts, nuclear factor κB and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were induced in livers of ethanol treated mice but not in those exposed to the two beers. Taken together, our results suggest that acute ingestion of beer and herein especially of pilsner beer is less harmful to the liver than the ingestion of plain ethanol.

  16. Can Ingestion of Lead Shot and Poisons Change Population Trends of Three European Birds: Grey Partridge, Common Buzzard, and Red Kite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn B Meyer

    Full Text Available Little is known about the magnitude of the effects of lead shot ingestion alone or combined with poisons (e.g., in bait or seeds/granules containing pesticides on population size, growth, and extinction of non-waterbird avian species that ingest these substances. We used population models to create example scenarios demonstrating how changes in these parameters might affect three susceptible species: grey partridge (Perdix perdix, common buzzard (Buteo buteo, and red kite (Milvus milvus. We added or subtracted estimates of mortality due to lead shot ingestion (4-16% of mortality, depending on species and poisons (4-46% of mortality reported in the UK or France to observed mortality of studied populations after models were calibrated to observed population trends. Observed trends were decreasing for partridge (in continental Europe, stable for buzzard (in Germany, and increasing for red kite (in Wales. Although lead shot ingestion and poison at modeled levels did not change the trend direction for the three species, they reduced population size and slowed population growth. Lead shot ingestion at modeled rates reduced population size of partridges by 10%, and when combined with bait and pesticide poisons, by 18%. For buzzards, decrease in mean population size by lead shot and poisons combined was much smaller (≤ 1%. The red kite population has been recovering; however, modeled lead shot ingestion reduced its annual growth rate from 6.5% to 4%, slowing recovery. If mortality from poisoned baits could be removed, the kite population could potentially increase at a rapid annual rate of 12%. The effects are somewhat higher if ingestion of these substances additionally causes sublethal reproductive impairment. These results have uncertainty but suggest that declining or recovering populations are most sensitive to lead shot or poison ingestion, and removal of poisoned baits can have a positive impact on recovering raptor populations that frequently

  17. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  18. Widespread microplastic ingestion by fish assemblages in tropical estuaries subjected to anthropogenic pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendel, A.L.; Bessa, F.; Alves, V.E.N.; Amorim, A.L.A.; Patrício, J.; Palma, A.R.T.

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to quantify microplastic ingestion by fish assemblages in two tropical Brazilian estuaries and to evaluate whether biological and ecological factors influence the ingestion of microplastics by fish species. Of 2233 fish from both estuaries (from 69 species) examined in this study, 9% of the individuals (24 species) had microplastics in their gut contents. Microplastic ingestion occurred irrespective of fish size and functional group. The diet of fish species was analyzed based on prey items identified in the fish's full stomach contents and five feeding guilds were defined. Microplastics were common throughout all feeding guilds. Low (average ingestion values 1.06 ± 0.30 items/total fish) but widespread occurrence among estuaries also indicates proliferation of microplastic pollution. Our findings highlight the need to focus on assemblage level studies to understand the real magnitude of the problem and emphasize the urgency of mitigation measures directed at microplastic pollution in estuarine ecosystems. - Highlights: • We analyzed microplastic ingestion in 69 fish species collected along two estuaries. • Microplastic ingestion was widespread in fish assemblages in two tropical estuaries. • Microplastic ingestion was independent of fish size and fish functional groups. • Microplastics were observed in fish from five different feeding guilds. • The level of anthropogenic pressures did not influence microplastic ingestion.

  19. Nano-plastics in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, K; Hansson, L-A; Cedervall, T

    2015-10-01

    The amount of plastics released to the environment in modern days has increased substantially since the development of modern plastics in the early 1900s. As a result, concerns have been raised by the public about the impact of plastics on nature and on, specifically, aquatic wildlife. Lately, much attention has been paid to macro- and micro-sized plastics and their impact on aquatic organisms. However, micro-sized plastics degrade subsequently into nano-sizes whereas nano-sized particles may be released directly into nature. Such particles have a different impact on aquatic organisms than larger pieces of plastic due to their small size, high surface curvature, and large surface area. This review describes the possible sources of nano-sized plastic, its distribution and behavior in nature, the impact of nano-sized plastic on the well-being of aquatic organisms, and the difference of impact between nano- and micro-sized particles. We also identify research areas which urgently need more attention and suggest experimental methods to obtain useful data.

  20. Arsenic metabolites in humans after ingestion of wakame seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hata A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed contains large amounts of various arsenic compounds such as arsenosugars (AsSugs, but their relative toxicities have not yet been fully evaluated. A risk evaluation of dietary arsenic would be necessary. After developing an arsenic speciation analysis of wakame seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida, we conducted a wakame ingestion experiment using volunteers. Five volunteers ingested 300 g of commercial wakame after refraining from seafood for 5 days. Arsenic metabolites in the urine were monitored over a 5-day period after ingestion. Total arsenic concentration of the wakame seaweed was 34.3 ± 2.1 mg arsenic/kg (dry weight, n = 3. Two AsSugs, 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β-ribofuranosyloxy]-propylene glycol (AsSug328 and 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β- ribofuranosyl-oxy]-2-hydroxypropyl-2,3-dihydroxy-propyl phosphate (AsSug482 were detected, but arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA, monomethylarsonic acid, and inorganic arsenics (iAs were not detected. The major peak was AsSug328, which comprised 89% of the total arsenic. Approximately 30% of the total arsenic ingested was excreted in the urine during the 5-day observation. Five arsenic compounds were detected in the urine after ingestion, the major one being DMA, which comprised 58.1 ± 5.0% of the total urinary arsenic excreted over the 5 days. DMA was believed to be metabolized not from iAs but from AsSugs, and its biological half-time was approximately 13 h.

  1. Contribution of inhalation by food animals to man's ingestion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.

    1985-01-01

    Animals' inhalation (AI) pathway was evaluated for 57 radionuclides using infant dose predictions from the food-chain model LIMCAL. With ingestion transfer coefficients fMi to define transfer from the respiratory tract to milk, the AI pathway appeared to be insignificant compared to animals' plant ingestion, as implicitly assumed in most environmental assessment models for nuclear installations. Using ICRP Publication 30 respiratory clearance models for man to adjust ingestion transfer coefficients, animals' inhalation appeared to be important, particularly for some actinide radionuclides. The AI pathway also appeared to be significant relative to man's inhalation, especially for infants. The importance of the AI pathway varied greatly between radionuclides, and results strongly suggest that it cannot be ignored in environmental assessments. Until better data become available to implement this pathway fully, adjusted ingestion transfer coefficient values can be used for transfer from animals' respiratory tract to milk and other food products

  2. Using Education as the Solution to Plastic Pollution. Plastic pollution is now considered one of the largest environmental threats facing humans and animals globally, yet our education system has not even embraced the concept. Teaching the next generation of leaders how to immediately start being the solution is vital to correcting the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, J.; Ries, C. A.; Ries, O. N.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic pollution can be found in virtually every body of water on this planet and as the number of people inhabiting this planet continues to spiral out of control, our acceptance and dependency on single use plastics grows exponentially. It is estimated that over 100,000 marine mammals and over 1-million seabirds die each year from ingesting plastic and now with the discovery of micro-beads in many or our day to day products, even the smallest of creatures are no longer safe… nor are we who depend on food from the oceans Current educational programs fail to teach the next generation of leaders how to deal with the issue of plastic pollution and no one is giving them the tools needed for families to start being the solution. The two young founders of One More Generation want to change all of that. They have authored an award winning Plastic and Recycling Awareness Curriculum, which has been written to match the latest National Standards for science, and they even have math, literacy and art infused throughout. The program is currently being evaluated by the US Department of State and has already been introduced in South Africa and thanks to a grant from Global Ocean UK, will soon be launched in their first school in the UK and Australia. The in-depth program is designed to make the students the teacher by providing them with knowledge on the issue that most parents are not even aware of. By doing so, the child is the one driving change in the household, which increases the `buy-in' from the parents, and results in immediate change throughout the community.

  3. Plastic strain caused by contraction of pores in polycrystalline graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioka, Ikuo; Yoda, Shinichi; Konishi, Takashi.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of porosity on mechanical properties and deformation behavior of four isotropic polycrystalline graphites were studied. The pore size distributions of the graphites were measured using a conventional mercury penetration technique. The average pore radius of ISO-88 graphite was about one-tenth of that of ISEM-1, IG-11 or IG-15 graphites. Young's modulus of the graphites decreased with increasing porosity. The stress-strain curve of each graphite was measured in its lateral and axial directions. Young's modulus of graphite decreased with increasing load. The plastic strain at a given compressive load was calculated from the stress-strain curve and the initial gradient of the unloading curve at the load. The ratio of lateral plastic strain to axial plastic strain for the graphites was less than 0.5, indicating that the volume of the graphites decreased during compressive loading. By assuming that the volume change was caused by contraction of pores, plastic strain associated with contraction of pores was calculated from the axial plastic strain and lateral plastic strain by slips along the basal planes. The plastic strain increased with increasing axial plastic strain and porosity of graphite. (author)

  4. When do we eat? Ingestive behavior, survival, and reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jill E; Wise, Justina D; Benton, Noah A; Brozek, Jeremy M; Keen-Rhinehart, Erin

    2013-09-01

    The neuroendocrinology of ingestive behavior is a topic central to human health, particularly in light of the prevalence of obesity, eating disorders, and diabetes. The study of food intake in laboratory rats and mice has yielded some useful hypotheses, but there are still many gaps in our knowledge. Ingestive behavior is more complex than the consummatory act of eating, and decisions about when and how much to eat usually take place in the context of potential mating partners, competitors, predators, and environmental fluctuations that are not present in the laboratory. We emphasize appetitive behaviors, actions that bring animals in contact with a goal object, precede consummatory behaviors, and provide a window into motivation. Appetitive ingestive behaviors are under the control of neural circuits and neuropeptide systems that control appetitive sex behaviors and differ from those that control consummatory ingestive behaviors. Decreases in the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels enhance the stimulatory effects of peripheral hormones on appetitive ingestive behavior and the inhibitory effects on appetitive sex behavior, putting a new twist on the notion of leptin, insulin, and ghrelin "resistance." The ratio of hormone concentrations to the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels may generate a critical signal that schedules conflicting behaviors, e.g., mate searching vs. foraging, food hoarding vs. courtship, and fat accumulation vs. parental care. In species representing every vertebrate taxa and even in some invertebrates, many putative "satiety" or "hunger" hormones function to schedule ingestive behavior in order to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy availability fluctuates. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Building scalable digital library ingestion pipelines using microservices

    OpenAIRE

    Cancellieri, Matteo; Pontika, Nancy; Pearce, Samuel; Anastasiou, Lucas; Knoth, Petr

    2017-01-01

    CORE, a harvesting service offering access to millions of open access research papers from around the world, has shifted its harvesting process from following a monolithic approach to the adoption of a microservices infrastructure. In this paper, we explain how we rearranged and re-scheduled our old ingestion pipeline, present CORE's move to managing microservices and outline the tools we use in a new and optimised ingestion system. In addition, we discuss the ineffciencies of our old harvest...

