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Sample records for increased peridermal transpiration

  1. Latent manganese deficiency increases transpiration in barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbern, Christopher A; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Ladegaard, Anne H; Schmidt, Sidsel B; Pedas, Pai; Bruhn, Dan; Schjoerring, Jan K; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Husted, Søren

    2009-03-01

    To investigate if latent manganese (Mn) deficiency leads to increased transpiration, barley plants were grown for 10 weeks in hydroponics with daily additions of Mn in the low nM range. The Mn-starved plants did not exhibit visual leaf symptoms of Mn deficiency, but Chl a fluorescence measurements revealed that the quantum yield efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F(m)) was reduced from 0.83 in Mn-sufficient control plants to below 0.5 in Mn-starved plants. Leaf Mn concentrations declined from 30 to 7 microg Mn g(-1) dry weight in control and Mn-starved plants, respectively. Mn-starved plants had up to four-fold higher transpiration than control plants. Stomatal closure and opening upon light/dark transitions took place at the same rate in both Mn treatments, but the nocturnal leaf conductance for water vapour was still twice as high in Mn-starved plants compared with the control. The observed increase in transpiration was substantiated by (13)C-isotope discrimination analysis and gravimetric measurement of the water consumption, showing significantly lower water use efficiency in Mn-starved plants. The extractable wax content of leaves of Mn-starved plants was approximately 40% lower than that in control plants, and it is concluded that the increased leaf conductance and higher transpirational water loss are correlated with a reduction in the epicuticular wax layer under Mn deficiency.

  2. Aerosol-induced thermal effects increase modelled terrestrial photosynthesis and transpiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Allison L.; Chameides, W.L.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that the radiative effects of atmospheric aerosols (reducing total radiation while increasing the diffuse fraction) can enhance terrestrial productivity. Here, simulations using a regional climate/terrestrial biosphere model suggest that atmospheric aerosols could also enhance terrestrial photosynthesis and transpiration through an interaction between solar radiation, leaf temperature and stomatal conductance. During midday, clear-sky conditions, sunlit-leaf temperatures can exceed the optimum for photosynthesis, depressing both photosynthesis and transpiration. Aerosols decrease surface solar radiation, thereby reducing leaf temperatures and enhancing sunlit-leaf photosynthesis and transpiration. This modelling study finds that, under certain conditions, this thermal response of aerosols can have a greater impact on photosynthesis and transpiration than the radiative response. This implies that a full understanding of the impact of aerosols on climate and the global carbon cycle requires consideration of the biophysical responses of terrestrial vegetation as well as atmospheric radiative and thermodynamic effects

  3. Latent manganese deficiency increases transpiration in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbern, Christopher Alan; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Ladegaard, Anne Hald

    2009-01-01

    To investigate if latent manganese (Mn) deficiency leads to increased transpiration, barley plants were grown for 10 weeks in hydroponics with daily additions of Mn in the low nM range. The Mn-starved plants did not exhibit visual leaf symptoms of Mn deficiency, but Chl a fluorescence measurements...

  4. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  5. Attraction of Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae to Yunnan Pine Logs with and without Periderm or Phloem: An Effective Monitoring Bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chun Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yunnan pine shoot beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli (Coleoptera: Scolytinae is an important pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis Franch in China. Experiments with host log baits were done to develop a pest monitoring system using host tree kairomone. Five Yunnan pine logs (each 10–15 cm diam. × 30-cm long in a trap-log bundle were treated by peeling periderm (outer bark off to expose the phloem, and half of each log was covered with sticky adhesive to capture any attracted adult beetles. Significantly, more beetles were attracted and caught on the periderm-peeled logs (ca 30 beetles/m2 log surface/day than on untreated control logs with adhesive (ca 2.5/m2/day. No significant differences were observed between catches on logs taken from lower or upper halves of Yunnan pines. T. yunnanensis flies mostly during the afternoon according to trap catches throughout the day. Attraction to the periderm-peeled logs decreased considerably when they were peeled further to remove the phloem, indicating phloem volatiles play a role in selection of the host by the beetle. The readily-available log baits appear useful for monitoring pine shoot beetle populations in integrated pest management programs.

  6. Daily course of transpiration productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, W

    1957-01-01

    THIS STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRANSPIRATION AND DRY-MATTER PRODUCTION OF FIELD CROPS, INCLUDED ALSO INVESTIGATIONS OF NEEDLES OF SPRUCE AND SILVER FIR SUFFERING FROM SO/sup 3/ DAMAGE, IN WHICH A MARKED INCREASE IN TRANSPIRATION PRODUCTIVITY WAS NOTED. 25 REFERENCES, 32 FIGURES.

  7. Thermodynamic balance of photosynthesis and transpiration at increasing CO2 concentrations and rapid light fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Dolores; Martín, Mercedes; Serrot, Patricia H; Sabater, Bartolomé

    2014-02-01

    Experimental and theoretical flux models have been developed to reveal the influence of sun flecks and increasing CO2 concentrations on the energy and entropy balances of the leaf. The rapid and wide range of fluctuations in light intensity under field conditions were simulated in a climatic gas exchange chamber and we determined the energy and entropy balance of the leaf based on radiation and gas exchange measurements. It was estimated that the energy of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) accounts for half of transpiration, which is the main factor responsible for the exportation of the entropy generated in photosynthesis (Sg) out of the leaf in order to maintain functional the photosynthetic machinery. Although the response of net photosynthetic production to increasing concentrations of CO2 under fluctuating light is similar to that under continuous light, rates of transpiration respond slowly to changes of light intensity and are barely affected by the concentration of CO2 in the range of 260-495 ppm, in which net photosynthesis increases by more than 100%. The analysis of the results confirms that future increases of CO2 will improve the efficiency of the conversion of radiant energy into biomass, but will not reduce the contribution of plant transpiration to the leaf thermal balance. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. [Experimental study on crop photosynthesis, transpiration and high efficient water use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huixiao; Liu, Changming

    2003-10-01

    It is well known that the development of water-saving agriculture is a strategic choice for getting rid of the crisis of water shortage. In this paper, the crop photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatic behavior, and their affecting factors were studied in view of increasing the crop water use efficiency. The experimental results showed that there was a parabola relationship between photosynthesis and transpiration. The transpiration at the maximum photosynthesis was a critical value, above which, transpiration was the luxurious part. The luxurious transpiration could be controlled without affecting photosynthetic production. It is possible that the measures for increasing stomatic resistance and preventing transpiration could save water, and improve photosynthesis and yield as well. The photosynthesis rate increased with photosynthetic active radiation, and the light saturation point for photosynthesis existed. The light saturation point of dry treatment was much lower than that of wet treatment, and the relationship between transpiration and radiation was linear. When the photosynthetic active radiation was bigger than 1,000 mumol.m-2.s-1, some treatments could be carried out for decreasing transpiration and improving photosynthesis.

  9. Studies on transpiration rates and tritium concentration in transpired water in some plant species at Kaiga site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.B.; Ravi, P.M.; Hegde, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Transpiration is the driving force for uptake of water and hence that of tritiated water from environment. Transpiration rates and tritium concentration in transpired water in some plants at Kaiga site were estimated. Good correlation was observed between transpiration rates with humidity, temperature and leaf surface area. Transpiration rates varied seasonally and diurnally due to the influence of interdependent parameters such as temperature, humidity, water availability, etc. The ratio between the tritium concentrations in transpired plant water to that in air moisture ranged from 0.1 to 0.2. (author)

  10. Uptake and distribution of chlordecone in radish: different contamination routes in edible roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létondor, Clarisse; Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Laurent, François

    2015-01-01

    Chlordecone (CLD) was an organochlorine insecticide mainly used to struggle against banana weevils in the French West Indies. Forbidden since 1993, it has been a long-term contaminant of soils and aquatic environments. Crops growing in contaminated soils lead to human exposure by food consumption. We used radiolabeled [(14)C]-CLD to investigate the contamination ways into radish, a model of edible roots. Radish plants were able to accumulate CLD in both roots (RCF35d 647) and tubers (edible parts, CF35d 6.3). CLD was also translocated to leaves (CF35d 1.7). The contamination of tuber was mainly due to peridermic adsorption or CLD systemic translocation to the pith. TSCF was 3.44×10(-)(3). CLD diffused across periderm to internal tissues. We calculated a mean flux of diffusion J through periderm about 5.71×10(-)(14)gcm(-)(2)s(-)(1). We highlighted different contamination routes of the tuber, (i) adsorption on periderm followed by diffusion of CLD towards underlying tissues, cortex, xylem, and pith (ii) adsorption by roots and translocation by the transpiration stream followed by diffusion from xylem vessels towards inner tissues, pith, and peripheral tissues, cortex and periderm. Concerning chemical risk assessment for other tubers, contamination would depend on various parameters, the thickness of periderm and CLD periderm permeance, the origin of secondary tissues - from cortex and/or pith - , the importance of xylem flow in tuber, and the lipid amount within tuber. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. On the extent of genetic variation for transpiration efficiency in sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, G.L.; Broad, I.J.; Farquhar, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    A glasshouse study examined 49 diverse sorghum lines for variation in transpiration efficiency. Three of the 49 lines grown were Sorghum spp. native to Australia; one was the major weed Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense), and the remaining 45 lines were cultivars of Sorghum bicolor. All plants were grown under non-limiting water and nutrient conditions using a semi-automatic pot watering system designed to facilitate accurate measurement of water use. Plants were harvested 56-58 days after sowing and dry weights of plant parts were determined. Transpiration efficiency differed significantly among cultivars. The 3 Australian native sorghums had much lower transpiration efficiency than the other 46 cultivars, which ranged from 7.7 to 6.0 g/kg. For the 46 diverse cultivars, the ratio of range in transpiration efficiency to its l.s.d. was 2.0, which was similar to that found among more adapted cultivars in a previous study. This is a significant finding as it suggests that there is likely to be little pay-off from pursuing screening of unadapted material for increased variation in transpiration efficiency. It is necessary, however, also to examine absolute levels of transpiration efficiency to determine whether increased levels have been found. The cultivar with greatest transpiration efficiency in this study (IS9710) had a value 9% greater (P < 0.05) than the accepted standard for adapted sorghum cultivars. The potential impact of such an increase in transpiration efficiency warrants continued effort to capture it. Transpiration efficiency has been related theoretically and experimentally to the degree of carbon isotope discrimination in leaf tissue in sorghum, which thus offers a relatively simple selection index. In this study, the variation in transpiration efficiency was not related simply to carbon isotope discrimination. Significant associations of transpiration efficiency with ash content and indices of photosynthetic capacity were found. However, the

  12. Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water

  13. Experimental investigation of biomimetic self-pumping and self-adaptive transpiration cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pei-Xue; Huang, Gan; Zhu, Yinhai; Xu, Ruina; Liao, Zhiyuan; Lu, Taojie

    2017-09-01

    Transpiration cooling is an effective way to protect high heat flux walls. However, the pumps for the transpiration cooling system make the system more complex and increase the load, which is a huge challenge for practical applications. A biomimetic self-pumping transpiration cooling system was developed inspired by the process of trees transpiration that has no pumps. An experimental investigation showed that the water coolant automatically flowed from the water tank to the hot surface with a height difference of 80 mm without any pumps. A self-adaptive transpiration cooling system was then developed based on this mechanism. The system effectively cooled the hot surface with the surface temperature kept to about 373 K when the heating flame temperature was 1639 K and the heat flux was about 0.42 MW m -2 . The cooling efficiency reached 94.5%. The coolant mass flow rate adaptively increased with increasing flame heat flux from 0.24 MW m -2 to 0.42 MW m -2 while the cooled surface temperature stayed around 373 K. Schlieren pictures showed a protective steam layer on the hot surface which blocked the flame heat flux to the hot surface. The protective steam layer thickness also increased with increasing heat flux.

  14. Transpiration and crop yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.

    1958-01-01

    Theoretical and practical aspects of the transpiration of crops in the field are discussed and he concludes that the relationship between transpiration and total dry matter production is much less affected by growing conditions than has been supposed. In semi-arid and arid regions, this relationship

  15. Transpiration efficiency of three Mediterranean annual pasture species and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, T P; Turner, N C

    1998-06-01

    Attempts to improve water use efficiency in regions with Mediterranean climates generally focus on increasing plant transpiration relative to evaporation from the soil and increasing transpiration efficiency. Our aim was to determine if transpiration efficiency differs among key species occurring in annual pastures in southern Australia. Two glasshouse experiments were conducted with three key pasture species, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.), capeweed [Arctotheca calendula (L.) Levyns] and annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Transpiration efficiency was assessed at the levels of␣whole-plant biomass and water use (W), leaf gas exchange measurements of the ratio of CO 2 assimilation to leaf conductance to water vapour (A/g), and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) in leaf tissue. In addition, Δ was measured on shoots of the three pasture species growing together in the field. In the glasshouse studies, annual ryegrass had a consistently higher transpiration efficiency than subterranean clover or capeweed by all methods of measurement. Subterranean clover and capeweed had similar transpiration efficiencies by all three methods of measurement. Wheat had W values similar to ryegrass but A/g and Δ values similar to subterranean clover or capeweed. The high W of annual ryegrass seems to be related to a conservative leaf gas exchange behaviour, with lower assimilation and conductance but higher A/g than for the other species. In contrast to the glasshouse results, the three pasture species had similar Δ values when growing together in mixed-species swards in the field. Reasons for these differing responses between glasshouse and field-grown plants are discussed in terms of the implications for improving the transpiration efficiency of mixed-species annual pasture communities in the field.

  16. Cadmium induces hypodermal periderm formation in the roots of the monocotyledonous medicinal plant Merwilla plumbea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Alexander; Vaculík, Marek; Martinka, Michal; Lisková, Desana; Kulkarni, Manoj G; Stirk, Wendy A; Van Staden, Johannes

    2011-02-01

    Merwilla plumbea is an important African medicinal plant. As the plants grow in soils contaminated with metals from mining activities, the danger of human intoxication exists. An experiment with plants exposed to cadmium (Cd) was performed to investigate the response of M. plumbea to this heavy metal, its uptake and translocation to plant organs and reaction of root tissues. Plants grown from seeds were cultivated in controlled conditions. Hydroponic cultivation is not suitable for this species as roots do not tolerate aquatic conditions, and additional stress by Cd treatment results in total root growth inhibition and death. After cultivation in perlite the plants exposed to 1 and 5 mg Cd L(-1) in half-strength Hoagland's solution were compared with control plants. Growth parameters were evaluated, Cd content was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and root structure was investigated using various staining procedures, including the fluorescent stain Fluorol yellow 088 to detect suberin deposition in cell walls. The plants exposed to Cd were significantly reduced in growth. Most of the Cd taken up by plants after 4 weeks cultivation was retained in roots, and only a small amount was translocated to bulbs and leaves. In reaction to higher Cd concentrations, roots developed a hypodermal periderm close to the root tip. Cells produced by cork cambium impregnate their cell walls by suberin. It is suggested that the hypodermal periderm is developed in young root parts in reaction to Cd toxicity to protect the root from radial uptake of Cd ions. Secondary meristems are usually not present in monocotyledonous species. Another interpretation explaining formation of protective suberized layers as a result of periclinal divisions of the hypodermis is discussed. This process may represent an as yet unknown defence reaction of roots when exposed to elemental stress.

  17. Biophysical control of whole tree transpiration under an urban environment in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixin Chen; Zhiqiang Zhang; Zhandong Li; Jianwu Tang; Peter Caldwell; et al

    2011-01-01

    Urban reforestation in China has led to increasing debate about the impact of urban trees and forests on water resources. Although transpiration is the largest water flux leaving terrestrial ecosystems, little is known regarding whole tree transpiration in urban environments. In this study, we quantified urban tree transpiration at various temporal scales and examined...

  18. Thermal performance of a transpired solar collector updraft tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eryener, Dogan; Hollick, John; Kuscu, Hilmi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Transpired solar collector updraft tower has been studied experimentally. • Transpired solar collector updraft tower efficiency ranges from 60 to 80%. • A comparison has been made with other SUT prototypes. • Three times higher efficiency compared to the glazed collectors of conventional solar towers. - Abstract: A novel solar updraft tower prototype, which consists of transpired solar collector, is studied, its function principle is described and its experimental thermal performance is presented for the first time. A test unit of transpired solar collector updraft tower was installed at the campus of Trakya University Engineering Faculty in Edirne-Turkey in 2014. Solar radiation, ambient temperature, collector cavity temperatures, and chimney velocities were monitored during summer and winter period. The results showed that transpired solar collector efficiency ranges from 60% to 80%. The maximum temperature rise in the collector area is found to be 16–18 °C on the typical sunny day. Compared to conventional solar tower glazed collectors, three times higher efficiency is obtained. With increased thermal efficiency, large solar collector areas for solar towers can be reduced in half or less.

  19. [Photosynthesis and transpiration characteristics of female and male Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Zhong, Zhang-cheng; Wang, Xiao-xue; Xie, Jun; Yang, Wen-ying

    2011-03-01

    A field research was conducted on the photosynthesis and transpiration characteristics of dioecious Trichosanthes kirilowii individuals at four key development stages. At vegetative growth stage, the photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency of male individuals were higher than those of female individuals, and hence, male individuals entered into reproductive growth stage 22 days earlier than female individuals. After entering into reproductive growth stage, male individuals had higher photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance, but slightly lower water use efficiency than female individuals. As the female individuals started to reproductive growth, their photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency were significantly lower, while the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were higher than those of the male individuals. The effects of climate factors on the growth and development of T. kirilowii mainly occurred at its vegetative growth and early reproductive growth stages, and weakened at later reproductive growth stages. Higher temperature and lower relative humidity benefited the growth and development of T. kirilowii, and illumination could enhance the photosynthesis rate of T. kirilowii, especially its male individuals. After entering into reproductive growth stage, the photosynthesis rate of male individuals increased significantly with increasing illumination, but that of female individuals only had a slight increase, and the transpiration rate of male individuals as well as the photosynthesis rate of female individuals all increased significantly with increasing temperature.

  20. Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, Scott; Sharp, Zachary D; Gibson, John J; Birks, S Jean; Yi, Yi; Fawcett, Peter J

    2013-04-18

    Renewable fresh water over continents has input from precipitation and losses to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration. Global-scale estimates of transpiration from climate models are poorly constrained owing to large uncertainties in stomatal conductance and the lack of catchment-scale measurements required for model calibration, resulting in a range of predictions spanning 20 to 65 per cent of total terrestrial evapotranspiration (14,000 to 41,000 km(3) per year) (refs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Here we use the distinct isotope effects of transpiration and evaporation to show that transpiration is by far the largest water flux from Earth's continents, representing 80 to 90 per cent of terrestrial evapotranspiration. On the basis of our analysis of a global data set of large lakes and rivers, we conclude that transpiration recycles 62,000 ± 8,000 km(3) of water per year to the atmosphere, using half of all solar energy absorbed by land surfaces in the process. We also calculate CO2 uptake by terrestrial vegetation by connecting transpiration losses to carbon assimilation using water-use efficiency ratios of plants, and show the global gross primary productivity to be 129 ± 32 gigatonnes of carbon per year, which agrees, within the uncertainty, with previous estimates. The dominance of transpiration water fluxes in continental evapotranspiration suggests that, from the point of view of water resource forecasting, climate model development should prioritize improvements in simulations of biological fluxes rather than physical (evaporation) fluxes.

  1. Tamarix transpiration along a semiarid river has negligible impact on water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Alyson K.; Wilcox, Bradford P.; Moore, Georgianne W.; Hart, Charles R.; Sheng, Zhuping; Owens, M. Keith

    2015-07-01

    The proliferation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) along regulated rivers in the western United States has transformed riparian plant communities. It is commonly assumed that transpiration by these alien plants has led to large losses of water that would otherwise contribute to streamflow. Control of saltcedar, therefore, has been considered a viable strategy for conserving water and increasing streamflow in these regions. In an effort to better understand the linkage between transpiration by saltcedar and streamflow, we monitored transpiration, stream stage, and groundwater elevations within a saltcedar stand along the Pecos River during June 2004. Transpiration, as determined by sap flow measurements, exhibited a strong diel pattern; stream stage did not. Diel fluctuations in groundwater levels were observed, but only in one well, which was located in the center of the saltcedar stand. In that well, the correlation between maximal transpiration and minimal groundwater elevation was weak (R2 = 0.16). No effects of transpiration were detected in other wells within the saltcedar stand, nor in the stream stage. The primary reason, we believe, is that the saltcedar stand along this reach of the Pecos River has relatively low sapwood area and a limited spatial extent resulting in very low transpiration compared with the stream discharge. Our results are important because they provide a mechanistic explanation for the lack of increase in streamflow following large-scale control of invasive trees along semiarid rivers.

  2. Sap flow measurements to determine the transpiration of facade greenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Marie-Therese; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Facade greening is expected to make a major contribution to the mitigation of the urban heat-island effect through transpiration cooling, thermal insulation and shading of vertical built structures. However, no studies are available on water demand and the transpiration of urban vertical green. Such knowledge is needed as the plants must be sufficiently watered, otherwise the posited positive effects of vertical green can turn into disadvantages when compared to a white wall. Within the framework of the German Research Group DFG FOR 1736 "Urban Climate and Heat Stress" this study aims to test the practicability of the sap flow technique for transpiration measurements of climbing plants and to obtain potential transpiration rates for the most commonly used species. Using sap flow measurements we determined the transpiration of Fallopia baldschuanica, Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix in pot experiments (about 1 m high) during the hot summer period from August 17th to August 30th 2012 under indoor conditions. Sap flow measurements corresponded well to simultaneous weight measurement on a daily base (factor 1.19). Fallopia baldschuanica has the highest daily transpiration rate based on leaf area (1.6 mm d-1) and per base area (5.0 mm d-1). Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix show transpiration rates of 3.5 and 0.4 mm d-1 (per base area). Through water shortage, transpiration strongly decreased and leaf temperature measured by infrared thermography increased by 1 K compared to a well watered plant. We transferred the technique to outdoor conditions and will present first results for facade greenings in the inner-city of Berlin for the hottest period in summer 2013.

  3. Biophysical control of whole tree transpiration under an urban environment in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lixin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Li, Zhandong; Tang, Jianwu; Caldwell, Peter; Zhang, Wenjuan

    2011-05-01

    SummaryUrban reforestation in China has led to increasing debate about the impact of urban trees and forests on water resources. Although transpiration is the largest water flux leaving terrestrial ecosystems, little is known regarding whole tree transpiration in urban environments. In this study, we quantified urban tree transpiration at various temporal scales and examined the biophysical control of the transpiration pattern under different water conditions to understand how trees survive in an urban environment. Concurrent with microclimate and soil moisture measurements, transpiration from C edrus deodara(Roxb)Loud ., Zelkova schneideriana Hend.-Mazz., Euonymus bungeanus Maxim., and Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et cheng was measured over a 2-year period using thermal dissipation probe (TDP) techniques. The average monthly transpiration rates reached 12.78 ± 0.73 (S.E.) mm, 1.79 ± 0.16 mm, 10.18 ± 0.55 mm and 19.28 ± 2.24 mm for C. deodara, Z.schneideriana, E. bungeanus and M. glyptostroboides, respectively. Transpiration rates from M. glyptostroboides reported here may need further study as this species showed much higher sap flows and greater transpiration fluctuation under different environmental conditions than other species. Because of deep soil moisture supply, summer dry spells did not reduce transpiration rates even when tree transpiration exceeded rainfall. While vapor pressure deficit ( VPD) was the dominant environmental factor on transpiration, trees controlled canopy conductance effectively to limit transpiration in times of water stress. Our results provide evidence that urban trees could adopt strong physiological control over transpiration under high evaporative demands to avoid dehydration and can make use of water in deeper soil layers to survive summer dry spells. Moreover, urban trees have the ability to make the best use of precipitation when it is limited, and are sensitive to soil and air dryness.

  4. Measuring and Modeling Tree Stand Level Transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Vose; G.J. Harvey; K.J. Elliott; B.D. Clinton

    2003-01-01

    Transpiration is a key process in the application of phytoremediation to soil or groundwater pollutants. To be successful, vegetation must transpire enough water from the soil or groundwater to control or take up the contaminant. Transpiration is driven by a combination of abiotic (climate, soil water availability, and groundwater depth) and biotic (leaf area, stomatal...

  5. Leaf temperature and transpiration of rice plants in relation to short-wave radiation and wind speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, D.; Haseba, T.

    1984-01-01

    Leaf temperature and transpiration amount of rice plants were measured in a steady environment in a laboratory and in field situations. The plants set in Wagner pots were used. Experiments were carried out at the tillering and booting stages, and on the date of maturity. Measured leaf temperatures and transpiration rates were analyzed in connection with incident short-wave radiation on a leaf and wind speed measured simultaneously.Instantaneous supplying and turning-off of steady artificial light caused cyclic changes in leaf temperature and transpiration. Leaf temperature dropped in feeble illumination compared with the steady temperature in the preceeding dark.On the date of maturity, a rice plant leaf was warmer than the air, even in feeble light. Then, the leaf-air temperature difference and transpiration rate showed approximately linear increases with short-wave radiation intensity. On the same date, an increase in wind speed produced a decrease in leaf-air temperature difference, i.e., leaf temperature dropped, and an increase in transpiration rate. The rates of both changes in leaf temperature and transpiration rate were fairly large in a range of wind speed below about 1m/s.For rice plants growing favorably from the tillering stage through the booting stage, the leaves were considerably cooler than the air, even in an intense light and/or solar radiation. The leaf temperature showed the lowest value at short-wave radiations between 0.15 and 0.20ly/min, at above which the leaf temperature rised with an increase in short-wave radiation until it approached the air temperature. Transpiration rate of rice plants increased rapidly with an increase in short-wave radiation ranging below 0.2 or 0.3ly/min, at above which the increase in transpiration rate slowed.The relationships between leaf temperature and/or transpiration rate and wind speed and/or incident short-wave radiation (solar radiation) which were obtained experimentally, supported the relationships

  6. A phytotoxicity test using transpiration of willows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Zambrano, Kim Cecilia; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    is expressed as % decrease after 48 and 72 h or longer compared to the initial transpiration, divided by the transpiration of control plants. More toxicity parameters are growth and water use efficiency of the plants. The sensitivity of the test was evaluated with 3,5-dichlorophenol. EC50 values between 5......A short-term acute toxicity assay for willow trees growing in contaminated solution or in polluted soil was developed and tested. The test apparatus consists of an Erlenmeyer flask with a prerooted tree cutting growing in it. Growth and reduction of transpiration are used to determine toxicity....... Transpiration is closely related to photosynthesis and growth, but is easier and faster to measure and can be measured without disturbance of the test system. Plants are grown for 24 h in uncontaminated nutrient solution before the toxicant is added to determine the initial transpiration. The loss of weight...

  7. OUT Success Stories: Transpired Solar Collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-01-01

    Transpired solar collectors are a reliable, low-cost technology for preheating building ventilation air. With simple payback periods ranging from 3 to 12 years and an estimated 30-year life span, transpired collector systems offer building owners substantial cost savings

  8. Increased vapor pressure deficit due to higher temperature leads to greater transpiration and faster mortality during drought for tree seedlings common to the forest-grassland ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Rodney E; Wilson, Stuart M; Zou, Chris B; Hennessey, Thomas C

    2013-10-01

    Tree species growing along the forest-grassland ecotone are near the moisture limit of their range. Small increases in temperature can increase vapor pressure deficit (VPD) which may increase tree water use and potentially hasten mortality during severe drought. We tested a 40% increase in VPD due to an increase in growing temperature from 30 to 33°C (constant dewpoint 21°C) on seedlings of 10 tree species common to the forest-grassland ecotone in the southern Great Plains, USA. Measurement at 33 vs 30°C during reciprocal leaf gas exchange measurements, that is, measurement of all seedlings at both growing temperatures, increased transpiration for seedlings grown at 30°C by 40% and 20% for seedlings grown at 33°C. Higher initial transpiration of seedlings in the 33°C growing temperature treatment resulted in more negative xylem water potentials and fewer days until transpiration decreased after watering was withheld. The seedlings grown at 33°C died 13% (average 2 d) sooner than seedlings grown at 30°C during terminal drought. If temperature and severity of droughts increase in the future, the forest-grassland ecotone could shift because low seedling survival rate may not sufficiently support forest regeneration and migration. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Measuring whole-plant transpiration gravimetrically: a scalable automated system built from components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian Cirelli; Victor J. Lieffers; Melvin T. Tyree

    2012-01-01

    Measuring whole-plant transpiration is highly relevant considering the increasing interest in understanding and improving plant water use at the whole-plant level. We present an original software package (Amalthea) and a design to create a system for measuring transpiration using laboratory balances based on the readily available commodity hardware. The system is...

  10. Structural adjustments in resprouting trees drive differences in post-fire transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Rachael H; Mitchell, Patrick J; Bradstock, Ross A; Lane, Patrick N J

    2014-02-01

    Following disturbance many woody species are capable of resprouting new foliage, resulting in a reduced leaf-to-sapwood area ratio and altered canopy structure. We hypothesized that such changes would promote adjustments in leaf physiology, resulting in higher rates of transpiration per unit leaf area, consistent with the mechanistic framework proposed by Whitehead et al. (Whitehead D, Jarvis PG, Waring RH (1984) Stomatal conductance, transpiration and resistance to water uptake in a Pinus sylvestris spacing experiment. Can J For Res 14:692-700). We tested this in Eucalyptus obliqua L'Hér following a wildfire by comparing trees with unburnt canopies with trees that had been subject to 100% canopy scorch and were recovering their leaf area via resprouting. In resprouting trees, foliage was distributed along the trunk and on lateral branches, resulting in shorter hydraulic path lengths. We evaluated measurements of whole-tree transpiration and structural and physiological traits expected to drive any changes in transpiration. We used these structural and physiological measurements to parameterize the Whitehead et al. equation, and found that the expected ratio of transpiration per unit leaf area between resprouting and unburnt trees was 3.41. This is similar to the observed ratio of transpiration per unit leaf area, measured from sapflow observations, which was 2.89 (i.e., resprouting trees had 188% higher transpiration per unit leaf area). Foliage at low heights (tree crown (14-18 m) in a number of traits, including higher specific leaf area, midday leaf water potential and higher rates of stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. We conclude that these post-fire adjustments in resprouting trees help to drive increased stomatal conductance and hydraulic efficiency, promoting the rapid return of tree-scale transpiration towards pre-disturbance levels. These transient patterns in canopy transpiration have important implications for modelling stand-level water fluxes

  11. Stand, species, and individual traits impact transpiration in historically disturbed forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, B.; Rocha, A. V.; McLachlan, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Historic logging disturbances have changed the structure and species composition of most Northern temperate forests. These changes impact the process of transpiration - which in turn impacts canopy surface temperature - but the links among structure, composition, and transpiration remain unclear. For this reason, ecosystem models typically use simplified structure and composition to simulate the impact of disturbances on forest transpiration. However, such simplifications ignore real variability among stands, species, and individual trees that may strongly influence transpiration across spatial and temporal scales. To capture this variability, we monitored transpiration in 48 individual trees of multiple species in both undisturbed (400+ yr) and historically logged (80 - 120 yr) forests. Using modern and historic forest surveys, we upscaled our observations to stand and regional scales to identify the key changes impacting transpiration. We extended these inferences by establishing a relationship between transpiration and measured surface temperature, linking disturbance-induced changes in structure and composition to local and regional climate. Despite greater potential evapotranspiration and basal area, undisturbed forest transpired less than disturbed (logged) forest. Transpiration was a strong predictor of surface temperature, and the canopy surface was warmer in undisturbed forest. Transpiration differences among disturbed and undisturbed forests resulted from (1) lesser transpiration and dampened seasonality in evergreen species (2) greater transpiration in younger individuals within a species, and (3) strong transpiration by large individuals. When transpiration was scaled to the stand or regional level in a simplified manner (e.g. a single transpiration rate for all deciduous individuals), the resulting estimates differed markedly from the original. Stand- species- and individual-level traits are therefore essential for understanding how transpiration and

  12. Transpiration of Eucalyptus woodlands across a natural gradient of depth-to-groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghar, Sepideh; Villalobos-Vega, Randol; Zeppel, Melanie; Cleverly, James; Rumman, Rizwana; Hingee, Matthew; Boulain, Nicolas; Li, Zheng; Eamus, Derek

    2017-07-01

    Water resources and their management present social, economic and environmental challenges, with demand for human consumptive, industrial and environmental uses increasing globally. However, environmental water requirements, that is, the allocation of water to the maintenance of ecosystem health, are often neglected or poorly quantified. Further, transpiration by trees is commonly a major determinant of the hydrological balance of woodlands but recognition of the role of groundwater in hydrological balances of woodlands remains inadequate, particularly in mesic climates. In this study, we measured rates of tree water-use and sapwood 13C isotopic ratio in a mesic, temperate Eucalypt woodland along a naturally occurring gradient of depth-to-groundwater (DGW), to examine daily, seasonal and annual patterns of transpiration. We found that: (i) the maximum rate of stand transpiration was observed at the second shallowest site (4.3 m) rather than the shallowest (2.4 m); (ii) as DGW increased from 4.3 to 37.5 m, stand transpiration declined; (iii) the smallest rate of stand transpiration was observed at the deepest (37.5 m) site; (iv) intrinsic water-use efficiency was smallest at the two intermediate DGW sites as reflected in the Δ13C of the most recently formed sapwood and largest at the deepest and shallowest DGW sites, reflecting the imposition of flooding at the shallowest site and the inaccessibility of groundwater at the deepest site; and (v) there was no evidence of convergence in rates of water-use for co-occurring species at any site. We conclude that even in mesic environments groundwater can be utilized by trees. We further conclude that these forests are facultatively groundwater-dependent when groundwater depth is transpiration is likely to increase significantly at the three shallowest DGW sites. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Remetabolism of transpired ethanol by Populus deltoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, R.C.; Kimmerer, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ethanol is present in the transpiration stream of flooded and unflooded trees in concentrations up to 0.5mM. Transpired ethanol does not evaporate but is remetabolized by foliage and upper stems in Populus deltoides. 14 C-ethanol was supplied in the transpiration stream to excised leaves and shoots; more than 98% was incorporated. Less than 1% was respired as CO 2 . Organic and amino acids were labelled initially, with eventual accumulations in water- and chloroform-soluble fractions and into protein. Much of the label was incorporated into stem tissue, with little reaching the lamina. These experiments suggest that ethanol is not lost transpirationally through the leaves, but is efficiently recycled in a manner resembling lactate recycling in mammals

  14. Thermal transpiration: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T, Joe Francis [Computational Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kozhikode (India); Sathian, Sarith P. [Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)

    2014-12-09

    Thermal transpiration is a phenomenon where fluid molecules move from the cold end towards the hot end of a channel under the influence of longitudinal temperature gradient alone. Although the phenomenon of thermal transpiration is observed at rarefied gas conditions in macro systems, the phenomenon can occur at atmospheric pressure if the characteristic dimensions of the channel is less than 100 nm. The flow through these nanosized channels is characterized by the free molecular flow regimes and continuum theory is inadequate to describe the flow. Thus a non-continuum method like molecular dynamics (MD) is necessary to study such phenomenon. In the present work, MD simulations were carried out to investigate the occurance of thermal transpiration in copper and platinum nanochannels at atmospheric pressure conditions. The mean pressure of argon gas confined inside the nano channels was maintained around 1 bar. The channel height is maintained at 2nm. The argon atoms interact with each other and with the wall atoms through the Lennard-Jones potential. The wall atoms are modelled using an EAM potential. Further, separate simulations were carried out where a Harmonic potential is used for the atom-atom interaction in the platinum channel. A thermally insulating wall was introduced between the low and high temperature regions and those wall atoms interact with fluid atoms through a repulsive potential. A reduced cut off radius were used to achieve this. Thermal creep is induced by applying a temperature gradient along the channel wall. It was found that flow developed in the direction of the increasing temperature gradient of the wall. An increase in the volumetric flux was observed as the length of the cold and the hot regions of the wall were increased. The effect of temperature gradient and the wall-fluid interaction strength on the flow parameters have been studied to understand the phenomenon better.

  15. Effect of transpiration on plant accumulation and translocation of PPCP/EDCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodgen, Laurel K.; Ueda, Aiko; Wu, Xiaoqin; Parker, David R.; Gan, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation in arid and hot climates where plant transpiration is high may affect plant accumulation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, carrot, lettuce, and tomato plants were grown in solution containing 16 PPCP/EDCs in either a cool-humid or a warm-dry environment. Leaf bioconcentration factors (BCF) were positively correlated with transpiration for chemical groups of different ionized states (p < 0.05). However, root BCFs were correlated with transpiration only for neutral PPCP/EDCs (p < 0.05). Neutral and cationic PPCP/EDCs showed similar accumulation, while anionic PPCP/EDCs had significantly higher accumulation in roots and significantly lower accumulation in leaves (p < 0.05). Results show that plant transpiration may play a significant role in the uptake and translocation of PPCP/EDCs, which may have a pronounced effect in arid and hot climates where irrigation with treated wastewater is common. - Highlights: • Leaf accumulation of PPCP/EDCs is related on plant transpiration. • Cationic and neutral PPCP/EDCs have similar leaf and root accumulation. • Anionic PPCP/EDCs have greater root accumulation and lesser leaf accumulation. • PPCP/EDCs are extensively metabolized in plant tissue and hydroponic solution. - High plant transpiration in arid and hot areas may lead to increased foliar accumulation of PPCP/EDCs from treated wastewater irrigation

  16. Bioenergy Sorghum Crop Model Predicts VPD-Limited Transpiration Traits Enhance Biomass Yield in Water-Limited Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Sandra K; McCormick, Ryan F; Mullet, John E

    2017-01-01

    Bioenergy sorghum is targeted for production in water-limited annual cropland therefore traits that improve plant water capture, water use efficiency, and resilience to water deficit are necessary to maximize productivity. A crop modeling framework, APSIM, was adapted to predict the growth and biomass yield of energy sorghum and to identify potentially useful traits for crop improvement. APSIM simulations of energy sorghum development and biomass accumulation replicated results from field experiments across multiple years, patterns of rainfall, and irrigation schemes. Modeling showed that energy sorghum's long duration of vegetative growth increased water capture and biomass yield by ~30% compared to short season crops in a water-limited production region. Additionally, APSIM was extended to enable modeling of VPD-limited transpiration traits that reduce crop water use under high vapor pressure deficits (VPDs). The response of transpiration rate to increasing VPD was modeled as a linear response until a VPD threshold was reached, at which the slope of the response decreases, representing a range of responses to VPD observed in sorghum germplasm. Simulation results indicated that the VPD-limited transpiration trait is most beneficial in hot and dry regions of production where crops are exposed to extended periods without rainfall during the season or to a terminal drought. In these environments, slower but more efficient transpiration increases biomass yield and prevents or delays the exhaustion of soil water and onset of leaf senescence. The VPD-limited transpiration responses observed in sorghum germplasm increased biomass accumulation by 20% in years with lower summer rainfall, and the ability to drastically reduce transpiration under high VPD conditions could increase biomass by 6% on average across all years. This work indicates that the productivity and resilience of bioenergy sorghum grown in water-limited environments could be further enhanced by development

  17. The ERECTA gene regulates plant transpiration efficiency in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masle, Josette; Gilmore, Scott R; Farquhar, Graham D

    2005-08-11

    Assimilation of carbon by plants incurs water costs. In the many parts of the world where water is in short supply, plant transpiration efficiency, the ratio of carbon fixation to water loss, is critical to plant survival, crop yield and vegetation dynamics. When challenged by variations in their environment, plants often seem to coordinate photosynthesis and transpiration, but significant genetic variation in transpiration efficiency has been identified both between and within species. This has allowed plant breeders to develop effective selection programmes for the improved transpiration efficiency of crops, after it was demonstrated that carbon isotopic discrimination, Delta, of plant matter was a reliable and sensitive marker negatively related to variation in transpiration efficiency. However, little is known of the genetic controls of transpiration efficiency. Here we report the isolation of a gene that regulates transpiration efficiency, ERECTA. We show that ERECTA, a putative leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) known for its effects on inflorescence development, is a major contributor to a locus for Delta on Arabidopsis chromosome 2. Mechanisms include, but are not limited to, effects on stomatal density, epidermal cell expansion, mesophyll cell proliferation and cell-cell contact.

  18. Water, heat, and airborne pollutants effects on transpiration of urban trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hua; Ouyang Zhiyun; Chen Weiping; Wang Xiaoke; Zheng Hua; Ren Yufen

    2011-01-01

    Transpiration rates of six urban tree species in Beijing evaluated by thermal dissipation method for one year were correlated to environmental variables in heat, water, and pollutant groups. To sort out colinearity of the explanatory variables, their individual and joint contributions to variance of tree transpiration were determined by the variation and hierarchical partitioning methods. Majority of the variance in transpiration rates was associated with joint effects of variables in heat and water groups and variance due to individual effects of explanatory group were in comparison small. Atmospheric pollutants exerted only minor effects on tree transpiration. Daily transpiration rate was most affected by air temperature, soil temperature, total radiation, vapor pressure deficit, and ozone. Relative humidity would replace soil temperature when factors influencing hourly transpiration rate was considered. - Highlights: → Heat, water, pollutants effect on transpiration was evaluated by partitioning method. → Urban tree transpiration was mainly affected by combined effects of these variables. → The heat and water variables affected transpiration of urban trees. → The urban air pollution merely acts as an antagonistic factor. - Heat and water related environmental variables affected transpiration of urban trees and ozone was an added yet minor stress factor.

  19. Tuning Transpiration by Interfacial Solar Absorber-Leaf Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Shendong; Zhou, Lin; Xu, Weichao; Xu, Ning; Hu, Xiaozhen; Li, Xiuqiang; Lv, Guangxin; Zheng, Qinghui; Zhu, Shining; Wang, Zhenlin; Zhu, Jia

    2018-02-01

    Plant transpiration, a process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from aerial parts especially leaves, consumes a large component of the total continental precipitation (≈48%) and significantly influences global water distribution and climate. To date, various chemical and/or biological explorations have been made to tune the transpiration but with uncertain environmental risks. In recent years, interfacial solar steam/vapor generation is attracting a lot of attention for achieving high energy transfer efficiency. Various optical and thermal designs at the solar absorber-water interface for potential applications in water purification, seawater desalination, and power generation appear. In this work, the concept of interfacial solar vapor generation is extended to tunable plant transpiration by showing for the first time that the transpiration efficiency can also be enhanced or suppressed through engineering the solar absorber-leaf interface. By tuning the solar absorption of membrane in direct touch with green leaf, surface temperature of green leaf will change accordingly because of photothermal effect, thus the transpiration efficiency as well as temperature and relative humidity in the surrounding environment will be tuned. This tunable transpiration by interfacial absorber-leaf engineering can open an alternative avenue to regulate local atmospheric temperature, humidity, and eventually hydrologic cycle.

  20. Tuning Transpiration by Interfacial Solar Absorber‐Leaf Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Shendong; Zhou, Lin; Xu, Weichao; Xu, Ning; Hu, Xiaozhen; Li, Xiuqiang; Lv, Guangxin; Zheng, Qinghui; Zhu, Shining

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Plant transpiration, a process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from aerial parts especially leaves, consumes a large component of the total continental precipitation (≈48%) and significantly influences global water distribution and climate. To date, various chemical and/or biological explorations have been made to tune the transpiration but with uncertain environmental risks. In recent years, interfacial solar steam/vapor generation is attracting a lot of attention for achieving high energy transfer efficiency. Various optical and thermal designs at the solar absorber–water interface for potential applications in water purification, seawater desalination, and power generation appear. In this work, the concept of interfacial solar vapor generation is extended to tunable plant transpiration by showing for the first time that the transpiration efficiency can also be enhanced or suppressed through engineering the solar absorber–leaf interface. By tuning the solar absorption of membrane in direct touch with green leaf, surface temperature of green leaf will change accordingly because of photothermal effect, thus the transpiration efficiency as well as temperature and relative humidity in the surrounding environment will be tuned. This tunable transpiration by interfacial absorber‐leaf engineering can open an alternative avenue to regulate local atmospheric temperature, humidity, and eventually hydrologic cycle. PMID:29619300

  1. The transient transpiration heat flux meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, N.; Calisto, H.; Afgan, N.; Leontiev, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    A new heat flux measurement principle, based on the transient response of a transpiration radiometer, is proposed. The measurement principle of current transpiration radiometers is based on a steady-state temperature measurement in a porous element. Since it may typically take several seconds to reach these conditions, there are obvious benefits in reducing the instrument response time. This can be achieved through the analysis of its transient response in order to predict the incident heat flux. In addition, the proposed methodology enables the separate measurement of the radiative and convective components of incident heat fluxes, without compromising the known advantages of transpiration radiometers. The availability of such an instrument may enable the development of advanced monitoring, diagnostic and control systems for thermal equipment

  2. Stomatal acclimation to vapour pressure deficit doubles transpiration of small tree seedlings with warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchin, Renée M.; Broadhead, Alice A.; Bostic, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    chamber VPD. Warming increased mean water use of Carya by 140% and Quercus by 150%, but had no significant effect on water use of Acer. Increased water use of ring-porous species was attributed to (1) higher air T and (2) stomatal acclimation to VPD resulting in higher gs and more sensitive stomata......Future climate change is expected to increase temperature (T) and atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) in many regions, but the effect of persistent warming on plant stomatal behaviour is highly uncertain. We investigated the effect of experimental warming of 1.9-5.1 °C and increased VPD of 0.......5-1.3 kPa on transpiration and stomatal conductance (gs ) of tree seedlings in the temperate forest understory (Duke Forest, North Carolina, USA). We observed peaked responses of transpiration to VPD in all seedlings, and the optimum VPD for transpiration (Dopt ) shifted proportionally with increasing...

  3. Uncertainty in sap flow-based transpiration due to xylem properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, N. T.; Hu, J.; Martin, J. T.; Jencso, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    Transpiration, the evaporative loss of water from plants through their stomata, is a key component of the terrestrial water balance, influencing streamflow as well as regional convective systems. From a plant physiological perspective, transpiration is both a means of avoiding destructive leaf temperatures through evaporative cooling and a consequence of water loss through stomatal uptake of carbon dioxide. Despite its hydrologic and ecological significance, transpiration remains a notoriously challenging process to measure in heterogeneous landscapes. Sap flow methods, which estimate transpiration by tracking the velocity of a heat pulse emitted into the tree sap stream, have proven effective for relating transpiration dynamics to climatic variables. To scale sap flow-based transpiration from the measured domain (often area) to the whole-tree level, researchers generally assume constancy of scale factors (e.g., wood thermal diffusivity (k), radial and azimuthal distributions of sap velocity, and conducting sapwood area (As)) through time, across space, and within species. For the widely used heat-ratio sap flow method (HRM), we assessed the sensitivity of transpiration estimates to uncertainty in k (a function of wood moisture content and density) and As. A sensitivity analysis informed by distributions of wood moisture content, wood density and As sampled across a gradient of water availability indicates that uncertainty in these variables can impart substantial error when scaling sap flow measurements to the whole tree. For species with variable wood properties, the application of the HRM assuming a spatially constant k or As may systematically over- or underestimate whole-tree transpiration rates, resulting in compounded error in ecosystem-scale estimates of transpiration.

  4. Modelling maximum canopy conductance and transpiration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is much current interest in predicting the maximum amount of water that can be transpired by Eucalyptus trees. It is possible that industrial waste water may be applied as irrigation water to eucalypts and it is important to predict the maximum transpiration rates of these plantations in an attempt to dispose of this ...

  5. Transpiration of helium and carbon monoxide through a multihundred watt, PICS filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    The transpiration of CO through the Multihundred Watt (MHW) filter can be described by Fick's first law or as a first order, reversible reaction. From Fick's first law, a ''diffusion'' coefficient of 7.8 x 10 -4 cm.L/sec (L is the average path length through the filter) was determined. For the first order reversible reaction, a rate constant of 0.0058 hr -1 was obtained for both the forward and reverse reactions (they were assumed to be equal). This corresponds to a half-life of 120 hr. It was also concluded that the rate constants and thus the transpiration rates, which were determined for the test, are smaller than those expected in the IHS. The effect of increasing the number of filters, changing the volumes, and increasing the temperature, changes the rate constant of the transpiration into the PICS to roughly 0.074 hr -1 (t/sub 1 / 2 / = 9.4 hr) and out of the PICS to 0.84 hr -1 (t/sub 1/2/ = 0.8 hr). Of the two suggested mechanisms for the generation of CO inside the IHS, the cyclic process requires a much larger rate of transpiration than the process requiring oxygen exchange of CO given off by the graphite. The data indicate that the cyclic process can provide the CO generation rates observed in the IHS gas taps if there is no delay in time for any other kinetic process involved in the formation of CO or CO 2 . Since the cyclic process (which requires the fastest rate of transpiration) appears possible, this study does not indicate which reaction is occurring but concludes both are possible

  6. Effect of fluorine in the substrate on the intensity of stomato-cuticular transpiration and on photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navara, J

    1963-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of fluorine in the substrate on the intensity of stomato-cuticular transpiration and on the intensity of photosynthesis in the common bean (Phaseolus vularis L.) in the early phases of ontogenetic development. Fluorine concentrations in the substrate in the range of 3 x 10/sup -3/ to 3 x 10/sup -4/ g/l produced no inhibition in the intensity of stomato-cuticular transpiration in 12-day-old test plants, whereas the intensity of photosynthesis was stimulated. An increase of 3 x 10/sup -3/ g/l in the fluorine level led to inhibition of these processes. As growth continued, an inhibitive effect on the intensity of stomato-cuticular transpiration was noted in 16-day-old plants even at a concentration of 3 x 10/sup -4/ g/l. The decrease in the intensity of stomato-cuticular transpiration is accompanied by an increase in the water-retention capacity of the leaf tissue. From these results, the conclusion can be drawn that the reduction in transpiration and photosynthesis is the result of a worsening in the plant's supply of water, resulting from disturbance of the absorptive capacity of the root system.

  7. Transpiration of greenhouse crops : an aid to climate management

    OpenAIRE

    Stanghellini, C.

    1987-01-01

    In this book some physical aspects of greenhouse climate are analyzed to show the direct interrelation between microclimate and crop transpiration. The energy balance of a greenhouse crop is shown to provide a sound physical framework to quantify the impact of microclimate on transpiration and to identify the constraints set on climate management by the termodynamic behaviour of the canopy. Before the relationship among microclimate, canopy temperature and transpiration is rendered i...

  8. Transpiration and water-use efficiency in mixed-species forests versus monocultures: effects of tree size, stand density and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, David I

    2015-03-01

    Mixtures can be more productive than monocultures and may therefore use more water, which may make them more susceptible to droughts. The species interactions that influence growth, transpiration and water-use efficiency (WUE, tree growth per unit transpiration) within a given mixture vary with intra- and inter-annual climatic variability, stand density and tree size, but these effects remain poorly quantified. These relationships were examined in mixtures and monocultures of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Acacia mearnsii de Wildeman. Growth and transpiration were measured between ages 14 and 15 years. All E. globulus trees in mixture that were growing faster than similar sized trees in monocultures had higher WUE, while trees with similar growth rates had similar WUE. By the age of 14 years A. mearnsii trees were beginning to senesce and there were no longer any relationships between tree size and growth or WUE. The relationship between transpiration and tree size did not differ between treatments for either species, so stand-level increases in transpiration simply reflected the larger mean tree size in mixtures. Increasing neighbourhood basal area increased the complementarity effect on E. globulus growth and transpiration. The complementarity effect also varied throughout the year, but this was not related to the climatic seasonality. This study shows that stand-level responses can be the net effect of a much wider range of individual tree-level responses, but at both levels, if growth has not increased for a given species, it appears unlikely that there will be differences in transpiration or WUE for that species. Growth data may provide a useful initial indication of whether mixtures have higher transpiration or WUE, and which species and tree sizes contribute to this effect. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Uncertainty in the response of transpiration to CO2 and implications for climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengis, N; Keller, D P; Oschlies, A; Eby, M

    2015-01-01

    While terrestrial precipitation is a societally highly relevant climate variable, there is little consensus among climate models about its projected 21st century changes. An important source of precipitable water over land is plant transpiration. Plants control transpiration by opening and closing their stomata. The sensitivity of this process to increasing CO 2 concentrations is uncertain. To assess the impact of this uncertainty on future climate, we perform experiments with an intermediate complexity Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM) for a range of model-imposed transpiration-sensitivities to CO 2 . Changing the sensitivity of transpiration to CO 2 causes simulated terrestrial precipitation to change by −10% to +27% by 2100 under a high emission scenario. This study emphasises the importance of an improved assessment of the dynamics of environmental impact on vegetation to better predict future changes of the terrestrial hydrological and carbon cycles. (letter)

  10. African Mahogany transpiration with Granier method and water table lysimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. O. Sérvulo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The thermal dissipation probe (Granier method is useful in the water deficit monitoring and irrigation management of African Mahogany, but its model needs proper adjustment. This paper aimed to adjust and validate the Granier sap flux model to estimate African Mahogany transpiration, measure transpiration using lysimeter and relate it to atmospheric water demand. Weather conditions, transpiration and sap flux were monitored in three units of 2.5-year-old African Mahogany trees in constant water table lysimeter, in Goiânia, GO. Sapwood area (SA, leaf area (LA, transpiration measured by lysimeter (TLYS and estimated by sap flux (TSF were evaluated. The SA comprised 55.24% of the trunk’s transversal section. The LA varied from 11.95 to 10.66 m2. TLYS and TSF varied from 2.94 to 29.31 and from 0.94 to 15.45 L d-1, respectively. The original model underestimated transpiration by 44.4%, being the adjusted equation F = 268.25 . k1.231. SA was significant (F < 0.05. Due the root confinement, the transpiration showed low correlation, but positive, with the atmospheric water demand.

  11. Residual transpiration as a component of salinity stress tolerance mechanism: a case study for barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Md; Davies, Noel W; Shabala, Lana; Zhou, Meixue; Brodribb, Tim J; Shabala, Sergey

    2017-06-19

    While most water loss from leaf surfaces occurs via stomata, part of this loss also occurs through the leaf cuticle, even when the stomata are fully closed. This component, termed residual transpiration, dominates during the night and also becomes critical under stress conditions such as drought or salinity. Reducing residual transpiration might therefore be a potentially useful mechanism for improving plant performance when water availability is reduced (e.g. under saline or drought stress conditions). One way of reducing residual transpiration may be via increased accumulation of waxes on the surface of leaf. Residual transpiration and wax constituents may vary with leaf age and position as well as between genotypes. This study used barley genotypes contrasting in salinity stress tolerance to evaluate the contribution of residual transpiration to the overall salt tolerance, and also investigated what role cuticular waxes play in this process. Leaves of three different positions (old, intermediate and young) were used. Our results show that residual transpiration was higher in old leaves than the young flag leaves, correlated negatively with the osmolality, and was positively associated with the osmotic and leaf water potentials. Salt tolerant varieties transpired more water than the sensitive variety under normal growth conditions. Cuticular waxes on barley leaves were dominated by primary alcohols (84.7-86.9%) and also included aldehydes (8.90-10.1%), n-alkanes (1.31-1.77%), benzoate esters (0.44-0.52%), phytol related compounds (0.22-0.53%), fatty acid methyl esters (0.14-0.33%), β-diketones (0.07-0.23%) and alkylresorcinols (1.65-3.58%). A significant negative correlation was found between residual transpiration and total wax content, and residual transpiration correlated significantly with the amount of primary alcohols. Both leaf osmolality and the amount of total cuticular wax are involved in controlling cuticular water loss from barley leaves under well

  12. Effects of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on transpiration of a wheat field in consideration of water and nitrogen limitation; Die Wirkung von erhoehten atmosphaerischen CO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen auf die Transpiration eines Weizenbestandes unter Beruecksichtigung von Wasser- und Stickstofflimitierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman-Clarke, S

    2000-09-01

    Primary responses of C{sub 3}-plants to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are an increase in the net assimilation rate, leading to greater biomass, and an associated decrease in the transpiration rate per unit leaf area due to CO{sub 2}-induced stomatal closure. The question has therefore arisen: does canopy transpiration increase because of the greater biomass, or decrease because of the stomatal closure? The direct impact of an elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration of 550 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} on the seasonal course of canopy transpiration of a spring wheat crop was investigated by means of the simulation model DEMETER for production under unlimited water and nutrient supply, production under limited water but unlimited nutrient supply and the production under unlimited water but limited nitrogen supply. Independent data of the free-air carbon dioxide enrichment wheat experiments in Arizona, USA (1993-96) were used to test if the model is able to make reasonable predictions of water use and productivity of the spring wheat crop using only parameters derived from the literature. A model integrating leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and energy fluxes between the plant and the atmosphere was scaled to a canopy level in order to be used in the wheat crop growth model. Temporal changes of the model parameters were considered by describing them as dependent on the changing leaf nitrogen content. Comparison of the simulation and experimental results showed that the applicability of the model approach was limited after anthesis by asynchronous changes in mesophyll and stomatal conductance. Therefore a new model approach was developed describing the interaction between assimilation rate and stomatal conductance during grain filling. The simulation results revealed only small differences in the cumulative sum of canopy transpiration and soil evaporation between elevated CO{sub 2} and control conditions. For potential growth conditions the model

  13. Stress-inducible expression of At DREB1A in transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) increases transpiration efficiency under water-limiting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Devi, M Jyostna; Reddy, D Srinivas; Lavanya, M; Vadez, Vincent; Serraj, R; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K; Sharma, Kiran K

    2007-12-01

    Water deficit is the major abiotic constraint affecting crop productivity in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Water use efficiency under drought conditions is thought to be one of the most promising traits to improve and stabilize crop yields under intermittent water deficit. A transcription factor DREB1A from Arabidopsis thaliana, driven by the stress inducible promoter from the rd29A gene, was introduced in a drought-sensitive peanut cultivar JL 24 through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. The stress inducible expression of DREB1A in these transgenic plants did not result in growth retardation or visible phenotypic alterations. T3 progeny of fourteen transgenic events were exposed to progressive soil drying in pot culture. The soil moisture threshold where their transpiration rate begins to decline relative to control well-watered (WW) plants and the number of days needed to deplete the soil water was used to rank the genotypes using the average linkage cluster analysis. Five diverse events were selected from the different clusters and further tested. All the selected transgenic events were able to maintain a transpiration rate equivalent to the WW control in soils dry enough to reduce transpiration rate in wild type JL 24. All transgenic events except one achieved higher transpiration efficiency (TE) under WW conditions and this appeared to be explained by a lower stomatal conductance. Under water limiting conditions, one of the selected transgenic events showed 40% higher TE than the untransformed control.

  14. Transpiration of greenhouse crops : an aid to climate management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanghellini, C.

    1987-01-01

    In this book some physical aspects of greenhouse climate are analyzed to show the direct interrelation between microclimate and crop transpiration. The energy balance of a greenhouse crop is shown to provide a sound physical framework to quantify the impact of microclimate on transpiration

  15. Transpiration response of upland rice to water deficit changed by different levels of eucalyptus biochar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Gomes Pereira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of eucalyptus biochar on the transpiration rate of upland rice 'BRSMG Curinga' as an alternative means to decrease the effect of water stress on plant growth and development. Two-pot experiments were carried out using a completely randomized block design, in a split-plot arrangement, with six replicates. Main plots were water stress (WS and no-water stress (NWS, and the subplots were biochar doses at 0, 6, 12 and 24% in growing medium (sand. Total transpirable soil water (TTSW, the p factor - defined as the average fraction of TTSW which can be depleted from the root zone before water stress limits growth -, and the normalized transpiration rate (NTR were determined. Biochar addition increased TTSW and the p factor, and reduced NTR. Consequently, biochar addition was able to change the moisture threshold (p factor of the growing medium, up to 12% maximum concentration, delaying the point where transpiration declines and affects yield.

  16. Growth CO2 concentration modifies the transpiration response of Populus deltoides to drought and vapor pressure deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, V. C.; Griffin, K. L.; Murthy, R.; Patterson, L.; Klimas, C.; Potosnak, M.

    2004-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the hydraulic constraints on transpiration, altered canopy water relations in response to elevated carbon dioxide was evaluated in a morphological context. It was expected that by integrating the information gained into predictive models of canopy water balance in elevated carbon dioxide, our understanding of leaf-level responses to drought stresses and evaporative demand will also improve. To achieve these objectives, transpiration rates and leaf-to-sapwood area ratios in clonal stands of cottonwoods grown in near-ambient and elevated carbon dioxide were measured at the Biosphere 2 facility near Oracle, Arizona. Results were interpreted in terms of physical controls versus the direct and indirect effects of growth mediated by morphological changes on transpiration fluxes during periods of drought and high evaporative demand. Leaf-level transpiration rates were found to be nearly equivalent across carbon dioxide treatments when soil water was not limited. However, during drought stress, canopy-level transpiration was roughly equivalent across carbon dioxide treatments, but leaf-level fluxes were reduced in elevated carbon dioxide by a factor equal to the leaf area ratio of the canopies. This shift from equivalent leaf-level transpiration to equivalent canopy-level transpiration with increasing drought stress is taken to mean that maximum water use rates are controlled by atmospheric demand at high soil water content and by soil water availability at low soil water content. Changes in vapor pressure deficits had less pronounced effect on transpiration than changes in soil water content. 37 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  17. Evolution of Corn Transpiration and Leaf Water Potential During Sprinkler Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Cob, Antonio; Fernández-Navajas, Julián; Durán, Víctor; Cavero Campo, José

    2009-01-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) transpiration during daytime solid-set sprinkler irrigation was analyzed on two neighbouring subplots to determine the effect of the transpiration reduction on water application efficiency. During each irrigation event, one subplot was irrigated (moist treatment) while the other was not (dry treatment). Transpiration rates were determined at each subplot by the heat balance method (Dynamax Flow4 System) before, during and after the irrigations. During irri...

  18. Bayesian analysis for uncertainty estimation of a canopy transpiration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, S.; Mackay, D. S.; Clayton, M. K.; Kruger, E. L.; Ewers, B. E.

    2007-04-01

    A Bayesian approach was used to fit a conceptual transpiration model to half-hourly transpiration rates for a sugar maple (Acer saccharum) stand collected over a 5-month period and probabilistically estimate its parameter and prediction uncertainties. The model used the Penman-Monteith equation with the Jarvis model for canopy conductance. This deterministic model was extended by adding a normally distributed error term. This extension enabled using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations to sample the posterior parameter distributions. The residuals revealed approximate conformance to the assumption of normally distributed errors. However, minor systematic structures in the residuals at fine timescales suggested model changes that would potentially improve the modeling of transpiration. Results also indicated considerable uncertainties in the parameter and transpiration estimates. This simple methodology of uncertainty analysis would facilitate the deductive step during the development cycle of deterministic conceptual models by accounting for these uncertainties while drawing inferences from data.

  19. Growth CO{sub 2} concentration modifies the transpiration response of Populus deltoides to drought and vapor pressure deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, V. C. [South Florida Natural Resources Center, Everglades National Park, Homestead, FL (United States); Griffin, K. L. [Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Murthy, R.; Patterson, L.; Klimas, C. [Columbia University, Biosphere 2 Center, Oracle, AZ (United States); Potosnak, M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2004-10-01

    To gain a better understanding of the hydraulic constraints on transpiration, altered canopy water relations in response to elevated carbon dioxide was evaluated in a morphological context. It was expected that by integrating the information gained into predictive models of canopy water balance in elevated carbon dioxide, our understanding of leaf-level responses to drought stresses and evaporative demand will also improve. To achieve these objectives, transpiration rates and leaf-to-sapwood area ratios in clonal stands of cottonwoods grown in near-ambient and elevated carbon dioxide were measured at the Biosphere 2 facility near Oracle, Arizona. Results were interpreted in terms of physical controls versus the direct and indirect effects of growth mediated by morphological changes on transpiration fluxes during periods of drought and high evaporative demand. Leaf-level transpiration rates were found to be nearly equivalent across carbon dioxide treatments when soil water was not limited. However, during drought stress, canopy-level transpiration was roughly equivalent across carbon dioxide treatments, but leaf-level fluxes were reduced in elevated carbon dioxide by a factor equal to the leaf area ratio of the canopies. This shift from equivalent leaf-level transpiration to equivalent canopy-level transpiration with increasing drought stress is taken to mean that maximum water use rates are controlled by atmospheric demand at high soil water content and by soil water availability at low soil water content. Changes in vapor pressure deficits had less pronounced effect on transpiration than changes in soil water content. 37 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  20. Numerical simulation of gas-phonon coupling in thermal transpiration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaohui; Singh, Dhruv; Murthy, Jayathi; Alexeenko, Alina A

    2009-10-01

    Thermal transpiration is a rarefied gas flow driven by a wall temperature gradient and is a promising mechanism for gas pumping without moving parts, known as the Knudsen pump. Obtaining temperature measurements along capillary walls in a Knudsen pump is difficult due to extremely small length scales. Meanwhile, simplified analytical models are not applicable under the practical operating conditions of a thermal transpiration device, where the gas flow is in the transitional rarefied regime. Here, we present a coupled gas-phonon heat transfer and flow model to study a closed thermal transpiration system. Discretized Boltzmann equations are solved for molecular transport in the gas phase and phonon transport in the solid. The wall temperature distribution is the direct result of the interfacial coupling based on mass conservation and energy balance at gas-solid interfaces and is not specified a priori unlike in the previous modeling efforts. Capillary length scales of the order of phonon mean free path result in a smaller temperature gradient along the transpiration channel as compared to that predicted by the continuum solid-phase heat transfer. The effects of governing parameters such as thermal gradients, capillary geometry, gas and phonon Knudsen numbers and, gas-surface interaction parameters on the efficiency of thermal transpiration are investigated in light of the coupled model.

  1. Induction of wound-periderm-like tissue in Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (Crassulaceae) leaves as a defence response to high UV-B radiation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Luana Beatriz dos Santos; Moreira, Nattacha dos Santos; Leal-Costa, Marcos Vinícius; Costa, Sônia Soares; Tavares, Eliana Schwartz

    2015-10-01

    UV-B radiation can be stressful for plants and cause morphological and biochemical changes. Kalanchoe pinnata is a CAM leaf-succulent species distributed in hot and dry regions, and is rich in flavonoids, which are considered to be protective against UV-B radiation. This study aims to verify if K. pinnata has morphological or anatomical responses as a strategy in response to high UV-B levels. Kalanchoe pinnata plants of the same age were grown under white light (control) or white light plus supplemental UV-B radiation (5 h d(-1)). The plants were treated with the same photoperiod, photosynthetically active radiation, temperature and daily watering system. Fragments of the middle third of the leaf blade and petiole were dehydrated and then embedded in historesin and sectioned in a rotary microtome. Sections were stained with toluidine blue O and mounted in Entellan®. Microchemical analyses by optical microscopy were performed on fresh material with Sudan III, Sudan IV and phloroglucinol, and analysed using fluorescence microscopy. Supplemental UV-B radiation caused leaf curling and the formation of brown areas on the leaves. These brown areas developed into a protective tissue on the adaxial side of the leaf, but only in directly exposed regions. Anatomically, this protective tissue was similar to a wound-periderm, with outer layer cell walls impregnated with suberin and lignin. This is the first report of wound-periderm formation in leaves in response to UV-B radiation. This protective tissue could be important for the survival of the species in desert regions under high UV-B stress conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. [The study of transpiration influence on plant infrared radiation character].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jun; Zhang, Shuan-Qin; Pan, Jia-Liang; Lian, Chang-Chun; Yang, Hui

    2012-07-01

    Studying vegetation infrared radiation character is the base of developing infrared camouflage and concealment technology of ground military target. Accurate fusion of target and background can be achieved by simulating formation mechanism of vegetation infrared radiation character. Leaf transpiration is characteristic physiological mechanism of vegetation and one of the main factors that influence its infrared radiation character. In the present paper, physical model of leaf energy balance is set up. Based on this model the influence of plant transpiration on leaf temperature is analyzed and calculated. The daily periodic variation of transpiration, leaf temperature and infrared radiation character of typical plants such as camphor tree and holly is actually measured with porometer and infrared thermal imaging system. By contrasting plant leaf with dryness leaf, experimental data indicates that plant transpiration can regulate leaf energy balance effectively and control leaf temperature in a reasonable range and suppress deep range variation of leaf infrared radiation character.

  3. Contribution of black spruce (Picea mariana) transpiration to growing season evapotranspiration in a subarctic discontinuous permafrost peatland complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, M.; Warren, R. K.; Pappas, C.; Sonnentag, O.; Berg, A. A.; Chasmer, L.; Baltzer, J. L.; Quinton, W. L.; Patankar, R.

