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Sample records for increased hantavirus prevalence

  1. Evidence of human hantavirus infection and zoonotic investigation of hantavirus prevalence in rodents in western Java, Indonesia.

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    Kosasih, Herman; Ibrahim, Ima Nurisa; Wicaksana, Rudi; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Hoo, Yumilia; Yo, Iing H; Antonjaya, Ungke; Widjaja, Susana; Winoto, Imelda; Williams, Maya; Blair, Patrick J

    2011-06-01

    During febrile surveillance in the western Java City of Bandung, Indonesia, a patient with clinical symptoms consistent with hantavirus infection was found to have elevated titers of hantavirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies. A subsequent epizoological investigation demonstrated a higher prevalence of hantavirus IgG antibodies in rodents trapped in the vicinity of the patient's home compared with rodents from a control area (13.2% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.036). The Old World Seoul hantavirus was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the organs of 71% of the seropositive rodents tested. This is the first report of a Seoul virus infection in Indonesia supported by clinical, serological, and epizoological evidences. These findings suggest that hantavirus infection should be on the clinical differential diagnosis when acutely ill febrile patients report for care in western Java.

  2. Climate change and sugarcane expansion increase Hantavirus infection risk.

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    Prist, Paula Ribeiro; Uriarte, María; Fernandes, Katia; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2017-07-01

    Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane expansion scenario was based on historical data between 2000 and 2010 combined with an agro-environment zoning guideline for the sugar and ethanol industry. Future evolution of temperature anomalies was derived using 32 general circulation models from scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (Representative greenhouse gases Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC). Currently, the state of São Paulo has an average Hantavirus risk of 1.3%, with 6% of the 645 municipalities of the state being classified as high risk (HCPS risk ≥ 5%). Our results indicate that sugarcane expansion alone will increase average HCPS risk to 1.5%, placing 20% more people at HCPS risk. Temperature anomalies alone increase HCPS risk even more (1.6% for RCP4.5 and 1.7%, for RCP8.5), and place 31% and 34% more people at risk. Combined sugarcane and temperature increases led to the same predictions as scenarios that only included temperature. Our results demonstrate that climate change effects are likely to be more severe than those from sugarcane expansion. Forecasting disease is critical for the timely and efficient planning of operational control programs that can address the expected effects of sugarcane expansion and climate change on HCPS infection risk. The predicted spatial location of HCPS infection risks obtained here can be

  3. Climate change and sugarcane expansion increase Hantavirus infection risk.

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    Paula Ribeiro Prist

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane expansion scenario was based on historical data between 2000 and 2010 combined with an agro-environment zoning guideline for the sugar and ethanol industry. Future evolution of temperature anomalies was derived using 32 general circulation models from scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (Representative greenhouse gases Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC. Currently, the state of São Paulo has an average Hantavirus risk of 1.3%, with 6% of the 645 municipalities of the state being classified as high risk (HCPS risk ≥ 5%. Our results indicate that sugarcane expansion alone will increase average HCPS risk to 1.5%, placing 20% more people at HCPS risk. Temperature anomalies alone increase HCPS risk even more (1.6% for RCP4.5 and 1.7%, for RCP8.5, and place 31% and 34% more people at risk. Combined sugarcane and temperature increases led to the same predictions as scenarios that only included temperature. Our results demonstrate that climate change effects are likely to be more severe than those from sugarcane expansion. Forecasting disease is critical for the timely and efficient planning of operational control programs that can address the expected effects of sugarcane expansion and climate change on HCPS infection risk. The predicted spatial location of HCPS infection risks

  4. [Increase of Hantavirus infections in France, 2003].

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    Mailles, A; Vaillant, V; Haeghebaert, S; Fradet, M R; Capek, I; Zeller, H

    2005-02-01

    Hantaviral infections causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome are endemic in North Eastern France. Humans are contaminated by the inhalation of aerosols contaminated by rodent faeces. In February 2003, the National reference centre (NRC) for hemorrhagic fevers detected an increased number of cases. An investigation was carried out to confirm the outbreak and take appropriate control measures. Cases were collected by the NRC. A case was defined as a person living in France with symptoms compatible with hantaviral infection and a positive blood test both for specific Puumala IgM, and IgG. Clinical information and at-risk exposures during the 2 weeks before onset were recorded. In 2003, 128 cases were diagnosed (61 in 2002). The median age of patients was 38, 77% were men and 82% were hospitalized. Patients were living in North-Eastern France. Clusters were detected in the Ardennes and Oise districts. Occupation (35%) (in agriculture, forestry, and construction work), manipulation of firewood (35%), gardening (29%), and outdoors leisure (14%) were identified as at-risk exposures in these cases. An increased number of positive diagnoses of hantaviral infections was confirmed. The location and at-risk exposures of the cases were identical in previous investigations. Exclusion and prevention of rodents' access to houses and avoiding the inhalation of contaminated dust are the only possible prevention measures of hantaviral infections. Information about the disease and its prevention needs to be made widely available to both healthcare professionals and the general population living in endemic areas.

  5. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

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    Montgomery, Joel M.; Blair, Patrick J.; Carroll, Darin S.; Mills, James N.; Gianella, Alberto; Iihoshi, Naomi; Briggiler, Ana M.; Felices, Vidal; Salazar, Milagros; Olson, James G.; Glabman, Raisa A.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis) trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1%) of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans. PMID:23094116

  6. Endothelial cell permeability during hantavirus infection involves factor XII-dependent increased activation of the kallikrein-kinin system.

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    Shannon L Taylor

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS are diseases caused by hantavirus infections and are characterized by vascular leakage due to alterations of the endothelial barrier. Hantavirus-infected endothelial cells (EC display no overt cytopathology; consequently, pathogenesis models have focused either on the influx of immune cells and release of cytokines or on increased degradation of the adherens junction protein, vascular endothelial (VE-cadherin, due to hantavirus-mediated hypersensitization of EC to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. To examine endothelial leakage in a relevant in vitro system, we co-cultured endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC to generate capillary blood vessel-like structures. In contrast to results obtained in monolayers of cultured EC, we found that despite viral replication in both cell types as well as the presence of VEGF, infected in vitro vessels neither lost integrity nor displayed evidence of VE-cadherin degradation. Here, we present evidence for a novel mechanism of hantavirus-induced vascular leakage involving activation of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS. We show that incubation of factor XII (FXII, prekallikrein (PK, and high molecular weight kininogen (HK plasma proteins with hantavirus-infected EC results in increased cleavage of HK, higher enzymatic activities of FXIIa/kallikrein (KAL and increased liberation of bradykinin (BK. Measuring cell permeability in real-time using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS, we identified dramatic increases in endothelial cell permeability after KKS activation and liberation of BK. Furthermore, the alterations in permeability could be prevented using inhibitors that directly block BK binding, the activity of FXIIa, or the activity of KAL. Lastly, FXII binding and autoactivation is increased on the surface of hantavirus-infected EC. These data are the first to demonstrate KKS activation

  7. High Prevalence of Tula Hantavirus in Common Voles in The Netherlands.

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    Maas, Miriam; de Vries, Ankje; van Roon, Annika; Takumi, Katsuhisa; van der Giessen, Joke; Rockx, Barry

    2017-03-01

    Tula virus (TULV) is a zoonotic hantavirus. Knowledge about TULV in the Netherlands is very scarce. Therefore in 2014, 49 common voles (Microtus arvalis) from a region in the south of the Netherlands, and in 2015, 241 common voles from regions in the north of the Netherlands were tested with the TULV quantitative RT-PCR. In the southern region, prevalence of TULV was 41% (20/49). In the northern regions, prevalence ranged from 12% (4/34) to 45% (17/38). Phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences showed that the regions fall within different clusters. Voles from the south were also tested on-site for the presence of hantavirus antibodies, but serology results were poorly associated with qRT-PCR results. These findings suggest that TULV may be more widespread than previously thought. No human TULV cases have been reported thus far in the Netherlands, but differentiation between infection by TULV or the closely related Puumala virus is not made in humans in the Netherlands, thus cases may be misdiagnosed.

  8. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

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    2012-10-18

    Ecology and epidemiology of an emerging virus in Latin America]. Medicina (B Aires) 66: 343–356. 22. Weissenbacher MC, Cura E, Segura EL, Hortal M, Baek LJ...et al. (1996) Serological evidence of human Hantavirus infection in Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay. Medicina (B Aires) 56: 17–22. 23. Pini N (2004...Hantavirus in human and rodent population in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina]. Medicina (B Aires) 62: 1–8. 26. Simonsen L

  9. Prevalence of infection with hantavirus in rodent populations of central Argentina

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    Olga V Suárez

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied hantavirus seroprevalence and virus variability in rodent populations in Diego Gaynor, northwest of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Rodent samplings were conducted in railroads and cropfield borders in March and July 1999, September and December 2000, and March 2001. Antibody detection was performed by an enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA, using the recombinant nucleoprotein of Andes (AND virus as antigen. Tissue samples were taken from positive antibody individuals in order to confirm the presence of hantavirus genomic material and to identify virus genotypes. Akodon azarae was the most abundant species, followed by Oligoryzomys flavescens, while Calomys laucha and C. musculinus were rarely caught. We found a rate of seroprevalence of 9.3% for a total sample of 291 A. azarae and 13.5% for 37 O. flavescens. After molecular analyses of hantavirus, we confirmed the presence of hantavirus genomic material in 16 individuals with ELISA (+ results and two individuals with ELISA (-. Four amplimers for each species were sequenced and compared to the corresponding sequences of representative hantaviruses. We identified the AND Cent Lec from three O. flavescens, and the Pergamino virus from four A. azarae and from one O. flavescens. A. azarae males had higher seroprevalence than females, and heavier individuals showed higher seroprevalence than lighter ones. We did not find seroprevalence differences according to sex in O. flavescens, although this result may have been produced by the low sample size. The lowest seroprevalence was found in a period of high rodent density, when juveniles prevailed in the population. We found higher seroprevalences than those detected in previous studies for other localities of central Argentina where cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS have been reported. The presence of AND Cent Lec virus in rodent populations of the study area, which is responsible of HPS cases in central Argentina, suggests

  10. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and rodent reservoirs in the savanna-like biome of Brazil's southeastern region.

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    Limongi, J E; Oliveira, R C; Guterres, A; Costa Neto, S F; Fernandes, J; Vicente, L H B; Coelho, M G; Ramos, V N; Ferreira, M S; Bonvicino, C R; D'Andrea, P S; Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT-PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50-83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome.

  11. The fundamental role of endothelial cells in hantavirus pathogenesis

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    Jussi eHepojoki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus, a genus of rodent- and insectivore-borne viruses in the family Bunyaviridae, is a group of emerging zoonotic pathogens. Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in man, often with severe consequences. Vascular leakage is evident in severe hantavirus infections, and increased permeability contributes to the pathogenesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on hantavirus interactions with endothelial cells, and their effects on the increased vascular permeability.

  12. The fundamental role of endothelial cells in hantavirus pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hepojoki, Jussi; Vaheri, Antti; Strandin, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Hantavirus, a genus of rodent- and insectivore-borne viruses in the family Bunyaviridae, is a group of emerging zoonotic pathogens. Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in man, often with severe consequences. Vascular leakage is evident in severe hantavirus infections, and increased permeability contributes to the pathogenesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on hantavirus interactions with hematopoietic and endothelial ...

  13. Hantaviroses Hantaviruses

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    Marcelo Simão Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    continent, including Brazil. Both diseases are transmitted to man through the inhalation of viral particles, which are shed in feces and urine of wild and domestic rodents. They comprise a group of febrile diseases that can affect many organs, particularly the kidneys in the hemorrhagic fever associated with renal syndrome and the lungs and heart in the hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. The lethality of American hantaviroses reaches 50%. The diagnosis of these diseases is performed using serological tests such as immunoenzymatic assays which detect specific antibodies of the IgG and IgM classes. There is no specific treatment. Therefore, special attention should be directed to restore and maintain fluid balance, timely indication of dialysis for renal failure and administration of vasoactive drugs during periods of hypotension and shock. The administration of corticosteroids and/or ribavirin are under evaluation. The number of cases of hantavirus infection has been increasing in Brazil year after year, and it is important to alert health personnel to the occurrence of these entities throughout the country. Awareness of their presence should improve the quality of medical care.

  14. Prevalence of serum antibodies to hantavirus in a rural population from the southern state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Gregório Wrublevski Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rodent-borne hantaviruses cause severe human diseases. We completed a serological survey of hantavirus infection in rural inhabitants of Turvo County, in the southern State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in which seropositivity for hantavirus was correlated to previous disease in the participants. METHODS: The levels of IgG antibodies to hantavirus Araraquara in the sera of 257 individuals were determined using an immunoenzymatic assay. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were found in 2.3% of the participants. All seropositive participants reported previous disease with symptoms suggestive of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Human infections causing unreported cardiopulmonary syndrome probably occur in the southern State of Santa Catarina.

  15. Hantavirus Infections

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    Camilo Guzmán T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the causative agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in humans in the Americas; The primary reservoirs are in the rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae. In South America, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome caused by numerous viral genotypes have been diagnosed. In Colombia, different serological studies have reported the circulation of hantavirus in humans and rodents. These viruses act in an intimate association with a rodent species that serves as a reservoir and have a distribution around the wild rodent, being limited to a specific geographic region. In South America, the first HPS-associated hantavirus was described in 1993 in Brazil and was called Juquitiva and from 1993 to 2012, more than 1400 cases had been identified in Brazil. This syndrome should be suspected in all patients with respiratory distress syndrome of unclear etiology, in areas endemic for the disease, especially if accompanied by fever, marked leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia and bilateral interstitial infiltrates. Hemorrhagic febrile syndrome has not yet been described in the Americas. There are no clinical or laboratory signs that are pathognomonic of hantavirus infection. The treatment is based on adequate hydration, use of antipyretics and anti-inflammatories and patients with signs of severity should establish a more aggressive management. Triage is indispensable, patients with co-morbidities have a higher mortality risk and therefore should be hospitalized. Future research in Colombia should be directed to multidisciplinary studies that include viral isolation, different clinical forms of case presentation, epidemiological differences, risk factors, and taxonomy of viruses and rodents.

  16. Relating increasing hantavirus incidences to the changing climate: the mast connection

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    Maes Piet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nephropathia epidemica (NE, an emerging rodent-borne viral disease, has become the most important cause of infectious acute renal failure in Belgium, with sharp increases in incidence occurring for more than a decade. Bank voles are the rodent reservoir of the responsible hantavirus and are known to display cyclic population peaks. We tried to relate these peaks to the cyclic NE outbreaks observed since 1993. Our hypothesis was that the ecological causal connection was the staple food source for voles, being seeds of deciduous broad-leaf trees, commonly called "mast". We also examined whether past temperature and precipitation preceding "mast years" were statistically linked to these NE outbreaks. Results Since 1993, each NE peak is immediately preceded by a mast year, resulting in significantly higher NE case numbers during these peaks (Spearman R = -0.82; P = 0.034. NE peaks are significantly related to warmer autumns the year before (R = 0.51; P Conclusion NE peaks in year 0 are induced by abundant mast formation in year-1, facilitating bank vole survival during winter, thus putting the local human population at risk from the spring onwards of year 0. This bank vole survival is further promoted by higher autumn temperatures in year-1, whereas mast formation itself is primed by higher summer temperatures in year-2. Both summer and autumn temperatures have been rising to significantly higher levels during recent years, explaining the virtually continuous epidemic state since 2005 of a zoonosis, considered rare until recently. Moreover, in 2007 a NE peak and an abundant mast formation occurred for the first time within the same year, thus forecasting yet another record NE incidence for 2008. We therefore predict that with the anticipated climate changes due to global warming, NE might become a highly endemic disease in Belgium and surrounding countries.

  17. [Nephropathy due to Puumala hantavirus].

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    Dandolo, A; Prajs, N; Lizop, M

    2014-12-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is due to an infection by the virus of the Hantavirus genus. Rodent hosts of Hantavirus are present in restricted areas in France; consequently, there are ecological niches and microepidemics of human Hantavirus infections. A HFRS case was diagnosed in the Paris region. The 11-year-old child had an acute debut fever-persistent despite antipyretic medication-asthenia, headache, abdominal pain, myalgia, thrombocytopenia, as well as renal failure with proteinuria. The diagnosis was made with a relevant clinical history and the specific serology of Puumala hantavirus. Therefore, a kidney biopsy was not necessary. What was interesting was the diagnostic approach because of the difference between the place and time of contamination and where the child became ill and developed the symptoms. The child was infected by Puumala hantavirus in Les Ardennes, a high-risk area, but became ill in the Paris region, an area with no prevalence. We review Hantavirus infections in France and its differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Population Ecology of Hantavirus Rodent Hosts in Southern Brazil

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    Teixeira, Bernardo R.; Loureiro, Nathalie; Strecht, Liana; Gentile, Rosana; Oliveira, Renata C.; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Mattos, Luciana H. B. V.; Raboni, Sonia M.; Rubio, Giselia; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.; Lemos, Elba R. S.; D'Andrea, Paulo S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyze population dynamics of hantavirus rodent hosts and prevalence of infection over a 2-year period in Southern Brazil, a region with a high incidence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The 14 small mammal species captured were composed of 10 rodents and four marsupials, the six most abundant species being Akodon serrensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon montensis, Akodon paranaensis, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Thaptomys nigrita. These species displayed a similar pattern with increasing population sizes in fall/winter caused by recruitment and both, increase in reproductive activity and higher hantavirus prevalence in spring/summer. Specific associations between A. montensis/Jaborá Virus (JABV) and O. nigripes/Juquitiba-like Virus (JUQV-like) and spillover infections between A. paranaensis/JABV, A. serrensis/JABV, and A. paranaensis/JUQV-like were observed. Spillover infection in secondary hosts seems to play an important role in maintaining JABV and JUQV-like in the hantavirus sylvatic cycle mainly during periods of low prevalence in primary hosts. PMID:24935954

  19. Dobrava Hantavirus Infection Complicated by Panhypopituitarism, Istanbul, Turkey, 2010

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    Hofmann, Jörg; Canpolat, Alper Tunga; Türk, Ali; Ettinger, Jakob; Atmaca, Deniz; Akyar, Işın; Yücel, Serap; Arıkan, Ender; Uyar, Yavuz; Çağlayık, Dilek Y.; Kocagöz, Ayşe Sesin; Kaya, Ayşin; Kruger, Detlev H.

    2012-01-01

    We identified Dobrava-Belgrade virus infection in Turkey (from a strain related to hantavirus strains from nearby countries) in a patient who had severe symptoms leading to panhypopituitarism, but no known risk for hantavirus. Our findings emphasize the need for increased awareness of hantaviruses in the region and assessment of symptomatic persons without known risk factors for infection. PMID:22709722

  20. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

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    ... to Yosemite FAQ: Non-U.S. Visitors to Yosemite History of HPS Related Links Prevent Rodent Infestations Cleaning Up After Rodents Diseases From Rodent Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is ...

  1. Globally emerging hantaviruses: An overview

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    Sara Chandy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are known to cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. They are globally emerging pathogens as newer serotypes are routinely being reported. This review discusses hantavirus biology, clinical features and pathogenesis of hantavirus disease, its diagnostics, distribution and mammalian hosts. Hantavirus research in India is also summarised.

  2. Hantaviruses in Africa.

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    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hantaviruses as emergent zoonoses

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    LS Ullmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family, which consists of vector-borne viruses. These viruses can provoke two infection types: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS - which occurs in the Old World - and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS - an emergent zoonosis that can be found in many countries of the western hemisphere. Rodents are hantavirus reservoirs and each species seems to host a different virus type. Humans acquire the infection by inhaling contaminated aerosol particles eliminated by infected animals. The factors involved in the emergence of hantavirus infections in the human population include ecological modifications and changes in human activities. The most important risk factor is contact between man and rodents, as a result of agricultural, forestry or military activities. Rodent control remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus diseases, including via health education and hygienic habits.

  4. Food allergy: is prevalence increasing?

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    Tang, Mimi L K; Mullins, Raymond J

    2017-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the prevalence of food allergy has been increasing in recent decades, particularly in westernised countries, yet high-quality evidence that is based on challenge confirmed diagnosis of food allergy to support this assumption is lacking because of the high cost and potential risks associated with conducting food challenges in large populations. Accepting this caveat, the use of surrogate markers for diagnosis of food allergy (such as nationwide data on hospital admissions for food anaphylaxis or clinical history in combination with allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) measurement in population-based cohorts) has provided consistent evidence for increasing prevalence of food allergy at least in western countries, such as the UK, United States and Australia. Recent reports that children of East Asian or African ethnicity who are raised in a western environment (Australia and United States respectively) have an increased risk of developing food allergy compared with resident Caucasian children suggest that food allergy might also increase across Asian and African countries as their economies grow and populations adopt a more westernised lifestyle. Given that many cases of food allergy persist, mathematical principles would predict a continued increase in food allergy prevalence in the short to medium term until such time as an effective treatment is identified to allow the rate of disease resolution to be equal to or greater than the rate of new cases. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Hantavirus Outbreak: The Qualitative Study

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    Funda Sevencan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, it was aimed to research by means of qualitative research methods the contact of individuals living in the region with mice and wild animals during the examination of Hantavirus epidemic to produce. Materials and Methods: In the interviews, the contact of participants with mice and wild animals, their opinions about the climate change and their symptom history pertaining to Hantavirus infections in themselves or relatives were discussed. Results: The participants stated that they didn’t see any mouse or mouse excretion, however that they encountered such cases in areas such as woodbin, roof, terrace, forest, etc. all interviews, the increase in the number of wild boars and jackals was especially stated. In all interviews, it was stated that this year was more rainy and warmer compared to previous years. Conclusion: The findings of the study give the impression that the participant group is under the risk of Hantavirus infection. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 81-86

  6. Two Decades of Hantavirus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-06-29

    Dr. de St. Maurice, a CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service officer, discusses hantavirus.  Created: 6/29/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/29/2017.

  7. Effect of Puumala hantavirus infection on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell hemostatic function: platelet interactions, increased tissue factor expression and fibrinolysis regulator release

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    Marco Goeijenbier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Puumala virus (PUUV infection causes over 5000 cases of hemorrhagic fever in Europe annually and can influence the hemostatic balance extensively. Infection might lead to hemorrhage, while a recent study showed an increased risk of myocardial infarction during or shortly after PUUV infection. The mechanism by which this hantavirus influences the coagulation system remains unknown. Therefore we aimed to elucidate mechanisms explaining alterations seen in primary and secondary hemostasis during PUUV infection. By using low passage PUUV isolates to infect primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs we were able to show alterations in the regulation of primary- and secondary hemostasis and in the release of fibrinolysis regulators. Our main finding was an activation of secondary hemostasis due to increased tissue factor expression leading to increased thrombin generation in a functional assay. Furthermore, we showed that during infection platelets adhered to HUVECs and subsequently specifically to PUUV virus particles. Infection of HUVECs with PUUV did not result in increased von Willebrand factor while they produced more plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 compared to controls. The PAI-1 produced in this model formed complexes with vitronectin. This is the first report that reveals a potential mechanism behind the pro-coagulant changes in PUUV patients, which could be the result of increased thrombin generation due to an increased tissue factor expression on endothelial cells during infection. Furthermore, we provide insight into the contribution of endothelial cell responses regarding hemostasis in PUUV pathogenesis.