  6. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIODEGRDABLE PLASTIC FROM CASAVA STARCH AND ALOE VERA EXTRACT WITH GLYCEROL PLASTICIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mery Apriyani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterizations of Biodegradable Plastic made of Cassava Waste Starch, glycerol, acetic acid and Aloe vera extract has done. The aims of this research are to study the influence of addition of aloe vera extract in plastics mechanics properties, water vapor transmission rate and biodegradation. There are five main steps in this research, extraction of aloe vera, cassava starch preparation from cassava waste, preparations, characterization and biodegradability study of biodegradable plastic. The addition variations of aloe vera extract that used in this research are 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07 and 0.14 grams. Results showed that the addition of aloe Vera tends to increased biodegrable plastic thickness to 0.01 mm and elongation to 32.07%. However, biodegradable plastic tensile strength tends to decreased to 23.95 Mpa. Optimum tensile strength is 3.90 Mpa and elongation is 34.43%. Optimum water vapor transmission rate is 2.40 g/m2hours. Biodegradation study of biodegradable plastic showed that addition of aloe vera extract doesn’t significantly influence in plastic degradations.

  7. The significance of some methodological effects on filtration and ingestion rates of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, H. J.; Anger, K.

    1982-06-01

    Filtration rate (F) and ingestion rate (I) were measured in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis feeding on the flagellate Dunaliella spec. and on yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). 60-min experiments in rotating bottles served as a standard for testing methodological effects on levels of F and I. A lack of rotation reduced F values by 40 %, and a rise in temperature from 18° to 23.5 °C increased them by 42 %. Ingestion rates increased significantly up to a particle (yeast) concentration of ca. 600-800 cells · μl-1; then they remained constant, whereas filtration rates decreased beyond this threshold. Rotifer density (up to 1000 ind · ml-1) and previous starvation (up to 40 h) did not significantly influence food uptake rates. The duration of the experiment proved to have the most significant effect on F and I values: in 240-min experiments, these values were on the average more than 90 % lower than in 15-min experiments. From this finding it is concluded that ingestion rates obtained from short-term experiments (60 min or less) cannot be used in energy budgets, because they severely overestimate the actual long-term feeding capacity of the rotifers. At the lower end of the particle size spectrum (2 to 3 µm) there are not only food cells, but apparently also contaminating faecal particles. Their number increased with increasing duration of experiments and lead to an underestimation of F and I. Elemental analyses of rotifers and their food suggest that B. plicatilis can ingest up to 0.6 mJ or ca. 14 % of its own body carbon within 15 min. The long term average was estimated as 3.4 mJ · ind-1 · d-1 or ca. 75 % of body carbon · d-1.

  8. Migration of DEHP from plastic to food simulants under microwave heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Li, F.; Qiu, Z. Z.; Huang, J. W.

    2017-05-01

    The migration of plasticizer DEHP from the plastic products (4 kinds of commonly used plastic food containers under microwave heating: plastic wrap, food bags, ordinary plastic boxes, microwave special plastic boxes) through food contact materials to food simulants (isooctane, 10% ethanol-water solution (v/v), 3% acetic acid-water solution (w/w) and distilled water) was studied under microwave heating (power levels of 400 W). The results shows that the DEHP mobility increases with the increase of microwave heating time, DEHP mobility in isooctane and 3% acetic acid-water solution (w/w) is significantly greater than in 10% ethanol-water solution (v/v) and distilled water; the order of DEHP mobility in isooctane is plastic wrap>food bag>common plastic box>microwave-safe plastic box, while in 3% acetic acid (w/w), the order is food bag>common plastic box>microwave-safe plastic box>plastic wrap.

  9. GABA release in the zona incerta of the sheep in response to the sight and ingestion of food and salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, K M; Hinton, M R; Baldwin, B A

    1991-05-31

    In order to establish which neurotransmitters may influence the activity of zona incerta neurones in the sheep which respond selectively to the sight or ingestion of food, we have measured the release of amino acid and monoamine neurotransmitters from this region using microdialysis sampling. Co-ordinates for the placement of microdialysis probes in regions of the zona incerta where cells respond to the sight or ingestion of food were first established by making single-unit extracellular recordings. When animals were food-deprived results showed that release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was increased in response to the sight and ingestion of food but not of aspartate, glutamate, taurine, noradrenaline, dopamine or serotonin. This release of GABA was absent when the animals were shown non-food objects or saw or ingested salt solutions. When the same animals were physiologically sodium-depleted GABA release was evoked by the sight and ingestion of salt solutions and release following the sight and ingestion of food was significantly reduced. These results provide further evidence that GABA is an important neurotransmitter in neural circuits controlling the regulation of food intake.

  10. Plastics - the sustainable way to use Oil and Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebourg, Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    Conclusions (drawn by the author): Plastics are a sustainable use of oil and gas - Plastic products enable significant savings of energy and GHG emissions particularly in the use phase; - Plastic products help use resources in the most efficient way. Restricting plastics relative growth would result in increased energy consumption. Diversion from landfill would increase resource efficiency. Waste-to-Energy is an additional resource and is complementary to mechanical recycling. Plastics producers and the Oil and Gas industry should cooperate to produce reliable consumption data. Oil and Gas industry should develop and maintain European (world) eco-profiles (cradle to gate) for their respective industry. (author)

  11. A Review of Plastic-Associated Pressures: Cetaceans of the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Australian Shearwaters as Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Fossi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of debris on marine fauna occur throughout the marine ecosystems, with adverse impacts documented on over 1,400 species; impacts can be divided into those arising from entanglement, and those from ingestion. Ingestion of, and entanglement in, debris has been documented in over 60% of all cetacean species. Seabirds are also impacted by debris predominately through entanglement and ingestion, with the number of species negatively impacted increasing from 138 to 174 over the past two decades. In the marine environment, cetaceans and seabirds are widely regarded as reliable sentinels due to their position near the top of the marine food web, conspicuous nature, and reliance on marine resources; for this reason, this paper is focused on seabirds and cetaceans as sentinels of ocean change. In particular, two case studies are considered in relation to different levels of environmental anthropogenic impact: the cetaceans of the Mediterranean Sea and seabirds of eastern Australia. Here we describe two recent studies used to diagnose the toxicological stress related to debris-associated pressures in cetaceans and seabirds. These studies highlight the diversity and scale of impacts being felt by marine species and the role these organisms can play in our society as charismatic sentinels of ocean health. Seabirds and marine mammals are exposed, in these key areas, to a variety of adversities that potentially decrease their survival or reproductive success. These include weather, food shortages, predators, competitors, parasites, disease, and human-induced effects and plastic pollution. Each factor affects seabirds and marine mammals in a different way, but more importantly, factors can also interact and create impacts far greater than any one factor alone. The Australian and Mediterranean case studies presented here emphasize the need to consider multiple sources of mortality when developing management plans for the conservation of vulnerable

  12. Ageing diminishes the modulation of human brain responses to visual food cues by meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Y S; Lee, S; Ashoor, G; Nathan, Y; Reed, L J; Zelaya, F O; Brammer, M J; Amiel, S A

    2014-09-01

    Rates of obesity are greatest in middle age. Obesity is associated with altered activity of brain networks sensing food-related stimuli and internal signals of energy balance, which modulate eating behaviour. The impact of healthy mid-life ageing on these processes has not been characterised. We therefore aimed to investigate changes in brain responses to food cues, and the modulatory effect of meal ingestion on such evoked neural activity, from young adulthood to middle age. Twenty-four healthy, right-handed subjects, aged 19.5-52.6 years, were studied on separate days after an overnight fast, randomly receiving 50 ml water or 554 kcal mixed meal before functional brain magnetic resonance imaging while viewing visual food cues. Across the group, meal ingestion reduced food cue-evoked activity of amygdala, putamen, insula and thalamus, and increased activity in precuneus and bilateral parietal cortex. Corrected for body mass index, ageing was associated with decreasing food cue-evoked activation of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and precuneus, and increasing activation of left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), bilateral temporal lobe and posterior cingulate in the fasted state. Ageing was also positively associated with the difference in food cue-evoked activation between fed and fasted states in the right DLPFC, bilateral amygdala and striatum, and negatively associated with that of the left orbitofrontal cortex and VLPFC, superior frontal gyrus, left middle and temporal gyri, posterior cingulate and precuneus. There was an overall tendency towards decreasing modulatory effects of prior meal ingestion on food cue-evoked regional brain activity with increasing age. Healthy ageing to middle age is associated with diminishing sensitivity to meal ingestion of visual food cue-evoked activity in brain regions that represent the salience of food and direct food-associated behaviour. Reduced satiety sensing may have a role in the greater risk of

  13. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  14. Magical Engineering Plastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-15

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  15. Magical Engineering Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-01

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  16. To Eat or Not to Eat? Debris Selectivity by Marine Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Marine debris is a growing problem for wildlife, and has been documented to affect more than 267 species worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of marine debris ingestion in 115 sea turtles stranded in Queensland between 2006–2011, and assessed how the ingestion rates differ between species (Eretmochelys imbricata vs. Chelonia mydas) and by turtle size class (smaller oceanic feeders vs. larger benthic feeders). Concurrently, we conducted 25 beach surveys to estimate the composition of the debris present in the marine environment. Based on this proxy measurement of debris availability, we modeled turtles’ debris preferences (color and type) using a resource selection function, a method traditionally used for habitat and food selection. We found no significant difference in the overall probability of ingesting debris between the two species studied, both of which have similar life histories. Curved carapace length, however, was inversely correlated with the probability of ingesting debris; 54.5% of pelagic sized turtles had ingested debris, whereas only 25% of benthic feeding turtles were found with debris in their gastrointestinal system. Benthic and pelagic sized turtles also exhibited different selectivity ratios for debris ingestion. Benthic phase turtles had a strong selectivity for soft, clear plastic, lending support to the hypothesis that sea turtles ingest debris because it resembles natural prey items such as jellyfish. Pelagic turtles were much less selective in their feeding, though they showed a trend towards selectivity for rubber items such as balloons. Most ingested items were plastic and were positively buoyant. This study highlights the need to address increasing amounts of plastic in the marine environment, and provides evidence for the disproportionate ingestion of balloons by marine turtles. PMID:22829894