    2016-12-01

    Partitioning the components of evapotranspiration (ET), evaporation and transpiration, has been increasingly important for the better understanding and modeling of carbon, water, and energy dynamics, and for reliable water resources quantification and management. However, disentangling its individual processes remains highly uncertain. Here, we quantify the contribution of black spruce transpiration, the dominant overstory, to ET of a boreal forest-wetland landscape in the southern Taiga Plains. In these ecosystems, thawing permafrost induces rapid landscape change, whereby permafrost-supported forested plateaus are transformed into bogs or fens (wetlands), resulting in tree mortality. Using historical and projected rates of forest-wetland changes, we assess how the contribution of black spruce transpiration to landscape ET might be altered with continued permafrost loss, and quantify the resulting water balance changes. We use two nested eddy covariance flux towers and a footprint model to quantify ET over the entire landscape. Sap flux density of black spruce is measured using the heat ratio method during the 2013 (n=22) and 2014 (n=3) growing seasons, and is used to estimate tree-level transpiration. Allometric relations between tree height, diameter at breast height and sapwood area are derived to upscale tree-level transpiration to overstory transpiration within the eddy covariance footprint. Black spruce transpiration accounts for <10% of total landscape ET. The largest daily contribution of overstory transpiration to landscape ET is observed shortly after the landscape becomes snow-free, continually decreasing throughout the progression of the growing season. Total transpiration is notably lower in 2014 (2.34 mm) than 2013 (2.83 mm) over the same 40-day period, corresponding to 3% of cumulative landscape ET in both years. This difference is likely due to the antecedent moisture conditions, where the 2014 growing season was proceeded by lower than average

  4. The transpiration cooled first wall and blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barleon, Leopold; Wong, Clement

    2002-01-01

    To achieve high thermal performance at high power density the EVOLVE concept was investigated under the APEX program. The EVOLVE W-alloy first wall and blanket concept proposes to use transpiration cooling of the first wall and boiling or vaporizing lithium (Li) in the blanket zone. Critical issues of this concept are: the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure losses of the Li circuit, the evaporation through a capillary structure and the needed superheating of the Li at the first wall and blanket zones. Application of the transpiration concept to the blanket region results in the integrated transpiration cooling concept (ITCC) with either toroidal or poloidal first wall channels. For both orientations the routing of the liquid Li and the Li vapor has been modeled and the corresponding pressure losses have been calculated by varying the width of the supplying slot and the capillary diameter. The concept works when the sum of the active and passive pumping head is higher than the total system pressure losses and when the temperature at the inner side of the first wall does not override the superheating limit of the coolant. This cooling concept has been extended to the divertor design, and the removal of a surface heat flux of up to 10 MW/m 2 appears to be possible, but this paper will focus on the transpiration cooled first wall and blanket concept assessment

  5. Plasma Wind Tunnel Testing of Electron Transpiration Cooling Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Colorado State University ETC Electron Transpiration Cooling LHTS Local Heat Transfer Simulation LTE Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium RCC Reinforced...ceramic electric material testing in plasma environment (not performed), 4. measurements and analysis of the Electron Transpiration Cooling (Sec. 4.2). 2...VKI 1D boundary layer code for computation of enthalpy and boundary layer parameters: a) iterate on ’virtually measured ’ heat flux, b) once enthalpy

  6. Transpiration effect on the uptake and distribution of bromacil, nitrobenzene, and phenol in soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.C.; Pfleeger, T.; Fletcher, J.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of transpiration rate on the uptake and translocation of two industrial waste compounds, phenol and nitrobenzene, and one pesticide, 5-bromo-3-sec-butyl-6-methyluracil (bromacil), was examined. Carbon-14 moieties of each compound were provided separately in hydroponic solution to mature soybean plants maintained under three humidity conditions. The uptake of each compound was determined by monitoring the removal of 14 C from the hydroponic solution. The extent to which 14 C was adsorbed to roots and translocated to plant shoots and leaves was examined by assaying root and shoot parts for 14 C. Bromacil was taken up slower than the other chemicals, had the most 14 C translocated to the shoot, and the amount translocated to the shoot responded directly to the rate of transpiration. In contrast, both phenol and nitrobenzene were rapidly lost from solution and bound to the roots. Less than 1.5% of the 14 C from phenol or nitrobenzene was translocated to the plant shoots. Increased transpiration rates had little influence on root binding of 14 C; however, increasing transpiration rate from low to medium was associated with an increased uptake of nitrobenzene. The three chemicals studied have similar Log K/sub ow/ values, but their interactions with soybean were not the same. Thus, despite the usefulness of the octanol/water partitioning coefficient in predicting the fate of organic chemicals in animals and in correlating with root binding and plant uptake for many pesticides, log K/sub ow/ may not be equally useful in describing uptake and binding of nonpesticide chemicals in plants

  7. Aquaporin Expression and Water Transport Pathways inside Leaves Are Affected by Nitrogen Supply through Transpiration in Rice Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ding

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic rate increases under high-N supply, resulting in a large CO2 transport conductance in mesophyll cells. It is less known that water movement is affected by nitrogen supply in leaves. This study investigated whether the expression of aquaporin and water transport were affected by low-N (0.7 mM and high-N (7 mM concentrations in the hydroponic culture of four rice varieties: (1 Shanyou 63 (SY63, a hybrid variant of the indica species; (2 Yangdao 6 (YD6, a variant of indica species; (3 Zhendao 11 (ZD11, a hybrid variant of japonica species; and (4 Jiuyou 418 (JY418, another hybrid of the japonica species. Both the photosynthetic and transpiration rate were increased by the high-N supply in the four varieties. The expressions of aquaporins, plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs, and tonoplast membrane intrinsic protein (TIP were higher in high-N than low-N leaves, except in SY63. Leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf was lower in high-N than low-N leaves in SY63, while Kleaf increased under high-N supply in the YD6 variant. Negative correlations were observed between the expression of aquaporin and the transpiration rate in different varieties. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between transpiration rate and intercellular air space. In conclusion, the change in expression of aquaporins could affect Kleaf and transpiration. A feedback effect of transpiration would regulate aquaporin expression. The present results imply a coordination of gas exchange with leaf hydraulic conductance.

  8. Forest fire effects on transpiration: process modeling of sapwood area reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaletz, Sean; Johnson, Edward

    2010-05-01

    Transpiration is a hydrological process that is strongly affected by forest fires. In crown fires, canopy fine fuels (foliage, buds, and small branches) combust, which kills individual trees and stops transpiration of the entire stand. In surface fires (intensities ≤ 2500 kW m-1), however, effects on transpiration are less predictable becuase heat transfer from the passing fireline can injure or kill fine roots, leaves, and sapwood; post-fire transpiration of forest stands is thus governed by fire effects on individual tree water budgets. Here, we consider fire effects on cross-sectional sapwood area. A two-dimensional model of transient bole heating is used to estimate radial isotherms for a range of fireline intensities typical of surface fires. Isotherms are then used to drive three processes by which heat may reduce sapwood area: 1) necrosis of living cells in contact with xylem conduits, which prevents repair of natural embolism; 2) relaxation of viscoelastic conduit wall polymers (cellulose, hemicelloluse, and lignin), which reduces cross-sectional conduit area; and 3) boiling of metastable water under tension, which causes conduit embolism. Results show that these processes operate on different time scales, suggesting that fire effects on transpiration vary with time since fire. The model can be linked with a three-dimensional physical fire spread model to predict size-dependent effects on individual trees, which can be used to estimate scaling of individual tree and stand-level transpiration.

  9. Gravimetric phenotyping of whole plant transpiration responses to atmospheric vapour pressure deficit identifies genotypic variation in water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Annette C; Dodd, Ian C; Rothwell, Shane A; Jones, Ros; Tardieu, Francois; Draye, Xavier; Davies, William J

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing interest in rapidly identifying genotypes with improved water use efficiency, exemplified by the development of whole plant phenotyping platforms that automatically measure plant growth and water use. Transpirational responses to atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and whole plant water use efficiency (WUE, defined as the accumulation of above ground biomass per unit of water used) were measured in 100 maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes. Using a glasshouse based phenotyping platform with naturally varying VPD (1.5-3.8kPa), a 2-fold variation in WUE was identified in well-watered plants. Regression analysis of transpiration versus VPD under these conditions, and subsequent whole plant gas exchange at imposed VPDs (0.8-3.4kPa) showed identical responses in specific genotypes. Genotype response of transpiration versus VPD fell into two categories: 1) a linear increase in transpiration rate with VPD with low (high WUE) or high (low WUE) transpiration rate at all VPDs, 2) a non-linear response with a pronounced change point at low VPD (high WUE) or high VPD (low WUE). In the latter group, high WUE genotypes required a significantly lower VPD before transpiration was restricted, and had a significantly lower rate of transpiration in response to VPD after this point, when compared to low WUE genotypes. Change point values were significantly positively correlated with stomatal sensitivity to VPD. A change point in stomatal response to VPD may explain why some genotypes show contradictory WUE rankings according to whether they are measured under glasshouse or field conditions. Furthermore, this novel use of a high throughput phenotyping platform successfully reproduced the gas exchange responses of individuals measured in whole plant chambers, accelerating the identification of plants with high WUE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of irrigation and fertilization on transpiration and hydraulic properties of Populus deltoides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa, J.; Stokes, Thomas, A.; Coleman, Mark, D.

    2007-02-01

    Summary Long-term hydraulic acclimation to resource availability was explored in 3-year-bld Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. clones by examining transpiration. leaf-specific hydraulic conductance (GL), canopy stomatal conductance (Gs) and leaf to sapwood area ratio (AL:Asi)n response to imgation (13 and 551 mm year in addition to ambient precipitation) and fertilization (0 and 120 kg N ha-' year-'). Sap flow was measured continuously over one growing season with thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization had a greater effect on growth and hydraulic properties than imgation, and fertilization effects were independent of irrigation treatment. Transpiration on a ground area basis (E) ranged between 0.3 and 1.8 mm day-', and increased 66% and 90% in response to imgation and fertilization, respectively. Increases in GL, Gs at a reference vapor pressure deficit of 1 kPa, and transpiration per unit leaf areain response to increases in resource availability were associated with reductions in AL:As and consequently a minimal change in the water potential gradient from soil to leaf. Imgation and fertilization increased leaf area index similarly, from an average 1.16 in control stands to 1.45, but sapwood area was increased from 4.0 to 6.3 m ha-' by irrigation and from 3.7 to 6.7 m2 ha-' by fertilization. The balance between leaf area and sapwood area was important in understanding long-term hydraulic acclimation to resource availability and mechanisms controlling maximum productivity in Populus deltoides.

  11. Rising CO2 widens the transpiration-photosynthesis optimality space

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hugo J.; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Dekker, Stefan C.

    2016-04-01

    Stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic biochemistry, typically expressed by the temperature-adjusted maximum rates of carboxylation (V cmax) and electron transport (Jmax), are key traits in land ecosystem models. Contrary to the many approaches available for simulating gs responses, the biochemical parameters V cmax and Jmax are often treated as static traits in ecosystem models. However, observational evidence indicates that V cmax and Jmax respond to persistent changes in atmospheric CO2. Hence, ecosystem models may be improved by incorporating coordinated responses of photosynthetic biochemistry and gs to atmospheric CO2. Recently, Prentice et al. (2014) proposed an optimality framework (referred to as the Prentice framework from here on) to predict relationships between V cmax and gs based on Fick's law, Rubisco-limited photosynthesis and the carbon costs of transpiration and photosynthesis. Here we show that this framework is, in principle, suited to predict CO2-induced changes in the V cmax -gs relationships. The framework predicts an increase in the V cmax:gs-ratio with higher atmospheric CO2, whereby the slope of this relationship is determined by the carbon costs of transpiration and photosynthesis. For our empirical analyses we consider that the carbon cost of transpiration is positively related to the plant's Huber value (sapwood area/leaf area), while the carbon cost of photosynthesis is positively related to the maintenance cost of the photosynthetic proteins. We empirically tested the predicted effect of CO2 on the V cmax:gs-ratio in two genotypes of Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet) that were grown from seeds to maturity under 200, 400 and 800 ppm CO2 in walk-in growth chambers with tight control on light, temperature and humidity. Seeds of the two Solanum genotypes were obtained from two distinct natural populations; one adapted to well-drained sandy soil (the 'dry' genotype) and one adapted to poorly-drained clayey soil (the 'wet' genotype

  12. Surface Acoustic Waves to Drive Plant Transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Eliot F; Berggren, Magnus; Simon, Daniel T

    2017-03-31

    Emerging fields of research in electronic plants (e-plants) and agro-nanotechnology seek to create more advanced control of plants and their products. Electronic/nanotechnology plant systems strive to seamlessly monitor, harvest, or deliver chemical signals to sense or regulate plant physiology in a controlled manner. Since the plant vascular system (xylem/phloem) is the primary pathway used to transport water, nutrients, and chemical signals-as well as the primary vehicle for current e-plant and phtyo-nanotechnology work-we seek to directly control fluid transport in plants using external energy. Surface acoustic waves generated from piezoelectric substrates were directly coupled into rose leaves, thereby causing water to rapidly evaporate in a highly localized manner only at the site in contact with the actuator. From fluorescent imaging, we find that the technique reliably delivers up to 6x more water/solute to the site actuated by acoustic energy as compared to normal plant transpiration rates and 2x more than heat-assisted evaporation. The technique of increasing natural plant transpiration through acoustic energy could be used to deliver biomolecules, agrochemicals, or future electronic materials at high spatiotemporal resolution to targeted areas in the plant; providing better interaction with plant physiology or to realize more sophisticated cyborg systems.

  13. Role of transpiration reduction during center-pivot sprinkler irrigation in application efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Urrego Pereira, Yenny Fernanda; Cavero Campo, José; Medina Pueyo, Eva Teresa; Martínez-Cob, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude and duration of corn transpiration reduction during center-pivot sprinkler irrigation was analyzed on a commercial plot. The irrigation event was defined as the period during which the pivot arm was passing over the transect AC and water droplets were moistening the plants (moist treatment). Corn transpiration rates were measured at three spots of that transect and simultaneously at another spot (dry treatment) located approximately 270 m east from the transect AC. Corn transpir...

  14. Model-assisted analysis of spatial and temporal variations in fruit temperature and transpiration highlighting the role of fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Saudreau, Marc; Joas, Jacques; Génard, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology.

  15. Model-assisted analysis of spatial and temporal variations in fruit temperature and transpiration highlighting the role of fruit development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Nordey

    Full Text Available Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology.

  16. Downwind evolution of transpiration by two irrigated crops under conditions of local advection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAneney, K. J.; Brunet, Y.; Itier, B.

    1994-09-01

    Previous measurements of water loss from small-dish evaporimeters mounted at the height of irrigated crops grown under conditions of extreme local advection in the Sudan are reexamined. From these evaporimeter measurements, it is possible to calculate fractional changes in the saturation deficit. Relationships between canopy conductance and saturation deficit are briefly reviewed and introduced into the Penman-Monteith equation to calculate transpiration rates as a function of distance downwind of the boundary between the upwind desert and the irrigated crop. In contradiction to most theoretical predictions, these new calculations show rates of transpiration to undergo only modest changes with increasing fetch. This occurs because of the feedback interaction between saturation deficit and stomatal conductance. This result is in good accord with a recent study suggesting that a dry-moist boundary transition may be best modelled as a simple step change in surface fluxes and further that the advective enhancement of evaporation may have been overestimated by many advection models. Larger effects are expected on dry matter yields because of the direct influence of saturation deficit on the yield-transpiration ratio.

  17. Evaluating potential impacts of species conversion on transpiration in the Piedmont of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, J.; Treasure, E.; Simpson, G.; Domec, J.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S.

    2010-12-01

    spp. (1.4 mm d-1 ± 0.04) option. Given that our data represent growing season conditions, these daily transpiration differences are likely a result of physical and physiological differences related to species canopy properties or root distribution and functions. Daily streamflow rates could be reduced by as much as 40% in the red maple scenario because of the increase in daily transpiration. This reduction in flow could have long-term implications and risk to water quality conditions and aquatic species habitat. We will continue to monitor transpiration rates in this mixed hardwood stand to quantify the seasonal variability in water use.

  18. Modelling the effect of low soil temperatures on transpiration by Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Stähli, Manfred; Gustafsson, David; Bishop, Kevin

    2006-06-01

    For ecosystem modelling of the Boreal forest it is important to include processes associated with low soil temperature during spring-early summer, as these affect the tree water uptake. The COUP model, a physically based SVAT model, was tested with 2 years of soil and snow physical measurements and sap flow measurements in a 70-year-old Scots pine stand in the boreal zone of northern Sweden. During the first year the extent and duration of soil frost was manipulated in the field. The model was successful in reproducing the timing of the soil warming after the snowmelt and frost thaw. A delayed soil warming, into the growing season, severely reduced the transpiration. We demonstrated the potential for considerable overestimation of transpiration by the model if the reduction of the trees' capacity to transpire due to low soil temperatures is not taken into account. We also demonstrated that the accumulated effect of aboveground conditions could be included when simulating the relationship between soil temperature and tree water uptake. This improved the estimated transpiration for the control plot and when soil warming was delayed into the growing season. The study illustrates the need of including antecedent conditions on root growth in the model in order to catch these effects on transpiration. The COUP model is a promising tool for predicting transpiration in high-latitude stands.

  19. Transpiration directly regulates the emissions of water-soluble short-chained OVOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, K; Hölttä, T; Bäck, J

    2018-04-20

    Most plant-based emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are considered mainly temperature dependent. However, certain oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) have high water solubility; thus, also stomatal conductance could regulate their emissions from shoots. Due to their water solubility and sources in stem and roots, it has also been suggested that their emissions could be affected by transport in xylem sap. Yet, further understanding on the role of transport has been lacking until present. We used shoot-scale long-term dynamic flux data from Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) to analyse the effects of transpiration and transport in xylem sap flow on emissions of three water soluble OVOC: methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde. We found a direct effect of transpiration on the shoot emissions of the three OVOCs. The emissions were best explained by a regression model that combined linear transpiration and exponential temperature effects. In addition, a structural equation model indicated that stomatal conductance affects emissions mainly indirectly, by regulating transpiration. A part of temperature's effect is also indirect. The tight coupling of shoot emissions to transpiration clearly evidences that these OVOCs are transported in xylem sap from their sources in roots and stem to leaves and to ambient air. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Transpiration on Plant Accumulation and Translocation of PPCP/EDCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgen, Laurel K; Ueda, Aiko; Wu, Xiaoqin; Parker, David R; Gan, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation in arid and hot climates where plant transpiration is high may affect plant accumulation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, carrot, lettuce, and tomato plants were grown in solution containing 16 PPCP/EDCs in either a cool-humid or a warm-dry environment. Leaf bioconcentration factors (BCF) were positively correlated with transpiration for chemical groups of different ionized states (p < 0.05). However, root BCFs were correlated with transpiration only for neutral PPCP/EDCs (p < 0.05). Neutral and cationic PPCP/EDCs showed similar accumulation, while anionic PPCP/EDCs had significantly higher accumulation in roots and significantly lower accumulation in leaves (p < 0.05). Results show that plant transpiration may play a significant role in the uptake and translocation of PPCP/EDCs, which may have a pronounced effect in arid and hot climates where irrigation with treated wastewater is common. PMID:25594843

  1. Will intra-specific differences in transpiration efficiency in wheat be maintained in a high CO₂ world? A FACE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausz-Posch, Sabine; Norton, Robert M; Seneweera, Saman; Fitzgerald, Glenn J; Tausz, Michael

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluates whether the target breeding trait of superior leaf level transpiration efficiency is still appropriate under increasing carbon dioxide levels of a future climate using a semi-arid cropping system as a model. Specifically, we investigated whether physiological traits governing leaf level transpiration efficiency, such as net assimilation rates (A(net)), stomatal conductance (g(s)) or stomatal sensitivity were affected differently between two Triticum aestivum L. cultivars differing in transpiration efficiency (cv. Drysdale, superior; cv. Hartog, low). Plants were grown under Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE, approximately 550 µmol mol⁻¹ or ambient CO₂ concentrations (approximately 390 µmol mol⁻¹). Mean A(net) (approximately 15% increase) and gs (approximately 25% decrease) were less affected by elevated [CO₂] than previously found in FACE-grown wheat (approximately 25% increase and approximately 32% decrease, respectively), potentially reflecting growth in a dry-land cropping system. In contrast to previous FACE studies, analyses of the Ball et al. model revealed an elevated [CO₂] effect on the slope of the linear regression by 12% indicating a decrease in stomatal sensitivity to the combination of [CO₂], photosynthesis rate and humidity. Differences between cultivars indicated greater transpiration efficiency for Drysdale with growth under elevated [CO₂] potentially increasing the response of this trait. This knowledge adds valuable information for crop germplasm improvement for future climates. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  2. Biological and environmental controls on tree transpiration in a suburban landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Emily B.; McFadden, Joseph P.; Montgomery, Rebecca A.

    2010-12-01

    Tree transpiration provides a variety of ecosystem services in urban areas, including amelioration of urban heat island effects and storm water management. Tree species vary in the magnitude and seasonality of transpiration owing to differences in physiology, response to climate, and biophysical characteristics, thereby complicating efforts to manage evapotranspiration at city scales. We report sap flux measurements during the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons for dominant tree species in a suburban neighborhood of Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA. Evergreen needleleaf trees had significantly higher growing season means and annual transpiration per unit canopy area (1.90 kg H2O m-2 d-1 and 307 kg H2O m-2 yr-1, respectively) than deciduous broadleaf trees (1.11 kg H2O m-2 d-1 and 153 kg H2O m-2 yr-1, respectively) because of a smaller projected canopy area (31.1 and 73.6 m2, respectively), a higher leaf area index (8.8 and 5.5 m2 m-2, respectively), and a longer growth season (8 and 4 months, respectively). Measurements also showed patterns consistent with the species' differences in xylem anatomy (conifer, ring porous, and diffuse porous). As the growing season progressed, conifer and diffuse porous genera had increased stomatal regulation to high vapor pressure deficit, while ring porous genera maintained greater and more constant stomatal regulation. These results suggest that evaporative responses to climate change in urban ecosystems will depend in part on species composition. Overall, plant functional type differences in canopy structure and growing season length were most important in explaining species' differences in midsummer and annual transpiration, offering an approach to predicting the evapotranspiration component of urban water budgets.

  3. Transpirational drying and costs for transporting woody biomass - a preliminary review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce J. Stokes; Bryce J. McDonaStokes; Timothy P. McDonald; Tyrone Kelley

    1993-01-01

    High transport costs arc a factor to consider in the use of forest residues for fuel. Costs can be reduced by increasing haul capacities, reducing high moisture contents, and improving trucking efficiency. The literature for transpirational drying and the economics of hauling woody biomass is summarized here. Some additional, unpublished roundwood and chipdrying test...

  4. Influence of water deficit on transpiration and radiation use efficiency of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.; Sri Rama, Y.V.

    1989-01-01

    Information on the relationship between biomass production, radiation use and water use of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is essential to estimate biomass production in different water regimes. Experiments were conducted during three post-rainy seasons on a Vertisol (a typic pallustert) to study the effect of water deficits on radiation use, radiation use efficiency (RUE), transpiration and transpiration efficiency (TE) of chickpea. Different levels of soil water availability were created, either by having irrigated and non-irrigated plots or using a line source. Biomass production was linearly related to both cumulative intercepted solar radiation and transpiration in both well watered and water deficit treatments. Soil water availability did not affect RUE (total dry matter produced per unit of solar radiation interception) when at least 30% of extractable soil water (ESW) was present in the rooting zone, but below 30% ESW, RUE decreased linearly with the decrease in soil water content. RUE was also significantly correlated (R 2 = 0.61, P < 0.01) with the ratio of actual to potential transpiration (T/Tp) and it declined curvilinearly with the decrease in T/Tp. TE decreased with the increase in saturation deficit (SD) of air. Normalization of TE with SD gave a conservative value of 4.8 g kPa kg −1 . To estimate biomass production of chickpea in different environments, we need to account for the effect of plant water deficits on RUE in a radiation-based model and the effect of SD on TE in a transpiration-based model. (author)

  5. Transpiration Response and Growth in Pearl Millet Parental Lines and Hybrids Bred for Contrasting Rainfall Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Medina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of high vapor pressure deficit (VPD and soil drying, restricting transpiration is an important avenue to gain efficiency in water use. The question we raise in this article is whether breeding for agro-ecological environments that differ for the rainfall have selected for traits that control plant water use. These are measured in pearl millet materials bred for zones varying in rainfall (8 combinations of parent and F1-hybrids, 18 F1-hybrids and then 40 F1-hybrids. In all cases, we found an agro-ecological variation in the slope of the transpiration response to increasing VPD, and parental line variation in the transpiration response to soil drying within hybrids/parent combinations. The hybrids adapted to lower rainfall had higher transpiration response curves than those from the highest rainfall zones, but showed no variation in how transpiration responded to soil drying. The genotypes bred for lower rainfall zones showed lower leaf area, dry matter, thicker leaves, root development, and exudation, than the ones bred for high rainfall zone when grown in the low VPD environment of the greenhouse, but there was no difference in their root length neither on the root/shoot index in these genotypes. By contrast, when grown under high VPD conditions outdoors, the lower rainfall hybrids had the highest leaf, tiller, and biomass development. Finally, under soil drying the genotypes from the lower rainfall accumulated less biomass than the ones from higher rainfall zone, and so did the parental lines compared to the hybrids. These differences in the transpiration response and growth clearly showed that breeding for different agro-ecological zones also bred for different genotype strategies in relation to traits related to plant water use.Highlights:• Variation in transpiration response reflected breeding for agro-ecological zones• Different growth strategies depended on the environmental conditions• Different ideotypes reflected

  6. Transpiration Response and Growth in Pearl Millet Parental Lines and Hybrids Bred for Contrasting Rainfall Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Susan; Gupta, S K; Vadez, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Under conditions of high vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and soil drying, restricting transpiration is an important avenue to gain efficiency in water use. The question we raise in this article is whether breeding for agro-ecological environments that differ for the rainfall have selected for traits that control plant water use. These are measured in pearl millet materials bred for zones varying in rainfall (8 combinations of parent and F 1 -hybrids, 18 F 1 -hybrids and then 40 F 1 -hybrids). In all cases, we found an agro-ecological variation in the slope of the transpiration response to increasing VPD, and parental line variation in the transpiration response to soil drying within hybrids/parent combinations. The hybrids adapted to lower rainfall had higher transpiration response curves than those from the highest rainfall zones, but showed no variation in how transpiration responded to soil drying. The genotypes bred for lower rainfall zones showed lower leaf area, dry matter, thicker leaves, root development, and exudation, than the ones bred for high rainfall zone when grown in the low VPD environment of the greenhouse, but there was no difference in their root length neither on the root/shoot index in these genotypes. By contrast, when grown under high VPD conditions outdoors, the lower rainfall hybrids had the highest leaf, tiller, and biomass development. Finally, under soil drying the genotypes from the lower rainfall accumulated less biomass than the ones from higher rainfall zone, and so did the parental lines compared to the hybrids. These differences in the transpiration response and growth clearly showed that breeding for different agro-ecological zones also bred for different genotype strategies in relation to traits related to plant water use. Highlights : • Variation in transpiration response reflected breeding for agro-ecological zones • Different growth strategies depended on the environmental conditions • Different ideotypes reflected

  7. FPGA-based Fused Smart Sensor for Real-Time Plant-Transpiration Dynamic Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineo Torres-Pacheco

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant transpiration is considered one of the most important physiological functions because it constitutes the plants evolving adaptation to exchange moisture with a dry atmosphere which can dehydrate or eventually kill the plant. Due to the importance of transpiration, accurate measurement methods are required; therefore, a smart sensor that fuses five primary sensors is proposed which can measure air temperature, leaf temperature, air relative humidity, plant out relative humidity and ambient light. A field programmable gate array based unit is used to perform signal processing algorithms as average decimation and infinite impulse response filters to the primary sensor readings in order to reduce the signal noise and improve its quality. Once the primary sensor readings are filtered, transpiration dynamics such as: transpiration, stomatal conductance, leaf-air-temperature-difference and vapor pressure deficit are calculated in real time by the smart sensor. This permits the user to observe different primary and calculated measurements at the same time and the relationship between these which is very useful in precision agriculture in the detection of abnormal conditions. Finally, transpiration related stress conditions can be detected in real time because of the use of online processing and embedded communications capabilities.

  8. FPGA-based Fused Smart Sensor for Real-Time Plant-Transpiration Dynamic Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan-Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon Gerardo; Contreras-Medina, Luis Miguel; Carrillo-Serrano, Roberto Valentin; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Duarte-Galvan, Carlos; Rios-Alcaraz, Miguel Angel; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo

    2010-01-01

    Plant transpiration is considered one of the most important physiological functions because it constitutes the plants evolving adaptation to exchange moisture with a dry atmosphere which can dehydrate or eventually kill the plant. Due to the importance of transpiration, accurate measurement methods are required; therefore, a smart sensor that fuses five primary sensors is proposed which can measure air temperature, leaf temperature, air relative humidity, plant out relative humidity and ambient light. A field programmable gate array based unit is used to perform signal processing algorithms as average decimation and infinite impulse response filters to the primary sensor readings in order to reduce the signal noise and improve its quality. Once the primary sensor readings are filtered, transpiration dynamics such as: transpiration, stomatal conductance, leaf-air-temperature-difference and vapor pressure deficit are calculated in real time by the smart sensor. This permits the user to observe different primary and calculated measurements at the same time and the relationship between these which is very useful in precision agriculture in the detection of abnormal conditions. Finally, transpiration related stress conditions can be detected in real time because of the use of online processing and embedded communications capabilities. PMID:22163656

  9. Nitrogen regulation of transpiration controls mass-flow acquisition of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matimati, Ignatious; Verboom, G Anthony; Cramer, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Transpiration may enhance mass-flow of nutrients to roots, especially in low-nutrient soils or where the root system is not extensively developed. Previous work suggested that nitrogen (N) may regulate mass-flow of nutrients. Experiments were conducted to determine whether N regulates water fluxes, and whether this regulation has a functional role in controlling the mass-flow of nutrients to roots. Phaseolus vulgaris were grown in troughs designed to create an N availability gradient by restricting roots from intercepting a slow-release N source, which was placed at one of six distances behind a 25 μm mesh from which nutrients could move by diffusion or mass-flow (termed 'mass-flow' treatment). Control plants had the N source supplied directly to their root zone so that N was available through interception, mass-flow, and diffusion (termed 'interception' treatment). 'Mass-flow' plants closest to the N source exhibited 2.9-fold higher transpiration (E), 2.6-fold higher stomatal conductance (gs), 1.2-fold higher intercellular [CO2] (Ci), and 3.4-fold lower water use efficiency than 'interception' plants, despite comparable values of photosynthetic rate (A). E, gs, and Ci first increased and then decreased with increasing distance from the N source to values even lower than those of 'interception' plants. 'Mass-flow' plants accumulated phosphorus and potassium, and had maximum concentrations at 10mm from the N source. Overall, N availability regulated transpiration-driven mass-flow of nutrients from substrate zones that were inaccessible to roots. Thus when water is available, mass-flow may partially substitute for root density in providing access to nutrients without incurring the costs of root extension, although the efficacy of mass-flow also depends on soil nutrient retention and hydraulic properties.

  10. Changes in the physiological regulation of transpiration caused by the effects of industrial air pollution. [Cucumis sativus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozinka, V; Klasova, A; Niznansky, A

    1963-01-01

    Through Hygen's method of quantitative analysis of transpiration curves, the authors studied the intensity of stomatal and cuticular transpiration of germinating leaves of Cucumis sativus which were experimentally exposed to solid impurities containing F. The difference between the control and experimental plants shows that the impurities not only blocked the regulating system of breathing but also caused increased cuticular transpiration. Numerous lesions were observed; cuticle damage also spread to the inner tissues. A direct relationship between microscopic and macroscopic symptoms was not proven. The creation of conditions adverse to the normal development of the water balance was intensified when the impurities were dropped onto the surface of the leaves. The possible protective function of trichomes is mentioned, but applies only when the impurities settle on a dry surface.

  11. Leaf transpiration efficiency of sweet corn varieties from three eras of breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    When measured under midday field conditions, modern varieties of corn often have sub-stomatal concentrations of carbon dioxide in excess of those required to saturate photosynthesis. This results in lower leaf transpiration efficiency, the ratio of photosynthesis to transpiration, than potentially ...

  12. Biomass Allocation Patterns Are Linked to Genotypic Differences in Whole-Plant Transpiration Efficiency in Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Velázquez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased transpiration efficiency (the ratio of biomass to water transpired, TE could lead to increased drought tolerance under some water deficit scenarios. Intrinsic (i.e., leaf-level TE is usually considered as the primary source of variation in whole-plant TE, but empirical data usually contradict this assumption. Sunflower has a significant variability in TE, but a better knowledge of the effect of leaf and plant-level traits could be helpful to obtain more efficient genotypes for water use. The objective of this study was, therefore, to assess if genotypic variation in whole-plant TE is better related to leaf- or plant-level traits. Three experiments were conducted, aimed at verifying the existence of variability in whole-plant TE and whole-plant and leaf-level traits, and to assess their correlation. Sunflower public inbred lines and a segregating population of recombinant inbred lines were grown under controlled conditions and subjected to well-watered and water-deficit treatments. Significant genotypic variation was found for TE and related traits. These differences in whole-plant transpiration efficiency, both between genotypes and between plants within each genotype, showed no association to leaf-level traits, but were significantly and negatively correlated to biomass allocation to leaves and to the ratio of leaf area to total biomass. These associations are likely of a physiological origin, and not only a consequence of genetic linkage in the studied population. These results suggest that genotypic variation for biomass allocation could be potentially exploited as a source for increased transpiration efficiency in sunflower breeding programmes. It is also suggested that phenotyping for TE in this species should not be restricted to leaf-level measurements, but also include measurements of plant-level traits, especially those related to biomass allocation between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs.

  13. Biomass Allocation Patterns Are Linked to Genotypic Differences in Whole-Plant Transpiration Efficiency in Sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Luciano; Alberdi, Ignacio; Paz, Cosme; Aguirrezábal, Luis; Pereyra Irujo, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Increased transpiration efficiency (the ratio of biomass to water transpired, TE) could lead to increased drought tolerance under some water deficit scenarios. Intrinsic (i.e., leaf-level) TE is usually considered as the primary source of variation in whole-plant TE, but empirical data usually contradict this assumption. Sunflower has a significant variability in TE, but a better knowledge of the effect of leaf and plant-level traits could be helpful to obtain more efficient genotypes for water use. The objective of this study was, therefore, to assess if genotypic variation in whole-plant TE is better related to leaf- or plant-level traits. Three experiments were conducted, aimed at verifying the existence of variability in whole-plant TE and whole-plant and leaf-level traits, and to assess their correlation. Sunflower public inbred lines and a segregating population of recombinant inbred lines were grown under controlled conditions and subjected to well-watered and water-deficit treatments. Significant genotypic variation was found for TE and related traits. These differences in whole-plant transpiration efficiency, both between genotypes and between plants within each genotype, showed no association to leaf-level traits, but were significantly and negatively correlated to biomass allocation to leaves and to the ratio of leaf area to total biomass. These associations are likely of a physiological origin, and not only a consequence of genetic linkage in the studied population. These results suggest that genotypic variation for biomass allocation could be potentially exploited as a source for increased transpiration efficiency in sunflower breeding programmes. It is also suggested that phenotyping for TE in this species should not be restricted to leaf-level measurements, but also include measurements of plant-level traits, especially those related to biomass allocation between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs.

  14. Transpiration rates of rice plants treated with Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Anizan, I.; Che Radziah C. M., Z.; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2014-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are considered as successful plant growth promoting fungi and have positive role in habitat engineering. In this study, the potential for Trichoderma spp. to regulate transpiration process in rice plant was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. The study revealed that Trichoderma spp. have potential to enhance growth of rice plant through transpirational processes. The results of the study add to the advancement of the understanding as to the role of Trichoderma spp. in improving rice physiological process.

  15. Sapflow-Based Stand Transpiration in a Semiarid Natural Oak Forest on China’s Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Jie Yan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The semi-arid region of China’s Loess Plateau is characterized by fragile ecosystems and a shortage of water resources. The major natural forest type in this region is the secondary forest with the flora dominated by the Liaodong oak (Quercus liaotungensis Koidz.. To understand its transpiration water use in relation to environmental factors, we applied Granier-type thermal dissipation probes to monitor stem sap flows of 21 sample trees, representing different classes of diameter at breast height in a permanent plot. The stem- and stand-scale transpiration values during the 2008–2010 growing seasons were estimated using measurements of sap flux densities and corresponding sapwood areas. The dominant factors affecting stand-scale transpiration varied with time scales. Daily stand transpiration correlated with daily solar radiation and daytime average vapor pressure deficit. Seasonal and interannual changes in stand transpiration were closely related to leaf area index (LAI values. No obvious relationship was observed between monthly stand transpiration and soil moisture or precipitation during the period, probably as a result of both the hysteretic effect of precipitation on transpiration, and changes in LAI throughout the growing season. Stand transpiration during the three growing seasons ranged from 75 to 106 mm, representing low to normal values for the semi-arid forest. The proportion of transpiration by oak trees in the stand was stable ranging from 60% to 66% and corresponded to their basal area proportion of approximately 59%. The results suggest that the natural forest consisting mainly of oak trees is in a formal stage of forest development that maintains a normal magnitude of annual water consumption.

  16. Development of synchronized, autonomous, and self-regulated oscillations in transpiration rate of a whole tomato plant under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Rony; Da-Costa, Noam; Raviv, Michael; Moshelion, Menachem

    2010-07-01

    Plants respond to many environmental changes by rapidly adjusting their hydraulic conductivity and transpiration rate, thereby optimizing water-use efficiency and preventing damage due to low water potential. A multiple-load-cell apparatus, time-series analysis of the measured data, and residual low-pass filtering methods were used to monitor continuously and analyse transpiration of potted tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig) grown in a temperature-controlled greenhouse during well-irrigated and drought periods. A time derivative of the filtered residual time series yielded oscillatory behaviour of the whole plant's transpiration (WPT) rate. A subsequent cross-correlation analysis between the WPT oscillatory pattern and wet-wick evaporation rates (vertical cotton fabric, 0.14 m(2) partly submerged in water in a container placed on an adjacent load cell) revealed that autonomous oscillations in WPT rate develop under a continuous increase in water stress, whereas these oscillations correspond with the fluctuations in evaporation rate when water is fully available. The relative amplitude of these autonomous oscillations increased with water stress as transpiration rate decreased. These results support the recent finding that an increase in xylem tension triggers hydraulic signals that spread instantaneously via the plant vascular system and control leaf conductance. The regulatory role of synchronized oscillations in WPT rate in eliminating critical xylem tension points and preventing embolism is discussed.

  17. Mechanistic assessment of hillslope transpiration controls of diel subsurface flow: a steady-state irrigation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.R. Barnard; C.B. Graham; W.J. van Verseveld; J.R. Brooks; B.J. Bond; J.J. McDonnell

    2010-01-01

    Mechanistic assessment of how transpiration influences subsurface flow is necessary to advance understanding of catchment hydrology. We conducted a 24-day, steady-state irrigation experiment to quantify the relationships among soil moisture, transpiration and hillslope subsurface flow. Our objectives were to: (1) examine the time lag between maximum transpiration and...

  18. Response of transpiration to rain pulses for two tree species in a semiarid plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lixin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zeppel, Melanie; Liu, Caifeng; Guo, Junting; Zhu, Jinzhao; Zhang, Xuepei; Zhang, Jianjun; Zha, Tonggang

    2014-09-01

    Responses of transpiration ( E c) to rain pulses are presented for two semiarid tree species in a stand of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia. Our objectives are to investigate (1) the environmental control over the stand transpiration after rainfall by analyzing the effect of vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil water condition, and rainfall on the post-rainfall E c development and recovery rate, and (2) the species responses to rain pulses and implications on vegetation coverage under a changing rainfall regime. Results showed that the sensitivity of canopy conductance ( G c) to VPD varied under different incident radiation and soil water conditions, and the two species exhibited the same hydraulic control (-d G c/dlnVPD to G cref ratio) over transpiration. Strengthened physiological control and low sapwood area of the stand contributed to low E c. VPD after rainfall significantly influenced the magnitude and time series of post-rainfall stand E c. The fluctuation of post-rainfall VPD in comparison with the pre-rainfall influenced the E c recovery. Further, the stand E c was significantly related to monthly rainfall, but the recovery was independent of the rainfall event size. E c enhanced with cumulative soil moisture change (ΔVWC) within each dry-wet cycle, yet still was limited in large rainfall months. The two species had different response patterns of post-rainfall E c recovery. E c recovery of P. tabulaeformis was influenced by the pre- and post-rainfall VPD differences and the duration of rainless interval. R. pseudoacacia showed a larger immediate post-rainfall E c increase than P. tabulaeformis did. We, therefore, concluded that concentrated rainfall events do not trigger significant increase of transpiration unless large events penetrate the deep soil and the species differences of E c in response to pulses of rain may shape the composition of semiarid woodlands under future rainfall regimes.

  19. Effect of nitrogen supply on transpiration and stomatal behaviour of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimshi, D

    1970-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen supply on the transpiration rate and stomatal opening of potted bean plants was studied in a series of experiments. The transpiration rates of N-supplied plants were higher than those of N-deficient plants when soil moisture was relatively high; as soil moisture approached the wilting range, the transpiration rates of N-supplied plants dropped to below those of N-deficient plants. In spite of the marked differences in transpiration rates, as influenced by soil moisture and nitrogen supply, the stomata appeared closed. By coating the upper or lower surfaces of the leaves with a vapor-impervious compound it was shown that stomatal apertures below the limit of microscopic resolution control the rate of transpiration. Under conditions that encourage stomatal opening (covering the plants with transparent plastic bags), the stomata of the N-deficient plants opened to a lesser degree than those of N-supplied plants. There was some evidence that when stomata were visibly open, transpiration rates were regulated by the degree of plant hydration rather than by the degree of stomatal opening. It is concluded that N-deficient plants fail to open their stomata as widely and to close them as tightly as N-supplied plants. 8 references, 2 tables.

  20. Evaporative demand, transpiration, and photosynthesis: How are they changing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, G. D.; Roderick, M. L.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon dioxide concentration is increasing. This affects photosynthesis via increases in substrate availability (Farquhar et al. 1980). It reduces the amount of water transpired by plants to fix a given amount of carbon into an organic form; i.e it increases transpiration efficiency (Wong et al. 1979). It also warms the earth's surface. It is commonly supposed that this warming causes an increase in evaporative demand - the rate of water loss from a wet surface. This supposition has then been extended to effects on plant water availability, with the idea that there would be offsets to the gains in productivity associated with increased transpiration efficiency. The assumption that increased temperature means increased evaporative demand has also been applied to global maps of changes in soil water content. However, observations of pan evaporation rate show that this measure of evaporative demand has been decreasing in most areas examined over the last few decades. We reconcile these observations with theory by noting that, on long time scales, warming also involves water bodies, so that the vapour pressure at the earth's surface also increases. Using the physics of pan evaporation (Rotstayn et al. 2006) we show that the reduction in evaporative demand has been associated with two main effects, (1) "dimming", a reduction in sunlight received at the earth's surface because of aerosols and clouds, being the first phenomenon identified (Roderick and Farquhar 2002), and (2) "stilling", a reduction in wind speed, being the second (Roderick et al. 2007). We show that better accounting for changes in evaporative demand is important for estimating soil water changes, particularly in regions where precipitation exceeds evaporative demand (i.e where there are rivers) (Hobbins et al. 2008). We synthesise some of these results with others on vegetation change. References: Farquhar, GD, von Caemmerer, S, and Berry, JA, 1980: A biochemical model of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation

  1. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  2. Expression of Arabidopsis Hexokinase in Citrus Guard Cells Controls Stomatal Aperture and Reduces Transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugassi, Nitsan; Kelly, Gilor; Fidel, Lena; Yaniv, Yossi; Attia, Ziv; Levi, Asher; Alchanatis, Victor; Moshelion, Menachem; Raveh, Eran; Carmi, Nir; Granot, David

    2015-01-01

    Hexokinase (HXK) is a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing. It has recently been shown that HXK in guard cells mediates stomatal closure and coordinates photosynthesis with transpiration in the annual species tomato and Arabidopsis. To examine the role of HXK in the control of the stomatal movement of perennial plants, we generated citrus plants that express Arabidopsis HXK1 (AtHXK1) under KST1, a guard cell-specific promoter. The expression of KST1 in the guard cells of citrus plants has been verified using GFP as a reporter gene. The expression of AtHXK1 in the guard cells of citrus reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration with no negative effect on the rate of photosynthesis, leading to increased water-use efficiency. The effects of light intensity and humidity on stomatal behavior were examined in rooted leaves of the citrus plants. The optimal intensity of photosynthetically active radiation and lower humidity enhanced stomatal closure of AtHXK1-expressing leaves, supporting the role of sugar in the regulation of citrus stomata. These results suggest that HXK coordinates photosynthesis and transpiration and stimulates stomatal closure not only in annual species, but also in perennial species.

  3. Measurement of transpiration and biomass of coconut palm with tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasu, K.; Wahid, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of transpiration rate and biomass of coconut palm have been made using tritiated water as a tracer. The method of tracer injection into the coconut trunk and the extraction of tritiated water from coconut leaves are outlined. The transpiration rate of the tree selected for the study was found to be 2.2 litres/hour with a total biomass of 172 kg. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Benefits of increasing transpiration efficiency in wheat under elevated CO2 for rainfed regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Brendan; Tausz-Posch, Sabine; Tausz, Michael; Richards, Richard; Rebetzke, Greg; Condon, Anthony; McLean, Terry; Fitzgerald, Glenn; Bourgault, Maryse; O'Leary, Garry

    2018-05-01

    Higher transpiration efficiency (TE) has been proposed as a mechanism to increase crop yields in dry environments where water availability usually limits yield. The application of a coupled radiation and TE simulation model shows wheat yield advantage of a high-TE cultivar (cv. Drysdale) over its almost identical low-TE parent line (Hartog), from about -7 to 558 kg/ha (mean 187 kg/ha) over the rainfed cropping region in Australia (221-1,351 mm annual rainfall), under the present-day climate. The smallest absolute yield response occurred in the more extreme drier and wetter areas of the wheat belt. However, under elevated CO 2 conditions, the response of Drysdale was much greater overall, ranging from 51 to 886 kg/ha (mean 284 kg/ha) with the greatest response in the higher rainfall areas. Changes in simulated TE under elevated CO 2 conditions are seen across Australia with notable increased areas of higher TE under a drier climate in Western Australia, Queensland and parts of New South Wales and Victoria. This improved efficiency is subtly deceptive, with highest yields not necessarily directly correlated with highest TE. Nevertheless, the advantage of Drysdale over Hartog is clear with the benefit of the trait advantage attributed to TE ranging from 102% to 118% (mean 109%). The potential annual cost-benefits of this increased genetic TE trait across the wheat growing areas of Australia (5 year average of area planted to wheat) totaled AUD 631 MIL (5-year average wheat price of AUD/260 t) with an average of 187 kg/ha under the present climate. The benefit to an individual farmer will depend on location but elevated CO 2 raises this nation-wide benefit to AUD 796 MIL in a 2°C warmer climate, slightly lower (AUD 715 MIL) if rainfall is also reduced by 20%. © 2018 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Environmental and biological controls of urban tree transpiration in the Upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, E. B.; McFadden, J.; Montgomery, R.

    2009-12-01

    Urban trees provide a variety of ecosystem services to urban and suburban areas, including carbon uptake, climate amelioration, energy reduction, and stormwater management. Tree transpiration, in particular, modifies urban water budgets by providing an alternative pathway for water after rain events. The relative importance of environmental and biological controls on transpiration are poorly understood in urban areas, yet these controls are important for quantifying and scaling up the ecosystem services that urban trees provide at landscape and regional scales and predicting how urban ecosystems will respond to climate changes. The objectives of our study were to quantify the annual cycle of tree transpiration in an urban ecosystem and to determine how different urban tree species and plant functional types respond to environmental drivers. We continuously measured whole-tree transpiration using thermal dissipation sap flow at four urban forest stands that were broadly representative of the species composition and tree sizes found in a suburban residential neighborhood of Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota. A total of 40 trees, representing different species, plant functional types, successional stages, and xylem anatomy, were sampled throughout the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons (April-November). At each site we monitored soil moisture, air temperature, and relative humidity continuously, and we measured leaf area index weekly. Urban tree transpiration was strongly correlated with diurnal changes in vapor pressure deficit and photosynthetically active radiation and with seasonal changes in leaf area index. We found that plant functional type better explained species differences in transpiration per canopy area than either successional stage or xylem anatomy, largely due to differences in canopy structure between conifer and broad-leaf deciduous trees. We also observed inter-annual differences in transpiration rates due to a mid-season drought and longer growing

  6. Reduced nighttime transpiration is a relevant breeding target for high water-use efficiency in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Lebon, Eric; Christophe, Angélique; Gallo, Agustina; Gago, Pilar; Pantin, Florent; Doligez, Agnès; Simonneau, Thierry

    2016-08-09

    Increasing water scarcity challenges crop sustainability in many regions. As a consequence, the enhancement of transpiration efficiency (TE)-that is, the biomass produced per unit of water transpired-has become crucial in breeding programs. This could be achieved by reducing plant transpiration through a better closure of the stomatal pores at the leaf surface. However, this strategy generally also lowers growth, as stomatal opening is necessary for the capture of atmospheric CO2 that feeds daytime photosynthesis. Here, we considered the reduction in transpiration rate at night (En) as a possible strategy to limit water use without altering growth. For this purpose, we carried out a genetic analysis for En and TE in grapevine, a major crop in drought-prone areas. Using recently developed phenotyping facilities, potted plants of a cross between Syrah and Grenache cultivars were screened for 2 y under well-watered and moderate soil water deficit scenarios. High genetic variability was found for En under both scenarios and was primarily associated with residual diffusion through the stomata. Five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected that underlay genetic variability in En Interestingly, four of them colocalized with QTLs for TE. Moreover, genotypes with favorable alleles on these common QTLs exhibited reduced En without altered growth. These results demonstrate the interest of breeding grapevine for lower water loss at night and pave the way to breeding other crops with this underexploited trait for higher TE.

  7. Uptake of 32P and 86Rb as influenced by temperature, transpiration suppress and shading treatment in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.B.; Hong, Y.P.; Im, J.N.; Chung, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    This study was carried out to know the uptake pattern of phosphorous and potassium in rice plants using by two radioisotopes, 32P and 86Rb as tracers for two years, 1987 and 1988. Rice plants were grown in the hydroponic culture with Yoshida's solution, and treated with different temperatures, transpiration suppress, shading, and phosphorous and potassium deletions. The uptake amount of 32P and 86Rb were increased with the increasing temperature in root sphere of rice plant, particularly remarkable increase of 86Rb uptake at 35deg C. The uptake of 32P tended to be promoted at the treatment of low air-high water temperature (17-30deg C), while that of 86Rb was not significantly differenced from different temperature treatments. The effect of transpiration on the uptake of 32P and 86Rb was extremely low. This phenomenon may suggest that the absorption be depending on active uptake rather than passive one by transpiration stream. The total carbohydrate contents of rice root were decreased by shading treatment, resulting significant reduction in the uptake of 32P and 86Rb. The uptake of 86Rb was remarkably increased in the treatment of potassium deletion, but that of 32P was not significantly increased in the delection of phosphorous

  8. Uptake of 32P and 86Rb as influenced by temperature, transpiration suppress and shading treatment in rice plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, G. B.; Hong, Y. P.; Im, J. N.; Chung, K. W.

    1989-07-01

    This study was carried out to know the uptake pattern of phosphorous and potassium in rice plants using by two radioisotopes, 32P and 86Rb as tracers for two years, 1987 and 1988. Rice plants were grown in the hydroponic culture with Yoshida's solution, and treated with different temperatures, transpiration suppress, shading, and phosphorous and potassium deletions. The uptake amount of 32P and 86Rb were increased with the increasing temperature in root sphere of rice plant, particularly remarkable increase of 86Rb uptake at 35deg C. The uptake of 32P tended to be promoted at the treatment of low air-high water temperature (17-30deg C), while that of 86Rb was not significantly differenced from different temperature treatments. The effect of transpiration on the uptake of 32P and 86Rb was extremely low. This phenomenon may suggest that the absorption be depending on active uptake rather than passive one by transpiration stream. The total carbohydrate contents of rice root were decreased by shading treatment, resulting significant reduction in the uptake of 32P and 86Rb. The uptake of 86Rb was remarkably increased in the treatment of potassium deletion, but that of 32P was not significantly increased in the delection of phosphorous.

  9. Estimation of Transpiration and Water Use Efficiency Using Satellite and Field Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.; Quick, B. E.

    2003-01-01

    Structure and function of terrestrial plant communities bring about intimate relations between water, energy, and carbon exchange between land surface and atmosphere. Total evaporation, which is the sum of transpiration, soil evaporation and evaporation of intercepted water, couples water and energy balance equations. The rate of transpiration, which is the major fraction of total evaporation over most of the terrestrial land surface, is linked to the rate of carbon accumulation because functioning of stomata is optimized by both of these processes. Thus, quantifying the spatial and temporal variations of the transpiration efficiency (which is defined as the ratio of the rate of carbon accumulation and transpiration), and water use efficiency (defined as the ratio of the rate of carbon accumulation and total evaporation), and evaluation of modeling results against observations, are of significant importance in developing a better understanding of land surface processes. An approach has been developed for quantifying spatial and temporal variations of transpiration, and water-use efficiency based on biophysical process-based models, satellite and field observations. Calculations have been done using concurrent meteorological data derived from satellite observations and four dimensional data assimilation for four consecutive years (1987-1990) over an agricultural area in the Northern Great Plains of the US, and compared with field observations within and outside the study area. The paper provides substantive new information about interannual variation, particularly the effect of drought, on the efficiency values at a regional scale.

  10. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Combining quantitative trait loci analysis with physiological models to predict genotype-specific transpiration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuning, Gretchen A; Bauerle, William L; Mullen, Jack L; McKay, John K

    2015-04-01

    Transpiration is controlled by evaporative demand and stomatal conductance (gs ), and there can be substantial genetic variation in gs . A key parameter in empirical models of transpiration is minimum stomatal conductance (g0 ), a trait that can be measured and has a large effect on gs and transpiration. In Arabidopsis thaliana, g0 exhibits both environmental and genetic variation, and quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped. We used this information to create a genetically parameterized empirical model to predict transpiration of genotypes. For the parental lines, this worked well. However, in a recombinant inbred population, the predictions proved less accurate. When based only upon their genotype at a single g0 QTL, genotypes were less distinct than our model predicted. Follow-up experiments indicated that both genotype by environment interaction and a polygenic inheritance complicate the application of genetic effects into physiological models. The use of ecophysiological or 'crop' models for predicting transpiration of novel genetic lines will benefit from incorporating further knowledge of the genetic control and degree of independence of core traits/parameters underlying gs variation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Response processes of Aralia elata photosynthesis and transpiration to light and soil moisture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Guang-Can; Zhang, Shu-Yong; Wang, Meng-Jun

    2008-06-01

    By using CIRAS-2 portable photosynthesis system, the light response processes of Aralia elata photosynthesis and transpiration under different soil moisture conditions were studied, aimed to understand the adaptability of A. elata to different light and soil moisture conditions. The results showed that the response processes of A. elata net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), and water use efficiency (WUE) to photon flux density (PFD) were different. With the increasing PFD in the range of 800-1800 micromol x m2(-2) x s(-1), Pn changed less, Tr decreased gradually, while WUE increased obviously. The light saturation point (LSP) and light compensation point (LCP) were about 800 and 30 micromol m(-2) x s(-1), respectively, and less affected by soil water content; while the apparent photosynthetic quantum yield (Phi) and dark respiratory rate (Rd) were more affected by the moisture content. The Pn and WUE had evident threshold responses to the variations of soil water content. When the soil relative water content (RWC) was in the range of 44%-79%, A. elata could have higher levels of Pn and WUE.

  13. Cooling Duct Analysis for Transpiration/Film Cooled Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklow, Gerald J.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a low cost space transportation system requires that the propulsion system be reusable, have long life, with good performance and use low cost propellants. Improved performance can be achieved by operating the engine at higher pressure and temperature levels than previous designs. Increasing the chamber pressure and temperature, however, will increase wall heating rates. This necessitates the need for active cooling methods such as film cooling or transpiration cooling. But active cooling can reduce the net thrust of the engine and add considerably to the design complexity. Recently, a metal drawing process has been patented where it is possible to fabricate plates with very small holes with high uniformity with a closely specified porosity. Such a metal plate could be used for an inexpensive transpiration/film cooled liner to meet the demands of advanced reusable rocket engines, if coolant mass flow rates could be controlled to satisfy wall cooling requirements and performance. The present study investigates the possibility of controlling the coolant mass flow rate through the porous material by simple non-active fluid dynamic means. The coolant will be supplied to the porous material by series of constant geometry slots machined on the exterior of the engine.

  14. Expression of Arabidopsis hexokinase in citrus guard cells controls stomatal aperture and reduces transpiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitsan eLugassi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hexokinase (HXK is a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing. It has recently been shown that HXK in guard cells mediates stomatal closure and coordinates photosynthesis with transpiration in the annual species tomato and Arabidopsis. To examine the role of HXK in the control of the stomatal movement of perennial plants, we generated citrus plants that express Arabidopsis HXK1 (AtHXK1 under KST1, a guard cell-specific promoter. The expression of KST1 in the guard cells of citrus plants has been verified using GFP as a reporter gene. The expression of AtHXK1 in the guard cells of citrus reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration with no negative effect on the rate of photosynthesis, leading to increased water-use efficiency. The effects of light intensity and humidity on stomatal behavior were examined in rooted leaves of the citrus plants. The optimal intensity of photosynthetically active radiation and lower humidity enhanced stomatal closure of AtHXK1-expressing leaves, supporting the role of sugar in the regulation of citrus stomata. These results suggest that HXK coordinates photosynthesis and transpiration and stimulates stomatal closure not only in annual species, but also in perennial species.

  15. Effects of sulfite and pH an abscisic acid (ABA) dependent transpiration and on stomatal opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, N.; Maruta, I.; Sugahara, K.

    1980-01-01

    In rice, alday, wheat and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum l. samsun and samsun nn) plants which contained large amounts of ABA, the transpiration rate decreased rapidly with 2 ppM SO/sub 2/ fumigation and reached 20 to 65% of the initial level after 5- to 30-min exposure depending on their ABAj contents. In the cases of broad bean and tobacco (n. Gutinosa l.) with low ABA contents, the rate slightly increased for 20 and 40 min, respectively, after the start of the fumigation and then decreased gradually. The transpiration rates of corn and sorghum, in spite of their extremely low ABA contents, pronouncedly decreased with SO/sub 2/ fumigation and reached 65 and 50%, respectively, of the initial levels after 40-min exposure. Foliar application of 0.04 N HCL to N. tacum l. samsun nn leaves remarkably depressed the transpiration rate, while the application of 0.04 m NA/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ decreased the rate only to the same level as water treatment. Foliar application of either HCL of Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ to N. glutinosa l. leaves exerted little change in the transpiration rate. When 10-4 m ABA was applied to broad bean leaves prior to HCl and Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ treatment, their transpiration rate was decreased by HCl, but not by Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ application. In sonicated epidermal strips peeled from broad bean leaves, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ produced a slight increase in the stomatal aperture size in the absence of ABA, but showed no effect in the presence of ABA. The aperture size was identical in the pH range of 3.0 to 7.0 in the incubation medium. In the presence of ABA in the medium, the aperture size was small in the acidic region of pH with a minimal value at pH 4.0. ABA decreased the aperture size at concentrations above 10-9 m at pH 4.0 and 10-6 m at pH 7.0 in the medium. ABA uptake by epidermal strips was large in the acidic region, especially at pH 4.0.

  16. Size-mediated tree transpiration along soil drainage gradients in a boreal black spruce forest wildfire chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstmann, J L; Ewers, B E; Kwon, H

    2012-05-01

    Boreal forests are crucial to climate change predictions because of their large land area and ability to sequester and store carbon, which is controlled by water availability. Heterogeneity of these forests is predicted to increase with climate change through more frequent wildfires, warmer, longer growing seasons and potential drainage of forested wetlands. This study aims at quantifying controls over tree transpiration with drainage condition, stand age and species in a central Canadian black spruce boreal forest. Heat dissipation sensors were installed in 2007 and data were collected through 2008 on 118 trees (69 Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. (black spruce), 25 Populus tremuloides Michx. (trembling aspen), 19 Pinus banksiana Lamb. (jack pine), 3 Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch (tamarack) and 2 Salix spp. (willow)) at four stand ages (18, 43, 77 and 157 years old) each containing a well- and poorly-drained stand. Transpiration estimates from sap flux were expressed per unit xylem area, J(S), per unit ground area, E(C) and per unit leaf area, E(L), using sapwood (A(S)) and leaf (A(L)) area calculated from stand- and species-specific allometry. Soil drainage differences in transpiration were variable; only the 43- and 157-year-old poorly-drained stands had ∼ 50% higher total stand E(C) than well-drained locations. Total stand E(C) tended to decrease with stand age after an initial increase between the 18- and 43-year-old stands. Soil drainage differences in transpiration were controlled primarily by short-term physiological drivers such as vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture whereas stand age differences were controlled by successional species shifts and changes in tree size (i.e., A(S)). Future predictions of boreal climate change must include stand age, species and soil drainage heterogeneity to avoid biased estimates of forest water loss and latent energy exchanges.

  17. Radon transport from uranium mill tailings via plant transpiration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.A.G.

    1985-01-01

    Radon exhalation by vegetation planted on bare or soil-covered uranium mill wastes was studied based on an assumption that radon transport from soil to atmosphere via plants takes place in the transpiration stream. Results show that radon exhalation by plants is inversely related to water transpired, primarily a dilution effect. Radon released appeared directly related to leaf area, suggesting that radon is carried into the plant by mass flow in water; however, once within the plant, radon very likely diffuses through the entire leaf cuticle, while water vapor diffuses primarily through open stomates. Application of a computerized model for water transpiration to radon exhalation is not immediately useful until the role of water in radon transport is defined throughout the continuum from rooting medium to the atmosphere. Until then, a simple calculation based on leaf area index and Ra-226 concentration in the rooting medium can provide an estimate of radon release from revegetated wastes containing radium

  18. Evaluating Uncertainties in Sap Flux Scaled Estimates of Forest Transpiration, Canopy Conductance and Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, E. J.; Bell, D. M.; Clark, J. S.; Kim, H.; Oren, R.

    2009-12-01

    Thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) are a common method for estimating forest transpiration and canopy conductance from sap flux rates in trees, but their implementation is plagued by uncertainties arising from missing data and variability in the diameter and canopy position of trees, as well as sapwood conductivity within individual trees. Uncertainties in estimates of canopy conductance also translate into uncertainties in carbon assimilation in models such as the Canopy Conductance Constrained Carbon Assimilation (4CA) model that combine physiological and environmental data to estimate photosynthetic rates. We developed a method to propagate these uncertainties in the scaling and imputation of TDP data to estimates of canopy transpiration and conductance using a state-space Jarvis-type conductance model in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. This presentation will focus on the impact of these uncertainties on estimates of water and carbon fluxes using 4CA and data from the Duke Free Air Carbon Enrichment (FACE) project, which incorporates both elevated carbon dioxide and soil nitrogen treatments. We will also address the response of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit, incident radiation and soil moisture, as well as the effect of treatment-related stand structure differences in scaling TDP measurements. Preliminary results indicate that in 2006, a year of normal precipitation (1127 mm), canopy transpiration increased in elevated carbon dioxide ~8% on a ground area basis. In 2007, a year with a pronounced drought (800 mm precipitation), this increase was only present in the combined carbon dioxide and fertilization treatment. The seasonal dynamics of water and carbon fluxes will be discussed in detail.

  19. Effects of thinning on transpiration by riparian buffer trees in response to advection and solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advective energy occurring in edge environments may increase tree water use. In humid agricultural landscapes, advection-enhanced transpiration in riparian buffers may provide hydrologic regulation; however, research in humid environments is lacking. The objectives of this study were to determine ho...

  20. Environmental controls on saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) transpiration and stomatal conductance and implications for determining evapotranspiration by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.; morino, K.

    2012-12-01

    Saltcedar is an introduced, salt-tolerant shrub that now dominates many flow-regulated western U.S. rivers. Saltcedar control programs have been implemented to salvage water and to allow the return of native vegetation to infested rivers. However, there is much debate about how much water saltcedar actually uses and the range of ecohydrological niches it occupies. Ground methods for measuring riparian zone ET have improved and there is considerable interest in developing remote sensing methods for saltcedar to conduct wide-area monitoring of water use. Both thermal band and vegetation index methods have been used to estimate riparian ET. However, several problems present themselves in applying existing remote sensing methods to riparian corridors. First, many riparian corridors are narrow and are surrounded by arid uplands, hence they cannot be treated as energetically closed systems, an assumption of thermal band methods that calculate ET as a residual in the surface energy balance. Second, contrary to the assumption that riparian phreatophytes typically grow under unstressed conditions since they are rooted into groundwater, we find that saltcedar stands are under substantial degrees of apparent moisture stress, exhibiting midday depression of transpiration and stomatal conductance, and decreases in stomatal conductance over the growing season as depth to groundwater increases. Furthermore, the degree of stress is site-specific, depending on local soil texture, salinity of the groundwater and distance from the river. This violates a key assumption of vegetation index methods for estimating ET. The implications of these findings for arid-zone riparian ecohydrology and for remote sensing methods that assume either a constant daily evaporative fraction or rate of stomatal conductance will be discussed using saltcedar stands measured in the Cibola NWR on the lower Colorado River as a case study. Daily rates of saltcedar transpiration ranged from 1.6-3.0 mm/m2 leaf

  1. Epicuticular wax on cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) leaves does not constitute the cuticular transpiration barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Epicuticular wax of cherry laurel does not contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which must be established by intracuticular wax. Barrier properties of cuticles are established by cuticular wax deposited on the outer surface of the cuticle (epicuticular wax) and in the cutin polymer (intracuticular wax). It is still an open question to what extent epi- and/or intracuticular waxes contribute to the formation of the transpiration barrier. Epicuticular wax was mechanically removed from the surfaces of isolated cuticles and intact leaf disks of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) by stripping with different polymers (collodion, cellulose acetate and gum arabic). Scanning electron microscopy showed that two consecutive treatments with all three polymers were sufficient to completely remove epicuticular wax since wax platelets disappeared and cuticle surfaces appeared smooth. Waxes in consecutive polymer strips and wax remaining in the cuticle after treatment with the polymers were determined by gas chromatography. This confirmed that two treatments of the polymers were sufficient for selectively removing epicuticular wax. Water permeability of isolated cuticles and cuticles covering intact leaf disks was measured using (3)H-labelled water before and after selectively removing epicuticular wax. Cellulose acetate and its solvent acetone led to a significant increase of cuticular permeability, indicating that the organic solvent acetone affected the cuticular transpiration barrier. However, permeability did not change after two subsequent treatments with collodion and gum arabic or after treatment with the corresponding solvents (diethyl ether:ethanol or water). Thus, in the case of P. laurocerasus the epicuticular wax does not significantly contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which evidently must be established by the intracuticular wax.

  2. Effect of different soil water potential on leaf transpiration and on stomatal conductance in poinsettia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek S. Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild.'Lilo' was grown in containers in 60% peat, 30% perlite and 10% clay (v/v mixture, with different irrigation treatments based on soil water potential. Plants were watered at two levels of drought stress: -50kPa or wilting. The treatments were applied at different stages of plant development for a month or soil was brought to the moisture stress only twice. Additionally, some plants were watered at -50 kPa during the entire cultivation period while the control plants were watered at -5kPa. Plants were also kept at maximum possible moisture level (watering at -0,5kPa or close to it (-1.OkPa through the entire growing period. Soil water potential was measured with tensiometer. Drought stress applied during entire cultivation period or during the flushing stage caused significant reduction in transpiration and conductance of leaves. Stress applied during bract coloration stage had not as great effect on the stomatal conductance and transpiration of leaves as the similar stress applied during the flushing stage. High soil moisture increased stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, respectively by 130% and 52% (flushing stage, and 72% and 150% (bract coloration stage at maximum, compared to the control.