  8. Hantavirus del nuevo mundo: Ecología y epidemiología de un virus emergente en latinoamérica The New-World Hantaviruses: Ecology and epidemiology of an emerging virus in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Puerta

    2006-08-01

    ían necesarios más datos para entender su diversidad y evolución.The hantaviruses are a group of emerging rodent-borne pathogens (family Bunyaviridae; Genus Hantavirus that are etiologic agents for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in Europe and Asia and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in the Americas. HFRS is associated with rodents of the family Muridae, subfamilies Murinae and Arvicolinae; HPS is associated with rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae. Since the identification of HCPS in USA in 1993, a large number of cases of HPS and an increasing number of hantaviruses and rodent reservoir hosts have been identified in Central and South America. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated important differences in frequency of infection with hantaviruses in both human and rodent host populations. Antibody prevalences in rodent and human populations may vary from less than 1% to more than 40%. Currently, more than 1500 cases of HCPS have been reported and more than 15 genetically distinct variants of hantaviruses, all associated with sigmodontine rodents, have been identified throughout the Americas. Several characteristics distinguish Latin American HCPS cases from the classical HCPS described for the first time in the USA. These include a variation in severity of disease from moderate and self-limiting to severe, the demonstration of person-to-person transmission, and a somewhat higher incidence of extrapulmonary clinical manifestations in the South American form of HCPS. Nevertheless, our understanding of hantaviruses in the Americas is still far from complete. The factors involved in the dynamics of these viruses in nature, their establishment and transmission within host populations and from hosts to humans, and the variable pathology of these viruses in humans are complex. It is likely that more hantaviruses will be described in the future, and much more data will be required in order to describe the diversity and evolution of this group of pathogens

  9. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-14

    Dr. Adam MacNeil, epidemiologist with Viral Special Pathogens Branch at CDC, discusses hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.  Created: 7/14/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  10. Reply to Comment Clement et al.: (Prevalence of Antibodies against Hantaviruses in Serum and Saliva of Adults Living or Working on Farms in Yorkshire, United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Jameson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We acknowledge Clement and colleagues for their comments [1] on our paper [2]. We agree that many controversies are being discussed by the hantavirus community, particularly surrounding the interpretation of serological results and the designation of new species and strains. Within this setting, we are grateful for the opportunity to respond to the key factual and methodological points raised by Clements et al. [...

  11. T Cells and Pathogenesis of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Francis A. Ennis; Masanori Terajima

    2011-01-01

    We previously hypothesized that increased capillary permeability observed in both hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) may be caused by hantavirus-specific cytotoxic T cells attacking endothelial cells presenting viral antigens on their surface based on clinical observations and in vitro experiments. In HCPS, hantavirus-specific T cell responses positively correlated with disease severity. In HFRS, in one report, contrary to HCPS, T cell ...

  12. Increasing autism prevalence in metropolitan New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-02-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder, between 2002 and 2006. The cohorts included 30,570 children, born in 1998 and 28,936 children, born in 1994, residing in Hudson, Union, and Ocean counties, New Jersey. Point prevalence estimates by sex, ethnicity, autism spectrum disorder subtype, and previous autism spectrum disorder diagnosis were determined. For 2006, a total of 533 children with autism spectrum disorder were identified, consistent with prevalence of 17.4 per 1000 (95% confidence interval = 15.9-18.9), indicating a significant increase in the autism spectrum disorder prevalence (p autism spectrum disorder was broad, affecting major demographic groups and subtypes. Boys with autism spectrum disorder outnumbered girls by nearly 5:1. Autism spectrum disorder prevalence was higher among White children than children of other ethnicities. Additional studies are needed to specify the influence of better awareness of autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates and to identify possible autism spectrum disorder risk factors. More resources are necessary to address the needs of individuals affected by autism spectrum disorder.

  13. Hantavirus Reservoirs: Current Status with an Emphasis on Data from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Carvalho de Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the recognition of hantavirus as the agent responsible for haemorrhagic fever in Eurasia in the 1970s and, 20 years later, the descovery of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas, the genus Hantavirus has been continually described throughout the World in a variety of wild animals. The diversity of wild animals infected with hantaviruses has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife studies. The known reservoirs are more than 80, belonging to 51 species of rodents, 7 bats (order Chiroptera and 20 shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha. More than 80genetically related viruses have been classified within Hantavirus genus; 25 recognized as human pathogens responsible for a large spectrum of diseases in the Old and New World. In Brazil, where the diversity of mammals and especially rodents is considered one of the largest in the world, 9 hantavirus genotypes have been identified in 12 rodent species belonging to the genus Akodon, Calomys, Holochilus, Oligoryzomys, Oxymycterus, Necromys and Rattus. Considering the increasing number of animals that have been implicated as reservoirs of different hantaviruses, the understanding of this diversity is important for evaluating the risk of distinct hantavirus species as human pathogens.

  14. First serologic evidence of human hantavirus infection in Alagoas State in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo dos Santos-Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is rare in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Prospective surveillance was conducted over a two-year period in Alagoas State, Northeastern Brazil. The prevalence of anti-hantavirus N-antigen IgM and IgG in human serum samples was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing. RESULTS: High avidity IgG was found in nine of 476 serum samples tested (from 102 patients with clinical manifestations compatible with HCPS, 124 patients with leptospirosis, and 250 healthy rural workers. CONCLUSIONS: Serologic evidence of past hantavirus infection in residents of Alagoas State indicates that hantaviruses are present in northeastern Brazil, even in areas silent for HCPS.

  15. Ecology of rodent-associated hantaviruses in the Southern Cone of South America: Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, R Eduardo; Polop, Jaime J; Owen, Robert D; Mills, James N

    2012-04-01

    Thirteen hantavirus genotypes, associated with at least 12 sigmodontine reservoir rodents, have been recognized in the four countries that represent the Southern Cone of South America. Host-virus relationships are not as well defined as in North America; several Southern Cone hantaviruses appear to share a common host and some viruses do not occur throughout the range of their host. Although hantavirus-host relationships in the Southern Cone are less strictly concordant with the single-host-single-virus pattern reported elsewhere, recent studies suggest that much of the ambiguity may result from an incomplete understanding of host and hantavirus systematics. Although some Southern Cone host species are habitat generalists, some sympatric species are habitat specialists, helping to explain how some strict host-virus pairings may be maintained. In some cases, host population densities were higher in peridomestic habitats and prevalence of hantavirus infection was higher in host populations in peridomestic habitats. Seasonal and multiyear patterns in climate and human disturbance affect host population densities, prevalence of infection, and disease risk to humans. Unusually high hantavirus antibody prevalence in indigenous human populations may be associated with frequent and close contact with host rodents. Ongoing studies are improving our understanding of hantavirus-host ecology and providing tools that may predict human risk.

  16. Hantaviruses: an emerging public health threat in India? A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    is to increase awareness of these emerging pathogens and the threats they pose to the public health system. [Chandy S, Abraham P and ..... distribution of the hosts through international shipping routes. The majority of SEOV-related .... Dalrymple J M 1994 Serological relationships among viruses in the Hantavirus genus, ...

  17. Hantavirus strains in East Africa related to Western African hantaviruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Těšíková, Jana; Bryjová, Anna; Bryja, Josef; Lavrenchenko, L. A.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2017), s. 278-280 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP502/11/J070 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bats * East Africa * hantavirus * phylogeny * rodents Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Infectious Diseases Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2016

  18. Study of hantavirus infection in captive breed colonies of wild rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RC Oliveira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild sigmondontine rodents are known to be the reservoir of several serotypes of New World hantaviruses. The mechanism of viral transmission is by aerosol inhalation of the excreta from infected rodents. Considering that the captive breed colonies of various wild mammals may present a potencial risk for hantaviral transmission, we examined 85 speciemens of Thrichomys spp. (Echimyidae and 17 speciemens of Nectomys squamipes (Sigmodontinae from our colony for the presence of hantavirus infections. Blood samples were assayed for the presence of antibodies to Andes nucleocapsid antigen using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Additionally, serum samples from workers previously exposed to wild rodents, in the laboratories where the study was conducted, were also tested by ELISA to investigate prevalence of anti-hantavirus IgG antibodies. All blood samples were negative for hantavirus antibodies. Although these results suggest that those rodent's colonies are hantavirus free, the work emphasizes the need for hantavirus serological monitoring in wild colonized rodents and secure handling potentially infected rodents as important biosafety measures.

  19. Increasing Autism Prevalence in Metropolitan New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-01-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder,…

  20. Hantaviruses in the Americas and Their Role as Emerging Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Torres-Pérez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The continued emergence and re-emergence of pathogens represent an ongoing, sometimes major, threat to populations. Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae and their associated human diseases were considered to be confined to Eurasia, but the occurrence of an outbreak in 1993–94 in the southwestern United States led to a great increase in their study among virologists worldwide. Well over 40 hantaviral genotypes have been described, the large majority since 1993, and nearly half of them pathogenic for humans. Hantaviruses cause persistent infections in their reservoir hosts, and in the Americas, human disease is manifest as a cardiopulmonary compromise, hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, with case-fatality ratios, for the most common viral serotypes, between 30% and 40%. Habitat disturbance and larger-scale ecological disturbances, perhaps including climate change, are among the factors that may have increased the human caseload of HCPS between 1993 and the present. We consider here the features that influence the structure of host population dynamics that may lead to viral outbreaks, as well as the macromolecular determinants of hantaviruses that have been regarded as having potential contribution to pathogenicity.

  1. Smoking prevalence increases following Canterbury earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Nick; Daley, Vivien; Stevenson, Sue; Rhodes, Bronwen; Beckert, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit Canterbury in September 2010. This earthquake and associated aftershocks took the lives of 185 people and drastically changed residents' living, working, and social conditions. To explore the impact of the earthquakes on smoking status and levels of tobacco consumption in the residents of Christchurch. Semistructured interviews were carried out in two city malls and the central bus exchange 15 months after the first earthquake. A total of 1001 people were interviewed. In August 2010, prior to any earthquake, 409 (41%) participants had never smoked, 273 (27%) were currently smoking, and 316 (32%) were ex-smokers. Since the September 2010 earthquake, 76 (24%) of the 316 ex-smokers had smoked at least one cigarette and 29 (38.2%) had smoked more than 100 cigarettes. Of the 273 participants who were current smokers in August 2010, 93 (34.1%) had increased consumption following the earthquake, 94 (34.4%) had not changed, and 86 (31.5%) had decreased their consumption. 53 (57%) of the 93 people whose consumption increased reported that the earthquake and subsequent lifestyle changes as a reason to increase smoking. 24% of ex-smokers resumed smoking following the earthquake, resulting in increased smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption levels increased in around one-third of current smokers.

  2. Treatment of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-14

    femoral artery and vein. The bed is versity of New Mexico. . Antiviral therapy Ribavirin was tested for efficacy in HFRS patients in China nd shown to...Weis- senbacher, M.C., 1996. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina. Possibility of person to person transmission. Medicina (B. Aires) 56, 709–711

  3. Hantavirus-induced disruption of the endothelial barrier: Neutrophils are on the payroll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther eSchönrich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hemorrhagic fever caused by hantaviruses is an emerging infectious disease for which suita-ble treatments are not available. In order to improve this situation a better understanding of han-taviral pathogenesis is urgently required. Hantaviruses infect endothelial cell layers in vitro with-out causing any cytopathogenic effect and without increasing permeability. This implies that the mechanisms underlying vascular hyperpermeability in hantavirus-associated disease are more complex and that immune mechanisms play an important role. In this review we highlight the lat-est developments in hantavirus-induced immunopathogenesis. A possible contribution of neutro-phils has been neglected so far. For this reason, we place special emphasis on the pathogenic role of neutrophils in disrupting the endothelial barrier.

  4. Hantavirus-induced disruption of the endothelial barrier: neutrophils are on the payroll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönrich, Günther; Krüger, Detlev H; Raftery, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever caused by hantaviruses is an emerging infectious disease for which suitable treatments are not available. In order to improve this situation a better understanding of hantaviral pathogenesis is urgently required. Hantaviruses infect endothelial cell layers in vitro without causing any cytopathogenic effect and without increasing permeability. This implies that the mechanisms underlying vascular hyperpermeability in hantavirus-associated disease are more complex and that immune mechanisms play an important role. In this review we highlight the latest developments in hantavirus-induced immunopathogenesis. A possible contribution of neutrophils has been neglected so far. For this reason, we place special emphasis on the pathogenic role of neutrophils in disrupting the endothelial barrier.

  5. A Nonfatal Case of Dobrava Hantavirus Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Combined with Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemsedin Dreshaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Among hantaviruses (HTNV, 22 are known as pathogenic for humans. HTNV can cause two clinical entities: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. In most countries of Eastern Europe as well as in Kosovo, HTNV infection is presented mainly as HFRS. Here, we report a 20-year-old man with HFRS and HCPS caused by Dobrava hantavirus strain, successfully treated in Intensive Care Unit of Infectious Diseases Clinic, University Clinical Center of Kosovo. In HFRS endemic areas, patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome need to be evaluated for Dobrava hantavirus strain as a possible causative agent.

  6. [The role of natural environment in spreading of hantavirus--model of the correlation between host, pathogen and human infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Anna; Dudek, Dorota; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2007-01-01

    The environmental changes caused by humans influence ecosystem and thus have significant impact on occurrence of emerging and re-emerging diseases. The hantavirus infection belong to the one of them. The aim of this paper was to present current knowledge about relationship between hantavirus, their natural host and the spread of the infection to people. Rodents constitute both the natural host of the hantaviruses and the reservoir of hantavirus for environment. Circulation of the virus in the rodent population is crucial to maintain the virus in the environment. The individual characteristics of rodents influence on risk of infection with hantavirus. However, this relationship is still unexplained. Risk of pathogen exposure often increases with age and behavioral differences associated with the sex of the susceptible individual. Mating behaviors seem to play an important role in the spread of the virus among rodents. Human incidence of hantavirus infection has in general been found to correlate to the population size of rodent host especially in the model of nephropathia epidemica (NE; a mild form of HFRS), Puumala virus (PUU) and bank voles. The occurrence of hantavirus infections in humans is assumed to rise as a secondary effect from altered population sizes of rodents in a changing environment due to e.g. mast years, forest fragmentation, global warming.

  7. Increased prevalence of autoimmunity in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K H; Cleemann, L; Hjerrild, B E

    2009-01-01

    and karyotype. In conclusion, TS girls and women face a high prevalence of autoimmunity and associated disease with a preponderance towards hypothyroidism and CD. Thus, health care providers dealing with this patient group should be observant and test liberally for these conditions even before clinical symptoms......Individuals with Turner syndrome (TS) are prone to develop autoimmune conditions such as coeliac disease (CD), thyroiditis and type 1 diabetes (T1DM). The objective of the present study was to examine TS of various karyotypes for autoantibodies and corresponding diseases. This was investigated...... hypothyroid. Overall, 18% (19) presented with CD autoantibodies, of whom 26% (five) had CD. Anti-TPO and CD autoantibodies co-existed in 9% (10). Immunoglobulin A deficiency was found in 3% (three) of patients, who all had CD autoantibodies without disease. Among four patients with anti-GAD-65 none had T1DM...

  8. New World hantaviruses activate IFNlambda production in type I IFN-deficient vero E6 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Prescott

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses indigenous to the New World are the etiologic agents of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. These viruses induce a strong interferon-stimulated gene (ISG response in human endothelial cells. African green monkey-derived Vero E6 cells are used to propagate hantaviruses as well as many other viruses. The utility of the Vero E6 cell line for virus production is thought to owe to their lack of genes encoding type I interferons (IFN, rendering them unable to mount an efficient innate immune response to virus infection. Interferon lambda, a more recently characterized type III IFN, is transcriptionally controlled much like the type I IFNs, and activates the innate immune system in a similar manner.We show that Vero E6 cells respond to hantavirus infection by secreting abundant IFNlambda. Three New World hantaviruses were similarly able to induce IFNlambda expression in this cell line. The IFNlambda contained within virus preparations generated with Vero E6 cells independently activates ISGs when used to infect several non-endothelial cell lines, whereas innate immune responses by endothelial cells are specifically due to viral infection. We show further that Sin Nombre virus replicates to high titer in human hepatoma cells (Huh7 without inducing ISGs.Herein we report that Vero E6 cells respond to viral infection with a highly active antiviral response, including secretion of abundant IFNlambda. This cytokine is biologically active, and when contained within viral preparations and presented to human epithelioid cell lines, results in the robust activation of innate immune responses. We also show that both Huh7 and A549 cell lines do not respond to hantavirus infection, confirming that the cytoplasmic RNA helicase pathways possessed by these cells are not involved in hantavirus recognition. We demonstrate that Vero E6 actively respond to virus infection and inhibiting IFNlambda production in these cells might increase their utility

  9. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Marilyn; Maslow, Melanie J.

    2001-06-01

    Since the first outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in 1993, understanding of the vast distribution and potential impact of hantaviruses has grown. At least 277 cases of HPS have been documented in the United States. The full clinical spectrum has yet to be elucidated, and one outbreak suggested the possibility of person-to-person transmission. New research has identified the b-3 integrins as cellular receptors for hantaviruses and has determined the pivotal role of the immune system in pathogenesis. Rapid diagnosis has been facilitated by a new immunoblot assay to detect Sin Nombre virus infection. Treatment remains primarily supportive; however, a placebo- controlled trial of ribavirin is ongoing. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may be a potential therapy in severe cases; inhaled nitric oxide needs further study. Vaccines developed against hantaviruses associated with hemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome might be effective against HPS-associated strains.

  10. Seroprevalencia de hantavirus en roedores y casos humanos en el sur de la Argentina Hantavirus seroprevalence in rodents and human cases in southern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Larrieu

    2003-04-01

    longicaudatus and in human beings, demonstrating mainly transmission from rodents to human and the possibility of person-to-person transmission. The goal of this paper is to present new information on hantavirus rodent carrier species in Argentina, the prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus (1999-2001 period and the relationship of the rodent population size and seroprevalence with the occurrence of human cases (1996-2001 period. To this end, a total of 3,973 Sherman type traps for capturing live rodents were placed in six campaigns from October 1999 to May 2001. Rodent blood samples were obtained and processed by means of enzymoimmunoassay with antigens developed from the Andes virus. A summary of results indicates 397 captured rodents, with a 10% trapping success rate and a 1.0% prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus. Considerable differences were observed in species captured in each region. Seropositive O. longicaudatus and A. olivaceus specimens, as well as potential hantavirus O. flavescens and C. laucha carriers, were captured. Six human cases were recorded during the 1993-1995 period (corresponding to retrospective studies, while 21 cases were reported in 1996-1998 and 6 in 1999-2001. The correlation between occurrence of human cases, seroprevalence in rodents and trapping success is analyzed.

  11. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and coexisting hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Min Hong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is an acute viral disease with fever, hemorrhage and renal failure caused by hantavirus infection. Hantavirus induces HFRS or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. HPS progression to a life-threatening pulmonary disease is found primarily in the USA and very rarely in South Korea. Here, we report a case of HFRS and coexisting HPS.

  12. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  13. Andes Hantavirus Variant in Rodents, Southern Amazon Basin, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M. Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A. Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O.; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  14. Detection of Brazilian hantavirus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplification of N gene in patients with hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Lázaro Moreli; Ricardo Luiz Moro de Sousa; Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    2004-01-01

    We report a nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for hantavirus using primers selected to match high homology regions of hantavirus genomes detected from the whole blood of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) patients from Brazil, also including the N gene nucleotide sequence of Araraquara virus. Hantavirus genomes were detected in eight out of nine blood samples from the HCPS patients by RT-PCR (88.9% positivity) and in all 9 blood samples (100% positi...

  15. Serum Cytokine Profiles Differentiating Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana F. Khaiboullina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus infection is an acute zoonosis that clinically manifests in two primary forms, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. HFRS is endemic in Europe and Russia, where the mild form of the disease is prevalent in the Tatarstan region. HPS is endemic in Argentina, as well as other countries of North and South American. HFRS and HPS are usually acquired via the upper respiratory tract by inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosol. Although the pathogenesis of HFRS and HPS remains largely unknown, postmortem tissue studies have identified endothelial cells as the primary target of infection. Importantly, cell damage due to virus replication, or subsequent tissue repair, has not been documented. Since no single factor has been identified that explains the complexity of HFRS or HPS pathogenesis, it has been suggested that a cytokine storm may play a crucial role in the manifestation of both diseases. In order to identify potential serological markers that distinguish HFRS and HPS, serum samples collected during early and late phases of the disease were analyzed for 48 analytes using multiplex magnetic bead-based assays. Overall, serum cytokine profiles associated with HPS revealed a more pro-inflammatory milieu as compared to HFRS. Furthermore, HPS was strictly characterized by the upregulation of cytokine levels, in contrast to HFRS where cases were distinguished by a dichotomy in serum cytokine levels. The severe form of hantavirus zoonosis, HPS, was characterized by the upregulation of a higher number of cytokines than HFRS (40 vs 21. In general, our analysis indicates that, although HPS and HFRS share many characteristic features, there are distinct cytokine profiles for these diseases. These profiles suggest a strong activation of an innate immune and inflammatory responses are associated with HPS, relative to HFRS, as well as a robust activation of Th1-type immune responses. Finally, the results

  16. Rodent Species Distribution and Hantavirus Seroprevalence in Residential and Forested areas of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nur Elfieyra Syazana; Ng, Yee Ling; Lee, Wei Bin; Tan, Cheng Siang; Khan, Faisal Ali Anwarali; Chong, Yee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Rodents belong to the order Rodentia, which consists of three families in Borneo (i.e., Muridae, Sciuridae and Hystricidae). These include rats, mice, squirrels, and porcupines. They are widespread throughout the world and considered pests that harm humans and livestock. Some rodent species are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses (Family: Bunyaviridae) that can cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Although hantavirus seropositive human sera were reported in Peninsular Malaysia in the early 1980s, information on their infection in rodent species in Malaysia is still lacking. The rodent populations in residential and forested areas in Sarawak were sampled. A total of 108 individuals from 15 species of rodents were collected in residential ( n = 44) and forested ( n = 64) areas. The species diversity of rodents in forested areas was significantly higher (H = 2.2342) compared to rodents in residential areas (H = 0.64715) ( p Sarawak, East Malaysia. The results suggested that hantavirus was not circulating in the studied rodent populations in Sarawak, or it was otherwise at a low prevalence that is below the detection threshold. It is important to remain vigilant because of the zoonotic potential of this virus and its severe disease outcome. Further studies, such as molecular detection of viral genetic materials, are needed to fully assess the risk of hantavirus infection in rodents and humans in this region of Malaysia.

  17. Hantavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heavy infestation of rodents, call a pest control company. They have special cleanup equipment and methods. Alternative ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  18. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.

    2006-01-01

    tooth types in children born and reared in an area with drinking water with (regularly monitored, naturally-occurring) fluoride concentrations of 1 ppm and compare with data recorded for a similar group of children examined in the same way and residing in the same area 20 years ago. Methods: Dental...... children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years...... in the (later formed) premolars and second molars. Conclusions: A significant increase in fluorosis prevalence has occurred over the last 20 years due to increased fluoride exposure of pre-school children. These findings may be explained by increased use of fluoride toothpaste by this age group from...

  19. Differential Regulation of PAI-1 in Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and Hemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bellomo, Carla; Korva, Miša; Papa, Anna; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Vaheri, Antti; Martinez, Valeria P; Strandin, Tomas

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We analyzed the levels of circulating tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)–1 in acute hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The levels of tPA commonly increased in both diseases, whereas PAI-1 correlated with disease severity in HCPS but not in HFRS.

  20. Hantaviral proteins: structure, functions and role in hantavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musalwa eMuyangwa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the members of the family Bunyaviridae that are naturally maintained in the populations of small mammals, mostly rodents. Most of these viruses can easily infect humans through contact with aerosols or dust generated by contaminated animal waste products. Depending on the particular hantavirus involved, human infection could result in either Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS or in Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS. In the past few years, clinical cases of the hantavirus caused diseases have been on the rise. Understanding structure of the hantavirus genome and the functions of the key viral proteins is critical for the therapeutic agents’ research. This paper gives a brief overview of the current knowledge on the structure and properties of the hantavirus nucleoprotein and the glycoproteins.