  17. To eat or not to eat? Debris selectivity by marine turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qamar Schuyler

    Full Text Available Marine debris is a growing problem for wildlife, and has been documented to affect more than 267 species worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of marine debris ingestion in 115 sea turtles stranded in Queensland between 2006-2011, and assessed how the ingestion rates differ between species (Eretmochelys imbricata vs. Chelonia mydas and by turtle size class (smaller oceanic feeders vs. larger benthic feeders. Concurrently, we conducted 25 beach surveys to estimate the composition of the debris present in the marine environment. Based on this proxy measurement of debris availability, we modeled turtles' debris preferences (color and type using a resource selection function, a method traditionally used for habitat and food selection. We found no significant difference in the overall probability of ingesting debris between the two species studied, both of which have similar life histories. Curved carapace length, however, was inversely correlated with the probability of ingesting debris; 54.5% of pelagic sized turtles had ingested debris, whereas only 25% of benthic feeding turtles were found with debris in their gastrointestinal system. Benthic and pelagic sized turtles also exhibited different selectivity ratios for debris ingestion. Benthic phase turtles had a strong selectivity for soft, clear plastic, lending support to the hypothesis that sea turtles ingest debris because it resembles natural prey items such as jellyfish. Pelagic turtles were much less selective in their feeding, though they showed a trend towards selectivity for rubber items such as balloons. Most ingested items were plastic and were positively buoyant. This study highlights the need to address increasing amounts of plastic in the marine environment, and provides evidence for the disproportionate ingestion of balloons by marine turtles.

  18. The Report of Suicide by Ingestion of Lidocaine Topical Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lidocaine is a local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic agent. There are reports on accidental and intentional cases of poisoning following injection of lidocaine while rare are the fatal cases realized after oral ingestion of lidocaine. Suicidal poisoning with lidocaine pharmaceutical formulations is rare since no pharmaceutical dosage forms for oral use are available except gels and sprays used as local anesthetics in dentistry. Cases: Three cases of suicidal poisoning by ingestion of the content of lidocaine topical spray are reported in the present study. The cases developed episodes of seizure requiring diazepam and other therapeutic modalities upon admission. Eventually, one of the cases expired. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first reported case of suicidal poisoning after ingestion of this formulation which highlights the fact that lidocaine topical spray formulation may be used for committing suicide. Ingestion of lidocaine present in topical spray can induce varying levels of toxicity that can even be fatal.

  19. Effect of Carbohydrate and Caffeine Ingestion on Badminton Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Neil D; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ingesting carbohydrate and caffeine solutions on measures that are central to success in badminton. Twelve male badminton players performed a badminton serve-accuracy test, coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT), and a choice reaction-time sprint test 60 min before exercise. Participants then consumed 7 mL/kg body mass of either water (PLA), 6.4% carbohydrate solution (CHO), a solution containing a caffeine dose of 4 mg/kg, or 6.4% carbohydrate and 4 mg/kg caffeine (C+C). All solutions were flavored with orange-flavored concentrate. During the 33-min fatigue protocol, participants were provided with an additional 3 mL/kg body mass of solution, which was ingested before the end of the protocol. As soon as the 33-min fatigue protocol was completed, all measures were recorded again. Short-serve accuracy was improved after the ingestion of CHO and C+C compared with PLA (P = .001, η(p)(2) = .50). Long-serve accuracy was improved after the ingestion of C+C compared with PLA (P badminton match can maintain serve accuracy, anticipation timing, and sprinting actions around the court.

  20. Systemic effects of Leucaena leucocephala ingestion on ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Graham; Puschner, Birgit; Affolter, Verena; Stalis, Ilse; Davidson, Autumn; Baker, Tomas; Tahara, John; Jolly, Alison; Ostapak, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) is a leguminous tree that is nutritious forage for domestic livestock when ingested in limited amounts. Unfortunately, leucaena contains mimosine, a plant amino acid, that can be toxic when ingested at higher concentrations. Reported toxic effects include alopecia (fur loss), poor body condition, infertility, low birth weight, thyroid gland dysfunction, and organ toxicity. Originally native to Mexico and Central America, leucaena has been introduced throughout the tropics, including Berenty Reserve, Madagascar where it was planted as supplemental browse for livestock. In Berenty, a seasonal syndrome of alopecia in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) is associated with eating leucaena. Although much is known about the toxic effects of leucaena and mimosine on domestic animals and humans, the systemic effects on wildlife had not been studied. In a comparison of lemurs that include leucaena in their diet and those that do not, we found that animals that ingest leucaena absorb mimosine but that ingestion does not affect body condition, cause kidney or liver toxicity, or affect the intestinal tract. Alopecia is due to mimosine's interference of the hair follicle cycle. Leucaena ingestion is associated with higher serum albumin, α-tocopherol, and thyroxine concentrations, suggesting that leucaena may provide some nutritional benefit and that lemurs can detoxify and convert mimosine to a thyroid stimulating metabolite. The primary conservation consequence of leucaena ingestion at Berenty may be increased infant mortality due to the infants' inability cling to their alopecic mothers. The widespread introduction of leucaena throughout the tropics and its rapid spread in secondary forest conditions mean that many other leaf-eating mammals may be including this tree in their diet. Thus, exposure to leucaena should be considered when wildlife health is being evaluated, and the potential effects on wildlife health should be considered when

  1. Biodegradability of Plastics: Challenges and Misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubowicz, Stephan; Booth, Andy M

    2017-11-07

    Plastics are one of the most widely used materials and, in most cases, they are designed to have long life times. Thus, plastics contain a complex blend of stabilizers that prevent them from degrading too quickly. Unfortunately, many of the most advantageous properties of plastics such as their chemical, physical and biological inertness and durability present challenges when plastic is released into the environment. Common plastics such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are extremely persistent in the environment, where they undergo very slow fragmentation (projected to take centuries) into small particles through photo-, physical, and biological degradation processes 1 . The fragmentation of the material into increasingly smaller pieces is an unavoidable stage of the degradation process. Ultimately, plastic materials degrade to micron-sized particles (microplastics), which are persistent in the environment and present a potential source of harm for organisms.

  2. Foreign body ingestion in Iranian children: a 4 years observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Amini-Ranjbar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Foreign body ingestion is common in children due to playing with everything. This study was done to identify type, site, and complication, as well as knowledge about the state of foreign body ingestion in children in Kerman/Iran. Methods – In this prospective study, during 4 years, 85 children less than 14 years old presented to the Emergency Department of Afzalipour Hospital in Kerman were studied. All children, regardless of their clinical symptoms, underwent total radiography (from neck to Pelvic within the first hour of admission. In symptomatic patients, or sharp, long objects, and narcotic substances ingestion, prompt endoscopy was performed and in the case of foreign body lodging in the subglottic area, the patient was being referred to an ear, nose and throat specialist. For asymptomatic patients or far-access foreign body; lactulose, polyethylene glycol solution and high-fiber substances (for ingestion of diskette batteries, heroine and sharp objects respectively were administered as medical treatments. Asymptomatic subjects who had ingested sharp objects or narcotic substances were hospitalized and observed, but other cases were followed out patiently (by phone call or face to face observation. Results – Mean age of subjects was 3.7 years with no significant difference between the two sexes. Mean age was 3.7 year. The most frequent ingested foreign body was diskette battery (28.2% followed by coin (21.2%. The majority of subjects had no symptom (67%. the most frequent endoscopic location (21.8% was subglot. Most complications occurred after battery ingestion. Endoscopic intervention was required in 31.8% that mostly in cases with ingestion of organic substances (77.8% and coin (61.1%. There was a significant relationship between age and the type of foreign body (p=0.033 and its location (p= 0.012. Medical treatment was completely successful in 68.2%. There was no mortality. Conclusion – Manufacturing clockwork toys

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic products, indoor dust, sediment and fish from informal e-waste recycling sites in Vietnam: a comprehensive assessment of contamination, accumulation pattern, emissions, and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Hoang Quoc; Nam, Vu Duc; Tri, Tran Manh; Ha, Nguyen Manh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thuy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Anh, Duong Hong; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Minh, Tu Binh

    2017-08-01

    Residue concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in different kinds of samples including consumer products, indoor dust, sediment and fish collected from two e-waste recycling sites, and some industrial, urban and suburban areas in Vietnam were determined to provide a comprehensive assessment of the contamination levels, accumulation pattern, emission potential and human exposure through dust ingestion and fish consumption. There was a large variation of PBDE levels in plastic parts of obsolete electronic equipment (from 1730 to 97,300 ng/g), which is a common result observed in consumer plastic products reported elsewhere. PBDE levels in indoor dust samples collected from e-waste recycling sites ranged from 250 to 8740 ng/g, which were markedly higher than those in industrial areas and household offices. Emission rate of PBDEs from plastic parts of disposed electronic equipment to dust was estimated to be in a range from 3.4 × 10 -7 to 1.2 × 10 -5 (year -1 ) for total PBDEs and from 2.9 × 10 -7 to 7.2 × 10 -6 (year -1 ) for BDE-209. Some fish species collected from ponds in e-waste recycling villages contained elevated levels of PBDEs, especially BDE-209, which were markedly higher than those in fish previously reported. Overall, levels and patterns of PBDE accumulation in different kinds of samples suggest significant emission from e-waste sites and that these areas are potential sources of PBDE contamination. Intakes of PBDEs via fish consumption were generally higher than those estimated through dust ingestion. Intake of BDE-99 and BDE-209 through dust ingestion contributes a large proportion due to higher concentrations in dust and fish. Body weight normalized daily intake through dust ingestion estimated for the e-waste recycling sites (0.10-3.46 ng/day/kg body wt.) were in a high range as compared to those reported in other countries. Our results highlight the potential releases of PBDEs from informal recycling activities and