  3. Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Alleviates Restrictions to Substrate Water Flow and Delays Transpiration Limitation to Stronger Drought in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterlich, Michael; Sandmann, Martin; Graefe, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) proliferate in soil pores, on the surface of soil particles and affect soil structure. Although modifications in substrate moisture retention depend on structure and could influence plant water extraction, mycorrhizal impacts on water retention and hydraulic conductivity were rarely quantified. Hence, we asked whether inoculation with AMF affects substrate water retention, water transport properties and at which drought intensity those factors become limiting for plant transpiration. Solanum lycopersicum plants were set up in the glasshouse, inoculated or not with Funneliformis mosseae , and grown for 35 days under ample water supply. After mycorrhizal establishment, we harvested three sets of plants, one before (36 days after inoculation) and the second (day 42) and third (day 47) within a sequential drying episode. Sampling cores were introduced into pots before planting. After harvest, moisture retention and substrate conductivity properties were assessed and water retention and hydraulic conductivity models were fitted. A root water uptake model was adopted in order to identify the critical substrate moisture that induces soil derived transpiration limitation. Neither substrate porosity nor saturated water contents were affected by inoculation, but both declined after substrates dried. Drying also caused a decline in pot water capacity and hydraulic conductivity. Plant available water contents under wet (pF 1.8-4.2) and dry (pF 2.5-4.2) conditions increased in mycorrhizal substrates and were conserved after drying. Substrate hydraulic conductivity was higher in mycorrhizal pots before and during drought exposure. After withholding water from pots, higher substrate drying rates and lower substrate water potentials were found in mycorrhizal substrates. Mycorrhiza neither affected leaf area nor root weight or length. Consistently with higher substrate drying rates, AMF restored the plant hydraulic status, and increased plant

  4. Rootstock control of scion transpiration and its acclimation to water deficit are controlled by different genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguerit, Elisa; Brendel, Oliver; Lebon, Eric; Van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Ollat, Nathalie

    2012-04-01

    The stomatal control of transpiration is one of the major strategies by which plants cope with water stress. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of the rootstock control of scion transpiration-related traits over a period of 3 yr. The rootstocks studied were full sibs from a controlled interspecific cross (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon × Vitis riparia cv. Gloire de Montpellier), onto which we grafted a single scion genotype. After 10 d without stress, the water supply was progressively limited over a period of 10 d, and a stable water deficit was then applied for 15 d. Transpiration rate was estimated daily and a mathematical curve was fitted to its response to water deficit intensity. We also determined δ(13) C values in leaves, transpiration efficiency and water extraction capacity. These traits were then analysed in a multienvironment (year and water status) quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Quantitative trait loci, independent of year and water status, were detected for each trait. One genomic region was specifically implicated in the acclimation of scion transpiration induced by the rootstock. The QTLs identified colocalized with genes involved in water deficit responses, such as those relating to ABA and hydraulic regulation. Scion transpiration rate and its acclimation to water deficit are thus controlled genetically by the rootstock, through different genetic architectures. © 2012 INRA. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Overproduction of abscisic acid in tomato increases transpiration efficiency and root hydraulic conductivity and influences leaf expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew J; Andrews, John; Mulholland, Barry J; McKee, John M T; Hilton, Howard W; Horridge, Jon S; Farquhar, Graham D; Smeeton, Rachel C; Smillie, Ian R A; Black, Colin R; Taylor, Ian B

    2007-04-01

    Overexpression of genes that respond to drought stress is a seemingly attractive approach for improving drought resistance in crops. However, the consequences for both water-use efficiency and productivity must be considered if agronomic utility is sought. Here, we characterize two tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines (sp12 and sp5) that overexpress a gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, the enzyme that catalyzes a key rate-limiting step in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. Both lines contained more ABA than the wild type, with sp5 accumulating more than sp12. Both had higher transpiration efficiency because of their lower stomatal conductance, as demonstrated by increases in delta(13)C and delta(18)O, and also by gravimetric and gas-exchange methods. They also had greater root hydraulic conductivity. Under well-watered glasshouse conditions, mature sp5 plants were found to have a shoot biomass equal to the wild type despite their lower assimilation rate per unit leaf area. These plants also had longer petioles, larger leaf area, increased specific leaf area, and reduced leaf epinasty. When exposed to root-zone water deficits, line sp12 showed an increase in xylem ABA concentration and a reduction in stomatal conductance to the same final levels as the wild type, but from a different basal level. Indeed, the main difference between the high ABA plants and the wild type was their performance under well-watered conditions: the former conserved soil water by limiting maximum stomatal conductance per unit leaf area, but also, at least in the case of sp5, developed a canopy more suited to light interception, maximizing assimilation per plant, possibly due to improved turgor or suppression of epinasty.

  6. Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration: Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Schlaepfer; Brent E. Ewers; Bryan N. Shuman; David G. Williams; John M. Frank; William J. Massman; William K. Lauenroth

    2014-01-01

    The fraction of evapotranspiration (ET) attributed to plant transpiration (T) is an important source of uncertainty in terrestrial water fluxes and land surface modeling (Lawrence et al. 2007, Miralles et al. 2011). Jasechko et al. (2013) used stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios from 73 large lakes to investigate the relative roles of evaporation (E) and T in ET...

  7. Data Driven Estimation of Transpiration from Net Water Fluxes: the TEA Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J. A.; Carvalhais, N.; Cuntz, M.; Delpierre, N.; Knauer, J.; Migliavacca, M.; Ogee, J.; Reichstein, M.; Jung, M.

    2017-12-01

    The eddy covariance method, while powerful, can only provide a net accounting of ecosystem fluxes. Particularly with water cycle components, efforts to partitioning total evapotranspiration (ET) into the biotic component (transpiration, T) and the abiotic component (here evaporation, E) have seen limited success, with no one method emerging as a standard.Here we demonstrate a novel method that uses ecosystem WUE to predict transpiration in two steps: (1) a filtration step that to isolate the signal of ET for periods where E is minimized and ET is likely dominated by the signal of T; and (2) a step which predicts the WUE using meteorological variables, as well as information derived from the carbon and energy fluxes. To assess the the underlying assumptions, we tested the proposed method on three ecological models, allowing validation where the underlying carbon:water relationships, as well as the transpiration estimates, are know.The partitioning method shows high correlation (R²>0.8) between Tmodel/ET and TTEA/ET across timescales from half-hourly to annually, as well as capturing spatial variability across sites. Apart from predictive performance, we explore the sensitivities of the method to the underlying assumptions, such as the effects of residual evaporation in the training dataset. Furthermore, we show initial transpiration estimates from the algorithm at global scale, via the FLUXNET dataset.

  8. The alpha-subunit of the Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G protein, GPA1, is a regulator of transpiration efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, Sarah E; Assmann, Sarah M

    2010-04-01

    Land plants must balance CO2 assimilation with transpiration in order to minimize drought stress and maximize their reproductive success. The ratio of assimilation to transpiration is called transpiration efficiency (TE). TE is under genetic control, although only one specific gene, ERECTA, has been shown to regulate TE. We have found that the alpha-subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), GPA1, is a regulator of TE. gpa1 mutants, despite having guard cells that are hyposensitive to abscisic acid-induced inhibition of stomatal opening, have increased TE under ample water and drought stress conditions and when treated with exogenous abscisic acid. Leaf-level gas-exchange analysis shows that gpa1 mutants have wild-type assimilation versus internal CO2 concentration responses but exhibit reduced stomatal conductance compared with ecotype Columbia at ambient and below-ambient internal CO2 concentrations. The increased TE and reduced whole leaf stomatal conductance of gpa1 can be primarily attributed to stomatal density, which is reduced in gpa1 mutants. GPA1 regulates stomatal density via the control of epidermal cell size and stomata formation. GPA1 promoter::beta-glucuronidase lines indicate that the GPA1 promoter is active in the stomatal cell lineage, further supporting a function for GPA1 in stomatal development in true leaves.

  9. The relationship between transpiration and nutrient uptake in wheat changes under elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmandfar, Alireza; Fitzgerald, Glenn J; O'Leary, Garry; Tausz-Posch, Sabine; Fletcher, Andrew; Tausz, Michael

    2017-12-04

    The impact of elevated [CO 2 ] (e[CO 2 ]) on crops often includes a decrease in their nutrient concentrations where reduced transpiration-driven mass flow of nutrients has been suggested to play a role. We used two independent approaches, a free-air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in the South Eastern wheat belt of Australia and a simulation study employing the agricultural production systems simulator (APSIM), to show that transpiration (mm) and nutrient uptake (g m -2 ) of nitrogen (N), potassium (K), sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) in wheat are correlated under e[CO 2 ], but that nutrient uptake per unit water transpired is higher under e[CO 2 ] than under ambient [CO 2 ] (a[CO 2 ]). This result suggests that transpiration-driven mass flow of nutrients contributes to decreases in nutrient concentrations under e[CO 2 ], but cannot solely explain the overall decline. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. Energy and exergy analyses of Photovoltaic/Thermal flat transpired collectors: Experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholampour, Maysam; Ameri, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Photovoltaic/Thermal flat transpired collector was theoretically and experimentally studied. • Performance of PV/Thermal flat transpired plate was evaluated using equivalent thermal, first, and second law efficiencies. • According to the actual exergy gain, a critical radiation level was defined and its effect was investigated. • As an appropriate tool, equivalent thermal efficiency was used to find optimum suction velocity and PV coverage percent. - Abstract: PV/Thermal flat transpired plate is a kind of air-based hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) system concurrently producing both thermal and electrical energy. In order to develop a predictive model, validate, and investigate the PV/Thermal flat transpired plate capabilities, a prototype was fabricated and tested under outdoor conditions at Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman in Kerman, Iran. In order to develop a mathematical model, correlations for Nusselt numbers for PV panel and transpired plate were derived using CFD technique. Good agreement was obtained between measured and simulated values, with the maximum relative root mean square percent deviation (RMSE) being 9.13% and minimum correlation coefficient (R-squared) 0.92. Based on the critical radiation level defined in terms of the actual exergy gain, it was found that with proper fan and MPPT devices, there is no concern about the critical radiation level. To provide a guideline for designers, using equivalent thermal efficiency as an appropriate tool, optimum values for suction velocity and PV coverage percent under different conditions were obtained.

  11. Spatial Variability of Tree Transpiration Along a Soil Drainage Gradient of Boreal Black Spruce Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstmann, J. L.; Ewers, B. E.; Kwon, H.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Amiro, B.; Gower, S. T.

    2008-12-01

    results of Picea mariana differed between drainage conditions when expressed per unit xylem area with trees in poorly-drained soils experiencing higher rates than trees in well-drained areas (101.79 and 83.02 g cm-2 day-1 respectively). In contrast, when expressed as transpiration per tree, trees on well-drained soils had higher rates than those in poorly-drained locations (366.96 and 216.82 g tree-1 day-1 respectively). This indicates that tree size, reflected in sapwood area per ground area, which is constrained by anaerobic conditions across well- to poorly-drained areas, is driving differences in tree transpiration. Initial spatial analyses show that spatial autocorrelation decreases from 51.3 to 24.6 meters as D increases from 0.9 to 2.1 kPa. This phenomenon is explained by tree hydraulics and more patchy stomatal response as trees regulate water loss. Thus, regional scale bottom-up process models of boreal forest transpiration can be simplified with respect to soil drainage while retaining mechanistic rigor with respect to plant hydraulics.

  12. Canopy Transpiration and Stomatal Responses to Prolonged Drought by a Dominant Desert Species in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxing Gu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semiarid lands, canopy transpiration and its dynamics depend largely on stomatal sensitivity to drought. In this study, the sap flow of a dominant species, Haloxylon ammodendron growing in Central Asian deserts, was monitored using Granier-type sensors, from which the canopy stomatal conductance was derived. The responses of canopy transpiration and stomatal conductance to environmental variables during the second half of the growing season, when annual prolonged drought occurred, was analyzed for four continuous years, from 2013 to 2016. A soil water content (SWC of 3% was identified as the lower soil water threshold for this species, below which the plant lost the ability for stomatal regulation on water loss and suffered the risk of mortality. Above this threshold, the sensitivity of canopy transpiration to vapor pressure deficit, VPD (K, was linearly correlated with SWC, which mainly resulted from different stomatal behaviors at varying drought intensities. Stomatal sensitivity to VPD (m/Gsref increased linearly with soil moisture deficit, inducing a shift from more anisohydric to a more isohydric stomatal behavior. The flexibility of stomatal behavior regarding soil drought was one key element facilitating the survival of H. ammodendron in such an extreme dry environment.

  13. Leaf transpiration efficiency of some drought-resistant maize lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field measurements of leaf gas exchange in maize often indicate stomatal conductances higher than required to provide substomatal carbon dioxide concentrations saturating to photosynthesis. Thus maize leaves often operate at lower transpiration efficiency (TE) than potentially achievable for specie...

  14. Effects of leaf movement on leaf temperature, transpiration and radiation interception in soybean under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, A.; Wang, P.

    2001-01-01

    Varietal differences in leaf movement were examined in terms of radiation interception, leaf temperature and transpiration under water stressed conditions. Five cultivars (Qindou 7232, Gaofei 16, Dongnong 87 - 138, 8285 - 8 and 8874) were grown in a concrete frame field in Xinjiang, China. Irrigation treatments (irrigation and no irrigation) were made from the flowering to the pod filling stage. A leaflet in the uppermost layer of the canopy was restrained horizontally. Leaf temperatures, transpiration rate (stem sap flow rate of the main stem per unit leaf area) and intercepted radiation of each leaflet were measured. There were greater varietal differences in leaf movement, leaf temperature and transpiration rate. Leaf temperature seemed to be adjusted by leaf movement and transpiration. The extent to which is adjusted by leaf movement and transpiration differed among the cultivars; leaf temperature was influenced mainly by leaf movement for Gaofei 16 and Dongnong 87 - 138, mainly by transpiration for Qindou 7232 and 8874, and by both for 8285 - 8. Intercepted radiation in the upper two layers of the canopy (20 cm from the uppermost) was greater in the irrigated plot, although the mean values of total leaflets of the irrigated plot were not different as compared to the non-irrigated plot. Although paraheliotropic leaf movement decreased radiation interception, it offers some possibilities for the improvement in radiation penetration within a dense canopy. Cumulated amount of transpiration during a day was compared between the restrained-leaf and the non-leaf-restrained plants in 8874. Paraheliotropic leaf movement reduced water loss by 23% in the irrigated and 71% in the non-irrigated plots

  15. Modeling the Uptake and Transpiration of TCE Using Phreatophytic Trees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wise, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research is to develop quantitative concepts for understanding the dynamics of TCE uptake and transpiration by phreatophytic trees over a short rotation woody crop time frame...

  16. Difference of stand-scale transpiration between ridge and riparian area in a watershed with Japanese cypress plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, T.; Tsuruta, K.; Komatsu, H.; Shinohara, Y.; Otsuki, K.

    2011-12-01

    Several different methods to assess water use are available, and the sap flux measurement technique is one of the most promising methods, especially in monotonous watershed. Previously, three spatial levels of scaling have been used to obtain bottom-up transpiration estimates based on the sap flux technique: from within-tree to tree, from tree to stand, and from stand to watershed or landscape. Although there are considerable variations that must be taken into account at each step, few studies have examined plot-to-plot variability of stand-scale transpirations. To design optimum sampling method to accurately estimate transpiration at the watershed-scale, it is indispensable to understand heterogeneity of stand-scale transpiration in a forested watershed and the factors determining the heterogeneity. This study was undertaken to clarify differences of stand-scale transpirations within a watershed and the factors determining the differences. To this aim, we conducted sap flux-based transpiration estimates in two plots such as a lower riparian (RZ) and an upper ridge (UZ) zone in a watershed with Japanese cypress plantation, Kyushu, Japan in two years. Tree height and diameter of breast height (DBH) were lager in RZ than those of UZ. The stand sapwood area (As) was lager in RZ than UZ (21.9 cm2h a-1, 16.8 cm2ha-1, respectively). Stand mean sap flux (Js) in RZ was almost same as that of UZ when relatively lower Js, while, Js in RZ was higher than that of UZ when relatively higher Js (i.e., bright days in summer season). Consequently, daily stand-scale transpiration (E), which is the multiple of As and Js, differed by two times between RZ and UZ in summer season. This study found significant heterogeneity of stand-scale transpiration within the watershed and that the differences could be caused by two aspects such as stand structure and sap flux velocity.

  17. The effect of grass transpiration on the air temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šír, M.; Tesař, Miroslav; Lichner, Ľ.; Czachor, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 11 (2014), s. 1570-1576 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : air temperature oscillations * embolism * plant transpiration * soil water * tensiometric pressure * xylem tension Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  18. Measuring and modelling forest transpiration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šír, Miloslav; Čermák, J.; Naděždina, N.; Pražák, Josef; Tesař, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2008), č. 012050 ISSN 1755-1315. [Conference of the Danubian Countries on the Hydrological Forecasting and Hydrological Bases of Water Management /24./. Bled, 02.06.2008-04.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/0375; GA ČR GA205/08/1174; GA ČR GA526/08/1016; GA MŠk MEB0808114; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1A6/151/07; GA AV ČR 1QS200420562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510; CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : plant transpiration * SAP flow * floodplain forest Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  19. Compensating effect of sap velocity for stand density leads to uniform hillslope-scale forest transpiration across a steep valley cross-section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Maik; Hassler, Sibylle; Blume, Theresa; Weiler, Markus; Hildebrandt, Anke; Guderle, Marcus; Schymanski, Stan; Kleidon, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Roberts (1983) found that forest transpiration is relatively uniform across different climatic conditions and suggested that forest transpiration is a conservative process compensating for environmental heterogeneity. Here we test this hypothesis at a steep valley cross-section composed of European Beech in the Attert basin in Luxemburg. We use sapflow, soil moisture, biometric and meteorological data from 6 sites along a transect to estimate site scale transpiration rates. Despite opposing hillslope orientation, different slope angles and forest stand structures, we estimated relatively similar transpiration responses to atmospheric demand and seasonal transpiration totals. This similarity is related to a negative correlation between sap velocity and site-average sapwood area. At the south facing sites with an old, even-aged stand structure and closed canopy layer, we observe significantly lower sap velocities but similar stand-average transpiration rates compared to the north-facing sites with open canopy structure, tall dominant trees and dense understorey. This suggests that plant hydraulic co-ordination allows for flexible responses to environmental conditions leading to similar transpiration rates close to the water and energy limits despite the apparent heterogeneity in exposition, stand density and soil moisture. References Roberts, J. (1983). Forest transpiration: A conservative hydrological process? Journal of Hydrology 66, 133-141.

  20. Can Sap Flow Help Us to Better Understand Transpiration Patterns in Landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, S. K.; Weiler, M.; Blume, T.

    2017-12-01

    Transpiration is a key process in the hydrological cycle and a sound understanding and quantification of transpiration and its spatial variability is essential for management decisions and for improving the parameterisation of hydrological and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer models. At the tree scale, transpiration is commonly estimated by measuring sap flow. Besides evaporative demand and water availability, tree-specific characteristics such as species, size or social status, stand-specific characteristics such as basal area or stand density and site-specific characteristics such as geology, slope position or aspect control sap flow of individual trees. However, little is known about the relative importance or the dynamic interplay of these controls. We studied these influences with multiple linear regression models to explain the variability of sap velocity measurements in 61 beech and oak trees, located at 24 sites spread over a 290 km²-catchment in Luxembourg. For each of 132 consecutive days of the growing season of 2014 we applied linear models to the daily spatial pattern of sap velocity and determined the importance of the different predictors. By upscaling sap velocities to the tree level with the help of species-dependent empirical estimates for sapwood area we also examined patterns of sap flow as a more direct representation of transpiration. Results indicate that a combination of mainly tree- and site-specific factors controls sap velocity patterns in this landscape, namely tree species, tree diameter, geology and aspect. For sap flow, the site-specific predictors provided the largest contribution to the explained variance, however, in contrast to the sap velocity analysis, geology was more important than aspect. Spatial variability of atmospheric demand and soil moisture explained only a small fraction of the variance. However, the temporal dynamics of the explanatory power of the tree-specific characteristics, especially species, were

  1. Relationship between transpiration and amino acid accumulation in Brassica leaf discs treated with cytokinins and fusicoccin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuraishi, Susumu; Ishikawa, Fumio

    1977-01-01

    Both cytokinins and fusicoccin (FC) stimulated the transpiration and the amino acid accumulation in leaf discs of Brassica campestris var. komatsuna. Enhancement effects were of the same magnitude. Both the accumulation and the transpiration were similarly inhibited when vaseline was smeared on the leaf surface. Abscisic acid (ABA) also inhibited those cytokinin-induced effects. The accumulation of amino acid- 14 C was at the cytokinin- or FC-treated site unless the leaf surface was smeared with vaseline. These facts suggest that cytokinin- or FC-induced amino acid accumulation in leaf is caused by the stimulation of transpiration. (auth.)

  2. Transpiration and biomass production of the bioenergy crop Giant Knotweed Igniscum under various supplies of water and nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantovani Dario

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil water availability, nutrient supply and climatic conditions are key factors for plant production. For a sustainable integration of bioenergy plants into agricultural systems, detailed studies on their water uses and growth performances are needed. The new bioenergy plant Igniscum Candy is a cultivar of the Sakhalin Knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis, which is characterized by a high annual biomass production. For the determination of transpiration-yield relations at the whole plant level we used wicked lysimeters at multiple irrigation levels associated with the soil water availability (25, 35, 70, 100% and nitrogen fertilization (0, 50, 100, 150 kg N ha-1. Leaf transpiration and net photosynthesis were determined with a portable minicuvette system. The maximum mean transpiration rate was 10.6 mmol m-2 s-1 for well-watered plants, while the mean net photosynthesis was 9.1 μmol m-2 s-1. The cumulative transpiration of the plants during the growing seasons varied between 49 l (drought stressed and 141 l (well-watered per plant. The calculated transpiration coefficient for Fallopia over all of the treatments applied was 485.6 l kg-1. The transpiration-yield relation of Igniscum is comparable to rye and barley. Its growth performance making Fallopia a potentially good second generation bioenergy crop.

  3. Hydraulic limits on maximum plant transpiration and the emergence of the safety-efficiency trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Stefano; Vico, Giulia; Katul, Gabriel; Palmroth, Sari; Jackson, Robert B; Porporato, Amilcare

    2013-04-01

    Soil and plant hydraulics constrain ecosystem productivity by setting physical limits to water transport and hence carbon uptake by leaves. While more negative xylem water potentials provide a larger driving force for water transport, they also cause cavitation that limits hydraulic conductivity. An optimum balance between driving force and cavitation occurs at intermediate water potentials, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate the xylem can sustain (denoted as E(max)). The presence of this maximum raises the question as to whether plants regulate transpiration through stomata to function near E(max). To address this question, we calculated E(max) across plant functional types and climates using a hydraulic model and a global database of plant hydraulic traits. The predicted E(max) compared well with measured peak transpiration across plant sizes and growth conditions (R = 0.86, P efficiency trade-off in plant xylem. Stomatal conductance allows maximum transpiration rates despite partial cavitation in the xylem thereby suggesting coordination between stomatal regulation and xylem hydraulic characteristics. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Forest Transpiration: Resolving Species-Specific Root Water Uptake Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, T.; Heidbuechel, I.; Simard, S.; Guntner, A.; Weiler, M.; Stewart, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    Transpiration and its spatio-temporal variability are still not fully understood, despite their importance for the global water cycle. This is in part due to our inability to measure transpiration comprehensively. Transpiration is usually either estimated with empirical equations based on climatic variables and crop factors, by measuring sap velocities, estimating sap wood area and scaling up to the forest stand based on a number of assumptions or by measuring the integral signal across a footprint with eddy flux towers. All these methods are focused on the cumulated loss of water to the atmosphere and do not provide information on where this water is coming from. In this study, spatio-temporal variability of root water uptake was investigated in a forest in the northeastern German lowlands. The soils are sandy and the depth of the unsaturated zone ranges from 1 to 30 m. We estimated root water uptake from different soil depths, from 0.1 m down to 2 m, based on diurnal fluctuations in soil moisture content during rain-free days. The 15 field sites cover different topographic positions and forest stands: 4 pure stands of both mature and young beech and pine and 9 mixed stands. The resulting daily data set of root water uptake shows that the forest stands differ in total amounts as well as in uptake depth distributions. Temporal dynamics of signal strength within the profile suggest a locally shifting spatial distribution of uptake that changes with water availability. The relationship of these depth-resolved uptake rates to overall soil water availability varies considerably between tree species. Using the physically-based soil hydrological model HYDRUS we investigated to what extent the observed patterns in uptake can be related to soil physical relationships alone and where tree species-specific aspects come into play. We furthermore used the model to test assumptions and estimate uncertainties of this soil moisture based estimation of plant water uptake. The

  5. Entropy production and plant transpiration in the Liz catchment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šír, Miloslav; Tesař, Miroslav; Krejča, M.; Weger, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2008), s. 81-89 ISSN 1802-503X Grant - others:MŠMT(CZ) 2B06132 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : plant transpiration * phytomass productivity * heat balance * entropy production Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  6. Effects of transpiration on unsteady MHD flow of an upper convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid passing through a stretching surface in the presence of a first order chemical reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Swati; Arif, M. Golam; Pk M Wazed Ali

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the effects of transpiration on the unsteady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of non-Newtonian fluid passing through a stretching sheet in the presence of a first order constructive/destructive chemical reaction. The upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) model is used here to characterize the non-Newtonian behavior of the fluid. Using similarity solutions, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary ones and are then solved numerically by the shooting method. The flow fields and mass transfer are significantly influenced by the governing parameters. The fluid velocity initially decreases as the unsteadiness parameter increases and the concentration decreases significantly due to the increase in the unsteadiness. The effect of increasing values of transpiration (suction) and the Maxwell parameter is to suppress the velocity field; however, the concentration is enhanced as transpiration (suction) and the Maxwell parameter increase. Also, it is found that the fluid velocity decreases as the magnetic parameter increases; however, the concentration increases in this case. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  7. Sapfluxnet: a global database of sap flow measurements to unravel the ecological factors of transpiration regulation in woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Steppe, Kathy; Oren, Ram; Katul, Gabriel; Mahecha, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Plant transpiration is one of the main components of the global water cycle, it controls land energy balance, determines catchment hydrological responses and exerts strong feedbacks on regional and global climate. At the same time, plant productivity, growth and survival are severely constrained by water availability, which is expected to decline in many areas of the world because of global-change driven increases in drought conditions. While global surveys of drought tolerance traits at the organ level are rapidly increasing our knowledge of the diversity in plant functional strategies to cope with drought stress, a whole-plant perspective of drought vulnerability is still lacking. Sap flow measurements using thermal methods have now been applied to measure seasonal patterns in water use and the response of transpiration to environmental drivers across hundreds of species of woody plants worldwide, covering a wide range of climates, soils and stand structural characteristics. Here, we present the first effort to build a global database of sub-daily, tree-level sap flow (SAPFLUXNET) that will be used to improve our understanding of physiological and structural determinants of plant transpiration and to further investigate the role of vegetation in controlling global water balance. We already have the expression of interest of data contributors representing >115 globally distributed sites, > 185 species and > 700 trees, measured over at least one growing season. However, the potential number of available sites and species is probably much higher given that > 2500 sap flow-related papers have been identified in a Scopus literature search conducted in November 2015. We will give an overview of how data collection, harmonisation and quality control procedures are implemented within the project. We will also discuss potential analytical strategies to synthesize hydroclimatic controls on sap flow into biologically meaningful traits related to whole-plant transpiration

  8. Transpiration of glasshouse rose crops: evaluation of regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, R.; Rijssel, van E.

    2006-01-01

    Regression models of transpiration (T) based on global radiation inside the greenhouse (G), with or without energy input from heating pipes (Eh) and/or vapor pressure deficit (VPD) were parameterized. Therefore, data on T, G, temperatures from air, canopy and heating pipes, and VPD from both a

  9. Mathematical Modeling of Dual Intake Transparent Transpired Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Semenou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in several types of commercial or institutional buildings, a significant rise of transpired solar collectors used to preheat the fresh air of the building can be observed. Nevertheless, when the air mass flow rate is low, the collector efficiency collapses and a large amount of energy remains unused. This paper presents a simple yet effective mathematical model of a transparent transpired solar collector (TTC with dual intake in order to remove stagnation problems in the plenum and ensure a better thermal efficiency and more heat recovery. A thermal model and a pressure loss model were developed. Then, the combined model was validated with experimental data from the Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC. The results show that the collector efficiency can be up to 70% and even 80% regardless of operating conditions. The temperature gain is able to reach 20°K when the solar irradiation is high.

  10. A New Method to Quantify the Isotopic Signature of Leaf Transpiration: Implications for Landscape-Scale Evapotranspiration Partitioning Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Good, S. P.; Caylor, K. K.

    2010-12-01

    Characterizing the constituent components of evapotranspiration is crucial to better understand ecosystem-level water budgets and water use dynamics. Isotope based evapotranspiration partitioning methods are promising but their utility lies in the accurate estimation of the isotopic composition of underlying transpiration and evaporation. Here we report a new method to quantify the isotopic signature of leaf transpiration under field conditions. This method utilizes a commercially available laser-based isotope analyzer and a transparent leaf chamber, modified from Licor conifer leaf chamber. The method is based on the water mass balance in ambient air and leaf transpired air. We verified the method using “artificial leaves” and glassline extracted samples. The method provides a new and direct way to estimate leaf transpiration isotopic signatures and it has wide applications in ecology, hydrology and plant physiology.

  11. Reply to Miglietta et al.: Maximal transpiration controlled by plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.J. de; Lammertsma, E.I.; Wagner-Cremer, F.; Dilcher, D.L.; Wassen, M.J.; Dekker, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    We thank Miglietta et al. for their interest in our study. Their first and main point arises from the idea that plant transpiration (T) is driven by atmospheric demand, giving plants limited control over the water they lose...

  12. Tree-, stand- and site-specific controls on landscape-scale patterns of transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrin Hassler, Sibylle; Weiler, Markus; Blume, Theresa

    2018-01-01

    Transpiration is a key process in the hydrological cycle, and a sound understanding and quantification of transpiration and its spatial variability is essential for management decisions as well as for improving the parameterisation and evaluation of hydrological and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer models. For individual trees, transpiration is commonly estimated by measuring sap flow. Besides evaporative demand and water availability, tree-specific characteristics such as species, size or social status control sap flow amounts of individual trees. Within forest stands, properties such as species composition, basal area or stand density additionally affect sap flow, for example via competition mechanisms. Finally, sap flow patterns might also be influenced by landscape-scale characteristics such as geology and soils, slope position or aspect because they affect water and energy availability; however, little is known about the dynamic interplay of these controls.We studied the relative importance of various tree-, stand- and site-specific characteristics with multiple linear regression models to explain the variability of sap velocity measurements in 61 beech and oak trees, located at 24 sites across a 290 km2 catchment in Luxembourg. For each of 132 consecutive days of the growing season of 2014 we modelled the daily sap velocity and derived sap flow patterns of these 61 trees, and we determined the importance of the different controls.Results indicate that a combination of mainly tree- and site-specific factors controls sap velocity patterns in the landscape, namely tree species, tree diameter, geology and aspect. For sap flow we included only the stand- and site-specific predictors in the models to ensure variable independence. Of those, geology and aspect were most important. Compared to these predictors, spatial variability of atmospheric demand and soil moisture explains only a small fraction of the variability in the daily datasets. However, the temporal

  13. Dominant controls of transpiration along a hillslope transect inferred from ecohydrological measurements and thermodynamic limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Maik; Hassler, Sibylle K.; Blume, Theresa; Weiler, Markus; Hildebrandt, Anke; Guderle, Marcus; Schymanski, Stanislaus J.; Kleidon, Axel

    2016-05-01

    We combine ecohydrological observations of sap flow and soil moisture with thermodynamically constrained estimates of atmospheric evaporative demand to infer the dominant controls of forest transpiration in complex terrain. We hypothesize that daily variations in transpiration are dominated by variations in atmospheric demand, while site-specific controls, including limiting soil moisture, act on longer timescales. We test these hypotheses with data of a measurement setup consisting of five sites along a valley cross section in Luxembourg. Both hillslopes are covered by forest dominated by European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Two independent measurements are used to estimate stand transpiration: (i) sap flow and (ii) diurnal variations in soil moisture, which were used to estimate the daily root water uptake. Atmospheric evaporative demand is estimated through thermodynamically constrained evaporation, which only requires absorbed solar radiation and temperature as input data without any empirical parameters. Both transpiration estimates are strongly correlated to atmospheric demand at the daily timescale. We find that neither vapor pressure deficit nor wind speed add to the explained variance, supporting the idea that they are dependent variables on land-atmosphere exchange and the surface energy budget. Estimated stand transpiration was in a similar range at the north-facing and the south-facing hillslopes despite the different aspect and the largely different stand composition. We identified an inverse relationship between sap flux density and the site-average sapwood area per tree as estimated by the site forest inventories. This suggests that tree hydraulic adaptation can compensate for heterogeneous conditions. However, during dry summer periods differences in topographic factors and stand structure can cause spatially variable transpiration rates. We conclude that absorption of solar radiation at the surface forms a dominant control for turbulent heat and

  14. Relationships between stem diameter, sapwood area, leaf area and transpiration in a young mountain ash forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertessy, R A; Benyon, R G; O'Sullivan, S K; Gribben, P R

    1995-09-01

    We examined relationships between stem diameter, sapwood area, leaf area and transpiration in a 15-year-old mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest containing silver wattle (Acacia dealbata Link.) as a suppressed overstory species and mountain hickory (Acacia frigescens J.H. Willis) as an understory species. Stem diameter explained 93% of the variation in leaf area, 96% of the variation in sapwood area and 88% of the variation in mean daily spring transpiration in 19 mountain ash trees. In seven silver wattle trees, stem diameter explained 87% of the variation in sapwood area but was a poor predictor of the other variables. When transpiration measurements from individual trees were scaled up to a plot basis, using stem diameter values for 164 mountain ash trees and 124 silver wattle trees, mean daily spring transpiration rates of the two species were 2.3 and 0.6 mm day(-1), respectively. The leaf area index of the plot was estimated directly by destructive sampling, and indirectly with an LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer and by hemispherical canopy photography. All three methods gave similar results.

  15. Abscisic acid-dependent changes in transpiration rate with SO/sub 2/ fumigation and the effects of sulfite and pH on stomatal aperture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, N.; Maruta, I.; Sugahara, K.

    1980-01-01

    Transpiration rate of rice plants which contained extremely large amounts of abscisic acid (ABA) decreased rapidly with 2.0 ppm SO/sub 2/ fumigation, reached 20% of the initial level after 5 min exposure, then recovered slightly and thereafter remained constant. SO/sub 2/ fumigation of alday and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. Samsun) which have a lower ABA content showed a 50% decrease in transpiration rate. Similarly, rates for wheat and tobacco (N. tabacum L. Samsun NN) which contained even smaller amounts of ABA than alday and tobacco (Samsun) decreased by 35 and 45%, respectively, 30 min after the beginning of the fumigation. In the cases of broad bean and tobacco (N. glutinosa L.) with low ABA contents, the rates slightly increased immediately after the start of the fumigation and began to decrease gradually 20 and 40 min later, respectively. The transpiration rates of corn and sorghum, in spite of their extremely low ABA contents, decreased significantly with SO/sub 2/ fumigation and reached 65 and 50% of the initial levels after 20 and 40 min exposure, respectively. Foliar application of 0.04 N HCl to peanut leaves remarkably depressed the transpiration rate, while the application of 0.04 M Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ decreased the rate only to the same level as water treatment. Foliar application of either HCl or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ to radish leaves exerted no change in the transpiration rate. When 3 X 10/sup -4/ M ABA was applied to radish leaves prior to HCl and Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ treatment, the transpiration rate of radish was decreased by HCl application, but not by Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/.

  16. Abscisic acid and transpiration rate are involved in the response to boron toxicity in Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho-Rivero, Miguel Ángel; Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan José; Herrera-Rodríguez, María Begoña; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2017-05-01

    Boron (B) is an essential microelement for vascular plant development, but its toxicity is a major problem affecting crop yields in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. In the literature, several genes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and responses are upregulated in Arabidopsis roots after treatment with excess B. It is known that the AtNCED3 gene, which encodes a crucial enzyme for ABA biosynthesis, plays a key role in the plant response to drought stress. In this study, root AtNCED3 expression and shoot ABA content were rapidly increased in wild-type plants upon B-toxicity treatment. The Arabidopsis ABA-deficient nced3-2 mutant had higher transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and accumulated more B in their shoots than wild-type plants, facts that were associated with the lower levels of ABA in this mutant. However, in wild-type plants, B toxicity caused a significant reduction in stomatal conductance, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate. This response could be a mechanism to limit the transport of excess B from the roots to the leaves under B toxicity. In agreement with the higher transpiration rate of the nced3-2 mutant, this genotype showed an increased leaf B concentration and damage upon exposure to 5 mM B. Under B toxicity, ABA application decreased B accumulation in wild-type and nced3-2 plants. In summary, this work shows that excess B applied to the roots leads to rapid changes in AtNCED3 expression and gas exchange parameters that would contribute to restrain the B entry into the leaves, this effect being mediated by ABA. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. Differential antioxidative responses in transgenic peanut bear no relationship to their superior transpiration efficiency under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Devi, M Jyostna; Vadez, Vincent; Sharma, Kiran K

    2009-07-15

    To counter the effects of environmental stresses, the plants must undergo detoxification that is crucial to avoid the accumulation of damaging free oxygen radicals (ROI). Here, we detail the oxidative damage, the antioxidant composition, and the osmoprotection achieved in transgenic plants of peanut overexpressing the AtDREB1A transgene, driven by a stress-inducible promoter (Atrd29A) when exposed to progressive water stress conditions. This study explored the biochemical mechanisms where (i) the antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX), and glutathione reductase (GR) accumulated in the transgenic plants at comparably higher levels than their untransformed counterparts under dry soil conditions, (ii) a significant increase in the proline levels in the transgenic plants was observed in dry soils, and (iii) a dramatic increase in the lipid peroxidation in the untransformed controls in drier soils. Most of the biochemical parameters related to the antioxidative machinery in the tested peanut transgenics were triggered by the overexpression of AtDREB1A that appeared to differ from the untransformed controls. The antioxidants showed a negative correlation with the fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW) thresholds, where the normalized transpiration rate (NTR) started decreasing in the tested plants. However, no significant relationship was observed between any of these biochemical indicators and the higher transpiration efficiency (TE) values found in the transgenic events. Our results show that changes in the antioxidative machinery in these transgenic peanut plants (overexpressing the AtDREB1A transcription factor) under water-limiting conditions played no causative role in improved TE.

  18. Sound Propagation in Saturated Gas-Vapor-Droplet Suspensions Considering the Effect of Transpiration on Droplet Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Max

    2012-01-01

    The Sound attenuation and dispersion in saturated gas-vapor-droplet mixtures with evaporation has been investigated theoretically. The theory is based on an extension of the work of Davidson (1975) to accommodate the effects of transpiration on the linear particle relaxation processes of mass, momentum and energy transfer. It is shown that the inclusion of transpiration in the presence of mass transfer improves the agreement between the theory and the experimental data of Cole and Dobbins (1971) for sound attenuation in air-water fogs at low droplet mass concentrations. The results suggest that transpiration has an appreciable effect on both sound absorption and dispersion for both low and high droplet mass concentrations.

  19. Wind increases leaf water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani

    2016-07-01

    A widespread perception is that, with increasing wind speed, transpiration from plant leaves increases. However, evidence suggests that increasing wind speed enhances carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake while reducing transpiration because of more efficient convective cooling (under high solar radiation loads). We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that leaf water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, thus improving plants' ability to conserve water during photosynthesis. Our leaf-scale analysis suggests that the observed global decrease in near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is indication that the effect of long-term trends in wind speed on leaf gas exchange may be compensated for by the concurrent reduction in mean leaf sizes. These unintuitive feedbacks between wind, leaf size and water use efficiency call for re-evaluation of the role of wind in plant water relations and potential re-interpretation of temporal and geographic trends in leaf sizes. © 2015 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cell wall composition contributes to the control of transpiration efficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yun-Kuan; Xie, Xiaodong; Lindsay, Shona E; Wang, Yi Bing; Masle, Josette; Williamson, Lisa; Leyser, Ottoline; Hetherington, Alistair M

    2010-11-01

    To identify loci in Arabidopsis involved in the control of transpirational water loss and transpiration efficiency (TE) we carried out an infrared thermal imaging-based screen. We report the identification of a new allele of the Arabidopsis CesA7 cellulose synthase locus designated AtCesA7(irx3-5) involved in the control of TE. Leaves of the AtCesA7(irx3-5) mutant are warmer than the wild type (WT). This is due to reduced stomatal pore widths brought about by guard cells that are significantly smaller than the WT. The xylem of the AtCesA7(irx3-5) mutant is also partially collapsed, and we suggest that the small guard cells in the mutant result from decreased water supply to the developing leaf. We used carbon isotope discrimination to show that TE is increased in AtCesA7(irx3-5) when compared with the WT. Our work identifies a new class of genes that affects TE and raises the possibility that other genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis will have an impact on water use efficiency. © 2010 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Low-Cost and Light-Weight Transpiration-Cooled Thrust Chambers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort aims to evaluate the feasibility of using transpiration-cooled Titanium as the primary material in small-scale thrust chambers for in-space...

  2. Transpiration and leaf growth of potato clones in response to soil water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Trevisan de Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Tuberosum crop is particularly susceptible to water deficit because of its small and shallow root system. The fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW approach has been widely used in the evaluation of plant responses to water deficit in different crops. The FTSW 34 threshold (when stomatal closure starts is a trait of particular interest because it is an indicator of tolerance to water deficit. The FTSW threshold for decline in transpiration and leaf growth was evaluated in a drying soil to identify potato clones tolerant to water deficit. Two greenhouse experiments were carried out in pots, with three advanced clones and the cultivar Asterix. The FTSW, transpiration and leaf growth were measured on a daily basis, during the period of soil drying. FTSW was an efficient method to separate potato clones with regard to their response to water deficit. The advancedclones SMINIA 02106-11 and SMINIA 00017-6 are more tolerant to soil water deficit than the cultivar Asterix, and the clone SMINIA 793101-3 is more tolerant only under high solar radiation.

  3. The importance of micrometeorological variations for photosynthesis and transpiration in a boreal coniferous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schurgers, Guy; Lagergren, F.; Molder, M.

    2015-01-01

    the importance of vertical variations in light, temperature, CO2 concentration and humidity within the canopy for fluxes of photosynthesis and transpiration of a boreal coniferous forest in central Sweden. A leaf-level photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model was used for aggregating these processes to canopy...... abovecanopy and within-canopy humidity, and despite large gradients in CO2 concentration during early morning hours after nights with stable conditions, neither humidity nor CO2 played an important role for vertical heterogeneity of photosynthesis and transpiration....

  4. Increased transpiration and plant water stress in a black spruce bog exposed to whole ecosystem warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, J.; Ward, E. J.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Hanson, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Spruce and Peatland Responses under Changing Environments (SPRUCE) experiment (http://mnspruce.ornl.gov/) in Northern Minnesota, USA, has exposed 12.8 m diameter plots of an ombrotrophic Picea mariana-Ericaceous shrub bog to whole ecosystem warming (0, +2.25, +4.5, +6.75, +9 °C) since August 2015, and elevated CO2 treatments (ambient or +500 ppm) since June 2016. The mixed-age stand has trees up to 40 year old, and a 5-8 m tall canopy. Thermal dissipation sap flow probes were installed into dominant Picea mariana and Larix laricina trees in each of the 10 open-top chambers in fall 2015. This talk will focus on the first two years of sap flux data from the 10 treatment plots and the relationships with seasonal growth and prevailing environmental conditions. Sap flow was scaled to whole tree and plot level transpiration based on prior in situ calibrations using cut trees, establishment of a sapwood depth: tree diameter relationship, and the tree size distribution within each plot. We also assessed water potential in the trees and two dominant shrubs at the site: Rhododendron groenlandicum and Chamaedaphne calyculata. The warming treatments increased the growing season by up to 6 weeks, with sapflow beginning earlier in spring and lasting later into the fall. The deciduous Larix was the only species exhibiting substantial predawn water stress under the treatments, where water potentials reached -2.5 MPa for the warmest plots. The elevated CO2 reduced midday water stress in the Rhododendron, but not the Chamaedaphne, which could lead to shifts in shrub species composition.

  5. Coordination of Leaf Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Structural Traits in Rice and Wild Relatives (Genus Oryza).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Rita; Koteyeva, Nuria; Voznesenskaya, Elena; Evans, Marc A; Cousins, Asaph B; Edwards, Gerald E

    2013-07-01

    The genus Oryza, which includes rice (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) and wild relatives, is a useful genus to study leaf properties in order to identify structural features that control CO(2) access to chloroplasts, photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and drought tolerance. Traits, 26 structural and 17 functional, associated with photosynthesis and transpiration were quantified on 24 accessions (representatives of 17 species and eight genomes). Hypotheses of associations within, and between, structure, photosynthesis, and transpiration were tested. Two main clusters of positively interrelated leaf traits were identified: in the first cluster were structural features, leaf thickness (Thick(leaf)), mesophyll (M) cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space per unit of leaf surface area (S(mes)), and M cell size; a second group included functional traits, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, M conductance to CO(2) diffusion (g(m)), stomatal conductance to gas diffusion (g(s)), and the g(m)/g(s) ratio.While net photosynthetic rate was positively correlated with gm, neither was significantly linked with any individual structural traits. The results suggest that changes in gm depend on covariations of multiple leaf (S(mes)) and M cell (including cell wall thickness) structural traits. There was an inverse relationship between Thick(leaf) and transpiration rate and a significant positive association between Thick(leaf) and leaf transpiration efficiency. Interestingly, high g(m) together with high g(m)/g(s) and a low S(mes)/g(m) ratio (M resistance to CO(2) diffusion per unit of cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space) appear to be ideal for supporting leaf photosynthesis while preserving water; in addition, thick M cell walls may be beneficial for plant drought tolerance.

  6. Separating foliar physiology from morphology reveals the relative roles of vertically structured transpiration factors within red maple crowns and limitations of larger scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerle, William L.; Bowden, Joseph D.

    2011-01-01

    A spatially explicit mechanistic model, MAESTRA, was used to separate key parameters affecting transpiration to provide insights into the most influential parameters for accurate predictions of within-crown and within-canopy transpiration. Once validated among Acer rubrum L. genotypes, model responses to different parameterization scenarios were scaled up to stand transpiration (expressed per unit leaf area) to assess how transpiration might be affected by the spatial distribution of foliage properties. For example, when physiological differences were accounted for, differences in leaf width among A. rubrum L. genotypes resulted in a 25% difference in transpiration. An in silico within-canopy sensitivity analysis was conducted over the range of genotype parameter variation observed and under different climate forcing conditions. The analysis revealed that seven of 16 leaf traits had a ≥5% impact on transpiration predictions. Under sparse foliage conditions, comparisons of the present findings with previous studies were in agreement that parameters such as the maximum Rubisco-limited rate of photosynthesis can explain ∼20% of the variability in predicted transpiration. However, the spatial analysis shows how such parameters can decrease or change in importance below the uppermost canopy layer. Alternatively, model sensitivity to leaf width and minimum stomatal conductance was continuous along a vertical canopy depth profile. Foremost, transpiration sensitivity to an observed range of morphological and physiological parameters is examined and the spatial sensitivity of transpiration model predictions to vertical variations in microclimate and foliage density is identified to reduce the uncertainty of current transpiration predictions. PMID:21617246

  7. Low doses of glyphosate enhance growth, CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance and transpiration in sugarcane and eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascentes, Renan F; Carbonari, Caio A; Simões, Plinio S; Brunelli, Marcela C; Velini, Edivaldo D; Duke, Stephen O

    2018-05-01

    Sublethal doses of herbicides can enhance plant growth and stimulate other process, an effect known as hormesis. The magnitude of hormesis is dependent on the plant species, the herbicide and its dose, plant development stage and environmental parameters. Glyphosate hormesis is well established, but relatively little is known of the mechanism of this phenomenon. The objective of this study was to determine if low doses of glyphosate that cause growth stimulation in sugarcane and eucalyptus concomitantly stimulate CO 2 assimilation. Shoot dry weight in both species increased at both 40 and 60 days after application of 6.2 to 20.2 g a.e. ha -1 glyphosate. The level of enhanced shoot dry weight was 11 to 37%, depending on the time after treatment and the species. Concomitantly, CO 2 assimilation, stomatal conductance and transpiration were increased by glyphosate doses similar to those that caused growth increases. Glyphosate applied at low doses increased the dry weight of sugarcane and eucalyptus plants in all experiments. This hormetic effect was related to low dose effects on CO 2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, indicating that low glyphosate doses enhance photosynthesis of plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. A Rationally Designed Agonist Defines Subfamily IIIA Abscisic Acid Receptors As Critical Targets for Manipulating Transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Aditya S; Peterson, Francis C; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Merilo, Ebe; Verstraeten, Inge; Park, Sang-Youl; Elzinga, Dezi; Kaundal, Amita; Helander, Jonathan; Lozano-Juste, Jorge; Otani, Masato; Wu, Kevin; Jensen, Davin R; Kollist, Hannes; Volkman, Brian F; Cutler, Sean R

    2017-11-17

    Increasing drought and diminishing freshwater supplies have stimulated interest in developing small molecules that can be used to control transpiration. Receptors for the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) have emerged as key targets for this application, because ABA controls the apertures of stomata, which in turn regulate transpiration. Here, we describe the rational design of cyanabactin, an ABA receptor agonist that preferentially activates Pyrabactin Resistance 1 (PYR1) with low nanomolar potency. A 1.63 Å X-ray crystallographic structure of cyanabactin in complex with PYR1 illustrates that cyanabactin's arylnitrile mimics ABA's cyclohexenone oxygen and engages the tryptophan lock, a key component required to stabilize activated receptors. Further, its sulfonamide and 4-methylbenzyl substructures mimic ABA's carboxylate and C6 methyl groups, respectively. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements show that cyanabactin's compact structure provides ready access to high ligand efficiency on a relatively simple scaffold. Cyanabactin treatments reduce Arabidopsis whole-plant stomatal conductance and activate multiple ABA responses, demonstrating that its in vitro potency translates to ABA-like activity in vivo. Genetic analyses show that the effects of cyanabactin, and the previously identified agonist quinabactin, can be abolished by the genetic removal of PYR1 and PYL1, which form subclade A within the dimeric subfamily III receptors. Thus, cyanabactin is a potent and selective agonist with a wide spectrum of ABA-like activities that defines subfamily IIIA receptors as key target sites for manipulating transpiration.

  9. Simultaneous viscous-inviscid coupling via transpiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiu, K.F.C.; Giles, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    In viscous-inviscid coupling analysis, the direct coupling technique and the inverse coupling technique are commonly adopted. However, stability and convergence of the algorithms derived are usually very unsatisfactory. Here, by using the transpiration technique to simulate the effect of the displacement thickness, a new simultaneous coupling method is derived. The integral boundary layer equations and the full potential equation are chosen to be the viscous-inviscid coupled system. After discretization, the Newton-Raphson technique is proposed to solve the coupled nonlinear system. Several numerical results are used to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. 15 refs., 23 figs

  10. Numerical investigation on critical heat flux and coolant volume required for transpiration cooling with phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Fei; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Five states during the transpiration cooling are discussed. • A suit of applicable program is developed. • The variations of the thickness of two-phase region and the pressure are analyzed. • The relationship between heat flux and coolant mass flow rate is presented. • An approach is given to define the desired case of transpiration cooling. - Abstract: The mechanism of transpiration cooling with liquid phase change is numerically investigated to protect the thermal structure exposed to extremely high heat flux. According to the results of theoretical analysis, there is a lower critical and an upper critical external heat flux corresponding a certain coolant mass flow rate, between the two critical values, the phase change of liquid coolant occurs within porous structure. A strongly applicable self-edit program is developed to solve the states of fluid flow and heat transfer probably occurring during the phase change procedure. The distributions of temperature and saturation in these states are presented. The variations of the thickness of two-phase region and the pressure including capillary are analyzed, and capillary pressure is found to be the main factor causing pressure change. From the relationships between the external heat flux and coolant mass flow rate obtained at different cooling cases, an approach is given to estimate the maximal heat flux afforded and the minimal coolant consumption required by the desired case of transpiration cooling. Thus the pressure and coolant consumption required in a certain thermal circumstance can be determined, which are important in the practical application of transpiration cooling

  11. Variable coupling between sap-flow and transpiration in pine trees under drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler, Yakir; Tatarinov, Fyodor; Rohatyn, Shani; Rotenberg, Eyal; Grunzweig, Jose M.; Yakir, Dan

    2016-04-01

    hydraulic conductivity in larger trees recovered faster from midday depression than in smaller ones. We concluded that the observed changes in the patterns of water flow into and out of the trees reflected differences in the utilization of external and internal 'water storage'. Large trees appear to rely on sufficient internal water storage that filled up in the morning (max DBH) and supported transpiration both in the morning and the afternoon, while SF increased throughout the day to compensate for the depletion in water storage (SF maximum in the afternoon). In contrast, small trees with insufficient internal water storage must rely on soil water availability and maximize SF in the morning to support concurrent tree transpiration, achieving some internal storage only in the afternoon, when T declines and maximum daily DBH is observed. The results indicated also that trees with insufficient internal storage, as can be detected by the simultaneous SF and DBH patterns, are likely to be more vulnerable to drought-related mortality since soil water availability may not be sufficient to support transpiration and stomata opening.

  12. Effects of storage conditions on transpiration rate of pomegranate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of temperature (5, 10, 15 and 22 °C) and relative humidity (RH) (76%, 86% and 96%) on the transpiration rate (TR) of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cv. Bhagwa fruit fractions, namely arils and aril-sac. Both temperature and RH had significant effects on the TR of fruit fractions. The TR ...

  13. A first look at the SAPFLUXNET database: global patterns in whole-plant transpiration and implications for ecohydrological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, R.; Granda, V.; Mencuccini, M.; Flo, V.; Oren, R.; Molowny-Horas, R.; Katul, G. G.; Mahecha, M. D.; Steppe, K.; Cabon, A.; De Cáceres, M.; Martínez-Vilalta, J.

    2017-12-01

    Plant transpiration is the fundamental process linking water and vegetation and it is therefore a central topic in ecohydrological research. Globally, plants display a huge variety of coordinated adjustments in their physiology and structure to regulate transpiration in response to fluctuations of water demand and supply at multiple temporal scales. Sap flow measured in plant stems reveals the temporal patterns of these responses but sap flow data have remained fragmentary and generally unavailable for syntheses of regional to global scope. Here we present the first global database of sap flow measurements from individual plants (SAPFLUXNET, http://sapfluxnet.creaf.cat/), which has been compiled from > 150 datasets contributed by researchers worldwide. Received datasets were harmonised and conveniently stored in custom-designed R objects holding sap flow and environmental data time series, together with several ancillary metadata, enabling data access for synthesis activities. SAPFLUXNET covers most vegetated biomes and holds data for > 1500 individual plants, mostly trees, belonging to >100 species and > 50 genera. We retrieved water use traits indicative of maximum transpiration rates and of transpiration sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit using quantile regression approaches and moving window analyses. Global patterns of these water use traits were then analysed as a function of climate, plant functional type and stand characteristics. For example, maximum transpiration rates at a given plant diameter or sapwood area tended to be higher for Angiosperms compared to Gymnosperms, but this relationships converged to a more similar scaling between transpiration and leaf area across these groups. SAPFLUXNET is also a valuable tool to evaluate water balance components in ecosystem models. We combined SAPFLUXNET data with the MEDFATE model (https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/medfate/index.html) to validate an ecohydrological optimisation approach to retrieve

  14. Edge type affects leaf-level water relations and estimated transpiration of Eucalyptus arenacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas E; Tausz, Michael; Kasel, Sabine; Volkova, Liubov; Merchant, Andrew; Bennett, Lauren T

    2012-03-01

    While edge effects on tree water relations are well described for closed forests, they remain under-examined in more open forest types. Similarly, there has been minimal evaluation of the effects of contrasting land uses on the water relations of open forest types in highly fragmented landscapes. We examined edge effects on the water relations and gas exchange of a dominant tree (Eucalyptus arenacea Marginson & Ladiges) in an open forest type (temperate woodland) of south-eastern Australia. Edge effects in replicate woodlands adjoined by cleared agricultural land (pasture edges) were compared with those adjoined by 7- to 9-year-old eucalypt plantation with a 25m fire break (plantation edges). Consistent with studies in closed forest types, edge effects were pronounced at pasture edges where photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance were greater for edge trees than interior trees (75m into woodlands), and were related to greater light availability and significantly higher branch water potentials at woodland edges than interiors. Nonetheless, gas exchange values were only ∼50% greater for edge than interior trees, compared with ∼200% previously found in closed forest types. In contrast to woodlands adjoined by pasture, gas exchange in winter was significantly lower for edge than interior trees in woodlands adjoined by plantations, consistent with shading and buffering effects of plantations on edge microclimate. Plantation edge effects were less pronounced in summer, although higher water use efficiency of edge than interior woodland trees indicated possible competition for water between plantation trees and woodland edge trees in the drier months (an effect that might have been more pronounced were there no firebreak between the two land uses). Scaling up of leaf-level water relations to stand transpiration using a Jarvis-type phenomenological model indicated similar differences between edge types. That is, transpiration was greater at pasture than

  15. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poyatos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. forests located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain. The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drought episode during the summer, the oak stand (Ec was only 110 mm compared to the 239 mm transpired by the Scots pine stand, although the ratio of transpiration to reference evapotranspiration (Ec/ET0 in the oak stand compares well with the expected values predicted for low leaf area index (LAI oak forests in southern Europe. Scots pine showed a strong reduction in (Ec/ET0 as the drought developed, whereas pubescent oak was less affected by soil moisture deficits in the upper soil. As a second objective, and given the contrasting meteorological conditions between 2003 and 2004 summer periods, the interannual variability of transpiration was studied in the Scots pine plot. Rainfall during the summer months (June-September in 2003 was almost 40% less than in the same interval in 2004. Accordingly, transpiration was also reduced about 25% in 2003. Finally, Scots pine data from 2003 and 2004 was used to calibrate a simple transpiration model using ET0 and soil moisture deficit (SMD as input variables, and implicitly including stomatal responses to high vapour pressure deficits (Dd and soil water status.

  16. Transpiration in mango using Granier method

    OpenAIRE

    VELLAME, Lucas M.; COELHO FILHO, Mauricio A.; PAZ, Vital P. S.

    2009-01-01

    Objetivou-se, com esse trabalho avaliar o método Granier (sonda de dissipação térmica) para a cultura da manga quanto à viabilidade de uso em condições de campo e ajustar a equação de determinação do fluxo de seiva com base em medidas lisimétricas, iniciando-se com três mudas da variedade Tommy Atkins, plantadas em vasos que, colocados sobre plataforma de pesagem, funcionaram como lisímetros. A área condutora do caule (AS) foi determinada por meio da aplicação de corantes. Medidas de transpir...

  17. Evaporation and transpiration from forests in Central Europe - relevance of patch-level studies for spatial scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köstner, B.

    Spatial scaling from patch to the landscape level requires knowledge on the effects of vegetation structure on maximum surface conductances and evaporation rates. The following paper summarizes results on atmospheric, edaphic, and structural controls on forest evaporation and transpiration observed in stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica). Forest canopy transpiration (Ec) was determined by tree sapflow measurements scaled to the stand level. Estimates of understory transpiration and forest floor evaporation were derived from lysimeter and chamber measurements. Strong reduction of Ec due to soil drought was only observed at a Scots pine stand when soil water content dropped below 16% v/v. Although relative responses of Ec on atmospheric conditions were similar, daily maximum rates of could differ more than 100% between forest patches of different structure (1.5-3.0mmd-1 and 2.6-6.4mmd-1 for spruce and beech, respectively). A significant decrease of Ecmax per leaf area index with increasing stand age was found for monocultures of Norway spruce, whereas no pronounced changes in were observed for beech stands. It is concluded that structural effects on Ecmax can be specified and must be considered for spatial scaling from forest stands to landscapes. Hereby, in conjunction with LAI, age-related structural parameters are important for Norway spruce stands. Although compensating effects of tree canopy layers and understory on total evaporation of forests were observed, more information is needed to quantify structure-function relationships in forests of heterogenous structure.

  18. Seasonal shift in climatic limiting factors on tree transpiration: evidence from sap flow observations at alpine treelines in southeast Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xinsheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Alpine and northern treelines are primarily controlled by low temperatures. However, little is known about the impact of low soil temperature on tree transpiration at treelines. We aim to test the hypothesis that in cold-limited forests, the main limiting factors for tree transpiration switch from low soil temperature before summer solstice to atmospheric evaporative demand after summer solstice, which generally results in low transpiration in the early growing season. Sap flow, meteorological factors and predawn needle water potential were continuously monitored throughout one growing season across Smith fir (Abies georgei var. smithii and juniper (Juniperus saltuaria treelines in southeast Tibet. Sap flow started in early May and corresponded to a threshold mean air-temperature of 0 oC. Across tree species, transpiration was mainly limited by low soil temperature prior to the summer solstice but by vapor pressure deficit and solar radiation post-summer solstice, which was further confirmed on a daily scale. As a result, tree transpiration for both tree species was significantly reduced in the pre-summer solstice period as compared to post-summer solstice, resulting in a lower predawn needle water potential for Smith fir trees in the early growing season. Our data supported the hypothesis, suggesting that tree transpiration mainly responds to soil temperature variations in the early growing season. The results are important for understanding the hydrological response of cold-limited forest ecosystems to climate change.

  19. The sensitivity of stand-scale photosynthesis and transpiration to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijt, B.; Barton, C.; Rey, A.; Jarvis, P. G.

    The 3-dimensional forest model MAESTRO was used to simulate daily and annual photosynthesis and transpiration fluxes of forest stands and the sensitivity of these fluxes to potential changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]), temperature, water stress and phenology. The effects of possible feed-backs from increased leaf area and limitations to leaf nutrition were simulated by imposing changes in leaf area and nitrogen content. Two different tree species were considered: Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr., a conifer with long needle longevity and large leaf area, and Betula pendula Roth., a broad-leaved deciduous species with an open canopy and small leaf area. Canopy photosynthetic production in trees was predicted to increase with atmospheric [CO2] and length of the growing season and to decrease with increased water stress. Associated increases in leaf area increased production further only in the B. pendula canopy, where the original leaf area was relatively small. Assumed limitations in N uptake affected B. pendula more than P. sitchensis. The effect of increased temperature was shown to depend on leaf area and nitrogen content. The different sensitivities of the two species were related to their very different canopy structure. Increased [CO2] reduced transpiration, but larger leaf area, early leaf growth, and higher temperature all led to increased water use. These effects were limited by feedbacks from soil water stress. The simulations suggest that, with the projected climate change, there is some increase in stand annual `water use efficiency', but the actual water losses to the atmosphere may not always decrease.

  20. Leaf transpiration efficiency in corn varieties grown at elevated carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher leaf transpiration efficiency (TE) without lower photosynthesis has been identified in some varieties of corn in field tests, and could be a useful trait to improve yield under dry conditions without sacrificing yield under favorable conditions. However, because the carbon dioxide concentrat...

  1. Differentiating transpiration from evaporation in seasonal agricultural wetlands and the link to advective fluxes in the root zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachand, P.A.M.; Bachand, S.; Fleck, J.; Anderson, F.; Windham-Myers, L.

    2014-01-01

    The current state of science and engineering related to analyzing wetlands overlooks the importance of transpiration and risks data misinterpretation. In response, we developed hydrologic and mass budgets for agricultural wetlands using electrical conductivity (EC) as a natural conservative tracer. We developed simple differential equations that quantify evaporation and transpiration rates using flow rates and tracer concentrations at wetland inflows and outflows. We used two ideal reactor model solutions, a continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and a plug flow reactor (PFR), to bracket real non-ideal systems. From those models, estimated transpiration ranged from 55% (CFSTR) to 74% (PFR) of total evapotranspiration (ET) rates, consistent with published values using standard methods and direct measurements. The PFR model more appropriately represents these non-ideal agricultural wetlands in which check ponds are in series. Using a flux model, we also developed an equation delineating the root zone depth at which diffusive dominated fluxes transition to advective dominated fluxes. This relationship is similar to the Peclet number that identifies the dominance of advective or diffusive fluxes in surface and groundwater transport. Using diffusion coefficients for inorganic mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) we calculated that during high ET periods typical of summer, advective fluxes dominate root zone transport except in the top millimeters below the sediment–water interface. The transition depth has diel and seasonal trends, tracking those of ET. Neglecting this pathway has profound implications: misallocating loads along different hydrologic pathways; misinterpreting seasonal and diel water quality trends; confounding Fick's First Law calculations when determining diffusion fluxes using pore water concentration data; and misinterpreting biogeochemical mechanisms affecting dissolved constituent cycling in the root zone. In addition, our understanding of

  2. How soil moisture mediates the influence of transpiration on streamflow at hourly to interannual scales in a forested catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.W. Moore; J.A. Jones; B.J. Bond

    2011-01-01

    The water balance equation dictates that streamflow may be reduced by transpiration. Yet temporal disequilibrium weakens the relationship between transpiration and streamflow in many cases where inputs and outputs are unbalanced. We address two critical knowledge barriers in ecohydrology with respect to time, scale dependence and lags. Study objectives were to...

  3. Enhanced transpiration by riparian buffer trees in response to advection in a humid temperate agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Santana, V.; Asbjornsen, H.; Sauer, T.; Isenhart, T.; Schilling, K.; Schultz, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Riparian buffers are designed as management practices to increase infiltration and reduce surface runoff and transport of sediment and nonpoint source pollutants from crop fields to adjacent streams. Achieving these ecosystem service goals depends, in part, on their ability to remove water from the soil via transpiration. In these systems, edges between crop fields and trees of the buffer systems can create advection processes, which could influence water use by trees. We conducted a field study in a riparian buffer system established in 1994 under a humid temperate climate, located in the Corn Belt region of the Midwestern U.S. (Iowa). The goals were to estimate stand level transpiration by the riparian buffer, quantify the controls on water use by the buffer system, and determine to what extent advective energy and tree position within the buffer system influence individual tree transpiration rates. We primarily focused on the water use response (determined with the Heat Ratio Method) of one of the dominant species (Acer saccharinum) and a subdominant (Juglans nigra). A few individuals of three additional species (Quercus bicolor, Betula nigra, Platanus occidentalis) were monitored over a shorter time period to assess the generality of responses. Meteorological stations were installed along a transect across the riparian buffer to determine the microclimate conditions. The differences found among individuals were attributed to differences in species sap velocities and sapwood depths, location relative to the forest edge and prevailing winds and canopy exposure and dominance. Sapflow rates for A. saccharinum trees growing at the SE edge (prevailing winds) were 39% greater than SE interior trees and 30% and 69% greater than NW interior and edge trees, respectively. No transpiration enhancement due to edge effect was detected in the subdominant J. nigra. The results were interpreted as indicative of advection effects from the surrounding crops. Further, significant

  4. Near-optimal response of instantaneous transpiration efficiency to vapour pressure deficit, temperature and [CO2] in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The instantaneous transpiration efficiency (ITE, the ratio of photosynthesis rate to transpiration) is an important variable for crops, because it ultimately affects dry mass production per unit of plant water lost to the atmosphere. The theory that stomata optimize carbon uptake per unit water used...