  1. Increasing atrial fibrillation prevalence in acute ischemic stroke and TIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otite, Fadar Oliver; Khandelwal, Priyank; Chaturvedi, Seemant; Romano, Jose G; Sacco, Ralph L; Malik, Amer M

    2016-11-08

    To evaluate trends in atrial fibrillation (AF) prevalence in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and TIA in the United States. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to retrospectively compute weighted prevalence of AF in AIS (n = 4,355,140) and TIA (n = 1,816,459) patients admitted to US hospitals from 2004 to 2013. Multivariate-adjusted models were used to evaluate the association of AF with clinical factors, mortality, length of stay, and cost. From 2004 to 2013, AF prevalence increased by 22% in AIS (20%-24%) and by 38% in TIA (12%-17%). AF prevalence varied by age (AIS: 6% in 50-59 vs 37% in ≥80 years; TIA: 4% in 50-59 vs 24% in ≥80 years), sex (AIS: male 19% vs female 25%; TIA: male 15% vs female 14%), race (AIS: white 26% vs black 12%), and region (AIS: Northeast 25% vs South 20%). Advancing age, female sex, white race, high income, and large hospital size were associated with increased odds of AF in AIS. AF in AIS was a risk factor for in-hospital death (odds ratio 1.93, 95% confidence interval 1.89-1.98) but mortality in AIS with AF decreased from 11.6% to 8.3% (p TIA has continued to increase. Disparity in AF prevalence in AIS and TIA exists by patient and hospital factors. AF is associated with increased mortality in AIS. Innovative AIS preventive strategies are needed in patients with AF, especially in the elderly. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. T Cells and Pathogenesis of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome

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    Francis A. Ennis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We previously hypothesized that increased capillary permeability observed in both hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS may be caused by hantavirus-specific cytotoxic T cells attacking endothelial cells presenting viral antigens on their surface based on clinical observations and in vitro experiments. In HCPS, hantavirus-specific T cell responses positively correlated with disease severity. In HFRS, in one report, contrary to HCPS, T cell responses negatively correlated with disease severity, but in another report the number of regulatory T cells, which are thought to suppress T cell responses, negatively correlated with disease severity. In rat experiments, in which hantavirus causes persistent infection, depletion of regulatory T cells helped infected rats clear virus without inducing immunopathology. These seemingly contradictory findings may suggest delicate balance in T cell responses between protection and immunopathogenesis. Both too strong and too weak T cell responses may lead to severe disease. It is important to clarify the role of T cells in these diseases for better treatment (whether to suppress T cell functions and protection (vaccine design which may need to take into account viral factors and the influence of HLA on T cell responses.

  3. Landscape, Environmental and Social Predictors of Hantavirus Risk in São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Paula Ribeiro Prist

    Full Text Available Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which are negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Bunyaviridae that are highly virulent to humans. Numerous factors modify risk of Hantavirus transmission and consequent HPS risk. Human-driven landscape change can foster transmission risk by increasing numbers of habitat generalist rodent species that serve as the principal reservoir host. Climate can also affect rodent population dynamics and Hantavirus survival, and a number of social factors can influence probability of HPS transmission to humans. Evaluating contributions of these factors to HPS risk may enable predictions of future outbreaks, and is critical to development of effective public health strategies. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to quantify associations between annual HPS incidence across the state of São Paulo, Brazil (1993-2012 and climate variables (annual precipitation, annual mean temperature, landscape structure metrics (proportion of native habitat cover, number of forest fragments, proportion of area planted with sugarcane, and social factors (number of men older than 14 years and Human Development Index. We built separate models for the main two biomes of the state (cerrado and Atlantic forest. In both biomes Hantavirus risk increased with proportion of land cultivated for sugarcane and HDI, but proportion of forest cover, annual mean temperature, and population at risk also showed positive relationships in the Atlantic forest. Our analysis provides the first evidence that social, landscape, and climate factors are associated with HPS incidence in the Neotropics. Our risk map can be used to support the adoption of preventive measures and optimize the allocation of resources to avoid disease propagation, especially in municipalities that show medium to high HPS risk (> 5% of risk, and aimed at sugarcane workers, minimizing the risk of future HPS outbreaks.

  4. Increased Prevalence of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppard, Paul E.; Young, Terry; Barnet, Jodi H.; Palta, Mari; Hagen, Erika W.; Hla, Khin Mae

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing is a common disorder with a range of harmful sequelae. Obesity is a strong causal factor for sleep-disordered breathing, and because of the ongoing obesity epidemic, previous estimates of sleep-disordered breathing prevalence require updating. We estimated the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in the United States for the periods of 1988–1994 and 2007–2010 using data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study, an ongoing community-based study that was established in 1988 with participants randomly selected from an employed population of Wisconsin adults. A total of 1,520 participants who were 30–70 years of age had baseline polysomnography studies to assess the presence of sleep-disordered breathing. Participants were invited for repeat studies at 4-year intervals. The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was modeled as a function of age, sex, and body mass index, and estimates were extrapolated to US body mass index distributions estimated using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The current prevalence estimates of moderate to severe sleep-disordered breathing (apnea-hypopnea index, measured as events/hour, ≥15) are 10% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7, 12) among 30–49-year-old men; 17% (95% CI: 15, 21) among 50–70-year-old men; 3% (95% CI: 2, 4) among 30–49-year-old women; and 9% (95% CI: 7, 11) among 50–70 year-old women. These estimated prevalence rates represent substantial increases over the last 2 decades (relative increases of between 14% and 55% depending on the subgroup). PMID:23589584

  5. Differential lymphocyte and antibody responses in deer mice infected with Sin Nombre hantavirus or Andes hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schountz, Tony; Quackenbush, Sandra; Rovnak, Joel; Haddock, Elaine; Black, William C; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is a rodent-borne disease with a high case-fatality rate that is caused by several New World hantaviruses. Each pathogenic hantavirus is naturally hosted by a principal rodent species without conspicuous disease and infection is persistent, perhaps for life. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the natural reservoirs of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the etiologic agent of most HCPS cases in North America. Deer mice remain infected despite a helper T cell response that leads to high-titer neutralizing antibodies. Deer mice are also susceptible to Andes hantavirus (ANDV), which causes most HCPS cases in South America; however, deer mice clear ANDV. We infected deer mice with SNV or ANDV to identify differences in host responses that might account for this differential outcome. SNV RNA levels were higher in the lungs but not different in the heart, spleen, or kidneys. Most ANDV-infected deer mice had seroconverted 14 days after inoculation, but none of the SNV-infected deer mice had. Examination of lymph node cell antigen recall responses identified elevated immune gene expression in deer mice infected with ANDV and suggested maturation toward a Th2 or T follicular helper phenotype in some ANDV-infected deer mice, including activation of the interleukin 4 (IL-4) pathway in T cells and B cells. These data suggest that the rate of maturation of the immune response is substantially higher and of greater magnitude during ANDV infection, and these differences may account for clearance of ANDV and persistence of SNV. Hantaviruses persistently infect their reservoir rodent hosts without pathology. It is unknown how these viruses evade sterilizing immune responses in the reservoirs. We have determined that infection of the deer mouse with its homologous hantavirus, Sin Nombre virus, results in low levels of immune gene expression in antigen-stimulated lymph node cells and a poor antibody response. However, infection of deer mice with a

  6. Increasing prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.

    2000-01-01

    A study on the prevalence of mycoplasmas in pneumonic bovine lungs was performed on material submitted for diagnostic pul poses at the Danish Veterinary Laboratory, Copenhagen. Among the 50 examined cases 43 (86.0%) were found to be infected with mycoplasmas. The predominant mycoplasmas were...... Ureaplasma spp. (72.0%), M dispar (48.0%) and M. bovis (24.0%). Other mycoplasmas were M. bovirhinis (20.0%) and M. bovigenitalium (6.0%). Among the infected lungs multiple species infections were predominant (76.7%) over single species infections (23.3%) with M.dispar-Ureaplasma (25.6%), M. bovis......-Ureaplasma (18.6%) and M. dispar-M. bovirhinis-Ureaplasma (11.6%) infections being the most frequently encountered combinations. There appears to be an increasing prevalence of Al. bovis (24.0%) as compared to earlier reports (0.6-2.0%), thus calling fur special attention upon this mycoplasma. Pulsed field gel...

  7. A retrospective serologic survey of hantavirus infections in the county of Cássia dos Coqueiros, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Soraya Jabur Badra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In recent years, hantavirus infections producing severe diseases have obtained an increased attention from public health authorities from the countries of Eurasia to the Americas. Brazil has reported 1,300 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS from 1993 to 2010, with about 80 of them occurring in the northeast of the State of São Paulo, with 48% fatality rate. Araraquara virus was the causative agent of HCPS in the region. Considering that hantaviruses causing human disease in the Americas were unknown until 1993, we have looked for hantavirus infections in the population of Cássia dos Coqueiros county, northeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, before this time. This county has about 2,800 inhabitants and an economy based on agriculture, including cultivation of Brachiaria decumbens grass. The grass seeds are an important rodent attraction, facilitating transmission of hantavirus to man. Four HCPS cases were reported so far in the county. METHODS: In this study, 1,876 sera collected from 1987 to 1990 were tested for IgG to hantavirus by IgG-ELISA, using the N recombinant protein of Araraquara virus as antigen. RESULTS: Positive results were observed in 89 (4.7% samples, which were all collected in 1987. The positivity among urban inhabitants was 5.3%, compared with 4.3% among those living in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that hantavirus infections occurred in Cássia dos Coqueiros, completely unrecognized, even before hantaviruses were described in the Americas.

  8. Two Atypical Cases of Hantavirus Infections from Sri Lanka

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    N. D. B. Ehelepola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two categories of hantaviruses resulting in two distinct illnesses. The Old World (Asia and Europe viruses give rise to hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, and the New World (Americas viruses cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. Hantavirus infections have very similar clinical pictures and epidemiology to leptospirosis. Here, we present two cases of hantavirus infections from Sri Lanka (in South Asia initially misdiagnosed as leptospirosis and later further investigated and diagnosed as hantavirus infections with serological confirmation of the diagnosis. They had clinical pictures of a combination of both HFRS and HPS as well as the involvement of the central nervous system. Hantavirus infections are rarely diagnosed in South Asia. Reports on such atypical clinical pictures of hantavirus infections are extremely rare. Having arrived at the correct diagnosis late/retrospectively, both these patients recovered notwithstanding being seriously ill, indicating adequate supportive therapy can save lives in such cases. The emergence of the hantavirus, an infection seriously affecting multiple organ systems with a high case fatality rate that is spread by aerosol and other routes, could become a serious public health issue in Sri Lanka.

  9. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Tucumán province associated to an unexpected viral genotype

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    Matías Ciancaglini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the characterization of the viral genotype involved in the first case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome reported in Tucumán, a Northwestern province of Argentina. A 23-year-old woman, with no record of travel history and previously diagnosed with an antiphospholipid syndrome, died after 11 days of severe cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Among the four endemic regions of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina, the Northwest Region has the highest incidence, exceeding 50% of all reported cases in the country. Until now, only Salta and Jujuy (2 out of the 6 provinces composing the Northwest Region, reported cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, all of which occurred in the Yungas Forest area. Remarkably, the viral genotype characterized in this case showed higher nucleotide identity with the Andes-BsAs genotype most prevalent in Buenos Aires province, located 1400 km apart from Tucumán, than with any of the commonly found genotypes in the Northwest Region. The Andes-BsAs genotype has been associated with 30% lethality and interhuman transmission in Buenos Aires province. Interhuman transmission cannot be ruled out in the present case

  10. Hantavirus Immunology of Rodent Reservoirs: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Schountz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are hosted by rodents, insectivores and bats. Several rodent-borne hantaviruses cause two diseases that share many features in humans, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. It is thought that the immune response plays a significant contributory role in these diseases. However, in reservoir hosts that have been closely examined, little or no pathology occurs and infection is persistent despite evidence of adaptive immune responses. Because most hantavirus reservoirs are not model organisms, it is difficult to conduct meaningful experiments that might shed light on how the viruses evade sterilizing immune responses and why immunopathology does not occur. Despite these limitations, recent advances in instrumentation and bioinformatics will have a dramatic impact on understanding reservoir host responses to hantaviruses by employing a systems biology approach to identify important pathways that mediate virus/reservoir relationships.

  11. Detection of Brazilian hantavirus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplification of N gene in patients with hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lázaro Moreli

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay for hantavirus using primers selected to match high homology regions of hantavirus genomes detected from the whole blood of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS patients from Brazil, also including the N gene nucleotide sequence of Araraquara virus. Hantavirus genomes were detected in eight out of nine blood samples from the HCPS patients by RT-PCR (88.9% positivity and in all 9 blood samples (100% positivity by nested-PCR. The eight amplicons obtained by RT-PCR (P1, P3-P9, including one obtained by nested-PCR (P-2 and not obtained by RT-PCR, were sequenced and showed high homology (94.8% to 99.1% with the N gene of Araraquara hantavirus. Although the serologic method ELISA is the most appropriate test for HCPS diagnosis, the use of nested RT-PCR for hantavirus in Brazil would contribute to the diagnosis of acute hantavirus disease detecting viral genomes in patient specimens as well as initial genomic characterization of circulating hantaviruses.

  12. A non-fatal case of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome imported into the UK (ex Panama), July 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Barry; Jameson, Lisa J.; Bovill, Bego?a A.; Aarons, Emma J.; Clewlow, Jodie; Lumley, Sarah; Latham, Jennie; Jenkins, Megan H.; MacGowan, Alasdair P.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Ahmed, Javeed; Brooks, Timothy J.; Hewson, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Highlights ? Detection of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome imported into Europe. ? Additional evidence that Choclo hantavirus is currently circulating and causing human disease in Panama. ? Novel diagnostic and sequencing assays for identifying cases of Choclo hantavirus infection.

  13. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

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    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  14. Increased masked hypertension prevalence in patients with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Selçuk; Ata, Naim; Yavuz, Bunyamin

    2018-02-08

    Masked hypertension is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship obesity parameters, including body weight, waist circumference, and body mass index. The study group consisted of 251 consecutive outpatient subjects without overt hypertension. Subjects were classified according to BMI. After a complete medical history and laboratory examination, patients' height, weight, waist circumference heart rate, and office blood pressure were recorded. All subjects underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Masked hypertension is defined as normal office blood pressure measurement and high ambulatory blood pressure level. Baseline characteristics in patients and controls were similar. Prevalence of Masked hypertension was significantly higher in patients with obesity than controls (30.9% vs 5.7%, p < 0.001). Body mass index (33.2 ± 4.3 vs 25.1 ± 2.7 p < 0.001), waist circumference (98.5 ± 11.7 vs 86.8 ± 8.8, p < 0.001), and weight (86.5 ± 11.8 vs. 69 ± 9.1, p < 0.001) in patients with obesity were significantly higher than in patients with normal weight. Office Systolic BP (121.8 ± 4.4 vs 120.5 ± 4.78, p = 0.035), ambulatory daytime systolic BP (128.8 ± 8.9 vs 124.5 ± 7.4, p < 0.001), ambulatory daytime diastolic BP (73.9 ± 9.5 vs 71.5 ± 7.0, p = 0.019), ambulatory night-time systolic BP in patients with obesity was significantly higher than in patients with normal weight. This study demonstrated that masked hypertension prevalence is higher in patients with obesity than control patients. It can be suggested that predefining obesity might be helpful in early detection of masked hypertension.

  15. Concomitant influence of helminth infection and landscape on the distribution of Puumala hantavirus in its reservoir, Myodes glareolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Alexis Ribas; Guivier, Emmanuel; Xuéreb, Anne; Chaval, Yannick; Cadet, Patrice; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Sironen, Tarja; Voutilainen, Liina; Henttonen, Heikki; Cosson, Jean-François; Charbonnel, Nathalie

    2011-02-08

    Puumala virus, the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), is the most prevalent hantavirus in Europe. The risk for human infection seems to be strongly correlated with the prevalence of Puumala virus (PUUV) in populations of its reservoir host species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. In humans, the infection risks of major viral diseases are affected by the presence of helminth infections. We therefore proposed to analyse the influence of both helminth community and landscape on the prevalence of PUUV among bank vole populations in the Ardennes, a PUUV endemic area in France. Among the 313 voles analysed, 37 had anti-PUUV antibodies. Twelve gastro-intestinal helminth species were recorded among all voles sampled. We showed that PUUV seroprevalence strongly increased with age or sexual maturity, especially in the northern forests (massif des Ardennes). The helminth community structure significantly differed between this part and the woods or hedgerows of the southern cretes pre-ardennaises. Using PUUV RNA quantification, we identified significant coinfections between PUUV and gastro-intestinal helminths in the northern forests only. More specifically, PUUV infection was positively associated with the presence of Heligmosomum mixtum, and in a lesser extent, Aonchotheca muris-sylvatici. The viral load of PUUV infected individuals tended to be higher in voles coinfected with H. mixtum. It was significantly lower in voles coinfected with A. muris-sylvatici, reflecting the influence of age on these latter infections. This is the first study to emphasize hantavirus--helminth coinfections in natural populations. It also highlights the importance to consider landscape when searching for such associations. We have shown that landscape characteristics strongly influence helminth community structure as well as PUUV distribution. False associations might therefore be evidenced if geographic patterns of helminths or PUUV repartition are not previously identified. Moreover, our

  16. Concomitant influence of helminth infection and landscape on the distribution of Puumala hantavirus in its reservoir, Myodes glareolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henttonen Heikki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puumala virus, the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE, is the most prevalent hantavirus in Europe. The risk for human infection seems to be strongly correlated with the prevalence of Puumala virus (PUUV in populations of its reservoir host species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. In humans, the infection risks of major viral diseases are affected by the presence of helminth infections. We therefore proposed to analyse the influence of both helminth community and landscape on the prevalence of PUUV among bank vole populations in the Ardennes, a PUUV endemic area in France. Results Among the 313 voles analysed, 37 had anti-PUUV antibodies. Twelve gastro-intestinal helminth species were recorded among all voles sampled. We showed that PUUV seroprevalence strongly increased with age or sexual maturity, especially in the northern forests (massif des Ardennes. The helminth community structure significantly differed between this part and the woods or hedgerows of the southern cretes pre-ardennaises. Using PUUV RNA quantification, we identified significant coinfections between PUUV and gastro-intestinal helminths in the northern forests only. More specifically, PUUV infection was positively associated with the presence of Heligmosomum mixtum, and in a lesser extent, Aonchotheca muris-sylvatici. The viral load of PUUV infected individuals tended to be higher in voles coinfected with H. mixtum. It was significantly lower in voles coinfected with A. muris-sylvatici, reflecting the influence of age on these latter infections. Conclusions This is the first study to emphasize hantavirus - helminth coinfections in natural populations. It also highlights the importance to consider landscape when searching for such associations. We have shown that landscape characteristics strongly influence helminth community structure as well as PUUV distribution. False associations might therefore be evidenced if geographic patterns of helminths or PUUV

  17. Muleshoe Virus and Other Hantaviruses Associated with Neotomine or Sigmodontine Rodents in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Cajimat, Maria N B; Richter, Martin H; Bradley, Robert D; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2017-10-01

    The broad objective of this study was to increase our knowledge of Muleshoe virus and other hantaviruses associated with cricetid rodents in Texas. Anti-hantavirus antibody was found in 38 (3.2%) of 1171 neotomine rodents and 6 (1.8%) of 332 sigmodontine rodents from 10 Texas counties; hantaviral RNA was detected in 23 (71.9%) of 32 antibody-positive rodents. Analyses of nucleocapsid protein gene sequences indicated Muleshoe virus infection in four hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) from northern Texas; Bayou virus, three Texas marsh oryzomys (Oryzomys texensis) from the Gulf Coast; Limestone Canyon virus, five brush mice (Peromyscus boylii) from western Texas; and Sin Nombre virus-five Texas mice (P. attwateri), one Lacey's white-ankled deer mouse (P. laceianus), four white-footed mice (P. leucopus), and one fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens) from northern, central, or southern Texas. The results of this study together with the results of a previous study revealed that Muleshoe virus, perhaps in association with S. hispidus, is distributed across northern Texas. Finally, the results of Bayesian analyses of glycoprotein precursor (GPC) gene sequences and pairwise comparisons of complete GPC (amino acid) sequences strengthened support for the notion that Muleshoe virus is distinct from Black Creek Canal virus, Bayou virus, and all other species included in the Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus.

  18. Climate Variability and the Occurrence of Human Puumala Hantavirus Infections in Europe: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda Gracia, J; Schumann, B; Seidler, A

    2015-09-01

    Hantaviruses are distributed worldwide and are transmitted by rodents. In Europe, the infection usually manifests as a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) known as nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is triggered by the virus species Puumala. Its host is the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In the context of climate change, interest in the role of climatic factors for the disease has increased. A systematic review was conducted to investigate the association between climate variability and the occurrence of human Puumala hantavirus infections in Europe. We performed a literature search in the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science. Studies that investigated Puumala virus infection and climatic factors in any European country with a minimum collection period of 2 years were included. The selection of abstracts and the evaluation of included studies were performed by two independent reviewers. A total of 434 titles were identified in the databases, of which nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were conducted in central Europe (Belgium, France and Germany), while only two came from the north (Sweden) and one from the south (Bosnia). Strong evidence was found for a positive association between temperature and NE incidence in central Europe, while the evidence for northern Europe so far appears insufficient. Results regarding precipitation were contradictory. Overall, the complex relationships between climate and hantavirus infections need further exploration to identify specific health risks and initiate appropriate intervention measures in the context of climate change. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. More Novel Hantaviruses and Diversifying Reservoir Hosts — Time for Development of Reservoir-Derived Cell Culture Models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Eckerle

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to novel, improved and high-throughput detection methods, there is a plethora of newly identified viruses within the genus Hantavirus. Furthermore, reservoir host species are increasingly recognized besides representatives of the order Rodentia, now including members of the mammalian orders Soricomorpha/Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Despite the great interest created by emerging zoonotic viruses, there is still a gross lack of in vitro models, which reflect the exclusive host adaptation of most zoonotic viruses. The usually narrow host range and genetic diversity of hantaviruses make them an exciting candidate for studying virus-host interactions on a cellular level. To do so, well-characterized reservoir cell lines covering a wide range of bat, insectivore and rodent species are essential. Most currently available cell culture models display a heterologous virus-host relationship and are therefore only of limited value. Here, we review the recently established approaches to generate reservoir-derived cell culture models for the in vitro study of virus-host interactions. These successfully used model systems almost exclusively originate from bats and bat-borne viruses other than hantaviruses. Therefore we propose a parallel approach for research on rodent- and insectivore-borne hantaviruses, taking the generation of novel rodent and insectivore cell lines from wildlife species into account. These cell lines would be also valuable for studies on further rodent-borne viruses, such as orthopox- and arenaviruses.

  20. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome: a report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Lazaro Moreli; Vivaldo Gomes da Costa; Daiane Pereira da Silva Novaes; Enia Cristina Flor; Juliana Freitas Silva; Keila Rejane Guimarães Vilela; Cácia Régia de Paula

    2013-01-01

    Infection with hantavirus, from the family Bunyaviridae, causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas. This highly lethal anthropozoonosis afflicts preferentially individuals in rural areas and is transmitted by aerosol of excreta from infected wild rodents. The aim of this study is to report the almost simultaneous occurrence of two cases of HCPS in the municipality of Jataí, state of Goiás, Brazil.