  4. Caffeine ingestion reverses the circadian rhythm effects on neuromuscular performance in highly resistance-trained men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mora-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate whether caffeine ingestion counteracts the morning reduction in neuromuscular performance associated with the circadian rhythm pattern. METHODS: Twelve highly resistance-trained men underwent a battery of neuromuscular tests under three different conditions; i morning (10:00 a.m. with caffeine ingestion (i.e., 3 mg kg(-1; AM(CAFF trial; ii morning (10:00 a.m. with placebo ingestion (AM(PLAC trial; and iii afternoon (18:00 p.m. with placebo ingestion (PM(PLAC trial. A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo controlled experimental design was used, with all subjects serving as their own controls. The neuromuscular test battery consisted in the measurement of bar displacement velocity during free-weight full-squat (SQ and bench press (BP exercises against loads that elicit maximum strength (75% 1RM load and muscle power adaptations (1 m s(-1 load. Isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC(LEG and isometric electrically evoked strength of the right knee (EVOK(LEG were measured to identify caffeine's action mechanisms. Steroid hormone levels (serum testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone were evaluated at the beginning of each trial (PRE. In addition, plasma norepinephrine (NE and epinephrine were measured PRE and at the end of each trial following a standardized intense (85% 1RM 6 repetitions bout of SQ (POST. RESULTS: In the PM(PLAC trial, dynamic muscle strength and power output were significantly enhanced compared with AM(PLAC treatment (3.0%-7.5%; p≤0.05. During AM(CAFF trial, muscle strength and power output increased above AM(PLAC levels (4.6%-5.7%; p≤0.05 except for BP velocity with 1 m s(-1 load (p = 0.06. During AM(CAFF, EVOK(LEG and NE (a surrogate of maximal muscle sympathetic nerve activation were increased above AM(PLAC trial (14.6% and 96.8% respectively; p≤0.05. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that caffeine ingestion reverses the morning neuromuscular declines in highly resistance

  5. Nanoparticles from Degradation of Biodegradable Plastic Mulch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, Markus; Sintim, Henry; Bary, Andy; English, Marie; Schaefer, Sean

    2017-04-01

    Plastic mulch films are commonly used in crop production. They provide multiple benefits, including control of weeds and insects, increase of soil and air temperature, reduction of evaporation, and prevention of soil erosion. The use of plastic mulch film in agriculture has great potential to increase food production and security. Plastic mulch films must be retrieved and disposed after usage. Biodegradable plastic mulch films, who can be tilled into the soil after usage offer great benefits as alternative to conventional polyethylene plastic. However, it has to be shown that the degradation of these mulches is complete and no micro- and nanoparticles are released during degradation. We conducted a field experiment with biodegradable mulches and tested mulch degradation. Mulch was removed from the field after the growing season and composted to facilitate degradation. We found that micro- and nanoparticles were released during degradation of the mulch films in compost. This raises concerns about degradation in soils as well.

  6. International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R

    2017-05-15

    Marine plastic pollution has been a growing concern for decades. Single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads) are a significant source of this pollution. Although research outlining environmental, social, and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution is growing, few studies have examined policy and legislative tools to reduce plastic pollution, particularly single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads). This paper reviews current international market-based strategies and policies to reduce plastic bags and microbeads. While policies to reduce microbeads began in 2014, interventions for plastic bags began much earlier in 1991. However, few studies have documented or measured the effectiveness of these reduction strategies. Recommendations to further reduce single-use plastic marine pollution include: (i) research to evaluate effectiveness of bans and levies to ensure policies are having positive impacts on marine environments; and (ii) education and outreach to reduce consumption of plastic bags and microbeads at source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ingesting a small amount of beer reduces arterial stiffness in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Masato; Kora, Naoki; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2017-08-01

    Epidemiological studies reveal a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and arterial stiffness, with arterial stiffening lower among mild-to-moderate drinkers than heavy drinkers or nondrinkers. This study aimed to examine the effects of ingesting a small amount of beer, corresponding to the amount consumed per day by a mild drinker, on arterial stiffness. Eleven men (20-22 years) participated, in random order and on different days, in four separate trials. The participants each drank 200 or 350 mL of alcohol-free beer (AFB200 and AFB350) or beer (B200 and B350), and were monitored for 90 min postingestion. There were no significant changes in arterial stiffness among trials that ingested AF200 or AF350. However, among trials ingesting B200 and B350, breath alcohol concentrations increased significantly, while indexes of arterial stiffness decreased significantly for approximately 60 min: carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (B200: -0.6 ± 0.2 m/sec; B350: -0.6 ± 0.2 m/sec); brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (B200: -53 ± 18 cm/sec; B350: -57 ± 19 cm/sec); and cardio-ankle vascular index (B200: -0.4 ± 0.1 unit; B350: -0.3 ± 0.1 unit). Furthermore, AFB showed no effect on arterial stiffness, regardless of whether or not it contained sugar, and no significant difference in antioxidant capacity was found between AFB and B. This is the first study to demonstrate that acute ingestion of relatively small amounts of beer reduces arterial stiffness (for approximately 60 min). Our data also suggest that the reduction in arterial stiffness induced by ingestion of beer is largely attributable to the effects of alcohol. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. Effects of caffeine ingestion on endurance performance in mentally fatigued individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Rafael; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos David; Gualano, Bruno; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Bertuzzi, Romulo

    2016-12-01

    To examine the effects of caffeine ingestion on physiological and perceptual responses in mentally fatigued individuals. Eight male physically active subjects completed four cycling constant-workload tests in four experimental conditions at 80 % of maximal power output: control (C), mental fatigue (MF), mental fatigue plus caffeine ingestion (5 mg/kg) (MF-CAF), and mental fatigue plus placebo (MF-PLA). The mental fatigue was induced by a continuous performance task A-X version (AX-CPT). Before and after the AX-CPT, the profile of mood state (POMS) and blood samples for lactate measurement were collected. Oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and electromyography (EMG) activity were measured during the cycling test. The time to exhaustion in C, MF, MF-PLA, and MF-CAF were 251 ± 30, 222 ± 23, 248 ± 28, and 285 ± 42 s, respectively. Delta values (corrected by C condition) were higher in MF-CAF than MF (P = 0.031). MF-CAF reported higher Vigor scores when compared with C (P = 0.046) and MF (P = 0.020). RPE at the first minute was significantly higher in MF-PLA than in C (P = 0.050); at the second minute, RPE was higher in MF-PLA than in C (P = 0.049) and MF-CAF (P = 0.048). EMG activity was not different between the conditions. Caffeine ingestion increased approximately 14 % endurance performance after the induction of mental fatigue. This effect was accompanied by a tendency to improvement in mood state (i.e., vigor). Therefore, caffeine ingestion can promote a beneficial effect on endurance performance in mentally fatigued individuals.

  9. The effects of exogenous fatty acids and niacin on human monocyte-macrophage plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Rodriguez, Dolores; Cardelo, Magdalena P; Naranjo, Maria C; Bermudez, Beatriz; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G; Lopez, Sergio

    2017-08-01

    Macrophage plasticity allows adapting to different environments, having a dual activity in inflammatory-related diseases. Our hypothesis is that the type of dietary fatty acids into human postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), alone or in combination with niacin (vitamin B3), could modulate the plasticity of monocytes-macrophages. We isolated TRLs at the postprandial peak from blood samples of healthy volunteers after the ingestion of a meal rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or MUFAs plus omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). Autologous monocytes isolated at fasting were first induced to differentiate into naïve macrophages. We observed that postprandial TRL-MUFAs, particularly in combination with niacin, enhance competence to monocytes to differentiate and polarise into M2 macrophages. Postprandial TRL-SFAs made polarised macrophages prone to an M1 phenotype. In contrast to dietary SFAs, dietary MUFAs in the meals plus immediate-release niacin primed circulating monocytes for a reduced postprandial pro-inflammatory profile. Our study underlines a role of postprandial TRLs as a metabolic entity in regulating the plasticity of the monocyte-macrophage lineage and also brings an understanding of the mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids are environmental factors fostering the innate immune responsiveness in humans. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Suicidal Ingestion of Potassium Permanganate Crystals: A Rare Encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A. C.; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ...

  11. Plasticity of pressure-sensitive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ochsner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Classical plasticity theory of metals is independent of the hydrostatic pressure. However, if the metal contains voids or pores or if the structure is composed of cells, this classical assumption is no more valid and the influence of the hydrostatic pressure must be incorporated in the constitutive description. Looking at the microlevel, metal plasticity is connected with the uniform planes of atoms organized with long-range order. Planes may slip past each other along their close-packed directions. The result is a permanent change of shape within the crystal and plastic deformation. The presence of dislocations increases the likelihood of planes slipping. Nowadays, the theory of pressure sensitive plasticity is successfully applied to many other important classes of materials (polymers, concrete, bones etc.) even if the phenomena on the micro-level are different to classical plasticity of metals. The theoretical background of this phenomenological approach based on observations on the macro-level is describe...

  12. The effects of plastic waves on the numerical convergence of the viscous-plastic and elastic-viscous-plastic sea-ice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James; Tremblay, L. Bruno; Lemieux, Jean-François

    2017-07-01

    The plastic wave speed is derived from the linearized 1-D version of the widely used viscous-plastic (VP) and elastic-viscous-plastic (EVP) sea-ice models. Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) conditions are derived using the propagation speed of the wave. 1-D numerical experiments of the VP, EVP and EVP* models successfully recreate a reference solution when the CFL conditions are satisfied, in agreement with the theory presented. The IMplicit-EXplicit (IMEX) method is shown to effectively alleviate the plastic wave CFL constraint on the timestep in the implicitly solved VP model in both 1-D and 2-D. In 2-D, the EVP and EVP* models show first order error in the simulated velocity field when the plastic wave is not resolved. EVP simulations are performed with various advective timestep, number of subcycles, and elastic-wave damping timescales. It is found that increasing the number of subcycles beyond that needed to resolve the elastic wave does not improve the quality of the solution. It is found that reducing the elastic wave damping timescale reduces the spatial extent of first order errors cause by the unresolved plastic wave. Reducing the advective timestep so that the plastic wave is resolved also reduces the velocity error in terms of magnitude and spatial extent. However, the parameter set required for convergence to within the error bars of satellite (RGPS) deformation fields is impractical for use in climate model simulations. The behavior of the EVP* method is analogous to that of the EVP method except that it is not possible to reduce the damping timescale with α = β.