  5. Cross-scale modelling of transpiration from stomata via the leaf boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defraeye, Thijs; Derome, Dominique; Verboven, Pieter; Carmeliet, Jan; Nicolai, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf transpiration is a key parameter for understanding land surface–climate interactions, plant stress and plant structure–function relationships. Transpiration takes place at the microscale level, namely via stomata that are distributed discretely over the leaf surface with a very low surface coverage (approx. 0·2–5 %). The present study aims to shed more light on the dependency of the leaf boundary-layer conductance (BLC) on stomatal surface coverage and air speed. Methods An innovative three-dimensional cross-scale modelling approach was applied to investigate convective mass transport from leaves, using computational fluid dynamics. The gap between stomatal and leaf scale was bridged by including all these scales in the same computational model (10−5–10−1 m), which implies explicitly modelling individual stomata. Key Results BLC was strongly dependent on stomatal surface coverage and air speed. Leaf BLC at low surface coverage ratios (CR), typical for stomata, was still relatively high, compared with BLC of a fully wet leaf (hypothetical CR of 100 %). Nevertheless, these conventional BLCs (CR of 100 %), as obtained from experiments or simulations on leaf models, were found to overpredict the convective exchange. In addition, small variations in stomatal CR were found to result in large variations in BLCs. Furthermore, stomata of a certain size exhibited a higher mass transfer rate at lower CRs. Conclusions The proposed cross-scale modelling approach allows us to increase our understanding of transpiration at the sub-leaf level as well as the boundary-layer microclimate in a way currently not feasible experimentally. The influence of stomatal size, aperture and surface density, and also flow-field parameters can be studied using the model, and prospects for further improvement of the model are presented. An important conclusion of the study is that existing measures of conductances (e.g. from artificial leaves) can be

  6. Modelled hydraulic redistribution by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) matches observed data only after including night-time transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rebecca B; Cardon, Zoe G; Teshera-Levye, Jennifer; Rockwell, Fulton E; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele

    2014-04-01

    The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, whereas the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two ecotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modelling formulation developed by Ryel et al. matched experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive night-time transpiration, and although over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that night-time transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. formulation does not include the effect of night-time transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of night-time transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and night-time stomatal behaviour changed, both influencing HR. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Transpiration and water use efficiency in native chilean and exotic species, a usefull tool for catchment management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé-Fernández, P.; Oyarzun, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    Land-use and forest cover change play important roles in socio-economic processes and have been linked with water supply and other ecosystem services in various regions of the world. Water yield from watersheds is a major ecosystem service for human activities but has been altered by landscape management superimposed on climatic variability and change. Sustaining ecosystem services important to humans, while providing a dependable water supply for agriculture and urban needs is a major challenge faced by managers of human-dominated or increased antropical effect over watersheds. Since water is mostly consumed by vegetation (i.e: transpiration), which strongly depends on trees physiological characteristics (i.e: foliar area, transpiration capacity) are very important. The quantity of water consumed by plantations is influenced mainly by forest characteristics (species physiology, age and management), catchment water retention capacity and meteorological characteristics. Eventhough in Chile, the forest sector accounts for 3.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 12.5% of total exports (INFOR, 2003), afforestation with fast growing exotic species has ended up being socially and politically questionable because of the supposed impact on the environment and water resources. We present data of trees transpiration and water use efficiency from three headwater catchments: (a) second growth native evergreen forest (Aetoxicon punctatum, Drimys winterii, Gevuina avellana, Laureliopsis philippiana); (b) Eucalyptus globulus plantation, and (c) a mixed native deciduous (Nothofagus obliqua and some evergreen species) forest and Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia melanoxylon plantation located at the Coastal Mountain Range in southern Chile (40°S). Annual transpiration rates ranged from 1.24 ± 0.41 mol•m-2•s-1 (0.022 ± 0.009 L•m-2•s-1) for E. globulus, while the lowest observed was for L. philippiana 0.44 ± 0.31 mol•m-2•s-1 (0.008 ± 0.006 L•m-2•s-1). However

  8. THE INTENSITY OF TRANSPIRATION OF THE LEAVES OF GLYCINE MAX (L. MERR. DEPENDING ON THE GROWTH PHASE AND THE TIERED ARRANGEMENT ON THE PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Amelin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The thematic core facilities plan, CCU of Orel state agrarian university "Genetic resources of plants and their use" for a joint program with Shatilovskay of Institute of leguminous and cereal crops, of field and vegetation experiments on the study of specific features of manifestation of the activity of transpiration leaves of soybean are achieved. The object of the study were 10 varieties of soybeans that were grown on plots of 15 m2 in four replications. Seeding was carried out breeding seeder calculated 600 thousand of viable seeds per hectare. the way the plots were allocated systematically with offset. The care of crops was carried out in accordance with the recommended regional events. It was demonstrated that leaf transpiration activity of the culture increases sharply in the transition of plants to the generative period of development, reaching a maximum in the phase of mass fruit formation, when the most active growth and, consequently, the demand for assimilate. The intensity of transpiration of leaves during this period of plant development was by 8.22 mmol H2O/m2c. The highest transpiration activity was typical for the upper leaves located in the generative sphere of plants, the lowest - activity was fount for the lowerst leaves. On the 5th node from the bottom, its value was 2.2 times lower compared to the assimilating leaves at the top of the plants (3-4 knots top. Thus, the most intensive evaporation of the water by leaves are held from 9:00 to 13:00 hours Moscow time. The intensity of transpiration in this period amounted to an average of 5.42 mmol H2O/m2c, which was 19.9% higher than in the morning (from 7:00 to 8:00 and 42.3% in the afternoon (from 15:00 to 17:00.

  9. Transpiration cooling assisted ablative thermal protection of aerospace substructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.B.; Iqbal, N.; Haider, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Ablatives are heat-shielding materials used to protect aerospace substructures. These materials are sacrificial in nature and provide protection primarily through the large endothermic transformation during exposure to hyper thermal environment such as encountered in re-entry modules. The performance of certain ablatives was reported in terms of their TGA/DTA in Advanced Materials-97 (pp 57-65). The focus of this earlier research resided in the consolidation of interface between the refractory inclusion and the host polymeric matrix to improve thermal resistance. In the present work we explore the scope of transpiration cooling in ablative performance through flash evaporation of liquid incorporated in the host EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) matrix. The compression-molded specimens were exposed separately to plasma flame (15000 C) and oxyacetylene torch (3000 C) and the back face transient temperature is recorded in situ employing a thermocouple/data logger system. Both head on impingement (HOI) and parallel flow (PF) through a central cavity in the ablator were used. It is observed that transpiration cooling is effective and yields (a) rapid thermal equilibrium in the specimen, (b) lower back face temperature and (c) lower ablation rate, compared to conventional ablatives. SEM/EDS analysis is presented to amplify the point. (author)

  10. Diagnosing the Role of Transpiration in the Transition from Dry to Wet Season Over the Amazon Using Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. S.; Fu, R.; Yin, L.; Chae, J.

    2013-12-01

    Reanalysis data indicates that land surface evapotranspiration plays a key role in determining the timing of wet season onset over the Amazon. Here, we use satellite observations of water vapor and its stable isotopes, carbon dioxide, leaf area index, and precipitation together with reanalysis data to explore the importance of transpiration in initiating the transition from dry season to wet season over the Amazon. The growth of vegetation in this region is primarily limited by the availability of sunlight rather than the availability of soil moisture, so that the increase of solar radiation during the dry season coincides with dramatic increases in leaf area index within forested ecosystems. This period of plant growth is accompanied by uptake of carbon dioxide and enrichment of heavy isotopes in water vapor, particularly near the land surface. Reanalysis data indicate that this pre-wet season enrichment of HDO is accompanied by sharp increases in the surface latent heat flux, which eventually triggers sporadic moist convection. The transport of transpiration-enriched near-surface air by this convection causes a dramatic increase in free-tropospheric HDO in late August and September. September also marks transition points in the annual cycles of leaf area index (maximum) and carbon dioxide (minimum). The increase in convective activity during this period creates convergence, enhancing moisture transport into the region and initiating the wet season.

  11. Transpiration of gaseous elemental mercury through vegetation in a subtropical wetland in florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Steven Eric [ORNL; Dong, Weijin [ORNL; Meyers, Tilden [NOAA, Oak Ridge, TN

    2002-07-01

    Four seasonal sampling campaigns were carried out in the Florida Everglades to measure elemental Hg vapor (Hg{sup o}) fluxes over emergent macrophytes using a modified Bowen ratio gradient approach. The predominant flux of Hg{sup o} over both invasive cattail and native sawgrass stands was emission; mean day time fluxes over cattail ranged from {approx}20 (winter) to {approx}40 (summer) ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1}. Sawgrass fluxes were about half those over cattail during comparable periods. Emission from vegetation significantly exceeded evasion of Hg{sup o} from the underlying water surface ({approx}1-2 ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1}) measured simultaneously using floating chambers. Among several environmental factors (e.g. CO{sub 2} flux, water vapor flux, wind speed, water, air and leaf temperature, and solar radiation), water vapor exhibited the strongest correlation with Hg{sup o} flux, and transpiration is suggested as an appropriate term to describe this phenomenon. The lack of significant Hg{sup o} emissions from a live, but uprooted (floating) cattail stand suggests that a likely source of the transpired Hg{sup o} is the underlying sediments. The pattern of Hg{sup o} fluxes typically measured indicated a diel cycle with two peaks, possibly related to different gas exchange dynamics: one in early morning related to lacunal gas release, and a second at midday related to transpiration; nighttime fluxes approached zero.

  12. Effect of solar loading on greenhouse containers used in transpiration efficiency screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier we described a simple high throughput method of screening sorghum for transpiration efficiency (TE). Subsequently it was observed that while results were consistent between lines exhibiting high and low TE, ranking between lines with similar TE was variable. We hypothesized that variable mic...

  13. Hyperspectral narrowband and multispectral broadband indices for remote sensing of crop evapotranspiration and its components (transpiration and soil evaporation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Michael T.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Biggs, Trent; Post, Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of micro- and macro-scale climatic processes. In agriculture, estimates of ET are frequently used to monitor droughts, schedule irrigation, and assess crop water productivity over large areas. Currently, in situ measurements of ET are difficult to scale up for regional applications, so remote sensing technology has been increasingly used to estimate crop ET. Ratio-based vegetation indices retrieved from optical remote sensing, like the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, and Enhanced Vegetation Index are critical components of these models, particularly for the partitioning of ET into transpiration and soil evaporation. These indices have their limitations, however, and can induce large model bias and error. In this study, micrometeorological and spectroradiometric data collected over two growing seasons in cotton, maize, and rice fields in the Central Valley of California were used to identify spectral wavelengths from 428 to 2295 nm that produced the highest correlation to and lowest error with ET, transpiration, and soil evaporation. The analysis was performed with hyperspectral narrowbands (HNBs) at 10 nm intervals and multispectral broadbands (MSBBs) commonly retrieved by Earth observation platforms. The study revealed that (1) HNB indices consistently explained more variability in ET (ΔR2 = 0.12), transpiration (ΔR2 = 0.17), and soil evaporation (ΔR2 = 0.14) than MSBB indices; (2) the relationship between transpiration using the ratio-based index most commonly used for ET modeling, NDVI, was strong (R2 = 0.51), but the hyperspectral equivalent was superior (R2 = 0.68); and (3) soil evaporation was not estimated well using ratio-based indices from the literature (highest R2 = 0.37), but could be after further evaluation, using ratio-based indices centered on 743 and 953 nm (R2 = 0.72) or 428 and 1518 nm (R2 = 0.69).

  14. Predicting photosynthesis and transpiration responses to ozone: decoupling modeled photosynthesis and stomatal conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lombardozzi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants exchange greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and water with the atmosphere through the processes of photosynthesis and transpiration, making them essential in climate regulation. Carbon dioxide and water exchange are typically coupled through the control of stomatal conductance, and the parameterization in many models often predict conductance based on photosynthesis values. Some environmental conditions, like exposure to high ozone (O3 concentrations, alter photosynthesis independent of stomatal conductance, so models that couple these processes cannot accurately predict both. The goals of this study were to test direct and indirect photosynthesis and stomatal conductance modifications based on O3 damage to tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera in a coupled Farquhar/Ball-Berry model. The same modifications were then tested in the Community Land Model (CLM to determine the impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP and transpiration at a constant O3 concentration of 100 parts per billion (ppb. Modifying the Vcmax parameter and directly modifying stomatal conductance best predicts photosynthesis and stomatal conductance responses to chronic O3 over a range of environmental conditions. On a global scale, directly modifying conductance reduces the effect of O3 on both transpiration and GPP compared to indirectly modifying conductance, particularly in the tropics. The results of this study suggest that independently modifying stomatal conductance can improve the ability of models to predict hydrologic cycling, and therefore improve future climate predictions.

  15. Community level offset of rain use- and transpiration efficiency for a heavily grazed ecosystem in inner Mongolia grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ying Z; Giese, Marcus; Gao, Qiang; Brueck, Holger; Sheng, Lian X; Yang, Hai J

    2013-01-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE) is a key indicator to assess ecosystem adaptation to water stress. Rain use efficiency (RUE) is usually used as a proxy for WUE due to lack of transpiration data. Furthermore, RUE based on aboveground primary productivity (RUEANPP) is used to evaluate whole plant water use because root production data is often missing as well. However, it is controversial as to whether RUE is a reliable parameter to elucidate transpiration efficiency (TE), and whether RUEANPP is a suitable proxy for RUE of the whole plant basis. The experiment was conducted at three differently managed sites in the Inner Mongolia steppe: a site fenced since 1979 (UG79), a winter grazing site (WG) and a heavily grazed site (HG). Site HG had consistent lowest RUEANPP and RUE based on total net primary productivity (RUENPP). RUEANPP is a relatively good proxy at sites UG79 and WG, but less reliable for site HG. Similarly, RUEANPP is good predictor of transpiration efficiency based on aboveground net primary productivity (TEANPP) at sites UG79 and WG but not for site HG. However, if total net primary productivity is considered, RUENPP is good predictor of transpiration efficiency based on total net primary productivity (TENPP) for all sites. Although our measurements indicate decreased plant transpiration and consequentially decreasing RUE under heavy grazing, productivity was relatively compensated for with a higher TE. This offset between RUE and TE was even enhanced under water limited conditions and more evident when belowground net primary productivity (BNNP) was included. These findings suggest that BNPP should be considered when studies fucus on WUE of more intensively used grasslands. The consideration of the whole plant perspective and "real" WUE would partially revise our picture of system performance and therefore might affect the discussion on the C-sequestration and resilience potential of ecosystems.

  16. Convergent approaches to determine an ecosystem's transpiration fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelhammer, M.; Noone, D. C.; Wong, T. E.; Burns, S. P.; Knowles, J. F.; Kaushik, A.; Blanken, P. D.; Williams, M. W.

    2016-06-01

    The transpiration (T) fraction of total terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET), T/ET, can vary across ecosystems between 20-95% with a global average of ˜60%. The wide range may either reflect true heterogeneity between ecosystems and/or uncertainties in the techniques used to derive this property. Here we compared independent approaches to estimate T/ET at two needleleaf forested sites with a factor of 3 difference in leaf area index (LAI). The first method utilized water vapor isotope profiles and the second derived transpiration through its functional relationship with gross primary production. We found strong agreement between T/ET values from these two independent approaches although we noted a discrepancy at low vapor pressure deficits (VPD). We hypothesize that this divergence arises because stomatal conductance is independent of humidity at low VPD. Overall, we document significant synoptic-scale T/ET variability but minimal growing season-scale variability. This result indicates a high sensitivity of T/ET to passing weather but convergence toward a stable mean state, which is set by LAI. While changes in T/ET could emerge from a myriad of processes, including aboveground (LAI) or belowground (rooting depth) changes, there was only minimal interannual variability and no secular trend in our analysis of T/ET from the 15 year eddy covariance time series at Niwot Ridge. If the lack of trend observed here is apparent elsewhere, it suggests that the processes controlling the T and E fluxes are coupled in a way to maintain a stable ratio.

  17. Flexible Transpiration Cooled Thermal Protection System for Inflatable Atmospheric Capture and Entry Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Andrews Space, Inc. proposes an innovative transpiration cooled aerobrake TPS design that is thermally protective, structurally flexible, and lightweight. This...

  18. Flexible Transpiration Cooled Thermal Protection System for Inflatable Atmospheric Capture and Entry Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Andrews Space, Inc. proposes an innovative transpiration cooled aerobrake TPS design that is thermally protective, structurally flexible, and lightweight. This...

  19. The effect of water availability on stand-level productivity, transpiration, water use efficiency and radiation use efficiency of field-grown willow clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderson, Maj-Lena; Iritz, Zinaida; Lindroth, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The effect of water availability on stand-level productivity, transpiration, water use efficiency (WUE) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) is evaluated for different willow clones at stand level. The measurements were made during the growing season 2000 in a 3-year-old plantation in Scania, southernmost Sweden. Six willow clones were included in the study: L78183, SW Rapp, SW Jorunn, SW Jorr, SW Tora and SW Loden. All clones were exposed to two water treatments: rain-fed, non-irrigated treatment and reduced water availability by reduced soil water recharge. Field measurements of stem sap-flow and biometry are up-scaled to stand transpiration and stand dry substance production and used to assess WUE. RUE is estimated from the ratio between the stand dry substance production and the accumulated absorbed photosynthetic active radiation over the growing season. The total stand transpiration rate for the 5 months lies between 100 and 325 mm, which is fairly low compared to the Penman-Monteith transpiration for willow, reaching 400-450 mm for the same period. Mean WUE of all clones and treatments is 5.3 g/kg, which is high compared to earlier studies, while average RUE is 0.31 g/mol, which is slightly low compared to other results. Generally, all clones, except for Jorunn, seem to be better off concerning biomass production, WUE and RUE than the reference clone. Jorr, Jorunn and Loden also seem to be able to cope with the reduced water availability with increase in the water use efficiency. Tora performs significantly better than the other clones concerning both growth and efficiency in light and water use, but the effect of the dry treatment on stem growth shows sensitivity to water availability. The reduced stem growth could be due to a change in allocation patterns

  20. Wounding coordinately induces cell wall protein, cell cycle and pectin methyl esterase genes involved in tuber closing layer and wound periderm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jonathan D; Lulai, Edward C; Thompson, Asunta L; Suttle, Jeffrey C; Bolton, Melvin D

    2012-04-15

    Little is known about the coordinate induction of genes that may be involved in agriculturally important wound-healing events. In this study, wound-healing events were determined together with wound-induced expression profiles of selected cell cycle, cell wall protein, and pectin methyl esterase genes using two diverse potato genotypes and two harvests (NDTX4271-5R and Russet Burbank tubers; 2008 and 2009 harvests). By 5 d after wounding, the closing layer and a nascent phellogen had formed. Phellogen cell divisions generated phellem layers until cessation of cell division at 28 d after wounding for both genotypes and harvests. Cell cycle genes encoding epidermal growth factor binding protein (StEBP), cyclin-dependent kinase B (StCDKB) and cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit (StCKS1At) were induced by 1 d after wounding; these expressions coordinated with related phellogen formation and the induction and cessation of phellem cell formation. Genes encoding the structural cell wall proteins extensin (StExt1) and extensin-like (StExtlk) were dramatically up-regulated by 1-5 d after wounding, suggesting involvement with closing layer and later phellem cell layer formation. Wounding up-regulated pectin methyl esterase genes (StPME and StPrePME); StPME expression increased during closing layer and phellem cell formation, whereas maximum expression of StPrePME occurred at 5-14 d after wounding, implicating involvement in later modifications for closing layer and phellem cell formation. The coordinate induction and expression profile of StTLRP, a gene encoding a cell wall strengthening "tyrosine-and lysine-rich protein," suggested a role in the formation of the closing layer followed by phellem cell generation and maturation. Collectively, the genes monitored were wound-inducible and their expression profiles markedly coordinated with closing layer formation and the index for phellogen layer meristematic activity during wound periderm development; results were more

  1. Growth and wall-transpiration control of nonlinear unsteady Görtler vortices forced by free-stream vortical disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marensi, Elena; Ricco, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    The generation, nonlinear evolution, and wall-transpiration control of unsteady Görtler vortices in an incompressible boundary layer over a concave plate is studied theoretically and numerically. Görtler rolls are initiated and driven by free-stream vortical perturbations of which only the low-frequency components are considered because they penetrate the most into the boundary layer. The formation and development of the disturbances are governed by the nonlinear unsteady boundary-region equations with the centrifugal force included. These equations are subject to appropriate initial and outer boundary conditions, which account for the influence of the upstream and free-stream forcing in a rigorous and mutually consistent manner. Numerical solutions show that the stabilizing effect on nonlinearity, which also occurs in flat-plate boundary layers, is significantly enhanced in the presence of centrifugal forces. Sufficiently downstream, the nonlinear vortices excited at different free-stream turbulence intensities Tu saturate at the same level, proving that the initial amplitude of the forcing becomes unimportant. At low Tu, the disturbance exhibits a quasi-exponential growth with the growth rate being intensified for more curved plates and for lower frequencies. At higher Tu, in the typical range of turbomachinery applications, the Görtler vortices do not undergo a modal stage as nonlinearity saturates rapidly, and the wall curvature does not affect the boundary-layer response. Good quantitative agreement with data from direct numerical simulations and experiments is obtained. Steady spanwise-uniform and spanwise-modulated zero-mass-flow-rate wall transpiration is shown to attenuate the growth of the Görtler vortices significantly. A novel modified version of the Fukagata-Iwamoto-Kasagi identity, used for the first time to study a transitional flow, reveals which terms in the streamwise momentum balance are mostly affected by the wall transpiration, thus

  2. Effect of EC and transpiration on production of greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Stanghellini, C.; Challa, H.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that manipulating water out-flow of a plant through the shoot environment (potential transpiration, ET0) in a glasshouse could modulate the effect of salinity/osmotic potential in the root environment upon yield of tomatoes. Contrasting root-zone salinity treatments

  3. Reduced transpiration response to precipitation pulses precedes mortality in a piñon-juniper woodland subject to prolonged drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, Jennifer A; Wadsworth, W Duncan; Pangle, Robert; Yepez, Enrico A; McDowell, Nate G; Pockman, William T

    2013-10-01

    Global climate change is predicted to alter the intensity and duration of droughts, but the effects of changing precipitation patterns on vegetation mortality are difficult to predict. Our objective was to determine whether prolonged drought or above-average precipitation altered the capacity to respond to the individual precipitation pulses that drive productivity and survival. We analyzed 5 yr of data from a rainfall manipulation experiment in piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) woodland using mixed effects models of transpiration response to event size, antecedent soil moisture, and post-event vapor pressure deficit. Replicated treatments included irrigation, drought, ambient control and infrastructure control. Mortality was highest under drought, and the reduced post-pulse transpiration in the droughted trees that died was attributable to treatment effects beyond drier antecedent conditions and reduced event size. In particular, trees that died were nearly unresponsive to antecedent shallow soil moisture, suggesting reduced shallow absorbing root area. Irrigated trees showed an enhanced response to precipitation pulses. Prolonged drought initiates a downward spiral whereby trees are increasingly unable to utilize pulsed soil moisture. Thus, the additive effects of future, more frequent droughts may increase drought-related mortality. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Potential application of glazed transpired collectors to space heating in cold climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Lixin; Bai, Hua; Mao, Shufeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A mathematical model for glazed transpired collectors (GTC) is developed. • Glazing results in optical loss, but it decreases convective heat loss effectively. • Thermal performance of GTC shows considerable improvement on flat-plate collectors. • GTC using recirculated air is applicable to space heating in cold climates. - Abstract: Although unglazed transpired collectors (UTC) succeed in industrial ventilation applications, solar fraction is very low when they are used in space heating in cold climates due to the lower exit air temperature. Considering the potential for glazed transpired collectors (GTC) using recirculated air for space heating applications in cold climates, a mathematical model is developed for predicting the thermal performance of GTC. Simulation results show that although glazing results in optical loss, it could decrease convective heat loss resulted from high crosswind velocities effectively. For a solar radiation of 400 W/m 2 , an ambient temperature of −10 °C, and a suction velocity of 0.01 m/s, the exit air temperature of GTC is higher than that of UTC for crosswind velocities exceeding 3.0 m/s. By comparison with a conventional flat-plate solar air collector operating under the same conditions, the thermal performance of GTC shows a significant improvement. For a five-storey hotel building located in the severe cold climate zone of China, case study shows that the annual solar fraction of the GTC-based solar air heating system is about 20%, which is two times higher than that of the flat-plate collector-based system and nearly nine times higher than that of the UTC-based system respectively. Hence, an enormous amount of energy will be saved with the application of GTC to space heating in cold climates

  5. Mapping dry-season tree transpiration of an oak woodland at the catchment scale, using object-attributes derived from satellite imagery and sap flow measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes-Acosta, J.L.; Lubczynski, M.

    2013-01-01

    Tree transpiration is an important plant-physiological process that influences the water cycle, thereby influencing ecosystems and even the quantity of available water resources. However, direct tree-transpiration measurements, particularly at large spatial scales, are still rare, due to the

  6. Validation of a simple evaporation-transpiration scheme (SETS) to estimate evaporation using micro-lysimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfari, Sadegh; Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    Several methods exist to estimate E and T. The Penman-Montieth or Priestly-Taylor methods along with the Jarvis scheme for estimating vegetation resistance are commonly used to estimate these fluxes as a function of land cover, atmospheric forcing and soil moisture content. In this study, a simple evaporation transpiration method is developed based on MOSAIC Land Surface Model that explicitly accounts for soil moisture. Soil evaporation and transpiration estimated by SETS is validated on a single column of soil profile with measured evaporation data from three micro-lysimeters located at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad synoptic station, Iran, for the year 2005. SETS is run using both implicit and explicit computational schemes. Results show that the implicit scheme estimates the vapor flux close to that by the explicit scheme. The mean difference between the implicit and explicit scheme is -0.03 mm/day. The paired T-test of mean difference (p-Value = 0.042 and t-Value = 2.04) shows that there is no significant difference between the two methods. The sum of soil evaporation and transpiration from SETS is also compared with P-M equation and micro-lysimeters measurements. The SETS predicts the actual evaporation with a lower bias (= 1.24mm/day) than P-M (= 1.82 mm/day) and with R2 value of 0.82.

  7. Leaf transpiration plays a role in phosphorus acquisition among a large set of chickpea genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jiayin; Zhao, Hongxia; Bansal, Ruchi; Bohuon, Emilien; Lambers, Hans; Ryan, Megan H; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2018-01-09

    Low availability of inorganic phosphorus (P) is considered a major constraint for crop productivity worldwide. A unique set of 266 chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes, originating from 29 countries and with diverse genetic background, were used to study P-use efficiency. Plants were grown in pots containing sterilized river sand supplied with P at a rate of 10 μg P g -1 soil as FePO 4 , a poorly soluble form of P. The results showed large genotypic variation in plant growth, shoot P content, physiological P-use efficiency, and P-utilization efficiency in response to low P supply. Further investigation of a subset of 100 chickpea genotypes with contrasting growth performance showed significant differences in photosynthetic rate and photosynthetic P-use efficiency. A positive correlation was found between leaf P concentration and transpiration rate of the young fully expanded leaves. For the first time, our study has suggested a role of leaf transpiration in P acquisition, consistent with transpiration-driven mass flow in chickpea grown in low-P sandy soils. The identification of 6 genotypes with high plant growth, P-acquisition, and P-utilization efficiency suggests that the chickpea reference set can be used in breeding programmes to improve both P-acquisition and P-utilization efficiency under low-P conditions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Leaf hydraulic conductance declines in coordination with photosynthesis, transpiration and leaf water status as soybean leaves age regardless of soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Anna M.; Ort, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis requires sufficient water transport through leaves for stomata to remain open as water transpires from the leaf, allowing CO2 to diffuse into the leaf. The leaf water needs of soybean change over time because of large microenvironment changes over their lifespan, as leaves mature in full sun at the top of the canopy and then become progressively shaded by younger leaves developing above. Leaf hydraulic conductance (K leaf), a measure of the leaf’s water transport capacity, can often be linked to changes in microenvironment and transpiration demand. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that K leaf would decline in coordination with transpiration demand as soybean leaves matured and aged. Photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g s) and leaf water potential (Ψleaf) were also measured at various leaf ages with both field- and chamber-grown soybeans to assess transpiration demand. K leaf was found to decrease as soybean leaves aged from maturity to shading to senescence, and this decrease was strongly correlated with midday A. Decreases in K leaf were further correlated with decreases in g s, although the relationship was not as strong as that with A. Separate experiments investigating the response of K leaf to drought demonstrated no acclimation of K leaf to drought conditions to protect against cavitation or loss of g s during drought and confirmed the effect of leaf age in K leaf observed in the field. These results suggest that the decline of leaf hydraulic conductance as leaves age keeps hydraulic supply in balance with demand without K leaf becoming limiting to transpiration water flux. PMID:25281701

  9. Monte Carlo analysis of thermal transpiration effects in capacitance diaphragm gauges with helicoidal baffle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, M; Stefanov, S; Wüest, M

    2012-01-01

    The Capacitance Diaphragm Gauge (CDG) is one of the most widely used vacuum gauges in low and middle vacuum ranges. This device consists basically of a very thin ceramic or metal diaphragm which forms one of the electrodes of a cap acitor. The pressure is determined by measuring the variation in the capacitance due to the deflection of the diaphragm caused by the pressure difference established across the membrane. In order to minimize zero drift, some CDGs are operated keeping the sensor at a higher temperature. This difference in the temperature between the sensor and the vacuum chamber makes the behaviour of the gauge non-linear due to thermal transpiration effects. This effect becomes more significant when we move from the transitional flow to the free molecular regime. Besides, CDGs may incorporate different baffle systems to avoid the condensation on the membrane or its contamination. In this work, the thermal transpiration effect on the behaviour of a rarefied gas and on the measurements in a CDG with a helicoidal baffle system is investigated by using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). The study covers the behaviour of the system under the whole range of rarefaction, from the continuum up to the free molecular limit and the results are compared with empirical results. Moreover, the influence of the boundary conditions on the thermal transpiration effects is investigated by using Maxwell boundary conditions.

  10. Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence tracks the trend of canopy stomatal conductance and transpiration at diurnal and seasonal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Shan, N.; Ju, W.; Chen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Transpiration is the process of plant water loss through the stomata on the leaf surface and plays a key role in the energy and water balance of the land surface. Plant stomata function as a control interface for regulating photosynthetic uptake of CO2 and transpiration, strongly linked to plant productivity. Stomatal conductance is fundamental to larger-scale regional prediction of carbon-water cycles and their feedbacks to climate. The widely used Ball-Berry model coupled photosynthesis to a semi-empirical model of stomatal conductance. However large uncertainties remain in simulation of carbon assimilation rate in ecosystem and regional scales. The strong correlations of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) and GPP have been demonstrated and provides an important opportunity to accurately monitor photosynthetic activity and water exchange. In this presentation, we compared both canopy-observed SIF and satellite-derived SIF with tower-based canopy stomatal conductance from hourly to 8-day scales in forest and cropland ecosystem. Using the model of stomatal conductance based on SIF, the transpiration was estimated at hourly and daily scales and compared with flux tower measurements. The results showed that the seasonal pattern of canopy stomatal conductance agreed better with SIF compared to NDVI and their relationship was higher during sunny days for forest ecosystem. Canopy stomatal conductance correlated with both tower-observed SIF and SIF from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2. Estimation of transpiration from SIF performed well in both forest and cropland ecosystem. This remotely sensed approaches from SIF for modelling stomatal conductance opens a new era to analysis and simulation of coupled carbon and water cycles under climate change.

  11. Transpiration and Groundwater Uptake Dynamics of Pinus Brutia on a Fractured Mediterranean Mountain Slope during Two Hydrologically Contrasting Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliades, Marinos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Lubczynski, Maciek; Christou, Andreas; Camera, Corrado; Djuma, Hakan

    2017-04-01

    Semi-arid environments tend to have extreme temporal variability in rainfall, resulting in extended periods with little to no precipitation. The mountainous topography is characterized by steep slopes, often leading to shallow soil layers with limited water storage capacity. Tree species survive in these environments by developing various adaptation mechanisms to access water. The main objective of this study is to examine the differences of two hydrologically contrasting years on the transpiration and groundwater uptake dynamics of Pinus brutia trees. We selected four trees for sap flow monitoring in an 8966-m2 fenced area of Pinus brutia forest. The site is located at 620 m elevation, on the northern foothills of the Troodos mountains in Cyprus. The slope of the site ranges between 0 and 82%. The average daily minimum temperature is 5 0C in January and the average daily maximum temperature is 35 oC in August. The mean annual rainfall is 425 mm. Monitoring started on 1 January 2015 and is ongoing. We measured soil depth in a 1-m grid around each of the selected trees for monitoring. We processed soil depths in ArcGIS software (ESRI) to create a soil depth map. We used a Total Station and a differential GPS for the creation of a high resolution DEM of the area covering the selected trees. We installed seventeen soil moisture sensors at 12-cm depth and two at 30-cm depth, where the soil was deeper than 24 cm. We randomly installed 28 metric manual rain gauges under the trees' canopy to measure throughfall. For stemflow we installed a plastic tube around each tree trunk and connected it to a manual rain gauge. We used sap flow heat ratio method (HRM) instruments to determine sap flow rates of the Pinus brutia. Hourly meteorological conditions were observed by an automatic meteorological station. Here we present the results of the January to October periods, in order to have comparable results for the two contrasting years. During the wet year of 2015, we measured 439

  12. Slug flow in horizontal pipes with transpiration at the wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, J. B. R.; Silva Freire, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    The present work investigates the behaviour of slug flows in horizontal pipes with a permeable wall. Measurements of pressure drop and of local velocity are given for nine different flow conditions. The liquid phase velocity was measured with laser Doppler anemometry. Single-phase data are compared with the results of other authors. The influence of flow transpiration and of roughness on the features of slug flows is shown to be pronounced. A Shadow Sizer system coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry is used to account for the properties of the slug cell.

  13. Slug flow in horizontal pipes with transpiration at the wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: jbrloureiro@mecanica.ufrj.br [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-22

    The present work investigates the behaviour of slug flows in horizontal pipes with a permeable wall. Measurements of pressure drop and of local velocity are given for nine different flow conditions. The liquid phase velocity was measured with laser Doppler anemometry. Single-phase data are compared with the results of other authors. The influence of flow transpiration and of roughness on the features of slug flows is shown to be pronounced. A Shadow Sizer system coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry is used to account for the properties of the slug cell.

  14. Slug flow in horizontal pipes with transpiration at the wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the behaviour of slug flows in horizontal pipes with a permeable wall. Measurements of pressure drop and of local velocity are given for nine different flow conditions. The liquid phase velocity was measured with laser Doppler anemometry. Single-phase data are compared with the results of other authors. The influence of flow transpiration and of roughness on the features of slug flows is shown to be pronounced. A Shadow Sizer system coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry is used to account for the properties of the slug cell.

  15. Genetic variation in transpiration efficiency and relationships between whole plant and leaf gas exchange measurements in Saccharum spp. and related germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Phillip; Basnayake, Jaya; Inman-Bamber, Geoff; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Natarajan, Sijesh; Stokes, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Fifty-one genotypes of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) or closely related germplasm were evaluated in a pot experiment to examine genetic variation in transpiration efficiency. Significant variation in whole plant transpiration efficiency was observed, with the difference between lowest and highest genotypes being about 40% of the mean. Leaf gas exchange measurements were made across a wide range of conditions. There was significant genetic variation in intrinsic transpiration efficiency at a leaf level as measured by leaf internal CO2 (Ci) levels. Significant genetic variation in Ci was also observed within subsets of data representing narrow ranges of stomatal conductance. Ci had a low broad sense heritability (Hb = 0.11) on the basis of single measurements made at particular dates, because of high error variation and genotype × date interaction, but broad sense heritability for mean Ci across all dates was high (Hb = 0.81) because of the large number of measurements taken at different dates. Ci levels among genotypes at mid-range levels of conductance had a strong genetic correlation (-0.92 ± 0.30) with whole plant transpiration efficiency but genetic correlations between Ci and whole plant transpiration efficiency were weaker or not significant at higher and lower levels of conductance. Reduced Ci levels at any given level of conductance may result in improved yields in water-limited environments without trade-offs in rates of water use and growth. Targeted selection and improvement of lowered Ci per unit conductance via breeding may provide longer-term benefits for water-limited environments but the challenge will be to identify a low-cost screening methodology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Transpiration of shrub species, Alnus firma under changing atmospheric environments in montane area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Maruyama, A.; Inoue, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the large caldera of Mt. Aso in Japan, grasslands have been traditionally managed by the farmers. Due to changes in the social structure of the region, a large area of the grassland has been abandoned and was invaded by the shrubs with different hydrological and ecophysiological traits. Ecophysiological traits and their responses to seasonally changing environments are fundamental to project the transpiration rates under changing air and soil water environments, but less is understood. We measured the tree- and leaf-level ecophysiological traits of a shrub, Alnus firma in montane region where both rainfall and soil water content drastically changes seasonally. Sap flux reached the annual peak in evaporative summer (July-August) both in 2013 and 2014, although the duration was limited within a short period due to the prolonged rainy season before summer (2014) and rapid decrease in the air vapor pressure deficit (D) in late summer. Leaf ecophysiological traits in close relationship with gas exchange showed modest seasonal changes and the values were kept at relatively high levels typical in plants with nitrogen fixation under nutrient-poor environments. Stomatal conductance, which was measured at leaf-level measurements and sap flux measurements, showed responses to D, which coincided with the theoretical response for isohydric leaves. A multilayer model, which estimates stand-level transpiration by scaling up the leaf-level data, successfully captured the temporal trends in sap flux, suggesting that major processes were incorporated. Thus, ecophysiological traits of A. firma were characterized by the absence of responses to seasonally changing environments and the transpiration rate was the function of the interannually variable environmental conditions.

  17. Scaling up and error analysis of transpiration for Populus euphratica in a desert riparian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, J.; Li, W.; Feng, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Water consumption information of the forest stand is the most important factor for regional water resources management. However, water consumption of individual trees are usually measured based on the limited sample trees , so, it is an important issue how to realize eventual scaling up of data from a series of sample trees to entire stand. Estimation of sap flow flux density (Fd) and stand sapwood area (AS-stand) are among the most critical factors for determining forest stand transpiration using sap flow measurement. To estimate Fd, the various links in sap flow technology have great impact on the measurement of sap flow, to estimate AS-stand, an appropriate indirect technique for measuring each tree sapwood area (AS-tree) is required, because it is impossible to measure the AS-tree of all trees in a forest stand. In this study, Fd was measured in 2 mature P. euphratic trees at several radial depths, 0~10, 10~30mm, using sap flow sensors with the heat ratio method, the relationship model between AS-tree and stem diameter (DBH), growth model of AS-tree were established, using investigative original data of DBH, tree-age, and AS-tree. The results revealed that it can achieve scaling up of transpiration from sample trees to entire forest stand using AS-tree and Fd, however, the transpiration of forest stand (E) will be overvalued by 12.6% if using Fd of 0~10mm, and it will be underestimated by 25.3% if using Fd of 10~30mm, it implied that major uncertainties in mean stand Fd estimations are caused by radial variations in Fd. E will be obviously overvalued when the AS-stand is constant, this result imply that it is the key to improve the prediction accuracy that how to simulate the AS-stand changes in the day scale; They also showed that the potential errors in transpiration with a sample size of approximately ≥30 were almost stable for P.euphrtica, this suggests that to make an allometric equation it might be necessary to sample at least 30 trees.

  18. Tuberous Roots Yield, Transpiration Rate, Stomatal Conductance and Water Use Efficiency of Divergent Cassava Clones as Influenced by Climate and Growth Stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Githunguri, C.M; Chewa, J.A; Ekanayake, I.J

    1999-01-01

    Cassava roots provide a cheap source of dietary energy to millions of people in the tropics. Variations in yield, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and water use efficiency occur due to various factors. This makes selection of clones with wide ecological adaptation and high yield difficult. The influence of crop age and agroecozones (AEZ) in Nigeria on above parametres were studied. The tested AEZs were Sudan savanna (Minjibir), Southern Guinea savanna (Mokwa) and forest-savanna transition (Ibadan) AEZ. The environment plays a significant role in determining root yield with plant age playing a bigger role at the early stages. Results suggest root development was restricted by low moisture stress. Cassava ought to be harvested at eight months after planting (MAP) rather than at 12 MAP in order to obtain maximum yields. Yields at Mokwa were significantly higher than both Minjibir and Ibadan suggesting that cassava is not a crop for either forest or semi arid zones. During both seasons Minjbir had the highest stomatal conductance trend while Ibadan had the lowest. Stomatal conductance at Minjibir becomes critical at 12 MAP. The highest transpiration rate was recorded at Minijibir at 4 and 12 MAP. The lowest transpiration rate ws observed at Ibadan. The lowest transpiration rate was also observed during drought. There was a close positive close relationship between tuberous roots yield and transpiration. The lowest and highest water use efficiency (WUE) was recorded at 4 and 8 MAP during rains. The lowest and the highest WUE was recorded at Ibadan and Mokwa respectively. The two seasons trends were similar. Clone TMS 50395 had the highest WUE. Tere was close positive relationship between WUE and tuberous roots yield

  19. Anti-transpirant activity in xylem sap from flooded tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants is not due to pH-mediated redistributions of root- or shoot-sourced ABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Mark A; Taylor, June M; Atkinson, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    In flooded soils, the rapid effects of decreasing oxygen availability on root metabolic activity are likely to generate many potential chemical signals that may impact on stomatal apertures. Detached leaf transpiration tests showed that filtered xylem sap, collected at realistic flow rates from plants flooded for 2 h and 4 h, contained one or more factors that reduced stomatal apertures. The closure could not be attributed to increased root output of the glucose ester of abscisic acid (ABA-GE), since concentrations and deliveries of ABA conjugates were unaffected by soil flooding. Although xylem sap collected from the shoot base of detopped flooded plants became more alkaline within 2 h of flooding, this rapid pH change of 0.5 units did not alter partitioning of root-sourced ABA sufficiently to prompt a transient increase in xylem ABA delivery. More shoot-sourced ABA was detected in the xylem when excised petiole sections were perfused with pH 7 buffer, compared with pH 6 buffer. Sap collected from the fifth oldest leaf of "intact" well-drained plants and plants flooded for 3 h was more alkaline, by approximately 0.4 pH units, than sap collected from the shoot base. Accordingly, xylem [ABA] was increased 2-fold in sap collected from the fifth oldest petiole compared with the shoot base of flooded plants. However, water loss from transpiring, detached leaves was not reduced when the pH of the feeding solution containing 3-h-flooded [ABA] was increased from 6.7 to 7.1 Thus, the extent of the pH-mediated, shoot-sourced ABA redistribution was not sufficient to raise xylem [ABA] to physiologically active levels. Using a detached epidermis bioassay, significant non-ABA anti-transpirant activity was also detected in xylem sap collected at intervals during the first 24 h of soil flooding.

  20. Experimental study on the operating characteristics of an inner preheating transpiring wall reactor for supercritical water oxidation: Temperature profiles and product properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fengming; Xu, Chunyan; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Shouyan; Chen, Guifang; Ma, Chunyuan

    2014-01-01

    A new process to generate multiple thermal fluids by supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to enhance oil recovery. An inner preheating transpiring wall reactor for SCWO was designed and tested to avoid plugging in the preheating section. Hot water (400–600 °C) was used as auxiliary heat source to preheat the feed to the reaction temperature. The effect of different operating parameters on the performance of the inner preheating transpiring wall reactor was investigated, and the optimized operating parameters were determined based on temperature profiles and product properties. The reaction temperature is close to 900 °C at an auxiliary heat source flow of 2.79 kg/h, and the auxiliary heat source flow is determined at 6–14 kg/h to avoid the overheating of the reactor. The useful reaction time is used to quantitatively describe the feed degradation efficiency. The outlet concentration of total organic carbon (TOC out ) and CO in the effluent gradually decreases with increasing useful reaction time. The useful reaction time needed for complete oxidation of the feed is 10.5 s for the reactor. - Highlights: • A new process to generate multiple thermal fluids by SCWO was proposed. • An inner preheating transpiring wall reactor for SCWO was designed and tested. • Hot water was used as auxiliary heat source to preheat the feed at room temperature. • Effect of operating parameters on the performance of the reactor was investigated. • The useful reaction time required for complete oxidation of the feed is 10.5 s

  1. Genotypic variation in transpiration efficiency due to differences in photosynthetic capacity among sugarcane-related clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunjia; Jackson, Phillip; Lu, Xin; Xu, Chaohua; Cai, Qing; Basnayake, Jayapathi; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Ghannoum, Oula; Fan, Yuanhong

    2017-04-01

    Sugarcane, derived from the hybridization of Saccharum officinarum×Saccharum spontaneum, is a vegetative crop in which the final yield is highly driven by culm biomass production. Cane yield under irrigated or rain-fed conditions could be improved by developing genotypes with leaves that have high intrinsic transpiration efficiency, TEi (CO2 assimilation/stomatal conductance), provided this is not offset by negative impacts from reduced conductance and growth rates. This study was conducted to partition genotypic variation in TEi among a sample of diverse clones from the Chinese collection of sugarcane-related germplasm into that due to variation in stomatal conductance versus that due to variation in photosynthetic capacity. A secondary goal was to define protocols for optimized larger-scale screening of germplasm collections. Genotypic variation in TEi was attributed to significant variation in both stomatal and photosynthetic components. A number of genotypes were found to possess high TEi as a result of high photosynthetic capacity. This trait combination is expected to be of significant breeding value. It was determined that a small number of observations (16) is sufficient for efficiently screening TEi in larger populations of sugarcane genotypes The research methodology and results reported are encouraging in supporting a larger-scale screening and introgression of high transpiration efficiency in sugarcane breeding. However, further research is required to quantify narrow sense heritability as well as the leaf-to-field translational potential of genotypic variation in transpiration efficiency-related traits observed in this study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Canopy transpiration of pure and mixed forest stands with variable abundance of European beech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Tobias; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2012-06-01

    SummaryThe importance of tree species identity and diversity for biogeochemical cycles in forests is not well understood. In the past, forestry has widely converted mixed forests to pure stands while contemporary forest policy often prefers mixed stands again. However, the hydrological consequences of these changes remain unclear. We tested the hypotheses (i) that significant differences in water use per ground area exist among the tree species of temperate mixed forests and that these differences are more relevant for the amount of stand-level canopy transpiration (Ec) than putative complementarity effects of tree water use, and (ii) that the seasonal patterns of Ec in mixed stands are significantly influenced by the identity of the present tree species. We measured xylem sap flux during 2005 (average precipitation) and 2006 (relatively dry) synchronously in three nearby old-growth forest stands on similar soil differing in the abundance of European beech (pure beech stand, 3-species stand with 70% beech, 5-species stand with sapwood area basis, reflecting a considerable variation in hydraulic architecture and leaf conductance regulation among the co-existing species. Moreover, transpiration per crown projection area (ECA) also differed up to 5-fold among the different species in the mixed stands, probably reflecting contrasting sapwood/crown area ratios. We conclude that Ec is not principally higher in mixed forests than in pure beech stands. However, tree species-specific traits have an important influence on the height of Ec and affect its seasonal variation. Species with a relatively high ECA (notably Tilia) may exhaust soil water reserves early in summer, thereby increasing drought stress in dry years and possibly reducing ecosystem stability in mixed forests.

  3. Partitioning evaporation and transpiration in a maize field with heat-pulse sensors used for evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaporation (E) and transpiration (T) occur simultaneously in many systems with varying levels of importance, yet terms are typically lumped as evapotranspiration (ET) due to difficulty with distinguishing component fluxes. Few studies have measured all three terms (ET, E, and T), and in the few cas...

  4. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Yang, Zhiyuan; Madgwick, Pippa J; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A J; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2015-01-01

    ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2) and 7 (TaER1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55) and grain-filling (Z73) stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties), medium (27 varieties) and low (16 varieties) levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE)- related traits, including stomatal density (SD), transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A), instant water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope discrimination (CID), and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP). Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (Ptranspiration rate (Ptranspiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate that TaER could be exploitable for manipulating important agronomical traits in wheat improvement.

  5. Remote sensing of potential and actual daily transpiration of plant canopies based on spectral reflectance and infrared thermal measurements: Concept with preliminary test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Moran, M.S.; Pinter, P.J.Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A new concept for estimating potential and actual values of daily transpiration rate of vegetation canopies is presented along with results of an initial test. The method is based on a physical foundation of spectral radiation balance for a vegetation canopy, the key inputs to the model being the remotely sensed spectral reflectance and the surface temperature of the plant canopy. The radiation interception or absorptance is estimated more directly from remotely sensed spectral data than it is from the leaf area index. The potential daily transpiration is defined as a linear function of the absorbed solar radiation, which can be estimated using a linear relationship between the fraction absorptance of solar radiation and the remotely sensed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index for the canopy. The actual daily transpiration rate is estimated by combining this concept with the Jackson-Idso Crop Water Stress Index, which also can be calculated from remotely sensed plant leaf temperatures measured by infrared thermometry. An initial demonstration with data sets from an alfalfa crop and a rangeland suggests that the method may give reasonable estimates of potential and actual values of daily transpiration rate over diverse vegetation area based on simple remote sensing measurements and basic meteorological parameters

  6. Drivers of variability in tree transpiration in a Boreal Black Spruce Forest Chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstmann, J. L.; Ewers, B. E.; Kwon, H.

    2009-12-01

    Boreal forests are of particular interest in climate change studies because of their large land area and ability to sequester and store carbon, which is controlled by water availability. Heterogeneity of these forests is predicted to increase with climate change through the impact of more frequent wildfires, warmer, longer growing seasons, and potential drainage of forested wetlands. This study aims to quantify the influence of stand age, drainage condition, and species on tree transpiration and its drivers in a central Canadian black spruce boreal forest. Heat dissipation sensors were installed in 113 trees (69 Picea mariana (black spruce), 25 Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen), and 19 Pinus banksiana (jack pine) at four stand ages, each containing a well- and poorly-drained site over three growing seasons (2006-2008). Sap flux per unit xylem area, JS, was expressed as transpiration per unit ground area, EC, and transpiration per unit leaf area, EL, using site- and species-specific allometry to obtain sapwood area (AS)and leaf area(AL)per unit ground area. Well-drained, younger Picea mariana daily JS was 47-64% greater than the older well-drained burn ages and younger poorly-drained stands were 64-68% greater than the two oldest poorly-drained stands. Daily EL in the well-drained Picea mariana stands was on average 12-33% higher in younger stand than in the two oldest stands whereas young, poorly-drained Picea mariana had 71% greater daily EL than the older stands. Well-drained Picea mariana trees had 52% higher daily EC than older trees and poorly-drained Picea mariana in the 1964 burn had 42-81% higher daily EC than the oldest stands. Populus tremuloides located in the two youngest stands had daily JS 38-58% greater rates than the 1930 burn, whereas daily EL and EC had no distint differences due to high interannual variability. Pinus banksiana experienced 21-33% greater daily JS in the 1989 burn than in the older 1964 burn for well- and poorly-drained sites

  7. Individual variation of sap-flow rate in large pine and spruce trees and stand transpiration: a pilot study at the central NOPEX site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čermák, J.; Cienciala, E.; Kučera, J.; Lindroth, A.; Bednářová, E.

    1995-06-01

    Transpiration in a mixed old stand of sub-boreal forest in the Norunda region (central Sweden) was estimated on the basis of direct measurement of sap flow rate in 24 large Scots pine and Norway spruce trees in July and August 1993. Sap flow rate was measured using the trunk tissue heat balance method based on internal (electric) heating and sensing of temperature. Transpiration was only 0.7 mm day -1 in a relatively dry period in July (i.e. about 20% of potential evaporation) and substantially higher after a rainy period in August. The error of the estimates of transpiration was higher during a dry period (about 13% and 22% in pine and spruce, respectively) and significantly lower (about 9% in both species) during a period of sufficient water supply. Shallow-rooted spruce trees responded much faster to precipitation than deeply rooted pines.

  8. Effect of incident beam and diffuse radiation on par absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration of sitka spruce - a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.P.; Jarvis, P.G.

    1990-01-01

    A simulation model, Maestro, is used to study the influence of beam fraction in the incident radiation and the radiance distribution of the sky diffuse radiation on PAR absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration of a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr) tree crown. It is concluded that inaccurate separation of beam and diffuse radiation leads to significant errors in estimating the amounts of PAR absorbed, photosynthesis and transpiration by a tree in the stand. Much more attention should be paid to adequate descriptions of the radiance distribution of the sky diffuse radiation under different sky conditions. A useful approach is proposed for simulating the incident global radiaiton in a physiological, process-based model

  9. Biotic, temporal and spatial variability of tritium concentrations in transpirate samples collected in the vicinity of a near-surface low-level nuclear waste disposal site and nearby research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twining, J.R., E-mail: jrt@ansto.gov.au [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Hughes, C.E.; Harrison, J.J.; Hankin, S.; Crawford, J.; Johansen, M.; Dyer, L. [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    The results of a 21 month sampling program measuring tritium in tree transpirate with respect to local sources are reported. The aim was to assess the potential of tree transpirate to indicate the presence of sub-surface seepage plumes. Transpirate gathered from trees near low-level nuclear waste disposal trenches contained activity concentrations of {sup 3}H that were significantly higher (up to {approx}700 Bq L{sup -1}) than local background levels (0-10 Bq L{sup -1}). The effects of the waste source declined rapidly with distance to be at background levels within 10s of metres. A research reactor 1.6 km south of the site contributed significant (p < 0.01) local fallout {sup 3}H but its influence did not reach as far as the disposal trenches. The elevated {sup 3}H levels in transpirate were, however, substantially lower than groundwater concentrations measured across the site (ranging from 0 to 91% with a median of 2%). Temporal patterns of tree transpirate {sup 3}H, together with local meteorological observations, indicate that soil water within the active root zones comprised a mixture of seepage and rainfall infiltration. The degree of mixing was variable given that the soil water activity concentrations were heterogeneous at a scale equivalent to the effective rooting volume of the trees. In addition, water taken up by roots was not well mixed within the trees. Based on correlation modelling, net rainfall less evaporation (a surrogate for infiltration) over a period of from 2 to 3 weeks prior to sampling seems to be the optimum predictor of transpirate {sup 3}H variability for any sampled tree at this site. The results demonstrate successful use of {sup 3}H in transpirate from trees to indicate the presence and general extent of sub-surface contamination at a low-level nuclear waste site. - Highlights: > Data on environmental tritium behaviour over 21 months related to a legacy waste site are presented. > The relative contributions of atmospheric and

  10. Reduction of plant water consumption through anti-transpirants foliar application in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimizing water use efficiency (WUE) is a crucial goal. However, water savings must not be made at the expense of yield and fruit quality in order to secure economical sustainability for producers. The impact of different anti-transpirants (ATS) on WUE, water consumption (WC), net carbon assimilati...

  11. Modelling of root ABA synthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration and potato production under water saving irrigation regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Abrahamsen, Per; Gjettermann, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    . Experimental data was compared to simulated results from the new enhanced Daisy model which include modelling 2D soil water flow, abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and its effect on stomatal conductance and hence on transpiration and assimilation, and finally crop yield. The results demonstrated that the enhanced...

  12. Prediction of transpiration effects on heat and mass transfer by different turbulence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucci, M.; Sharabi, M.; Ambrosini, W.; Forgione, N.; Oriolo, F.; He, S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a study related to transpirating flows, stimulated by the interest that these phenomena, occurring in the presence of simultaneous heat and mass transfer, have for nuclear reactor applications. The work includes a summary and the follow-up of previous experimental and numerical investigations on filmwise condensation and falling film evaporation and of a recent review of different forms of the heat and mass transfer analogy. The particular objective here pursued is to compare transpiration effects as predicted by different turbulence models with classical suction and blowing multipliers based on stagnant layer theories, in the attempt to clarify their quantitative implications on the predicted mass transfer rates. A commercial and an in-house CFD code have been adopted for evaluating the heat and mass transfer rates occurring over a flat plate exposed to an air-vapour stream, with uniform bulk steam mass fraction and temperature boundary conditions at the wall. This simple configuration was purposely selected since it is a simplified representation of the test section of an experimental facility presently in operation at the University of Pisa. This allows a direct comparison between the heat and mass transfer coefficients predicted by CFD models and classical correlations for Nusselt and Sherwood numbers

  13. Fog reduces transpiration in tree species of the Canarian relict heath-laurel cloud forest (Garajonay National Park, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Axel; Regalado, Carlos M; Aschan, Guido

    2009-04-01

    The ecophysiologic role of fog in the evergreen heath-laurel 'laurisilva' cloud forests of the Canary Islands has not been unequivocally demonstrated, although it is generally assumed that fog water is important for the survival and the distribution of this relict paleoecosystem of the North Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos. To determine the role of fog in this ecosystem, we combined direct transpiration measurements of heath-laurel tree species, obtained with Granier's heat dissipation probes, with micrometeorological and artificial fog collection measurements carried out in a 43.7-ha watershed located in the Garajonay National Park (La Gomera, Canary Islands, Spain) over a 10-month period. Median ambient temperature spanned from 7 to 15 degrees C under foggy conditions whereas higher values, ranging from 9 to 21 degrees C, were registered during fog-free periods. Additionally, during the periods when fog water was collected, global solar radiation values were linearly related (r2=0.831) to those under fog-free conditions, such that there was a 75+/-1% reduction in median radiation in response to fog. Fog events greatly reduced median diurnal tree transpiration, with rates about 30 times lower than that during fog-free conditions and approximating the nighttime rates in both species studied (the needle-like leaf Erica arborea L. and the broadleaf Myrica faya Ait.). This large decrease in transpiration in response to fog was independent of the time of the day, tree size and species and micrometeorological status, both when expressed on a median basis and in cumulative terms for the entire 10-month measuring period. We conclude that, in contrast to the turbulent deposition of fog water droplets on the heath-laurel species, which may be regarded as a localized hydrological phenomenon that is important for high-altitude wind-exposed E. arborea trees, the cooler, wetter and shaded microenvironment provided by the cloud immersion belt represents a large-scale effect

  14. Investigation of the vaporization of boric acid by transpiration thermogravimetry and knudsen effusion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, R; Lakshmi Narasimhan, T S; Viswanathan, R; Nalini, S

    2008-11-06

    The vaporization of H3BO3(s) was studied by using a commercial thermogravimetric apparatus and a Knudsen effusion mass spectrometer. The thermogravimetric measurements involved use of argon as the carrier gas for vapor transport and derivation of vapor pressures of H3BO3(g) in the temperature range 315-352 K through many flow dependence and temperature dependence runs. The vapor pressures as well as the enthalpy of sublimation obtained in this study represent the first results from measurements at low temperatures that are in accord with the previously reported near-classical transpiration measurements (by Stackelberg et al. 70 years ago) at higher temperatures (382-413 K with steam as the carrier gas). The KEMS measurements performed for the first time on boric acid showed H3BO3(g) as the principal vapor species with no meaningful information discernible on H2O(g) though. The thermodynamic parameters, both p(H3BO3) and Delta sub H degrees m(H3BO3,g), deduced from KEMS results in the temperature range 295-342 K are in excellent agreement with the transpiration results lending further credibility to the latter. All this information points toward congruent vaporization at the H3BO3 composition in the H2O-B2O3 binary system. The vapor pressures obtained from transpiration (this study and that of Stackelberg et al.) as well as from KEMS measurements are combined to recommend the following: log [p(H3BO3)/Pa]=-(5199+/-74)/(T/K)+(15.65+/-0.23), valid for T=295-413 K; and Delta sub H degrees m=98.3+/-9.5 kJ mol (-1) at T=298 K for H3BO3(s)=H3BO3(g).

  15. Water relations and transpiration of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under salinity and soil drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Adolf, Verena Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    water potential (Wl), shoot and root abscisic acid concentration ([ABA]) and transpiration rate were measured in full irrigation (FI; around 95 % of water holding capacity (WHC)) and progressive drought (PD) treatments using the irrigation water with five salinity levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m)1...

  16. Plant transpiration and net entropy exchange on the Earth’s surface in a Czech watershed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Miroslav; Šír, Miloslav; Lichner, Ľ.; Čermák, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 5 (2007), s. 547-551 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200420562; GA ČR GA205/05/2312 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : entropy * Gaia theory * hydrologic cycle * plant transpiration Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.207, year: 2007

  17. Research Results of Bioenergetics Factors Influence on Crop Production Yields Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Grishin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a fundamental research is presented confirming two hypotheses concerning the process of a crop harvest forming and transpiration as the two main bio-energetic factors of fertility. Transpiration is a thermodynamic process in an open self-organizing system, which has a dissipative random character. Transpiration consumes about 95 percent of the water consumed by the plant. (Purpose of research The research objective is to obtain results confirming two hypotheses, according to which the efficiency of the process of crop formation is due to transpiration as a bio-energy factor of fertility and its components: photosynthetic exergy and thermal exergy. (Methods and materials The basic principles of thermodynamic systems self-organization, as well as methods of experimental studies of the principle of subordination to the parameter of the order in which the system control variable is dependent on parameter of the order. The relation of the order parameter (thermal exergy of solar radiation (SR and the variable control (transpiration was determined. The values of the correlation coefficients of these two processes have a value close to one. This confirms that transpiration is a dissipative self-organizing process underlying the transpiration irrigation mechanism. It is revealed that a fractal dimension of a time series of transpiration of cucumber with natural light, a potato is artificial, and their probability haracteristics: the mathematical expectation, standard deviation and variance. (Results and discussion We received confirmation of the scientific hypothesis about the influence of limiting climatic factors on the theoretical limit of plant productivity and fractal dimension of transpiration as an indicator of production processes in crop production. (Conclusions We put forward supplemental scientific hypothesis about the influence of limiting climatic factors on the theoretical limit of plant productivity. It was showed that

  18. Diffuse radiation increases global ecosystem-level water-use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, A. M.; Reichstein, M.; Cescatti, A.; Knohl, A.; Zaehle, S.

    2012-12-01

    Current environmental changes lead not only to rising atmospheric CO2 levels and air temperature but also to changes in air pollution and thus the light quality of the solar radiation reaching the land-surface. While rising CO2 levels are thought to enhance photosynthesis and closure of stomata, thus leading to relative water savings, the effect of diffuse radiation on transpiration by plants is less clear. It has been speculated that the stimulation of photosynthesis by increased levels of diffuse light may be counteracted by higher transpiration and consequently water depletion and drought stress. Ultimately, in water co-limited systems, the overall effect of diffuse radiation will depend on the sensitivity of canopy transpiration versus photosynthesis to diffuse light, i.e. whether water-use efficiency changes with relative levels of diffuse light. Our study shows that water-use efficiency increases significantly with higher fractions of diffuse light. It uses the ecosystem-atmosphere gas-exchange observations obtained with the eddy covariance method at 29 flux tower sites. In contrast to previous global studies, the analysis is based directly on measurements of diffuse radiation. Its effect on water-use efficiency was derived by analyzing the multivariate response of carbon and water fluxes to radiation and air humidity using a purely empirical approach based on artificial neural networks. We infer that per unit change of diffuse fraction the water-use efficiency increases up to 40% depending on diffuse fraction levels and ecosystem type. Hence, in regions with increasing diffuse radiation positive effects on primary production are expected even under conditions where water is co-limiting productivity.

  19. Moderate water stress from regulated deficit irrigation decreases transpiration similarly to net carbon exchange in grapevine canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the effects of timing and extent of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) canopies, whole-canopy transpiration (TrV) and canopy conductance to water vapor (gc) were calculated from whole-vine gas exchange near key stages of fruit development. The vines were ma...

  20. Structural and compositional controls on transpiration in 40- and 450-year-old riparian forests in western Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Georgianne W; Bond, Barbara J; Jones, Julia A; Phillips, Nathan; Meinzer, Federick C

    2004-05-01

    Large areas of forests in the Pacific Northwest are being transformed to younger forests, yet little is known about the impact this may have on hydrological cycles. Previous work suggests that old trees use less water per unit leaf area or sapwood area than young mature trees of the same species in similar environments. Do old forests, therefore, use less water than young mature forests in similar environments, or are there other structural or compositional components in the forests that compensate for tree-level differences? We investigated the impacts of tree age, species composition and sapwood basal area on stand-level transpiration in adjacent watersheds at the H.J. Andrews Forest in the western Cascades of Oregon, one containing a young, mature (about 40 years since disturbance) conifer forest and the other an old growth (about 450 years since disturbance) forest. Sap flow measurements were used to evaluate the degree to which differences in age and species composition affect water use. Stand sapwood basal area was evaluated based on a vegetation survey for species, basal area and sapwood basal area in the riparian area of two watersheds. A simple scaling exercise derived from estimated differences in water use as a result of differences in age, species composition and stand sapwood area was used to estimate transpiration from late June through October within the entire riparian area of these watersheds. Transpiration was higher in the young stand because of greater sap flux density (sap flow per unit sapwood area) by age class and species, and greater total stand sapwood area. During the measurement period, mean daily sap flux density was 2.30 times higher in young compared with old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees. Sap flux density was 1.41 times higher in young red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) compared with young P. menziesii trees, and was 1.45 times higher in old P. menziesii compared with old western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf

  1. Response of ammonium removal to growth and transpiration of Juncus effusus during the treatment of artificial sewage in laboratory-scale wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiessner, A; Kappelmeyer, U; Kaestner, M; Schultze-Nobre, L; Kuschk, P

    2013-09-01

    The correlation between nitrogen removal and the role of the plants in the rhizosphere of constructed wetlands are the subject of continuous discussion, but knowledge is still insufficient. Since the influence of plant growth and physiological activity on ammonium removal has not been well characterized in constructed wetlands so far, this aspect is investigated in more detail in model wetlands under defined laboratory conditions using Juncus effusus for treating an artificial sewage. Growth and physiological activity, such as plant transpiration, have been found to correlate with both the efficiency of ammonium removal within the rhizosphere of J. effusus and the methane formation. The uptake of ammonium by growing plant stocks is within in a range of 45.5%, but under conditions of plant growth stagnation, a further nearly complete removal of the ammonium load points to the likely existence of additional nitrogen removal processes. In this way, a linear correlation between the ammonium concentration inside the rhizosphere and the transpiration of the plant stocks implies that an influence of plant physiological activity on the efficiency of N-removal exists. Furthermore, a linear correlation between methane concentration and plant transpiration has been estimated. The findings indicate a fast response of redox processes to plant activities. Accordingly, not only the influence of plant transpiration activity on the plant-internal convective gas transport, the radial oxygen loss by the plant roots and the efficiency of nitrification within the rhizosphere, but also the nitrogen gas released by phytovolatilization are discussed. The results achieved by using an unplanted control system are different in principle and characterized by a low efficiency of ammonium removal and a high methane enrichment of up to a maximum of 72.7% saturation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and assessment of Transpirative Deficit Index (D-TDI) for agricultural drought monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Anna; Rienzner, Michele; Gandolfi, Claudio; Facchi, Arianna

    2017-04-01

    Drought is a major cause of crop yield loss, both in rainfed and irrigated agroecosystems. In past decades, many approaches have been developed to assess agricultural drought, usually based on the monitoring or modelling of the soil water content condition. All these indices show weaknesses when applied for a real time drought monitoring and management at the local scale, since they do not consider explicitly crops and soil properties at an adequate spatial resolution. This work describes a newly developed agricultural drought index, called Transpirative Deficit Index (D-TDI), and assesses the results of its application over a study area of about 210 km2 within the Po River Plain (northern Italy). The index is based on transforming the interannual distribution of the transpirative deficit (potential crop transpiration minus actual transpiration), calculated daily by means of a spatially distributed conceptual hydrological model and cumulated over user-selected time-steps, to a standard normal distribution (following the approach proposed by the meteorological index SPI - Standard Precipitation Index). For the application to the study area a uniform maize crop cover (maize is the most widespread crop in the area) and 22-year (1993-2014) meteorological data series were considered. Simulation results consist in maps of the index cumulated over 10-day time steps over a mesh with cells of 250 m. A correlation analysis was carried out (1) to study the characteristics and the memory of D-TDI and to assess its intra- and inter-annual variability, (2) to assess the response of the agricultural drought (i.e., the information provided by D-TDI) to the meteorological drought computed through the SPI over different temporal steps. The D-TDI is positively auto-correlated with a persistence of 30 days, and positively cross-correlated to the SPI with a persistence of 40 days, demonstrating that D-TDI responds to meteorological forcing. Correlation analyses demonstrate that soils

  3. Real-Time Determination of Photosynthesis, Transpiration, Water-Use Efficiency and Gene Expression of Two Sorghum bicolor (Moench Genotypes Subjected to Dry-Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Fracasso

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth and productivity are strongly affected by limited water availability in drought prone environments. The current climate change scenario, characterized by long periods without precipitations followed by short but intense rainfall, forces plants to implement different strategies to cope with drought stress. Understanding how plants use water during periods of limited water availability is of primary importance to identify and select the best adapted genotypes to a certain environment. Two sorghum genotypes IS22330 and IS20351, previously characterized as drought tolerant and drought sensitive genotypes, were subjected to progressive drought stress through a dry-down experiment. A whole-canopy multi-chamber system was used to determine the in vivo water use efficiency (WUE. This system records whole-canopy net photosynthetic and transpiration rate of 12 chambers five times per hour allowing the calculation of whole-canopy instantaneous WUE daily trends. Daily net photosynthesis and transpiration rates were coupled with gene expression dynamics of five drought related genes. Under drought stress, the tolerant genotype increased expression level for all the genes analyzed, whilst the opposite trend was highlighted by the drought sensitive genotype. Correlation between gene expression dynamics and gas exchange measurements allowed to identify three genes as valuable candidate to assess drought tolerance in sorghum.