  1. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome: a report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lazaro Moreli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Infection with hantavirus, from the family Bunyaviridae, causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in the Americas. This highly lethal anthropozoonosis afflicts preferentially individuals in rural areas and is transmitted by aerosol of excreta from infected wild rodents. The aim of this study is to report the almost simultaneous occurrence of two cases of HCPS in the municipality of Jataí, state of Goiás, Brazil.

  2. Increasing Prevalence of Hepatitis C among Hospitalized Children Is Associated with an Increase in Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barritt, A Sidney; Lee, Brian; Runge, Thomas; Schmidt, Monica; Jhaveri, Ravi

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of substance abuse on pediatric hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence, we examined geographic and demographic data on inpatient hospitalizations in children with HCV. We examined hospitalizations in children using the Kids' Inpatient Database, a part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. We identified cases using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, codes for HCV infection during 2006, 2009, and 2012. Nonparametric tests for trend were used to calculate trend statistics. From 2006 to 2012 nationally, the number of hospitalizations of children with HCV increased 37% (2.69 to 3.69 per 10 000 admissions; P substance use among children with HCV increased from 25% in 2006 to 41% in 2012 (P teenagers, highly associated with substance abuse, and concentrated in Northeast and Southern states. These results strongly suggest that public health efforts to prevent and treat HCV will also need to include adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased prevalence of regurgitant valvular heart disease in acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, Alberto M.; van Thiel, Sjoerd W.; Lindner, Jonathan R.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Wall, Ernst E.; Morreau, Hans; Smit, Jan W. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Bax, Jeroen J.

    2004-01-01

    Cardiac involvement is common in acromegaly, but the prevalence of valvular abnormalities in patients with acromegaly has not been documented and is the topic of this study. In a prospective study design, 40 consecutive patients with acromegaly and 120 control subjects (matched for age, sex,

  4. Increased multiple sclerosis relapses related to lower prevalence of pain

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    José Vinícius Martins da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study aims to investigate the presence of pain amongst multiple sclerosis (MS patients. Method One hundred MS patients responded to questionnaires evaluating neuropathic and nociceptive pain, depression and anxiety. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann–Whitney U, Chi-Square and two-tailed Fisher’s exact tests and multivariate logistic regression. Results Women had a statistically higher prevalence of pain (p = 0.037, and chances of having pain after the age of 50 reduced. Women with pain had a statistically significant lower number of relapses (p = 0.003, restricting analysis to those patients with more than one relapse. After the second relapse, each relapse reduced the chance of having pain by 46%. Presence of pain was independent of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS anxiety, and depression. Conclusion Our findings suggest a strong inverse association between relapses and pain indicating a possible protective role of focal inflammation in the control of pain.

  5. Increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with acne inversa.

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    Robert Sabat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acne inversa (AI; also designated as Hidradenitis suppurativa is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, localized in the axillary, inguinal and perianal skin areas that causes painful, fistulating sinuses with malodorous purulence and scars. Several chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with the metabolic syndrome and its consequences including arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial infraction, and stroke. So far, the association of AI with systemic metabolic alterations is largely unexplored. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A hospital-based case-control study in 80 AI patients and 100 age- and sex-matched control participants was carried out. The prevalence of central obesity (odds ratio 5.88, hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio 2.24, hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia (odds ratio 4.56, and hyperglycemia (odds ratio 4.09 in AI patients was significantly higher than in controls. Furthermore, the metabolic syndrome, previously defined as the presence of at least three of the five alterations listed above, was more common in those patients compared to controls (40.0% versus 13.0%; odds ratio 4.46, 95% confidence interval 2.02 to 9.96; P<0.001. AI patients with metabolic syndrome also had more pronounced metabolic alterations than controls with metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, there was no correlation between the severity or duration of the disease and the levels of respective parameters or the number of criteria defining the metabolic syndrome. Rather, the metabolic syndrome was observed in a disproportionately high percentage of young AI patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time that AI patients have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and all of its criteria. It further suggests that the inflammation present in AI patients does not have a major impact on the development of metabolic alterations. Instead, evidence is given for a role of metabolic alterations in the development of AI. We recommend

  6. Clinical characterization of two severe cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS caused by hantaviruses Puumala and Dobrava-Belgrade genotype Sochi

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    Ellen Krautkrämer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hantavirus disease belongs to the emerging infections. The clinical picture and severity of infections differ between hantavirus species and may even vary between hantavirus genotypes. The mechanisms that lead to the broad variance of severity in infected patients are not completely understood. Host- and virus-specific factors are considered. Case presentation We analyzed severe cases of hantavirus disease in two young women. The first case was caused by Puumala virus (PUUV infection in Germany; the second case describes the infection with Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV in Russia. Symptoms, laboratory parameters and cytokine levels were analyzed and compared between the two patients. Serological and sequence analysis revealed that PUUV was the infecting agent for the German patient and the infection of the Russian patient was caused by Dobrava-Belgrade virus genotype Sochi (DOBV-Sochi. The symptoms in the initial phase of the diseases did not differ noticeably between both patients. However, deterioration of laboratory parameter values was prolonged and stronger in DOBV-Sochi than in PUUV infection. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs, known to be responsible for endothelial repair, were mobilized in both infections. Striking differences were observed in the temporal course and level of cytokine upregulation. Levels of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1α were increased in both infections; but, sustained and more pronounced elevation was observed in DOBV-Sochi infection. Conclusions Severe hantavirus disease caused by different hantavirus species did not differ in the general symptoms and clinical characteristics. However, we observed a prolonged clinical course and a late and enhanced mobilization of cytokines in DOBV-Sochi infection. The differences in cytokine deregulation may contribute to the observed variation in the clinical course.

  7. Estimation of main diversification time-points of hantaviruses using phylogenetic analyses of complete genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Guillaume; Tordo, Noël; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2017-04-02

    Because of the great variability of their reservoir hosts, hantaviruses are excellent models to evaluate the dynamics of virus-host co-evolution. Intriguing questions remain about the timescale of the diversification events that influenced this evolution. In this paper we attempted to estimate the first ever timing of hantavirus diversification based on thirty five available complete genomes representing five major groups of hantaviruses and the assumption of co-speciation of hantaviruses with their respective mammal hosts. Phylogenetic analyses were used to estimate the main diversification points during hantavirus evolution in mammals while host diversification was mostly estimated from independent calibrators taken from fossil records. Our results support an earlier developed hypothesis of co-speciation of known hantaviruses with their respective mammal hosts and hence a common ancestor for all hantaviruses carried by placental mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antibody levels to hantavirus in inhabitants of western Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    William Marciel de Souza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is an infectious disease caused by hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae, and is transmitted by aerosols of excreta of infected rodents. The aim of the present study was to determine antibody levels to hantavirus in the population that lives at frontier of Brazil and Argentina. Participated of the study 405 individuals living in the municipalities of Bandeirante, Santa Helena, Princesa and Tunapolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. IgG antibodies to hantavirus were analyzed in sera by an ELISA that uses a recombinant N protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen. The results were also confirmed by immunofluorescent test. Eight individuals showed antibodies to hantavirus (1.97% positivity, with serum titers ranging from 100 to 800. Six seropositives were males, older than 30 years and farmers. Our results reinforce previous data on hantavirus circulation and human infections in the southern border of Brazil with Argentina.

  9. Landscape genetics highlights the role of bank vole metapopulation dynamics in the epidemiology of Puumala hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivier, E; Galan, M; Chaval, Y; Xuéreb, A; Ribas Salvador, A; Poulle, M-L; Voutilainen, L; Henttonen, H; Charbonnel, N; Cosson, J F

    2011-09-01

    Rodent host dynamics and dispersal are thought to be critical for hantavirus epidemiology as they determine pathogen persistence and transmission within and between host populations. We used landscape genetics to investigate how the population dynamics of the bank vole Myodes glareolus, the host of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV), vary with forest fragmentation and influence PUUV epidemiology. We sampled vole populations within the Ardennes, a French PUUV endemic area. We inferred demographic features such as population size, isolation and migration with regard to landscape configuration. We next analysed the influence of M. glareolus population dynamics on PUUV spatial distribution. Our results revealed that the global metapopulation dynamics of bank voles were strongly shaped by landscape features, including suitable patch size and connectivity. Large effective size in forest might therefore contribute to the higher observed levels of PUUV prevalence. By contrast, populations from hedge networks highly suffered from genetic drift and appeared strongly isolated from all other populations. This might result in high probabilities of local extinction for both M. glareolus and PUUV. Besides, we detected signatures of asymmetric bank vole migration from forests to hedges. These movements were likely to sustain PUUV in fragmented landscapes. In conclusion, our study provided arguments in favour of source-sink dynamics shaping PUUV persistence and spread in heterogeneous, Western European temperate landscapes. It illustrated the potential contribution of landscape genetics to the understanding of the epidemiological processes occurring at this local scale. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Waterpipes and electronic cigarettes: increasing prevalence and expanding science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jessica K; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2014-08-18

    The prevalence of non-cigarette tobacco product use is on the rise across the globe, especially for waterpipes (also known as hookah, narghile, and shisha) and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). The scientific literature reveals that waterpipe tobacco smoking is associated with exposure to a variety of toxicants that can cause short- and long-term adverse health events. In contrast, there is far less evidence of health harms related to e-cigarette use, although the variety of products in this category makes it difficult to generalize. We searched the PubMed database for all publications on waterpipes and e-cigarettes from January 2000 to March 2014. The number of publications on waterpipes rose in a slow, linear pattern during this time, while the number of publications on e-cigarettes showed exponential growth. The different trends suggest there may be more interest in studying a novel nicotine product (the e-cigarette) over a traditional tobacco product (the waterpipe). We posit that, although the specific research needs for these products are different, public health would be served best by a more equitable research approach. Scientists should continue to devote attention to understanding the unknown long-term health effects of e-cigarettes and their potential to serve as harm reduction or smoking cessation tools while simultaneously investigating how to reduce waterpipe smoking given that it exposes users to toxicants known to cause harm to health. Recent regulatory action in the United States, which proposes to include waterpipes and e-cigarettes under some of the same regulations as tobacco cigarettes, makes such research particularly timely.

  11. Maporal Hantavirus Causes Mild Pathology in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus

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    Amanda McGuire

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4 containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions. The aim of this study was to develop an ABSL-3 hantavirus infection model using the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the natural reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV, and a virus that is pathogenic in another animal model to examine immune response of a reservoir host species. Deer mice were inoculated with MAPV, and viral RNA was detected in several organs of all deer mice during the 56 day experiment. Infected animals generated both nucleocapsid-specific and neutralizing antibodies. Histopathological lesions were minimal to mild with the peak of the lesions detected at 7–14 days postinfection, mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver. Low to modest levels of cytokine gene expression were detected in spleens and lungs of infected deer mice, and deer mouse primary pulmonary cells generated with endothelial cell growth factors were susceptible to MAPV with viral RNA accumulating in the cellular fraction compared to infected Vero cells. Most features resembled that of SNV infection of deer mice, suggesting this model may be an ABSL-3 surrogate for studying the host response of a New World hantavirus reservoir.

  12. Bessel collocation approach for approximate solutions of Hantavirus infection model

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    Suayip Yuzbasi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a collocation method is introduced to find the approximate solutions of Hantavirus infection model which is a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The method is based on the Bessel functions of the first kind, matrix operations and collocation points. This method converts Hantavirus infection model into a matrix equation in terms of the Bessel functions of first kind, matrix operations and collocation points. The matrix equation corresponds to a system of nonlinear equations with the unknown Bessel coefficients. The reliability and efficiency of the suggested scheme are demonstrated by numerical applications and all numerical calculations have been done by using a program written in Maple.

  13. Increased prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, V; Schlereth, T; Birklein, F; Maihöfner, C

    2017-03-01

    Although specific psychological disorders in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) have not been identified, studies suggest that CRPS patients may have increased rates of traumatic life events. Because these events do not always lead to apparent psychological symptoms, we systematically screened CRPS patients for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to determine if PTSD could be a risk factor for CRPS. Consecutive CRPS patients referred to two university hospital centres (University of Erlangen, UMC Mainz) between December 2011 and April 2013 were prospectively examined using a diagnostic PTSD instrument (Post-traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS). We also tested maladaptive coping strategies (brief-COPE inventory) and the PDS severity score as predictors for CRPS. Patients with non-CRPS extremity pain and healthy individuals were used as control groups. We collected data from 152 patients with CRPS, 55 control patients and 55 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Fifty-eight CRPS patients (38%), six non-CRPS pain patients (10%) and two healthy individuals (4%) met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Initial PTSD symptom onset was prior to CRPS in 50 CRPS patients (86%) and during the course of CRPS in eight patients. Results of a logistic regression revealed that the PTSD severity score was associated with CRPS (p CRPS than it is in the general population. Research has not yet provided support for specific psychological predictors for CRPS. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  14. A retrospective serologic survey of hantavirus infections in the county of Cássia dos Coqueiros, State of São Paulo, Brazil Inquérito sorológico retrospectivo das infecções por hantavirus no município de Cássia dos Coqueiros, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Soraya Jabur Badra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In recent years, hantavirus infections producing severe diseases have obtained an increased attention from public health authorities from the countries of Eurasia to the Americas. Brazil has reported 1,300 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS from 1993 to 2010, with about 80 of them occurring in the northeast of the State of São Paulo, with 48% fatality rate. Araraquara virus was the causative agent of HCPS in the region. Considering that hantaviruses causing human disease in the Americas were unknown until 1993, we have looked for hantavirus infections in the population of Cássia dos Coqueiros county, northeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, before this time. This county has about 2,800 inhabitants and an economy based on agriculture, including cultivation of Brachiaria decumbens grass. The grass seeds are an important rodent attraction, facilitating transmission of hantavirus to man. Four HCPS cases were reported so far in the county. METHODS: In this study, 1,876 sera collected from 1987 to 1990 were tested for IgG to hantavirus by IgG-ELISA, using the N recombinant protein of Araraquara virus as antigen. RESULTS: Positive results were observed in 89 (4.7% samples, which were all collected in 1987. The positivity among urban inhabitants was 5.3%, compared with 4.3% among those living in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that hantavirus infections occurred in Cássia dos Coqueiros, completely unrecognized, even before hantaviruses were described in the Americas.INTRODUÇÃO: Infecções graves por hantavírus têm obtido crescente atenção das autoridades da saúde pública da Eurásia e Américas. De 1993 a 2010, o Brasil reportou 1.300 casos de síndrome pulmonar cardiovascular por hantavírus (SPCVH com, aproximadamente, 80 deles no nordeste do Estado de São Paulo com taxa de fatalidade de 48%. O vírus Araraquara é o agente etiológico da SPCVH nessa região. Considerando que nas Am

  15. Increased Prevalence of Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis in Korean Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Park, Sohee; Lee, Joo Young; Won, Young-Joo; Shin, Aesun; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Kui-Sun; Lee, You Jin; Chung, Ki- Wook; Jung, Kyu-Won

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, some reports have suggested that papillary thyroid cancers are more frequently associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This study investigated a potential increase in the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods We used national epidemiological survey data on thyroid cancer patients diagnosed in 1999, 2005, and 2008. A retrospective medical record survey was conducted by representative sampling of a national cancer incidence database. The analysis included 5,378 papillary thyroid cancer patients aged 20–79 years. We calculated the age-standardized prevalence and age-adjusted prevalence ratios using a binomial regression model with a log link for the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients by sex for each year. Results The prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients was 4.0% and 12.8% for men and women in 1999, 6.5% and 24.6% in 2005, and 10.7% and 27.6% in 2008, respectively. Between 1999 and 2008, the age-standardized prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased 4.1-fold in male patients and 2.0-fold in female patients with papillary thyroid cancer. The prevalence of other thyroid diseases, however, did not increase in either gender. Conclusions Among Korean papillary thyroid cancer patients, the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased between 1999 and 2008, whereas the prevalence of other thyroid disorders did not change. PMID:24927027

  16. Epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis of Hantavirus (HTV) infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.G. Clement; P. McKenna; J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. Colson; T. Vervoort; G. van der Groen (Guido); H.W. Lee

    1995-01-01

    textabstractHantavirus (HTV) is recently discovered "hemorrhagic fever virus" belonging to the Bunyaviridae family, which is spread throughout the world by wild rodents and/or laboratory rats. During an epidemic in the Belgian-French Ardennes in 1993, more than 200 acute cases were recorded of the

  17. Novel hantavirus identified in European bat species Nyctalus noctula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straková, Petra; Dufková, L.; Širmarová, J.; Salát, J.; Bartonička, T.; Klempa, B.; Pfaff, F.; Höper, D.; Hoffmann, B.; Ulrich, R. G.; Růžek, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, March (2017), s. 127-130 ISSN 1567-1348 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hantavirus * Bat * Phylogenetic analysis * Emerging virus * Bat-borne virus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Infectious Diseases; Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 2.885, year: 2016

  18. Structure of the Hantavirus Nucleoprotein Provides Insights into the Mechanism of RNA Encapsidation

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    Daniel Olal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are etiological agents of life-threatening hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. The nucleoprotein (N of hantavirus is essential for viral transcription and replication, thus representing an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. We have determined the crystal structure of hantavirus N to 3.2 Å resolution. The structure reveals a two-lobed, mostly α-helical structure that is distantly related to that of orthobunyavirus Ns. A basic RNA binding pocket is located at the intersection between the two lobes. We provide evidence that oligomerization is mediated by amino- and C-terminal arms that bind to the adjacent monomers. Based on these findings, we suggest a model for the oligomeric ribonucleoprotein (RNP complex. Our structure provides mechanistic insights into RNA encapsidation in the genus Hantavirus and constitutes a template for drug discovery efforts aimed at combating hantavirus infections.

  19. Sex-specific increase in the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (The Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Jens; Scharling, Henrik; Gadsbøll, Niels

    2003-01-01

    electrocardiograms (ECGs), was determined in 8,606 patients examined in 1976 to 1978, in 8,943 patients examined in 1981 to 1983, and in 6,733 subjects examined in 1991 to 1994. Changes in prevalence of AF were estimated by logistic regression analysis. In men, the age-standardized prevalence of AF increased from 1...

  20. Increase in the prevalence of rhinitis among Danish children from 1986 to 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, K; Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades, there has been a worldwide increase in the prevalence of atopic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there has been a change in the prevalence of rhinitis among children in Denmark from 1986 to 2001. We compared data from two random population-based samples.......001). The increase was most pronounced among subjects who suffered from non-allergic rhinitis (p disease were...... strong predictors of non-allergic rhinitis, whereas a history of asthma, parental atopic disease, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, eczema, and age at examination were statistically significant predictors of allergic rhinitis. The prevalence of non-allergic rhinitis among Danish children has increased...

  1. Animal Models for the Study of Rodent-Borne Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses: Arenaviruses and Hantaviruses

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    Joseph W. Golden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human pathogenic hantaviruses and arenaviruses are maintained in nature by persistent infection of rodent carrier populations. Several members of these virus groups can cause significant disease in humans that is generically termed viral hemorrhagic fever (HF and is characterized as a febrile illness with an increased propensity to cause acute inflammation. Human interaction with rodent carrier populations leads to infection. Arenaviruses are also viewed as potential biological weapons threat agents. There is an increased interest in studying these viruses in animal models to gain a deeper understating not only of viral pathogenesis, but also for the evaluation of medical countermeasures (MCM to mitigate disease threats. In this review, we examine current knowledge regarding animal models employed in the study of these viruses. We include analysis of infection models in natural reservoirs and also discuss the impact of strain heterogeneity on the susceptibility of animals to infection. This information should provide a comprehensive reference for those interested in the study of arenaviruses and hantaviruses not only for MCM development but also in the study of viral pathogenesis and the biology of these viruses in their natural reservoirs.

  2. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in rural and urban regions in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

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    João Bosco Lima Gimaque

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease is caused by the hantavirus, which is an RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Hantavirus disease is an anthropozoonotic infection transmitted through the inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of hantavirus-infected rodents. In the county of Itacoatiara in the state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil, the first human cases of hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome were described in July 2004. These first cases were followed by two fatal cases, one in the municipality of Maués in 2005 and another in Itacoatiara in 2007. In this study, we investigated the antibody levels to hantavirus in a population of 1,731 individuals from four different counties of AM. Sera were tested by IgG/IgM- enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. Ten sera were IgG positive to hantavirus (0.6%. Among the positive sera, 0.8% (1/122, 0.4% (1/256, 0.2% (1/556 and 0.9% (7/797 were from Atalaia do Norte, Careiro Castanho, Itacoatiara and Lábrea, respectively. None of the sera in this survey were IgM-positive. Because these counties are distributed in different areas of AM, we can assume that infected individuals are found throughout the entire state, which suggests that hantavirus disease could be a local emerging health problem.

  3. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents.

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    Wen-Ping Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews, before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses.

  4. What Do We Know about How Hantaviruses Interact with Their Different Hosts?

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    Myriam Ermonval

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses, like other members of the Bunyaviridae family, are emerging viruses that are able to cause hemorrhagic fevers. Occasional transmission to humans is due to inhalation of contaminated aerosolized excreta from infected rodents. Hantaviruses are asymptomatic in their rodent or insectivore natural hosts with which they have co-evolved for millions of years. In contrast, hantaviruses cause different pathologies in humans with varying mortality rates, depending on the hantavirus species and its geographic origin. Cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS have been reported in Europe and Asia, while hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndromes (HCPS are observed in the Americas. In some cases, diseases caused by Old World hantaviruses exhibit HCPS-like symptoms. Although the etiologic agents of HFRS were identified in the early 1980s, the way hantaviruses interact with their different hosts still remains elusive. What are the entry receptors? How do hantaviruses propagate in the organism and how do they cope with the immune system? This review summarizes recent data documenting interactions established by pathogenic and nonpathogenic hantaviruses with their natural or human hosts that could highlight their different outcomes.

  5. Novel camelid antibody fragments targeting recombinant nucleoprotein of Araucaria hantavirus: a prototype for an early diagnosis of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome.

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    Soraya S Pereira

    Full Text Available In addition to conventional antibodies, camelids produce immunoglobulins G composed exclusively of heavy chains in which the antigen binding site is formed only by single domains called VHH. Their particular characteristics make VHHs interesting tools for drug-delivery, passive immunotherapy and high-throughput diagnosis. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. Two clinical forms of the infection are known. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS is present in the Old World, while Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS is found on the American continent. There is no specific treatment for HPS and its diagnosis is carried out by molecular or serological techniques, using mainly monoclonal antibodies or hantavirus nucleoprotein (N to detect IgM and IgG in patient serum. This study proposes the use of camelid VHHs to develop alternative methods for diagnosing and confirming HPS. Phage display technology was employed to obtain VHHs. After immunizing one Lama glama against the recombinant N protein (prNΔ₈₅ of a Brazilian hantavirus strain, VHH regions were isolated to construct an immune library. VHHs were displayed fused to the M13KO7 phage coat protein III and the selection steps were performed on immobilized prNΔ₈₅. After selection, eighty clones recognized specifically the N protein. These were sequenced, grouped based mainly on the CDRs, and five clones were analyzed by western blot (WB, surface plasmon resonance (SPR device, and ELISA. Besides the ability to recognize prNΔ85 by WB, all selected clones showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range. Additionaly, the clone KC329705 is able to detect prNΔ₈₅ in solution, as well as the native viral antigen. Findings support the hypothesis that selected VHHs could be a powerful tool in the development of rapid and accurate HPS diagnostic assays, which are essential to provide supportive care to patients and reduce the high mortality rate associated with

  6. Survey for hantaviruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Rickettsia spp. in small rodents in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Petra; Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; Margaletić, Josip; Essbauer, Sandra

    2014-07-01

    In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas.