  13. Role of Plastics on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod

    2018-05-01

    Plastics, currently the universal workhorse materials of modern economy, because of their low cost and varied functional properties are posing serious threat to environment and consumer's health in many direct and indirect ways. Rising concern about the impact of plastics on environment and human health, has forced the industry to look for alternatives. This review studies current understanding of benefits and concerns surrounding use of plastics, reviews literature about health effects in humans and discusses the current state of evidence, as well as future research trends. There is increasing concern regarding additives in plastics to which most people are exposed, such as phthalates, bisphenol A or polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), and their detection in humans, leading to harmful impact on health. The studies are divided, among many other issues on the fact of considering these additives as carcinogens or toxicants, but there is a consensus that these chemicals have the ability to alter the endocrine system. Human data are limited compared to large body of experimental evidence documenting reproductive or developmental toxicity in relation to these compounds in animals. The concentrations of these additives in young children, a segment particularly sensitive to exogenous insults, are typically higher, indicating the need to decrease exposure to these compounds. The rapid increase in usage of plastics and increased awareness about its health hazard has lent urgency to the whole issue.

  14. Clinical syndrome associated with zolpidem ingestion in dogs: 33 cases (January 1998-July 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jill A; Gwaltney-Brant, Sharon M; Albretsen, Jay C; Khan, Safdar A; Porter, Jessica A

    2002-01-01

    Zolpidem is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic of the imidazopyridine class that is used to treat insomnia in humans. Zolpidem binds selectively to the benzodiazepine omega-1 receptor and increases the frequency of chloride channel opening, which results in inhibition of neuronal excitation. A retrospective study was conducted of zolpidem ingestion in dogs that were reported to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) between January 1998 and July 2000. Data analysis included amount ingested, clinical effects, and time of onset of signs. Thirty-three reports of zolpidem ingestion in dogs (ranging in age from 5 months to 16 years) were evaluated. Approximate ingested dosages ranged from 0.24 to 21 mg/kg. Clinical signs reported included ataxia (18 dogs; 54.5%), hyperactivity (10 dogs; 30.3%), vomiting (7 dogs; 21.2%), and lethargy (5 dogs; 15.2%), as well as panting, disorientation, nonspecific behavior disorder, and hypersalivation (4 dogs each sign; 12.1%). Other signs reported include tachycardia, tremors, apprehension, vocalization, hypersalivation, weakness, and hyperesthesia. In 85% percent of reports, clinical signs developed within 1 hour and usually resolved within 12 hours. Although central nervous system (CNS) depression is reported as a primary effect of zolpidem in humans and would also be expected in dogs, information obtained from this study indicates that some dogs may exhibit a paradoxical excitation reaction. This effect appears to vary among individual dogs.

  15. Elemental concentrations and bioaccessibilities in beached plastic foam litter, with particular reference to lead in polyurethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Lau, Kwan S

    2016-11-15

    Seventy samples of foamed plastic collected from a high-energy, sandy beach in SW England have been characterised by FTIR and XRF. Most samples were polyurethane (PU; n=39) or polystyrene (PS; n=27) that were associated with variable concentrations of Br-Cl, Fe and Zn, indicative of the presence of halogenated flame retardants, iron oxides and Zn-based additives, respectively. Many samples of rigid PU contained Pb, historically used as a catalyst, at concentrations of up to 16,000μgg -1 . A physiological extraction test that simulates the conditions in the gizzard of plastic-ingesting seabirds was applied to selected samples and results revealed that while Br and Zn were not measurably bioaccessible, Pb mobilisation progressed logarithmically over a period of time with maximum accessibilities after 220h of ~10% of total metal. Foamed PU is a source of bioaccessible Pb in the marine environment that has not previously been documented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The relative importance of ingestion for multiple pathway dose assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicker, W.; Grogan, H.; Bergstroem, U.; Hoffman, O.

    1991-01-01

    The general purpose of this report is to examine the relative importance of ingestion pathways, and particularly food chain transport in overall dose assessment. The importance of ingestion pathways is examined for various release scenarios and radionuclides because the findings are expected to differ with circumstances. The degree to which contaminated food products contribute to the total dose will affect the importance of accuracy and uncertainty of food chain model predictions, which is the main thrust of the Biospheric Model Validation Study (BIOMOVS). This analysis requires that all modes of radiation exposure be examined, including inhalation, external exposure, and the various ingestion pathways. (2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  17. Developing a Digital Medicine System in Psychiatry: Ingestion Detection Rate and Latency Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, Deborah; Rohatagi, Shashank; Zhao, Cathy; Hatch, Ainslie; Docherty, John P; Peters-Strickland, Timothy S

    2016-09-01

    A digital medicine system (DMS) has been developed to measure and report adherence to an atypical antipsychotic, aripiprazole, in psychiatric patients. The DMS consists of 3 components: ingestible sensor embedded in a medication tablet, wearable sensor, and secure mobile and cloud-based applications. An umbrella study protocol was designed to rapidly assess the technical performance and safety of the DMS in multiple substudies to guide the technology development. Two sequential substudies enrolled 30 and 29 healthy volunteers between March-April 2014 and February-March 2015, respectively, to assess detection accuracy of the ingestible sensor by the DMS and the latency period between ingestion and detection of the ingestion by the wearable sensor or the cloud-based server. The first substudy identified areas for improvement using early versions of the wearable sensor and the mobile application. The second substudy tested updated versions of the components and showed an overall ingestion detection rate of 96.6%. Mean latency times for the signal transmission were 1.1-1.3 minutes (from ingestion to the wearable sensor detection) and 6.2-10.3 minutes (from the wearable sensor detection to the server detection). Half of transmissions were completed in < 2 minutes, and ~90% of ingestions were registered by the smartphone within 30 minutes of ingestion. No serious adverse events, discontinuations, or clinically significant laboratory/vital signs findings were reported. The DMS implementing modified versions of the smartphone application and the wearable sensor has the technical capability to detect and report tablet ingestion with high accuracy and acceptable latency time. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02091882. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  18. A case of generalized argyria after ingestion of colloidal silver solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yangho; Suh, Ho Seok; Cha, Hee Jeong; Kim, Suk Hwan; Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Kim, Dong Hoon

    2009-03-01

    A 58-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to progressive skin darkening, which began 5 months previously. The patient had strikingly diffuse blue-gray discoloration of the skin, most prominent in sun-exposed areas, especially her face and hands. The oral mucosa, tongue, gums, eye conjunctiva, ears, nail beds, and trunk were also involved. Bluish-gray discoloration of all nails was aggravated by cold weather. She had ingested 1 L of colloidal silver solution daily for approximately 16 months as a traditional remedy. Her serum silver concentration was 381 ng/ml which was a very high (reference level: silver and sulfur in the dense black deposits. The ingestion of colloidal silver appears to be an increasing practice among patients using alternative health practices. All silver-containing products including colloidal silver should be labeled with a clear warning to prevent argyria, especially in alternative health practices.

  19. Occurrence and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in vegetables and soils of suburban plastic film greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Gangcai; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Manyun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are suspected of having adverse effects on human health and have been frequently detected in soils and vegetables. The present study investigated their occurrence and composition in plastic film greenhouse soil-vegetable systems and assessed their potential health risks to farmers exposed to these widespread pollutants. Six priority control phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), were determined in 44 plastic film greenhouse vegetables and corresponding soils. Total PAEs ranged from 0.51 to 7.16mgkg(-1) in vegetables and 0.40 to 6.20mgkg(-1) in soils with average concentrations of 2.56 and 2.23mgkg(-1), respectively. DnBP, DEHP and DnOP contributed more than 90% of the total PAEs in both vegetables and soils but the proportions of DnBP and DnOP in vegetables were significantly (p3.00mgkg(-1) but were plastic film greenhouses. Health risks were mainly by exposure through vegetable consumption and soil ingestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of Sensor Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    volunteers orally ingested an ITS (VitalSense Jonah Ingestible Capsule ; Minimitter Inc.). From 1300 to 1700 h, volunteers per- formed structured...emptying and gastrointes- tinal transit. Clin Investig. 1992;70(6):487–91. 24. Rao SS, Welcher K, Zimmerman B, Stumbo P. Is coffee a colonic stimulant? Eur J

  1. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic diagnosis of acute alcohol ingestion with hidden history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pungavkar, S.A.; Joshi, V.; Patkar, D.P.; Lawande, M.; Gadani, S.; Shah-Mehta, N.

    2006-01-01

    Parenchymal changes within the brain in chronic alcoholics are well known, and specific MRI and MR spectroscopy findings have been described. However, recent alcohol ingestion goes undetected on routine MRI because of lack of specific parenchymal changes in the acute setting. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy can detect the presence of ethanol as a metabolite in the brain accurately and can provide valuable information regarding acute ingestion of alcohol. This may be useful especially in cases where history of alcohol ingestion is withheld. Copyright (2006) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  2. Cancer risks from ingestion of radiostrontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, O. G.

    2004-07-01

    Studies have been conducted of the lifetime effects in 403 beagles of the skeletal uptake in seven logarithmically increasing dosage groups of ingested Sr-90. The Sr-90 was fed during skeletal developmental from mid-gestation to adulthood at age 540 days resulting in lifetime protracted beta radiation exposure of the skeleton and some adjacent tissues. Statistical analysis of all types of cancer deaths in the 403 exposed beagles and in 162 unexposed controls indicated that deaths caused by five types of cancer were significantly elevated by high level exposure to Sr-90; these were (1) myeloid leukemia, (2) bone sarcoma, (3) squamous cell carcinoma of periodontal origin, (4) nasal carcinoma, and (5) oral carcinoma. Dose response analysis of these radiation-induced cancer deaths showed non-linear relationships with marked thresholds. A mean lifetime skeletal absorbed dose of 22.5 +/-5.7 Gy SD (22.5 +/-5.7 Sv SD) was associated with the lowest dosage group in which any radiation induced cancer deaths were observed. Three-dimensional models of the observed dose-rate/time/response relationships were fir with maximum likelihood regression methods to describe the risks of death associated with the different types of radiation-induced cancer. The models show that a life-time virtual threshold for cancer risk occurs because the time required to induce cancer is longer at lower radiation dose rates and may exceed the natural life span. Scaling these results to predict human cancer risks from ingestion of Sr-90 shows negligible risks for people whose lifetime cumulative skeletal dose is less than 10 Sv. (Author)

  3. Pathophysiology of esophageal impairment due to button battery ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Johannes; Völker, Christine; Schendzielorz, Philipp; Schraven, Sebastian P; Radeloff, Andreas; Mlynski, Robert; Hagen, Rudolf; Rak, Kristen