  4. Real-Time Determination of Photosynthesis, Transpiration, Water-Use Efficiency and Gene Expression of Two Sorghum bicolor (Moench) Genotypes Subjected to Dry-Down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracasso, Alessandra; Magnanini, Eugenio; Marocco, Adriano; Amaducci, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Plant growth and productivity are strongly affected by limited water availability in drought prone environments. The current climate change scenario, characterized by long periods without precipitations followed by short but intense rainfall, forces plants to implement different strategies to cope with drought stress. Understanding how plants use water during periods of limited water availability is of primary importance to identify and select the best adapted genotypes to a certain environment. Two sorghum genotypes IS22330 and IS20351, previously characterized as drought tolerant and drought sensitive genotypes, were subjected to progressive drought stress through a dry-down experiment. A whole-canopy multi-chamber system was used to determine the in vivo water use efficiency (WUE). This system records whole-canopy net photosynthetic and transpiration rate of 12 chambers five times per hour allowing the calculation of whole-canopy instantaneous WUE daily trends. Daily net photosynthesis and transpiration rates were coupled with gene expression dynamics of five drought related genes. Under drought stress, the tolerant genotype increased expression level for all the genes analyzed, whilst the opposite trend was highlighted by the drought sensitive genotype. Correlation between gene expression dynamics and gas exchange measurements allowed to identify three genes as valuable candidate to assess drought tolerance in sorghum.

  5. Sitios de infección por hongos más frecuentes en la zanahoria (Daucus carota L. y patogenicidad en sus diferentes tejidos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Rivera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi from carrot roots collected in the field local market were isolated and identified. Sites of natural infection on the root were recorded. Sixteen genera were identified and their pathogenicity tested by  placing them on: not wounded periderm, pericyclic parenchyma, phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. Half of the total fungi was isolated in both field and market samples. The most frequent natural infection sites were the crown, end of the tap root, and lateral roots. In the pathogenicity tests a gradient of resistance was shown varying from a very high level at periderm to a low level at the xylem parenchyma.  Sclerotinia sclerotiorum,  Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium tricinctum, F. nivale, F. solani, F. oxysporum, Fusarium sp., Trichoderma sp. y Gliocladium sp., all penetrated directly throught the periderm and also infected the other tissues. Geotrivhum candidum Rhizopus stolonifer . Verticillium sp., Penicillium so., and Candida sp. did no intect the periderm, but were pathogenic  to the pericyclic, phloem, and xylem parenchyma. Phoma sp. and Mucor sp. only infected phloem and xylem parenchyma.

  6. Biotic, temporal and spatial variability of tritium concentrations in transpirate samples collected in the vicinity of a near-surface low-level nuclear waste disposal site and nearby research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, J R; Hughes, C E; Harrison, J J; Hankin, S; Crawford, J; Johansen, M; Dyer, L

    2011-06-01

    The results of a 21 month sampling program measuring tritium in tree transpirate with respect to local sources are reported. The aim was to assess the potential of tree transpirate to indicate the presence of sub-surface seepage plumes. Transpirate gathered from trees near low-level nuclear waste disposal trenches contained activity concentrations of (3)H that were significantly higher (up to ∼700 Bq L(-1)) than local background levels (0-10 Bq L(-1)). The effects of the waste source declined rapidly with distance to be at background levels within 10s of metres. A research reactor 1.6 km south of the site contributed significant (p nuclear waste site. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Destruction of an industrial wastewater by supercritical water oxidation in a transpiring wall reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermejo, M.D.; Cocero, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a technology that takes advantage of the special properties of water in the surroundings of critical point of water to completely oxidize wastes in residence times lower than 1 min. The problems caused by the harsh operational conditions of the SCWO process are being solved by new reactor designs, such as the transpiring wall reactor (TWR). In this work, the operational parameters of a TWR have been studied for the treatment of an industrial wastewater. As a result, the process has been optimized for a feed flow of 16 kg/h with feed inlet temperatures higher than 300 deg. C and transpiring flow relation (R) between 0.2 and 0.6 working with an 8% (w/w) isopropanol (IPA) as a fuel. The experimental data and a mathematical model have been applied for the destruction of an industrial waste containing acetic acid and crotonaldehyde as main compounds. As the model predicted, removal efficiencies higher than 99.9% were obtained, resulting in effluents with 2 ppm total organic carbon (TOC) at feed flow of 16 kg/h, 320 deg. C of feed temperature and R = 0.32. An effluent TOC of 35 ppm under conditions feed flow of 18 kg/h, feed inlet temperatures of 290 deg. C, reaction temperatures of 570 deg. C and R = 0.6

  8. Soil water storage, yield, water productivity and transpiration efficiency of soybeans (Glyxine max L.Merr as affected by soil surface management in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo B. Adeboye

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rainfed agriculture has a high yield potential if rainfall and land resources are effectively used. In this study, conventional (NC and six in-situ water conservation practices were used to cultivate Soybean in 2011 and 2012 in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The conservation practices are: Tied ridge (TR, Soil bund (BD, Mulch (ML, Mulch plus Soil bund (MLBD, Tied ridge plus Mulch (TRML, Tied ridge plus Soil bund (TRBD. The practices were arranged in Randomised Complete Block Design with four replicates. Seasonal rainfall was 539 and 761 mm in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Seasonal soil water storage (SWS ranged from 485 mm for NC to 517 mm for TRML in the two seasons. ML increased the SWS in the upper 30 cm of the soil by 17% while TR increased the soil water content in the lower 30–60 cm by 22% compared with NC. ML reduced soil temperature in the upper 30 cm between 2.2 and 2.9 oC compared with NC, TR and TRML. Seasonal crop evapotranspiration ranged between 432 mm for NC and 481 mm for BD in the seasons. Grain yield increased by 41.7% and 44.3% for BD and MLBD, respectively compared with NC. Water conservation practices increased water productivity for grain yield by 14.0–41.8% compared with NC. Similarly, it increased average seasonal transpiration efficiency by 15.3–32.5% compared with NC. These findings demonstrate that when there are fluctuations in rainfall, in-situ water conservation practices improve SWS, land, and water productivity and transpiration efficiency of Soybeans.

  9. Genotypic variation in transpiration efficiency, carbon-isotope discrimination and carbon allocation during early growth in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgona, J.M.; Farquhar, G.D.; Hubick, K.T.; Rawson, H.M.; Downes, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Transpiration efficiency of dry matter production (W), carbon-isotope discrimination (Δ) and dry matter partitioning were measured on six sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes grown for 32 days in a glasshouse. Two watering regimes, one well watered (HW) and the other delivering half the water used by the HW plants (LW), were imposed. Four major results emerged from this study: Three was significant genotypic variation in W in sunflower and this was closely reflected in Δ for both watering treatments; the low watering regime caused a decrease in Δ but no change in W; nonetheless the genotypic ranking for either Δ or W was not significantly altered by water stress; a positive correlation between W and biomass accumulation occurred among genotypes of HW plants; ρ, the ratio of total plant carbon content to leaf area, was positively correlated with W and negatively correlated with Δ. These results are discussed with reference to the connection between transpiration efficiency and plant growth, indicating that Δ can be used to select for W among young sunflower plants. However, selection for W may be accompanied by changes in other important plant growth characteristics such as ρ. 19 refs., 4 figs

  10. High atmospheric demand for water can limit forest carbon uptake and transpiration as severely as dry soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin N. Sulman; Daniel Tyler Roman; Koong Yi; Lixin Wang; Richard P. Phillips; Kimberly A. Novick

    2016-01-01

    When stressed by low soil water content (SWC) or high vapor pressure deficit (VPD), plants close stomata, reducing transpiration and photosynthesis. However, it has historically been difficult to disentangle the magnitudes of VPD compared to SWC limitations on ecosystem-scale fluxes. We used a 13 year record of eddy covariance measurements from a forest in south...

  11. Comparative measurements of transpiration an canopy conductance in two mixed deciduous woodlands differing in structure and species composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Mathias; Rosier, Paul T.W.; Morecroft, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    a continuous hazel (Corylus avellana L.) understory. Wytham Woods, which had an LAI of 3.6, was dominated by ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and had only a sparse understory. Annual canopy transpiration was 367 mm for Grimsbury Wood and 397 mm for Wytham Woods. These values...

  12. Effects of above- and below-ground competition from shrubs on photosynthesis, transpiration and growth in Quercus robur L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna M. Jensen; Magnus Lof; Emile S. Gardiner

    2011-01-01

    For a tree seedling to successfully establish in dense shrubbery, it must maintain function under heterogeneous resource availability. We evaluated leaf-level acclimation in photosynthetic capacity, seedling-level transpiration, and seedling morphology and growth to gain an understanding of the effects of above- and below-ground competition on Quercus robur seedlings....

  13. Nutrient and water addition effects on day- and night-time conductance and transpiration in a C3 desert annual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Jewitt, R.A.; Donovan, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has shown that many C3 plant species have significant stomatal opening and transpire water at night even in desert habitats. Day-time stomatal regulation is expected to maximize carbon gain and prevent runaway cavitation, but little is known about the effect of soil resource

  14. Matériaux architecturés pour refroidissement par transpiration : application aux chambres de combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Pinson , Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    In order to cool aero-engine combustion chambers as efficiently as possible, there is today a special interest given to transpiration cooling technology. The cooling air flows through a porous liner in which a large amount of heat can be exchanged by convection. The air injection could then take benefit of the pore distribution to form a more homogeneous protective boundary layer.Partially sintered metallic materials are potential candidates to form these porous liners. The present work focus...

  15. Transpiration characteristics of forests and shrubland under land cover change within the large caldera of Mt. Aso, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Inoue, A.; Maruyama, A.

    2013-12-01

    Grassland within a caldera of Mt. Aso has been maintained for fertilizer production from grasses and cattle feeding. Due to the changes in the agricultural and social structure since 1950's, a large part of the grassland was converted to plantations or abandoned to shrublands. Because vegetations of different plant functional types differ in evapotranspiration; ET, a research project was launched to examine the effects of the ongoing land use change on the ET within the caldera, and consequently affect the surface and groundwater discharge of the region. As the part of the project, transpiration rate; E of the major 3 forest types were investigated using sap flow measurements. Based on the measured data, stomatal conductance; Gs was inversely calculated and its response to the environmental factors was modeled using Jarvis-type equation in order to estimate ET of a given part of the caldera based on the plant functional type and the weather data. The selected forests were conifer plantation, deciduous broadleaved plantation and shrubland, which were installed with sap flow sensors to calculate stand-level transpiration rate. Sap flux; Js did not show clear differences among sites despite the large differences in sapwood area. In early summer solar radiation was limited to low levels due to frequent rainfall events and therefore, Js was the function of solar radiation rather than other environmental factors, such as vapor pressure deficit and soil water content. Gs was well regressed with the vapor pressure deficit and solar radiation. The estimated E based on Gs model and the weather data was 0.3-1.2 mm day-1 for each site and was comparable to the E of grassland in other study sites. Results suggested that transpiration rate in growing was not different between vegetations but its annual value are thought to differ due to the different phenology.

  16. Differentiating transpiration from evaporation in seasonal agricultural wetlands and the link to advective fluxes in the root zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachand, P.A.M.; S. Bachand,; Fleck, Jacob A.; Anderson, Frank E.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2014-01-01

    The current state of science and engineering related to analyzing wetlands overlooks the importance of transpiration and risks data misinterpretation. In response, we developed hydrologic and mass budgets for agricultural wetlands using electrical conductivity (EC) as a natural conservative tracer. We developed simple differential equations that quantify evaporation and transpiration rates using flowrates and tracer concentrations atwetland inflows and outflows. We used two ideal reactormodel solutions, a continuous flowstirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and a plug flow reactor (PFR), to bracket real non-ideal systems. From those models, estimated transpiration ranged from 55% (CFSTR) to 74% (PFR) of total evapotranspiration (ET) rates, consistent with published values using standard methods and direct measurements. The PFR model more appropriately represents these nonideal agricultural wetlands in which check ponds are in series. Using a fluxmodel, we also developed an equation delineating the root zone depth at which diffusive dominated fluxes transition to advective dominated fluxes. This relationship is similar to the Peclet number that identifies the dominance of advective or diffusive fluxes in surface and groundwater transport. Using diffusion coefficients for inorganic mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) we calculated that during high ET periods typical of summer, advective fluxes dominate root zone transport except in the top millimeters below the sediment–water interface. The transition depth has diel and seasonal trends, tracking those of ET. Neglecting this pathway has profound implications: misallocating loads along different hydrologic pathways; misinterpreting seasonal and diel water quality trends; confounding Fick's First Law calculations when determining diffusion fluxes using pore water concentration data; and misinterpreting biogeochemicalmechanisms affecting dissolved constituent cycling in the root zone. In addition,our understanding of internal

  17. Study of vaporization of sodium metaborate by transpiration thermogravimetry and Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T S Lakshmi; Viswanathan, R; Nalini, S

    2011-11-17

    The vaporization of solid sodium metaborate NaBO(2)(s) was studied by transpiration thermogravimetry (TTG) and Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS). The transpiration measurements, performed for the first time on NaBO(2)(s), involved use of argon as the carrier gas for vapor transport and derivation of vapor pressure of NaBO(2)(g) (by assuming it as the sole vapor species) through many flow-dependence runs and temperature-dependence runs in the temperature range 1075-1218 K. The KEMS measurements performed in the temperature range 1060-1185 K confirmed NaBO(2)(g) as the principal vapor species over NaBO(2)(s), in accord with the previously reported KEMS studies. The values of p(NaBO(2)) obtained by both TTG and KEMS are consistent within the uncertainties associated with each method and so are the second- and third-law values of enthalpy of sublimation, the latter aspect consistently missing in all previous vaporization studies. The results of both TTG and KEMS were combined to recommend the following thermodynamic parameters pertinent to the sublimation reaction, NaBO(2)(s) = NaBO(2)(g): Log{p(NaBO(2))/Pa} = -(17056 ± 441)/(T/K) + (14.73 ± 0.35) for the temperature range 1060-1218 K; Δ(r)H°(m)(298.15 K) = (346.3 ± 9.4) kJ·mol(-1); and Δ(r)S°(m)(298.15 K) = (210.2 ± 6.8) J·mol(-1)·K(-1).

  18. Genotypic variation in carbon isotope discrimination and transpiration efficiency in wheat. Leaf gas exchange and whole plant studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, A.G.; Farquhar, G.D.; Richards, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between carbon isotope discrimination, Δ, measured in plant dry matter and the ratio of intercellular to atmospheric partial pressures of CO 2 ,p i /p a , in leaves was examined in two glasshouse experiments using 14 wheat genotypes selected on the basis of variation in Δ of dry matter. Genotypic variation in Δ was similar in both experiments, with an average range of 1.8 x 10 -3 . Δ measured in dry matter and p i /p a measured in flag leaves were positively correlated. Variation among genotypes in p i /p a was attributed, approximately equally, to variation in leaf conductance and in photosynthetic capacity. The relationship between plant transpiration efficiency, W * (the amount of above-ground dry matter produced per unit water transpired) and Δ was was also examined. The results indicate that genotypic variation in Δ, measured in dry matter, should provide a reasonable measure of genotypic variation in long-term mean leaf p i /p a in wheat. 42 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  19. Genotype-dependent variation in the transpiration efficiency of plants and photosynthetic activity of flag leaves in spring barley under varied nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Anetta; Górny, Andrzej G

    2003-01-01

    In the study, spring barley genotypes of various origin and breeding history were found to show a broad genetic variation in the vegetative and generative measures of the whole-plant transpiration efficiency (TE), photosynthesis (A) and transpiration (E) rates of flag leaves, leaf efficiency of gas exchange (A/E) and stress tolerance (T) when grown till maturity in soil-pots under high and reduced NPK supplies. Broad-sense heritabilities for the characteristics ranged from 0.61 to 0.87. Significant genotype-nutrition interactions were noticed, constituting 19-23% of the total variance in TE measures. The results suggest that at least some 'exotic' accessions from Ethiopia, Syria, Morocco and/or Tibet may serve as attractive genetic sources of novel variations in TE, T and A for the breeding of barleys of improved adaptation to less favourable fertilisation.

  20. Terminal drought-tolerant pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] have high leaf ABA and limit transpiration at high vapour pressure deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholová, Jana; Hash, C T; Kumar, P Lava; Yadav, Rattan S; Kocová, Marie; Vadez, Vincent

    2010-03-01

    It was previously shown that pearl millet genotypes carrying a terminal drought tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL) had a lower transpiration rate (Tr; g cm(-2) d(-1)) under well-watered conditions than sensitive lines. Here experiments were carried out to test whether this relates to leaf abscisic acid (ABA) and Tr concentration at high vapour pressure deficit (VPD), and whether that leads to transpiration efficiency (TE) differences. These traits were measured in tolerant/sensitive pearl millet genotypes, including near-isogenic lines introgressed with a terminal drought tolerance QTL (NIL-QTLs). Most genotypic differences were found under well-watered conditions. ABA levels under well-watered conditions were higher in tolerant genotypes, including NIL-QTLs, than in sensitive genotypes, and ABA did not increase under water stress. Well-watered Tr was lower in tolerant than in sensitive genotypes at all VPD levels. Except for one line, Tr slowed down in tolerant lines above a breakpoint at 1.40-1.90 kPa, with the slope decreasing >50%, whereas sensitive lines showed no change in that Tr response across the whole VPD range. It is concluded that two water-saving (avoidance) mechanisms may operate under well-watered conditions in tolerant pearl millet: (i) a low Tr even at low VPD conditions, which may relate to leaf ABA; and (ii) a sensitivity to higher VPD that further restricts Tr, which suggests the involvement of hydraulic signals. Both traits, which did not lead to TE differences, could contribute to absolute water saving seen in part due to dry weight increase differences. This water saved would become critical for grain filling and deserves consideration in the breeding of terminal drought-tolerant lines.

  1. Isotopic estimation of the evapo-transpiration flux in a plain agricultural region (Po plain, Northern Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmi, Giovanni; Sacchi, Elisa; Zuppi, Gian Maria; Cerasuolo, Marcello; Allais, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Isotopic data from 19-months monitoring of water vapour and monthly precipitation. ► The mean annual weighted δ 18 O in rainwater samples is −6.90 ± 2.2. ► Results interpreted in relationship to climatic factors and to air masses circulation. ► Besides local vapour, moisture is carried by continental and maritime circulations. ► A computational method based on isotopes (EMMA) allows quantifying the local vapour fraction. - Abstract: Samples of water vapour and monthly precipitation were collected in Pavia, located 50 km south of Milan (Western Po plain, Northern Italy), over a period of 19 months, from March 2006 to September 2007. Results are interpreted in relation to the local climatic factors (temperature and precipitation rates), and to air mass circulation patterns, derived from sea level pressure maps, geopotential maps and satellite images. Since most water vapour samples represent a mixture of continental air masses and local evapo-transpiration fluxes, a computational method based on the stable isotope content (EMMA) has been used to evaluate the percentage of the different components and to quantify the local vapour fraction. The regression line equation for rainwater samples is: δ 2 H vs.VSMOW =8.8(±0.5)·δ 18 O vs.SMOW +14.5(±3.5)‰(R 2 =0.96;n=17) The slope of the line is extremely high and probably related to the dataset used, which includes two summer seasons and one winter season. In addition, the latter was somewhat anomalous, with recorded average temperatures higher than the average calculated for the years 1970–2002. The mean annual weighted δ 18 O in rainwater samples is equal to −6.90 ± 2.2‰. The regression line equation for water vapour samples is: δ 2 H vs.VSMOW =6.8(±0.3)·δ 18 O vs.SMOW -7.4(±4.9)‰(R 2 =0.92;n=37). The two regression lines meet at δ 18 O = −10.82 ± 13.97‰. This value appears more depleted than the mean annual weighted precipitation value, but is close to the isotope

  2. Relationship of transpiration and evapotranspiration to solar radiation and spectral reflectance in soybean [Glycine max] canopies: A simple method for remote sensing of canopy transpiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.N.; Inoue, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The study investigated diurnal and seasonal dynamics of evapotranspiration (ET) and transpiration (Tr) in a soybean canopy, as well as the relationships among ET, Tr, solar radiation and remotely sensed spectral reflectance. The eddy covariance method (ECM) and stem heat balance method (SHBM) were used for independent measurement of ET and Tr, respectively. Micrometeorological, soil, and spectral reflectance data were acquired for the entire growing season. The instantaneous values of canopy-Tr estimated by SHBM and ET by ECM were well synchronized with each other, and both were strongly affected by the solar radiation. The daily values canopy-Tr increased rapidly with increasing leaf area index (LAI), and got closer to the ET even at a low value of LAI such as 1.5-2. The daily values of ET were moderately correlated with global solar radiation (Rs), and more closely with the potential evapotranspiration (ETp), estimated by the 'radiation method.' This fact supported the effectiveness of the simple radiation method in estimation of evapotranspiration. The ratio of Tr/ET as well as the ratio of ground heat flux (G) to Rs (G/Rs) was closely related to LAI, and LAI was a key variable in determining the energy partitioning to soil and vegetation. It was clearly shown that a remotely sensed vegetation index such as SAVI (soil adjusted vegetation index) was effective for estimating LAI, and further useful for directly estimating energy partitioning to soil and vegetation. The G and Tr/ET were both well estimated by the vegetation index. It was concluded that the combination of a simple radiation method with remotely sensed information can provide useful information on energy partitioning and Tr/ET in vegetation canopies

  3. Partitioning of evaporation into transpiration, soil evaporation and interception : A comparison between isotope measurements and a HYDRUS-1D model + Corrigendum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanto, S.J.; Wenninger, J.; Coenders-Gerrits, A.M.J.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    Knowledge of the water fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system is crucial to improve water use efficiency in irrigated land. Many studies have tried to quantify these fluxes, but they encountered difficulties in quantifying the relative contribution of evaporation and transpiration. In

  4. Transpiration and stomatal conductance in a young secondary tropical montane forest: contrasts between native trees and invasive understorey shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Chandra Prasad; Bruijnzeel, L Adrian; Lubczynski, Maciek W; Zwartendijk, Bob W; Odongo, Vincent Omondi; Ravelona, Maafaka; van Meerveld, H J Ilja

    2018-04-21

    It has been suggested that vigorous secondary tropical forests can have very high transpiration rates, but sap flow and stomatal conductance dynamics of trees and shrubs in these forests are understudied. In an effort to address this knowledge gap, sap flow (thermal dissipation method, 12 trees) and stomatal conductance (porometry, six trees) were measured for young (5-7 years) Psiadia altissima (DC.) Drake trees, a widely occurring species dominating young regrowth following abandonment of swidden agriculture in upland eastern Madagascar. In addition, stomatal conductance (gs) was determined for three individuals of two locally common invasive shrubs (Lantana camara L. and Rubus moluccanus L.) during three periods with contrasting soil moisture conditions. Values of gs for the three investigated species were significantly higher and more sensitive to climatic conditions during the wet period compared with the dry period. Further, gs of the understorey shrubs was much more sensitive to soil moisture content than that of the trees. Tree transpiration rates (Ec) were relatively stable during the dry season and were only affected somewhat by soil water content at the end of the dry season, suggesting the trees had continued access to soil water despite drying out of the topsoil. The Ec exhibited a plateau-shaped relation with vapour pressure deficit (VPD), which was attributed to stomatal closure at high VPD. Vapour pressure deficit was the major driver of variation in Ec, during both the wet and the dry season. Overall water use of the trees was modest, possibly reflecting low site fertility after three swidden cultivation cycles. The observed contrast in gs response to soil water and climatic conditions for the trees and shrubs underscores the need to take root distributions into account when modelling transpiration from regenerating tropical forests.

  5. Integrating modelling and phenotyping approaches to identify and screen complex traits - Illustration for transpiration efficiency in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, K; van Oosterom, E J; McLean, G; Deifel, K S; Fletcher, A; Geetika, G; Tirfessa, A; Mace, E S; Jordan, D R; Sulman, R; Hammer, G L

    2018-02-21

    Following advances in genetics, genomics, and phenotyping, trait selection in breeding is limited by our ability to understand interactions within the plants and with their environments, and to target traits of most relevance for the target population of environments. We propose an integrated approach that combines insights from crop modelling, physiology, genetics, and breeding to identify traits valuable for yield gain in the target population of environments, develop relevant high-throughput phenotyping platforms, and identify genetic controls and their values in production environments. This paper uses transpiration efficiency (biomass produced per unit of water used) as an example of a complex trait of interest to illustrate how the approach can guide modelling, phenotyping, and selection in a breeding program. We believe that this approach, by integrating insights from diverse disciplines, can increase the resource use efficiency of breeding programs for improving yield gains in target populations of environments.

  6. Simultaneous cell death and desquamation of the embryonic diffusion barrier during epidermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saathoff, Manuela; Blum, Barbara; Quast, Thomas; Kirfel, Gregor; Herzog, Volker

    2004-01-01

    The periderm is an epithelial layer covering the emerging epidermis in early embryogenesis of vertebrates. In the chicken embryo, an additional cellular layer, the subperiderm, occurs at later embryonic stages underneath the periderm. The questions arose what is the function of both epithelial layers and, as they are transitory structures, by which mechanism are they removed. By immunocytochemistry, the tight junction (TJ) proteins occludin and claudin-1 were localized in the periderm and in the subperiderm, and sites of close contact between adjacent cells were detected by electron microscopy. Using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as tracer, these contacts were identified as tight junctions involved in the formation of the embryonic diffusion barrier. This barrier was lost by desquamation at the end of the embryonic period, when the cornified envelope of the emerging epidermis was formed. By TUNEL and DNA ladder assays, we detected simultaneous cell death in the periderm and the subperiderm shortly before hatching. The absence of caspases-3, -6, and -7 activity, key enzymes of apoptosis, and the lack of typical morphological criteria of apoptosis such as cell fragmentation or membrane blebbing point to a special form of programmed cell death (PCD) leading to the desquamation of the embryonic diffusion barrier

  7. Detailed modeling of electron emission for transpiration cooling of hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanquist, Kyle M.; Hara, Kentaro; Boyd, Iain D.

    2017-02-01

    Electron transpiration cooling (ETC) is a recently proposed approach to manage the high heating loads experienced at the sharp leading edges of hypersonic vehicles. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to investigate the feasibility of ETC in a hypersonic environment. A modeling approach is presented for ETC, which includes developing the boundary conditions for electron emission from the surface, accounting for the space-charge limit effects of the near-wall plasma sheath. The space-charge limit models are assessed using 1D direct-kinetic plasma sheath simulations, taking into account the thermionically emitted electrons from the surface. The simulations agree well with the space-charge limit theory proposed by Takamura et al. for emitted electrons with a finite temperature, especially at low values of wall bias, which validates the use of the theoretical model for the hypersonic CFD code. The CFD code with the analytical sheath models is then used for a test case typical of a leading edge radius in a hypersonic flight environment. The CFD results show that ETC can lower the surface temperature of sharp leading edges of hypersonic vehicles, especially at higher velocities, due to the increase in ionized species enabling higher electron heat extraction from the surface. The CFD results also show that space-charge limit effects can limit the ETC reduction of surface temperatures, in comparison to thermionic emission assuming no effects of the electric field within the sheath.

  8. Effect of near-infrared-radiation reflective screen materials on ventilation requirement, crop transpiration and water use efficiency of a greenhouse rose crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanghellini, C.; Jianfeng, D.; Kempkes, F.L.K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of Near Infrared (NIR)-reflective screen material on ventilation requirement, crop transpiration and water use efficiency of a greenhouse rose crop was investigated in an experiment whereby identical climate was ensured in greenhouse compartments installed with either NIR-reflective or

  9. Effect of a short and severe intermittent drought on transpiration, seed yield components, and harvest index in four landraces of bambara groundnut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren Thorndal; Ntundu, W.H.; Ouédraogo, M.

    2011-01-01

    % of pot holding capacity until seed maturity or drought-stressed (DS) in the period from 76 to 85 days after sowing (flowering and early podding stage). During drought, although the total water use differed among the four landraces, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance (gs) responded similarly...... to soil drying. The high soil water thresholds for the reduction of transpiration rate and gs of bambara groundnuts indicate their great sensitivity in the stomatal control over plant water loss during soil drying. Even though the shoot dry weight at maturity was hardly affected by DS, seed yield, seed...... number, and harvest index were all significantly decreased in the DS plants. Among landraces, LunT and Ramayana were more susceptible to DS than S19-3 and Uniswa Red in terms of reduction of seed number and seed yield. The different responses of the landraces to DS may reflect their adaptation...

  10. Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

    2013-04-15

    Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its

  11. Quantifying structural and physiological controls on variation in canopy transpiration among planted pine and hardwood species in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelcy R. Ford; Robert M. Hubbard; James M. Vose

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that planted pine stands exhibit higher evapotranspiration (ET) and are more sensitive to climatic conditions compared with hardwood stands. Whether this is due to management and stand effects, biological effects or their interaction is poorly understood. We estimated growing season canopy- and sap flux-scaled leaf-level transpiration (Ec and...

  12. Transpiration efficiency: new insights into an old story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadez, Vincent; Kholova, Jana; Medina, Susan; Kakkera, Aparna; Anderberg, Hanna

    2014-11-01

    Producing more food per unit of water has never been as important as it is at present, and the demand for water by economic sectors other than agriculture will necessarily put a great deal of pressure on a dwindling resource, leading to a call for increases in the productivity of water in agriculture. This topic has been given high priority in the research agenda for the last 30 years, but with the exception of a few specific cases, such as water-use-efficient wheat in Australia, breeding crops for water-use efficiency has yet to be accomplished. Here, we review the efforts to harness transpiration efficiency (TE); that is, the genetic component of water-use efficiency. As TE is difficult to measure, especially in the field, evaluations of TE have relied mostly on surrogate traits, although this has most likely resulted in over-dependence on the surrogates. A new lysimetric method for assessing TE gravimetrically throughout the entire cropping cycle has revealed high genetic variation in different cereals and legumes. Across species, water regimes, and a wide range of genotypes, this method has clearly established an absence of relationships between TE and total water use, which dismisses previous claims that high TE may lead to a lower production potential. More excitingly, a tight link has been found between these large differences in TE in several crops and attributes of plants that make them restrict water losses under high vapour-pressure deficits. This trait provides new insight into the genetics of TE, especially from the perspective of plant hydraulics, probably with close involvement of aquaporins, and opens new possibilities for achieving genetic gains via breeding focused on this trait. Last but not least, small amounts of water used in specific periods of the crop cycle, such as during grain filling, may be critical. We assessed the efficiency of water use at these critical stages. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  13. Tolerance of citrus plants to the combination of high temperatures and drought is associated to the increase in transpiration modulated by a reduction in abscisic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandalinas, Sara I; Rivero, Rosa M; Martínez, Vicente; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Arbona, Vicent

    2016-04-27

    In natural environments, several adverse environmental conditions occur simultaneously constituting a unique stress factor. In this work, physiological parameters and the hormonal regulation of Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin, two citrus genotypes, in response to the combined action of high temperatures and water deprivation were studied. The objective was to characterize particular responses to the stress combination. Experiments indicated that Carrizo citrange is more tolerant to the stress combination than Cleopatra mandarin. Furthermore, an experimental design spanning 24 h stress duration, heat stress applied alone induced higher stomatal conductance and transpiration in both genotypes whereas combined water deprivation partially counteracted this response. Comparing both genotypes, Carrizo citrange showed higher phostosystem-II efficiency and lower oxidative damage than Cleopatra mandarin. Hormonal profiling in leaves revealed that salicylic acid (SA) accumulated in response to individual stresses but to a higher extent in samples subjected to the combination of heat and drought (showing an additive response). SA accumulation correlated with the up-regulation of pathogenesis-related gene 2 (CsPR2), as a downstream response. On the contrary, abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation was higher in water-stressed plants followed by that observed in plants under stress combination. ABA signaling in these plants was confirmed by the expression of responsive to ABA-related gene 18 (CsRAB18). Modulation of ABA levels was likely carried out by the induction of 9-neoxanthin cis-epoxicarotenoid dioxygenase (CsNCED) and ABA 8'-hydroxylase (CsCYP707A) while conversion to ABA-glycosyl ester (ABAGE) was a less prominent process despite the strong induction of ABA O-glycosyl transferase (CsAOG). Cleopatra mandarin is more susceptible to the combination of high temperatures and water deprivation than Carrizo citrange. This is likely a result of a higher transpiration rate in

  14. ANNUAL AND DIURNAL CYCLES OF THE INVERSE RELATION BETWEEN PLANT TRANSPIRATION AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Alonso Moreno

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding biogeochemical cycles and especially carbon budgets is clue to validate global change models in the present and near future. As a consequence, sinks and sources of carbon in the world are being studied. One of those sinks is the non-well known behavior of the planet vegetation which involves the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Carbon sequestration rates are highly related to the transpiration through a molecular diffusion process occurring at the stomatal level which can be recorded by an eddy covariance micrometeorological station. This paper explores annual and diurnal cycles of latent heat (LE and CO2 net (FC fluxes over 6 different ecosystems. Based on the physics of the transpiration process, different time-scale analysis are performed, finding a near-linear relation between LE and CO2 net fluxes, which is stronger at the more vegetated areas. The North American monsoon season increases carbon up taking and LE-CO2 flux relation preserves at different time scales analysis (hours to days to months.El conocimiento de los ciclos biogeoquímicos y, en especial, de los balances de carbono es clave para la validación de los modelos de cambio global para el presente y el futuro cercano. Como consecuencia, en el mundo se estudian las fuentes y los sumideros de carbono. Uno de esos sumideros es la vegetación del planeta, que involucra los procesos de respiración y fotosíntesis y cuyo comportamiento se empieza a estudiar. Las tasas de captura del carbono están muy ligadas a la transpiración mediante un proceso de difusión molecular en los estomas, que puede registrarse por un sistema micrometeorológico de eddy covarianza. Este artículo explora los ciclos anuales y diurnos de los flujos netos de CO2 y calor latente de seis ecosistemas diferentes. Se desarrollan diversos análisis de escala temporal, basados en la física de la transpiración, y se halla una relación cuasilineal entre los flujos netos de calor

  15. Wheat cultivars selected for high Fv/Fm under heat stress maintain high photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, stomatal conductance, transpiration and dry matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl Otto

    2015-01-01

    ) than the low group, accompanied by higher stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E) and evaporative cooling of the leaf (ΔT). The difference in PN between the groups was not caused by differences in PSII capacity or gs as the variation in Fv/Fm and intracellular CO2 (Ci) was non...

  16. Water- and nitrogen-dependent alterations in the inheritance mode of transpiration efficiency in winter wheat at the leaf and whole-plant level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Dominika; Górny, Andrzej G

    2012-11-01

    The effects of contrasting water and nitrogen (N) supply on the observed inheritance mode of transpiration efficiency (TE) at the flag-leaf and whole-season levels were examined in winter wheat. Major components of the photosynthetic capacity of leaves and the season-integrated efficiency of water use in vegetative and grain mass formation were evaluated in parental lines of various origins and their diallel F(2)-hybrids grown in a factorial experiment under different moisture and N status of the soil. A broad genetic variation was mainly found for the season-long TE measures. The variation range in the leaf photosynthetic indices was usually narrow, but tended to slightly enhance under water and N shortage. Genotype-treatment interaction effects were significant for most characters. No consistency between the leaf- and season-long TE measures was observed. Preponderance of additivity-dependent variance was mainly identified for the season-integrated TE and leaf CO(2) assimilation rate. Soil treatments exhibited considerable influence on the phenotypic expression of gene action for the residual leaf measures. The contribution of non-additive gene effects and degree of dominance tended to increase in water- and N-limited plants, especially for the leaf transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. The results indicate that promise exists to improve the season-integrated TE. However, selection for TE components should be prolonged for later hybrid generations to eliminate the masking of non-additive causes. Such evaluation among families grown under sub-optimal water and nitrogen supply seems to be the most promising strategy in winter wheat.

  17. [Photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and water use efficiency of cotton canopy in oasis edge of Linze].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ting-Ting; Su, Pei-Xi; Gao, Song

    2010-06-01

    The measurement system of Li-8100 carbon flux and the modified assimilation chamber were used to study the photosynthetic characteristics of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) canopy in the oasis edge region in middle reach of Heihe River Basin, mid Hexi Corridor of Gansu. At the experimental site, soil respiration and evaporation rates were significantly higher in late June than in early August, and the diurnal variation of canopy photosynthetic rate showed single-peak type. The photosynthetic rate was significantly higher (P transpiration rate also presented single-peak type, with the daily average value in late June and early August being (3.10 +/- 0.34) mmol H2O x m(-2) x s(-1) and (1.60 +/- 0.26) mmol H2O x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively, and differed significantly (P efficiency in late June and early August was (15.67 +/- 1.77) mmol CO2 x mol(-1) H2O and (23.08 +/- 5.54) mmol CO2 x mol(-1) H2O, respectively, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Both in late June and in early August, the canopy photosynthetic rate was positively correlated with air temperature, PAR, and soil moisture content, suggesting that there was no midday depression of photosynthesis in the two periods. In August, the canopy photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate decreased significantly, because of the lower soil moisture content and leaf senescence, but the canopy water use efficiency had no significant decrease.

  18. Modelling soil temperature and moisture and corresponding seasonality of photosynthesis and transpiration in a boreal spruce ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. H.; Jansson, P.-E.

    2013-02-01

    Recovery of photosynthesis and transpiration is strongly restricted by low temperatures in air and/or soil during the transition period from winter to spring in boreal zones. The extent to which air temperature (Ta) and soil temperature (Ts) influence the seasonality of photosynthesis and transpiration of a boreal spruce ecosystem was investigated using a process-based ecosystem model (CoupModel) together with eddy covariance (EC) data from one eddy flux tower and nearby soil measurements at Knottåsen, Sweden. A Monte Carlo-based uncertainty method (GLUE) provided prior and posterior distributions of simulations representing a wide range of soil conditions and performance indicators. The simulated results showed sufficient flexibility to predict the measured cold and warm Ts in the moist and dry plots around the eddy flux tower. Moreover, the model presented a general ability to describe both biotic and abiotic processes for the Norway spruce stand. The dynamics of sensible heat fluxes were well described by the corresponding latent heat fluxes and net ecosystem exchange of CO2. The parameter ranges obtained are probably valid to represent regional characteristics of boreal conifer forests, but were not easy to constrain to a smaller range than that produced by the assumed prior distributions. Finally, neglecting the soil temperature response function resulted in fewer behavioural models and probably more compensatory errors in other response functions for regulating the seasonality of ecosystem fluxes.

  19. Quantifying the Components of Evapotranspiration from Plant Communities, Soil Evaporation and Plant Transpiration, with Oxygen-18 Isotopes and Micrometeorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denmead, Tom [CSIRO Centre for Environmental Mechanics, GPO Box 821, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Heng, Lee; Nguyen, Long [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Section, IAEA (Austria); Zeeman, Matthias [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); Mayr, Leo; Arrillaga, Jose Luis [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, IAEA (Austria); Cepuder, Peter [Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, Institute for Hydraulics and Rural Water Management (BOKU), Vienna (Austria)

    2013-01-15

    The Keeling plot (Keeling, 1961) approach has been shown to provide an estimate of the relative proportions of water vapour emanating from evaporation (E) from soil, and transpiration (T) from the plant canopy (Moreira et. al., 1997; Williams et al., 2004). This estimate can be used in conjunction with measurements of the net water vapour flux and evapotranspiration (ET), to quantify the E and T components using an Inverse Lagrangian (IL) approach based on canopy turbulence (Raupach, 1989), which allows the identification of water vapour in the different canopy layers (Denmead et al., 2005). A study was carried out on a wheat crop over a 3-day period in April (daily temperatures ranged from 14-23''oC) at the BOKU experimental field outside Vienna to provide an independent check of the relative proportions of soil evaporation (E) and plant transpiration (T) estimated by the Keeling plot {sigma}{sup 18}O isotope analysis and by the application of the IL model of water vapour transport in plant canopies. The eddy covariance instrumentation to measure ET was provided by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. Transpiration rates, estimated by the {sigma}{sup 18}O isotopic technique were similar to those derived from Inverse Lagrangian analyses. indicating that the IL and isotopic analyses gave essentially the same partitioning of evapotranspiration into E and T. The use of the IL analysis to determine water vapour in different segments of the canopy is illustrated. In these observations the soil was dry (9-12 %) and soil evaporation was small. The eddy covariance approach confirmed the correctness of the IL analysis for the total water loss from the canopy (to within 6%) (data not shown). The IL and the isotopic analyses gave essentially the same partitioning of ET into E and T for 3 days on a dry soil. The isotopic analysis using {sigma}{sup 18}O gave E/ET {approx} 4% and T/ET {approx} 96%, while IL analysis gave corresponding figures

  20. Effect of Vertical Canopy Architecture on Transpiration, Thermoregulation and Carbon Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirtha Banerjee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the impact of natural and anthropogenic disturbances such as deforestation, forest fires and vegetation thinning among others on net ecosystem—atmosphere exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor and heat—is an important aspect in the context of modeling global carbon, water and energy cycles. The absence of canopy architectural variation in horizontal and vertical directions is a major source of uncertainty in current climate models attempting to address these issues. This manuscript demonstrates the importance of considering the vertical distribution of foliage density by coupling a leaf level plant biophysics model with analytical solutions of wind flow and light attenuation in a horizontally homogeneous canopy. It is demonstrated that plant physiological response in terms of carbon assimilation, transpiration and canopy surface temperature can be widely different for two canopies with the same leaf area index (LAI but different leaf area density distributions, under several conditions of wind speed, light availability, soil moisture availability and atmospheric evaporative demand.

  1. Genetic variation in a grapevine progeny (Vitis vinifera L. cvs Grenache×Syrah) reveals inconsistencies between maintenance of daytime leaf water potential and response of transpiration rate under drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Lebon, Éric; Christophe, Angélique; Doligez, Agnès; Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Péchier, Philippe; Hamard, Philippe; This, Patrice; Simonneau, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    In the face of water stress, plants evolved with different abilities to limit the decrease in leaf water potential, notably in the daytime (ΨM). So-called isohydric species efficiently maintain high ΨM, whereas anisohydric species cannot prevent ΨM from dropping as soil water deficit develops. The genetic and physiological origins of these differences in (an)isohydric behaviours remain to be clarified. This is of particular interest within species such as Vitis vinifera L. where continuous variation in the level of isohydry has been observed among cultivars. With this objective, a 2 year experiment was conducted on the pseudo-F1 progeny from a cross between the two widespread cultivars Syrah and Grenache using a phenotyping platform coupled to a controlled-environment chamber. Potted plants of all the progeny were analysed for ΨM, transpiration rate, and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, under both well-watered and water deficit conditions. A high genetic variability was found for all the above traits. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for ΨM under water deficit conditions, and 28 other QTLs were detected for the different traits in either condition. Genetic variation in ΨM maintenance under water deficit weakly correlated with drought-induced reduction in transpiration rate in the progeny, and QTLs for both traits did not completely co-localize. This indicates that genetic variation in the control of ΨM under water deficit was not due simply to variation in transpiration sensitivity to soil drying. Possible origins of the diversity in (an)isohydric behaviours in grapevine are discussed on the basis of concurrent variations in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal control of transpiration. PMID:25381432

  2. Canopy transpiration of two black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) plantations with different ages in semi-arid Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, L.

    2015-12-01

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) was widely planted to control soil erosion and restore degraded ecosystem in Loess Plateau. The water use of the plantations was concerned due to its potential effects on hydrological cycle and regional water resource. Although some studies estimated canopy transpiration (Ec) of the mature black locust plantation, variation in Ec in plantations with different ages was not clear. In this study, we selected two plantations with different ages (12 years and 27 years, denoted as young stand and mature stand, respectively) in similar topographical conditions in Yangjuangou catchment in the central of Loess Plateau. Sap flux density (Fd) and tree biometrics were measured in each stand during the growing season in 2014. Soil water content (SWC) in each plot and meteorological variables in the catchment were simultaneously monitored. Tree transpiration (Et) was derived from Fd and tree sapwood area (As). Canopy transpiration (Ec) was estimated by a product of mean stand sap flux density (Js) and stand total sapwood area (AST). The mean Fd of mature trees was 2-fold larger than that of young trees.However, tree-to-tree variation in Fd among sampled trees within mature stand was evident compared to that within young stand. Mean Et in mature stand was higher than that in young stand. Ec in mature stand was significant higher than that in young stand,with cumulative value of 54 mm and 27 mm respectively. This is attributed to higher Js in mature stand although AST in young is slightly higher than that in mature stand. The patterns of daily Ec during the growing season were similar in both stands during the study period. A exponential saturation model can explain the responses of Ec to vapor deficit pressure (VPD) and solar radiation (Rs) in both stands.The relationship between Ec and SWC was not detected. Our finding suggested that stand age should be taken into consideration when estimated vegetation water use in this region. Further

  3. Assessment of transpiration efficiency in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under drought using a lysimetric system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakumar, P; Vadez, V; Nigam, S N; Krishnamurthy, L

    2009-11-01

    Transpiration efficiency (TE) is an important trait for drought tolerance in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The variation in TE was assessed gravimetrically using a long time interval in nine peanut genotypes (Chico, ICGS 44, ICGV 00350, ICGV 86015, ICGV 86031, ICGV 91114, JL 24, TAG 24 and TMV 2) grown in lysimeters under well-watered or drought conditions. Transpiration was measured by regularly weighing the lysimeters, in which the soil surface was mulched with a 2-cm layer of polythene beads. TE in the nine genotypes used varied from 1.4 to 2.9 g kg(-1) under well-watered and 1.7 to 2.9 g kg(-1) under drought conditions, showing consistent variation in TE among genotypes. A higher TE was found in ICGV 86031 in both well-watered and drought conditions and lower TE was found in TAG-24 under both water regimes. Although total water extraction differed little across genotypes, the pattern of water extraction from the soil profile varied among genotypes. High water extraction within 24 days following stress imposition was negatively related to pod yield (r(2) = 0.36), and negatively related to water extraction during a subsequent period of 32 days (r(2) = 0.73). By contrast, the latter, i.e. water extraction during a period corresponding to grain filling (24 to 56 days after flowering) was positively related to pod yield (r(2) = 0.36). TE was positively correlated with pod weight (r(2) = 0.30) under drought condition. Our data show that under an intermittent drought regime, TE and water extraction from the soil profile during a period corresponding to pod filling were the most important components.

  4. Changes in transpiration rate of SO/sub 2/-resistant and -sensitive plants with SO/sub 2/ fumigation and the participation of abscisic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, N.; Sugahara, K.

    1978-01-01

    Peanut and tomato plants were resistant to 2.0 ppm SO/sub 2/, while radish, perilla and spinach plants were sensitive. The amounts of SO/sub 2/ absorbed by peanut and tomato were obviously less than those absorbed by radish, perilla and spinach. Transpiration rates of peanut and tomato began to decrease within 5 min after the commencement of SO/sub 2/ fumigation and reached minimum levels, i.e., 10 and 50% for the initial levels, respectively, after initiation of fumigation, then declined. Those of radish and spinach did not change for about 20 and 30 min, then decreased gradually. The content of abscisic acid (ABA) was highest in peanut. The content in tomato was also high, but low in radish, perilla and spinach. Radish supplied with exogenous ABA began to decrease its transpiration rate immediately after SO/sub 2/ fumigation and was markedly resistant to SO/sub 2/. ABA in leaves may control the rapid stomatal closure following SO/sub 2/ fumigation. 26 references.

  5. Cell surface carbohydrate changes during embryonic and fetal skin development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Holbrook, K; Clausen, H

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to four type 2 chain carbohydrate antigens were used for immunohistochemical studies of embryonic and fetal skin. The antibodies detected N-acetyllactosamine and 3 fucosyl substitutes of this, blood group antigen H, Lex, and Ley. Periderm consistently stained for N-acetyllac......Monoclonal antibodies to four type 2 chain carbohydrate antigens were used for immunohistochemical studies of embryonic and fetal skin. The antibodies detected N-acetyllactosamine and 3 fucosyl substitutes of this, blood group antigen H, Lex, and Ley. Periderm consistently stained for N...

  6. Do Reductions in Dry Season Transpiration Allow Shallow Soil Water Uptake to Persist in a Tropical Lower Montane Cloud Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Villers, L. E.; Holwerda, F.; Alvarado-Barrientos, M. S.; Goldsmith, G. R.; Geissert Kientz, D. R.; González Martínez, T. M.; Dawson, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) are ecosystems particularly sensitive to climate change; however, the effects of warmer and drier conditions on TMCF water cycling remain poorly understood. To investigate the plant functional response to reduced water availability, we conducted a study during the mid to late dry season (2014) in the lower limit (1,325 m asl) of the TMCF belt (1200-2500 m asl) in central Veracruz, Mexico. The temporal variation of transpiration rates of dominant upper canopy and mid-story tree species, depth of water uptake, as well as tree water sources were examined using micrometeorological, sapflow and soil moisture measurements, in combination with data on stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) composition of rain, tree xylem, soil (bulk and low suction-lysimeter) and stream water. The sapflow data suggest that crown conductances decreased as temperature and vapor pressure deficit increased, and soil moisture decreased from the mid to late dry season. Across all samplings (January 21, April 12 and 26), upper canopy species (Quercus spp.) showed more depleted (negative) isotope values compared to mid-story trees (Carpinus tropicalis). Overall, we found that the evaporated soil water pool was the main source for the trees. Furthermore, our MixSIAR Bayesian mixing model results showed that the depth of tree water uptake changed over the course of the dry season. Unexpectedly, a shift in water uptake from deeper (60-120 cm depth) to shallower soil water (0-30 cm) sources was observed, coinciding with the decreases in transpiration rates towards the end of the dry season. A larger reduction in deep soil water contributions was observed for upper canopy trees (from 70±14 to 22±15%) than for mid-story species (from 10±13 to 7±10%). The use of shallow soil water by trees during the dry season seems consistent with the greater root biomass and higher macronutrient concentrations found in the first 10 cm of the soil profiles. These findings are an

  7. How soil water storage moderates climate changes effects on transpiration, across the different climates of the Critical Zone Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, C.; Tague, C.

    2017-12-01

    While the demand side of transpiration is predicted to increase under a warmer climate, actual evapotranspiration (AET) will be moderated by the supply of water available to vegetation. A key question to ask is how will plant accessible water storage capacity (PAWSC) affect the partitioning of precipitation between AET and runoff. Our results indicate that whether AET increases or decreases, and how much, is significantly based upon interactions between PAWSC and characteristics of precipitation such as the amount, frequency, and skew as well the partitioning between rain and snow. In snow dominated climates, if PAWSC cannot make up for the loss of storage as snowpack then AET could decrease, and in rain dominated climates, PAWSC could significantly limit the increase in AET. These results highlight the importance of critical zone research: constraining PAWSC is critical in predicting not only the magnitude but also the direction of the change in AET with climate warming. Due to the highly heterogeneous nature of PAWSC and the difficulty of measuring it across large scales, we use a well-tested hydrologic model to estimate the impacts from a range of PAWSC on the partitioning of precipitation between runoff and AET. We completed this analysis for the range of precipitation and vegetation characteristics found across 9 of the Critical Zone Observatories.

  8. Identification of irradiated food. III. Identification of irradiated potato tubers by means of a test based on the cellular proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Mazon Matanzo, M.P.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on the formation of the wound periderm in potato tubers cut in halves and on the proliferation of the potato parenchyma cultivated ''in vitro'' is studied. Doses of 3 Krad and higher ones completely inhibit the formation of the wound periderm and the growth of protuberances in the fragments of the parenchyma cultivated ''in vitro''. In the control and IPC treated tubers the proliferation was normal and abundant, in the tubers as well as in the potato parenchyma tissues cultivated ''in vitro''.(author) [es

  9. Rates of nocturnal transpiration in two evergreen temperate woodland species with differing water-use strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppel, Melanie; Tissue, David; Taylor, Daniel; Macinnis-Ng, Catriona; Eamus, Derek

    2010-08-01

    Nocturnal fluxes may be a significant factor in the annual water budget of forested ecosystems. Here, we assessed sap flow in two co-occurring evergreen species (Eucalyptus parramattensis and Angophora bakeri) in a temperate woodland for 2 years in order to quantify the magnitude of seasonal nocturnal sap flow (E(n)) under different environmental conditions. The two species showed different diurnal water relations, demonstrated by different diurnal curves of stomatal conductance, sap flow and leaf water potential. The relative influence of several microclimatic variables, including wind speed (U), vapour pressure deficit (D), the product of U and D (UD) and soil moisture content, were quantified. D exerted the strongest influence on E(n) (r² = 0.59-0.86), soil moisture content influenced E(n) when D was constant, but U and UD did not generally influence E(n). In both species, cuticular conductance (G(c)) was a small proportion of total leaf conductance (G(s)) and was not a major pathway for E(n). We found that E(n) was primarily a function of transpiration from the canopy rather than refilling of stem storage, with canopy transpiration accounting for 50-70% of nocturnal flows. Mean E(n) was 6-8% of the 24-h flux across seasons (spring, summer and winter), but was up to 19% of the 24-h flux on some days in both species. Despite different daytime strategies in water use of the two species, both species demonstrated low night-time water loss, suggesting similar controls on water loss at night. In order to account for the impact of E(n) on pre-dawn leaf water potential arising from the influence of disequilibria between root zone and leaf water potential, we also developed a simple model to more accurately predict soil water potential (ψ(s)).

  10. Differential gene expression of wheat progeny with contrasting levels of transpiration efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gang-Ping; McIntyre, C Lynne; Chapman, Scott; Bower, Neil I; Way, Heather; Reverter, Antonio; Clarke, Bryan; Shorter, Ray

    2006-08-01

    High water use efficiency or transpiration efficiency (TE) in wheat is a desirable physiological trait for increasing grain yield under water-limited environments. The identification of genes associated with this trait would facilitate the selection for genotypes with higher TE using molecular markers. We performed an expression profiling (microarray) analysis of approximately 16,000 unique wheat ESTs to identify genes that were differentially expressed between wheat progeny lines with contrasting TE levels from a cross between Quarrion (high TE) and Genaro 81 (low TE). We also conducted a second microarray analysis to identify genes responsive to drought stress in wheat leaves. Ninety-three genes that were differentially expressed between high and low TE progeny lines were identified. One fifth of these genes were markedly responsive to drought stress. Several potential growth-related regulatory genes, which were down-regulated by drought, were expressed at a higher level in the high TE lines than the low TE lines and are potentially associated with a biomass production component of the Quarrion-derived high TE trait. Eighteen of the TE differentially expressed genes were further analysed using quantitative RT-PCR on a separate set of plant samples from those used for microarray analysis. The expression levels of 11 of the 18 genes were positively correlated with the high TE trait, measured as carbon isotope discrimination (Delta(13)C). These data indicate that some of these TE differentially expressed genes are candidates for investigating processes that underlie the high TE trait or for use as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for TE.

  11. Nutrient and water addition effects on day- and night-time conductance and transpiration in a C3 desert annual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Fulco; Jewitt, Rebecca A; Donovan, Lisa A

    2006-06-01

    Recent research has shown that many C3 plant species have significant stomatal opening and transpire water at night even in desert habitats. Day-time stomatal regulation is expected to maximize carbon gain and prevent runaway cavitation, but little is known about the effect of soil resource availability on night-time stomatal conductance (g) and transpiration (E). Water (low and high) and nutrients (low and high) were applied factorially during the growing season to naturally occurring seedlings of the annual Helianthus anomalus. Plant height and biomass were greatest in the treatment where both water and nutrients were added, confirming resource limitations in this habitat. Plants from all treatments showed significant night-time g (approximately 0.07 mol m(-2) s(-1)) and E (approximately 1.5 mol m(-2) s(-1)). In July, water and nutrient additions had few effects on day- or night-time gas exchange. In August, however, plants in the nutrient addition treatments had lower day-time photosynthesis, g and E, paralleled by lower night-time g and E. Lower predawn water potentials and higher integrated photosynthetic water-use efficiency suggests that the nutrient addition indirectly induced a mild water stress. Thus, soil resources can affect night-time g and E in a manner parallel to day-time, although additional factors may also be involved.

  12. Variability in mesophyll conductance between barley genotypes, and effects on transpiration efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Margaret M; Warren, Charles R; Farquhar, Graham D; Forrester, Guy; Brown, Hamish

    2010-07-01

    Leaf internal, or mesophyll, conductance to CO(2) (g(m)) is a significant and variable limitation of photosynthesis that also affects leaf transpiration efficiency (TE). Genotypic variation in g(m) and the effect of g(m) on TE were assessed in six barley genotypes (four Hordeum vulgare and two H. bulbosum). Significant variation in g(m) was found between genotypes, and was correlated with photosynthetic rate. The genotype with the highest g(m) also had the highest TE and the lowest carbon isotope discrimination as recorded in leaf tissue (Delta(p)). These results suggest g(m) has unexplored potential to provide TE improvement within crop breeding programmes.

  13. Toward an improved understanding of the role of transpiration in critical zone dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, B.; Papuga, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the total water balance across any ecosystem. In subalpine mixed-conifer ecosystems, transpiration (T) often dominates the total water flux and therefore improved understanding of T is critical for accurate assessment of catchment water balance and for understanding of the processes that governs the complex dynamics across critical zone (CZ). The interaction between T and plant vegetation not only modulates soil water balance but also influences water transit time and hydrochemical flux - key factors in our understanding of how the CZ evolves and responds. Unlike an eddy covariance system which provides only an integrated ET flux from an ecosystem, a sap flow system can provide an estimate of the T flux from the ecosystem. By isolating T, the ecohydrological drivers of this major water loss from the CZ can be identified. Still, the species composition of mixed-conifer ecosystems vary and the drivers of T associated with each species are expected to be different. Therefore, accurate quantification of T from a mixed-conifer requires knowledge of the unique transpiration dynamics of each of the tree species. Here, we installed a sap flow system within two mixed-conifer study sites of the Jemez River Basin - Santa Catalina Mountains Critical Zone Observatory (JRB - SCM CZO). At both sites, we identified the dominant tree species and installed sap flow sensors on healthy representatives for each of those species. At the JRB CZO site, sap sensors were installed in fir (4) and spruce (4) trees; at the SCM CZO site, sap sensors were installed at white fir (4) and maple (4) and one dead tree. Meteorological data as well as soil temperature (Ts) and soil moisture (θ) at multiple depths were also collected from each of the two sites. Preliminary analysis of two years of sap flux rate at JRB - SCM CZO shows that the environmental drivers of fir, spruce, and maple are different and also vary throughout the year. For JRB fir

  14. Aquaporin-mediated increase in root hydraulic conductance is involved in silicon-induced improved root water uptake under osmotic stress in Sorghum bicolor L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Yin, Lina; Deng, Xiping; Wang, Shiwen; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Zhang, Suiqi

    2014-09-01

    The fact that silicon application alleviates water deficit stress has been widely reported, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here the effects of silicon on water uptake and transport of sorghum seedlings (Sorghum bicolor L.) growing under polyethylene glycol-simulated osmotic stress in hydroponic culture and water deficit stress in sand culture were investigated. Osmotic stress dramatically decreased dry weight, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and leaf water content, but silicon application reduced these stress-induced decreases. Although silicon application had no effect on stem water transport capacity, whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant) and root hydraulic conductance (Lp) were higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in those without silicon treatment under osmotic stress. Furthermore, the extent of changes in transpiration rate was similar to the changes in Kplant and Lp. The contribution of aquaporin to Lp was characterized using the aquaporin inhibitor mercury. Under osmotic stress, the exogenous application of HgCl2 decreased the transpiration rates of seedlings with and without silicon to the same level; after recovery induced by dithiothreitol (DTT), however, the transpiration rate was higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in untreated seedlings. In addition, transcription levels of several root aquaporin genes were increased by silicon application under osmotic stress. These results indicate that the silicon-induced up-regulation of aquaporin, which was thought to increase Lp, was involved in improving root water uptake under osmotic stress. This study also suggests that silicon plays a modulating role in improving plant resistance to osmotic stress in addition to its role as a mere physical barrier. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Mistletoe infection alters the transpiration flow path and suppresses water regulation of host trees during extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, A.; Maier, C.; Barton, C. V.; Metzen, D.; Renchon, A.; Boer, M. M.; Pendall, E.

    2017-12-01

    Mistletoe is a globally distributed group of parasitic plants that infiltrates the vascular tissue of its host trees to acquire water, carbon and nutrients, making it a leading agent of biotic disturbance. Many mistletoes occur in water-limited ecosystems, thus mistletoe infection in combination with increased climatic stress may exacerbate water stress and potentially accelerate mortality rates of infected trees during extreme events. This is an emerging problem in Australia, as mistletoe distribution is increasing and clear links between mistletoe infection and mortality have been established. However, direct observations about how mistletoes alter host physiological processes during extreme events are rare, which impedes our understanding of mechanisms underlying increased tree mortality rates. We addressed this gap by continuously monitoring stem and branch sap flow and a range of leaf traits of infected and uninfected trees of two co-occurring eucalypt species during a severe heatwave in south-eastern Australia. We demonstrate that mistletoes' leaf water potentials were maintained 30% lower than hosts' to redirect the trees' transpiration flow path towards mistletoe leaves. Eucalypt leaves reduced water loss through stomatal regulation when atmospheric dryness exceeded 2 kPa, but the magnitude of stomatal regulation in non-infected eucalypts differed by species (between 40-80%). Remarkably, when infected, sap flow rates of stems and branches of both eucalypt species remained unregulated even under extreme atmospheric dryness (>8 kPa). Our observations indicate that excessive water use of mistletoes likely increases xylem cavitation rates in hosts during prolonged droughts and supports that hydraulic failure contributes to increased mortality of infected trees. Hence, in order to accurately model the contribution of biotic disturbances to tree mortality under a changing climate, it will be crucial to increase our process-based understanding of the interaction

  16. The contribution of large trees to total transpiration rates in a pre-montane tropical forest and its implications for selective logging practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, G.; Moore, G. W.; Miller, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    In the humid tropics, conservationists generally prefer selective logging practices over clearcutting. Large valuable timber is removed while the remaining forest is left relatively undisturbed. However, little is known about the impact of selective logging on site water balance. Because large trees have very deep sapwood and exposed canopies, they tend to have high transpiration. The first objective was to evaluate the methods used for scaling sap flow measurements to the watershed with particular emphasis on large trees. The second objective of this study was to determine the relative contribution of large trees to site water balance. Our study was conducted in a pre-montane transitional forest at the Texas A&M University Soltis Center in north-central Costa Rica. During the period between January and July 2012, sap flux was monitored in a 30-m diameter plot within a 10-ha watershed. Two pairs of heat dissipation sensors were installed in the outer 0-20 mm of each of 15 trees selected to represent the full range of tree sizes. In six of the largest trees, depth profiles were recorded at 10-mm intervals to a depth of 60 mm using compensation heat pulse sensors. To estimate sapwood basal area of the entire watershed, a stand survey was conducted in three 30-m-diameter plots. In each plot, we measured basal area of all trees and estimated sapwood basal area from sapwood depth measured in nearly half of the trees. An estimated 36.5% of the total sapwood area in this watershed comes from the outer 20 mm of sapwood, with the remaining 63.5% of sapwood from depths deeper than 20 mm. Nearly 13% of sapwood is from depths beyond 60 mm. Sap velocity profiles indicate the highest flow rates occurred in the 0-2 cm depths, with declines of 17% and 25% in the 20-40 mm and 40-60 mm ranges, respectively. Our results demonstrate the need to measure sap velocity profiles in large tropical trees. If total transpiration had been estimated solely from the 0-20 mm heat dissipation

  17. Poiseuille, thermal transpiration and Couette flows of a rarefied gas between plane parallel walls with nonuniform surface properties in the transverse direction and their reciprocity relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Toshiyuki

    2018-04-01

    Slow flows of a rarefied gas between two plane parallel walls with nonuniform surface properties are studied based on kinetic theory. It is assumed that one wall is a diffuse reflection boundary and the other wall is a Maxwell-type boundary whose accommodation coefficient varies periodically in the direction perpendicular to the flow. The time-independent Poiseuille, thermal transpiration and Couette flows are considered. The flow behavior is numerically studied based on the linearized Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-Welander model of the Boltzmann equation. The flow field, the mass and heat flow rates in the gas, and the tangential force acting on the wall surface are studied over a wide range of the gas rarefaction degree and the parameters characterizing the distribution of the accommodation coefficient. The locally convex velocity distribution is observed in Couette flow of a highly rarefied gas, similarly to Poiseuille flow and thermal transpiration. The reciprocity relations are numerically confirmed over a wide range of the flow parameters.

  18. Inter-annual variation in the response of leaf-out onset to soil moisture increase in a teak plantation in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshifuji, Natsuko; Igarashi, Yasunori; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Katsunori; Sato, Takanori; Tantasirin, Chatchai; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2014-11-01

    To understand the impact of inter-annual climate change on vegetation-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges, it has become necessary to explore changes in leaf-out onset in response to climatic fluctuations. We examined the response of leaf-out and transpiration onset dates to soil moisture in a teak plantation in northern Thailand based on a 12-year leaf area index and sap flow measurements. The date of leaf-out and transpiration onset varied between years by up to 40 days, and depended on the initial date when the relative extractable water in a soil layer of 0-0.6 m (Θ) was greater than 0.2 being consistent with our previous results. Our new finding is that the delay in leaf-out and transpiration onset relative to the initial date when Θ > 0.2 increases linearly as the initial date on which Θ > 0.2 becomes earlier. The delay spans about 20 days in years when Θ > 0.2 occurs in March (the late dry season)-much earlier than usual because of heavy pre-monsoon rainfalls-while there is little delay in years when Θ > 0.2 occurs in May. This delay indicates the influence of additional factors on leaf-out onset, which controls the delay in the response of leaf-out to soil moisture increase. The results increased our knowledge about the pattern and extent of the changes in leaf phenology that occur in response to the inter-annual climate variation in tropical regions, where, in particular, such research is needed.

  19. Attributing Increased River Flooding in the Future: Hydrodynamic Downscaling Reveals Role of Plant Physiological Responses to Increased CO2 is First Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, M. D.; Kooperman, G. J.; Pritchard, M. S.; Randerson, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    River flooding events, which are the most frequently occurring natural disaster today, are expected to become more frequent and intense in response to climate change. However, the magnitude of these changes remains debated, in part due to uncertainty in our understanding of the physical processes that contribute to these events and their representation in global climate models. While the intensification of precipitation has been shown to be a primary driver of increased flooding, plant physiological responses to increasing CO2 may also play an important role. As the atmospheric concentration of CO2 increases, plants may respond by reducing the width of their stomata (i.e. stomatal conductance), which can decrease water lost through transpiration and in turn maintain higher soil moisture levels. On long timescales, reduced transpiration has been shown to increase average runoff, but on short timescales elevated soil moisture can also increase instantaneous runoff by limiting the rate at which water is able to infiltrate the soil surface. Here, through hydrodynamic downscaling, we isolate the portion of flooding amplification that can be attributed to the physiological response to increasing CO2. This builds on a new analysis that has revealed such physiological effects can rival changes caused by the atmospheric response alone in the tails of the runoff distribution. We use a set of four simulations run with the Community Earth System Model: one pre-industrial control simulation and three others that are forced with four times CO2. In the three climate change simulations, the increased CO2 is applied only to the land-surface, only to the atmosphere, and to both, respectively. Thirty years of daily runoff from these experiments are used as input for the hydrodynamic CaMa-Flood model. Our results reveal that both the radiative and physiological responses to climate change contribute significantly to future changes in flood return period and inundated area. This

  20. Stomatal conductance, mesophyll conductance, and transpiration efficiency in relation to leaf anatomy in rice and wheat genotypes under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wenjing; Struik, Paul C; Yin, Xinyou; Yang, Jianchang

    2017-11-02

    Increasing leaf transpiration efficiency (TE) may provide leads for growing rice like dryland cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum). To explore avenues for improving TE in rice, variations in stomatal conductance (gs) and mesophyll conductance (gm) and their anatomical determinants were evaluated in two cultivars from each of lowland, aerobic, and upland groups of Oryza sativa, one cultivar of O. glaberrima, and two cultivars of T. aestivum, under three water regimes. The TE of upland rice, O. glaberrima, and wheat was more responsive to the gm/gs ratio than that of lowland and aerobic rice. Overall, the explanatory power of the particular anatomical trait varied among species. Low stomatal density mostly explained the low gs in drought-tolerant rice, whereas rice genotypes with smaller stomata generally responded more strongly to drought. Compared with rice, wheat had a higher gm, which was associated with thicker mesophyll tissue, mesophyll and chloroplasts more exposed to intercellular spaces, and thinner cell walls. Upland rice, O. glaberrima, and wheat cultivars minimized the decrease in gm under drought by maintaining high ratios of chloroplasts to exposed mesophyll cell walls. Rice TE could be improved by increasing the gm/gs ratio via modifying anatomical traits. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. The effect of water availability on stand-level productivity, transpiration, water use efficiency and radiation use efficiency of field-grown willow clones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderson, Maj-Lena; Iritz, Z.; Lindroth, A.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of water availability on stand-level productivity, transpiration, water use efficiency (WUE) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) is evaluated for different willow clones at stand level. The measurements were made during the growing season 2000 in a 3-year-old plantation in Scania......, southernmost Sweden. Six willow clones were included in the study: L78183, SW Rapp, SW Jorunn, SW Jorr, SW Tora and SW Loden. All clones were exposed to two water treatments: rain-fed, non-irrigated treatment and reduced water availability by reduced soil water recharge. Field measurements of stem sap...... low compared to other results. Generally, all clones, except for Jorunn, seem to be better off concerning biomass production, WUE and RUE than the reference clone. Jorr, Jorunn and Loden also seem to be able to cope with the reduced water availability with increase in the water use efficiency. Tora...