  7. Serologic survey of hantavirus in a rural population from the northern State of Mato Grosso, Brazil Pesquisa sorológica para hantavírus em uma população rural do norte do Estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil

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    Ioni Oliveira Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus is a genus of ribonucleic acid (RNA viruses included in the family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonoses that, in the last 18 years, became an emergent public health problem in the Americas, causing a severe cardiopulmonary syndrome. This disease has no specific treatment and has a high case fatality. The transmission of hantavirus to man occurs by inhaling aerosols of rodent excreta. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus in the population of the rural settlement of Tupã in the county of Marcelândia, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. METHODS: The participants of the serologic survey were visited at their homes and selected randomly among the settlement population. Blood samples of the participants were collected by venopuncture. The serum samples were tested by an IgG-ELISA using an N recombinant protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen, using the protocol previously established by Figueiredo et al. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were detected in 7 (13% of the 54 participants. The positivity was higher among men. It was observed that there was an association of seropositivity to hantavirus within the participants born in the south of Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that, in this rural area, everyone is exposed to the same risk of becoming infected with hantavirus, and, therefore, there is a need to intensify surveillance activities and education of the local people to prevent this viral infection.INTRODUÇÃO: Hantavirus é um gênero de vírus RNA incluído na família Bunyaviridae. Hantaviroses são zoonoses transmitidas por roedores que nos últimos 18 anos tornou-se um problema emergente da saúde pública nas Américas causando uma síndrome cardiopulmonar. Esta doença não tem nenhum tratamento específico e apresenta alta letalidade. A transmissão do hantavirus ao homem ocorre pela inalação de aerossóis dos excrementos de roedores. O

  8. Leptospira spp. in Small Mammals from Areas with Low and High Human Hantavirus Incidences in South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiegala, Anna; Albrecht, Christoph; Dafalla, Maysaa; Drewes, Stephan; Oltersdorf, Carolin; Turni, Hendrik; Imholt, Christian; Jacob, Jens; Wagner-Wiening, Christiane; Ulrich, Rainer G; Pfeffer, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Leptospirosis is caused by Leptospira spp. and is considered the most widespread zoonotic disease worldwide. It mimics nephropathia epidemica in humans, a disease mainly caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). Small mammals are reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and PUUV. Seewis virus (SWSV) is a shrew-borne hantavirus with unknown pathogenicity. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence for Leptospira spp. and the frequency of Leptospira-hantavirus co-infections in small mammals collected at locations with high and low incidences in humans. In 2012 and 2013, 736 small mammals belonging to seven species (Apodemus flavicollis, Microtus agrestis, Microtus arvalis, Myodes glareolus, Sorex araneus, S. coronatus, and S. minutus) were collected at four high incidence sites (H1-H4) and four low (L1-L4) incidence sites for PUUV infection in humans. Kidney-derived DNA samples were tested for Leptospira spp. by real-time PCR targeting the lipl 32 gene and further analyzed by duplex PCR targeting the flaB and the secY genes. For the detection of Seewis virus, lung-derived DNA was tested via RT-PCR targeting the nucleocapsid gene. Altogether, 42 of the 736 small mammals including 27 of 660 bank voles and 11 of 66 shrews, were positive for Leptospira spp., while Sorex spp. (14.7%) showed significantly higher prevalences compared to bank voles (4.1%). Detected Leptospira spp. were pathogenic species other than L. kirschneri. Significantly more Leptospira-positive bank voles were found at H sites than at L sites. Altogether 22.2% of positive bank voles were infected with PUUV. Double infection of PUUV and Leptospira spp. occurrence in bank voles is 1.86 times (OR = 1.86; 95% CI: 0.72-4.73) more likely than infections with each pathogen separately. Leptospira- positive bank voles are focally positively associated with PUUV infection in bank voles and with human hantavirus cases. It should be considered that shrews may serve as Leptospira spp. reservoirs.

  9. Epidemiology of Hantavirus Infections in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-08

    Hantaviruses (Family Bunyaviridae) are the etiological agents responsible for a spectrum of illnesses referred to collectively as hemorrhagic fever with...seropositives without chronic disease, one was admitted for severe preeclampsia , one for a psychiatric disorder, and three for complications from their...there was a marked difference between seropositives and seronegatives in the presumed etiology of renal disease (Table 7, Appendix 2). Seropositives had

  10. Rodent Abundance and Hantavirus Infection in Protected Area, East-Central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Malena; Vadell, María Victoria; Padula, Paula

    2018-01-01

    We captured 3 hantavirus rodent hosts in Otamendi Natural Reserve, Argentina, during 2007–2012. Hantavirus antibodies were found only in Akodon azarae grass mice, mainly in males and old animals. Higher abundance of this species was associated with warm and rainy weather and high water levels, which peaked after a strong El Niño event. PMID:29260665

  11. Increased prevalence of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus in Funen County, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshøj, O; Green, A; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1994-01-01

    : There was a significant increase in the prevalence of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus in Funen County, Denmark from 1973 to 1987. Analysis of the data shows that an important factor for this increase is a liability to start insulin treatment of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus at an earlier stage than...

  12. Hantavirus Public Health outreach effectiveness in three populations: an overview of northwestern New Mexico, Los Santos Panama, and Region IX Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Marjorie S

    2014-02-27

    This research compared the effectiveness of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) outreach programs in New Mexico, Panama, and Chile. Understanding the role of human demographics, disease ecology, and human behavior in the disease process is critical to the examination of community responses in terms of behavior changes. Attitudes, knowledge, and behavior across three populations were measured through the implementation of a self-administered questionnaire (N = 601). Surveys implemented in Chile and Panama in 2004, followed by northwestern New Mexico in 2008, attempted to assess knowledge and behavior change with respect to hantavirus in high- and lower-risk prevalence areas during endemic periods. While levels of concern over contracting hantavirus were lowest in New Mexico, they were highest in Panama. Respondents in Chile showed mid-level concern and exhibited a tendency to practice proper cleaning methods more than in New Mexico and Panama. This indicates that public health messages appear to be more effective in Chile. However, since negative behavior changes, such as sweeping and vacuuming, occur at some level in all three populations, improved messages should help decrease risk of exposure to HPS.

  13. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in an urban area in Mato Grosso State, Brazil

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    Carla Julia da Silva Pessoa Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, Mato Grosso (MT has the highest number of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome cases. Our study aimed to identify anti-hantavirus antibodies in the sera of patients from Sinop, MT, presenting with acute febrile illness. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data for 198 sera samples assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was conducted. RESULTS: Immunoglobulins G (IgGs against the hantavirus nucleoprotein were found in 13.6% of the tested sera. No sample had immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies to hantavirus. Seropositivity occurred mainly in female residents in urban areas who worked around the household. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest circulation of hantavirus in Sinop.

  14. Seropositivity diagnosis for hantavirus in Jataí, Goiás State, Brazil

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    Marcos Lázaro Moreli

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Emerging diseases are of great interest, especially those associated with high mortality rates such as hantaviruses. We aimed to conduct a seroepidemiological survey to determine the levels of hantavirus infection. METHODS: In-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect specific antibodies. RESULTS: Of the 429 samples collected, seropositivity of 3.9% to anti-hantavirus immunoglobulin G (IgG was observed (CI 95%: 2.3-5.7. Moreover, in three cases, immunoglobulin M (IgM was detected, of which two were diagnosed as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate the considerable occurrence of previous hantavirus infections, highlighting occurrences from sub-clinical cases to HCPS.

  15. Increased Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Disease Prevalence in Domestic Hybrids Among Free-Living Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, Daniel J; van Hooft, Pim; Lutz, Walburga; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; van Wieren, Sip E; Ydenberg, Ron C; Prins, Herbert H T

    2015-12-01

    Wildlife immune genes are subject to natural selection exerted by pathogens. In contrast, domestic immune genes are largely protected from pathogen selection by veterinary care. Introgression of domestic alleles into the wild could lead to increased disease susceptibility, but observations are scarce due to low introgression rates, low disease prevalence and reduced survival of domestic hybrids. Here we report the first observation of a deleterious effect of domestic introgression on disease prevalence in a free-living large mammal. A fraction of 462 randomly sampled free-living European wild boar (Sus scrofa) was genetically identified as recent wild boar-domestic pig hybrids based on 351 SNP data. Analysis of antibody prevalence against the bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo) showed an increased Mhyo prevalence in wild-domestic hybrids. We argue that the most likely mechanism explaining the observed association between domestic hybrid status and Mhyo antibody prevalence would be introgression of deleterious domestic alleles. We hypothesise that large-scale use of antibiotics in the swine breeding sector may have played a role in shaping the relatively deleterious properties of domestic swine immune genes and that domestic introgression may also lead to increased wildlife disease susceptibility in the case of other species.

  16. Increasing Prevalence of Myopia in Europe and the Impact of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Katie M; Bertelsen, Geir; Cumberland, Phillippa

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether myopia is becoming more common across Europe and explore whether increasing education levels, an important environmental risk factor for myopia, might explain any temporal trend. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of population-based, cross-sectional studies from the European Eye...... a range of median ages from 44 to 78 years. METHODS: Noncycloplegic refraction, year of birth, and highest educational level achieved were obtained for all participants. Myopia was defined as a mean spherical equivalent ≤-0.75 diopters. A random-effects meta-analysis of age-specific myopia prevalence...... was performed, with sequential analyses stratified by year of birth and highest level of educational attainment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Variation in age-specific myopia prevalence for differing years of birth and educational level. RESULTS: There was a significant cohort effect for increasing myopia prevalence...

  17. Increase in prevalence and severity of asthma in young adults in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind Frausing; Rappeport, Y; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is the general impression that the prevalence of asthma has increased during recent decades. A study was undertaken to investigate asthma prevalence, respiratory symptoms, and lung function in young adults in the City of Copenhagen 15 years apart. METHODS: Men and women aged 20......-35 years were sampled from the general population living in a defined area of central Copenhagen. The first examination took place in 1976-8 and comprised 1034 subjects (response rate 67.2%). A new sample comprising 1104 subjects (response rate 62.6%) from exactly the same area was examined 15 years later...... in 1991-4. All participants answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and diseases and performed spirometric tests with measurement of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC). RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported asthma increased from 1.5% in the first...

  18. Increasing prevalence of diagnosed diabetes--United States and Puerto Rico, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    In 2010, an estimated 18.8 million persons in the United States had diagnosed diabetes mellitus and another 7.0 million had undiagnosed diabetes. Since 1990, the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States has risen sharply among all age groups, both sexes, and all racial/ethnic groups for which data are available. To learn whether the increase has been greater in some regions of the United States than in others, data on self-reported diabetes in adults collected during 1995-2010 by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were analyzed. The analysis showed that the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes increased during the interval in every state, the District of Columbia (DC), and Puerto Rico. In 1995, age-adjusted prevalence was ≥6% in only three states, DC, and Puerto Rico, but by 2010 it was ≥6% in every state, DC, and Puerto Rico, and ≥10.0% in six states and Puerto Rico. Strategies to prevent diabetes and its preventable risk factors are needed, especially for those at highest risk for diabetes, to slow the rise in diabetes prevalence across the United States. Continued surveillance of diabetes prevalence and incidence, its risk factors, and prevention efforts is important to measure progress of prevention efforts.

  19. Smoking Prevalence Among Mugla School of Health Sciences Students and Causes of Leading Increase in Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Picakciefe

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence among Mugla School of Health Sciences students, to determine the effects the increasing causes of smoking and their education about adverse health outcome of smoking. A cross-sectional study was performed among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. All students (417 in Mugla School of Health Sciences included in the study. The participation rates was 85.1%. Data were obtained by the self-administered questionnaire without teachers in classes. SPSS 11.0 was used for data analysis, and the differentiation was assessed by Chi-square analysis. P < 0.05 was accepted statistically significant. The prevalence of current smokers was 25.3% among students in Mugla School of Health Sciences. The students stated that the most important factor of smoking initiation was stress (59.2%. The univariable analysis showed that the friends’ smoking (p: 0.000 , having knowledge about smoking habits of teachers (p: 0.020 , alcohol consumption (p: 0.000, and other smokers out of parent in the home (p: 0.000 was significantly associated with increasing rate of smoking prevalence. The smoking prevalence was quite high (25.3% among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. It is needed to decreasing smoking prevalence among students that antismoking education should be reevaluated, that antismoking campaign should be administered in schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 267-272

  20. The Increasing Prevalence of Complicated Mourning: The Onslaught Is Just Beginning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Therese A.

    1993-01-01

    Operationalizes complicated mourning in relation to six "R" processes of mourning (recognize, react, recollect, relinquish, readjust, reinvest) and identifies seven high-risk factors. Asserts that prevalence of complicated mourning is increasing today because of contemporary sociocultural and technological trends. Notes that new…

  1. Detection of Puumala hantavirus antigen in human intestine during acute hantavirus infection.

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    Joerg Latus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Puumala virus (PUUV is the most important hantavirus species in Central Europe. Nephropathia epidemica (NE, caused by PUUV, is characterized by acute renal injury (AKI with thrombocytopenia and frequently gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: 456 patients with serologically and clinically confirmed NE were investigated at time of follow-up in a single clinic. The course of the NE was investigated using medical reports. We identified patients who had endoscopy with intestinal biopsy during acute phase of NE. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses of the biopsies were performed. RESULTS: Thirteen patients underwent colonoscopy or gastroscopy for abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting during acute phase of NE. Immunohistochemistry (IHC revealed PUUV nucleocapsid antigen in 11 biopsies from 8 patients; 14 biopsies from 5 patients were negative for PUUV nucleocapsid antigen. IHC localized PUUV nucleocapsid antigen in endothelial cells of capillaries or larger vessels in the lamina propria. Rate of AKI was not higher and severity of AKI was not different in the PUUV-positive compared to the PUUV-negative group. All IHC positive biopsies were positive for PUUV RNA using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed clustering of all PUUV strains from this study with viruses previously detected from the South-West of Germany. Long-term outcome was favorable in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NE, PUUV nucleocapsid antigen and PUUV RNA was detected frequently in the intestine. This finding could explain frequent GI-symptoms in NE patients, thus demonstration of a more generalized PUUV infection. The RT-PCR was an effective and sensitive method to detect PUUV RNA in FFPE tissues. Therefore, it can be used as a diagnostic and phylogenetic approach also for archival materials. AKI was not more often present in patients with PUUV-positive IHC. This last finding should be investigated in larger numbers of

  2. A high and increasing HPV prevalence in tonsillar cancers in Eastern Denmark, 2000-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnaes, Emilie; Kiss, Katalin; Andersen, Luise

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to explore whether the incidence of tonsillar squamous cell carcinomas (TSCCs) increased in Eastern Denmark, 2000-2010, and whether human papillomavirus (HPV) could explain the increase, and to assess the association of HPV prevalence with gender, age, and origin (i.e., the certainty...... of tonsillar tumor origin). We applied HPV DNA PCR and p16 immunohistochemistry to all TSCCs registered in the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA) and in the Danish Pathology Data Bank (n = 632). Pathologists reviewed and subdivided the tumors into two groups: specified and nonspecified TSCCs....... Approximately 10% of HPV-positive tumors was genotyped by amplicon next-generation sequencing. The overall crude incidence of TSCCs increased significantly (2.7% per year) and was explained by an increasing incidence of HPV-positive TSCCs (4.9% per year). The overall HPV prevalence was 58%, with HPV16 being...

  3. Introduced bullfrogs are associated with increased Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and reduced occurrence of Korean treefrogs.

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    Amaël Borzée

    Full Text Available Bullfrogs, Lithobates catesbeianus, have been described as major vectors of the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. Bd is widespread throughout the range of amphibians yet varies considerably within and among populations in prevalence and host impact. In our study, the presence of L. catesbeianus is correlated with a 2.5 increase in Bd prevalence in treefrogs, and the endangered Dryophytes suweonensis displays a significantly higher Bd prevalence than the more abundant D. japonicus for the 37 sites surveyed. In addition, the occurrence of L. catesbeianus was significantly correlated with a decrease in presence of D. suweonensis at sites. We could not determine if it is the presence of bullfrogs as competitors or predators that is limiting the distribution of D. suweonensis or whether this is caused by bullfrogs acting as a reservoir for Bd. However, L. catesbeianus can now be added to the list of factors responsible for the decline of D. suweonensis populations.

  4. Zunehmend mehr Hantavirus-Infektionen: Hinweise zu Vorsichtsmaßnahmen für Ornithologen und Feldbiologen

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Hantaviruses are transmitted to humans by infected rodents via faeces, urine or bites and cause severe illness. In Europe the most common disease is the nephropathia epidemica. Man can be infected by inhaling viruses in contaminated aerosols or soil particles. There has been a obvious increase of case numbers in Germany in 2007: more than 1660 cases where recorded by the Robert-Koch-Institut (vs. 72 in 2006 and 448 in 2005). Mostly working men where concerned. 60 % of all patients had to be t...

  5. Changes in Diversification Patterns and Signatures of Selection during the Evolution of Murinae-Associated Hantaviruses

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    Guillaume Castel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last 50 years, hantaviruses have significantly affected public health worldwide, but the exact extent of the distribution of hantavirus diseases, species and lineages and the risk of their emergence into new geographic areas are still poorly known. In particular, the determinants of molecular evolution of hantaviruses circulating in different geographical areas or different host species are poorly documented. Yet, this understanding is essential for the establishment of more accurate scenarios of hantavirus emergence under different climatic and environmental constraints. In this study, we focused on Murinae-associated hantaviruses (mainly Seoul Dobrava and Hantaan virus using sequences available in GenBank and conducted several complementary phylogenetic inferences. We sought for signatures of selection and changes in patterns and rates of diversification in order to characterize hantaviruses’ molecular evolution at different geographical scales (global and local. We then investigated whether these events were localized in particular geographic areas. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the assumption that RNA virus molecular variations were under strong evolutionary constraints and revealed changes in patterns of diversification during the evolutionary history of hantaviruses. These analyses provide new knowledge on the molecular evolution of hantaviruses at different scales of time and space.

  6. Reduction in malaria prevalence and increase in malaria awareness in endemic districts of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Kabir, Mohammad Moktadir; Hossain, Mohammad Sharif; Naher, Shamsun; Ferdous, Nur E Naznin; Khan, Wasif Ali; Mondal, Dinesh; Karim, Jahirul; Shamsuzzaman, A K M; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Islam, Akramul; Haque, Rashidul

    2016-11-11

    Malaria is endemic in 13 districts of Bangladesh. A baseline malaria prevalence survey across the endemic districts of Bangladesh was conducted in 2007, when the prevalence was reported around 39.7 per 1000 population. After two rounds of Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM)-funded intervention by the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) and a BRAC-led NGO consortium, a follow-up survey was conducted across the malaria-endemic districts of Bangladesh to measure the change in prevalence rate and in people's knowledge of malaria. The survey was carried out from August to November 2013 in 70 upazilas (sub-districts) of 13 malaria-endemic districts of Bangladesh, following the same multi-stage cluster sampling design and the same number of households enrolled during the baseline prevalence survey in 2007, to collect 9750 randomly selected blood samples. For on-the-spot diagnosis of malaria, a rapid diagnostic test was used. The household head or eldest person available was interviewed using a pre-coded structured questionnaire to collect data on the knowledge and awareness of malaria in the household. Based on a weighted calculation, the overall malaria prevalence was found to be 1.41 per 1000 population. The proportion of Plasmodium falciparum mono-infection was 77.78% while both Plasmodium vivax mono-infection and mixed infection of the two species were found to be 11.11%. Bandarban had the highest prevalence (6.67 per 1000 population). Knowledge of malaria signs, symptoms and mode of transmission were higher in the follow-up survey (97.26%) than the baseline survey. Use of bed nets for prevention of malaria was found to be high (90.15%) at respondent level. People's knowledge of selected parameters increased significantly during the follow-up survey compared to the baseline survey conducted in 2007. A reduced prevalence rate of malaria and increased level of knowledge were observed in the present malaria prevalence survey in Bangladesh.

  7. Increasing prevalence and high incidence of celiac disease in elderly people: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilppula, Anitta; Kaukinen, Katri; Luostarinen, Liisa; Krekelä, Ilkka; Patrikainen, Heikki; Valve, Raisa; Mäki, Markku; Collin, Pekka

    2009-06-29

    Celiac disease may emerge at any age, but little is known of its appearance in elderly people. We evaluated the prevalence of the condition in individuals over 55 years of age, and determined the incidence of biopsy-proven celiac disease (CDb) and celiac disease including seropositive subjects for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (CDb+s). The study based on prevalence figures in 2815 randomly selected subjects who had undergone a clinical examination and serologic screening for celiac disease in 2002. A second screening in the same population was carried out in 2005, comprising now 2216 individuals. Positive tissue transglutaminase antibodies were confirmed with small bowel biopsy. Within three years the prevalence of CDb increased from 2.13 to 2.34%, and that of CDb+s from 2.45 to 2.70%. Five new cases were found among patients previously seronegative; two had minor abdominal symptoms and three were asymptomatic. The incidence of celiac disease in 2002-2005 was 0.23%, giving an annual incidence of 0.08% in this population. The prevalence of celiac disease was high in elderly people, but the symptoms were subtle. Repeated screening detected five biopsy-proven cases in three years, indicating that the disorder may develop even in the elderly. Increased alertness to the disorder is therefore warranted.

  8. Increasing prevalence and high incidence of celiac disease in elderly people: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilppula Anitta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celiac disease may emerge at any age, but little is known of its appearance in elderly people. We evaluated the prevalence of the condition in individuals over 55 years of age, and determined the incidence of biopsy-proven celiac disease (CDb and celiac disease including seropositive subjects for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (CDb+s. Methods The study based on prevalence figures in 2815 randomly selected subjects who had undergone a clinical examination and serologic screening for celiac disease in 2002. A second screening in the same population was carried out in 2005, comprising now 2216 individuals. Positive tissue transglutaminase antibodies were confirmed with small bowel biopsy. Results Within three years the prevalence of CDb increased from 2.13 to 2.34%, and that of CDb+s from 2.45 to 2.70%. Five new cases were found among patients previously seronegative; two had minor abdominal symptoms and three were asymptomatic. The incidence of celiac disease in 2002–2005 was 0.23%, giving an annual incidence of 0.08% in this population. Conclusion The prevalence of celiac disease was high in elderly people, but the symptoms were subtle. Repeated screening detected five biopsy-proven cases in three years, indicating that the disorder may develop even in the elderly. Increased alertness to the disorder is therefore warranted.

  9. Understanding increases in smoking prevalence: case study from France in comparison with England 2000-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Marteau, Rosie; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-03-01

    In France, following a long-term decline in smoking prevalence, an increase in smoking was observed between 2005 and 2010, an unusual occurrence in countries in the 'mature' stage of the smoking epidemic. By contrast, smoking prevalence in England, the neighbouring country, continued its long-term decline. We identified and translated recent reports on smoking and tobacco control in France and using these assessed the main data sources on smoking and compared them with similar sources in England, in order to explore possible explanations. In France, national smoking prevalence data are collected 5-yearly, minimizing opportunities for fine-grained analysis; the comparable study in England is implemented annually. We identified several probable causes of the recent increased prevalence of smoking in France, the primary one being the absence of sufficient price rises between 2005 and 2010, due probably to the lack of a robust tobacco control strategy, which also appeared to have empowered tobacco industry influence. Funding to compensate tobacconists appears to incentivize tobacco sales and is significantly higher than tobacco control funding. Mindful of the limitations of a case-study approach, the absence of sufficient price rises in the context of a weak tobacco control strategy seems the most likely explanation for the recent increase in smoking prevalence in France. A new cancer control plan and a national smoking reduction programme have been proposed by the French government in 2014 which, depending on implementation, may reverse the trend. In both countries, the higher levels of smoking among the more disadvantaged groups are of great concern and require greater political leadership for effective action. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Tula hantavirus NSs protein accumulates in the perinuclear area in infected and transfected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jussi Oskari; Jääskeläinen, Kirsi Maria; Djupsjöbacka, Janica; Vaheri, Antti; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The small RNA segment of some hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) encodes two proteins: the nucleocapsid protein and, in an overlapping reading frame, a non-structural (NSs) protein. The hantavirus NSs protein, like those of orthobunya- and phleboviruses, counteracts host innate immunity. Here, for the first time, the NSs protein of a hantavirus (Tula virus) has been observed in infected cells and shown to localize in the perinuclear area. Transiently expressed NSs protein showed similar localization, although the kinetics was slightly different, suggesting that to reach its proper location in the infected cell, the NSs protein does not have to cooperate with other viral proteins.