    2017-09-01

    The increased use of button batteries with high energy densities in devices of daily life presents a high risk of injury, especially for toddlers and young children. If an accidental ingestion of a button battery occurs, this foreign body can become caught in the constrictions of the esophagus and cause serious damage to the adjacent tissue layers. The consequences can be ulcerations, perforations with fistula formation and damage to the surrounding anatomical structures. In order to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology after ingestion, we carried out systematic studies on fresh preparations of porcine esophagi. The lithium button battery type CR2032, used most frequently in daily life, was exposed in preparations of porcine esophagi and incubated under the addition of artificial saliva at 37 °C. A total of eight esophagi were analysed by different methods. Measurements of the pH value around the battery electrodes and histological studies of the tissue damage were carried out after 0.5-24 h exposure time. In addition, macroscopic time-lapse images were recorded. Measurements of the battery voltage and the course of the electric current supplemented the experiments. The investigations showed that the batteries caused an electrolysis reaction in the moist environment. The positive electrode formed an acidic and the negative electrode a basic medium. Consequently, a coagulation necrosis at the positive pole, and a deep colliquation necrosis at the minus pole occurred. After an exposure time of 12 h, tissue damage caused by the lye corrosion was observed on the side of the negative electrode up to the lamina muscularis. The corrosion progressed up to the final exposure time of 24 h, but the batteries still had sufficient residual voltage, such that further advancing damage would be expected. Button battery ingestion in humans poses an acute life-threatening danger and immediate endoscopic removal of the foreign body is essential. After only 2

  4. Ingestive behavior and nitrogen balance of confined santa ines lambs fed diets containing soybean hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Milena Patrícia Viana; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Pires, Aureliano José Vieira; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Filho, Antônio Eustáquio; Dos Santos, Edileusa de Jesus; Chagas, Daiane Maria Trindade; Barroso, Daniele Soares; Filho, George Abreu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of substituting corn with soybean hulls on the ingestive behavior and nitrogen balance of Santa Ines lambs. A total of 25 lambs with an initial body weight of 20±2 kg at approximately six months of age, sheltered individually in stalls (1.10 m×1.0 m), considering an entirely casual experimental delineation. Soybean hulls were substituted for corn at 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 g/kg of dry matter (DM). The time spent feeding, ruminating, masticating, and resting was not affected by the substitution of corn with soybean hulls. In fact, the feeding efficiency in g DM/h and the rumination efficiency in g DM/bolus increased linearly with soybean hull substitution in the feed. Although the nitrogen balance was not altered by the use of soybean hulls as a substitute for corn in the diets of Santa Ines lambs, the N ingested and N digested expressed in g/d, N retained as a percentage of that ingested, and N retained as a percentage of that digested displayed quadratic behavior. In conclusion, corn can be substituted with soybean hulls up to 1,000 g/kg of dry matter in the concentrate, without changing the ingestive behavior and nitrogen balance.

  5. Racial and Ethnic Diversity of U.S. Plastic Surgery Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin

    Increased diversity of U.S. physicians can improve patient communication and mitigate health disparities for racial minorities. This study analyzes trends in racial and ethnic diversity of plastic surgery residents. Demographic data of surgical residents, medical students, and integrated plastic surgery residency applicants were obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges. Data for college students and the general population were obtained from the U.S. Census for comparison with plastic surgery. Interspecialty differences and temporal trends in racial composition were analyzed with chi-square tests. From 1995 to 2014, Asian and Hispanic plastic surgery residents increased nearly 3-fold (7.4%-21.7%, p < 0.001) and 2-fold (4.6%-7.9%, p < 0.001), respectively. African American plastic surgery residents did not increase significantly (3.0%-3.5%, p = 0.129). Relative to the U.S. population, Hispanics (range: 0.1-0.5-fold) and African Americans (range: 0.1-0.4-fold) were underrepresented, whereas Asians (range: 2.2-5.3-fold) were overrepresented in plastic surgery. A "bottleneck" existed in the pipeline of African American and Hispanic plastic surgery residents. Significant differences in racial composition existed between plastic surgery and other surgical disciplines, which varied over time. The percentage of Hispanic (10.6% vs 7.0%, p = 0.402) and African American (6.4% vs 2.1%, p < 0.001) plastic surgery residency applicants exceeded those in residency. Hispanics and African Americans are underrepresented in plastic surgery residency relative to whites and Asians. This study underscores the need for greater initiatives to increase diversity in plastic surgery residency. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hunger and thirst interact to regulate ingestive behavior in flies and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourjine, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    In animals, nervous systems regulate the ingestion of food and water in a manner that reflects internal metabolic need. While the coordination of these two ingestive behaviors is essential for homeostasis, it has been unclear how internal signals of hunger and thirst interact to effectively coordinate food and water ingestion. In the last year, work in insects and mammals has begun to elucidate some of these interactions. As reviewed here, these studies have identified novel molecular and neural mechanisms that coordinate the regulation of food and water ingestion behaviors. These mechanisms include peptide signals that modulate neural circuits for both thirst and hunger, neurons that regulate both food and water ingestion, and neurons that integrate sensory information about both food and water in the external world. These studies argue that a deeper understanding of hunger and thirst will require closer examination of how these two biological drives interact. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Aberrant cortical associative plasticity associated with severe adult Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Ruiz-Rodríguez, María Adilia; Palomar, Francisco J; Cáceres-Redondo, María Teresa; Vargas, Laura; Porcacchia, Paolo; Gómez-Crespo, Mercedes; Huertas-Fernández, Ismael; Carrillo, Fátima; Madruga-Garrido, Marcos; Mir, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have shown altered cortical plasticity in adult patients with Tourette syndrome. However, the clinical significance of this finding remains elusive. Motor cortical plasticity was evaluated in 15 adult patients with severe Tourette syndrome and 16 healthy controls using the paired associative stimulation protocol by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Associations between paired associative stimulation-induced plasticity and relevant clinical variables, including cortical excitability, psychiatric comorbidities, drug treatment and tic severity, were assessed. Motor cortical plasticity was abnormally increased in patients with Tourette syndrome compared with healthy subjects. This abnormal plasticity was independently associated with tic severity. Patients with severe Tourette syndrome display abnormally increased cortical associative plasticity. This aberrant cortical plasticity was associated with tic severity, suggesting an underlying mechanism for tic pathophysiology. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Association of contextual cues with morphine reward increases neural and synaptic plasticity in the ventral hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvandi, Mina Sadighi; Bourmpoula, Maria; Homberg, Judith R; Fathollahi, Yaghoub

    2017-11-01

    Drug addiction is associated with aberrant memory and permanent functional changes in neural circuits. It is known that exposure to drugs like morphine is associated with positive emotional states and reward-related memory. However, the underlying mechanisms in terms of neural plasticity in the ventral hippocampus, a region involved in associative memory and emotional behaviors, are not fully understood. Therefore, we measured adult neurogenesis, dendritic spine density and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrkB mRNA expression as parameters for synaptic plasticity in the ventral hippocampus. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to the CPP (conditioned place preference) paradigm and received 10 mg/kg morphine. Half of the rats were used to evaluate neurogenesis by immunohistochemical markers Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX). The other half was used for Golgi staining to measure spine density and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to assess BDNF/TrkB expression levels. We found that morphine-treated rats exhibited more place conditioning as compared with saline-treated rats and animals that were exposed to the CPP without any injections. Locomotor activity did not change significantly. Morphine-induced CPP significantly increased the number of Ki67 and DCX-labeled cells in the ventral dentate gyrus. Additionally, we found increased dendritic spine density in both CA1 and dentate gyrus and an enhancement of BDNF/TrkB mRNA levels in the whole ventral hippocampus. Ki67, DCX and spine density were significantly correlated with CPP scores. In conclusion, we show that morphine-induced reward-related memory is associated with neural and synaptic plasticity changes in the ventral hippocampus. Such neural changes could underlie context-induced drug relapse. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. A hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programmed alteration in offspring rats of IUGR induced by prenatal caffeine ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, D. [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wu, Y.; Liu, F.; Liu, Y.S.; Shen, L.; Lei, Y.Y.; Liu, J. [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, J. [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Qin, J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, C. [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, L.B. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, J. [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, H., E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2012-11-01

    Caffeine is a definite factor of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Previously, we have confirmed that prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits the development of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, and alters the glucose and lipid metabolism in IUGR fetal rats. In this study, we aimed to verify a programmed alteration of neuroendocrine metabolism in prenatal caffeine ingested-offspring rats. The results showed that prenatal caffeine (120 mg/kg.day) ingestion caused low body weight and high IUGR rate of pups; the concentrations of blood adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone in caffeine group were significantly increased in the early postnatal period followed by falling in late stage; the level of blood glucose was unchanged, while blood total cholesterol (TCH) and triglyceride (TG) were markedly enhanced in adult. After chronic stress, the concentrations and the gain rates of blood ACTH and corticosterone were obviously increased, meanwhile, the blood glucose increased while the TCH and TG decreased in caffeine group. Further, the hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) expression in caffeine group was initially decreased and subsequently increased after birth. After chronic stress, the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), MR as well as the MR/GR ratio were all significantly decreased. These results suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion induced the dysfunction of HPA axis and associated neuroendocrine metabolic programmed alteration in IUGR offspring rats, which might be related with the functional injury of hippocampus. These observations provide a valuable experimental basis for explaining the susceptibility of IUGR offspring to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion induced HPA axis dysfunction in IUGR offspring rats. ► Caffeine induced a neuroendocrine metabolic programmed alteration in offspring rats. ► Caffeine induced a functional injury

  10. A hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programmed alteration in offspring rats of IUGR induced by prenatal caffeine ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, D.; Wu, Y.; Liu, F.; Liu, Y.S.; Shen, L.; Lei, Y.Y.; Liu, J.; Ping, J.; Qin, J.; Zhang, C.; Chen, L.B.; Magdalou, J.; Wang, H.