  2. Mostly Plants. Individualized Biology Activities on: I. Investigating Bread Mold; II. Transpiration; III. Botany Project; IV. Collecting/Preserving/Identifying Leaves; [and] V. Student Science Laboratory Write-Ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Paul R.

    Individualized biology activities for secondary students are presented in this teaching guide. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) investigating bread mold; (2) investigating transpiration; (3) completing a botany project; (4) collecting, preserving, and identifying leaves; and (5) writing up science laboratory investigations. The…

  3. Transpiration flow controls Zn transport in Brassica napus and Lolium multiflorum under toxic levels as evidenced from isotopic fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couder, Eléonore; Mattielli, Nadine; Drouet, Thomas; Smolders, Erik; Delvaux, Bruno; Iserentant, Anne; Meeus, Coralie; Maerschalk, Claude; Opfergelt, Sophie; Houben, David

    2015-11-01

    Stable zinc (Zn) isotope fractionation between soil and plant has been used to suggest the mechanisms affecting Zn uptake under toxic conditions. Here, changes in Zn isotope composition in soil, soil solution, root and shoot were studied for ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) grown on three distinct metal-contaminated soils collected near Zn smelters (total Zn 0.7-7.5%, pH 4.8-7.3). The Zn concentrations in plants reflected a toxic Zn supply. The Zn isotopic fingerprint of total soil Zn varied from -0.05‰ to +0.26 ± 0.02‰ (δ66Zn values relative to the JMC 3-0749L standard) among soils, but the soil solution Zn was depleted in 66Zn, with a constant Zn isotope fractionation of about -0.1‰ δ66Zn unit compared to the bulk soil. Roots were enriched with 66Zn relative to soil solution (δ66Znroot - δ66Znsoil solution = Δ66Znroot-soil solution = +0.05 to +0.2 ‰) and shoots were strongly depleted in 66Zn relative to roots (Δ66Znshoot-root = -0.40 to -0.04 ‰). The overall δ66Zn values in shoots reflected that of the bulk soil, but were lowered by 0.1-0.3 ‰ units as compared to the latter. The isotope fractionation between root and shoot exhibited a markedly strong negative correlation (R2 = 0.83) with transpiration per unit of plant weight. Thus, the enrichment with light Zn isotopes in shoot progressed with increasing water flux per unit plant biomass dry weight, showing a passive mode of Zn transport by transpiration. Besides, the light isotope enrichment in shoots compared to roots was larger for rape than for rye grass, which may be related to the higher Zn retention in rape roots. This in turn may be related to the higher cation exchange capacity of rape roots. Our finding can be of use to trace the biogeochemical cycles of Zn and evidence the tolerance strategies developed by plants in Zn-excess conditions.

  4. Genetic Variation of Morphological Traits and Transpiration in an Apple Core Collection under Well-Watered Conditions: Towards the Identification of Morphotypes with High Water Use Efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Lopez

    Full Text Available Water use efficiency (WUE is a quantitative measurement which improvement is a major issue in the context of global warming and restrictions in water availability for agriculture. In this study, we aimed at studying the variation and genetic control of WUE and the respective role of its components (plant biomass and transpiration in a perennial fruit crop. We explored an INRA apple core collection grown in a phenotyping platform to screen one-year-old scions for their accumulated biomass, transpiration and WUE under optimal growing conditions. Plant biomass was decompose into morphological components related to either growth or organ expansion. For each trait, nine mixed models were evaluated to account for the genetic effect and spatial heterogeneity inside the platform. The Best Linear Unbiased Predictors of genetic values were estimated after model selection. Mean broad-sense heritabilities were calculated from variance estimates. Heritability values indicated that biomass (0.76 and WUE (0.73 were under genetic control. This genetic control was lower in plant transpiration with an heritability of 0.54. Across the collection, biomass accounted for 70% of the WUE variability. A Hierarchical Ascendant Classification of the core collection indicated the existence of six groups of genotypes with contrasting morphology and WUE. Differences between morphotypes were interpreted as resulting from differences in the main processes responsible for plant growth: cell division leading to the generation of new organs and cell elongation leading to organ dimension. Although further studies will be necessary on mature trees with more complex architecture and multiple sinks such as fruits, this study is a first step for improving apple plant material for the use of water.

  5. Genetic Variation of Morphological Traits and Transpiration in an Apple Core Collection under Well-Watered Conditions: Towards the Identification of Morphotypes with High Water Use Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gerardo; Pallas, Benoît; Martinez, Sébastien; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Regnard, Jean-Luc; Durel, Charles-Éric; Costes, Evelyne

    2015-01-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE) is a quantitative measurement which improvement is a major issue in the context of global warming and restrictions in water availability for agriculture. In this study, we aimed at studying the variation and genetic control of WUE and the respective role of its components (plant biomass and transpiration) in a perennial fruit crop. We explored an INRA apple core collection grown in a phenotyping platform to screen one-year-old scions for their accumulated biomass, transpiration and WUE under optimal growing conditions. Plant biomass was decompose into morphological components related to either growth or organ expansion. For each trait, nine mixed models were evaluated to account for the genetic effect and spatial heterogeneity inside the platform. The Best Linear Unbiased Predictors of genetic values were estimated after model selection. Mean broad-sense heritabilities were calculated from variance estimates. Heritability values indicated that biomass (0.76) and WUE (0.73) were under genetic control. This genetic control was lower in plant transpiration with an heritability of 0.54. Across the collection, biomass accounted for 70% of the WUE variability. A Hierarchical Ascendant Classification of the core collection indicated the existence of six groups of genotypes with contrasting morphology and WUE. Differences between morphotypes were interpreted as resulting from differences in the main processes responsible for plant growth: cell division leading to the generation of new organs and cell elongation leading to organ dimension. Although further studies will be necessary on mature trees with more complex architecture and multiple sinks such as fruits, this study is a first step for improving apple plant material for the use of water.

  6. Abscisic Acid Content, Transpiration, and Stomatal Conductance As Related to Leaf Age in Plants of Xanthium strumarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, K; Zeevaart, J A

    1976-08-01

    Among the four uppermost leaves of greenhouse-grown plants of Xanthium strumarium L. the content of abscisic acid per unit fresh or dry weight was highest in the youngest leaf and decreased gradually with increasing age of the leaves. Expressed per leaf, the second youngest leaf was richest in ABA; the amount of ABA per leaf declined only slightly as the leaves expanded. Transpiration and stomatal conductance were negatively correlated with the ABA concentration in the leaves; the youngest leaf lost the least amount of water. This correlation was always very good if the youngest leaf was compared with the older leaves but not always good among the older leaves. Since stomatal sensitivity to exogenous (+/-)-ABA was the same in leaves of all four age groups ABA may be in at least two compartments in the leaf, one of which is isolated from the guard cells.The ability to synthesize ABA in response to wilting or chilling was strongly expressed in young leaves and declined with leaf age. There was no difference between leaves in their content of the metabolites of ABA, phaseic, and dihydrophaseic acid, expressed per unit weight.

  7. Estimation of beech tree transpiration in relation to their social status in forest stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Střelcová, K.; Matejka, F.; Minďáš, J.

    2002-01-01

    The results of sap flow continuous measurements by a tree-trunk heat balance method (THB) on beech model trees are analysed in this paper. Experimental research works were carried out in a mature mixed fir-spruce-beech stand in the research area Pol'ana - Hukavský Grúň (φ = 48°39', λ = 19°29', H = 850 m a.s.l.) in UNESCO Biosphere Reserve on two co-dominant and one sub-dominant beech trees. A mathematical model of daily transpiration dynamics was proposed for a quantitative analysis of the daily course of sap flow intensity. The model works on a one-tree level and enables to consider the influence of the tree social position in the stand on the sap flow intensity of model beech trees and to express the dependence of sap flow intensity on the tree height and crown projection

  8. Relationship of leaf oxygen and carbon isotopic composition with transpiration efficiency in the C4 grasses Setaria viridis and Setaria italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Patrick Z; Ellsworth, Patrícia V; Cousins, Asaph B

    2017-06-15

    Leaf carbon and oxygen isotope ratios can potentially provide a time-integrated proxy for stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E), and can be used to estimate transpiration efficiency (TE). In this study, we found significant relationships of bulk leaf carbon isotopic signature (δ13CBL) and bulk leaf oxygen enrichment above source water (Δ18OBL) with gas exchange and TE in the model C4 grasses Setaria viridis and S. italica. Leaf δ13C had strong relationships with E, gs, water use, biomass, and TE. Additionally, the consistent difference in δ13CBL between well-watered and water-limited plants suggests that δ13CBL is effective in separating C4 plants with different availability of water. Alternatively, the use of Δ18OBL as a proxy for E and TE in S. viridis and S. italica was problematic. First, the oxygen isotopic composition of source water, used to calculate leaf water enrichment (Δ18OLW), was variable with time and differed across water treatments. Second, water limitations changed leaf size and masked the relationship of Δ18OLW and Δ18OBL with E. Therefore, the data collected here suggest that δ13CBL but not Δ18OBL may be an effective proxy for TE in C4 grasses. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Transpiration efficiency over an annual cycle, leaf gas exchange and wood carbon isotope ratio of three tropical tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Aranda, Jorge; Virgo, Aurelio; Garcia, Milton

    2009-09-01

    Variation in transpiration efficiency (TE) and its relationship with the stable carbon isotope ratio of wood was investigated in the saplings of three tropical tree species. Five individuals each of Platymiscium pinnatum (Jacq.) Dugand, Swietenia macrophylla King and Tectona grandis Linn. f. were grown individually in large (760 l) pots over 16 months in the Republic of Panama. Cumulative transpiration was determined by repeatedly weighing the pots with a pallet truck scale. Dry matter production was determined by destructive harvest. The TE, expressed as experiment-long dry matter production divided by cumulative water use, averaged 4.1, 4.3 and 2.9 g dry matter kg(-1) water for P. pinnatum, S. macrophylla and T. grandis, respectively. The TE of T. grandis was significantly lower than that of the other two species. Instantaneous measurements of the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO(2) partial pressures (c(i)/c(a)), taken near the end of the experiment, explained 66% of variation in TE. Stomatal conductance was lower in S. macrophylla than in T. grandis, whereas P. pinnatum had similar stomatal conductance to T. grandis, but with a higher photosynthetic rate. Thus, c(i)/c(a) and TE appeared to vary in response to both stomatal conductance and photosynthetic capacity. Stem-wood delta(13)C varied over a relatively narrow range of just 2.2 per thousand, but still explained 28% of variation in TE. The results suggest that leaf-level processes largely determined variation among the three tropical tree species in whole-plant water-use efficiency integrated over a full annual cycle.

  10. Relações entre transpiração máxima, evapotranspiração de referência e área foliar em quatro variedades de mangueira Maximum transpiration, reference evapotranspiration and leaf area relationships for some mango cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Ximena Santos Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nas condições edafoclimáticas de Cruz da Almas - BA, na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, foi realizado um estudo no qual se relacionou a transpiração máxima (Litros m-2 folha/dia -1 de quatro variedades de mangueira (Tommy Atkins, Palmer, Haden e Van Dyke, com áreas foliares totais de 14; 8; 33 e 12 m², respectivamente com a evapotranspiração de referência (ETo. A transpiração das plantas (L dia-1 foi estimada por meio de sensores que realizam o balanço de calor no caule (modelos SAG13; SGB9; SGB16; SGB19 e SGB25, Dynamax Inc. dispostos nos sentidos norte (N, sul (S, leste (E, oeste (W e centro (C de cada planta. A transpiração por unidade de área foliar (Lm-2 folha dia-1 variou em média de 1,58 ao longo do período estudado, e linearmente com o aumento da área foliar total da planta, independentemente da variedade estudada. A transpiração (Litros m-2 folha/dia -1 variou de 0,36 a 3,00, dependendo da demanda atmosférica. A transpiração máxima (T das quatro variedades de mangueira (Litros m-2 folha/dia -1 relacionouse linearmente com a ETo (T = 0,44. ETo; r² = 0,78, sendo um excelente subsídio para o manejo de irrigação por gotejamento nesta cultura.A study relating maximum transpiration (L m-2 leaf day-1 to reference evapotranspiration (ETo for four mango cultivars (Tommy Atkins, Palmer, Haden and Van Dyke, with 14 m², 8 m², 33 m² and 12 m² of leaf area, respectively was carried out at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits, in the conditions of Cruz da Almas-BA. Plant transpiration (L. day-1 was estimated by heat balance sensors that were installed on the shoots (models SAG13; SGB9; SGB16; SGB19 e SGB25, Dynamax Inc.. The sensors were installed to the North (N, South (S, East (E, West (W and Center(C of each plant. The transpiration per unity leaf area (L.m-2.day-1 varied about 1.58 in average along the studied period and it also varied linearly with the increase in total leaf area, regardless the studied

  11. Hydraulic lift through transpiration suppression in shrubs from two arid ecosystems: patterns and control mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Iván; Martínez-Tillería, Karina; Martínez-Manchego, Luis; Montecinos, Sonia; Pugnaire, Francisco I; Squeo, Francisco A

    2010-08-01

    Hydraulic lift (HL) is the passive movement of water through the roots from deep wet to dry shallow soil layers when stomata are closed. HL has been shown in different ecosystems and species, and it depends on plant physiology and soil properties. In this study we explored HL patterns in several arid land shrubs, and developed a simple model to simulate the temporal evolution and magnitude of HL during a soil drying cycle under relatively stable climatic conditions. This model was then used to evaluate the influence of soil texture on the quantity of water lifted by shrubs in different soil types. We conducted transpiration suppression experiments during spring 2005 in Chile and spring 2008 in Spain on five shrub species that performed HL, Flourensia thurifera, Senna cumingii and Pleocarphus revolutus (Chile), Retama sphaerocarpa and Artemisia barrelieri (Spain). Shrubs were covered with a black, opaque plastic fabric for a period of 48-72 h, and soil water potential was recorded at different depths under the shrubs. While the shrubs remained covered, water potential continuously increased in shallow soil layers until the cover was removed. The model output indicated that the amount of water lifted by shrubs is heavily dependent on soil texture, as shrubs growing in loamy soils redistributed up to 3.6 times more water than shrubs growing on sandy soils. This could be an important consideration for species growing in soils with different textures, as their ability to perform HL would be context dependent.

  12. Age-related effects on leaf area/sapwood area relationships, canopy transpiration and carbon gain of Norway spruce stands (Picea abies) in the Fichtelgebirge, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köstner, B; Falge, E; Tenhunen, J D

    2002-06-01

    Stand age is an important structural determinant of canopy transpiration (E(c)) and carbon gain. Another more functional parameter of forest structure is the leaf area/sapwood area relationship, A(L)/A(S), which changes with site conditions and has been used to estimate leaf area index of forest canopies. The interpretation of age-related changes in A(L)/A(S) and the question of how A(L)/A(S) is related to forest functions are of current interest because they may help to explain forest canopy fluxes and growth. We conducted studies in mature stands of Picea abies (L.) Karst. varying in age from 40 to 140 years, in tree density from 1680 to 320 trees ha(-1), and in tree height from 15 to 30 m. Structural parameters were measured by biomass harvests of individual trees and stand biometry. We estimated E(c) from scaled-up xylem sap flux of trees, and canopy-level fluxes were predicted by a three-dimensional microclimate and gas exchange model (STANDFLUX). In contrast to pine species, A(L)/A(S) of P. abies increased with stand age from 0.26 to 0.48 m(2) cm(-2). Agreement between E(c) derived from scaled-up sap flux and modeled canopy transpiration was obtained with the same parameterization of needle physiology independent of stand age. Reduced light interception per leaf area and, as a consequence, reductions in net canopy photosynthesis (A(c)), canopy conductance (g(c)) and E(c) were predicted by the model in the older stands. Seasonal water-use efficiency (WUE = A(c)/E(c)), derived from scaled-up sap flux and stem growth as well as from model simulation, declined with increasing A(L)/A(S) and stand age. Based on the different behavior of age-related A(L)/A(S) in Norway spruce stands compared with other tree species, we conclude that WUE rather than A(L)/A(S) could represent a common age-related property of all species. We also conclude that, in addition to hydraulic limitations reducing carbon gain in old stands, a functional change in A(L)/A(S) that is related to

  13. Abscisic Acid Content, Transpiration, and Stomatal Conductance As Related to Leaf Age in Plants of Xanthium strumarium L. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, Klaus; Zeevaart, Jan A. D.

    1976-01-01

    Among the four uppermost leaves of greenhouse-grown plants of Xanthium strumarium L. the content of abscisic acid per unit fresh or dry weight was highest in the youngest leaf and decreased gradually with increasing age of the leaves. Expressed per leaf, the second youngest leaf was richest in ABA; the amount of ABA per leaf declined only slightly as the leaves expanded. Transpiration and stomatal conductance were negatively correlated with the ABA concentration in the leaves; the youngest leaf lost the least amount of water. This correlation was always very good if the youngest leaf was compared with the older leaves but not always good among the older leaves. Since stomatal sensitivity to exogenous (±)-ABA was the same in leaves of all four age groups ABA may be in at least two compartments in the leaf, one of which is isolated from the guard cells. The ability to synthesize ABA in response to wilting or chilling was strongly expressed in young leaves and declined with leaf age. There was no difference between leaves in their content of the metabolites of ABA, phaseic, and dihydrophaseic acid, expressed per unit weight. PMID:16659640

  14. What determines the complex kinetics of stomatal conductance under blueless PAR in Festuca arundinacea? Subsequent effects on leaf transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillot, Romain; Frak, Ela; Combes, Didier; Durand, Jean-Louis; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J

    2010-06-01

    Light quality and, in particular, its content of blue light is involved in plant functioning and morphogenesis. Blue light variation frequently occurs within a stand as shaded zones are characterized by a simultaneous decrease of PAR and blue light levels which both affect plant functioning, for example, gas exchange. However, little is known about the effects of low blue light itself on gas exchange. The aims of the present study were (i) to characterize stomatal behaviour in Festuca arundinacea leaves through leaf gas exchange measurements in response to a sudden reduction in blue light, and (ii) to test the putative role of Ci on blue light gas exchange responses. An infrared gas analyser (IRGA) was used with light transmission filters to study stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (Tr), assimilation (A), and intercellular concentration of CO(2) (Ci) responses to blueless PAR (1.80 mumol m(-2) s(-1)). The results were compared with those obtained under a neutral filter supplying a similar photosynthetic efficiency to the blueless PAR filter. It was shown that the reduction of blue light triggered a drastic and instantaneous decrease of gs by 43.2% and of Tr by 40.0%, but a gradual stomatal reopening began 20 min after the start of the low blue light treatment, thus leading to new steady-states. This new stomatal equilibrium was supposed to be related to Ci. The results were confirmed in more developed plants although they exhibited delayed and less marked responses. It is concluded that stomatal responses to blue light could play a key role in photomorphogenetic mechanisms through their effect on transpiration.

  15. Imaging the experiments on respiration and transpiration of Lavoisier and Séguin: two unknown drawings by Madame Lavoisier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Marco

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two hitherto unknown drawings by Marie-Anne-Pierrette Lavoisier dating to the early 1790s that illustrate the experiments on respiration and transpiration of her husband Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier and his assistant Armand Séguin. These works may be associated with the well-known sepia drawings that were published for the first time by Edouard Grimaux in 1888. Details contained in these newly discovered drawings by M.me Lavoisier provide fresh evidence as to the nature and aims of Lavoisier's innovative experiments. As we will show, these drawings were intended to illustrate the collection of papers on respiration being prepared by Lavoisier for his Mémoires de physique et de chimie (1792-1805).

  16. Seasonal, synoptic and diurnal variation of atmospheric water-isotopologues in the boundary layer of Southwestern Germany caused by plant transpiration, cold-front passages and dewfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, Emanuel; Dyroff, Christoph; Kohler, Martin; Zahn, Andreas; Gonzales, Yenny; Schneider, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric water is an enormously crucial trace gas. It is responsible for ~70 % of the natural greenhouse effect (Schmidt et al., JGR, 2010) and carries huge amounts of latent heat. The isotopic composition of water vapor is an elegant tracer for a better understanding and quantification of the extremely complex and variable hydrological cycle in Earth's atmosphere (evaporation, cloud condensation, rainout, re-evaporation, snow), which in turn is a prerequisite to improve climate modeling and predictions. As H216O, H218O and HDO differ in vapor pressure and mass, isotope fractionation occurs due to condensation, evaporation and diffusion processes. In contrast to that, plants are able to transpire water with almost no isotope fractionation. For that reason the ratio of isotopologue concentrations in the boundary layer (BL) provides, compared to humidity measurements alone, independent and additional constraints for quantifying the strength of evaporation and transpiration. Furthermore the isotope ratios contain information about transport history of an air mass and microphysical processes, that is not accessible by humidity measurements. Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) a commercial Picarro Analyzer L2120-i is operated at Karlsruhe in Southwestern Germany, which is continuously measuring the isotopologues H216O, HDO and H218O of atmospheric water vapor since January 2012. A one year record of H216O, HDO and H218O shows clear seasonal, synoptic and diurnal characteristics and reveals the main driving processes affecting the isotopic composition of water vapor in the Middle European BL. Changes in continental plant transpiration and evaporation throughout the year lead to a slow seasonal HDO/H216O-variation, that cannot be explained by pure Rayleigh condensation. Furthermore, cold-front passages from NW lead to fast and pronounced depletion of the HDO/H216O-ratio within

  17. The effects of wind and temperature on cuticular transpiration of Picea abies and Pinus cembra and their significance in dessication damage at the alpine treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, M N; Tranquillini, W

    1980-01-01

    The importance of high winter winds and plant temperatures as causes of winter desiccation damage at the alpine treeline were studied in the Austrian Alps. Samples of 1- and 2-year twigs of Picea abies and Pinus cembra were collected from the valley bottom (1,000 m a.s.l.), forestline (1,940 m a.s.l.), kampfzone (2.090 m a.s.l.), wind-protected treeline (2,140 m a.s.l.), and wind-exposed treeline (2,140 m a.s.l.). Cuticular transpiration was measured at three different levels of wind speed (4, 10, and 15 ms -1 ) and temperature (15°, 20°, and 25° C). At elevated wind speeds slight increases in water loss were observed, whereas at higher temperatures much greater increases occurred. Studies on winter water relations show a significant decline in the actual moisture content and osmotic potentials of twigs, especially in the kampfzone and at treeline. The roles of high winds and temperatures in depleting the winter water economy and causing desiccation damage in the alpine treeline environment are discussed.

  18. Transpirational water use and its regulation in the mountainous terrain of S. Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno Dennis, O.; Eunyoung, J.; Sinkyu, K.; Tenhunen, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    Quantifying water use by forests growing on complex mountainous terrain is difficult and understanding of controls on water use by these forests a challenge. Yet mountains are crucial as water towers and better understanding of their hydrology and ecology is critical for sustainable management. Consequently, there is a growing need for new research approaches designed with attention to the particular needs and constraints of large-scale studies and that have the potential to generate reliable and accurate data. The use of a combination of different sapflow-measurement techniques provides a unique opportunity to monitor water use by the understory and canopy forest tree species at micro-scale, allowing for accurate estimation of total forest water use. The obtained data, in conjunction with intensively measured climatic variables, allow for better understanding and interpretation of transpiration results. A research initiative under the International Training Group: Complex Terrain and Ecological Heterogeneity (TERRECO) seeks to address pertinent issues related to forest water use and production in complex terrain. Stem Heat balance (SHB) and Heat Dissipation techniques have been employed to measure sapflow in the understory woody plants and tree branches and on stems of canopy trees respectively. Measurements have been stratified to account for differences in tree sizes and species diversity. To better understand the data, we are intensively monitoring soil moisture at 5, 10 and 30 cm depths, in addition to a range of micrometeorology sensors that have been set up below, within and above the canopy. These measurements have been planned, taking into account altitudinal/elevation gradient, aspect and within site differences in species composition and tree sizes and to generate data for large-scale modeling of the entire catchment. A total of 70 trees from 9 species growing in six different locations at varying elevations and aspects are being monitored. Peak daily

  19. Stem heat balance method to estimate transpiration of young orange and mango plants Balanço de calor caulinar para estimativa da transpiração de plantas jovens de laranja e manga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas M. Vellame

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as its main objective the evaluation of the heat balance method in young orange and mango plants under protected environment. The work was carried out at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits, Cruz das Almas, BA. Later on, estimates of sap flow were conducted for two mango plants cultivated in pots of 15 and 50 L installed on weighting platforms of 45 and 140 kg; sap flow was determined in three orange plants, two of which were also installed on weighing platforms. The values of sap flow were compared to the transpiration measured by lysimeters at integrated intervals of 1, 2, 4 and 24 h. The heat balance method showed good precision for estimating daily transpiration (R² = 0.95 and R² = 0.90, accompaning the availability of energy in the system, underestimating on average 4.6% of the daily transpiration in orange plants and overestimating in about 0.3% the daily transpiration of mango plants under conditions of good water supply. The heat balance method underestimated by 16% the transpiration in orange under conditions of water deficit.Com o presente estudo se objetivou avaliar o método de balanço de calor em plantas jovens de laranja e manga em ambiente protegido. O trabalho foi conduzido na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA. Realizaram-se estimativas de fluxo de seiva em duas plantas de manga plantadas em vasos de 15 e 50 L, instalados sobre plataformas de pesagem de 45 e 140 kg; posteriormente, o fluxo de seiva foi determinado em três plantas de laranja, duas também instaladas em lisímetros de pesagem. Os valores de fluxo de seiva obtidos foram comparados com a transpiração medida pelos lisímetros em intervalos de integração de 1, 2, 4 e 24 h. O método do balanço de calor mostrou-se preciso na estimativa da transpiração diária (R² = 0,95 e R² = 0,90, que acompanhou a disponibilidade de energia do sistema, subestimando em média, 4,6% a transpiração diária em plantas de laranja e

  20. Comprehensive Characterization for Ginsenosides Biosynthesis in Ginseng Root by Integration Analysis of Chemical and Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Jing Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbgenomics provides a global platform to explore the genetics and biology of herbs on the genome level. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is an important medicinal plant with numerous pharmaceutical effects. Previous reports mainly discussed the transcriptome of ginseng at the organ level. However, based on mass spectrometry imaging analyses, the ginsenosides varied among different tissues. In this work, ginseng root was separated into three tissues—periderm, cortex and stele—each for five duplicates. The chemical analysis and transcriptome analysis were conducted simultaneously. Gene-encoding enzymes involved in ginsenosides biosynthesis and modification were studied based on gene and molecule data. Eight widely-used ginsenosides were distributed unevenly in ginseng roots. A total of 182,881 unigenes were assembled with an N50 contig size of 1374 bp. About 21,000 of these unigenes were positively correlated with the content of ginsenosides. Additionally, we identified 192 transcripts encoding enzymes involved in two triterpenoid biosynthesis pathways and 290 transcripts encoding UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs. Of these UGTs, 195 UGTs (67.2% were more highly expressed in the periderm, and that seven UGTs and one UGT were specifically expressed in the periderm and stele, respectively. This genetic resource will help to improve the interpretation on complex mechanisms of ginsenosides biosynthesis, accumulation, and transportation.

  1. Transpiration and metabolisation of TCE by willow plants - a pot experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöftner, Philipp; Watzinger, Andrea; Holzknecht, Philipp; Wimmer, Bernhard; Reichenauer, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Willows were grown in glass cylinders filled with compost above water-saturated quartz sand, to trace the fate of TCE in water and plant biomass. The experiment was repeated once with the same plants in two consecutive years. TCE was added in nominal concentrations of 0, 144, 288, and 721 mg l(-1). Unplanted cylinders were set-up and spiked with nominal concentrations of 721 mg l(-1) TCE in the second year. Additionally, (13)C-enriched TCE solution (δ(13)C = 110.3 ‰) was used. Periodically, TCE content and metabolites were analyzed in water and plant biomass. The presence of TCE-degrading microorganisms was monitored via the measurement of the isotopic ratio of carbon ((13)C/(12)C) in TCE, and the abundance of (13)C-labeled microbial PLFAs (phospholipid fatty acids). More than 98% of TCE was lost via evapotranspiration from the planted pots within one month after adding TCE. Transpiration accounted to 94 to 78% of the total evapotranspiration loss. Almost 1% of TCE was metabolized in the shoots, whereby trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) were dominant metabolites; less trichloroethanol (TCOH) and TCE accumulated in plant tissues. Microbial degradation was ruled out by δ(13)C measurements of water and PLFAs. TCE had no detected influence on plant stress status as determined by chlorophyll-fluorescence and gas exchange.

  2. Microclimate, Water Potential, Transpiration, and Bole Dielectric Constant of Coniferous and Deciduous Tree Species in the Continental Boreal Ecotone of Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; McDonald, K.; Way, J.; Oren, R.

    1994-01-01

    Tree canopy microclimate, xylem water flux and xylem dielectric constant have been monitored in situ since June 1993 in two adjacent natural forest stands in central Alaska. The deciduous stand represents a mature balsam poplar site on the Tanana River floodplain, while the coniferous stand consists of mature white spruce with some black spruce mixed in. During solstice in June and later in summer, diurnal changes of xylem water potential were measured to investigate the occurrence and magnitude of tree transpiration and dielectric constant changes in stems.

  3. Using ISBA model for partitioning evapotranspiration into soil evaporation and plant transpiration of irrigated crops under semi-arid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouade, Ghizlane; Jarlan, Lionel; Ezzahar, Jamal; Er-raki, Salah; Napoly, Adrien; Benkaddour, Abdelfettah; Khabba, Said; Boulet, Gilles; Chehbouni, Abdelghani; Boone, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    The Haouz region, typical of southern Mediterranean basins, is characterized by a semi-arid climate, with average annual rainfall of 250, whilst evaporative demand is about 1600 mm per year. Under these conditions, crop irrigation is inevitable for growth and development. Irrigated agriculture currently consumes the majority of total available water (up to 85%), making it critical for more efficient water use. Flood irrigation is widely practiced by the majority of the farmers (more than 85 %) with an efficiency which does not exceed 50%. In this context, a good knowledge of the partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) into soil evaporation and plant transpiration is of crucial need for improving the irrigation scheduling and thus water use efficiency. In this study, the ISBA (Interactions Soil-Biosphere-Atmosphere) model was used for estimating ET and its partition over an olive orchard and a wheat field located near to the Marrakech City (Centre of Morocco). Two versions were evaluated: standard version which simulates a single energy balance for the soil and vegetation and the recently developed multiple energy balance (MEB) version which solves a separate energy balance for each of the two sources. Eddy covariance system, which provides the sensible and latent heat fluxes and meteorological instruments were operated during years 2003-2004 for the Olive Orchard and during years 2013 for wheat. The transpiration component was measured using a Sap flow system during summer over the wheat crop and stable isotope samples were gathered over wheat. The comparison between ET estimated by ISBA model and that measured by the Eddy covariance system showed that MEB version yielded a remarkable improvement compared to the standard version. The root mean square error (RMSE) and the correlation coefficient (R²) were about 45wm-2 and 0.8 for MEB version. By contrast, for the standard version, the RMSE and R² were about 60wm-2 and 0.7, respectively. The result also showed that

  4. Why has streamflow in a northern Idaho creek increased while flows from many other watersheds in the US Pacific Northwest have decreased over the past sixty years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L.; Hudak, A. T.; Link, T. E.; Marshall, J. D.; Kavanagh, K.; Zhou, H.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Pangle, R. E.; Flerchinger, G. N.; Denner, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    As global warming proceeds, evapotranspiration demand will increase, the precipitation regime may change, and water cycling in many ecosystems may be affected. Streamflow in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the USA decreased in the last ~60 year possibly due to decreasing precipitation at high elevations and/or increasing evapotranspiration. However, an increasing trend of streamflow was observed at a 4km2 watershed in the Priest River Experimental Forest (PREF) in northern Idaho. We used the process-based soil-vegetation-atmosphere Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model, to simulate the changes in the water cycle at PREF. Independent measurements were used to parameterize the model, including forest transpiration, stomatal responses to vapor pressure, forest properties (height, leaf area index, and biomass), soil properties, soil moisture, snow depth, and snow water equivalent. The model reasonably simulated the streamflow dynamics during the evaluation period from 2003 to 2010, which verified the ability of SHAW to simulate the water cycle at PREF. We then ran the model using historical vegetation cover and climate data to reveal the drivers of the changes in water budget of PREF over the past 60 years. Historical vegetation cover was obtained from a 1939 digitized historical vegetation map. The biggest change was the decline of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), a fast growing and deep rooted species with high transpiration rates, which was once a predominant species in PREF in the early 20th century. This was followed by a subsequent increase and decrease in fir species, followed by the emergence of western red cedar (Thuja plicata) as the current dominant tree species. The tree species shifts under this successional trajectory would have produced continually decreasing transpiration rates, which may explain the steady increase in observed runoff over the last ~60 years, which was likewise simulated with the SHAW model.

  5. Azimuthal and radial variations in sap flux density and effects on stand-scale transpiration estimates in a Japanese cedar forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Yoshinori; Tsuruta, Kenji; Ogura, Akira; Noto, Fumikazu; Komatsu, Hikaru; Otsuki, Kyoichi; Maruyama, Toshisuke

    2013-05-01

    Understanding radial and azimuthal variation, and tree-to-tree variation, in sap flux density (Fd) as sources of uncertainty is important for estimating transpiration using sap flow techniques. In a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don.) forest, Fd was measured at several depths and aspects for 18 trees, using heat dissipation (Granier-type) sensors. We observed considerable azimuthal variation in Fd. The coefficient of variation (CV) calculated from Fd at a depth of 0-20 mm (Fd1) and Fd at a depth of 20-40 mm (Fd2) ranged from 6.7 to 37.6% (mean = 28.3%) and from 19.6 to 62.5% (mean = 34.6%) for the -azimuthal directions. Fd at the north aspect averaged for nine trees, for which azimuthal measurements were made, was -obviously smaller than Fd at the other three aspects (i.e., west, south and east) averaged for the nine trees. Fd1 averaged for the nine trees was significantly larger than Fd2 averaged for the nine trees. The error for stand-scale transpiration (E) estimates caused by ignoring the azimuthal variation was larger than that caused by ignoring the radial variation. The error caused by ignoring tree-to-tree variation was larger than that caused by ignoring both radial and azimuthal variations. Thus, tree-to-tree variation in Fd would be more important than both radial and azimuthal variations in Fd for E estimation. However, Fd for each tree should not be measured at a consistent aspect but should be measured at various aspects to make accurate E estimates and to avoid a risk of error caused by the relationship of Fd to aspect.

  6. Potential of Soil Amendments (Biochar and Gypsum in increasing Water Use Efficiency of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniqa eBatool

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Water being an essential component for plant growth and development, its scarcity poses serious threat to crops around the world. Climate changes and global warming are increasing the temperature of earth hence becoming an ultimate cause of water scarcity. It is need of the day to use potential soil amendments that could increase the plants’ resistance under such situations. Biochar and gypsum were used in the present study to improve the water use efficiency and growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Lady’s Finger. A six weeks experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Stress treatments were applied after thirty days of sowing. Plant height, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency were determined weekly under stressed (60% field capacity and non-stressed (100% field capacity conditions. Stomatal conductance and transpiration rate decreased and reached near to zero in stressed plants. Stressed plants also showed resistance to water stress upto five weeks and gradually perished at sixth week. On the other hand, water use efficiency improved in stressed plants containing biochar and gypsum as compared to untreated plants. Biochar alone is a better strategy to promote plant growth and WUE specifically of Abelmoschus esculentus, compared to its application in combination with gypsum.

  7. Transpiração e temperatura foliar da cana-de-açúcar sob diferentes valores de potencial matricial Transpiration and leaf temperature of sugarcane under different matric potential values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Trentin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a variação diurna da transpiração e da temperatura foliar da cana-de-açúcar, cv. RB867515, sob diferentes potenciais matriciais de água no substrato de cultivo e as condições meteorológicas em ambiente protegido. O efeito do estresse hídrico na transpiração e temperatura foliar foi determinado a partir da suspensão da irrigação, quando foram realizadas três campanhas de medições, iniciadas aos 122; 150 e 185 dias após o plantio (DAP até que o potencial matricial de água no substrato (Ψ alcançasse -1.500 kPa, aproximadamente. Sob ausência de estresse hídrico (Ψ>-50 kPa, a transpiração das plantas atingiu o valor máximo entre 10 e 13 h, próximo de 60; 70 e 100 g planta-1 h-1 para 122; 150 e 185 DAP, respectivamente. Sob condições de estresse hídrico severo (ΨThe objective of this study was to evaluate the diurnal behaviour of transpiration and leaf temperature of sugarcane (cv. RB867515 under different water matrix potential in the cultivation substrate and greenhouse meteorological conditions. The water stress effect on transpiration and leaf temperature was determined after irrigation suspension, when three measurement campaigns were initiated at 122; 150 and 185 days after planting (DAP until the matrix water potential in the substrate (Ψ reached -1,500 kPa, approximately. Under the absence of water stress (Ψ>-50 kPa, plant transpiration reached the maximum value between 10:00 AM and 13:00 PM, near to 60; 70 e 100 gplant-1h-1, for 122; 150 and 185 DAP, respectively. Under severe water stress (Ψ<-1,100 kPa, there was daily transpiration reduction of approximately 73%, compared to measurements performed without water stress and under similar meteorological conditions. Under the absence of water stress and overcast sky conditions, the average value of the difference between leaf temperature and air temperature was -2.9 ºC. In contrast, under severe water stress and high

  8. Pharmacognostic Investigation of the Leaves and Stems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, December 2009; 8 (6): 557-566. © Pharmacotherapy ... The periderm was four-layered followed by homogenous .... in width. The adaxial surface was smooth and .... scalariform perforation plate.

  9. Ultrastructural study on the embryonic development of the orthokeratinized epithelium and its cornified layer (lingual nail) on the ventral surface of the lingual apex in the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skieresz-Szewczyk, Kinga; Jackowiak, Hanna; Ratajczak, Marlena

    2018-02-01

    The lingual nail as the cornified layer of the orthokeratinized epithelium in birds is responsible for the collection of solid food by pecking. The aim of the present study is to determine the manner of orthokeratinized epithelium development and assess the degree of readiness of the epithelium to fulfill its mechanical function at hatching. Three developmental phases are distinguished, i.e. embryonic, transformation and pre-hatching stage. In the embryonic stage lasting until day 13 of incubation the epithelium is composed of several layers of undifferentiated cells. During the transformation stage, from day 14 to 20 of incubation, the epithelium becomes differentiated to form three layers. A characteristic feature is the formation of osmophilic granules in the superficial layer, referred to as periderm granules. Until the pre-hatching stage the fibrous cytoskeleton of epithelial cells and an impermeable epithelial barrier are gradually developed. In the pre-hatching stage, a cornified lingual nail is formed, while the periderm is exfoliated. At hatching the orthokeratinized epithelium and lingual nail are fully developed and ready to perform feeding activities. The presence of periderm, similarly as in the epidermis, indicates the ectodermal derivation of the oral cavity epithelium. Moreover, occurrence of osmophilic granules may be considered as evidence for the phylogenetic affinity of birds and reptiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensitivity of transpiration to subsurface properties: Exploration with a 1-D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrettas, Michail D.; Fung, Inez Y.

    2017-06-01

    The amount of moisture transpired by vegetation is critically tied to the moisture supply accessible to the root zone. In a Mediterranean climate, integrated evapotranspiration (ET) is typically greater in the dry summer when there is an uninterrupted period of high insolation. We present a 1-D model to explore the subsurface factors that may sustain ET through the dry season. The model includes a stochastic parameterization of hydraulic conductivity, root water uptake efficiency, and hydraulic redistribution by plant roots. Model experiments vary the precipitation, the magnitude and seasonality of ET demand, as well as rooting profiles and rooting depths of the vegetation. The results show that the amount of subsurface moisture remaining at the end of the wet winter is determined by the competition among abundant precipitation input, fast infiltration, and winter ET demand. The weathered bedrock retains ˜30% of the winter rain and provides a substantial moisture reservoir that may sustain ET of deep-rooted (>8 m) trees through the dry season. A small negative feedback exists in the root zone, where the depletion of moisture by ET decreases hydraulic conductivity and enhances the retention of moisture. Hence, hydraulic redistribution by plant roots is impactful in a dry season, or with a less conductive subsurface. Suggestions for implementing the model in the CESM are discussed.

  11. Absence of Hg transpiration by shoot after Hg uptake by roots of six terrestrial plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria; Wang Yaodong; Neuschuetz, Clara

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we investigated if, and to what extent, six different plant species accumulate, translocate and emit mercury (Hg) into the air. The Hg uptake by roots, distribution of Hg to the shoot and release of Hg via shoots of garden pea, spring wheat, sugar beet, oil-seed rape, white clover and willow were investigated in a transpiration chamber. The airborne Hg was trapped in a Hopcalite trap or a gold trap. Traps and plant materials were analysed for content of Hg by CVAAS. The results show that all plant species were able to take up Hg to a large extent from a nutrient solution containing 200 μg L -1 Hg. However, the Hg translocation to the shoot was low (0.17-2.5%) and the Hg that reached the leaves was trapped and no release of the absorbed Hg to the air was detected. - Mercury translocation to shoots was low

  12. Plant delta 15N correlates with the transpiration efficiency of nitrogen acquisition in tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Turner, Benjamin L

    2009-11-01

    Based upon considerations of a theoretical model of (15)N/(14)N fractionation during steady-state nitrate uptake from soil, we hypothesized that, for plants grown in a common soil environment, whole-plant delta(15)N (deltaP) should vary as a function of the transpiration efficiency of nitrogen acquisition (F(N)/v) and the difference between deltaP and root delta(15)N (deltaP - deltaR). We tested these hypotheses with measurements of several tropical tree and liana species. Consistent with theoretical expectations, both F(N)/v and deltaP - deltaR were significant sources of variation in deltaP, and the relationship between deltaP and F(N)/v differed between non-N(2)-fixing and N(2)-fixing species. We interpret the correlation between deltaP and F(N)/v as resulting from variation in mineral nitrogen efflux-to-influx ratios across plasma membranes of root cells. These results provide a simple explanation of variation in delta(15)N of terrestrial plants and have implications for understanding nitrogen cycling in ecosystems.

  13. Thermodynamic properties over (Ni{sub 2}Te{sub 3}O{sub 8} + NiTe{sub 2}O{sub 5}) in the Ni-Te-O system. Transpiration thermogravimetric and Knudsen effusion mass spectrometric studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, Tiruppatur Subramaniam Lakshmi; Nalini, Seshadreesan; Manikandan, Palraj; Trinadh, Vinjavarapu Venkata [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.; Baba, Magapu Sai [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Resources Management Group

    2016-02-15

    Vaporisation studies over (Ni{sub 2}Te{sub 3}O{sub 8} + NiTe{sub 2}O{sub 5}) in the Ni-Te-O system were carried out by means of transpiration thermogravimetry (TTG) and Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) in the temperature ranges of 950 - 1 060 K and 850 - 950 K respectively. The transpiration measurements were performed for the first time. Comparison of total pressures obtained by TTG with that deduced using partial pressures of vaporising species from KEMS showed a good agreement providing reliable vapour pressures over this phase region. From vapour pressures, enthalpies of solid-gas and gas-phase equilibria and subsequently enthalpy and Gibbs free energies of formation of NiTe{sub 2}O{sub 5}(s) were derived. A thermochemical calculation was performed to assess the possibility of formation of the ternary NiTe{sub 2}O{sub 5}(s) phase on stainless steel clad of mixed-oxide fuelled fast breeder nuclear reactors.

  14. Effect of canopy architectural variation on transpiration and thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, R.; Banerjee, T.

    2017-12-01

    One of the major scientific questions identified by the NGEE - Tropics campaign is the effect of disturbances such as forest fires, vegetation thinning and land use change on carbon, water and energy fluxes. Answers to such questions can help develop effective forest management strategies and shape policies to mitigate damages under natural and anthropogenic climate change. The absence of horizontal and vertical variation of forest canopy structure in current models is a major source of uncertainty in answering these questions. The current work addresses this issue through a bottom up process based modeling approach to systematically investigate the effect of forest canopy architectural variation on plant physiological response as well as canopy level fluxes. A plant biophysics formulation is used which is based on the following principles: (1) a model for the biochemical demand for CO2 as prescribed by photosynthesis models. This model can differentiate between photosynthesis under light-limited and nutrient-limited scenarios. (2) A Fickian mass transfer model including transfer through the laminar boundary layer on leaves that may be subjected to forced or free convection depending upon the mean velocity and the radiation load; (3) an optimal leaf water use strategy that maximizes net carbon gain for a given transpiration rate to describe the stomatal aperture variation; (4) a leaf-level energy balance to accommodate evaporative cooling. Such leaf level processes are coupled to solutions of atmospheric flow through vegetation canopies. In the first test case, different scenarios of top heavy and bottom heavy (vertical) foliage distributions are investigated within a one-dimensional framework where no horizontal heterogeneity of canopy structure is considered. In another test case, different spatial distributions (both horizontal and vertical) of canopy geometry (land use) are considered, where flow solutions using large eddy simulations (LES) are coupled to the

  15. Canopy transpiration for two Japanese cypress forests with contrasting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, K.; Komatsu, H.; Kume, T.; Shinohara, Y.; Otsuki, K.

    2012-12-01

    Canopy transpiration (EC) could have large variations among stands with different structures. To evaluate a difference in EC between stands with different structures for Japanese cypress, we observed EC using the sap flow technique in two stands with contrasting structures (age was 19 year and 99 year, mean diameter at breast height was 13.5 cm and 44.6 cm, stem density was 2100 trees ha-1 and 350 trees ha-1, respectively) for 5 months under the same meteorological condition. The mean stand sap flux density (JS) for measurement period and stand sapwood area (AS_stand) for the old stand (0.43 m3 m-2 day-1 and 15.2 m2 ha-1) were lower than those for the young stand (0.62 m3 m-2 day-1 and 20.4 m2 ha-1) by 31.1 % and 25.4 %, respectively. EC is calculated as a product of JS and AS_stand. Therefore the EC in the old stand was lower than that in the young stand by 50 %. We calculated the contribution of the reference JS for a given meteorological conditions (JSref) and the response of JS to the meteorological conditions (JSresp) in the two stands, and examined which is a primary factor for the difference of EC between the two studied stands. The JSresp for the young stand were not considerably different from that for the old stand, whereas JSref for the young stand was greater than that for the old stand. This indicates that JSref (not JSresp) was the primary cause for the difference of EC between the two stands. Further studies observing EC from stands with various structures are needed to generalize our conclusions.

  16. Increasing drought and diminishing benefits of elevated carbon dioxide for soybean yields across the US Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhenong; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Leakey, Andrew D B; Lobell, David B

    2018-02-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations ([CO 2 ]) are expected to increase C3 crop yield through the CO 2 fertilization effect (CFE) by stimulating photosynthesis and by reducing stomatal conductance and transpiration. The latter effect is widely believed to lead to greater benefits in dry rather than wet conditions, although some recent experimental evidence challenges this view. Here we used a process-based crop model, the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM), to quantify the contemporary and future CFE on soybean in one of its primary production area of the US Midwest. APSIM accurately reproduced experimental data from the Soybean Free-Air CO 2 Enrichment site showing that the CFE declined with increasing drought stress. This resulted from greater radiation use efficiency (RUE) and above-ground biomass production at elevated [CO 2 ] that outpaced gains in transpiration efficiency (TE). Using an ensemble of eight climate model projections, we found that drought frequency in the US Midwest is projected to increase from once every 5 years currently to once every other year by 2050. In addition to directly driving yield loss, greater drought also significantly limited the benefit from rising [CO 2 ]. This study provides a link between localized experiments and regional-scale modeling to highlight that increased drought frequency and severity pose a formidable challenge to maintaining soybean yield progress that is not offset by rising [CO 2 ] as previously anticipated. Evaluating the relative sensitivity of RUE and TE to elevated [CO 2 ] will be an important target for future modeling and experimental studies of climate change impacts and adaptation in C3 crops. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Green Infrastructure Increases Biogeochemical Responsiveness, Vegetation Growth and Decreases Runoff in a Semi-Arid City, Tucson, AZ, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, T.; Papuga, S. A.; Luketich, A. M.; Rockhill, T.; Gallo, E. L.; Anderson, J.; Salgado, L.; Pope, K.; Gupta, N.; Korgaonkar, Y.; Guertin, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    Green Infrastructure (GI) is often viewed as a mechanism to minimize the effects of urbanization on hydrology, water quality, and other ecosystem services (including the urban heat island). Quantifying the effects of GI requires field measurements of the dimensions of biogeochemical, ecosystem, and hydrologic function that we expect GI to impact. Here we investigated the effect of GI features in Tucson, Arizona which has a low intensity winter precipitation regime and a high intensity summer regime. We focused on understanding the effect of GI on soil hydraulic and biogeochemical properties as well as the effect on vegetation and canopy temperature. Our results demonstrate profound changes in biogeochemical and hydrologic properties and vegetation growth between GI systems and nearby control sites. In terms of hydrologic properties GI soils had increased water holding capacity and hydraulic conductivity. GI soils also have higher total carbon, total nitrogen, and organic matter in general than control soils. Furthermore, we tested the sampled soils (control and GI) for differences in biogeochemical response upon wetting. GI soils had larger respiration responses indicating greater biogeochemical activity overall. Long-term Lidar surveys were used to investigate the differential canopy growth of GI systems versus control sites. The results of this analysis indicate that while a significant amount of time is needed to observe differences in canopy growth GI features due increase tree size and thus likely impact street scale ambient temperatures. Additionally monitoring of transpiration, soil moisture, and canopy temperature demonstrates that GI features increase vegetation growth and transpiration and reduce canopy temperatures. These biogeochemical and ecohydrologic results indicate that GI can increase the biogeochemical processing of soils and increase tree growth and thus reduce urban ambient temperatures.

  18. Ultrastructural observations reveal the presence of channels between cork cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Rita Teresa; Pereira, Helena

    2009-12-01

    The ultrastructure of phellem cells of Quercus suber L. (cork oak) and Calotropis procera (Ait) R. Br. were analyzed using electron transmission microscopy to determine the presence or absence of plasmodesmata (PD). Different types of Q. suber cork samples were studied: one year shoots; virgin cork (first periderm), reproduction cork (traumatic periderm), and wet cork. The channel structures of PD were found in all the samples crossing adjacent cell walls through the suberin layer of the secondary wall. Calotropis phellem also showed PD crossing the cell walls of adjacent cells but in fewer numbers compared to Q. suber. In one year stems of cork oak, it was possible to follow the physiologically active PD with ribosomic accumulation next to the aperture of the channel seen in the phellogen cells to the completely obstructed channels in the dead cells that characterize the phellem tissue.

  19. Enhanced transpiration rate in the high pigment 1 tomato mutant and its physiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, R F; Aidar, S T; Azevedo, R A; Dodd, I C; Peres, L E P

    2011-05-01

    Tomato high pigment (hp) mutants represent an interesting horticultural resource due to their enhanced accumulation of carotenoids, flavonoids and vitamin C. Since hp mutants are known for their exaggerated light responses, the molecules accumulated are likely to be antioxidants, recruited to deal with light and others stresses. Further phenotypes displayed by hp mutations are reduced growth and an apparent disturbance in water loss. Here, we examined the impact of the hp1 mutation and its near isogenic line cv Micro-Tom (MT) on stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E), CO(2) assimilation (A) and water use efficiency (WUE). Detached hp1 leaves lost water more rapidly than control leaves, but this behaviour was reversed by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), indicating the ability of hp1 to respond to this hormone. Although attached hp1 leaves had enhanced gs, E and A compared to control leaves, genotypic differences were lost when water was withheld. Both instantaneous leaf-level WUE and long-term whole plant WUE did not differ between hp1 and MT. Our results indicate a link between exaggerated light response and water loss in hp1, which has important implications for the use of this mutant in both basic and horticultural research. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. High transpiration efficiency increases pod yield under intermittent drought in dry and hot atmospheric conditions but less so under wetter and cooler conditions in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea (L.)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadez, Vincent; Ratnakumar, Pasala

    2016-07-01

    Water limitation is a major yield limiting factor in groundnut and transpiration efficiency (TE) is considered the main target for improvement, but TE being difficult to measure it has mostly been screened with surrogates. The paper re-explore the contribution of TE to grain yield in peanut by using a novel experimental approach in which TE is measured gravimetrically throughout the crop life cycle, in addition to measurement of TE surrogates. Experimentation was carried out with the groundnut reference collection (n = 288), across seasons varying for the evaporative demand (vapor pressure deficit, VPD) and across both fully irrigated and intermittent water stress conditions. There was large genotypic variation for TE under water stress in both low and high VPD season but the range was larger (5-fold) in the high- than in the low-VPD season (2-fold). Under water stress in both seasons, yield was closely related to the harvest index (HI) while TE related directly to yield only in the high VPD season. After discounting the direct HI effect on yield, TE explained a large portion of the remaining yield variations in both seasons, although marginally in the low VPD season. By contrast, the total water extracted from the soil profile, which varied between genotypes, did not relate directly to pod yield and neither to the yield residuals unexplained by HI. Surrogates for TE (specific leaf area, SLA, and SPAD chlorophyll meter readings, SCMR) never showed any significant correlation to TE measurements. Therefore, TE is an important factor explaining yield differences in groundnut under high VPD environments, suggesting that stomatal regulation under high VPD, rather than high photosynthetic rate as proposed earlier, may have a key role to play in the large TE differences found, which open new opportunities to breed improved groundnut for high VPD.

  1. Salinity controls on plant transpiration and soil water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, S.; Molini, A.; Suweis, S. S.; Viola, F.; Entekhabi, D.

    2017-12-01

    Soil salinization and aridification represent a major threat for the food security and sustainable development of drylands. The two problems are deeply connected, and their interplay is expected to be further enhanced by climate change and projected population growth. Salt-affected land is currently estimated to cover around 1.1 Gha, and is particularly widespread in semi-arid to hyper-arid climates. Over 900 Mha of these saline/sodic soils are potentially available for crop or biomass production. Salt-tolerant plants have been recently proposed as valid solution to exploit or even remediate salinized soils. However the effects of salinity on evapotranspiration, soil water balance and the long-term salt mass balance in the soil, are still largely unexplored. In this contribution we analyze the feedback of evapotranspiration on soil salinization, with particular emphasis on the role of vegetation and plant salt-tolerance. The goal is to introduce a simple modeling framework able to shed some light on how (a) soil salinity controls plant transpiration, and (b) salinization itself is favored/impeded by different vegetation feedback. We introduce at this goal a spatially lumped stochastic model of soil moisture and salt mass dynamics averaged over the active soil depth, and accounting for the effect of salinity on evapotranspiration. Here, the limiting effect of salinity on ET is modeled through a simple plant response function depending on both salt concentration in the soil and plant salt-tolerance. The coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance is hence used to obtain the conditional steady-state probability density function (pdf) of soil moisture for given salt tolerance and salinization level, Our results show that salinity imposes a limit in the soil water balance and this limit depends on plant salt-tolerance mainly through the control of the leaching occurrence (tolerant plants exploit water more efficiently than the sensitive ones). We also analyzed the

  2. Vapour pressure deficit during growth has little impact on genotypic differences of transpiration efficiency at leaf and whole-plant level: an example from Populus nigra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Fahad; Dreyer, Erwin; Richard, Béatrice; Brignolas, Franck; Brendel, Oliver; Le Thiec, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Poplar genotypes differ in transpiration efficiency (TE) at leaf and whole-plant level under similar conditions. We tested whether atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) affected TE to the same extent across genotypes. Six Populus nigra genotypes were grown under two VPD. We recorded (1) (13)C content in soluble sugars; (2) (18)O enrichment in leaf water; (3) leaf-level gas exchange; and (4) whole-plant biomass accumulation and water use. Whole-plant and intrinsic leaf TE and (13)C content in soluble sugars differed significantly among genotypes. Stomatal conductance contributed more to these differences than net CO2 assimilation rate. VPD increased water use and reduced whole-plant TE. It increased intrinsic leaf-level TE due to a decline in stomatal conductance. It also promoted higher (18)O enrichment in leaf water. VPD had no genotype-specific effect. We detected a deviation in the relationship between (13)C in leaf sugars and (13)C predicted from gas exchange and the standard discrimination model. This may be partly due to genotypic differences in mesophyll conductance, and to its lack of sensitivity to VPD. Leaf-level (13)C discrimination was a powerful predictor of the genetic variability of whole-plant TE irrespective of VPD during growth. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Uncertainty of Wheat Water Use: Simulated Patterns and Sensitivity to Temperature and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarano, Davide; Roetter, Reimund P.; Asseng, Senthold; Ewert, Frank; Wallach, Daniel; Martre, Pierre; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Jones, James W.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Ruane, Alex C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Projected global warming and population growth will reduce future water availability for agriculture. Thus, it is essential to increase the efficiency in using water to ensure crop productivity. Quantifying crop water use (WU; i.e. actual evapotranspiration) is a critical step towards this goal. Here, sixteen wheat simulation models were used to quantify sources of model uncertainty and to estimate the relative changes and variability between models for simulated WU, water use efficiency (WUE, WU per unit of grain dry mass produced), transpiration efficiency (Teff, transpiration per kg of unit of grain yield dry mass produced), grain yield, crop transpiration and soil evaporation at increased temperatures and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]). The greatest uncertainty in simulating water use, potential evapotranspiration, crop transpiration and soil evaporation was due to differences in how crop transpiration was modelled and accounted for 50 of the total variability among models. The simulation results for the sensitivity to temperature indicated that crop WU will decline with increasing temperature due to reduced growing seasons. The uncertainties in simulated crop WU, and in particularly due to uncertainties in simulating crop transpiration, were greater under conditions of increased temperatures and with high temperatures in combination with elevated atmospheric [CO2] concentrations. Hence the simulation of crop WU, and in particularly crop transpiration under higher temperature, needs to be improved and evaluated with field measurements before models can be used to simulate climate change impacts on future crop water demand.

  4. Wound healing: some of what we have discovered about this critical and complex process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of suberized layers in native and wound periderm is essential in protecting the organ from a range of pathogens, dehydration, oxidation, mild mechanical contact and other environmental dangers. Interestingly, suberized layers are also formed without the stimulus of a mechanical woun...

  5. The external morphology of the mouthparts, and observations on feeding and behavior of Tuckerella japonica on Camellia sinensis in the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckerella japonica Ehara (Acari: Tetranychoidea: Tuckerellidae) is found where longitudinal splitting occurs on exposed green periderm tissue of shoots on certain varieties or seedling plants of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Theales: Theaceae) in the continental United States. The mite is able ...

  6. Increasing Water Use Efficiency Comes at a Cost for Norway Spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja G M Sanders

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi in trees is an indication of the ratio of carbon assimilation to the rate of transpiration. It is generally assumed that it is a response to water availability. In agricultural research, the question of drought tolerance by increased WUEi has been well studied. In general, the increase is a trade-off for productivity and is therefore not desired. For forest trees, this question is less clearly understood. Using stable carbon isotopes derived from tree rings combined with productivity as the product of the annual growth increment and annual density measurements, we compared the change in WUEi over a 15 year period. While WUEi increased over this period, the productivity decreased, causing an opposing trend. The gradient of the correlation between WUEi and productivity varies between provenances and sites. Counterintuitively, the populations at the drier site showed low WUEi values at the beginning of the investigation. Slopes vary with the provenance from Poland showing the least decline in productivity. In general, we found that a decline in productivity aligned with an increase in WUEi.

  7. Thermal Effects on the Body mass, Transpiration rate, Feeding and Food Conversion of the Pillbug Armadillo officinalis (Isopoda, Oniscidea Fed on the Dry Leaf of Punica Granatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelgader K. Youssef

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made on the body mass; transpiration rate; assimilation efficiency; gross and net production efficiencies; feeding, assimilation, conversion and metabolic rates of the pillbug Armadillo officinalis Dumeril acclimatized at 14º  and 21 °C for 15 days and fed on the dry leaf of Punica granatum (Pomegranate.  A brief description is given on the chemical composition of P. granatum leaf.  The difference in body mass increments of A. officinalis between the acclimatized temperatures was not significant (t = 1.09; p>0.05.  However, significant differences were discernible on the transpiration rate (t = 9.53; p<0.01, moisture (t = 9.01; p<0.01, assimilation efficiency (t = 5.16; p<0.01, feeding (t = 3.76; p<0.05 and conversion (t = 2.58; p<0.05  rates between the woodlice acclimatized at 14º and 21 °C.  Better feeding of    P. granatum leaf by these animals was observed at 21° C, but better assimilation efficiency at 14 °C.  Only 3.21% assimilated food at 14° C and 6.30% at 21 °C were converted into the production of new tissues.  The food consumption of A. officinalis at 14º and 21° C was 2.05% and 3.79% body mass/day respectively.  The effect of temperature on the activity of A. officinalis in the field is discussed.

  8. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies of Helleborus niger L root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Kishor Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helleborus niger L (Ranunculaceae is used Ayurvedic and Unani systems and other herbal medicine systems. The roots of H. niger have a good medicinal value. Aims: To conduct a pharmacognostical and phytochemical study of H. niger. Materials and Methods: The pharmacognostical studies on roots including parameters such as taxonomical, macroscopic, microscopic characters, physico-chemical, ultra-violet analysis and phytochemical studies are established. Results: Macroscopically, the roots are brownish-black in colour, cylindrical in shape, feeble odour, slightly acrid taste with irregularly branched. Microscopically the root showed the presence of epidermis, air-chambers, fissure periderm, periderm, inner cortex, pith, phloem, xylem, vessels and xylem vessels. Microscopic examination of the powder showed the presence of parenchyma cells, parenchyma mass, periderm, cell inclusion, laticifer, lateral wall pith, perforation, xylem bundle and xylem elements. Ultra-violet and ordinary light analyses with different reagents were conducted to identify the drug in powder form. Physico-chemical evaluation established, Ash values - Total, acid insoluble, water soluble and sulphated ash values were 7.3%, 4.1%, 3.7% and 5.2%, respectively. Extractive values - Alcohol soluble, water soluble and ether soluble extractive values were 22.8%, 7.4% and 5.6%, respectively. Loss on drying was 3.3%. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, saponins, flavonoid, phytosterols, tannins and phenolic compounds. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable resource of pharmacognostic and phytochemical information. This will serve as appropriate, standards for discovery of this plant material in future investigations and applications and also contribute towards establishing pharmacopoeial standards.

  9. Combining field performance with controlled environment plant imaging to identify the genetic control of growth and transpiration underlying yield response to water-deficit stress in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Boris; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Maphosa, Lance; Berger, Bettina; Rabie, Huwaida; Chalmers, Ken; Kovalchuk, Alex; Langridge, Peter; Fleury, Delphine

    2015-09-01

    Crop yield in low-rainfall environments is a complex trait under multigenic control that shows significant genotype×environment (G×E) interaction. One way to understand and track this trait is to link physiological studies to genetics by using imaging platforms to phenotype large segregating populations. A wheat population developed from parental lines contrasting in their mechanisms of yield maintenance under water deficit was studied in both an imaging platform and in the field. We combined phenotyping methods in a common analysis pipeline to estimate biomass and leaf area from images and then inferred growth and relative growth rate, transpiration, and water-use efficiency, and applied these to genetic analysis. From the 20 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) found for several traits in the platform, some showed strong effects, accounting for between 26 and 43% of the variation on chromosomes 1A and 1B, indicating that the G×E interaction could be reduced in a controlled environment and by using dynamic variables. Co-location of QTLs identified in the platform and in the field showed a possible common genetic basis at some loci. Co-located QTLs were found for average growth rate, leaf expansion rate, transpiration rate, and water-use efficiency from the platform with yield, spike number, grain weight, grain number, and harvest index in the field. These results demonstrated that imaging platforms are a suitable alternative to field-based screening and may be used to phenotype recombinant lines for positional cloning. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Effects of CO[sub 2] concentration on photosynthesis, transpiration and production of greenhouse fruit vegetable crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nederhoff, E.M.

    1994-10-25

    The effect of the CO[sub 2] concentration of the greenhouse air (C) in the range 200 to 1100 [mu]mol mol[sup -1] was investigated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), grown in greenhouses. The effect of C on canopy net photosynthetic CO[sub 2] assimilation rate (or photosynthesis, P) was expressed by a set of regression equations, relating P to PAR, C and LAI. A rule of thumb ('CO[sub 2]-rule') was derived, approximating the relative increase of P caused by additional CO[sub 2] at a certain C. This CO[sub 2]-rule is: X = (1000/C)[sup 2] * 1.5 (X in % per 100 [mu]mol[sup -1], and C in [mu]mol mol[sup -1]). Two models for canopy photosynthesis were examined by comparing them with the experimental photosynthesis data. No 'midday depression' in P was observed. The effects of C on leaf conductance (g) and on rate of crop transpiration (E) were investigated. An increase of 100 I[mu]mol mol[sup -1] ' in C reduced g by about 3-4% in sweet pepper, tomato and cucumber and by about 11% in eggplant. The effect of C on E was analyzed by combining the regression equation for g with the Penman-Monteith equation for E. C had only a relatively small effect on E, owing to thermal and hydrological feedback effects. The decoupling of g and E was quantified. No time-dependent variation or 'midday depression' in E was observed, and no significant effect of C on average leaf temperature was established. In five experiments, the effect of C on growth and production and on specific features were analyzed; fruit production (dry weight) was most affected by C in sweet pepper; fresh weight fruit production per unit CO[sub 2] was highest in cucumber; fruit quality was not influenced by C. High C promoted the 'short leaves syndrome' in tomato and 'leaf tip chlorosis' in eggplant, probably related to calcium and boron translocation

  11. Genotype differences in 13C discrimination between atmosphere and leaf matter match differences in transpiration efficiency at leaf and whole-plant levels in hybrid Populus deltoides x nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Fahad; Dreyer, Erwin; Richard, Béatrice; Brignolas, Franck; Montpied, Pierre; Le Thiec, Didier

    2013-01-01

    (13) C discrimination between atmosphere and bulk leaf matter (Δ(13) C(lb) ) is frequently used as a proxy for transpiration efficiency (TE). Nevertheless, its relevance is challenged due to: (1) potential deviations from the theoretical discrimination model, and (2) complex time integration and upscaling from leaf to whole plant. Six hybrid genotypes of Populus deltoides×nigra genotypes were grown in climate chambers and tested for whole-plant TE (i.e. accumulated biomass/water transpired). Net CO(2) assimilation rates (A) and stomatal conductance (g(s) ) were recorded in parallel to: (1) (13) C in leaf bulk material (δ(13) C(lb) ) and in soluble sugars (δ(13) C(ss) ) and (2) (18) O in leaf water and bulk leaf material. Genotypic means of δ(13) C(lb) and δ(13) C(ss) were tightly correlated. Discrimination between atmosphere and soluble sugars was correlated with daily intrinsic TE at leaf level (daily mean A/g(s) ), and with whole-plant TE. Finally, g(s) was positively correlated to (18) O enrichment of bulk matter or water of leaves at individual level, but not at genotype level. We conclude that Δ(13) C(lb) captures efficiently the genetic variability of whole-plant TE in poplar. Nevertheless, scaling from leaf level to whole-plant TE requires to take into account water losses and respiration independent of photosynthesis, which remain poorly documented. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Assimilation and water relations of dryland castor at different intensities of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Venkateswarlu, S.