  11. Sediment and turbidity associated with offshore dredging increase coral disease prevalence on nearby reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, F Joseph; Lamb, Joleah B; Field, Stuart N; Heron, Scott F; Schaffelke, Britta; Shedrawi, George; Bourne, David G; Willis, Bette L

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, coral reef ecosystems have declined to the extent that reefs are now threatened globally. While many water quality parameters have been proposed to contribute to reef declines, little evidence exists conclusively linking specific water quality parameters with increased disease prevalence in situ. Here we report evidence from in situ coral health surveys confirming that chronic exposure to dredging-associated sediment plumes significantly increase the prevalence of white syndromes, a devastating group of globally important coral diseases. Coral health surveys were conducted along a dredging-associated sediment plume gradient to assess the relationship between sedimentation, turbidity and coral health. Reefs exposed to the highest number of days under the sediment plume (296 to 347 days) had two-fold higher levels of disease, largely driven by a 2.5-fold increase in white syndromes, and a six-fold increase in other signs of compromised coral health relative to reefs with little or no plume exposure (0 to 9 days). Multivariate modeling and ordination incorporating sediment exposure level, coral community composition and cover, predation and multiple thermal stress indices provided further confirmation that sediment plume exposure level was the main driver of elevated disease and other compromised coral health indicators. This study provides the first evidence linking dredging-associated sedimentation and turbidity with elevated coral disease prevalence in situ. Our results may help to explain observed increases in global coral disease prevalence in recent decades and suggest that minimizing sedimentation and turbidity associated with coastal development will provide an important management tool for controlling coral disease epizootics.

  12. Increased Prevalence of Renal and Urinary Tract Anomalies in Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Juhi; Gordillo, Roberto; Kaskel, Frederick J.; Druschel, Charlotte M.; Woroniecki, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We investigated the prevalence of congenital renal and urologic anomalies in children with congenital hypothyroidism to determine whether further renal and urologic investigations would be of benefit. Study design Prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism was obtained from the New York State Congenital Malformation Registry. The occurrence of urinary tract anomalies were calculated for children with congenital hypothyroidism and compared to children without congenital hypothyroidism. In addition we obtained congenital hypothyroidism data from New York State newborn screening, and the cases were matched to Congenital Malformation Registry. Results Analysis of Congenital Malformation Registry data showed 980 children with congenital hypothyroidism and 3 661 585 children without congenital hypothyroidism born in New York State (1992-2005). Children with congenital hypothyroidism have a significantly increased risk of congenital renal and urological anomalies with the odds ratio (OR) of 13.2 (10.6-16.5). The other significantly increased defects in congenital hypothyroidism were cardiac, gastrointestinal, and skeletal. Analysis of matched data confirmed an increase of congenital renal and urologic anomalies with OR of 4.8 (3.7-6.3). Conclusions Children with congenital hypothyroidism have an increased prevalence of congenital renal and urologic anomalies. We suggest that these children should be evaluated for the presence of congenital renal and urologic anomalies with renal ultrasonography, and that further studies of common genes involved in thyroid and kidney development are warranted. PMID:18823909

  13. Prevalence of radiographic hip osteoarthritis is increased in high bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, S A; Dieppe, P; Gregson, C L; Hunter, D; Thomas, G E R; Arden, N K; Spector, T D; Hart, D J; Laugharne, M J; Clague, G A; Edwards, M H; Dennison, E M; Cooper, C; Williams, M; Davey Smith, G; Tobias, J H

    2014-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between increased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoarthritis (OA), but whether this represents cause or effect remains unclear. In this study, we used a novel approach to investigate this question, determining whether individuals with High Bone Mass (HBM) have a higher prevalence of radiographic hip OA compared with controls. HBM cases came from the UK-based HBM study: HBM was defined by BMD Z-score. Unaffected relatives of index cases were recruited as family controls. Age-stratified random sampling was used to select further population controls from the Chingford and Hertfordshire cohort studies. Pelvic radiographs were pooled and assessed by a single observer blinded to case-control status. Analyses used logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender and body mass index (BMI). 530 HBM hips in 272 cases (mean age 62.9 years, 74% female) and 1702 control hips in 863 controls (mean age 64.8 years, 84% female) were analysed. The prevalence of radiographic OA, defined as Croft score ≥3, was higher in cases compared with controls (20.0% vs 13.6%), with adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% CI] 1.52 [1.09, 2.11], P = 0.013. Osteophytes (OR 2.12 [1.61, 2.79], P subchondral sclerosis (OR 2.78 [1.49, 5.18], P = 0.001) were more prevalent in cases. However, no difference in the prevalence of joint space narrowing (JSN) was seen (OR 0.97 [0.72, 1.33], P = 0.869). An increased prevalence of radiographic hip OA and osteophytosis was observed in HBM cases compared with controls, in keeping with a positive association between HBM and OA and suggesting that OA in HBM has a hypertrophic phenotype. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex-specific increase in the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (The Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Jens; Scharling, Henrik; Gadsbøll, Niels

    2003-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently encountered cardiac arrhythmia. It is a risk factor for stroke and premature death. We studied the temporal changes in the prevalence of AF from 1976 to 1994 in a random population aged 50 to 89 years. The prevalence of AF, diagnosed from electrocar.......4% in 1976 to 1978 (odds ratio [OR] 1.0, reference) to 1.9% in 1981 to 1983 (OR 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1 to 2.1), and to 3.3% in 1991 to 1994 (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.4, p...... electrocardiograms (ECGs), was determined in 8,606 patients examined in 1976 to 1978, in 8,943 patients examined in 1981 to 1983, and in 6,733 subjects examined in 1991 to 1994. Changes in prevalence of AF were estimated by logistic regression analysis. In men, the age-standardized prevalence of AF increased from 1...

  15. Are eating disorders and their symptoms increasing in prevalence among adolescent population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litmanen, Jessi; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Isomaa, Rasmus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2017-01-01

    A debate concerns whether eating disorders are increasing in prevalence. The role of socio-economic status (SES) for adolescent eating disorders (ED) is another matter of debate. To ascertain whether self-reported eating disorders or their symptoms have increased in prevalence in adolescent population from the early 2000s to early 2010s. A person-identifiable classroom survey, Adolescent Mental Health Cohort study, was carried out among the 9th graders in comprehensive schools in Tampere, Finland, during academic year 2002-2003, and replicated among then 9th graders during academic years 2012-2013. Eating disorders were elicited with questionnaires tailored according to DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. No changes were observed between 2002-2003 and 2012-2013 in the prevalence of anorexia and bulimia, most of the symptoms of anorexia and bulimia, or the proportion of adolescents having received treatment due to eating disorders among the girls or the boys. Eating disorders, treatment contacts due to eating disorders, and eating disorder symptoms were not systematically associated with either low or high parental socio-economic status. Based on this dataset, eating disorders are not increasing in the adolescent population. Adolescent eating disorders are not associated with socio-economic status of their family.

  16. Cigarette prices and smoking prevalence after a tobacco tax increase--Turkey, 2008 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Andes, Linda; Erguder, Toker; Yurekli, Ayda; Keskinkılıç, Bekir; Polat, Sertaç; Culha, Gönül; Kilinç, Evin Aras; Taştı, Enver; Erşahin, Yılmaz; Ozmen, Mehmet; San, Ramazan; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi; Asma, Samira

    2014-05-30

    Raising the price of tobacco products has been shown to reduce tobacco consumption in the United States and other high-income countries, and evidence of this impact has been growing for low- and middle-income countries as well. Turkey is a middle-income country surveyed by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) twice in a 4-year period, in 2008 and 2012. During this time, the country introduced a policy raising its Special Consumption Tax on Tobacco and implemented a comprehensive tobacco control program banning smoking in public places, banning advertising, and introducing graphic health warnings. The higher tobacco tax took effect in early 2010, allowing sufficient time for subsequent changes in prices and smoking to be observed by the time of the 2012 GATS. This report uses data from GATS Turkey to examine how cigarette prices changed after the 2010 tax increase, describe the temporally associated changes in smoking prevalence, and learn whether this smoking prevalence changed more in some demographic groups than others. From 2008 to 2012, the average price paid for cigarettes increased by 42.1%, cigarettes became less affordable, and smoking prevalence decreased by 14.6%. The largest reduction in smoking was observed among persons with lower socioeconomic status (SES), highlighting the potential role of tax policy in reducing health disparities across socioeconomic groups.

  17. Old World hantaviruses in rodents in New Orleans, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert W; Waffa, Bradley; Freeman, Ashley; Riegel, Claudia; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew; Safronetz, David; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Feldmann, Heinz; Voss, Thomas G; Bausch, Daniel G

    2014-05-01

    Seoul virus, an Old World hantavirus, is maintained in brown rats and causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. We captured rodents in New Orleans, Louisiana and tested them for the presence of Old World hantaviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with sequencing, cell culture, and electron microscopy; 6 (3.4%) of 178 rodents captured--all brown rats--were positive for a Seoul virus variant previously coined Tchoupitoulas virus, which was noted in rodents in New Orleans in the 1980s. The finding of Tchoupitoulas virus in New Orleans over 25 years since its first discovery suggests stable endemicity in the city. Although the degree to which this virus causes human infection and disease remains unknown, repeated demonstration of Seoul virus in rodent populations, recent cases of laboratory-confirmed HFRS in some US cities, and a possible link with hypertensive renal disease warrant additional investigation in both rodents and humans.

  18. Serological Survey of Hantavirus in Inhabitants from Tropical and Subtropical Areas of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alves Morais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6.2%, of which 62 were from the tropical area (5.8% and 20 from the subtropical area (8.3%, tested positive. Higher levels of hantavirus antibody were observed in inhabitants of the populous subtropical areas compared with those from the tropical areas in Brazil.

  19. Chronic nutrient enrichment increases prevalence and severity of coral disease and bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Thurber, Rebecca L; Burkepile, Deron E; Fuchs, Corinne; Shantz, Andrew A; McMinds, Ryan; Zaneveld, Jesse R

    2014-02-01

    Nutrient loading is one of the strongest drivers of marine habitat degradation. Yet, the link between nutrients and disease epizootics in marine organisms is often tenuous and supported only by correlative data. Here, we present experimental evidence that chronic nutrient exposure leads to increases in both disease prevalence and severity and coral bleaching in scleractinian corals, the major habitat-forming organisms in tropical reefs. Over 3 years, from June 2009 to June 2012, we continuously exposed areas of a coral reef to elevated levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. At the termination of the enrichment, we surveyed over 1200 scleractinian corals for signs of disease or bleaching. Siderastrea siderea corals within enrichment plots had a twofold increase in both the prevalence and severity of disease compared with corals in unenriched control plots. In addition, elevated nutrient loading increased coral bleaching; Agaricia spp. of corals exposed to nutrients suffered a 3.5-fold increase in bleaching frequency relative to control corals, providing empirical support for a hypothesized link between nutrient loading and bleaching-induced coral declines. However, 1 year later, after nutrient enrichment had been terminated for 10 months, there were no differences in coral disease or coral bleaching prevalence between the previously enriched and control treatments. Given that our experimental enrichments were well within the ranges of ambient nutrient concentrations found on many degraded reefs worldwide, these data provide strong empirical support to the idea that coastal nutrient loading is one of the major factors contributing to the increasing levels of both coral disease and coral bleaching. Yet, these data also suggest that simple improvements to water quality may be an effective way to mitigate some coral disease epizootics and the corresponding loss of coral cover in the future. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii, and Laguna Negra hantavirus in an Indian reserve in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    de Barros Lopes, Lívia; Guterres, Alexandro; Rozental, Tatiana; Carvalho de Oliveira, Renata; Mares-Guia, Maria Angélica; Fernandes, Jorlan; Figueredo, José Ferreira; Anschau, Inês; de Jesus, Sebastião; V Almeida, Ana Beatriz M; Cristina da Silva, Valéria; Gomes de Melo Via, Alba Valéria; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D’Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Barreira, Jairo Dias

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of rickettsia and hantavirus in wild rodents and arthropods in response to an outbreak of acute unidentified febrile illness among Indians in the Halataikwa Indian Reserve, northwest of the Mato Grosso state, in the Brazilian Amazon. Where previously surveillance data showed serologic evidence of rickettsia and hantavirus human infection. Methods The arthropods were collected from the healthy Indian population and by flagging v...

  1. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (rio Mamore virus) in the peruvian Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Mamani, Enrique; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. biólogo.; García, María P.; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. tecnólogo médico.; Miraval, María L.; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico anátomo-patólogo.; Valencia, Pedro; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico infectólogo.; Quino, Alberto H.; Hospital Regional de Loreto, Gobierno Regional de Loreto. Loreto, Perú. médico intensivista.; Álvarez, Carlos; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico anátomo-patólogo.; Donaires, Luis F.; Dirección Regional de Salud de Loreto, Gobierno Regional de Loreto. Loreto, Perú. médico epidemiólogo.

    2014-01-01

    Hantavirus infection is a viral zoonotic infection borne by rodents which most letal form clinical is the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (SPH, Spanish abbreviation). The Mamore River variant originates in South America and was found in rodents without any association to human diseases. Two cases of SPH were identified in the Peruvian Amazon region in November 2011. In both cases, a molecular diagnostic testing was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Salud from Peru. A phylogenetic analy...

  2. Hantavirus Gn and Gc glycoproteins self-assemble into virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Rodrigo; Cifuentes-Muñoz, Nicolás; Márquez, Chantal L; Bulling, Manuela; Klingström, Jonas; Mancini, Roberta; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D

    2014-02-01

    How hantaviruses assemble and exit infected cells remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the expression of Andes (ANDV) and Puumala (PUUV) hantavirus Gn and Gc envelope glycoproteins lead to their self-assembly into virus-like particles (VLPs) which were released to cell supernatants. The viral nucleoprotein was not required for particle formation. Further, a Gc endodomain deletion mutant did not abrogate VLP formation. The VLPs were pleomorphic, exposed protrusions and reacted with patient sera.

  3. Increasing Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in a Chinese Elderly Population: 2001-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Liu

    Full Text Available The information on the changes of prevalence of MetS in China is limited. Our objective was to assess a 10-year's change of the prevalence of MetS in a Chinese elderly population between 2001 and 2010.We conducted two cross-sectional surveys in a representative sample of elderly population aged 60 to 95 years in Beijing in 2001 and 2010 respectively. MetS was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition.A total of 2,334 participants (943 male, 1,391 female in 2001 and 2,102 participants (848 male, 1,254 female in 2010 completed the survey. The prevalence of MetS was 50.4% (95%CI: 48.4%-52.4% in 2001 and 58.1% (95%CI: 56.0%-60.2% in 2010. The absolute change of prevalence of MetS was 7.7% over the 10-year's period (p<0.001. The syndrome was more common in female than male in both survey years. Among the five components, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C had increased most, with an increase of 14.8% (from 29.4% to 44.2% and 9.9% (from 28.3% to 38.2% respectively. The adjusted ORs of MetS for CHD, stroke and CVD were 1.67(95%CI: 1.39-1.99, 1.50(95%CI: 1.19-1.88 and 1.70(95%CI: 1.43-2.01 respectively in 2001, and were 1.74(95%CI: 1.40-2.17, 1.25(95%CI: 0.95-1.63 and 1.52(95%CI: 1.25-1.86 respectively in 2010.The prevalence of MetS is high and increasing rapidly in this Chinese elderly population. Participants with Mets and its individual components are at significantly elevated ORs for CVD. Urgent public health actions are needed to control MetS and its components, especially for dislipidemia.

  4. Ongoing spillover of Hantaan and Gou hantaviruses from rodents is associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in China.

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    Wen Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Longquan City, Zhejiang province, China, has been seriously affected by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS since the first cases were registered in 1974. To understand the epidemiology and emergence of HFRS in Longquan, which may be indicative of large parts of rural China, we studied long-term incidence patterns and performed a molecular epidemiological investigation of the causative hantaviruses in human and rodent populations. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During 1974-2011, 1866 cases of HFRS were recorded in Longquan, including 20 deaths. In 2011, the incidence of HFRS remained high, with 19.61 cases/100,000 population, despite the onset of vaccination in 1997. During 1974-1998, HFRS cases in Longquan occurred mainly in winter, while in the past decade the peak of HFRS has shifted to the spring. Notably, the concurrent prevalence of rodent-borne hantaviruses in the region was also high. Phylogenetic analyses of viral sequences recovered from rodents in Longquan revealed the presence of novel genetic variants of Gou virus (GOUV in Rattus sp. rats and Hantaan virus (HTNV in the stripe field mice, respectively. Strikingly, viral sequences sampled from infected humans were very closely related to those from rodents. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HFRS represents an important public health problem in Longquan even after years of preventive measures. Our data suggest that continual spillover of the novel genetic variant of GOUV and the new genetic lineage of HTNV are responsible for the high prevalence of HFRS in humans. In addition, this is the first report of GOUV associated with human HFRS cases, and our data suggest that GOUV is now the major cause of HFRS in this region.

  5. Vector species richness increases haemorrhagic disease prevalence through functional diversity modulating the duration of seasonal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Andrew W; Cleveland, Christopher A; Dallas, Tad A; Corn, Joseph L

    2016-06-01

    Although many parasites are transmitted between hosts by a suite of arthropod vectors, the impact of vector biodiversity on parasite transmission is poorly understood. Positive relationships between host infection prevalence and vector species richness (SR) may operate through multiple mechanisms, including (i) increased vector abundance, (ii) a sampling effect in which species of high vectorial capacity are more likely to occur in species-rich communities, and (iii) functional diversity whereby communities comprised species with distinct phenologies may extend the duration of seasonal transmission. Teasing such mechanisms apart is impeded by a lack of appropriate data, yet could highlight a neglected role for functional diversity in parasite transmission. We used statistical modelling of extensive host, vector and microparasite data to test the hypothesis that functional diversity leading to longer seasonal transmission explained variable levels of disease in a wildlife population. We additionally developed a simple transmission model to guide our expectation of how an increased transmission season translates to infection prevalence. Our study demonstrates that vector SR is associated with increased levels of disease reporting, but not via increases in vector abundance or via a sampling effect. Rather, the relationship operates by extending the length of seasonal transmission, in line with theoretical predictions.

  6. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  7. Multiple Co-infections of Rodents with Hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Nenad; Korva, Miša; Margaletić, Josip; Beck, Relja; Vucelja, Marko; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Županc, Tatjana Avšič; Henttonen, Heikki; Markotić, Alemka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hantaviruses, Leptospira spp., and Babesia spp. are rodent-borne pathogens present worldwide. We studied multiple co-infections of small rodents in Croatia with all three pathogens. Twenty-eight Apodemus flavicollis and 16 Myodes glareolus were tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by real-time RT-PCR, Leptospira strains by renoculture method and Babesia DNA by PCR. Anti-hantavirus antibodies and anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected by serological methods. Very high infection rates with each pathogen were found in A. flavicollis: 20 of 28 rodents (71%) were infected with Dobrava virus, 13 rodents (46%) were infected with Leptospira, and 5 rodents (18%) were infected with Babesia. Multiple co-infections with all three pathogens were found in 3 of 28 (11%) A. flavicollis animals, suggesting that the same rodent host can be infected with several pathogens at the same time. Dual infections with both hantaviruses and Leptospira were found in 7 of 44 rodents (16%), with hantaviruses and Babesia in 2 rodents (5%), and double infection with both Leptospira and Babesia were found in 1 rodent (2%). Since hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia have similar geographical distributions, it is to be expected that in other parts of the world multiple co-infections, representing a serious threat to public health, can be found. PMID:22217170

  8. Development of a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test for hantavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelly de Pádua

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Americas, hantaviruses cause severe cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS with a high fatality rate. Hantavirus infection is commonly diagnosed using serologic techniques and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This paper presents a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT for detecting antibodies to Brazilian hantavirus. Using PRNT, plaque detection was enhanced by adding 0.6% of dimethyl sulfoxide into the overlay culture medium of the infected cells. This procedure facilitated clear visualisation of small plaques under the microscope and provided for easy and accurate plaque counting. The sera from 37 HCPS patients from the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil was evaluated for the Rio Mamoré virus (RIOMV using PRNT. Six samples exhibited neutralising antibodies; these antibodies exhibited a low titre. The low level of seropositive samples may be due to fewer cross-reactions between two different hantavirus species; the patients were likely infected by Araraquara virus (a virus that has not been isolated and RIOMV was used for the test. This assay offers a new approach to evaluating and measuring neutralising antibodies produced during hantavirus infections and it can be adapted to other hantaviruses, including viruses that will be isolated in the future.

  9. Increased risk of ALL among premature infants is not explained by increased prevalence of pre-leukemic cell clones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Madsen, Hans O.; Vestergaard, Therese Risom

    2010-01-01

    in the prevalence and magnitude of preleukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells compared to previously published data from mature children could be demonstrated. This indirectly supports the theory that prevalence and quantity of preleukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells peaks at term or early childhood and that exogenous...

  10. Increased Prevalence of Colorectal Polyp in Acromegaly Patients: A Case-Control Study

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    Ali Riza Koksal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in the prevalence of colorectal polyps and cancer is reported in patients with acromegaly. This trial is designed to determine whether there is an increase in the prevalence of colorectal polyps/cancer in Turkish acromegaly patients. Sixty-six patients, who were under follow-up with the diagnosis of acromegaly and underwent total colonoscopic examination, were enrolled in the study. Sixty-five age- and gender-matched patients with nonspecific complaints were selected as control. The mean age of acromegalic patients was 51.5±12.8 years of whom 27 (40.9% were females. In 20 (30.3% of the patients with acromegaly a total of 65 colorectal polyps were detected. Forty-seven (72.3% of the polyps were detected at the rectosigmoid region. In 8 (12.3% of the 65 control patients a total of 17 polyps were found. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (P=0.018. At the logistic regression analysis we found that the risk for colon polyps increased 3.2-fold in the presence of acromegaly, irrespective of age and gender (OR: 3.191, 95% CI: 1.25–8.13. In conclusion, patients who were followed up with the diagnosis of acromegaly should be taken to the colonoscopic surveillance program and all polyps detected should be excised in order to protect them from colorectal cancer.