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine is a definite factor of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Previously, we have confirmed that prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits the development of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, and alters the glucose and lipid metabolism in IUGR fetal rats. In this study, we aimed to verify a programmed alteration of neuroendocrine metabolism in prenatal caffeine ingested-offspring rats. The results showed that prenatal caffeine (120 mg/kg.day) ingestion caused low body weight and high IUGR rate of pups; the concentrations of blood adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone in caffeine group were significantly increased in the early postnatal period followed by falling in late stage; the level of blood glucose was unchanged, while blood total cholesterol (TCH) and triglyceride (TG) were markedly enhanced in adult. After chronic stress, the concentrations and the gain rates of blood ACTH and corticosterone were obviously increased, meanwhile, the blood glucose increased while the TCH and TG decreased in caffeine group. Further, the hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) expression in caffeine group was initially decreased and subsequently increased after birth. After chronic stress, the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), MR as well as the MR/GR ratio were all significantly decreased. These results suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion induced the dysfunction of HPA axis and associated neuroendocrine metabolic programmed alteration in IUGR offspring rats, which might be related with the functional injury of hippocampus. These observations provide a valuable experimental basis for explaining the susceptibility of IUGR offspring to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion induced HPA axis dysfunction in IUGR offspring rats. ► Caffeine induced a neuroendocrine metabolic programmed alteration in offspring rats. ► Caffeine induced a functional injury

  11. Acute chloroform ingestion successfully treated with intravenously administered N-acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Aglio, Damon M; Sutter, Mark E; Schwartz, Michael D; Koch, David D; Algren, D A; Morgan, Brent W

    2010-06-01

    Chloroform, a halogenated hydrocarbon, causes central nervous system depression, cardiac arrhythmias, and hepatotoxicity. We describe a case of chloroform ingestion with a confirmatory serum level and resultant hepatotoxicity successfully treated with intravenously administered N-acetylcysteine (NAC). A 19-year-old man attempting suicide ingested approximately 75 mL of chloroform. He was unresponsive and intubated upon arrival. Intravenously administered NAC was started after initial stabilization was complete. His vital signs were normal. Admission laboratory values revealed normal serum electrolytes, AST, ALT, PT, BUN, creatinine, and bilirubin. Serum ethanol level was 15 mg/dL, and aspirin and acetaminophen were undetectable. The patient was extubated but developed liver function abnormalities with a peak AST of 224 IU/L, ALT of 583 IU/L, and bilirubin level reaching 16.3 mg/dL. NAC was continued through hospital day 6. Serum chloroform level obtained on admission was 91 μg/mL. The patient was discharged to psychiatry without known sequelae and normal liver function tests. The average serum chloroform level in fatal cases of inhalational chloroform poisoning was 64 μg/mL, significantly lower than our patient. The toxicity is believed to be similar in both inhalation and ingestion routes of exposure, with mortality predominantly resulting from anoxia secondary to central nervous system depression. Hepatocellular toxicity is thought to result from free radical-induced oxidative damage. Previous reports describe survival after treatment with orally administered NAC, we report the first use of intravenously administered NAC for chloroform ingestion. Acute oral ingestion of chloroform is extremely rare. Our case illustrates that with appropriate supportive care, patients can recover from chloroform ingestion, and intravenously administered NAC may be of benefit in such cases.

  12. Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses to the Ingestion of Caffeinated Herbal Tea: Drink It Hot or Cold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maufrais, Claire; Sarafian, Delphine; Dulloo, Abdul; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Tea is usually consumed at two temperatures (as hot tea or as iced tea). However, the importance of drink temperature on the cardiovascular system and on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses to the ingestion of caffeinated herbal tea (Yerba Mate) at cold or hot temperature in healthy young subjects. We hypothesized that ingestion of cold tea induces a higher increase in energy expenditure than hot tea without eliciting any negative effects on the cardiovascular system. Methods: Cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses were analyzed in 23 healthy subjects (12 men and 11 women) sitting comfortably during a 30-min baseline and 90 min following the ingestion of 500 mL of an unsweetened Yerba Mate tea ingested over 5 min either at cold (~3°C) or hot (~55°C) temperature, according to a randomized cross-over design. Results: Averaged over the 90 min post-drink ingestion and compared to hot tea, cold tea induced (1) a decrease in heart rate (cold tea: -5 ± 1 beats.min -1 ; hot tea: -1 ± 1 beats.min -1 , p hot tea: +3.7%, p hot tea while decreasing cardiac load as suggested by the decrease in the double product. Further experiments are needed to evaluate the clinical impact of unsweetened caffeinated herbal tea at a cold temperature for weight control.

  13. An analysis of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis was carried out of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases to the atmosphere. Doses to the adult, ten year old child and one year old child were calculated, which showed the one year old child to receive the highest dose. Detailed studies were made of the significance of the ingestion dose to the one year old child in relation to other exposure routes. The ingestion dose was analysed for its contributing critical organs, foods and nuclides. Approximate calculations were also made of the dependence of the ingestion dose on the time of year when the release occurs. The ingestion pathway was found to dominate if the release occurs towards the end of the growing season but to be less significant relative to other exposure pathways at all other times. The calculations enabled a set of release-specific emergency action guidance levels of critical nuclide concentrations in the critical foods to be produced, which comply with NRPB's ingestion Emergency Reference Level guidelines. (author)

  14. Thermal Esophageal Injury following Ingestion of Boiling Mushroom Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Prevost

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal esophageal and gastric damage from ingestion of hot liquids is poorly studied in pediatrics. Limited case reports exist in the literature. Many cases presented with chest pain, dysphagia, and odynophagia. Variable histologic findings were reported. No definitive management guidelines exist for such injuries. We provide a report of the acute assessment and management of an obvious thermal esophageal injury and contribute to what is known about this presentation. A 16-year-old male presented with odynophagia, dysphagia, and hematemesis following ingestion of “nearly boiling” mushroom water. Ondansetron, pantoprazole, ketorolac, maintenance intravenous fluids, and a clear liquid diet were started. At sixty hours after ingestion, an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed blistering and edema of the soft palate and epiglottis, circumferential erythema of the entire esophagus with an exudate likely to be desquamated mucosa, and linear erythema of the body and fundus of the stomach. An EGD one month after ingestion showed no residual effects from the injury. The pantoprazole was weaned and restrictions to his diet were lifted. To better standardize care in these rare esophageal injuries, the development of a clinical care algorithm may be beneficial to provide clinicians with a guide for management based on outcomes of previously reported cases.

  15. The effects of caffeine ingestion on the reaction time and short-term maximal performance after 36 h of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souissi, Makram; Chtourou, Hamdi; Abedelmalek, Salma; Ghozlane, Imen Ben; Sahnoun, Zouhair

    2014-05-28

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of caffeine ingestion on cognitive and physical performances after 36h of sleep deprivation. In randomized order, thirteen healthy male physical education students (age: 21.1±1.1years, body mass: 77.1±7.2kg, height: 1.77±0.06m) completed four test sessions at 18:00h: after placebo or 5mg·kg(-1) of caffeine ingestion during a baseline night (RN) (bed time: from 22:30h to 07:00h) or a night of 36h of sleep deprivation (TSD). During each test session, participants performed the squat jump (SJ), the reaction time, and the 30-s Wingate tests (i.e., for the measurement of the peak (PP) and mean (MP) powers and the fatigue index (FI)). The results showed that PP and MP decreased and FI increased during the TSD compared to RN in the placebo condition (pcaffeine ingestion improved PP after TSD compared to RN (pcaffeine ingestions (pcaffeine ingestion during RN and TSD (pcaffeine ingestion only during the TSD (pcaffeine is an effective strategy to counteract the effect of 36h of sleep loss on physical and cognitive performances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Whey, Caseinate, or Milk Protein Ingestion on Muscle Protein Synthesis after Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Nagata, Masashi; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-03

    Whey protein (WP) is characterized as a "fast" protein and caseinate (CA) as a "slow" protein according to their digestion and absorption rates. We hypothesized that co-ingestion of milk proteins (WP and CA) may be effective for prolonging the muscle protein synthesis response compared to either protein alone. We therefore compared the effect of ingesting milk protein (MP) to either WP or CA alone on muscle protein synthesis after exercise in rats. We also compared the effects of these milk-derived proteins to a control, soy protein (SP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for two hours. Immediately after exercise, one of the following four solutions was administered: WP, CA, MP, or SP. Individual rats were euthanized at designated postprandial time points and triceps muscle samples collected for measurement of the protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR). FSR tended to increase in all groups post-ingestion, although the initial peaks of FSR occurred at different times (WP, peak time = 60 min, FSR = 7.76%/day; MP, peak time = 90 min, FSR = 8.34%/day; CA, peak time = 120 min, FSR = 7.85%/day). Milk-derived proteins caused significantly greater increases (p protein synthesis to occur at different times (WP, fast; MP, intermediate; CA, slow) and the dairy proteins have a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis after exercise compared with SP.

  17. An ingested foreign body: two sides of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadharajan, Kiran; Magill, Jennifer; Patel, Kalpesh

    2014-04-09

    A 2-year-old child presented to the emergency department with an acute onset of dysphagia and stertor. A plain anteroposterior chest X-ray revealed a single circular opacity in the middle third of the oesophagus consistent with an ingested coin. The child was taken to the theatre for rigid pharyngo-oesophagoscopy and removal of the coin. After the first coin was removed subsequent endoscopic examination revealed a second coin at the same location. This extremely rare case of two ingested coins becoming impacted with perfect radiological alignment emphasises the importance of thorough examination on endoscopy and the potential limitations of an X-ray in initial assessment of an ingested foreign body.

  18. Quantification of Soil Ingested by Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothe, M.; Boden, W.

    2006-01-01

    Direct ingestion of soil is a possible essential exposition path for radionuclides and toxic substances, in particular for playing children. To quantify the soil ingested by children 22 test persons in 4 age groups (< 1 year, 1 to 2 years, 2 to 7 years, 7 to 12 years) were investigated for 12 days. We used some chemical elements as tracers. For the investigation purpose tracer elements should comply following conditions as best as possible: high concentration in soil, low intake by food, low gastrointestinal resorption. So we selected the elements Al, Si, Sc, Ti, Ga, Y, Zr, Nb, La, Ce and Nd. To determine the amount of ingested soil we sampled diet and stool of all 22 children for 12 days in summer 2002. We also sampled soil of the main playgrounds and house dust of the children homes. The behaviour of the children was recorded by the parents or childminders, particularly diet, defecation and outdoor playing. The mean values for all test persons are for the grain size fraction < 500 μm 53 mg/d or 19 mg/h playing time and for the grain size fraction < 63 μm 31 mg/d or 12 mg/ h playing time.The combined standard uncertainty is about 50 % for the data in mg/d and about 60 % for the data in mg/h playing time.The results are presented in tables and curves. (N.C.)