    1995-01-01

    Primary racemes of dryland castor develop during later part of rainy season and secondaries and tertiaries develop during post-rainy season. The reproductive phase is therefore subjected to variation in soil moisture availability and solar radiation intensity. The objective of the study was to find out the influence of fluctuation in solar radiation intensity on photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, transpiration efficiency, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential during early and late reproductive phase of castor. When photosynthetically active radiation was less than 1000 mu-mol m-2s-1, transpiration efficiency decreased because reduction in photosynthesis rate was more than that in transpiration rate. Transpiration efficiency also decreased, when radiation was above 1500 mu-mol m-2s-1 because of increase only in transpiration rate. Leaf water potential was higher during early than during late reproductive phase at similar radiation intensity. Transpiration rate was lower and transpiration efficiency was more during early phase when radiation was above 1500 mu-mol m-2s-1. Photosynthetically active radiation and leaf water potential were inversely related

  13. Transpiration and CO2 fluxes of a pine forest: modelling the undergrowth effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rivalland

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A modelling study is performed in order to quantify the relative effect of allowing for the physiological properties of an undergrowth grass sward on total canopy water and carbon fluxes of the Le-Bray forest (Les-Landes, South-western France. The Le-Bray forest consists of maritime pine and an herbaceous undergrowth (purple moor-grass, which is characterised by a low stomatal control of transpiration, in contrast to maritime pine. A CO2-responsive land surface model is used that includes responses of woody and herbaceous species to water stress. An attempt is made to represent the properties of the undergrowth vegetation in the land surface model Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere, CO2-responsive, ISBA-A-gs. The new adjustment allows for a fairly different environmental response between the forest canopy and the understory in a simple manner. The model's simulations are compared with long term (1997 and 1998 micro-meteorological measurements over the Le-Bray site. The fluxes of energy, water and CO2, are simulated with and without the improved representation of the undergrowth vegetation, and the two simulations are compared with the observations. Accounting for the undergrowth permits one to improve the model's scores. A simple sensitivity experiment shows the behaviour of the model in response to climate change conditions, and the understory effect on the water balance and carbon storage of the forest. Accounting for the distinct characteristics of the undergrowth has a substantial and positive effect on the model accuracy and leads to a different response to climate change scenarios.

  14. Efeito do déficit hídrico na transpiração e resistência estomática da mangueira Effect of water deficit on the transpiration and stomatal resistance of mango tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Teixeira de Castro Neto

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O processo de indução floral da mangueira no Nordeste brasileiro, mediante o uso do déficit hídrico, não tem dado resultado satisfatório, principalmente pelo manejo inadequado da irrigação. O processo transpiratório e a resistência estomática da mangueira refletem a condição hídrica da planta. O monitoramento destes parâmetros fisiológicos na mangueira, durante o período de repouso fisiológico e irrigado, sugere que a indução floral por déficit hídrico não é eficiente devido ao manejo incorreto da irrigação.Flowering induction of mango growth at the Northeast Brazil has not given satisfactory results mainly due to inadequate irrigation management. Transpiration and stomatal resistance of mango trees can reflect the water status of the plant. Monitoring the transpiration and stomatal resistance of mango trees during water deficit and irrigation period suggests that the flower induction by water deficit is not efficient due to incorrect irrigation management.

  15. Effect of Leaf Water Potential on Internal Humidity and CO2 Dissolution: Reverse Transpiration and Improved Water Use Efficiency under Negative Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesala, Timo; Sevanto, Sanna; Grönholm, Tiia; Salmon, Yann; Nikinmaa, Eero; Hari, Pertti; Hölttä, Teemu

    2017-01-01

    The pull of water from the soil to the leaves causes water in the transpiration stream to be under negative pressure decreasing the water potential below zero. The osmotic concentration also contributes to the decrease in leaf water potential but with much lesser extent. Thus, the surface tension force is approximately balanced by a force induced by negative water potential resulting in concavely curved water-air interfaces in leaves. The lowered water potential causes a reduction in the equilibrium water vapor pressure in internal (sub-stomatal/intercellular) cavities in relation to that over water with the potential of zero, i.e., over the flat surface. The curved surface causes a reduction also in the equilibrium vapor pressure of dissolved CO 2 , thus enhancing its physical solubility to water. Although the water vapor reduction is acknowledged by plant physiologists its consequences for water vapor exchange at low water potential values have received very little attention. Consequences of the enhanced CO 2 solubility to a leaf water-carbon budget have not been considered at all before this study. We use theoretical calculations and modeling to show how the reduction in the vapor pressures affects transpiration and carbon assimilation rates. Our results indicate that the reduction in vapor pressures of water and CO 2 could enhance plant water use efficiency up to about 10% at a leaf water potential of -2 MPa, and much more when water potential decreases further. The low water potential allows for a direct stomatal water vapor uptake from the ambient air even at sub-100% relative humidity values. This alone could explain the observed rates of foliar water uptake by e.g., the coastal redwood in the fog belt region of coastal California provided the stomata are sufficiently open. The omission of the reduction in the water vapor pressure causes a bias in the estimates of the stomatal conductance and leaf internal CO 2 concentration based on leaf gas exchange

  16. Sensitivity of Terrestrial Water and Energy Budgets to CO2-Physiological Forcing: An Investigation Using an Offline Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ranjith; Bala, Govindsamy; Jayaraman, Mathangi; Cao, Long; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Ravindranath, N. H.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) influence climate by suppressing canopy transpiration in addition to its well-known greenhouse gas effect. The decrease in plant transpiration is due to changes in plant physiology (reduced opening of plant stomata). Here, we quantify such changes in water flux for various levels of CO2 concentrations using the National Center for Atmospheric Research s (NCAR) Community Land Model. We find that photosynthesis saturates after 800 ppmv (parts per million, by volume) in this model. However, unlike photosynthesis, canopy transpiration continues to decline at about 5.1% per 100 ppmv increase in CO2 levels. We also find that the associated reduction in latent heat flux is primarily compensated by increased sensible heat flux. The continued decline in canopy transpiration and subsequent increase in sensible heat flux at elevated CO2 levels implies that incremental warming associated with the physiological effect of CO2 will not abate at higher CO2 concentrations, indicating important consequences for the global water and carbon cycles from anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Keywords: CO2-physiological effect, CO2-fertilization, canopy transpiration, water cycle, runoff, climate change 1.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation, evaporation retardants and transpiration suppressants on grain yield, nutrient uptake and moisture-use efficiency on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, D.K.; Sen, Avijit; Misra, N.M.

    1988-01-01

    A field trial was conducted on 'Malaviya 37' bread wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. emend. Fiori and Paol.) in 1982-83 and 1983-84. It included 4 dos es of gamma irradiation of seeds (0, 2.5, 4.5 and 6.5 kR) and 5 treatments of evaporation retardants and transpiration suppressants, viz. control, rice (Oryza sativa Linn.) straw, wheat straw, rice straw + phenyl mercuric acetate (150 ppm) and wheat straw + kaolin (6 per cent). Seed irradiation with gamma-rays at 6.5 kR and wheat straw + kaolin gave 11.76 and 61.37 per cent higher yield than the control respectively. For moisture-use efficiency and NPK uptake these treatments also showed the same trend. (author). 12 refs

  18. Use of the transpiration method to study polonium evaporation from liquid lead-bismuth eutectic at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, Borja Gonzalez; Lim, Jun; Rosseel, Kris; Bosch, Joris van den; Aerts, Alexander; Martens, Johan; Rizzi, Matthias; Neuhausen, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative understanding of Po volatilization under different conditions is of key importance for safety assessments of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) based nuclear reactors, spallation targets and accelerator driven systems. In this work we explore the possibilities of the transpiration method in combination with simple models to study the equilibrium and kinetics of Po evaporation from highly diluted solutions in lead-bismuth eutectic between 600 and 1000 C in Ar/5% H 2 and Ar. On the basis of evaporation experiments at various carrier gas flow rates, we identified the conditions of vapor saturation allowing the determination of equilibrium constants. From the limiting behavior at high flow rates, values for the maximal evaporation rate of Po from LBE were estimated. Measurements of evaporation as a function of time were consistent with the assumption that polonium dissolved in LBE obeys Henry's law. A theoretical analysis furthermore suggested that diffusion of polonium in LBE was not a rate limiting factor for evaporation under vapor saturation conditions. Newly determined values for the Henry constant of Po in LBE between 600 and 1000 C were consistent with previously derived correlations.

  19. Modeling whole-tree carbon assimilation rate using observed transpiration rates and needle sugar carbon isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Moore, David J P; Riveros-Iregui, Diego A; Burns, Sean P; Monson, Russell K

    2010-03-01

    *Understanding controls over plant-atmosphere CO(2) exchange is important for quantifying carbon budgets across a range of spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we used a simple approach to estimate whole-tree CO(2) assimilation rate (A(Tree)) in a subalpine forest ecosystem. *We analysed the carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)C) of extracted needle sugars and combined it with the daytime leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit to estimate tree water-use efficiency (WUE). The estimated WUE was then combined with observations of tree transpiration rate (E) using sap flow techniques to estimate A(Tree). Estimates of A(Tree) for the three dominant tree species in the forest were combined with species distribution and tree size to estimate and gross primary productivity (GPP) using an ecosystem process model. *A sensitivity analysis showed that estimates of A(Tree) were more sensitive to dynamics in E than delta(13)C. At the ecosystem scale, the abundance of lodgepole pine trees influenced seasonal dynamics in GPP considerably more than Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir because of its greater sensitivity of E to seasonal climate variation. *The results provide the framework for a nondestructive method for estimating whole-tree carbon assimilation rate and ecosystem GPP over daily-to weekly time scales.

  20. Drought Response in Wheat: Key Genes and Regulatory Mechanisms Controlling Root System Architecture and Transpiration Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kulkarni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as, drought, heat, salinity, and flooding threaten global food security. Crop genetic improvement with increased resilience to abiotic stresses is a critical component of crop breeding strategies. Wheat is an important cereal crop and a staple food source globally. Enhanced drought tolerance in wheat is critical for sustainable food production and global food security. Recent advances in drought tolerance research have uncovered many key genes and transcription regulators governing morpho-physiological traits. Genes controlling root architecture and stomatal development play an important role in soil moisture extraction and its retention, and therefore have been targets of molecular breeding strategies for improving drought tolerance. In this systematic review, we have summarized evidence of beneficial contributions of root and stomatal traits to plant adaptation to drought stress. Specifically, we discuss a few key genes such as, DRO1 in rice and ERECTA in Arabidopsis and rice that were identified to be the enhancers of drought tolerance via regulation of root traits and transpiration efficiency. Additionally, we highlight several transcription factor families, such as, ERF (ethylene response factors, DREB (dehydration responsive element binding, ZFP (zinc finger proteins, WRKY, and MYB that were identified to be both positive and negative regulators of drought responses in wheat, rice, maize, and/or Arabidopsis. The overall aim of this review is to provide an overview of candidate genes that have been identified as regulators of drought response in plants. The lack of a reference genome sequence for wheat and non-transgenic approaches for manipulation of gene functions in wheat in the past had impeded high-resolution interrogation of functional elements, including genes and QTLs, and their application in cultivar improvement. The recent developments in wheat genomics and reverse genetics, including the availability of a

  1. Effectiveness of cuticular transpiration barriers in a desert plant at controlling water loss at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Ann-Christin; Burghardt, Markus; Alfarhan, Ahmed; Bueno, Amauri; Hedrich, Rainer; Leide, Jana; Thomas, Jacob; Riederer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining the integrity of the cuticular transpiration barrier even at elevated temperatures is of vital importance especially for hot-desert plants. Currently, the temperature dependence of the leaf cuticular water permeability and its relationship with the chemistry of the cuticles are not known for a single desert plant. This study investigates whether (i) the cuticular permeability of a desert plant is lower than that of species from non-desert habitats, (ii) the temperature-dependent increase of permeability is less pronounced than in those species and (iii) whether the susceptibility of the cuticular permeability barrier to high temperatures is related to the amounts or properties of the cutin or the cuticular waxes. We test these questions with Rhazya stricta using the minimum leaf water vapour conductance (gmin) as a proxy for cuticular water permeability. gmin of R. stricta (5.41 × 10(-5) m s(-1) at 25 °C) is in the upper range of all existing data for woody species from various non-desert habitats. At the same time, in R. stricta, the effect of temperature (15-50 °C) on gmin (2.4-fold) is lower than in all other species (up to 12-fold). Rhazya stricta is also special since the temperature dependence of gmin does not become steeper above a certain transition temperature. For identifying the chemical and physical foundation of this phenomenon, the amounts and the compositions of cuticular waxes and cutin were determined. The leaf cuticular wax (251.4 μg cm(-2)) is mainly composed of pentacyclic triterpenoids (85.2% of total wax) while long-chain aliphatics contribute only 3.4%. In comparison with many other species, the triterpenoid-to-cutin ratio of R. stricta (0.63) is high. We propose that the triterpenoids deposited within the cutin matrix restrict the thermal expansion of the polymer and, thus, prevent thermal damage to the highly ordered aliphatic wax barrier even at high temperatures. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  2. Drought response in wheat: key genes and regulatory mechanisms controlling root system architecture and transpiration efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manoj; Soolanayakanahally, Raju; Ogawa, Satoshi; Uga, Yusaku; Selvaraj, Michael G.; Kagale, Sateesh

    2017-12-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat, salinity and flooding threaten global food security. Crop genetic improvement with increased resilience to abiotic stresses is a critical component of crop breeding strategies. Wheat is an important cereal crop and a staple food source globally. Enhanced drought tolerance in wheat is critical for sustainable food production and global food security. Recent advances in drought tolerance research have uncovered many key genes and transcription regulators governing morpho-physiological traits. Genes controlling root architecture and stomatal development play an important role in soil moisture extraction and its retention, and therefore have been targets of molecular breeding strategies for improving drought tolerance. In this systematic review, we have summarized evidence of beneficial contributions of root and stomatal traits to plant adaptation to drought stress. Specifically, we discuss a few key genes such as DRO1 in rice and ERECTA in Arabidopsis and rice that were identified to be the enhancers of drought tolerance via regulation of root traits and transpiration efficiency. Additionally, we highlight several transcription factor families, such as ERF (ethylene response factors), DREB (dehydration responsive element binding), ZFP (zinc finger proteins), WRKY and MYB that were identified to be both positive and negative regulators of drought responses in wheat, rice, maize and/or Arabidopsis. The overall aim of this review was to provide an overview of candidate genes that have been tested as regulators of drought response in plants. The lack of a reference genome sequence for wheat and nontransgenic approaches for manipulation of gene functions in the past had impeded high-resolution interrogation of functional elements, including genes and QTLs, and their application in cultivar improvement. The recent developments in wheat genomics and reverse genetics, including the availability of a gold-standard reference genome

  3. Morfoanatomia da plântula de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae = Morphology and anatomy of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemari Pilati

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Celtis iguanaea é uma espécie pioneira, típica de mata ciliar. O presente estudo visa a investigação da morfoanatomia da plântula dessa espécie, pertencente à Ulmaceae. As sementes, coletadas na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, foram germinadas emcâmara de germinação com temperatura constante de 30ºC e mantidas sob luz fluorescente contínua. O desenvolvimento das plântulas ocorreu em casa de vegetação. A análise anatômica foi feita em plântulas fixadas em FAA 50. Esse material foi secionado transversalmente e as seções obtidas foram coradas em safranina e azul de astra. Verificou-seque a plântula é fanerocotiledonar, epigéia, e apresenta raiz ramificada, hipocótilo desenvolvido, cotilédones obovados e persistentes, epicótilo verde e piloso e eofilo oblongo ou lanceolado. A raiz é tetrarca ou diarca. O hipocótilo possui crescimento secundário com periderme de origem profunda. O epicótilo também apresenta crescimento secundário com periderme de origem subepidérmica. Os cotilédones e o eofilo são folhas dorsiventrais comcistólitos.Celtis iguanaea it is a typical arboreal species of ciliar forest, belonging to the family Ulmaceae. This work intends to investigate the morphology and anatomy of seedling species. The seeds used were collected from several trees, in fragments of the Semideciduous Seasonal Alluvial and Submontane Forest located on Upper Paraná Riverfloodplain. The seeds were germinated at constant temperatures (30ºC, using germination chambers and kept under continuous fluorescent light. Seedling development occurred in a greenhouse. Anatomical analysis was made in seedlings fixed in FAA 50. The botanical material was sectioned by microtome and stained with safranin and astra blue. The seedling is phanerocotylar and epigeal, presents ramified root, developed hypocotyl, obovate and persistent cotyledons, green and hairy epicotyl and the first leaf in a shape oblong or lanceolate. Root is

  4. Characterization of southern yellow pine bark layers by Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2009-01-01

    The outer bark (rhytidome) of the southern yellow pines is a complex structure comprised of alternating layers of obliterated phloem and periderm tissues, with the latter comprised of three layers, those being phellem, phellogen, and phelloderm. An attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling accessory, coupled with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer,...

  5. Dependence of leaf surface potential response of a plant (Ficus Elastica) to light irradiation on room temperature; Shokubutsu (gomunoki) hamen den`i no hikari shosha oto no shitsuon izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, H; Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In order to clarify plant body potential information, study was made on a leaf surface potential response to light irradiation. The leaf surface potential change, total transpiration and transpiration rate of Ficus Elastica were measured using light irradiation period and room temperature as parameters. The leaf surface potential change shows a positive peak after the start of light irradiation, while a negative peak after its end. Arrival time to both peaks is constant regardless of the light irradiation period, while decrease with an increase in room temperature. Although the total transpiration increases with room temperature, this tendency disappears with an increase in light irradiation period. The transpiration rate shows its peak after the start of light irradiation. Arrival time to the peak is saturated with the light irradiation period of 60min, while decreases with an increase in room temperature. These results suggest that opening of stomata becomes active with an increase in room temperature, and the peak of the leaf surface potential after the start of light irradiation relates to the opening. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Salicaceae Endophytes Modulate Stomatal Behavior and Increase Water Use Efficiency in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungmin Rho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial and yeast endophytes isolated from the Salicaceae family have been shown to promote growth and alleviate stress in plants from different taxa. To determine the physiological pathways through which endophytes affect plant water relations, we investigated leaf water potential, whole-plant water use, and stomatal responses of rice plants to Salicaceae endophyte inoculation under CO2 enrichment and water deficit. Daytime stomatal conductance and stomatal density were lower in inoculated plants compared to controls. Leaf ABA concentrations increased with endophyte inoculation. As a result, transpirational water use decreased significantly with endophyte inoculation while biomass did not change or slightly increased. This response led to a significant increase in cumulative water use efficiency at harvest. Different endophyte strains produced the same results in host plant water relations and stomatal responses. These stomatal responses were also observed under elevated CO2 conditions, and the increase in water use efficiency was more pronounced under water deficit conditions. The effect on water use efficiency was positively correlated with daily light integrals across different experiments. Our results provide insights on the physiological mechanisms of plant-endophyte interactions involving plant water relations and stomatal functions.

  7. Protein domain analysis of genomic sequence data reveals regulation of LRR related domains in plant transpiration in Ficus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Tiange; Yin, Kangquan; Liu, Jinyu; Cao, Kunfang; Cannon, Charles H; Du, Fang K

    2014-01-01

    Predicting protein domains is essential for understanding a protein's function at the molecular level. However, up till now, there has been no direct and straightforward method for predicting protein domains in species without a reference genome sequence. In this study, we developed a functionality with a set of programs that can predict protein domains directly from genomic sequence data without a reference genome. Using whole genome sequence data, the programming functionality mainly comprised DNA assembly in combination with next-generation sequencing (NGS) assembly methods and traditional methods, peptide prediction and protein domain prediction. The proposed new functionality avoids problems associated with de novo assembly due to micro reads and small single repeats. Furthermore, we applied our functionality for the prediction of leucine rich repeat (LRR) domains in four species of Ficus with no reference genome, based on NGS genomic data. We found that the LRRNT_2 and LRR_8 domains are related to plant transpiration efficiency, as indicated by the stomata index, in the four species of Ficus. The programming functionality established in this study provides new insights for protein domain prediction, which is particularly timely in the current age of NGS data expansion.

  8. Constraining Ecosystem Gross Primary Production and Transpiration with Measurements of Photosynthetic 13CO2 Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonquist, J. M.; Wingate, L.; Ogeé, J.; Bowling, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 (δ13Ca) can provide useful information on water use efficiency (WUE) dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems and potentially constrain models of CO2 and water fluxes at the land surface. This is due to the leaf-level relationship between photosynthetic 13CO2 discrimination (Δ), which influences δ13Ca, and the ratio of leaf intercellular to atmospheric CO2 mole fractions (Ci / Ca), which is related to WUE and is determined by the balance between C assimilation (CO2 demand) and stomatal conductance (CO2 supply). We used branch-scale Δ derived from tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy measurements collected in a Maritime pine forest to estimate Ci / Ca variations over an entire growing season. We combined Ci / Ca estimates with rates of gross primary production (GPP) derived from eddy covariance (EC) to estimate canopy-scale stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration (T). Estimates of T were highly correlated to T estimates derived from sapflow data (y = 1.22x + 0.08; r2 = 0.61; slope P MuSICA) (y = 0.88x - 0.05; r2 = 0.64; slope P MuSICA (y = 1.10 + 0.42; r2 = 0.50; slope P < 0.001). Results demonstrate that the leaf-level relationship between Δ and Ci / Ca can be extended to the canopy-scale and that Δ measurements have utility for partitioning ecosystem-scale CO2 and water fluxes.

  9. A simplified method for evaluating thermal performance of unglazed transpired solar collectors under steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Lei, Bo; Bi, Haiquan; Yu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simplified method for evaluating thermal performance of UTC is developed. • Experiments, numerical simulations, dimensional analysis and data fitting are used. • The correlation of absorber plate temperature for UTC is established. • The empirical correlation of heat exchange effectiveness for UTC is proposed. - Abstract: Due to the advantages of low investment and high energy efficiency, unglazed transpired solar collectors (UTC) have been widely used for heating in buildings. However, it is difficult for designers to quickly evaluate the thermal performance of UTC based on the conventional methods such as experiments and numerical simulations. Therefore, a simple and fast method to determine the thermal performance of UTC is indispensable. The objective of this work is to provide a simplified calculation method to easily evaluate the thermal performance of UTC under steady state. Different parameters are considered in the simplified method, including pitch, perforation diameter, solar radiation, solar absorptivity, approach velocity, ambient air temperature, absorber plate temperature, and so on. Based on existing design parameters and operating conditions, correlations for the absorber plate temperature and the heat exchange effectiveness are developed using dimensional analysis and data fitting, respectively. Results show that the proposed simplified method has a high accuracy and can be employed to evaluate the collector efficiency, the heat exchange effectiveness and the air temperature rise. The proposed method in this paper is beneficial to directly determine design parameters and operating status for UTC.

  10. Effect of water stress on carbon isotope discrimination and its relationship with transpiration efficiency and specific leaf area in Cenchrus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Archana; Chandra, Amaresh

    2008-05-01

    Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) has been proposed in estimating transpiration efficiency (TE) in plants indirectly To identify variations for TE and specific leaf area (SLA) and their association with CID, a glasshouse experiment was conducted using six prominent species of Cenchrus. A significant increase in TE (3.50 to 3.87 g kg(-1)) and decrease in SLA (219.50 to 207.99 cm2 g(-1)) and CID (13.72 to 13.23% per hundred) was observed from well watered to stress condition. Results indicated a direct relationship of SLA with CID (r = 0.511* and 0.544*) and inverse relationship between TE and CID (r = -0.229 and -0.270) However the relationship of TE with CID was insignificant. A positive and significant relationship was visualized between TE and dry matter production in both control (r = 0.917**) and stress (0.718**) treatments. Relationships of total dry matter with SLA and CID were monitored insignificant and negative in control and positive in stress treatment indicated difference in dry matter production under two treatments. It seems that, in Cenchrus species, CID was influenced more by the photosynthetic capacity than by stomatal conductance, as indicated by its positive relationship with SLAin both control (r = 0.511) and stress (r = 0.544) conditions and negative relationship with root dry matter production under control (r = -0.921**) and stress (r = -0.919***) condition. Results showed good correspondence between CID and SLA, indicating that lines having high TE and biomass production can be exploited for their genetic improvement for drought.

  11. Transpiration and film cooling boundary layer computer program. Volume 1: Numerical solutions of the turbulent boundary layer equations with equilibrium chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. N.

    1971-01-01

    A finite difference turbulent boundary layer computer program has been developed. The program is primarily oriented towards the calculation of boundary layer performance losses in rocket engines; however, the solution is general, and has much broader applicability. The effects of transpiration and film cooling as well as the effect of equilibrium chemical reactions (currently restricted to the H2-O2 system) can be calculated. The turbulent transport terms are evaluated using the phenomenological mixing length - eddy viscosity concept. The equations of motion are solved using the Crank-Nicolson implicit finite difference technique. The analysis and computer program have been checked out by solving a series of both laminar and turbulent test cases and comparing the results to data or other solutions. These comparisons have shown that the program is capable of producing very satisfactory results for a wide range of flows. Further refinements to the analysis and program, especially as applied to film cooling solutions, would be aided by the acquisition of a firm data base.

  12. Sensitivity of terrestrial water and energy budgets to CO2-physiological forcing: an investigation using an offline land model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ranjith; Jayaraman, Mathangi; Ravindranath, N H; Bala, Govindsamy; Cao, Long; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    2011-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) influence climate by suppressing canopy transpiration in addition to its well-known greenhouse gas effect. The decrease in plant transpiration is due to changes in plant physiology (reduced opening of plant stomata). Here, we quantify such changes in water flux for various levels of CO 2 concentrations using the National Center for Atmospheric Research's (NCAR) Community Land Model. We find that photosynthesis saturates after 800 ppmv (parts per million, by volume) in this model. However, unlike photosynthesis, canopy transpiration continues to decline at about 5.1% per 100 ppmv increase in CO 2 levels. We also find that the associated reduction in latent heat flux is primarily compensated by increased sensible heat flux. The continued decline in canopy transpiration and subsequent increase in sensible heat flux at elevated CO 2 levels implies that incremental warming associated with the physiological effect of CO 2 will not abate at higher CO 2 concentrations, indicating important consequences for the global water and carbon cycles from anthropogenic CO 2 emissions.

  13. Stem girdling evidences a trade-off between cambial activity and sprouting and dramatically reduces plant transpiration due to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis and hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rosana; Brossa, Ricard; Gil, Luis; Pita, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The photosynthesis source-sink relationship in young Pinus canariensis seedlings was modified by stem girdling to investigate sprouting and cambial activity, feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, and stem and root hydraulic capacity. Removal of bark tissue showed a trade-off between sprouting and diameter growth. Above the girdle, growth was accelerated but the number of sprouts was almost negligible, whereas below the girdle the response was reversed. Girdling resulted in a sharp decrease in whole plant transpiration and root hydraulic conductance. The reduction of leaf area after girdling was strengthened by the high levels of abscisic acid found in buds which pointed to stronger bud dormancy, preventing a new needle flush. Accumulation of sugars in leaves led to a coordinated reduction in net photosynthesis (AN) and stomatal conductance (gS) in the short term, but later (gS below 0.07 mol m(-2) s(-1)) AN decreased faster. The decrease in maximal efficiency of photosystem II (FV/FM) and the operating quantum efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII) in girdled plants could suggest photoprotection of leaves, as shown by the vigorous recovery of AN and ΦPSII after reconnection of the phloem. Stem girdling did not affect xylem embolism but increased stem hydraulic conductance above the girdle. This study shows that stem girdling affects not only the carbon balance, but also the water status of the plant.

  14. Stem girdling evidences a trade-off between cambial activity and sprouting and dramatically reduces plant transpiration due to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis and hormone signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana eLópez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthesis source-sink relationship in young Pinus canariensis seedlings was modified by stem girdling to investigate sprouting and cambial activity, feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, and stem and root hydraulic capacity. Removal of bark tissue showed a trade-off between sprouting and diameter growth. Above the girdle, growth was accelerated but the number of sprouts was almost negligible, whereas below the girdle the response was reversed. Girdling resulted in a sharp decrease in whole plant transpiration and root hydraulic conductance. The reduction of leaf area after girdling was strengthened by the high levels of ABA found in buds which pointed to stronger bud dormancy, preventing a new needle flush. Accumulation of sugars in leaves led to a coordinated reduction in net photosynthesis (AN and stomatal conductance (gS in the short term, but later (gS below 0.07 mol m-2 s-1 AN decreased faster. The decrease in maximal efficiency of photosystem II (FV/FM and the operating quantum efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII in girdled plants could suggest photoprotection of leaves, as shown by the vigorous recovery of AN and ΦPSII after reconnection of the phloem. Stem girdling did not affect xylem embolism but increased stem hydraulic conductance above the girdle. This study shows that stem girdling affects not only the carbon balance, but also the water status of the plant.

  15. Modeling the water use efficiency of soybean and maize plants under environmental stresses: application of a synthetic model of photosynthesis-transpiration based on stomatal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gui-Rui; Wang, Qiu-Feng; Zhuang, Jie

    2004-03-01

    Understanding the variability of plant WUE and its control mechanism can promote the comprehension to the coupling relationship of water and carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystem, which is the foundation for developing water-carbon coupling cycle model. In this paper, we made clear the differences of net assimilation rate, transpiration rate, and WUE between the two species by comparing the experiment data of soybean (Glycine max Merr.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants under water and soil nutrient stresses. WUE of maize was about two and a half times more than that of soybean in the same weather conditions. Enhancement of water stresses led to the marked decrease of Am and Em of two species, but water stresses of some degree could improve WUE, and this effect was more obvious for soybean. WUE of the two species changed with psiL in a second-order curve relation, and the WUE at high fertilization was higher than that at low fertilization, this effect was especially obvious for maize. Moreover, according to the synthetic model of photosynthesis-transpiration based on stomatal behavior (SMPTSB) presented by Yu et al. (2001), the WUE model and its applicability were discussed with the data measured in this experiment. The WUE estimated by means of the model accorded well with the measured values. However, this model underestimated the WUE for maize slightly, thus further improvement on the original model was made in this study. Finally, by discussing some physiological factors controlling Am and WUE, we made clear the physiological explanation for differences of the relative contributions of stomata- and mesophyll processes to control of Am and WUE, and the applicability of WUE model between the two species. Because the requirement to stomatal conductance by unit change of net assimilation rate is different, the responses of opening-closing activity of stomata to environmental stresses are different between the two species. To obtain the same level of net assimilation

  16. Transpiração e condutância foliar à difusão de vapor de feijoeiro irrigado em função da temperatura da folhagem e variáveis ambientais = Transpiration and stomatal conductance of irrigated bean in relation to foliage temperature and environmental variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Augusto Manfron

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Áreas com cultivo irrigado têm o déficit de saturação de vapor (DPV etemperatura do ar modificados. Sendo a resposta estomática influenciada por essas variáveis e outras como temperatura do dossel, a cultura do feijão irrigado tende a apresentar condutância estomática à difusão de vapor (Gva e transpiração, diferenciados com relação ao cultivo de sequeiro. Avaliando-se Gva e transpiração com porômetros de equilíbrio dinâmico, verificou-se que a taxa de transpiração apresentou melhor correlação em relação à temperatura da folhagem em condições de folhas ao sol, do que em relação a folhassombreadas. Relações de Gva com temperatura do ar, DPV e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (PAR reforçam a interação dos fatores ambientais com a resposta estomática. Valores de Gva apresentaram correlação exponencial negativa tanto com temperatura do ar e DPV,para valores entre 20 e 35°C, de 0,5 à 3 KPa, respectivamente e aumento exponencial quando relacionada a PAR, mesmo com valores superiores a 2000 mmol m-2 s-1.Irrigated areas present environmental variables such as vapor pressure deficit (DPV and modified air temperature. The stomatal response is not only affected by these modified environmental conditions, but also by others such as canopy temperature. Thus, an irrigated bean crop tend to present modifications in stomatal conductance (Gva and transpiration in relation to a non irrigatedcommon bean crop. Gva and transpiration were measured with steady-state null-balance porometers. Results showed that transpiration rate correlated better with canopy temperature in conditions of sunny leaves than of shaded leaves. The relation between Gva and air temperature, and between DPV and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR reinforce the interaction of the environmental variables with stomatal response. Gva values presented negative exponential correlation with air temperature and DPV, for values between 20 and 35°C, and 0

  17. Wheat cultivars selected for high Fv /Fm under heat stress maintain high photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, stomatal conductance, transpiration and dry matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2015-02-01

    The chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv /Fm reflects the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and has been widely used for early stress detection in plants. Previously, we have used a three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv /Fm to identify naturally existing genetic variation for tolerance to severe heat stress (3 days at 40°C in controlled conditions) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here we investigated the performance of the previously selected cultivars (high and low group based on Fv /Fm value) in terms of growth and photosynthetic traits under moderate heat stress (1 week at 36/30°C day/night temperature in greenhouse) closer to natural heat waves in North-Western Europe. Dry matter accumulation after 7 days of heat stress was positively correlated to Fv /Fm . The high Fv /Fm group maintained significantly higher total chlorophyll and net photosynthetic rate (PN ) than the low group, accompanied by higher stomatal conductance (gs ), transpiration rate (E) and evaporative cooling of the leaf (ΔT). The difference in PN between the groups was not caused by differences in PSII capacity or gs as the variation in Fv /Fm and intracellular CO2 (Ci ) was non-significant under the given heat stress. This study validated that our three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv /Fm performed under increasing severity of heat was successful in identifying wheat cultivars differing in photosynthesis under moderate and agronomically more relevant heat stress. The identified cultivars may serve as a valuable resource for further studies to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying the genetic variability in heat sensitivity of photosynthesis. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. Transpiration efficiency of a tropical pioneer tree (Ficus insipida) in relation to soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Aranda, Jorge; Turner, Benjamin L; Marshall, John D

    2007-01-01

    The response of whole-plant water-use efficiency, termed transpiration efficiency (TE), to variation in soil fertility was assessed in a tropical pioneer tree, Ficus insipida Willd. Measurements of stable isotope ratios (delta(13)C, delta(18)O, delta(15)N), elemental concentrations (C, N, P), plant growth, instantaneous leaf gas exchange, and whole-plant water use were used to analyse the mechanisms controlling TE. Plants were grown individually in 19 l pots with non-limiting soil moisture. Soil fertility was altered by mixing soil with varying proportions of rice husks, and applying a slow release fertilizer. A large variation was observed in leaf photosynthetic rate, mean relative growth rate (RGR), and TE in response to experimental treatments; these traits were well correlated with variation in leaf N concentration. Variation in TE showed a strong dependence on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO(2) mole fractions (c(i)/c(a)); both for instantaneous measurements of c(i)/c(a) (R(2)=0.69, P <0.0001, n=30), and integrated estimates based on C isotope discrimination (R(2)=0.88, P <0.0001, n=30). On the other hand, variations in the leaf-to-air humidity gradient, unproductive water loss, and respiratory C use probably played only minor roles in modulating TE in the face of variable soil fertility. The pronounced variation in TE resulted from a combination of the strong response of c(i)/c(a) to leaf N, and inherently high values of c(i)/c(a) for this tropical tree species; these two factors conspired to cause a 4-fold variation among treatments in (1-c(i)/c(a)), the term that actually modifies TE. Results suggest that variation in plant N status could have important implications for the coupling between C and water exchange in tropical forest trees.

  19. Unveiling stomata 24/7: can we use carbonyl sulfide (COS) and oxygen isotopes (18O) to constrain estimates of nocturnal transpiration across different evolutionary plant forms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa E.; Ogee, Jerome; Bosc, Alexander; Genty, Bernard; Wohl, Steven; Wingate, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    Numerous studies have reported a continued flux of water through plants at night, suggesting that stomata are not fully closed. Growing evidence indicates that this nocturnal flux of transpiration might constitute an important fraction of total ecosystem water use in certain environments. However, because evaporative demand is usually low at night, nocturnal transpiration fluxes are generally an order of magnitude lower than rates measured during the day and perilously close to the measurement error of traditional gas-exchange porometers. Thus estimating rates of stomatal conductance in the dark (gnight) precisely poses a significant methodological challenge. As a result, we lack accurate field estimates of gnight and how it responds to different atmospheric drivers, indicating the need for a different measurement approach. In this presentation we propose a novel method to obtain detectable and robust estimates of gnight. We will demonstrate using mechanistic theory how independent tracers including the oxygen isotope composition of CO2 (δ18O) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) can be combined to obtain robust estimates of gnight. This is because COS and CO18O exchange within leaves are controlled by the light insensitive enzyme carbonic anhydrase. Thus, if plant stomata are open in the dark we will continue to observe COS and CO18O exchange. Using our theoretical model we will demonstrate that the exchange of these tracers can now be measured using advances in laser spectrometry techniques at a precision high enough to determine robust estimates of gnight. We will also present our novel experimental approach designed to measure simultaneously the exchange of CO18O and COS alongside the conventional technique that relies on measuring the total water flux from leaves in the dark. Using our theoretical approach we will additionally explore the feasibility of our proposed experimental design to detect variations in gnight during drought stress and across a variety of plant

  20. A comparative transcriptomic approach to understanding the formation of cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boher, Pau; Soler, Marçal; Sánchez, Anna; Hoede, Claire; Noirot, Céline; Paiva, Jorge Almiro Pinto; Serra, Olga; Figueras, Mercè

    2018-01-01

    The transcriptome comparison of two oak species reveals possible candidates accounting for the exceptionally thick and pure cork oak phellem, such as those involved in secondary metabolism and phellogen activity. Cork oak, Quercus suber, differs from other Mediterranean oaks such as holm oak (Quercus ilex) by the thickness and organization of the external bark. While holm oak outer bark contains sequential periderms interspersed with dead secondary phloem (rhytidome), the cork oak outer bark only contains thick layers of phellem (cork rings) that accumulate until reaching a thickness that allows industrial uses. Here we compare the cork oak outer bark transcriptome with that of holm oak. Both transcriptomes present similitudes in their complexity, but whereas cork oak external bark is enriched with upregulated genes related to suberin, which is the main polymer responsible for the protective function of periderm, the upregulated categories of holm oak are enriched in abiotic stress and chromatin assembly. Concomitantly with the upregulation of suberin-related genes, there is also induction of regulatory and meristematic genes, whose predicted activities agree with the increased number of phellem layers found in the cork oak sample. Further transcript profiling among different cork oak tissues and conditions suggests that cork and wood share many regulatory mechanisms, probably reflecting similar ontogeny. Moreover, the analysis of transcripts accumulation during the cork growth season showed that most regulatory genes are upregulated early in the season when the cork cambium becomes active. Altogether our work provides the first transcriptome comparison between cork oak and holm oak outer bark, which unveils new regulatory candidate genes of phellem development.

  1. On the estimate of the transpiration in Mediterranean heterogeneous ecosystems with the coupled use of eddy covariance and sap flow techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Roberto; Curreli, Matteo; Montaldo, Nicola; Oren, Ram

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly heterogeneous savanna-like ecosystems, with contrasting plant functional types (PFT) competing for the water use. Mediterranean regions suffer water scarcity due to the dry climate conditions. In semi-arid regions evapotranspiration (ET) is the leading loss term of the root-zone water budget with a yearly magnitude that may be roughly equal to the precipitation. Despite the attention these ecosystems are receiving, a general lack of knowledge persists about the estimate of ET and the relationship between ET and the plant survival strategies for the different PFTs under water stress. During the dry summers these water-limited heterogeneous ecosystems are mainly characterized by a simple dual PFT-landscapes with strong-resistant woody vegetation and bare soil since grass died. In these conditions due to the low signal of the land surface fluxes captured by the sonic anemometer and gas analyzer the widely used eddy covariance may fail and its ET estimate is not robust enough. In these conditions the use of the sap flow technique may have a key role, because theoretically it provides a direct estimate of the woody vegetation transpiration. Through the coupled use of the sap flow sensor observations, a 2D foot print model of the eddy covariance tower and high resolution satellite images for the estimate of the foot print land cover map, the eddy covariance measurements can be correctly interpreted, and ET components (bare soil evaporation and woody vegetation transpiration) can be separated. The case study is at the Orroli site in Sardinia (Italy). The site landscape is a mixture of Mediterranean patchy vegetation types: trees, including wild olives and cork oaks, different shrubs and herbaceous species. An extensive field campaign started in 2004. Land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by an eddy covariance technique based micrometeorological tower. Soil moisture profiles were also continuously estimated using water

  2. Effects of tree-to-tree variations on sap flux-based transpiration estimates in a forested watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Tomonori; Tsuruta, Kenji; Komatsu, Hikaru; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Higashi, Naoko; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2010-05-01

    To estimate forest stand-scale water use, we assessed how sample sizes affect confidence of stand-scale transpiration (E) estimates calculated from sap flux (Fd) and sapwood area (AS_tree) measurements of individual trees. In a Japanese cypress plantation, we measured Fd and AS_tree in all trees (n = 58) within a 20 × 20 m study plot, which was divided into four 10 × 10 subplots. We calculated E from stand AS_tree (AS_stand) and mean stand Fd (JS) values. Using Monte Carlo analyses, we examined potential errors associated with sample sizes in E, AS_stand, and JS by using the original AS_tree and Fd data sets. Consequently, we defined optimal sample sizes of 10 and 15 for AS_stand and JS estimates, respectively, in the 20 × 20 m plot. Sample sizes greater than the optimal sample sizes did not decrease potential errors. The optimal sample sizes for JS changed according to plot size (e.g., 10 × 10 m and 10 × 20 m), while the optimal sample sizes for AS_stand did not. As well, the optimal sample sizes for JS did not change in different vapor pressure deficit conditions. In terms of E estimates, these results suggest that the tree-to-tree variations in Fd vary among different plots, and that plot size to capture tree-to-tree variations in Fd is an important factor. This study also discusses planning balanced sampling designs to extrapolate stand-scale estimates to catchment-scale estimates.

  3. A model exploring whether the coupled effects of plant water supply and demand affect the interpretation of water potentials and irrigation management

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli, GM; Shackel, KA; Gilbert, ME

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 Elsevier B.V. Water potential is a useful predictive tool in irrigation scheduling as it, or a component, is associated with physiological responses to water deficit. Increasing atmospheric demand for water increases transpiration and decreases water potential for the same stomatal conductance. However, based on supply by the soil-plant-atmosphere-continuum, decreasing soil water potential should decrease stomatal conductance and thus transpiration but also decrease water potential. Su...

  4. Why size matters: the interactive influences of tree diameter distribution and sap flow parameters on upscaled transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Z Carter; Looker, Nathaniel; Holwerda, Friso; Gómez Aguilar, León Rodrigo; Ortiz Colin, Perla; González Martínez, Teresa; Asbjornsen, Heidi

    2018-02-01

    In stands with a broad range of diameters, a small number of very large trees can disproportionately influence stand basal area and transpiration (Et). Sap flow-based Et estimates may be particularly sensitive to large trees due to nonlinear relationships between tree-level water use (Q) and tree diameter at breast height (DBH). Because Q is typically predicted on the basis of DBH and sap flow rates measured in a subset of trees and then summed to obtain Et, we assessed the relative importance of DBH and sap flow variables (sap velocity, Vs, and sapwood depth, Rs) in determining the magnitude of Et and its dependence on large trees in a tropical montane forest ecosystem. Specifically, we developed a data-driven simulation framework to vary the relationship between DBH and Vs and stand DBH distribution and then calculate Q, Et and the proportion of Et contributed by the largest tree in each stand. Our results demonstrate that variation in how Rs is determined in the largest trees can alter estimates up to 26% of Et while variation in how Vs is determined can vary results by up to 132%. Taken together, these results highlight a great need to expand our understanding of water transport in large trees as this hinders our ability to predict water fluxes accurately from stand to catchment scales. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Infrared remote sensing for canopy temperature in paddy field and relationship between leaf temperature and leaf color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Infrared remote sensing is used for crop monitoring, for example evaluation of water stress, detection of infected crops and estimation of transpiration and photosynthetic rates. This study was conducted to show another application of remote sensing information. The relationship between rice leaf temperature and chlorophyll content in the leaf blade was investigated by using thermography during the ripening period. The canopy of a rice community fertilized by top dressing was cooler than that not fertilized in a 1999 field experiment. In an experiment using thermocouples to measure leaf temperature, a rice leaf with high chlorophyll content was also cooler than that with a low chlorophyll content. Transpiration resistance and transpiration rate were measured with a porometer. Transpiration rate was higher with increasing chlorophyll content in the leaf blade. Stomatal aperture is related to chlorophyll content in the leaf blade. High degree of stomatal aperture is caused by high chlorophyll content in the leaf blade. As degree of stomatal aperture increases, transpiration rate increases. Therefore the rice leaf got cooler with increasing chlorophyll content in leaf blade. Paddy rice communities with different chlorophyll contents were provided with fertilization of different nitrogen levels on basal and top dressing in a 2000 field experiment. Canopy temperature of the rice community with high chlorophyll content was 0.85°C cooler than that of the rice community with low chlorophyll content. Results of this study revealed that infrared remote sensing could detect difference in chlorophyll contents in rice communities and could be used in fertilizer management in paddy fields. (author)

  6. Sensitivity of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) varieties to progressive drought stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yujie; Liu, Fulai; Bendevis, Mira Arpe

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (ChenopodiumquinoaWilld.) is a highly nutritious Andean seed crop which shows great potential to grow under a range of hostile environments. The objective of this study was to investigate the differences of drought tolerance of a Bolivian (Achachino) and a Danish (Titicaca) variety...... increased CS for stomatal conductance, CT for transpiration and CLfor leaf water potential. Achachino showed significantly lower CT and CL when compared with Titicaca, implying that transpiration and leaf water potential were less affected under mild drought conditions in the Bolivian variety. CS...... in Achachino was significantly higher than CL and CT, which indicated that stomatal conductance declined before transpiration and leaf water potential were reduced. Such difference was found in Titicaca where reduction of leaf area had more effect on transpiration than stomatal closure. Slower growth rate...

  7. Estimativa da transpiração em cafeeiros utilizando-se sensores de dissipação térmica Estimation of transpiration in coffee crop using heat dissipation sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussálvia da S. Pimentel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alguns métodos são capazes de determinar diretamente a quantidade de água consumida por uma planta, entre eles o "método de dissipação de calor" ou método de Granier. Neste trabalho se propôs, como objetivo, construir e calibrar sensores de dissipação térmica, avaliar a transpiração em função da posição de inserção do sensor na planta (Norte, Sul, Leste ou Oeste e comparar os resultados com os elementos meteorológicos e a evapotranspiração de referência. Em 24 cafeeiros se instalaram sensores de dissipação térmica, adaptados de Granier (1985, em que o conjunto termopar e resistência foi inserido na agulha. Obteve-se a densidade de fluxo de seiva a partir da variação da diferença de temperatura entre as sondas e se acompanhou a transpiração, em função da transição entre os períodos diurno e noturno. O experimento foi avaliado em 3 períodos: antecedente à floração, na floração e no início da frutificação. Não houve diferença significativamente entre os ângulos de inserção para o fluxo de seiva. Quanto aos elementos meteorológicos, a radiação e a umidade relativa foram os fatores mais determinantes da transpiração obtendo-se, por análises de regressão coeficientes r² entre 0,84 e 0,80.Some methods are capable of directly determining the amount of water consumed by a plant, among them, the "heat dissipation method" or Granier method. This study aimed to: build and calibrate sensors of thermal dissipation; to evaluate the transpiration as a function of the position of insertion of the sensor in the plant (North, South, East or West and to compare the results with the meteorological elements and the evapotranspiration of reference. In 24 coffee plants, thermal dissipation sensors adapted from Granier (1985 were installed, where the whole thermocouple and resistance were inserted into the needle. Density of the sap flow was obtained from the variation of the difference in temperature between

  8. The role of plant physiology in hydrology: looking backwards and forwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J.

    2007-01-01

    conservative? An important contribution both to the similar and low transpiration is the likely reduction of stomatal conductance of the foliage associated with increasing air humidity deficit. A greater response is usually found when initial conductances are highest. Also contributing to similarities in transpiration from forest stands would be a compensatory role of understories and that deficits in soil moisture may not come into play until severe soil water deficits occur. Physiological studies have been conducted in many locations overseas. The modest transpiration of tropical rainforest is intriguing - Why is tropical rainforest transpiration so low? In common with temperate trees the reduction of stomatal conductance of tropical trees in association with increasing air humidity deficit will limit transpiration. In addition the high leaf area index of tropical rainforest creates conditions in the lower canopy layers that mean transpiration from those layers is much reduced from what might be possible. As well as being used to quantify and understand transpiration, physiological techniques might be used to assess when plants require water. What is the first signal that plants need water? Studies on sugar cane in Mauritius indicated that leaf growth was the most sensitive measure. A look forward to the future suggests that there will be a continued need for physiological measurements particularly where other techniques more suited to extensive vegetation are not appropriate. There are many unresolved issues about water use from fragmented, heterogeneous vegetation and physiological approaches are best suited to these. The measurement of sap flow in individual stems will be an important methodology in the future but there are still methodological issues to resolve.

  9. The diversity of (13)C isotope discrimination in a Quercus robur full-sib family is associated with differences in intrinsic water use efficiency, transpiration efficiency, and stomatal conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Magali; Dreyer, Erwin; Montpied, Pierre; Le-Provost, Grégoire; Guehl, Jean-Marc; Brendel, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    (13)C discrimination in organic matter with respect to atmospheric CO(2) (Delta(13)C) is under tight genetic control in many plant species, including the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) full-sib progeny used in this study. Delta(13)C is expected to reflect intrinsic water use efficiency, but this assumption requires confirmation due to potential interferences with mesophyll conductance to CO(2), or post-photosynthetic discrimination. In order to dissect the observed Delta(13)C variability in this progeny, six genotypes that have previously been found to display extreme phenotypic values of Delta(13)C [either very high ('high Delta') or low ('low Delta') phenotype] were selected, and transpiration efficiency (TE; accumulated biomass/transpired water), net CO(2) assimilation rate (A), stomatal conductance for water vapour (g(s)), and intrinsic water use efficiency (W(i)=A/g(s)) were compared with Delta(13)C in bulk leaf matter, wood, and cellulose in wood. As expected, 'high Delta' displayed higher values of Delta(13)C not only in bulk leaf matter, but also in wood and cellulose. This confirmed the stability of the genotypic differences in Delta(13)C recorded earlier. 'High Delta' also displayed lower TE, lower W(i), and higher g(s). A small difference was detected in photosynthetic capacity but none in mesophyll conductance to CO(2). 'High Delta' and 'low Delta' displayed very similar leaf anatomy, except for higher stomatal density in 'high Delta'. Finally, diurnal courses of leaf gas exchange revealed a higher g(s) in 'high Delta' in the morning than in the afternoon when the difference decreased. The gene ERECTA, involved in the control of water use efficiency, leaf differentiation, and stomatal density, displayed higher expression levels in 'low Delta'. In this progeny, the variability of Delta(13)C correlated closely with that of W(i) and TE. Genetic differences of Delta(13)C and W(i) can be ascribed to differences in stomatal conductance and stomatal

  10. Energy Balance, Evapo-transpiration and Dew deposition in the Dead Sea Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jutta; Corsmeier, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique place on earth. It is a terminal hypersaline lake, located at the lowest point on earth with a lake level of currently -429 m above mean sea level (amsl). It is located in a transition zone of semiarid to arid climate conditions, which makes it highly sensible to climate change (Alpert1997, Smiatek2011). The Virtual Institute DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE) is an international project funded by the German Helmholtz Association and was established to study coupled atmospheric hydrological, and lithospheric processes in the changing environment of the Dead Sea. At the moment the most prominent environmental change is the lake level decline of approximately 1 m / year due to anthropogenic interferences (Gertman, 2002). This leads to noticeable changes in the fractions of the existing terrestrial surfaces - water, bare soil and vegetated areas - in the valley. Thus, the partitioning of the net radiation in the valley changes as well. To thoroughly study the atmospheric and hydrological processes in the Dead Sea valley, which are driven by the energy balance components, sound data of the energy fluxes of the different surfaces are necessary. Before DESERVE no long-term monitoring network simultaneously measuring the energy balance components of the different surfaces in the Dead Sea valley was available. Therefore, three energy balance stations were installed at three characteristic sites at the coast-line, over bare soil, and within vegetation, measuring all energy balance components by using the eddy covariance method. The results show, that the partitioning of the energy into sensible and latent heat flux on a diurnal scale is totally different at the three sites. This results in gradients between the sites, which are e.g. responsible for the typical diurnal wind systems at the Dead Sea. Furthermore, driving forces of evapo-transpiration at the sites were identified and a detailed analysis of the daily evaporation and dew deposition rates

  11. Predictable 'meta-mechanisms' emerge from feedbacks between transpiration and plant growth and cannot be simply deduced from short-term mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, François; Parent, Boris

    2017-06-01

    Growth under water deficit is controlled by short-term mechanisms but, because of numerous feedbacks, the combination of these mechanisms over time often results in outputs that cannot be deduced from the simple inspection of individual mechanisms. It can be analysed with dynamic models in which causal relationships between variables are considered at each time-step, allowing calculation of outputs that are routed back to inputs for the next time-step and that can change the system itself. We first review physiological mechanisms involved in seven feedbacks of transpiration on plant growth, involving changes in tissue hydraulic conductance, stomatal conductance, plant architecture and underlying factors such as hormones or aquaporins. The combination of these mechanisms over time can result in non-straightforward conclusions as shown by examples of simulation outputs: 'over production of abscisic acid (ABA) can cause a lower concentration of ABA in the xylem sap ', 'decreasing root hydraulic conductance when evaporative demand is maximum can improve plant performance' and 'rapid root growth can decrease yield'. Systems of equations simulating feedbacks over numerous time-steps result in logical and reproducible emergent properties that can be viewed as 'meta-mechanisms' at plant level, which have similar roles as mechanisms at cell level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) as a proxy of Light Use Efficiency (LUE) and transpiration in Mediterranean crop sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    LE Dantec, V.; Chebbi, W.; Boulet, G.; Merlin, O.; Lili-Chabaane, Z.; Er Raki, S.; Ceschia, E.; Khabba, S.; Fanise, P.; Zawilski, B.; Simonneaux, V.; Jarlan, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) is based on the short term reversible xanthophyll pigment changes accompanying plant stress and therefore of the associated photosynthetic activities. Strong relationships between PRI and Light Use Efficiency (LUE) were shown at leaf and canopy scales and over a wide range of species (Garbulsky et al., 2011). But very few previous works have explored the potential link with plant water status. In this study, we have first analyzed the link between PRI and LUE at canopy scale on two different crops in terms of canopy structure and crop management: olive grove (Tunisia) and wheat grown under different water regimes (irrigated or rainfed) and climate zones (France, Morocco). We have investigated the daily and seasonal dynamics of PRI; linking its variations to meteorological factors (global radiation and sun angle effects, soil water content, relative air humidity …) and plant processes. The highest correlations were mainly observed in clear skies conditions. We have found, whatever site, linear negative relationships between PRI and LUE using data acquired in midday (i.e. in solar zenithal angle condition). Linear link between PRI and sapflow measurements was also revealed. This correlation was obtained over periods characterized by a moderate soil water deficit, i.e. by when transpiration rate was mainly control by Vapor Pressure Deficit. We will then briefly presented alternative and complementary approaches to this index, to detect different level of water stress using thermal infrared emissions.

  13. Ecohydrology of Lodgepole Pine Forests: Connecting Transpiration to Subsurface Flow Paths and Storage within a Subalpine Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, A.; Harpold, A. A.; Barnard, H. R.

    2011-12-01

    The hydrologic cycle plays a central role in regulating ecosystem structure and function. Linked studies of both subsurface and aboveground processes are needed to improve understanding of ecosystem changes that could result from climate change and disturbance in Colorado's subalpine forests. Here, we present data from plots dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) at the Niwot Ridge LTER site on the Colorado Front Range that improves the process-level understanding of the source and fate of water between subsurface storage and plant uptake. This study utilized event-based sampling during the 2011 growing season to investigate a paradox between water sources and rooting depth in lodgepole pine. Findings from Niwot Ridge have shown that lodgepole, typically believed to be a shallow-rooted species, appear to be strongly dependent on water from snowmelt for the entire growing season. These results suggested that conifer species were accessing water from deeper in the soil than summer monsoon rain typically penetrated. In our study, the relationship between precipitation event size and depth of infiltration on a seasonal and event basis, the effective rooting depth of lodgepole pine, and hysteretic responses of transpiration to soil moisture over a growing season were examined using measurements of tree physiological processes (sap flux and water stress) and hydrological parameters (precipitation, soil moisture) as well as stable water isotope composition of xylem water, mobile and immobile soil water, snow, precipitation, and stream water. Analysis of data shows that soil moisture in deep layers (60 and 70 cm) responds to large summer rain events of 0.7 mm and greater, and that lodgepole sap flux increases by 15-30% within 24 hours of monsoon events and decreases over 72 hours or until subsequent rain. Water isotope analysis will further elucidate the source and event response of these trees. This research helps us understand whether processes known to occur in

  14. Effects of Bois noir on carbon assimilation, transpiration, stomatal conductance of leaves and yield of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cv. Chardonnay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeshaw, Solomon T; Murolo, Sergio; Romanazz, Gianfranco; Neri, Davide

    2012-06-01

    Bois noir (BN) is one of the main phytoplasma diseases of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). It is widespread, and can cause severe losses in European vineyards. The infective agent colonizes phloem elements and induces visible symptoms of leaf yellowing or reddening after a relatively long incubation period. As the most sensitive cultivars to BN, Chardonnay plants were grouped as healthy or symptomatic in spring, based on the records from the previous year. Leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence were measured weekly from July to September in healthy plants, and in symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves from symptomatic plants. The midday relative water content (mRWC) was measured once per month. The detection of phytoplasma DNA by nested-polymerase chain reaction revealed BN infection in symptomatic leaf samples at the end of September. A significant decrease in pigment content and maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) of these symptomatic leaves was detected from July to September, although in the asymptomatic leaves of the symptomatic plants the net photosynthesis (Pn) decrease was not significant. In the leaves from the healthy plants, Pn and transpiration were relatively stable. Of note, in July, an initially healthy plant showed a strong Pn reduction that was followed by visible leaf yellowing symptoms only in August. The phytoplasma infection also stimulated significant reductions in mRWC of the symptomatic leaves, with a final large decrease in yield.

  15. Transpiration efficiency and its relationship with carbon isotope discrimination under well-watered and water-stressed conditions in Stylosanthes scabra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumma, B.R.; Naidu, B.P.; Cameron, D. F.; Bahnisch, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    Stylosanthes scabra cv. Seca is a widely sown tropical pasture legume in northern Australia and has a high degree of drought resistance. Identification of traits contributing to the drought resistance of Seca may be valuable for use in breeding programs. Transpiration efficiency (TE) has been suggested as one such trait contributing to drought resistance. Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) has been proposed for estimating TE indirectly in C 3 plants. A glasshouse experiment was conducted using 8 accessions of S. scabra to identify whether Seca differs in TE from other accessions of S. scabra and to determine the relationship between TE and Δ) under both well-watered and water-stressed treatments. Seca maintained the highest TE (lowest Δ) under both control and stress treatments, and leaf Δ was significantly and negatively correlated with TE under both control and stress conditions. A significant and negative relationship was found between Δ and dry matter production under stress treatment. The interaction between accession and watering treatment was not significant for either TE or Δ. We also found a significant agreement between the performance in the field and in the laboratory for these 8 accessions. These results indicate that TE could be one of the significant factors contributing to drought resistance of Seca. Furthermore, Δ and/or specific leaf area may be useful as selection criteria in breeding programs to identify the lines with high TE. Copyright (1998) CSIRO Australia

  16. Response of Water Use Efficiency to Global Environmental Change Based on Output From Terrestrial Biosphere Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sha; Yu, Bofu; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Ciais, Philippe; Zhang, Yao; Fisher, Joshua B.; Michalak, Anna M.; Wang, Weile; Poulter, Benjamin; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Niu, Shuli; Mao, Jiafu; Jain, Atul; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Shi, Xiaoying; Ito, Akihiko; Wei, Yaxing; Huang, Yuefei; Wang, Guangqian

    2017-11-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE), defined as the ratio of gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration at the ecosystem scale, is a critical variable linking the carbon and water cycles. Incorporating a dependency on vapor pressure deficit, apparent underlying WUE (uWUE) provides a better indicator of how terrestrial ecosystems respond to environmental changes than other WUE formulations. Here we used 20th century simulations from four terrestrial biosphere models to develop a novel variance decomposition method. With this method, we attributed variations in apparent uWUE to both the trend and interannual variation of environmental drivers. The secular increase in atmospheric CO2 explained a clear majority of total variation (66 ± 32%: mean ± one standard deviation), followed by positive trends in nitrogen deposition and climate, as well as a negative trend in land use change. In contrast, interannual variation was mostly driven by interannual climate variability. To analyze the mechanism of the CO2 effect, we partitioned the apparent uWUE into the transpiration ratio (transpiration over evapotranspiration) and potential uWUE. The relative increase in potential uWUE parallels that of CO2, but this direct CO2 effect was offset by 20 ± 4% by changes in ecosystem structure, that is, leaf area index for different vegetation types. However, the decrease in transpiration due to stomatal closure with rising CO2 was reduced by 84% by an increase in leaf area index, resulting in small changes in the transpiration ratio. CO2 concentration thus plays a dominant role in driving apparent uWUE variations over time, but its role differs for the two constituent components: potential uWUE and transpiration.

  17. Ultrastructural Studies on Root Nodules of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Raiha Qadri; A. Mahmood; Mohammad Athar

    2007-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies were conducted on Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb) Benth. root nodules collected from trees growing under natural conditions. Rhizobial infection on root surface of P. dulce started with curling of root hair. Both curled and straight root hairs were observed. The internal structure of a mature nodule showed an epidermis, cortex, vascular region and a bacteriod region. Vascular bundles were amphicribral. A distinct periderm consisted of sclereid tissue could be observed in t...

  18. Water and nitrogen use efficiency under limited water supply for maize to increase land productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciun, I.; Craciun, M.

    1995-01-01

    As drought is the main environmental factor limiting productivity, the study of plant response to water deficit has been one of the major research topics. The increasing of maize evapotranspiration ET does not always mean the increase of efficiency because, the brightest ET value does not always mean the highest grain yield value, AS the result of the mechanisms relating to the grain yield and ET which are far from simple. The rain amount and distribution during the reproductive stage is the main meteorological factor in flouncing yield. In our study 1991, the high soil moisture content determines a reduction of maize grain yield, in the wet years due to excess of water under irrigation conditions which normally limits root development as a result of insufficient oxygen for transpiration and lac ha of nitrate formation, the yield response to water deficit of different hybrids is of major importance in production planing. The available water supply would be directed towards fully meeting requirements of the hybrids with the higher K sub y over the restricted area and for the hybrids with a lower K sub y, the overall production will increase by extending the area under irrigation, without fully meeting water requirement provided water deficit do not exceed critical values.1 tab; 9 figs (Author)

  19. Variation of Transpiration Efficiency in Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declining freshwater resources, increasing population, and growing demand for biofuels pose new challenges for agriculture research. To meet these challenges, the concept “Blue Revolution” was proposed to improve water productivity in agriculture--“More Crop per Drop”. Sorghum is the fifth most imp...

  20. Variation in transpiration efficiency in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declining freshwater resources, increasing population, and growing demand for biofuels pose new challenges for agriculture research. To meet these challenges, the concept “Blue Revolution” was proposed to improve water productivity in agriculture--“More Crop per Drop”. Sorghum is the fifth most imp...

  1. Efeitos de produtos químicos na transpiração e no potencial da água de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600 Effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of rubber plant (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.C. Castro

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado em condições de campo, em Piracicaba (SP, visando avali ar a eficiência de diferentes produtos químicos, em aplicação foliar, na taxa transpiratória e no potencial da água de folhas das plantas de seringueira (He Yea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600 com 1,5 ano de idade. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: polissulfetc, de polietileno (Good-rite peps 0,04 %, oxietileno docosanol (Oed green 2%, caulim (silicato de aluminio 3%, e atrazine 50 ppm, alem do controle. Através do método da pesagem rápida de folhas desta cadas, com balança de torço tipo Jung, verificou-se a perda de água pelas plantas de seringueira foi restringida significativamente pelo anti-transpirante metabólico (atrazine com relação ao controle, aos formadores de filme e ao refletor. Polissulfeto de polietileno apresentou as menores amplitudes de variações na taxa respiratória. Atrazine também promoveu a manutenção do potencial da água das folhas mais alto (-7,8 bars com relação ao controle (-14,8 bars, de acordo com determinações efe tuadas através da Câmara de Scholander.This research deals with the effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of Hevea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600 on plants, with 1,5 year old, under field conditions. Rubber plants were sprayed with poliethylen e polys ulfite 0,04%, oxyethylen e docosanol 2%, kaolin 3%, atrazine 50 ppm, and check. A higher efficiency again st water loss was observed for atrazine (10,9 mg water . cm-2 . min-1 in relation to check plants (14,6 mg water . cm . min-1 at the maximum transpiration rate average. Polyethylen e polysulfite presented lower amplitude variation of the transpiration rates during the measurements at the day period. Atrazine promoted the maint enance of a higher water potential (-7,8 bars compared to check treatment (-14,8 bars.

  2. Interactive effects of nocturnal transpiration and climate change on the root hydraulic redistribution and carbon and water budgets of southern United States pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; Ogée, Jérôme; Noormets, Asko; Jouangy, Julien; Gavazzi, Michael; Treasure, Emrys; Sun, Ge; McNulty, Steve G; King, John S

    2012-06-01

    Deep root water uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) have been shown to play a major role in forest ecosystems during drought, but little is known about the impact of climate change, fertilization and soil characteristics on HR and its consequences on water and carbon fluxes. Using data from three mid-rotation loblolly pine plantations, and simulations with the process-based model MuSICA, this study indicated that HR can mitigate the effects of soil drying and had important implications for carbon uptake potential and net ecosystem exchange (NEE), especially when N fertilization is considered. At the coastal site (C), characterized by deep organic soil, HR increased dry season tree transpiration (T) by up to 40%, and such an increase affected NEE through major changes in gross primary productivity (GPP). Deep-rooted trees did not necessarily translate into a large volume of HR unless soil texture allowed large water potential gradients to occur, as was the case at the sandy site (S). At the Piedmont site (P) characterized by a shallow clay-loam soil, HR was low but not negligible, representing up to 10% of T. In the absence of HR, it was predicted that at the C, S and P sites, annual GPP would have been diminished by 19, 7 and 9%, respectively. Under future climate conditions HR was predicted to be reduced by up to 25% at the C site, reducing the resilience of trees to precipitation deficits. The effect of HR on T and GPP was predicted to diminish under future conditions by 12 and 6% at the C and P sites, respectively. Under future conditions, T was predicted to stay the same at the P site, but to be marginally reduced at the C site and slightly increased at the S site. Future conditions and N fertilization would decrease T by 25% at the C site, by 15% at the P site and by 8% at the S site. At the C and S sites, GPP was estimated to increase by 18% and by >70% under future conditions, respectively, with little effect of N fertilization. At the P site, future

  3. Making C4 crops more water efficient under current and future climate: Tradeoffs between carbon gain and water loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Pignon, C.

    2017-12-01

    C4 plants have a carbon concentrating mechanism that has evolved under historically low CO2 concentrations of around 200 ppm. However, increases in global CO2 concentrations in recent times (current CO2 concentrations are at 400 ppm and it is projected to be 550 ppm by mid-century) have diminished the relative advantage of C4 plants over C3 plants, which lack the expensive carbon concentrating machinery. Here we show by employing model simulations that under pre-historic CO2 concentrations, C4 plants are near optimal in their stomatal behavior and nitrogen partitioning between carbon concentrating machinery and carboxylation machinery, and they are significantly supra-optimal under current and future elevated CO2 concentrations. Model simulations performed at current CO2 concentrations of 400 ppm show that, under high light conditions, decreasing stomatal conductance by 20% results in a 15% increase in water use efficiency with negligible loss in photosynthesis. Under future elevated CO2 concentrations of 550 ppm, a 40% decrease in stomatal conductance produces a 35% increase in water use efficiency. Furthermore, stomatal closure is shown to be more effective in decreasing whole canopy transpiration compared to canopy top leaf transpiration, since shaded leaves are more supra-optimal than sunlit leaves. Model simulations for optimizing nitrogen distribution in C4 leaves show that under high light conditions, C4 plants over invest in carbon concentrating machinery and under invest in carboxylation machinery. A 20% redistribution in leaf nitrogen results in a 10% increase in leaf carbon assimilation without significant increases in transpiration under current CO2 concentrations of 400 ppm. Similarly, a 40% redistribution in leaf nitrogen results in a 15% increase in leaf carbon assimilation without significant increases in transpiration under future elevated CO2 concentrations of 550 ppm. Our model optimality simulations show that C4 leaves a supra optimal in their

  4. Extraction of Silica from Cassava Periderm using Modified Sol-Gel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    production (birth of semiconductor revolution) (Wikipedia,. 2018). It has been used ... and TCP were calcined separately at 700 oC for 4 hours to obtain their respective ... Figure 1 shows the TGA curves for UCP and TCP thermally decomposed ...