  11. Hantavirus en roedores de la Octava Región de Chile Hantavirus in rodents of the VIII Region of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN CARLOS ORTIZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La Octava Región de Chile corresponde a la segunda región con el mayor número de casos de Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH. Por tal motivo se realizó un estudio para detectar la presencia de anticuerpos contra hantavirus en roedores y su distribución local en la Octava Región. El estudio comprendió las cuatro provincias de la región y consideró once sitios de muestreo. Se capturaron siete especies de roedores, Abrothrix olivaceus fue la más abundante seguida de Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. De los 300 roedores analizados, cinco ejemplares (1,66 % resultaron ser positivos a hantavirus y correspondieron a tres especies de sigmodontinos: a saber, Loxodontomys micropus, que corresponde al único registro de este tipo para la especie en Chile, Abrotrix longipilis y Oligoryzomys longicaudatusThe Eight Region has the second highest number of cases of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS in humans for Chile. A study was performed to identify the number of rodents serologically positive to hantavirus and their local distribution in this region. To achieve this goal, we sampled eleven sites in the four provinces of the region. Seven rodents species were collected, with Abrothrix olivaceus presenting the largest number of captures followed by Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. Of the 300 rodents analyzed, five (1.66 % were sero-positives to hantavirus and belonged to three different sigmodontine species: Abrothrix longipilis, O. longicaudatus, and Loxodontomys micropus. No previous records of seropositive L. micropus existed.

  12. Increase in sexual risk behavior and prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among adolescents in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Sara J; Leelawiwat, Wanna; Jeeyapant, Supaporn; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Papp, John; Kilmarx, Peter H; Markowitz, Lauri E; Tappero, Jordan W; Chaowanachan, Thanyanan; Uthaivoravit, Wat; van Griensven, Frits

    2008-10-01

    Monitoring changes in adolescent sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections is critical for evaluating the effectiveness of human immunodeficiency virus and other prevention programs, but population-based data on adolescents in Thailand are limited. We report findings from 2 cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1999 and 2002 among 15-to 21-year-old vocational students. In 1999 and 2002, 1725 and 966 students, respectively, were interviewed using computer-assisted self-interview methods. Urine samples were collected and tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by polymerase chain reaction. From 1999 to 2002 C. trachomatis prevalence increased from 3.2% to 7.5% (P partners among both men (3.4-4.7, P = 0.01) and women (2.5-3.3, P partners among men (1.1-2.1, P use decreased significantly among women with casual partners (43%-19%, P = 0.03) but not among men (25%-31%, P = 0.31). Our study identified important increases in the prevalence of chlamydial infection and in sexual risk behaviors among Thai adolescents over a 3-year period. These findings are consistent with other studies suggesting profound social changes are changing norms of adolescent sexual behavior in Thailand, and highlight the need for adolescent sexual health services and prevention programming.

  13. Increased prevalence of chronic physical health disorders in Australians with diagnosed mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David; Burke, Karena; Williams, Susan; Happell, Brenda; Canoy, Doreen; Ronan, Kevin

    2012-10-01

    To compare chronic physical health disorder prevalence amongst Australian adults with and without mental illness. Total n=1,716 participants (58% female) with a mean age of 52 ± 13 years (range: 18 to 89 years) completed an online survey of Australian adults in 2010. Outcome measures including prevalence of chronic physical conditions and self-reported body mass index (BMI) in n=387 (23%) with a self-reported mental illness diagnosis were compared to respondents without mental illness. A significantly higher proportion of participants with mental illness were obese (BMI ≥ 30; 31 vs 24%, p=0.005). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) for coronary heart disease, diabetes, chronic bronchitis or emphysema, asthma, irritable bowel syndrome, and food allergies or intolerances (OR range: 1.54-3.19) demonstrated that chronic physical disorders were significantly more common in participants with a mental illness. Australian adults with a diagnosis for mental illness have a significantly increased likelihood of demonstrating chronic physical health disorders compared to persons without mental illness. Health professionals must be alert to the increased likelihood of comorbid chronic physical disorders in persons with a mental illness and should consider the adoption of holistic approaches when treating those with either a mental or physical illness. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Increasing prevalence of asthma, respiratory symptoms, and allergic diseases: Four repeated surveys from 1993-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek, Grzegorz; Lawson, Joshua; Szumilas, Dawid; Zejda, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Published data shows different prevalence trends depending on the region of Europe. The aim of the study was to analyze time trends of the frequency of the respiratory symptoms and allergic diseases in school children (Silesia, Poland) over the last 21 years. We compared the results of four population-based surveys performed in a town of Chorzow in 1993, 2002, 2007 and 2014 in children aged 7-10 years. All four studies had the same study protocol, recruitment (cluster, school-based sampling), questionnaire (WHO respiratory health questionnaire) and the same principal investigator The surveys included 1130 children in 1993, 1421 children in 2002, 1661 children in 2007 and 1698 in 2014. The results covered a 21 year span and showed a statistically significant (p increase in the prevalence of the following physician-diagnosed disorders (1993-2002-2007-2014): asthma (3.4%-4.8%-8.6%-12,6%); allergic rhinitis (4.3%-11.9%-15.9%-13.9%); atopic dermatitis (3.6%-7.9%-12.0%-13.9%); allergic conjunctivitis (4.3%-7.9%-8.3%-7.9%); A simultaneous increasing trend (p increased proportion of treated children (51.3%-51.3%-69.5%-60.7%) and a lower frequency of presenting current symptoms. Our findings are in line with the concept of a real increase in the occurrence of asthma and allergic disease in children. The pattern involves not only physician-diagnosed allergic diseases but also occurrence of symptoms related to respiratory disorders. Diagnosed asthma is better treated and better controlled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Anajatuba, Maranhão, Brazil

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    MENDES Wellington S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a confirmed case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the rural area of the municipality of Anajatuba, state of Maranhão. Two other suspected cases from the same region are also described. The confirmed case involved a previously healthy young woman who died with signs and symptoms of acute respiratory insufficiency 5 days after presenting fever, myalgia and a dry cough. The patient was a student who was helping her parents with work in the fields; it was a habit of the family to store rice inside the house. The suspected cases involved two first-degree relatives working as field hands who died of acute respiratory insufficiency 24 and 48 hours, respectively, after presenting fever, myalgia and a dry cough. Both stored rice and corn inside their home. People living in the region reported massive infestations with rats in the woods and fields.

  16. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Argentina, 1995–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Carla M.; Cacace, María Luisa; Suárez, Paola; Bogni, Liliana; Padula, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    We report a large case series of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Argentina that was confirmed by laboratory restuls from 1995 through 2008. The geographic and temporal distribution of cases by age, sex, fatality rate, and risk factors for HPS was analyzed. A total of 710 cases were unequally distributed among 4 of the 5 Argentine regions. Different case-fatality rates were observed for each affected region, with a maximum rate of 40.5%. The male-to-female ratio for HPS case-patients was 3.7:1.0; the case-fatality rate was significantly higher for women. Agriculture-associated activities were most commonly reported as potential risk factors, especially among men of working age. Although HPS cases occurred predominantly in isolation, we identified 15 clusters in which strong relationships were observed between members, which suggests ongoing but limited person-to-person transmission. PMID:21122213

  17. Increased prevalence of low back pain among physiotherapy students compared to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Teles, Alisson Roberto; Mazzocchin, Thaís; de Braga, Gustavo Lisbôa; Kleber, Fabrício Diniz; Barreto, Felipe; Santin, Juliana Tosetto; Barazzetti, Daniel; Lazzaretti, Lucas; Steiner, Bruna; Beckenkamp, Natália Laste

    2011-03-01

    Some studies have demonstrated that physiotherapists have a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP). The association between physiotherapy students, who are potentially exposed to the same LBP occupational risks as graduates, and LBP has never been demonstrated. The objective of the study is to evaluate the association between undergraduate physiotherapy study and LBP. The study design includes a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire-based study was carried out with physiotherapy and medical students. LBP was measured as lifetime, 1-year and point prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to find the factors associated with LBP. Bivariate analyses were also performed to assess differences between LBP characteristics in the two courses. 77.9% of the students had LBP at some point in their lives, 66.8% in the last year and 14.4% of them reported they were suffering from LBP at the moment of answering the questionnaire. Physiotherapy students reported a higher prevalence of LBP when compared with the medical students in all measures. In the logistic regression model, physiotherapy students (A-OR 2.51; 95% CI 1.35-4.67; p = 0.003), and being exposed to the undergraduate study for more than four semesters (A-OR 2.55; 95% CI 1.43-4.55; p = 0.001) were independently associated with LBP. There were no differences between the courses concerning pain intensity and disability. As it was a cross-sectional study, we were not able to observe accurately if there is an increasing incidence of LBP during the course. Also, we did not intend to identify which activities in the course were associated with the development of LBP. This study clearly demonstrated an association between undergraduate physiotherapy study and LBP. The length of course exposure is also associated with LBP.

  18. Presence of Gout is Associated With Increased Prevalence and Severity of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rennie G.; Samuels, Jonathan; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Leung, Joseph; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Pillinger, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gout and osteoarthritis (OA) are the most prevalent arthritides, but their relationship is neither well established nor well understood. Objectives We assessed whether a diagnosis of gout or asymptomatic hyperuricemia (AH) is associated with increased prevalence/severity of knee OA. Methods 119 male patients ages 55–85 were sequentially enrolled from the primary care clinics of an urban VA hospital, assessed and categorized into 3 groups: gout (ACR Classification Criteria), AH ([serum urate] ≥ 6.8 mg/dL, no gout), and control ([serum urate] gout). 25 patients from each group subsequently underwent formal assessment of knee OA presence and severity (ACR Clinical/Radiographic Criteria, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade). Musculoskeletal ultrasound was used to detect monosodium urate (MSU) deposition at the knees and 1st metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints. Results 68.0% of gout, 52.0% of AH, and 28.0% of age-matched control subjects had knee OA (gout vs. control, P=0.017). Odds ratio for knee OA in gout vs. controls was 5.46 prior to, and 3.80 after adjusting for BMI. Gout subjects also had higher KL grades than controls (P=0.001). Subjects with sonographically-detected MSU crystal deposition on cartilage were more likely to have OA than those without (60.0 vs 27.5%, P=0.037), with crystal deposition at the 1st MTP joints correlating most closely with OA knee involvement. Conclusion Knee OA was more prevalent in gout patients vs. controls, and intermediate in AH. Knee OA was more severe in gout patients vs. controls. PMID:25710856

  19. A possible cause of epistaxis: increased masked hypertension prevalence in patients with epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Baran; Yavuz, Bunyamin; Yıldız, Erdem; Ozkan, Selcuk; Ayturk, Mehmet; Sen, Omer; Deveci, Onur Sinan

    Epistaxis and hypertension are frequent conditions in the adult population. Masked hypertension is defined as a clinical condition in which a patient's office blood pressure level is epistaxis. The prevalence of this condition in patients with epistaxis is not well defined. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of masked hypertension using the results of office blood pressure measurement compared with the results of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Sixty patients with epistaxis and 60 control subjects were enrolled in the study. All patients with epistaxis and controls without history of hypertension underwent physical examination, including office blood pressure measurement, ambulatory or home blood pressure, and measurement of anthropometric parameters. Mean age was similar between the epistaxis group and the controls - 21-68 years (mean 42.9) for the epistaxis group and 18-71 years (mean 42.2) for the control group. A total of 20 patients (33.3%) in the epistaxis group and 7 patients (11.7%) in the control group (p=0.004) had masked hypertension. Night-time systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in patients with epistaxis than in the control group (pepistaxis (p=0.517). This study demonstrates increased masked hypertension prevalence in patients with epistaxis. We suggest that all patients with epistaxis should undergo ambulatory or home blood pressure to detect masked hypertension, which could be a possible cause of epistaxis. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Celiac disease prevalence is not increased in patients with functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, Juan; Spallone, Liliana; Gandara, Silvina; Chaar, Elsa; Berman, Saul; Zagalsky, David

    2017-01-01

    - Previous evidence trying to assess the risk of celiac disease among dyspeptic patients has been inconclusive, showing in some cases notorious discrepancies. - To determine the prevalence of celiac disease in patients with dyspepsia compared to healthy controls without dyspepsia. - Adult patients under evaluation for dyspepsia were invited to participate. These patients were offered an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with duodenal biopsies. On the other hand, asymptomatic adult volunteers who performed a preventive visit to their primary care physician were invited to participate and agreed to undertake an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with duodenal biopsies as well. Those patients with histologic signs of villous atrophy were furtherly evaluated and serological tests were performed in order to determine celiac disease diagnosis. Celiac disease prevalence was compared between groups. - Overall, 320 patients with dyspepsia and 320 healthy controls were recruited. There were no significant differences in terms of gender or age between groups. Celiac disease diagnosis was made in 1.25% (4/320) of patients in the dyspepsia group versus 0.62% (2/320) in the control group. - Patients with dyspepsia who underwent routine duodenal biopsies did not show an increased risk for celiac disease when compared to healthy individuals.

  1. Celiac disease prevalence is not increased in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan LASA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Previous evidence trying to assess the risk of celiac disease among dyspeptic patients has been inconclusive, showing in some cases notorious discrepancies. OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of celiac disease in patients with dyspepsia compared to healthy controls without dyspepsia. METHODS Adult patients under evaluation for dyspepsia were invited to participate. These patients were offered an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with duodenal biopsies. On the other hand, asymptomatic adult volunteers who performed a preventive visit to their primary care physician were invited to participate and agreed to undertake an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with duodenal biopsies as well. Those patients with histologic signs of villous atrophy were furtherly evaluated and serological tests were performed in order to determine celiac disease diagnosis. Celiac disease prevalence was compared between groups. RESULTS Overall, 320 patients with dyspepsia and 320 healthy controls were recruited. There were no significant differences in terms of gender or age between groups. Celiac disease diagnosis was made in 1.25% (4/320 of patients in the dyspepsia group versus 0.62% (2/320 in the control group. CONCLUSION Patients with dyspepsia who underwent routine duodenal biopsies did not show an increased risk for celiac disease when compared to healthy individuals.

  2. Do patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have an increased prevalence of Cushing's syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Therese; Krarup, Thure; Hagen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    increased production of cortisol and thus represent patients with CS. The aim of this review was to evaluate the prevalence of CS in patients with T2DM. A search was performed in PubMed and Medline. We found seven prospective studies, two case-control studies and two cross-sectional studies......Many clinical features are common for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Cushing's syndrome (CS) such as central obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Patients with CS often have T2DM. Because T2DM is much more frequent than CS, it is possible that some patients with T2DM have...... with T2DM varies widely between the different studies, ranging from 0-9.4%. This may be due to patient selection, differences in test methodology (including choice of test), cutoff values and different cortisol assays. The true prevalence of CS in T2DM has not been determined. We need more studies...

  3. Inhibition of the Hantavirus Fusion Process by Predicted Domain III and Stem Peptides from Glycoprotein Gc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Gonzalo P; Villalón-Letelier, Fernando; Márquez, Chantal L; Bignon, Eduardo A; Acuña, Rodrigo; Ross, Breyan H; Monasterio, Octavio; Mardones, Gonzalo A; Vidal, Simon E; Tischler, Nicole D

    2016-07-01

    Hantaviruses can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. To enter cells, hantaviruses fuse their envelope membrane with host cell membranes. Previously, we have shown that the Gc envelope glycoprotein is the viral fusion protein sharing characteristics with class II fusion proteins. The ectodomain of class II fusion proteins is composed of three domains connected by a stem region to a transmembrane anchor in the viral envelope. These fusion proteins can be inhibited through exogenous fusion protein fragments spanning domain III (DIII) and the stem region. Such fragments are thought to interact with the core of the fusion protein trimer during the transition from its pre-fusion to its post-fusion conformation. Based on our previous homology model structure for Gc from Andes hantavirus (ANDV), here we predicted and generated recombinant DIII and stem peptides to test whether these fragments inhibit hantavirus membrane fusion and cell entry. Recombinant ANDV DIII was soluble, presented disulfide bridges and beta-sheet secondary structure, supporting the in silico model. Using DIII and the C-terminal part of the stem region, the infection of cells by ANDV was blocked up to 60% when fusion of ANDV occurred within the endosomal route, and up to 95% when fusion occurred with the plasma membrane. Furthermore, the fragments impaired ANDV glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion, and cross-inhibited the fusion mediated by the glycoproteins from Puumala virus (PUUV). The Gc fragments interfered in ANDV cell entry by preventing membrane hemifusion and pore formation, retaining Gc in a non-resistant homotrimer stage, as described for DIII and stem peptide inhibitors of class II fusion proteins. Collectively, our results demonstrate that hantavirus Gc shares not only structural, but also mechanistic similarity with class II viral fusion proteins, and will hopefully help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against hantaviruses.

  4. Increased prevalence of hyperthyroidism as an early and transient side-effect of implementing iodine prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołkowski, Filip; Buziak-Bereza, Monika; Trofimiuk, Małgorzata; Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata; Szybiński, Zbigniew; Huszno, Bohdan

    2007-08-01

    To assess the prevalence of hyperthyroidism just after implementation of iodine prophylaxis among adults from an area with iodine deficiency. A total of 1648 adults (age 16 years and older) were sampled from an area of southern Poland during two nationwide epidemiological surveys. Of these, 1424 adults with negative medical history for thyroid disorders qualified for final analysis. The authors compared thyroid dysfunction in participants prior to (1989-1990) and after implementation of iodine prophylaxis (1997-1999). The southern part of Poland. We found an increase in the serum concentration of anti-thyroid microsomal antibodies from 4.9% in the years 1989-1990 to 12.1% after introduction of iodised household salt (P hyperthyroidism (defined as thyroid-stimulating hormone hyperthyroidism. Those possible early side-effects appear to be only temporary and are acceptable when compared with the evident benefits of adequate iodine intake.

  5. Trends of increases in potential risk factors and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavasit, V; Kriengsinyos, W; Photi, J; Tontisirin, K

    2017-07-01

    Over the past three decades, undernutrition in Thailand has drastically reduced by over seven times. However, since 1995 the number of patients afflicted with non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, has rapidly increased, even among the young. Unhealthy life styles due to urbanization are a major reason for this increase. Less physical activity and low consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as high consumption of added free sugar, are common. Every year, the Thai people increase their consumption of energy from fat and protein, while lowering their intake of energy from complex carbohydrates. Per capita and on average, a Thai individual consumes up to 20% of total energy from added free sugar. Barker's hypothesis and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis (DOHaD) can partially explain the increase in diabetes mellitus at this rapid rate. To alleviate the problem, the main strategy has been consumer education to reduce diabetes mellitus prevalence. Sugar elimination from infant formula is mandatory and sugar taxation is being considered. Simplified nutrition labeling is voluntarily as part of consumer education, as well as encouraging food industries to produce healthier food products. Currently, a multi-sectoral approach is used for alleviating diabetes mellitus in Thailand.

  6. Prevalence of Congenital Hypothyroidism and Transient Increased Levels of TSH in Yazd Province

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    H Shojaeifar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most preventable causes of mental retardation. Worldwide, incidences vary from 1:3000 to 1:4000 and mean incidence in Iran is estimated to be 1:1000. Neonatal screening and early treatment within first 2 weeks of neonatal period can prevent neurocognitive deficits. We aimed to study the incidence of CH and increased levels of TSH in Yazd province and collect data describing the disease status and designing first and second levels of preventive interventions. Methods: This descriptive analytic study was performed by census cross sectional method on 13022 neonates in Yazd province in 2006-2007(March 2006- March 2007 including 6495 females and 6527 males. Sampling was done (within the first 3-5 days of life by lancet sticking of neonatal heel. After transfer of 3 blood drops over filter papers, the TSH level was measured. If the TSH level was equal or higher than 5 mu/l, additional confirmation tests were done. Neonates were diagnosed according to serum confirmation test (TSH10 mu/l or T4<6.5g/dl and underwent treatment according to national guidelines. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: Total number of patients was 45, including 25 males (55.5% and 20 females (44.5%. Prevalence in males, females and overall was consecutively, 1:261, 1:325 and 1:289, but this difference was not statistically significant. Prevalence in urban and rural areas was 1:315 and 1:216, but the difference was statistically not significant. The prevalence during spring, summer, autumn& winter was 1:95, 1:250, 1:1934 and 1:369, respectively, that was statistically significant. Mean age at sampling was 7.2 days, mean TSH level 2.3 mu/l and mean age of mothers was 25.8 years. Conclusions: Incidence of CH and transient increased levels of TSH in Yazd province is significantly higher than national and worldwide levels that necessitate the constancy and reinforcement of neonatal screening program. On the other

  7. Fitness attenuates the prevalence of increased coronary artery calcium in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Ekblom, Örjan; Fagman, Erika; Angerås, Oskar; Schmidt, Caroline; Rosengren, Annika; Börjesson, Mats; Bergström, Göran

    2018-02-01

    Background The association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity and coronary artery calcium (CAC) is unclear, and whether higher levels of fitness attenuate CAC prevalence in subjects with metabolic syndrome is not fully elucidated. The present study aims to: a) investigate the independent association of fitness on the prevalence of CAC, after adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time, and b) study the possible attenuation of increased CAC by higher fitness, in participants with metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional. Methods In total 678 participants (52% women), 50-65 years old, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Fitness (VO 2 max) was estimated by submaximal cycle ergometer test and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. CAC score (CACS) was quantified using the Agatston score. Results The odds of having a significant CACS (≥100) was half in participants with moderate/high fitness compared with their low fitness counterparts. Further consideration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and number of components of the metabolic syndrome did only slightly alter the effect size. Those with metabolic syndrome had 47% higher odds for significant CAC compared with those without metabolic syndrome. However, moderate/high fitness seems to partially attenuate this risk, as further joint analysis indicated an increased odds for having significant CAC only in the unfit metabolic syndrome participants. Conclusions Being fit is associated with a reduced risk of having significant CAC in individuals with metabolic syndrome. While still very much underutilized, fitness should be taken into consideration in everyday clinical risk prediction in addition to the traditional risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  8. Increasing Prevalence of Pediatric Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Mumbai, India and its Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Miti A; Shah, Ira

    2018-03-24

    B.J.Wadia Hospital,Mumbai OBJECTIVE:: The prevalence and type of DR-TB was evaluated pre and post-2013 and outcome was studied. Descriptive retrospective study. Children were defined as having DR-TB on the basis of GeneXpert or LPA and/or drug susceptibility testing(DST) of MTB grown on culture or from contact's DST. The prevalence of DR-TB was 110 out of 1145 cases (9.6%) which showed an increase, compared to 5.6% pre-2010 and 7% in 2010-2013(p=0.014408). Twenty-two (20%) children had pulmonary-TB(PTB) and 88(80%) had extra-pulmonary-TB(EPTB) with disseminated-TB being the most common presentation in 31 children (28.18%). Ninety-six (87.3%) children were bacteriologically confirmed TB cases and 14 (12.7%) were clinically diagnosed-TB and treated as per contact DST. Eight (7.2%) cases were monoresistant, 7 (6.3%) polyresistant, MDR-TB seen in 28 (25.45%) patients, 32 (29.09%) had pre-XDR-TB, 9 (8.18%) had XDR-TB and 12 (10.9%) were rifampicin resistant. Ethionamide resistance increased from 26.1% pre-2013 to 60.8% post-2013(p=0.014408) and ofloxacin resistance rose from 30.4% pre-2010, to 47.6% in 2010-2013 and 56.9% post-2013(p=0.080863). Moxifloxacin resistance showed an acute rise from 8.7% pre-2010, to 46% in 2010-2013 and 57% post-2013(p=0.000275). Thirty-three (30%) patients had completed their treatment, 21(19.09%) were lost to follow up and 56(50.09%) patients are still on treatment.