  19. Quantification of Soil Ingested by Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothe, M.; Boden, W. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Inc., Dresden (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Direct ingestion of soil is a possible essential exposition path for radionuclides and toxic substances, in particular for playing children. To quantify the soil ingested by children 22 test persons in 4 age groups (< 1 year, 1 to 2 years, 2 to 7 years, 7 to 12 years) were investigated for 12 days. We used some chemical elements as tracers. For the investigation purpose tracer elements should comply following conditions as best as possible: high concentration in soil, low intake by food, low gastrointestinal resorption. So we selected the elements Al, Si, Sc, Ti, Ga, Y, Zr, Nb, La, Ce and Nd. To determine the amount of ingested soil we sampled diet and stool of all 22 children for 12 days in summer 2002. We also sampled soil of the main playgrounds and house dust of thildren homes. The behaviour of the children was recorded by the parents or childminders, particularly diet, defecation and outdoor playing. The mean values for all test persons are for the grain size fraction < 500 {mu}m 53 mg/d or 19 mg/h playing time and for the grain size fraction < 63 {mu}m 31 mg/d or 12 mg/ h playing time.The combined standard uncertainty is about 50 % for the data in mg/d and about 60 % for the data in mg/h playing time.The results are presented in tables and curves. (N.C.)

  20. Evaluation of skin and ingestion exposure pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, Rosanne [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Logsdon, Joe E [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, DC (United States)

    1989-06-01

    After a nuclear accident when there has been a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere with consequential deposition on the ground, decisions are necessary on whether protective action guides should be implemented. In order to do this, several pathways for radiation exposure must be evaluated to determine the projected dose to individuals. The objective of this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is to provide background information on exposure pathways for use in the development of Protective Action Guides. The relative importance of three exposure pathways that are usually considered to be unimportant compared to other pathways expected to control relocation decisions following a nuclear power plant accident is evaluated. The three pathways are the skin dose from contact with radionuclides transferred from the ground, the skin dose from radionuclides on the ground surface, and ingestion of radionuclides transferred directly to the mouth from the hands or other contaminated surfaces. Ingestion of contaminated food is not included in this evaluation, except for situations where the food is contaminated as a result of actions by the person who consumes the food (e.g., transfer of contamination from hands to food). Estimates of skin and ingestion doses are based on a source term with a radionuclide mix predicted for an SST2-type nuclear accident in an area where the first year reference whole-body dose equivalent from whole body external exposure to gamma radiation plus the committed effective dose equivalent from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides is 1 rem. Appendixes have been included to allow the reader to examine dose factor calculations, source-term data, and quantification of contact and ingestion parameters in more detail.

  1. Evaluation of skin and ingestion exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, Rosanne; Logsdon, Joe E.

    1989-06-01

    After a nuclear accident when there has been a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere with consequential deposition on the ground, decisions are necessary on whether protective action guides should be implemented. In order to do this, several pathways for radiation exposure must be evaluated to determine the projected dose to individuals. The objective of this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is to provide background information on exposure pathways for use in the development of Protective Action Guides. The relative importance of three exposure pathways that are usually considered to be unimportant compared to other pathways expected to control relocation decisions following a nuclear power plant accident is evaluated. The three pathways are the skin dose from contact with radionuclides transferred from the ground, the skin dose from radionuclides on the ground surface, and ingestion of radionuclides transferred directly to the mouth from the hands or other contaminated surfaces. Ingestion of contaminated food is not included in this evaluation, except for situations where the food is contaminated as a result of actions by the person who consumes the food (e.g., transfer of contamination from hands to food). Estimates of skin and ingestion doses are based on a source term with a radionuclide mix predicted for an SST2-type nuclear accident in an area where the first year reference whole-body dose equivalent from whole body external exposure to gamma radiation plus the committed effective dose equivalent from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides is 1 rem. Appendixes have been included to allow the reader to examine dose factor calculations, source-term data, and quantification of contact and ingestion parameters in more detail

  2. A simplified ingestion procedure for esophageal capsule endoscopy: initial evaluation in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralnek, I M; Rabinovitz, R; Afik, D; Eliakim, R

    2006-09-01

    Initial studies on esophageal capsule endoscopy (PillCam ESO) reported excellent sensitivity and specificity, but these were followed by mixed results in several subsequent studies, probably due to deviations from the recommended ingestion protocol and the inconvenience of capsule ingestion in the supine position. The aim of this study was therefore to test a simplified ingestion procedure (SIP) for PillCam ESO. Using a cross-over study design, the SIP was prospectively compared with the original ingestion procedure for PillCam ESO in 24 healthy volunteers (15 men, nine women; mean age 44, range 27 - 70) and evaluated for: bubbles/saliva interference at the Z-line, Z-line circumferential visualization (quadrants), and convenience and ease of the ingestion procedure. All Rapid 4 videos were reviewed in a randomized manner and read by an experienced PillCam ESO reader blinded to the ingestion procedure used. It was found that the SIP significantly improved visualization in comparison with the original ingestion procedure, with less interference due to bubbles/saliva observed at the gastroesophageal junction ( P = 0.002) and improved visualization of the Z-line ( P = 0.025). Although the esophageal transit time was significantly faster with the SIP (3 : 45 min vs. 0 : 38 min; P = 0.0001), there were no differences in the number of Z-line frames/images captured. This new, simplified ingestion procedure for PillCam ESO provides significantly improved visualization of the Z-line in healthy volunteers. The overall test characteristics of PillCam ESO using SIP should be tested in patients with esophageal disease.

  3. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A. Cunningham MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  4. Plasticized chitosan/polyolefin films produced by extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matet, Marie; Heuzey, Marie-Claude; Ajji, Abdellah; Sarazin, Pierre

    2015-03-06

    Plasticized chitosan and polyethylene blends were produced through a single-pass extrusion process. Using a twin-screw extruder, chitosan plasticization was achieved in the presence of an acetic acid solution and glycerol, and directly mixed with metallocene polyethylene, mPE, to produce a masterbatch. Different dilutions of the masterbatch (2, 5 and 10 wt% of plasticized chitosan), in the presence of ethylene vinyl acetate, EVA, were subsequently achieved in single screw film extrusion. Very small plasticized chitosan domains (number average diameter <5 μm) were visible in the polymeric matrix. The resulting films presented a brown color and increasing haze with chitosan plasticized content. Mechanical properties of the mPE films were affected by the presence of plasticized chitosan, but improvement was observed as a result of some compatibility between mPE and chitosan in the presence of EVA. Finally the incorporation of plasticized chitosan affected mPE water vapor permeability while oxygen permeability remained constant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Food deprivation and leptin prioritize ingestive and sex behavior without affecting estrous cycles in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jill E; Casper, Janelle F; Barisich, Amanda; Schoengold, Candace; Cherry, Sandeep; Surico, Justine; DeBarba, Ashley; Fabris, Frank; Rabold, Elizabeth

    2007-03-01

    Energy consumption is critical for the energetically expensive processes related to reproduction, and thus, mechanisms that increase ingestive behavior are directly linked to reproductive success. Similarly, the mechanisms that inhibit hunger and ingestive behavior might be most adaptive when these mechanisms cause individuals to stop foraging, hoarding and eating in order to find and court potential mates. In the laboratory, ingestive behaviors are typically studied separately from reproductive behaviors even though it is likely that these behaviors evolved under conditions in which both food and mates were available. We examined the choice between paracopulatory and ingestive behaviors in a semi-natural environment in which both food and potential mates were available. Intact female Syrian hamsters showed a high preference for males on days 3 and 4 (day 4 being the day of ovulation and estrous behavior), and a 48-h period of food deprivation significantly decreased preference for sex and increased preference for eating and food hoarding on day 3 in 89% of the hamsters, although none became anestrous. The same period of food deprivation significantly decreased the level of vaginal marking without significant effects on plasma estradiol concentrations. Next, hamsters were either food deprived (FD) or fed ad libitum, and half of each group was treated with vehicle or the adipocyte hormone leptin. The percentage of females with a low preference for sex was significantly greater in the FD compared to the ad libitum-fed groups, and leptin treatment prevented this effect. Metabolic fuels, possibly acting through leptin and other hormones, might influence sensitivity to estradiol or enhance the downstream effects of estradiol, thereby increasing motivation for sex and decreasing the relative motivation to forage, hoard and eat food.

  6. Modeling plasticity by non-continuous deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shmuel, Yaron; Altus, Eli

    2017-10-01

    Plasticity and failure theories are still subjects of intense research. Engineering constitutive models on the macroscale which are based on micro characteristics are very much in need. This study is motivated by the observation that continuum assumptions in plasticity in which neighbour material elements are inseparable at all-time are physically impossible, since local detachments, slips and neighbour switching must operate, i.e. non-continuous deformation. Material microstructure is modelled herein by a set of point elements (particles) interacting with their neighbours. Each particle can detach from and/or attach with its neighbours during deformation. Simulations on two- dimensional configurations subjected to uniaxial compression cycle are conducted. Stochastic heterogeneity is controlled by a single "disorder" parameter. It was found that (a) macro response resembles typical elasto-plastic behaviour; (b) plastic energy is proportional to the number of detachments; (c) residual plastic strain is proportional to the number of attachments, and (d) volume is preserved, which is consistent with macro plastic deformation. Rigid body displacements of local groups of elements are also observed. Higher disorder decreases the macro elastic moduli and increases plastic energy. Evolution of anisotropic effects is obtained with no additional parameters.

  7. Safety-pin ingestion in children: a cultural fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gün, Feryal; Salman, Tansu; Abbasoglu, Latif; Celik, Rüya; Celik, Alaaddin

    2003-08-01

    Pediatric foreign-body (FB) ingestion is a common problem. Many of these FBs are sharp objects such as needles, toothpicks and safety pins (SP). This report reviews the management of SP ingestion in children. During a 16-year period, we recorded 49 pediatric cases of witnessed SP ingestion. In all children, SPs were used to attach the blue beads to the child's suits with the belief of averting the evil eye. The mean age was 8 months ranging from 4 months to 2 years, and 30 patients were males and 19 were females. SPs were most commonly sited in esophagus (37%) and stomach (37%). In the remainder, the SPs have already reached the duodenum and intestine. In this series, 20 (41%) children passed SPs spontaneously, 14 (28.5%) required endoscopic removal and 15 (30.5%) underwent surgery. The outcome of all patients was uneventful. All of the esophageal SPs require endoscopic intervention, however, after passing into stomach the patients can be observed with keeping the surgical intervention in mind if the SP displays a fixed position for more than three days.

  8. Neural plasticity and its initiating conditions in tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, L E

    2018-03-01

    Deafferentation caused by cochlear pathology (which can be hidden from the audiogram) activates forms of neural plasticity in auditory pathways, generating tinnitus and its associated conditions including hyperacusis. This article discusses tinnitus mechanisms and suggests how these mechanisms may relate to those involved in normal auditory information processing. Research findings from animal models of tinnitus and from electromagnetic imaging of tinnitus patients are reviewed which pertain to the role of deafferentation and neural plasticity in tinnitus and hyperacusis. Auditory neurons compensate for deafferentation by