  5. Extraction of Silica from Cassava Periderm using Modified Sol-Gel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    6School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and the Built ... glycol as capping agent in modified sol-gel method for ..... Effect of Organic Acid Treatment on the Properties of ... Journal of Analytical and Applied.

  6. Genetic diversity in sorghum transpiration efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is the fifth most important grain crop and is becoming increasingly important as a biofuel feedstock due to its superior tolerance to water deficit stress. Sorghum is commonly grown under rain-fed conditions in the Southern Plains and other semi-arid regions in the world. Thus, its product...

  7. Increased evaporation following widespread tree mortality limits streamflow response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, J. A.; Harpold, A. A.; Gochis, D. J.; Ewers, B. E.; Reed, D. E.; Papuga, S. A.; Brooks, P. D.

    2014-07-01

    A North American epidemic of mountain pine beetle (MPB) has disturbed over 5 million ha of forest containing headwater catchments crucial to water resources. However, there are limited observations of MPB effects on partitioning of precipitation between vapor loss and streamflow, and to our knowledge these fluxes have not been observed simultaneously following disturbance. We combined eddy covariance vapor loss (V), catchment streamflow (Q), and stable isotope indicators of evaporation (E) to quantify hydrologic partitioning over 3 years in MPB-impacted and control sites. Annual control V was conservative, varying only from 573 to 623 mm, while MPB site V varied more widely from 570 to 700 mm. During wet periods, MPB site V was greater than control V in spite of similar above-canopy potential evapotranspiration (PET). During a wet year, annual MPB V was greater and annual Q was lower as compared to an average year, while in a dry year, essentially all water was partitioned to V. Ratios of 2H and 18O in stream and soil water showed no kinetic evaporation at the control site, while MPB isotope ratios fell below the local meteoric water line, indicating greater E and snowpack sublimation (Ss) counteracted reductions in transpiration (T) and sublimation of canopy-intercepted snow (Sc). Increased E was possibly driven by reduced canopy shading of shortwave radiation, which averaged 21 W m-2 during summer under control forest as compared to 66 W m-2 under MPB forest. These results show that abiotic vapor losses may limit widely expected streamflow increases.

  8. Photosynthesis of C3 and C4 Species in Response to Increased CO2 Concentration and Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMIM

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic gas exchange in response to increased carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2] and drought stress of two C3 (wheat and kale and two C4 species (Echinochloa crusgallii and Amaranthus caudatus were analysed. Plants were grown in controlled growth chambers with ambient (350 μmol mol−1 and doubled ambient [CO2]. Drought was given by withholding water until the plants severely wilted, whereas the control plants were watered daily. Even though stomatal conductance (Gs of C4 species either under ambient or double [CO2] was lower than those in C3, doubled [CO2] decreased Gs of all species under well watered conditions. As a result, the plants grown under doubled [CO2] transpired less water than those grown under ambient [CO2]. Photosynthesis (Pn of the C4 species was sustained during moderate drought when those of the C3 species decreased significantly. Doubled [CO2] increased photosynthesis of C3 but not of C4 species. Increased [CO2] was only able to delay Pn reduction of all species due to the drought, but not remove it completely. The positive effects of increased [CO2] during moderate drought and the disappearance of it under severe drought suggesting that metabolic effect may limit photosynthesis under severe drought.

  9. Photosynthesis of C3 and C4 Species in Response to Increased CO2 Concentration and Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMIM

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic gas exchange in response to increased carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2] and drought stress of two C3 (wheat and kale and two C4 species (Echinochloa crusgallii and Amaranthus caudatus were analysed. Plants were grown in controlled growth chambers with ambient (350 mol mol-1 and doubled ambient [CO2]. Drought was given by withholding water until the plants severely wilted, whereas the control plants were watered daily. Even though stomatal conductance (Gs of C4 species either under ambient or double [CO2] was lower than those in C3, doubled [CO2] decreased Gs of all species under well watered conditions. As a result, the plants grown under doubled [CO2] transpired less water than those grown under ambient [CO2]. Photosynthesis (Pn of the C4 species was sustained during moderate drought when those of the C3 species decreased significantly. Doubled [CO2] increased photosynthesis of C3 but not of C4 species. Increased [CO2] was only able to delay Pn reduction of all species due to the drought, but not remove it completely. The positive effects of increased [CO2] during moderate drought and the disappearance of it under severe drought suggesting that metabolic effect may limit photosynthesis under severe drought.

  10. Response of Water Use Efficiency to Global Environmental Change Based on Output From Terrestrial Biosphere Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Sha [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Yu, Bofu [Griffith Univ., Nathan Queensland (Australia); Schwalm, Christopher R. [Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, MA (United States); Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Ciais, Philippe [Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Zhang, Yao [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Fisher, Joshua B. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA (United States); Wang, Weile [California State Uni., Monterey Bay, Seasid, CA (United States); Poulter, Benjamin [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Huntzinger, Deborah N. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Niu, Shuli [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Mao, Jiafu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jain, Atul [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Ricciuto, Daniel M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shi, Xiaoying [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ito, Akihiko [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Wei, Yaxing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huang, Yuefei [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Qinghai Univ., Xining (China); Wang, Guangqian [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2017-10-18

    Here, water use efficiency (WUE), defined as the ratio of gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration at the ecosystem scale, is a critical variable linking the carbon and water cycles. Incorporating a dependency on vapor pressure deficit, apparent underlying WUE (uWUE) provides a better indicator of how terrestrial ecosystems respond to environmental changes than other WUE formulations. Here we used 20th century simulations from four terrestrial biosphere models to develop a novel variance decomposition method. With this method, we attributed variations in apparent uWUE to both the trend and interannual variation of environmental drivers. The secular increase in atmospheric CO2 explained a clear majority of total variation (66 ± 32%: mean ± one standard deviation), followed by positive trends in nitrogen deposition and climate, as well as a negative trend in land use change. In contrast, interannual variation was mostly driven by interannual climate variability. To analyze the mechanism of the CO2 effect, we partitioned the apparent uWUE into the transpiration ratio (transpiration over evapotranspiration) and potential uWUE. The relative increase in potential uWUE parallels that of CO2, but this direct CO2 effect was offset by 20 ± 4% by changes in ecosystem structure, that is, leaf area index for different vegetation types. However, the decrease in transpiration due to stomatal closure with rising CO2 was reduced by 84% by an increase in leaf area index, resulting in small changes in the transpiration ratio. CO2 concentration thus plays a dominant role in driving apparent uWUE variations over time, but its role differs for the two constituent components: potential uWUE and transpiration.

  11. Changes in the physiological activity of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. under the influence of exogenous growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nowak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a two-year pot experiment (2008–2009 conducted at the Vegetation Hall, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, we investigated the influence of exogenous growth regulators, i.e. indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and their mixture, on the activity of gas exchange and selected physiological features of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.. The experimental factors included the following Polish soybean cultivars: ‘Aldana’, ‘Progres’ and ‘Jutro’. During plant growth, CO2 assimilation (A, transpiration rate (E, stomatal conductance (gs, and substomatal CO2 concentration (ci were determined. Two soybean cultivars, i.e. ‘Jutro’ and ‘Progres’, showed a significant increase in the intensity of assimilation and transpiration after using all kinds of growth regulators as compared with the control plants. It was found that the ‘Jutro’ cultivar, after using a mixture of growth regulators (IBA + BAP, was characterized by the significantly highest CO2 assimilation (A and transpiration (E as well as the highest stomatal conductance (gs. The ‘Aldana’ cultivar, on the other hand, responded by a significant reduction in the transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and subsomatal CO2 concentration. The spraying of the plants with exogenous growth regulators had a significant influence on the increase in the number of stomata and stomatal pore length, mostly on the lower epidermis of the lamina. It was also found that plants from the ‘Jutro’ and ‘Aldana’ cultivars sprayed with IBA and IBA + BAP were characterized by the highest yield, as compared with the control plants. In the case of the ‘Jutro’ cultivar, after using the growth regulators, a positive correlation was observed between the assimilation and transpiration rates and the length of stomata, which in consequence produced increased yields.

  12. Early changes of the pH of the apoplast are different in leaves, stem and roots of Vicia faba L. under declining water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanapandian, T; Geilfus, C-M; Mühling, K-H; Novák, O; Gloser, V

    2017-02-01

    Changes in pH of the apoplast have recently been discussed as an important factor in adjusting transpiration and water relations under conditions of drought via modulatory effect on abscisic acid (ABA) concentration. Using Vicia faba L., we investigated whether changes in the root, shoot and leaf apoplastic pH correlated with (1) a drought-induced reduction in transpiration and with (2) changes in ABA concentration. Transpiration, leaf water potential and ABA in leaves were measured and correlated with root and shoot xylem pH, determined by a pH microelectrode, and pH of leaf apoplast quantified by microscopy-based in vivo ratiometric analysis. Results revealed that a reduction in transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying could not be linked with changes in the apoplastic pH via effects on the stomata-regulating hormone ABA. Moreover, drought-induced increase in pH of xylem or leaf apoplast was not the remote effect of an acropetal transport of alkaline sap from root, because root xylem acidified during progressive soil drying, whereas the shoot apoplast alkalized. We reason that other, yet unknown signalling mechanism was responsible for reduction of transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of cuticular abrasion and recovery on water loss rates in queens of the desert harvester ant Messor pergandei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert A; Kaiser, Alexander; Quinlan, Michael; Sharp, William

    2011-10-15

    Factors that affect water loss rates (WLRs) are poorly known for organisms in natural habitats. Seed-harvester ant queens provide an ideal system for examining such factors because WLRs for mated queens excavated from their incipient nests are twofold to threefold higher than those of alate queens. Indirect data suggest that this increase results from soil particles abrading the cuticle during nest excavation. This study provides direct support for the cuticle abrasion hypothesis by measuring total mass-specific WLRs, cuticular abrasion, cuticular transpiration, respiratory water loss and metabolic rate for queens of the ant Messor pergandei at three stages: unmated alate queens, newly mated dealate queens (undug foundresses) and mated queens excavated from their incipient nest (dug foundresses); in addition we examined these processes in artificially abraded alate queens. Alate queens had low WLRs and low levels of cuticle abrasion, whereas dug foundresses had high WLRs and high levels of cuticle abrasion. Total WLR and cuticular transpiration were lowest for alate queens, intermediate for undug foundresses and highest for dug foundresses. Respiratory water loss contributed ~10% of the total WLR and was lower for alate queens and undug foundresses than for dug foundresses. Metabolic rate did not vary across stages. Total WLR and cuticular transpiration of artificially abraded alate queens increased, whereas respiratory water loss and metabolic rate were unaffected. Overall, increased cuticular transpiration accounted for essentially all the increased total water loss in undug and dug foundresses and artificially abraded queens. Artificially abraded queens and dug foundresses showed partial recovery after 14 days.

  14. A hairy-leaf gene, BLANKET LEAF, of wild Oryza nivara increases photosynthetic water use efficiency in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaoka, Norimitsu; Yasui, Hideshi; Yamagata, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Yoko; Furuya, Naruto; Araki, Takuya; Ueno, Osamu; Yoshimura, Atsushi

    2017-12-01

    High water use efficiency is essential to water-saving cropping. Morphological traits that affect photosynthetic water use efficiency are not well known. We examined whether leaf hairiness improves photosynthetic water use efficiency in rice. A chromosome segment introgression line (IL-hairy) of wild Oryza nivara (Acc. IRGC105715) with the genetic background of Oryza sativa cultivar 'IR24' had high leaf pubescence (hair). The leaf hairs developed along small vascular bundles. Linkage analysis in BC 5 F 2 and F 3 populations showed that the trait was governed by a single gene, designated BLANKET LEAF (BKL), on chromosome 6. IL-hairy plants had a warmer leaf surface in sunlight, probably due to increased boundary layer resistance. They had a lower transpiration rate under moderate and high light intensities, resulting in higher photosynthetic water use efficiency. Introgression of BKL on chromosome 6 from O. nivara improved photosynthetic water use efficiency in the genetic background of IR24.

  15. The effects of increasing CO sub 2 on crop photosynthesis and productivity: a review of field studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawlor, D.W.; Mitchell, R.A.C. (Institute of Arable Crops Research, Harpenden (UK). Biochemistry and Physiology Dept.)

    1991-10-01

    Only a small proportion of elevated CO{sub 2} studies on crops have taken place in the field. They generally confirm results obtained in controlled environments: CO{sub 2} increases photosynthesis, dry matter production and yield, substantially in C{sub 3} species, but less in C{sub 4}, it decreases stomatal conductance and transpiration in C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} species and greatly improves water-use efficiency in all plants. The increased productivity of crops with CO{sub 2} enrichment is also related to the greater leaf area produced. Stimulation of yield is due more to an increase in the number of yield-forming structures than in their size. There is little evidence of a consistent effect of CO{sub 2} on partitioning of dry matter between organs or on their chemical composition, except for tubers. Work has concentrated on a few crops (largely soybean) and more is needed on crops for which there are few data (e.g. rice). Field studies on the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} in combination with temperature, water and nutrition are essential; they should be related to the development and improvement of mechanistic crop models, and designed to test their predictions. 70 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Monitoring Evaporation/Transpiration in a Vineyard from Two-Source Energy Balance and Radiometric Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Doña, Carolina; Cuxart, Joan; Caselles, Vicente; Niclòs, Raquel

    2014-05-01

    Water management and understanding of irrigation efficiency could be significantly improved if the components of evapotranspiration (ET) in row-crop systems (plants and soil interrows) could be quantified separately. This evaporation/transpiration (E/T) partition, and its daily and seasonal evolution, depends on a variety of biophysical and environmental factors. In this work we present an operational method to provide continuous E/T results avoiding soil or canopy disturbance. This technique is based on the combination of the surface-atmosphere energy exchange modeling together with an accurate remote thermal characterization of the crop elements. An experiment was carried out in a row-crop vineyard in Mallorca, Spain, from June 2012 to May 2013. A set of 6 thermal-infrared radiometers (IRTs) were mounted in a mast placed in the middle of a vineyard N-S row. Two IRTs pointed to the soil between rows and other two pointed to the plants from a frontal view, measuring both east and west sides of the row. A fifth IRT pointed upward to collect the downwelling sky radiance and the remaining IRT was mounted at 4.5-m height over the canopy measuring the composed soil-canopy temperature. Measurements of the four components of the net radiation over the canopy and soil heat fluxes, as well as air temperature, humidity, wind speed, and soil moisture, were collected and stored in 15-min averages. A two-source energy balance approach was applied to the vineyard from its appropriate thermal characterization. Total and separate soil/canopy components of net radiation, soil, sensible and latent heat fluxes were obtained every 15 minutes and averaged at hourly and daily scales. Comparison between observed and modeled values of available surface energy showed relative errors below 15%. An analysis of the partition E/T was conducted along the vineyard growing season and the different phenological stages. In this experiment, interrow soil evaporation reached as much as 1/3 of the

  17. Tree ring δ18O reveals no long-term change of atmospheric water demand since 1800 in the northern Great Hinggan Mountains, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xuanwen; Zhao, Liangju; Xu, Guobao; Wang, Lixin; Sun, Weizhen; Zhang, Qiuliang; Wang, Wenzhi; Zeng, Xiaomin; Wu, Guoju

    2017-07-01

    Global warming will significantly increase transpirational water demand, which could dramatically affect plant physiology and carbon and water budgets. Tree ring δ18O is a potential index of the leaf-to-air vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) and therefore has great potential for long-term climatic reconstruction. Here we developed δ18O chronologies of two dominant native trees, Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) and Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica), from a permafrost region in the Great Hinggan Mountains of northeastern China. We found that the July-August VPD and relative humidity were the dominant factors that controlled tree ring δ18O in the study region, indicating strong regulation of stomatal conductance. Based on the larch and pine tree ring δ18O chronologies, we developed a reliable summer (July-August) VPD reconstruction since 1800. Warming growing season temperatures increase transpiration and enrich cellulose 18O, but precipitation seemed to be the most important influence on VPD changes in this cold region. Periods with stronger transpirational demand occurred around the 1850s, from 1914 to 1925, and from 2005 to 2010. However, we found no overall long-term increasing or decreasing trends for VPD since 1800, suggesting that despite the increasing temperatures and thawing permafrost throughout the region, forest transpirational demand has not increased significantly during the past two centuries. Under current climatic conditions, VPD did not limit growth of larch and pine, even during extremely drought years. Our findings will support more realistic evaluations and reliable predictions of the potential influences of ongoing climatic change on carbon and water cycles and on forest dynamics in permafrost regions.

  18. Water dynamics in mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit during the young and mature fruit seasons as measured by the stem heat balance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, H.; Sakuratani, T.

    2006-01-01

    Water flows in the stem and peduncle of mango fruit were monitored, and the surface transpiration from the fruit was measured during the fruit-growing season. The stem heat balance method was used on the peduncle to monitor the inward water flow during the nighttime, and the reverse water flow from the fruit during the daytime when the stem transpiration water flow increased. This diurnal fluctuation pattern in the water flow was more evident in mature fruit than in young fruit. In mature fruit, the daily water loss due to the reverse flow was estimated to be 3% of the fruit weight. The reverse flow water loss and transpired water loss were compensated for by nocturnal inward water flow, through the peduncle, of 30 g over 15 h. These results were well supported by measurements of fruit dimensions, which indicated a circadian rhythm of contraction and expansion. The reverse flow amounted to 80% of the water loss from the daytime contraction of the fruit, a much greater proportion than the fruit surface transpiration

  19. Whole-tree transpiration and water-use partitioning between Eucalyptus nitens and Acacia dealbata weeds in a short-rotation plantation in northeastern Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Mark A.; Beadle, Christopher L.

    1998-01-01

    Whole-tree water use in 4- and 8-year-old plantations of Eucalyptus nitens Deane and Maiden (ex Maiden) in the presence and absence of Acacia dealbata Link. weeds was estimated by the heat pulse velocity technique during a six-week summer period. Maximum sap velocities were recorded between 5 and 15 mm under the cambium for both eucalypt and acacia trees, and marked radial and axial variations in sap velocity were observed. The latter source of variation was most pronounced in mixed stands where crowns were asymmetrical. Mean daily sap flux ranged from 1.4 to 103.6 l day(-1) for eucalypts and from acacias. Stem diameter explained 98% of the variation in sapwood area for E. nitens and 89% for A. dealbata, and was determined to be a suitable parameter for scaling water use from the tree to stand level. Plot transpiration varied from 1.4 to 2.8 mm day(-1) in mixed 8-year-old plots and was 0.85 mm day(-1) in a mixed 4-year-old plot. The degree of A. dealbata infestation was associated with absolute plot water use and regression models predicted that, in the absence of acacia competition, plot water use for the 8-year-old stand would approach 5-6 mm day(-1) during the growing season.

  20. Herbivory mitigation through increased water-use efficiency in a leaf-mining moth-apple tree relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincebourde, Sylvain; Frak, Ela; Sinoquet, Hervé; Regnard, Jean Luc; Casas, Jérôme

    2006-12-01

    Herbivory alters plant gas exchange but the effects depend on the type of leaf damage. In contrast to ectophagous insects, leaf miners, by living inside the leaf tissues, do not affect the integrity of the leaf surface. Thus, the effect of leaf miners on CO2 uptake and water-use efficiency by leaves remains unclear. We explored the impacts of the leaf-mining moth Phyllonorycter blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on light responses of the apple leaf gas exchanges to determine the balance between the negative effects of reduced photosynthesis and potential positive impacts of increased water-use efficiency (WUE). Gas exchange in intact and mined leaf tissues was measured using an infrared gas analyser. The maximal assimilation rate was slightly reduced but the light response of net photosynthesis was not affected in mined leaf tissues. The transpiration rate was far more affected than the assimilation rate in the mine integument as a result of stomatal closure from moderate to high irradiance level. The WUE was about 200% higher in the mined leaf tissues than in intact leaf portions. Our results illustrate a novel mechanism by which plants might minimize losses from herbivore attacks; via trade-offs between the negative impacts on photosynthesis and the positive effects of increased WUE.

  1. Mass and heat transfers in the parietal boundary layer and inside a flat porous wall submitted to effusion or transpiration; Transferts de masse et de chaleur dans la couche limite parietale et a l'interieur d'une paroi poreuse plane soumise a de l'effusion ou de la transpiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellettre, J.

    1998-12-01

    The flows and the heat transfer near and inside a porous wall subjected to an internal flow are numerically and experimentally studied. Numerical simulations of the main flow are performed using a classical model of turbulence (RNG k-{xi} model). A discrete modeling of blowing through a porous plate is developed in order to predict interactions between the main flow and the injected fluid. Numerical results are in good agreement with experimental data obtained with a subsonic wind tunnel. The coupling between the heat transfer near and inside porous plates is studied for different injection rates, main flow temperatures and internal exchange surfaces of porous media. Surfaces temperatures are calculated using a nodal model of internal heat transfer, linked to the model of boundary layer submitted to injection. By comparing numerical and experimental temperatures of walls, the heat transfer coefficients inside porous media are calculated. In order to improve the thermal protection of walls, the transpiration with a liquid is studied. Experimental results, obtained with ethanol injection whereas the main flow is gaseous, show an important enhancement of the protection process. The coolant evaporation rate is calculated using measurement of mass fraction in the boundary layer and is used for the numerical study of mass transfer in the boundary layer. (author)

  2. Physiological conditions and uptake of inorganic carbon-14 by plant roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Ewing, L.L.

    1992-01-01

    The uptake of inorganic 14 C by bean plant roots was measured. The plants were grown in a nutrient solution culture at pH 6 and a NaH 14 CO 3 tracer was added to the growth medium. Photosynthesis and transpiration were varied by exposing the aerial portions of the plants to different atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, humidities and light levels in a cuvette system. Leaf concentrations of 14 C were measured at the end of the experiments using liquid scintillation counting. Plant uptake of 14 C via the roots was independent of the photosynthetic rate and, in most cases, could be predicted by knowing the transpiration rate and the nutrient solution concentration. However, when a less efficient root-medium aeration system was used, 14 C uptake was greater than that predicted using transpiration, a phenomenon observed by other researchers. This contrasted to results of another experiment where the measured uptake of iodine was much slower than that predicted using transpiration. Knowledge of transpiration rates is useful in predicting inorganic carbon uptake via the roots and in estimating 14 C transport from contaminated soils to biota. Also, the independence of the uptake from photosynthesis and ambient CO 2 concentrations suggests that future increases in atmospheric CO 2 concentrations may not have a direct effect on root uptake of soil carbon. (author)

  3. Root jasmonic acid synthesis and perception regulate folivore-induced shoot metabolites and increase Nicotiana attenuata resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Variluska; Rothe, Eva; Baldwin, Ian T; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2014-06-01

    While jasmonic acid (JA) signaling is widely accepted as mediating plant resistance to herbivores, and the importance of the roots in plant defenses is recently being recognized, the role of root JA in the defense of above-ground parts remains unstudied. To restrict JA impairment to the roots, we micrografted wildtype Nicotiana attenuata shoots to the roots of transgenic plants impaired in JA signaling and evaluated ecologically relevant traits in the glasshouse and in nature. Root JA synthesis and perception are involved in regulating nicotine production in roots. Strikingly, systemic root JA regulated local leaf JA and abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations, which were associated with differences in nicotine transport from roots to leaves via the transpiration stream. Root JA signaling also regulated the accumulation of other shoot metabolites; together these account for differences in resistance against a generalist, Spodoptera littoralis, and a specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta. In N. attenuata's native habitat, silencing root JA synthesis increased the shoot damage inflicted by Empoasca leafhoppers, which are able to select natural jasmonate mutants. Silencing JA perception in roots also increased damage by Tupiocoris notatus. We conclude that attack from above-ground herbivores recruits root JA signaling to launch the full complement of plant defense responses. © 2014 Max Planck Society. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Tritium Concentrations in Environmental Samples and Transpiration Rates from the Vicinity of Mary's Branch Creek and Background Areas, Barnwell, South Carolina, 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Canova, Judy L.; Bradley, Paul M.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Tritium in groundwater from a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Barnwell, South Carolina, is discharging to Mary's Branch Creek. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an investigation from 2007 to 2009 to examine the tritium concentration in trees and air samples near the creek and in background areas, in groundwater near the creek, and in surface water from the creek. Tritium was found in trees near the creek, but not in trees from background areas or from sites unlikely to be in direct root contact with tritium-contaminated groundwater. Tritium was found in groundwater near the creek and in the surface water of the creek. Analysis of tree material has the potential to be a useful tool in locating shallow tritium-contaminated groundwater. A tritium concentration of 1.4 million picocuries per liter was measured in shallow groundwater collected near a tulip poplar located in an area of tritium-contaminated groundwater discharge. Evapotranspiration rates from the tree and tritium concentrations in water extracted from tree cores indicate that during the summer, this tulip poplar may remove more than 17.1 million picocuries of tritium per day from the groundwater that otherwise would discharge to Mary's Branch Creek. Analysis of air samples near the tree showed no evidence that the transpirative release of tritium to the air created a vapor hazard in the forest.

  5. Quantidade de água transpirada pelo cafeeiro cultivado ao sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coaraci M. Franco

    1950-01-01

    Full Text Available In determinations made with a porometer it was verified that the stomatal opening of coffee leaves increases in size immediately after the leaves are detached from the plant (fig. 1. This fact indicates that the method of rapid weighings of detached leaves is not suitable for studies on the transpiration of the coffee plant. The transpiration of coffee plants has been determined by the weighing potted plant method. Pots with a capacity for 51 liters were used. They were made of galvanized iron plate and had no drainage hole. When the moisture content of the soil approached the wilting point water was added to bring all the soil mass to fiel capacity. In order to avoid oxygen depletion the pots were not sealed. To decrease the direct evaporation at the soil surface a two-centimeter layer of rice hulls was used as mulch, and a celotex cover was placed on top of the pot. Three similar pots with the same type of protection, but without plants were used to measure the direct evaporation from the soil surface. The weight losses of these pots were subtracted from the weight losses of the pots with plants. Two to throe-year old plants of Coffea arabica var. bourbon were used. Three plants were employed each month and after this time their leaves were picked off, and the total leaf area was determined. The tests were carried out for a whole year. The transpiration rates were calculated in g/dm²/day. The total leaf area of an adult coffee plant was found to be 3,146 dm² (average of seven trees. Based on this average and on the transpiration rate of the experimental plants it was possible to calculate approximately the amount of water that an adult coffee plant would transpire under the same conditions. Since the plants submitted to the experiment did not suffer water shortage at any time, the present results show the approximate amount of water lost by the coffee plant under optimal soil-water conditions. The data are presented in table 1. The figure 1

  6. Rainforest-initiated wet season onset over the southern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jonathon S; Fu, Rong; Worden, John R; Chakraborty, Sudip; Clinton, Nicholas E; Risi, Camille; Sun, Ying; Yin, Lei

    2017-08-08

    Although it is well established that transpiration contributes much of the water for rainfall over Amazonia, it remains unclear whether transpiration helps to drive or merely responds to the seasonal cycle of rainfall. Here, we use multiple independent satellite datasets to show that rainforest transpiration enables an increase of shallow convection that moistens and destabilizes the atmosphere during the initial stages of the dry-to-wet season transition. This shallow convection moisture pump (SCMP) preconditions the atmosphere at the regional scale for a rapid increase in rain-bearing deep convection, which in turn drives moisture convergence and wet season onset 2-3 mo before the arrival of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Aerosols produced by late dry season biomass burning may alter the efficiency of the SCMP. Our results highlight the mechanisms by which interactions among land surface processes, atmospheric convection, and biomass burning may alter the timing of wet season onset and provide a mechanistic framework for understanding how deforestation extends the dry season and enhances regional vulnerability to drought.

  7. Foliar trichomes, boundary layers, and gas exchange in 12 species of epiphytic Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Brett W; Martin, Craig E

    2006-04-01

    We examined the relationships between H2O and CO2 gas exchange parameters and leaf trichome cover in 12 species of Tillandsia that exhibit a wide range in trichome size and trichome cover. Previous investigations have hypothesized that trichomes function to enhance boundary layers around Tillandsioid leaves thereby buffering the evaporative demand of the atmosphere and retarding transpirational water loss. Data presented herein suggest that trichome-enhanced boundary layers have negligible effects on Tillandsia gas exchange, as indicated by the lack of statistically significant relationships in regression analyses of gas exchange parameters and trichome cover. We calculated trichome and leaf boundary layer components, and their associated effects on H2O and CO2 gas exchange. The results further indicate trichome-enhanced boundary layers do not significantly reduce transpirational water loss. We conclude that although the trichomes undoubtedly increase the thickness of the boundary layer, the increase due to Tillandsioid trichomes is inconsequential in terms of whole leaf boundary layers, and any associated reduction in transpirational water loss is also negligible within the whole plant gas exchange pathway.

  8. The significance of radiative coupling between vegetation and the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.

    1989-01-01

    In a recent theoretical study, Jarvis and McNaughton derived an expression for the elasticity of evaporation with respect to canopy conductance to analyze the coupling between vegetation and the atmosphere. They concluded that one cannot expect a fractional change in stomatal resistance to cause a proportional change in leaf or canopy transpiration, especially for vegetation with low aerodynamic roughness. However, a potentially important stomatal feedback was left out. As stomata close, transpiration decreases, while the temperature of sunlit leaves and the associated outgoing long-wave radiation from the leaf increase. The net result is a change both in transpiration and leaf net radiation. This paper examines the assumptions made in Jarvis and McNaughton's analysis, presents an alternative derivation for the elasticity of evaporation to conductance, and discusses its theoretical and practical implications

  9. Comparative Anatomical Investigations on six Endemic Tanacetum (Asteraceae) Taxa from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekin, M.; Kartal, C.

    2016-01-01

    Tanacetum is one of the large genera, belonging to the Anthemideae tribe of Asteraceae family and has numerous medicinal plants and widely usage in folk medicine. In this study, anatomical features of six endemic species to Turkey viz. Tanacetum albipannosum, T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, T. cappadocicum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, were investigated for the first time. The specimens were collected from their natural habitats in Sivas province (Turkey). Transverse sections of root, stem, petiole and leaflet were observed under light microscope for various anatomical features. The results showed that, root included periderm in the outer. There were parenchymatous cortex, endodermis and pericycle under the periderm respectively. Primary xylem ridges were triarch in T. albipannosum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, pentarch in T. cappadocicum and hexarch in T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, and pith was filled with xylem elements. Stem was made up epidermis, parenchymatous cortex, endodermis, vascular bundles and parenchymatous pith from exterior to interior. T. heterotomum had a cavity formed by the disintegration of the cells in the center. The amphistomatic leaflets had a single layered epidermis with usually silvery or whitish tomentose indumentum and equifacial mesophyll. Stomata are anomocytic. There were significant difference among examined taxa in respect to contour of petiole, structure of cortex parenchyma and organization of vascular bundles. The anatomical characteristic features of petiole proved to be a useful tool for the taxonomic discrimination of the six studied taxa. (author)

  10. Relationship between Hexokinase and the Aquaporin PIP1 in the Regulation of Photosynthesis and Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gilor; Sade, Nir; Attia, Ziv; Secchi, Francesca; Zwieniecki, Maciej; Holbrook, N. Michele; Levi, Asher; Alchanatis, Victor; Moshelion, Menachem; Granot, David

    2014-01-01

    Increased expression of the aquaporin NtAQP1, which is known to function as a plasmalemma channel for CO2 and water, increases the rate of both photosynthesis and transpiration. In contrast, increased expression of Arabidopsis hexokinase1 (AtHXK1), a dual-function enzyme that mediates sugar sensing, decreases the expression of photosynthetic genes and the rate of transpiration and inhibits growth. Here, we show that AtHXK1 also decreases root and stem hydraulic conductivity and leaf mesophyll CO2 conductance (g m). Due to their opposite effects on plant development and physiology, we examined the relationship between NtAQP1 and AtHXK1 at the whole-plant level using transgenic tomato plants expressing both genes simultaneously. NtAQP1 significantly improved growth and increased the transpiration rates of AtHXK1-expressing plants. Reciprocal grafting experiments indicated that this complementation occurs when both genes are expressed simultaneously in the shoot. Yet, NtAQP1 had only a marginal effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the double-transgenic plants, suggesting that the complementary effect of NtAQP1 is unrelated to shoot water transport. Rather, NtAQP1 significantly increased leaf mesophyll CO2 conductance and enhanced the rate of photosynthesis, suggesting that NtAQP1 facilitated the growth of the double-transgenic plants by enhancing mesophyll conductance of CO2. PMID:24498392

  11. Relationship between hexokinase and the aquaporin PIP1 in the regulation of photosynthesis and plant growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilor Kelly

    Full Text Available Increased expression of the aquaporin NtAQP1, which is known to function as a plasmalemma channel for CO₂ and water, increases the rate of both photosynthesis and transpiration. In contrast, increased expression of Arabidopsis hexokinase1 (AtHXK1, a dual-function enzyme that mediates sugar sensing, decreases the expression of photosynthetic genes and the rate of transpiration and inhibits growth. Here, we show that AtHXK1 also decreases root and stem hydraulic conductivity and leaf mesophyll CO₂ conductance (g(m. Due to their opposite effects on plant development and physiology, we examined the relationship between NtAQP1 and AtHXK1 at the whole-plant level using transgenic tomato plants expressing both genes simultaneously. NtAQP1 significantly improved growth and increased the transpiration rates of AtHXK1-expressing plants. Reciprocal grafting experiments indicated that this complementation occurs when both genes are expressed simultaneously in the shoot. Yet, NtAQP1 had only a marginal effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the double-transgenic plants, suggesting that the complementary effect of NtAQP1 is unrelated to shoot water transport. Rather, NtAQP1 significantly increased leaf mesophyll CO₂ conductance and enhanced the rate of photosynthesis, suggesting that NtAQP1 facilitated the growth of the double-transgenic plants by enhancing mesophyll conductance of CO₂.

  12. Evapotranspiration from a Mediterranean evergreen oak savannah: The role of trees and pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paço, Teresa A.; David, Teresa S.; Henriques, Manuel O.; Pereira, João S.; Valente, Fernanda; Banza, João; Pereira, Fernando L.; Pinto, Clara; David, Jorge S.

    2009-05-01

    SummaryMediterranean evergreen oak woodlands of southern Portugal ( montados) are savannah-type ecosystems with a widely sparse tree cover, over extensive grassland. Therefore, ecosystem water fluxes derive from two quite differentiated sources: the trees and the pasture. Partitioning of fluxes according to these different sources is necessary to quantify overall ecosystem water losses as well as to improve knowledge on its functional behaviour. In southern Iberia, these woodlands are subjected to recurrent droughts. Therefore, reaction/resilience to water stress becomes an essential feature of vegetation on these ecosystems. Long-term tree transpiration was recorded for 6 years from a sample of holm oak ( Quercus ilex ssp. rotundifolia) trees, using the Granier sap flow method. Ecosystem transpiration was measured by the eddy covariance technique for an 11-month period (February to December 2005), partly coincident with a drought year. Pasture transpiration was estimated as the difference between ecosystem (eddy covariance) and tree (sap flow) transpiration. Pasture transpiration stopped during the summer, when the surface soil dried up. In the other seasons, pasture transpiration showed a strong dependence on rainfall occurrence and on top soil water. Conversely, trees were able to maintain transpiration throughout the summer due to the deep root access to groundwater. Q. ilex trees showed a high resilience to both seasonal and annual drought. Tree transpiration represented more than half of ecosystem transpiration, in spite of the low tree density (30 trees ha -1) and crown cover fraction (21%). Tree evapotranspiration was dominated by transpiration (76%), and interception loss represented only 24% of overall tree evaporation.

  13. Morphological and phenological shoot plasticity in a Mediterranean evergreen oak facing long-term increased drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, Jean-Marc; Rambal, Serge; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesus; Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Rodríguez-Cortina, Raquel; Misson, Laurent; Joffre, Richard

    2012-06-01

    Mediterranean trees must adjust their canopy leaf area to the unpredictable timing and severity of summer drought. The impact of increased drought on the canopy dynamics of the evergreen Quercus ilex was studied by measuring shoot growth, leaf production, litterfall, leafing phenology and leaf demography in a mature forest stand submitted to partial throughfall exclusion for 7 years. The leaf area index rapidly declined in the throughfall-exclusion plot and was 19% lower than in the control plot after 7 years of treatment. Consequently, leaf litterfall was significantly lower in the dry treatment. Such a decline in leaf area occurred through a change in branch allometry with a decreased number of ramifications produced and a reduction of the leaf area supported per unit sapwood area of the shoot (LA/SA). The leafing phenology was slightly delayed and the median leaf life span was slightly longer in the dry treatment. The canopy dynamics in both treatments were driven by water availability with a 1-year lag: leaf shedding and production were reduced following dry years; in contrast, leaf turnover was increased following wet years. The drought-induced decrease in leaf area, resulting from both plasticity in shoot development and slower leaf turnover, appeared to be a hydraulic adjustment to limit canopy transpiration and maintain leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity under drier conditions.

  14. Assessing the Transferability of Transpiration-use Efficiency Models of Biomass Production Comprobando la Transferibilidad de Modelos para la Producción de Biomasa basados en la Eficiencia del uso de la Transpiración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Kremer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Transpiration-use efficiency (w, defined as the ratio of biomass produced per unit water transpired, has been used to evaluate crop performance under limited water supply. However, the lack of consistency of w values through different environmental conditions has not allowed, using it as a transferable parameter. Thus, simple approaches have been developed, including: 1 w = kDa Da¹ and; 2 w = kEto ETo-¹ where kDa and kETo are crop-dependent parameters, with the underlying concept that normalization by Da or ET0 would accounts for the effects of climate variations on w, while these parameters would be reasonably constant across diverse environments. The objective of this study was to assess the transferability of kDa and kET^0 for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and maize (Zea mays L.. The scarcity of experimental information and discrepancy of the methodology used, justified the use of a canopy transpiration and photosynthesis model which was developed, tested, and fitted with weather data from eight environmentally different locations to simulate values of w, kDa and kETOo. The results indicated that kDa and kET0 were more variable than expected; suggesting that calibration would be desirable. A consistent trend of change of the parameter values as function of Da or ET0 was found, which can be represented by mathematical functions, allowing transferring w, kDa and kET0 (maize. In contrast, the kETOo for wheat correlated weakly with Da and ET0, but a low overall coefficient of variation (10% allowed using an average value as a reasonable predictor of w.Eficiencia del uso de la transpiración (w, definida como la relación entre biomasa producida por unidad de agua transpirada, se ha utilizado para evaluar productividad bajo condiciones limitadas de agua. Sin embargo, la falta de consistencia de valores w bajo condiciones climáticas distintas no ha permitido su uso como parámetro transferible. Consecuentemente, aproximaciones simples han sido

  15. Increasing bioenergy production on arable land: Does the regional and local climate respond? Germany as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölle, Merja H.; Gutjahr, Oliver; Busch, Gerald; Thiele, Jan C.

    2014-03-01

    The extent and magnitude of land cover change effect on local and regional future climate during the vegetation period due to different forms of bioenergy plants are quantified for extreme temperatures and energy fluxes. Furthermore, we vary the spatial extent of plant allocation on arable land and simulate alternative availability of transpiration water to mimic both rainfed agriculture and irrigation. We perform climate simulations down to 1 km scale for 1970-1975 C20 and 2070-2075 A1B over Germany with Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling in Climate Mode. Here an impact analysis indicates a strong local influence due to land cover changes. The regional effect is decreased by two thirds of the magnitude of the local-scale impact. The changes are largest locally for irrigated poplar with decreasing maximum temperatures by 1°C in summer months and increasing specific humidity by 0.15 g kg-1. The increased evapotranspiration may result in more precipitation. The increase of surface radiative fluxes Rnet due to changes in latent and sensible heat is estimated by 5 W m-2locally. Moreover, increases in the surface latent heat flux cause strong local evaporative cooling in the summer months, whereas the associated regional cooling effect is pronounced by increases in cloud cover. The changes on a regional scale are marginal and not significant. Increasing bioenergy production on arable land may result in local temperature changes but not in substantial regional climate change in Germany. We show the effect of agricultural practices during climate transitions in spring and fall.

  16. A comparison of epicuticular wax of Pinus sylvestris needles from three sites in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, A.; Dowding, P.

    1994-01-01

    Three forest stands of Pinus sylvestris were chosen for comparison in Ireland. Needles from three year classes were collected. Cuticular transpiration curves showed that the rate of water loss from 1-year-old needles was faster than either 2-year-old or current-year needles at all sites. The amount of epicuticular wax extracted was similar to that reported in the literature. Needle wettability increased with needle age. Amorphous wax coverage was estimated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and was found to increase with needle age. Algal cells were noted on needles of all ages at one site and appeared to affect transpiration and microroughness. The presence of fungal hyphae was also noted. (orig.)

  17. Transpiração em espécie de grande porte na Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, Pará Transpiration in large size species in Caxiuanã National Forest, in the State of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael F. da Costa

    2007-04-01

    drought, aiming to determinate the transpiration of Eschweilera coriacea. The ESECAFLOR site consists of two different areas with 1 ha each. Plot A (control and Plot B (rainfall exclusion. The Trunk Heat Balance (THB method was applied to sap flow measurements, by Sap Flow Meter P4.1 system. Between analysed periods, the mean transpiration of E. Coriacea increased 56% in the tree A237 (control plot and decreased 68% in B381 (drought plot.

  18. Hydrologic effects of large southwestern USA wildfires significantly increase regional water supply: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, M. L.; Cadol, D.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years climate change and historic fire suppression have increased the frequency of large wildfires in the southwestern USA, motivating study of the hydrological consequences of these wildfires at point and watershed scales, typically over short periods of time. These studies have revealed that reduced soil infiltration capacity and reduced transpiration due to tree canopy combustion increase streamflow at the watershed scale. However, the degree to which these local increases in runoff propagate to larger scales—relevant to urban and agricultural water supply—remains largely unknown, particularly in semi-arid mountainous watersheds co-dominated by winter snowmelt and the North American monsoon. To address this question, we selected three New Mexico watersheds—the Jemez (1223 km2), Mogollon (191 km2), and Gila (4807 km2)—that together have been affected by over 100 wildfires since 1982. We then applied climate-driven linear models to test for effects of fire on streamflow metrics after controlling for climatic variability. Here we show that, after controlling for climatic and snowpack variability, significantly more streamflow discharged from the Gila watershed for three to five years following wildfires, consistent with increased regional water yield due to enhanced infiltration-excess overland flow and groundwater recharge at the large watershed scale. In contrast, we observed no such increase in discharge from the Jemez watershed following wildfires. Fire regimes represent a key difference between the contrasting responses of the Jemez and Gila watersheds with the latter experiencing more frequent wildfires, many caused by lightning strikes. While hydrologic dynamics at the scale of large watersheds were previously thought to be climatically dominated, these results suggest that if one fifth or more of a large watershed has been burned in the previous three to five years, significant increases in water yield can be expected.

  19. A rate equation model of stomatal responses to vapour pressure deficit and drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanahan ST

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stomata respond to vapour pressure deficit (D – when D increases, stomata begin to close. Closure is the result of a decline in guard cell turgor, but the link between D and turgor is poorly understood. We describe a model for stomatal responses to increasing D based upon cellular water relations. The model also incorporates impacts of increasing levels of water stress upon stomatal responses to increasing D. Results The model successfully mimics the three phases of stomatal responses to D and also reproduces the impact of increasing plant water deficit upon stomatal responses to increasing D. As water stress developed, stomata regulated transpiration at ever decreasing values of D. Thus, stomatal sensitivity to D increased with increasing water stress. Predictions from the model concerning the impact of changes in cuticular transpiration upon stomatal responses to increasing D are shown to conform to experimental data. Sensitivity analyses of stomatal responses to various parameters of the model show that leaf thickness, the fraction of leaf volume that is air-space, and the fraction of mesophyll cell wall in contact with air have little impact upon behaviour of the model. In contrast, changes in cuticular conductance and membrane hydraulic conductivity have significant impacts upon model behaviour. Conclusion Cuticular transpiration is an important feature of stomatal responses to D and is the cause of the 3 phase response to D. Feed-forward behaviour of stomata does not explain stomatal responses to D as feedback, involving water loss from guard cells, can explain these responses.

  20. Silicon improves salt tolerance by increasing root water uptake in Cucumis sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Xing; Xu, Xuan-Bin; Hu, Yan-Hong; Han, Wei-Hua; Yin, Jun-Liang; Li, Huan-Li; Gong, Hai-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Silicon enhances root water uptake in salt-stressed cucumber plants through up-regulating aquaporin gene expression. Osmotic adjustment is a genotype-dependent mechanism for silicon-enhanced water uptake in plants. Silicon can alleviate salt stress in plants. However, the mechanism is still not fully understood, and the possible role of silicon in alleviating salt-induced osmotic stress and the underlying mechanism still remain to be investigated. In this study, the effects of silicon (0.3 mM) on Na accumulation, water uptake, and transport were investigated in two cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivars ('JinYou 1' and 'JinChun 5') under salt stress (75 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited the plant growth and photosynthesis and decreased leaf transpiration and water content, while added silicon ameliorated these negative effects. Silicon addition only slightly decreased the shoot Na levels per dry weight in 'JinYou 1' but not in 'JinChun 5' after 10 days of stress. Silicon addition reduced stress-induced decreases in root hydraulic conductivity and/or leaf-specific conductivity. Expressions of main plasma membrane aquaporin genes in roots were increased by added silicon, and the involvement of aquaporins in water uptake was supported by application of aquaporin inhibitor and restorative. Besides, silicon application decreased the root xylem osmotic potential and increased root soluble sugar levels in 'JinYou 1.' Our results suggest that silicon can improve salt tolerance of cucumber plants through enhancing root water uptake, and silicon-mediated up-regulation of aquaporin gene expression may in part contribute to the increase in water uptake. In addition, osmotic adjustment may be a genotype-dependent mechanism for silicon-enhanced water uptake in plants.

  1. How light competition between plants affects their response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Marloes P; Schieving, Feike; Rietkerk, Max; Dekker, Stefan C; Sterck, Frank; Anten, Niels P R

    2014-09-01

    How plants respond to climate change is of major concern, as plants will strongly impact future ecosystem functioning, food production and climate. Here, we investigated how vegetation structure and functioning may be influenced by predicted increases in annual temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentration, and modeled the extent to which local plant-plant interactions may modify these effects. A canopy model was developed, which calculates photosynthesis as a function of light, nitrogen, temperature, CO2 and water availability, and considers different degrees of light competition between neighboring plants through canopy mixing; soybean (Glycine max) was used as a reference system. The model predicts increased net photosynthesis and reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration under atmospheric CO2 increase. When CO2 elevation is combined with warming, photosynthesis is increased more, but transpiration is reduced less. Intriguingly, when competition is considered, the optimal response shifts to producing larger leaf areas, but with lower stomatal conductance and associated vegetation transpiration than when competition is not considered. Furthermore, only when competition is considered are the predicted effects of elevated CO2 on leaf area index (LAI) well within the range of observed effects obtained by Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. Together, our results illustrate how competition between plants may modify vegetation responses to climate change. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Expression of an Arabidopsis molybdenum cofactor sulphurase gene in soybean enhances drought tolerance and increases yield under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajun; Zhang, Jiachang; Zhang, Juan; Hao, Ling; Hua, Jinping; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Li, Zhaohu

    2013-08-01

    LOS5/ABA3 gene encoding molybdenum cofactor sulphurase is involved in aldehyde oxidase (AO) activity in Arabidopsis, which indirectly regulates ABA biosynthesis and increased stress tolerance. Here, we used a constitutive super promoter to drive LOS5/ABA3 overexpression in soybean (Glycine max L.) to enhance drought tolerance in growth chamber and field conditions. Expression of LOS5/ABA3 was up-regulated by drought stress, which led to increasing AO activity and then a notable increase in ABA accumulation. Transgenic soybean under drought stress had reduced water loss by decreased stomatal aperture size and transpiration rate, which alleviated leaf wilting and maintained higher relative water content. Exposed to drought stress, transgenic soybean exhibited reduced cell membrane damage by reducing electrolyte leakage and production of malondialdehyde and promoting proline accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activities. Also, overexpression of LOS5/ABA3 enhanced expression of stress-up-regulated genes. Furthermore, the seed yield of transgenic plants is at least 21% higher than that of wide-type plants under drought stress conditions in the field. These data suggest that overexpression of LOS5/ABA3 could improve drought tolerance in transgenic soybean via enhanced ABA accumulation, which could activate expression of stress-up-regulated genes and cause a series of physiological and biochemical resistant responses. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effect of single varied doses of UV-C radiation on photosynthesis, traspiration and chlorophyll content in the leaves of two varieties of faba bean and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, J.; Pszczolkowska, A.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of single, varied (75, 120 and 165 min) UV-C radiation on photosynthesis and transpiration in leaves of two morphotypes of faba bean and pea was determined in a pot experiment. The SPAD leaf greenness index, which characterises the a and b chlorophyll contents (as well as changes in its content caused by radiation) were analysed. The experimental results indicated that the intensity of photosynthesis and transpiration in faba bean leaves was higher in the plants treated with the UV-C radiation. In addition, the intensity of photosynthesis and the chlorophyll content were higher in the Neptun variety than in the self-terminating faba bean variety. The Rola pea variety plants showed a significant decrease in photsynthesis intensity under radiation in the 3rd leaf phase and a slight decrease in later developmental phases. Moreover, transpiration was found to decrease at the beginning of the vegetation. In the case of the Ramrod variety, rather ambiguous results were obtained. The chlorophyll content in both pea varieties was high in the 3rd proper leaf phase and in the Rola plants it increased with increasing radiation doses in the stem extension phase

  4. Ecohydrology of adjacent sagebrush and lodgepole pine ecosystems: the consequences of climate change and disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, John B.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2014-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe and lodgepole pine forests are two of the most widespread vegetation types in the western United States and they play crucial roles in the hydrologic cycle of these water-limited regions. We used a process-based ecosystem water model to characterize the potential impact of climate change and disturbance (wildfire and beetle mortality) on water cycling in adjacent sagebrush and lodgepole pine ecosystems. Despite similar climatic and topographic conditions between these ecosystems at the sites examined, lodgepole pine, and sagebrush exhibited consistent differences in water balance, notably more evaporation and drier summer soils in the sagebrush and greater transpiration and less water yield in lodgepole pine. Canopy disturbances (either fire or beetle) have dramatic impacts on water balance and availability: reducing transpiration while increasing evaporation and water yield. Results suggest that climate change may reduce snowpack, increase evaporation and transpiration, and lengthen the duration of dry soil conditions in the summer, but may have uncertain effects on drainage. Changes in the distribution of sagebrush and lodgepole pine ecosystems as a consequence of climate change and/or altered disturbance regimes will likely alter ecosystem water balance.

  5. Quantidade de água transpirada pelo cafeeiro sombreado e pelo ingazeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coaraci M. Franco

    1951-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the amount of water lost by the soil through the transpiration of coffee plants and shade trees in shaded coffee plantation. All methods and techniques employed in the study of transpiration of the shade tree Inga edulis Mart, were exactly the same as those described in a paper recently published (4. It was determined previously (3 that a shaded coffee plant receiving 55% of full sunlight transpired 80% as much as when in 100% full sunlight. The amount of water transpired by a coffee plant was calculated by taking 80% of the amount transpired in unshaded plantation (4. Comparing the water lost by transpiration of shaded coffee plants and shade trees with the average rainfall in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, it is seen that from April to September the amount of water transpired exceeds the average rainfall. This finding seems to agree with our previous conclusion (1, 2, 5 that water competition between shade trees and coffee plants is the factor that controls the success of growing coffee under shade in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The highest daily rate of transpiration encountered, for Inga edvlis was 36.7 milligrams per square decimeter per minute. The average daily transpiration was found to be 9.90 grams per square decimeter per day. The total amount of water transpired by an Inga tree was calculated to be 71,140 liters per plant per year. Since the plants submited to the experiment did not suffer a water shortage at any time, the present results show the approximate amount of water lost by the Inga tree and shaded coffee plant under optimal soil-water conditions.

  6. respiration and transpiration characteristics of selected fresh fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    were higher in optimal atmospheres. The Q10 values ... High respiration rates increase tissue aging and decrease the ability of the product to repel ... Two types of containers were used for the ..... availability of oxygen around the product also.

  7. Flux Measurements in Trees: Methodological Approach and Application to Vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca De Lorenzi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a review of two sap flow methods for measuring the transpiration in vineyards is presented. The objective of this work is to examine the potential of detecting transpiration in trees in response to environmental stresses, particularly the high concentration of ozone (O3 in troposphere. The methods described are the stem heat balance and the thermal dissipation probe; advantages and disadvantages of each method are detailed. Applications of both techniques are shown, in two large commercial vineyards in Southern Italy (Apulia and Sicily, submitted to semi-arid climate. Sap flow techniques allow to measure transpiration at plant scale and an upscaling procedure is necessary to calculate the transpiration at the whole stand level. Here a general technique to link the value of transpiration at plant level to the canopy value is presented, based on experimental relationships between transpiration and biometric characteristics of the trees. In both vineyards transpiration measured by sap flow methods compares well with evapotranspiration measured by micrometeorological techniques at canopy scale. Moreover soil evaporation component has been quantified. In conclusion, comments about the suitability of the sap flow methods for studying the interactions between trees and ozone are given.

  8. Determination of the water use and water use response of canola to solar radiation and temperature by using heat balance stem flow gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angadi, S.V.; Cutforth, H.W.; McConkey, B.G.

    2003-01-01

    Sap flow gauges using a heat balance have been reliable for measuring real-time transpiration in a number of crops. However, information on the accuracy of sap flow gauges in canola is lacking. Therefore, a study was conducted to validate the sap flow system in canola and to observe sap flow response to variations in temperature and solar radiation. There were strong relationships between sap flow measured with sap flow gauges and actual transpiration measured by the gravimetric method over short periods of 1 h (r 2 = 0.93 and RMSE = 2.34 g h -1 ), and over longer periods of 1 d (r 2 0.83 and RMSE = 48 g d -1 ), although sap flow slightly overestimated transpiration. In both cases the slope was not significantly different from 1. Water use in canola, estimated with sap flow gauges or from actual transpiration measurement, was dependent upon temperature (r 2 = 0.94 to 0.96). Water use increased until daytime temperatures reached 36 o C, after which water use decreased. Sap flow followed solar radiation trends in the field. Heat is lost or dissipated from the gauges convectively as the sap flows through the stem, conductively through the solid stem material, and radially into the surrounding air. As the convective proportion of the heat loss from the gauge increased, the accuracy of the water use estimation using the sap flow gauges increased. For sunny days, convective heat loss through sap flow accounted for a major portion of the total heat input to the gauges, while on cloudy days radial heat loss from the gauges accounted for a, major portion of the heat input. Thus, at low sap flow rates during cloudy days, the possibility of error in the sap flow system was high. Overall, sap flow in canola was strongly related to daily solar radiation (r 2 = 0.92). The sensitive response to weather variations and the possibility of improving the accuracy at high flow rates in the field makes the use of sap flow gauges a viable option for measuring real-time transpiration in

  9. Influence of relative humidity of air on the level of aqueous tritium in corn, wheat and sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indeka, L.

    1981-01-01

    The short-term changes in level of aqueous tritium in the leaves in relation to the air humidity were studied. The experiments were carried out on corn in which the transpiration is relatively small, on sunflower with very high transpiration and on wheat with intermediate transpiration. (M.F.W.)

  10. Reply to Smith and Shortle: Lacking evidence of hydraulic efficiency changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark B. Green; Amey S. Bailey; Scott W. Bailey; John J. Battles; John L. Campbell; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Lucie C. Lepine; Gene E. Likens; Scott V. Ollinger; Paul G. Schaberg

    2013-01-01

    After calcium silicate amendment to an entire watershed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, evapotranspiration (ET) increased by ~20% for 2 y, broadly attributed to a fertilization of tree physiology (1). We suggested that the increase in ET most likely arose from enhanced transpiration due to increased stomatal conductance (gs) associated with increased...

  11. Overexpression of HARDY, an AP2/ERF gene from Arabidopsis, improves drought and salt tolerance by reducing transpiration and sodium uptake in transgenic Trifolium alexandrinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abogadallah, Gaber M; Nada, Reham M; Malinowski, Robert; Quick, Paul

    2011-06-01

    Trifolium alexandrinum L. was transformed with the Arabidopsis HARDY gene that belongs to the stress-related AP2/ERF (APETALA2/ethylene responsive element binding factors) superfamily of transcription factors. The fresh weights of the transgenic lines L2 and L3 were improved by 42 and 55% under drought stress and by 38 and 95% under salt stress compared to the wild type, respectively. The dry weights were similarly improved. Overexpression of HARDY improved the instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE) under drought stress by reducing transpiration (E) and under salt stress by improving photosynthesis (A), through reducing Na+ accumulation in leaves, and reducing E. However, HARDY improved the growth of drought-stressed transgenic plants as compared to the wild type by delaying water depletion from soil and preventing rapid decline in A. L2 and L3 had thicker stems and in case of L3, more xylem rows per vascular bundle, which may have made L3 more resistant to lodging in the field. Field performance of L2 and L3 under combined drought and salt stress was significantly better than that of the wild type in terms of fresh and dry weights (40%, 46% and 31%, 40%, respectively). The results provide further evidence for the efficiency of overexpression of a single gene in improving tolerance to abiotic stress under field conditions.

  12. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  13. The pH dependent toxicity and bioaccumulation of chloroquine tested on S. viminalis (basket willow)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendal, Cecilie; Trapp, Stefan; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    (hydroxymethyl) – aminomethane (pH 8 and 9). Concentrations were determined with spectrophotometer. Toxicity was derived from calculations of normalized transpiration over time, and RCF (root concentration factor) values were calculated. Increasing BCF values were found for increasing pH levels, and the toxicity...

  14. Global CO2 rise leads to reduced maximum stomatal conductance in Florida vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammertsma, E.I.; de Boer, H.J.; Dekker, S.C.; Dilcher, D.L.; Lotter, A.F.; Wagner-Cremer, F.

    2011-01-01

    A principle response of C3 plants to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (CO2) is to reduce transpirational water loss by decreasing stomatal conductance (gs) and simultaneously increase assimilation rates. Via this adaptation, vegetation has the ability to alter hydrology and climate.

  15. Drought increases cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) susceptibility to cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) at early stage of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodolpho G G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Martins, Thiago F; Varela, Anna L N; Souza, Pedro F N; Lobo, Ana K M; Silva, Fredy D A; Silveira, Joaquim A G; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2016-12-01

    The physiological and biochemical responses of a drought tolerant, virus-susceptible cowpea genotype exposed to drought stress (D), infected by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) (V), and to these two combined stresses (DV), at 2 and 6 days post viral inoculation (DPI), were evaluated. Gas exchange parameters (net photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and internal CO 2 partial pressure) were reduced in D and DV at 2 and 6 DPI compared to control plants (C). Photosynthesis was reduced by stomatal and biochemical limitations. Water use efficiency increased at 2 DPI in D, DV, and V, but at 6 DPI only in D and DV compared to C. Photochemical parameters (effective quantum efficiency of photosystem II and electron transport rate) decreased in D and DV compared to C, especially at 6 DPI. The potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II did not change, indicating reversible photoinhibition of photosystem II. In DV, catalase decreased at 2 and 6 DPI, ascorbate peroxidase increased at 2 DPI, but decreased at 6 DPI. Hydrogen peroxide increased at 2 and 6 DPI. Peroxidase increased at 6 DPI and chitinase at 2 and 6 DPI. β-1,3-glucanase decreased in DV at 6 DPI compared to V. Drought increased cowpea susceptibility to CPSMV at 2 DPI, as verified by RT-PCR. However, at 6 DPI, the cowpea plants overcome this effect. Likewise, CPSMV increased the negative effects of drought at 2 DPI, but not at 6 DPI. It was concluded that the responses to combined stresses are not additive and cannot be extrapolated from the study of individual stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of treatments with hot water, chemicals and ventilated containers to reduce microbial spoilage in irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirsat, S.G.; Thomas, P.; Nair, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    Potatoes irradiated to control sprouting were dipped in: hot water (56°C, 5 min; 52°C, 10, 15 and 20 min); cold (25°C, 5 min) or hot (56°C, 5 min) salicylic acid (1000 and 2000 ppm); or sodium hypochlorite (0.1 and 0.2%, 5 min); or dusted with salicylic acid (1 and 2%), to try to reduce the incidence of bacterial soft rot (Erwinia sp.) during controlled temperature (10°C, 15°C) and ambient temperature (20–34°C) storage. All treatments, particularly hot water and hot salicylic acid dip, increased microbial spoilage, possibly as a result of handling damage during the treatments combined with the inhibition of wound periderm formation as a result of irradiation. Storing irradiated tubers in well ventilated containers reduced soft rot compared to storing them in sacks and after 6 months storage at 10, 15 and 20–34°C, 95, 90 and 77% respectively were healthy and marketable. (author)

  17. Changes in carbon and nitrogen allocation, growth and grain yield induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to a period of water deficit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Jiang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic factor limiting agricultural crop production. One of the effective ways to increase drought resistance in plants could be to optimize the exploitation of symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Hypothesizing that alleviation of water deficits by AMF in wheat...... will help maintain photosynthetic carbon-use, we studied the role of AMF on gas-exchange, light-use efficiencies, carbon/nitrogen ratios and growth and yield parameters in the contrasting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars ‘Vinjett’ and ‘1110’ grown with/without AMF symbiosis. Water deficits applied...... at the floret initiation stage significantly decreased rates of photosynthetic carbon gain, transpiration and stomatal conductance in the two wheat cultivars. AMF increased the rates of photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance under drought conditions. Water deficits decreased electron transport...

  18. Numerical simulation of MHD pulsatile flow of a biofluid in a channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to numerically study the interaction of an external magnetic field with the flow of a biofluid through a Darcy-Forchhmeir porous channel, due to an oscillatory pressure gradient, in the presence of wall transpiration as well as chemical reaction considerations. We have noticed that if the Reynolds number of the wall transpiration flow is increased, the average (or maximum velocity of the main flow direction is raised. Similar effect has also been observed for the rheological parameter and the Darcy parameter, whereas an opposite trend has been noted for both the Forchheimer quadratic drag parameter and the magnetic parameter. Further, an increase in the Reynolds number results in straightening the concentration profile, thus making it an almost linear function of the dimensionless spatial variable.

  19. Salt stress aggravates boron toxicity symptoms in banana leaves by impairing guttation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, O R; Israeli, Yair; Shani, Uri; Schwartz, Amnon

    2013-02-01

    Boron (B) is known to accumulate in the leaf margins of different plant species, arguably a passive consequence of enhanced transpiration at the ends of the vascular system. However, transpiration rate is not the only factor affecting ion distribution. We examine an alternative hypothesis, suggesting the participation of the leaf bundle sheath in controlling radial water and solute transport from the xylem to the mesophyll in analogy to the root endodermis. In banana, excess B that remains confined to the vascular system is effectively disposed of via dissolution in the guttation fluid; therefore, impairing guttation should aggravate B damage to the leaf margins. Banana plants were subjected to increasing B concentrations. Guttation rates were manipulated by imposing a moderate osmotic stress. Guttation fluid was collected and analysed continuously. The distribution of ions across the lamina was determined. Impairing guttation indeed led to increased B damage to the leaf margins. The kinetics of ion concentration in guttation samples revealed major differences between ion species, corresponding to their distribution in the lamina dry matter. We provide evidence that the distribution pattern of B and other ions across banana leaves depends on active filtration of the transpiration stream and on guttation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Synergy of extreme drought and shrub invasion reduce ecosystem functioning and resilience in water-limited climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Maria C.; Lecomte, Xavier; David, Teresa S.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Bugalho, Miguel N.; Werner, Christiane

    2015-10-01

    Extreme drought events and plant invasions are major drivers of global change that can critically affect ecosystem functioning and alter ecosystem-atmosphere exchange. Invaders are expanding worldwide and extreme drought events are projected to increase in frequency and intensity. However, very little is known on how these drivers may interact to affect the functioning and resilience of ecosystems to extreme events. Using a manipulative shrub removal experiment and the co-occurrence of an extreme drought event (2011/2012) in a Mediterranean woodland, we show that native shrub invasion and extreme drought synergistically reduced ecosystem transpiration and the resilience of key-stone oak tree species. Ecosystem transpiration was dominated by the water use of the invasive shrub Cistus ladanifer, which further increased after the extreme drought event. Meanwhile, the transpiration of key-stone tree species decreased, indicating a competitive advantage in favour of the invader. Our results suggest that in Mediterranean-type climates the invasion of water spending species and projected recurrent extreme drought events may synergistically cause critical drought tolerance thresholds of key-stone tree species to be surpassed, corroborating observed higher tree mortality in the invaded ecosystems. Ultimately, this may shift seasonally water limited ecosystems into less desirable alternative states dominated by water spending invasive shrubs.

  1. Deforestation Hydrological Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda J, G.; Mesa S, O.J.

    1995-01-01

    Deforestation causes strong disturbances in ecosystems and in hydrological cycle, increasing or reducing wealths. Particularly in this work, effects of feed back between interface processes land - atmosphere are discussed and is demonstrated that losses of water by evaporation-transpiration are thoroughly indispensable to maintain the balance of hydrological regime. It's concluded that as a rule the effect of deforestation is to reduce wealth middle and to increase extreme wealth with consequent stronger and more frequent droughts or flood effects. Other deforestation effects as increase in superficial temperature, increase in atmospherical pressure, decrease in soil moisture, decrease in evaporation-transpiration, decrease of soil ruggedness, decrease of thickness of atmospherical cap limit, decrease of clouds, decrease of rain in both medium and long term and the consequent decrease of rivers wealth middle are explained. Of other side, the basins with greater deforestation affectation in Colombia are indicated. Finally, it's demonstrated the need of implementing reforestation programs

  2. Water use pattern of Pinus tabulaeformis in the semiarid region of Loess Plateau, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, S.; Zhang, X.; Wu, Z.; Hu, C.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: We analyzed the water-use strategy of P. tabulaeformis and determine the relationships between environmental factors and transpiration rates in the P. tabulaeformis woodlands. Area of study: Loess Plateau region of Northwest China. Material and Methods: Sap flow density of the P. tabulaeformis trees was measured with Granier-type sensors. Stand transpiration was extrapolated from the sap flow measurements of individual trees using the following Granier equation. Main results: The mean sap flow rates of individual P. tabulaeformis trees ranged from 9 L day−1 to 54 L day−1. Photosynthetically active radiation and vapor pressure deficit were the dominant driving factors of transpiration when soil water content was sufficient (soil water content>16%), considering that soil water content is the primary factor of influencing transpiration at the driest month of the year. During the entire growing season, the maximum and minimum daily stand transpiration rates were 2.93 and 0.78 mm day−1, respectively. The mean stand transpiration rate was 1.9 mm day−1, and the total stand transpiration from May to September was 294.1 mm. Research highlights: This study can serve as a basis for detailed analyses of the water physiology and growth of P. tabulaeformis plantation trees for the later application of a climate-driven process model. (Author)

  3. Protective systems against active oxygen species in Spinach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yakoub@AHMED

    transpiration rates are decreased under Mgodeřiciency. ..... The results obtained in the present work showed that increasing light .... Jakobs BM (1995) The inřluence oř magnesium deřiciency on carbohydrate concentrations in Norway.

  4. Soil-water content characterisation in a modified Jarvis-Stewart model: A case study of a conifer forest on a shallow unconfined aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Adrien; Fan, Junliang; Oestergaard, Kasper T.; Whitley, Rhys; Gibbes, Badin; Arsac, Margaux; Lockington, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater-vegetation-atmosphere fluxes were monitored for a subtropical coastal conifer forest in South-East Queensland, Australia. Observations were used to quantify seasonal changes in transpiration rates with respect to temporal fluctuations of the local water table depth. The applicability of a Modified Jarvis-Stewart transpiration model (MJS), which requires soil-water content data, was assessed for this system. The influence of single depth values compared to use of vertically averaged soil-water content data on MJS-modelled transpiration was assessed over both a wet and a dry season, where the water table depth varied from the surface to a depth of 1