  9. Increasing Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation and Permanent Atrial Arrhythmias in Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labombarda, Fabien; Hamilton, Robert; Shohoudi, Azadeh; Aboulhosn, Jamil; Broberg, Craig S; Chaix, Marie A; Cohen, Scott; Cook, Stephen; Dore, Annie; Fernandes, Susan M; Fournier, Anne; Kay, Joseph; Macle, Laurent; Mondésert, Blandine; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Proietti, Anna; Rivard, Lena; Ting, Jennifer; Thibault, Bernard; Zaidi, Ali; Khairy, Paul

    2017-08-15

    Atrial arrhythmias are the most common complication encountered in the growing and aging population with congenital heart disease. This study sought to assess the types and patterns of atrial arrhythmias, associated factors, and age-related trends. A multicenter cohort study enrolled 482 patients with congenital heart disease and atrial arrhythmias, age 32.0 ± 18.0 years, 45.2% female, from 12 North American centers. Qualifying arrhythmias were classified by a blinded adjudicating committee. The most common presenting arrhythmia was intra-atrial re-entrant tachycardia (IART) (61.6%), followed by atrial fibrillation (28.8%), and focal atrial tachycardia (9.5%). The proportion of arrhythmias due to IART increased with congenital heart disease complexity from 47.2% to 62.1% to 67.0% in patients with simple, moderate, and complex defects, respectively (p = 0.0013). Atrial fibrillation increased with age to surpass IART as the most common arrhythmia in those ≥50 years of age (51.2% vs. 44.2%; p congenital heart disease, with a predominantly paroxysmal pattern. However, atrial fibrillation increases in prevalence and atrial arrhythmias progressively become permanent as the population ages. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Phylogeographic Diversity of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Hantaviruses in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korva, Miša; Knap, Nataša; Resman Rus, Katarina; Fajs, Luka; Grubelnik, Gašper; Bremec, Matejka; Knapič, Tea; Trilar, Tomi; Avšič Županc, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Slovenia is a very diverse country from a natural geography point of view, with many different habitats within a relatively small area, in addition to major geological and climatic differences. It is therefore not surprising that several small mammal species have been confirmed to harbour hantaviruses: A. flavicollis (Dobrava virus), A. agrarius (Dobrava virus–Kurkino), M. glareolus (Puumala virus), S. areanus (Seewis virus), M. agrestis, M. arvalis and M. subterraneus (Tula virus). Three of the viruses, namely the Dobrava, Dobrava–Kurkino and Puumala viruses, cause disease in humans, with significant differences in the severity of symptoms. Due to changes in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome cases (HFRS) epidemiology, a detailed study on phylogenetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses circulating in ecologically diverse endemic regions was performed. The study presents one of the largest collections of hantavirus L, M and S sequences obtained from hosts and patients within a single country. Several genetic lineages were determined for each hantavirus species, with higher diversity among non-pathogenic compared to pathogenic viruses. For pathogenic hantaviruses, a significant geographic clustering of human- and rodent-derived sequences was confirmed. Several geographic and ecological factors were recognized as influencing and limiting the formation of endemic areas. PMID:24335778

  11. Equilibrium and kinetics of Sin Nombre hantavirus binding at DAF/CD55 functionalized bead surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranda, Tione; Swanson, Scarlett; Bondu, Virginie; Schaefer, Leah; Maclean, James; Mo, Zhenzhen; Wycoff, Keith; Belle, Archana; Hjelle, Brian

    2014-03-10

    Decay accelerating factor (DAF/CD55) is targeted by many pathogens for cell entry. It has been implicated as a co-receptor for hantaviruses. To examine the binding of hantaviruses to DAF, we describe the use of Protein G beads for binding human IgG Fc domain-functionalized DAF ((DAF)₂-Fc). When mixed with Protein G beads the resulting DAF beads can be used as a generalizable platform for measuring kinetic and equilibrium binding constants of DAF binding targets. The hantavirus interaction has high affinity (24-30 nM; k(on) ~ 10⁵ M⁻¹ s⁻¹, k(off) ~ 0.0045 s⁻¹). The bivalent (DAF)₂-Fc/SNV data agree with hantavirus binding to DAF expressed on Tanoue B cells (K(d) = 14.0 nM). Monovalent affinity interaction between SNV and recombinant DAF of 58.0 nM is determined from competition binding. This study serves a dual purpose of presenting a convenient and quantitative approach of measuring binding affinities between DAF and the many cognate viral and bacterial ligands and providing new data on the binding constant of DAF and Sin Nombre hantavirus. Knowledge of the equilibrium binding constant allows for the determination of the relative fractions of bound and free virus particles in cell entry assays. This is important for drug discovery assays for cell entry inhibitors.

  12. Expression of a hantavirus N protein and its efficacy as antigen in immune assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T.M. Figueiredo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS has been recognized as an important public heath problem. Five hantaviruses associated with HCPS are currently known in Brazil: Juquitiba, Araraquara, Laguna Negra-like, Castelo dos Sonhos, and Anajatuba viruses. The laboratory diagnosis of HCPS is routinely carried out by the detection of anti-hantavirus IgM and/or IgG antibodies. The present study describes the expression of the N protein of a hantavirus detected in the blood sample of an HCPS patient. The entire S segment of the virus was amplified and found to be 1858 nucleotides long, with an open reading frame of 1287 nucleotides that encodes a protein of 429 amino acids. The nucleotide sequence described here showed a high identity with the N protein gene of Araraquara virus. The entire N protein was expressed using the vector pET200D and the Escherichia coli BL21 strain. The expression of the recombinant protein was confirmed by the detection of a 52-kDa protein by Western blot using a pool of human sera obtained from HCPS patients, and by specific IgG detection in five serum samples of HCPS patients tested by ELISA. These results suggest that the recombinant N protein could be used as an antigen for the serological screening of hantavirus infection.

  13. Two cases of Hantavirus infection in Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sünbül

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF and Leptospirosis are endemic in our region. Hantavirus infections may beconfused with similar clinical picture zoonotic infections. Two patients with fever, malaise, cough, phlegm, nausea, vomiting,thrombocytopenia, renal failure, elevated transaminases, and a history of mouse contact were hospitalized in ourclinic with a presumptive diagnosis of leptospirosis, pneumonia, CCHF and Hantavirus infections. Empirical antibiotictreatment was initiated and CCHF and leptospirosis was ruled out with laboratory tests. Hantavirus immunoglobulin(Ig-G and Ig-M antibodies were detected positive by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA method in both cases but,Dobrova virus was detected in only one patient with immunoblotting methods. Both patients were discharged aftertreatment. Hantavirus infections may be misdiagnosed as zoonotic infections since they have similar clinical picture. Itshould be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with a history of contact with mouse. J Microbiol Infect Dis2012; 2(3: 117-120Key words: Hantavirus, hemorrhagic fever, renal syndrome, pulmonary syndrome

  14. Hantavirus Gc induces long-term immune protection via LAMP-targeting DNA vaccine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong-Bo; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Cheng, Lin-Feng; Zhang, Guan-Wen; Li, Yun; Li, Zi-Chao; Lu, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Zi-Xin; Lu, Yu-Chen; Zheng, Lian-He; Zhang, Fang-Lin; Yang, Kun

    2018-02-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) occurs widely throughout Eurasia. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment, and prophylaxis remains the best option against the major pathogenic agent, hantaan virus (HTNV), which is an Old World hantavirus. However, the absence of cellular immune responses and immunological memory hampers acceptance of the current inactivated HFRS vaccine. Previous studies revealed that a lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1)-targeting strategy involving a DNA vaccine based on the HTNV glycoprotein Gn successfully conferred long-term immunity, and indicated that further research on Gc, another HTNV antigen, was warranted. Plasmids encoding Gc and lysosome-targeted Gc, designated pVAX-Gc and pVAX-LAMP/Gc, respectively, were constructed. Proteins of interest were identified by fluorescence microscopy following cell line transfection. Five groups of 20 female BALB/c mice were subjected to the following inoculations: inactivated HTNV vaccine, pVAX-LAMP/Gc, pVAX-Gc, and, as the negative controls, pVAX-LAMP or the blank vector pVAX1. Humoral and cellular immunity were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and 15-mer peptide enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) epitope mapping assays. Repeated immunization with pVAX-LAMP/Gc enhanced adaptive immune responses, as demonstrated by the specific and neutralizing antibody titers and increased IFN-γ production. The inactivated vaccine induced a comparable humoral reaction, but the negative controls only elicited insignificant responses. Using a mouse model of HTNV challenge, the in vivo protection conferred by the inactivated vaccine and Gc-based constructs (with/without LAMP recombination) was confirmed. Evidence of pan-epitope reactions highlighted the long-term cellular response to the LAMP-targeting strategy, and histological observations indicated the safety of the LAMP-targeting vaccines. The long-term protective immune responses induced by pVAX-LAMP/Gc may be

  15. The increased prevalence of cervical spondylosis in patients with adult thoracolumbar spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, William W; Carrer, Alexandra; Lu, Michael; Hu, Serena S

    2014-12-01

    Retrospective cohort study. To assess the concomitance of cervical spondylosis and thoracolumbar spinal deformity. Patients with degenerative cervical spine disease have higher rates of degeneration in the lumbar spine. In addition, degenerative cervical spine changes have been observed in adult patients with thoracolumbar spinal deformities. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies quantifying the association between cervical spondylosis and thoracolumbar spinal deformity in adult patients. Patients seen by a spine surgeon or spine specialist at a single institution were assessed for cervical spondylosis and/or thoracolumbar spinal deformity using an administrative claims database. Spinal radiographic utilization and surgical intervention were used to infer severity of spinal disease. The relative prevalence of each spinal diagnosis was assessed in patients with and without the other diagnosis. A total of 47,560 patients were included in this study. Cervical spondylosis occurred in 13.1% overall, but was found in 31.0% of patients with thoracolumbar spinal deformity (OR=3.27, Pspondylosis (OR=3.26, Pspondylosis or thoracolumbar spinal deformity had significantly higher rates of the other spinal diagnosis. This correlation was increased with increased severity of disease. Patients with both diagnoses were significantly more likely to have received a spine fusion. Further research is warranted to establish the cause of this correlation. Clinicians should use this information to both screen and counsel patients who present for cervical spondylosis or thoracolumbar spinal deformity.

  16. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is not increased in normal-weight women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelanis, Rasa; Mellembakken, Jan Roar; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger; Ravn, Pernille; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Tapanainen, Juha S; Piltonen, Terhi; Puurunen, Johanna; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Fedorcsak, Peter; Andersen, Marianne; Glintborg, Dorte

    2017-11-01

    Is oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) needed in all women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? OGTT is not routinely needed in women with PCOS and BMI PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and increased prevalence of prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) which is closely linked to obesity and possibly age, ethnicity and PCOS phenotype. Several guidelines recommend OGTT upon diagnosis of PCOS and during follow-up. A Nordic cross-sectional study including 876 women. The 876 Nordic women with PCOS, aged 14-57 years, were examined for T2D and prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) by OGTT. Of all study subjects 3% (23/876) had T2D, 23% (204/876) prediabetes and 74% (649/876) had normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Increased BMI and waist circumference were significantly (P PCOS phenotype did not predict 2-h glucose levels during OGTT after adjustment for BMI and age. The present study included cross-sectional data and prospective studies are needed to confirm our results. These results may not apply to populations of other ethnic origin. Routine OGTT may not be indicated in normal-weight women with PCOS. None. N/A. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Increased prevalence of malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women and its implications for malaria control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, F. H.; Brabin, B. J.; Hart, C. A.; Chimsuku, L.; Kazembe, P.; Broadhead, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    To examine in pregnant women the relationship between HIV infection and malaria prevalence and to determine, in relation to HIV infection, the effectiveness of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in clearing P. falciparum infection. Descriptive cross-sectional analysis of P. falciparum prevalence in pregnant

  18. Seroprevalence of hantavirus and Yersinia pestis antibodies in professionals from the Plague Control Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika de Cassia Vieira da Costa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Professionals who handle rodents in the field and in the laboratory are at risk of infection by the microorganisms harbored by these animals. Methods Serum samples from professionals involved in rodent and Yersinia pestis handling in field or laboratory work were analyzed to determine hantavirus and plague seroprevalence and to establish a relationship between these activities and reports of illnesses. Results Two individuals had antibodies against hantavirus, and two harbored antibodies against the plague; none of the individuals had experienced an illness related to their duties. Conclusions These results confirm the risks of hantavirus- and plague-related field and laboratory activities and the importance of protective measures for such work.

  19. Residential proximity to major roadways is associated with increased prevalence of allergic respiratory symptoms in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Porebski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction and objective[/b]. Numerous epidemiologic studies have reported increased risk of allergic rhinitis and asthma in relation to ‘western life-style’, which represents diversity of factors. We hypothesized that residential proximity to major roadways, reflecting an exposure to traffic-related air pollution, is associated with prevalence of allergic respiratory symptoms in children. [b]materials and methods[/b]. A total of 8290 individuals of two age groups: 16 year olds and 7 year olds from Krakow, Poland were included. We used the Polish version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood supplemented with a question concerning the distance between a responder’s house and a high traffic density road: below 200 m, from 200–500 m, or more than 500 m. [b]results[/b]. Children and adolescents with a residential proximity closer to a major roadway had more frequent asthma-related symptoms in the last 12 months and at any time in the past. Consistent with the increased frequency of asthmatic symptoms, responders residing within 200 meters complained more often of sneezing, runny or blocked nose accompanied by itchy-watery eyes and hay fever in comparison to responders who resided 200–500 meters from a major roadway. The lowest rate of nasal symptoms was observed in residents living in the distance to major roads (> 500 meters. The rate of positive answers decreased in a distant-dependent manner. [b]conclusions[/b]. Our findings suggest an important spatial relationship between the distance from a major roadway and the evaluated respiratory symptoms. The results emphasize the need for more comprehensive air quality policies within urban areas with increased motor vehicle density.

  20. Increasing prevalence despite decreasing incidence of ischeamic heart disease and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Mette Bjerrum; Davidsen, Michael; Andersen, Lisbeth V.

    2015-01-01

    of these changes on the prevalence of IHD is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in incidence and prevalence in 2000-2009 are presented, using nationwide data from public registers. An incident case is defined as a subject registered with a diagnosis of IHD/AMI and without a prior diagnosis for the past 20...... years (beginning in 1980). A prevalent case is defined as a subject surviving the first year after the incident diagnosis. Regarding IHD, age-standardised incidence rates declined significantly from 2000 to 2009 for both sexes (females 445 to 340/100,000, males 822 to 678/100,000), reflecting...

  1. Landscape and regional environmental analysis of the spatial distribution of hantavirus human cases in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Brigitte Zeimes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Europe, the most prevalent hantavirus, Puumala virus, is transmitted by bank voles and causes nephropathia epidemica in human. The European spatial distribution of nephropathia epidemica is investigated here for the first time with a rich set of environmental variables. Methods: The influence of variables at the landscape and regional level is studied through multilevel logistic regression and further information on their effects across the different European ecoregions is obtained by comparing an overall niche model (boosted regression trees with regressions by ecoregion. Results: The presence of nephropathia epidemica is likely in populated regions with well-connected forests, more intense vegetation activity, low soil water content, mild summers and cold winters. In these regions, landscapes with a higher proportion of built-up areas in forest ecotones and lower minimum temperature in winter are expected to be more at risk. Climate and forest connectivity have a stronger effect at the regional level. If variables are staying at their current values, the models predict that nephropathia epidemica may know intensification but should not spread (although Southern Sweden, the Norwegian coast and the Netherlands should be kept under watch.Conclusions: Models indicate that large-scale modeling can lead to a very high predictive power. At large scale, the effect of one variable on disease may follow three response scenarios: the effect may be the same across the entire study area; the effect can change according to the variable value, and the effect can change depending on local specificities. Each of these scenarios impacts large-scale modeling differently.

  2. [Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (Rio Mamore virus) in the Peruvian Amazon region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casapía, Martín; Mamani, Enrique; García, María P; Miraval, María L; Valencia, Pedro; Quino, Alberto H; Alvarez, Carlos; Donaires, Luis F

    2012-01-01

    Hantavirus infection is a viral zoonotic infection borne by rodents which most letal form clinical is the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (SPH, Spanish abbreviation). The Mamore River variant originates in South America and was found in rodents without any association to human diseases. Two cases of SPH were identified in the Peruvian Amazon region in November 2011. In both cases, a molecular diagnostic testing was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Salud from Peru. A phylogenetic analysis of a viral genome fragment and a histopathological evaluation were conducted. Both patients developed adult respiratory distress syndrome and refractory shock. A patient died and another one recovered 12 days later.

  3. Increasing Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in a Chinese Elderly Population: 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Bin; Sun, Dongling; Wu, Lei; Yang, Shanshan; Wang, Yiyan; Li, Xiaoying; He, Yao

    2013-01-01

    The information on the changes of prevalence of MetS in China is limited. Our objective was to assess a 10-year's change of the prevalence of MetS in a Chinese elderly population between 2001 and 2010. We conducted two cross-sectional surveys in a representative sample of elderly population aged 60 to 95 years in Beijing in 2001 and 2010 respectively. MetS was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition. A total of 2,334 participants (943 male, 1,391 female) in 2001 and 2,102 participants (848 male, 1,254 female) in 2010 completed the survey. The prevalence of MetS was 50.4% (95%CI: 48.4%-52.4%) in 2001 and 58.1% (95%CI: 56.0%-60.2%) in 2010. The absolute change of prevalence of MetS was 7.7% over the 10-year's period (pdislipidemia.

  4. Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Nunes, Carlos; Ansotegui, Ignacio; D'Amato, Maria; Liccardi, Gennaro; Sofia, Matteo; Canonica, Walter G

    2013-02-11

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased dramatically during the past few decades not only in industrialized countries. Urban air pollution from motor vehicles has been indicated as one of the major risk factors responsible for this increase.Although genetic factors are important in the development of asthma and allergic diseases, the rising trend can be explained only in changes occurred in the environment. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile and decreasing trends of some key air pollutants, air quality is an important concern for public health in the cities throughout the world.Due to climate change, air pollution patterns are changing in several urbanized areas of the world, with a significant effect on respiratory health.The observational evidence indicates that recent regional changes in climate, particularly temperature increases, have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Associations between thunderstorms and asthma morbidity in pollinosis subjects have been also identified in multiple locations around the world.Allergens patterns are also changing in response to climate change and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollens especially in presence of specific weather conditions.The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known yet. The consequences on health vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, and exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases.Factor clouding the issue is that laboratory evaluations do not reflect what happens during natural exposition, when atmospheric pollution mixtures in polluted cities are inhaled. In addition, it is important to recall that an individual's response to pollution exposure depends on the source and components of air pollution, as well as meteorological conditions. Indeed, some air pollution-related incidents with asthma aggravation do not depend

  5. Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy and hypophysitis after Puumala hantavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Tarvainen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Puumala hantavirus (PUUV infection causes nephropathia epidemica (NE, a relatively mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS. Hypophyseal haemorrhage and hypopituitarism have been described in case reports on patients with acute NE. Chronic hypopituitarism diagnosed months or years after the acute illness has also been reported, without any signs of a haemorrhagic aetiology. The mechanisms leading to the late-onset hormonal defects remain unknown. Here, we present a case of NE-associated autoimmune polyendocrinopathy and hypopituitarism presumably due to autoimmune hypophysitis. Thyroid peroxidase antibody seroconversion occurred between 6 and 12 months, and ovarian as well as glutamate decarboxylase antibodies were found 18 months after acute NE. Brain MRI revealed an atrophic adenohypophysis with a heterogeneous, low signal intensity compatible with a sequela of hypophysitis. The patient developed central (or mixed central and peripheral hypothyroidism, hypogonadism and diabetes insipidus, all requiring hormonal replacement therapy. This case report suggests that late-onset hormonal defects after PUUV infection may develop by an autoimmune mechanism. This hypothesis needs to be confirmed by prospective studies with sufficient numbers of patients.

  6. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome clinical findings: evaluating a surveillance case definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knust, Barbara; Macneil, Adam; Rollin, Pierre E

    2012-05-01

    Clinical cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) can be challenging to differentiate from other acute respiratory diseases, which can lead to delays in diagnosis, treatment, and disease reporting. Rapid onset of severe disease occurs, at times before diagnostic test results are available. This study's objective was to examine the clinical characteristics of patients that would indicate HPS to aid in detection and reporting. Test results of blood samples from U.S. patients suspected of having HPS submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1998-2010 were reviewed. Patient information collected by case report forms was compared between HPS-confirmed and test-negative patients. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios were calculated for individual clinical findings and combinations of variables. Of 567 patients included, 36% were HPS-confirmed. Thrombocytopenia, chest x-rays with suggestive signs, and receiving supplemental oxygenation were highly sensitive (>95%), while elevated hematocrit was highly specific (83%) in detecting HPS. Combinations that maximized sensitivity required the presence of thrombocytopenia. Using a national sample of suspect patients, we found that thrombocytopenia was a highly sensitive indicator of HPS and should be included in surveillance definitions for suspected HPS. Using a sensitive suspect case definition to identify potential HPS patients that are confirmed by highly specific diagnostic testing will ensure accurate reporting of this disease.

  7. Epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis of hantavirus (HTV) infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J; McKenna, P; Groen, J; Osterhaus, A; Colson, P; Vervoort, T; van der Groen, G; Lee, H W

    1995-01-01

    Hantavirus (HTV) is recently discovered "hemorrhagic fever virus" belonging to the Bunyaviridae family, which is spread throughout the world by wild rodents and/or laboratory rats. During an epidemic in the Belgian-French Ardennes in 1993, more than 200 acute cases were recorded of the milder European form of HTV-illness, otherwise known as Nephropathia epidemica (NE). This variant may be recognized by the sudden onset of fever, acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia and sometimes by ophthalmologic complications. The symptomatology is rather aspecific and diagnosis can only be confirmed by serologic tests, of which the best option nowadays seems to be: screening by IgG EIA, followed by IgM confirmation with a mu-capture EIA test. Some of the tests described allow an evaluation of the causative serotype or even the moment of infection. Next to the "classic" serologic assays for detection of specific viral antibodies, we describe briefly our own experience with newer tests such as "high density particle agglutination" and "line immuno assay". Polymerase chain reaction for viral RNA genome typing and immunohistochemical colouring of the viral antigen in tissues seem to offer promising alternatives for the immediate future.

  8. Increased dermal mast cell prevalence and susceptibility to development of basal cell carcinoma in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Skov, Lone; Finlay-Jones, John J

    2002-01-01

    eliminate them. Studies in a range of inbred mouse strains as well as mast cell-depleted mice reconstituted with mast cell precursors support a functional link between histamine-staining dermal mast cells and the extent of susceptibility to UVB-induced systemic immunomodulation. Humans, like mouse strains......, display variations in dermal mast cell prevalence. In a study of Danish and South Australian BCC patients and control subjects, one 4-mm punch biopsy of non-sun-exposed buttock skin was sampled from each participant. This skin site was investigated to avoid any changes in mast cell prevalence caused...... by sun exposure. Two sections (4 microm) per biopsy were immunohistochemically stained for detection of histamine-containing dermal mast cells. Computer-generated image analysis evaluated dermal mast cell prevalence in both sections by quantifying the total number of mast cells according to the total...

  9. Increasing Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in a Chinese Elderly Population: 2001?2010

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Miao; Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Bin; Sun, Dongling; Wu, Lei; Yang, Shanshan; Wang, Yiyan; Li, Xiaoying; He, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Objective The information on the changes of prevalence of MetS in China is limited. Our objective was to assess a 10-year?s change of the prevalence of MetS in a Chinese elderly population between 2001 and 2010. Methods We conducted two cross-sectional surveys in a representative sample of elderly population aged 60 to 95 years in Beijing in 2001 and 2010 respectively. MetS was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition. Results A total of 2,334 participants (943 male, 1,391 female)...

  10. Diabetes mellitus prevalence is increasing in South Asians but is stable in Chinese living in Singapore and Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kristin H X; Barr, Elizabeth L M; Koshkina, Vira; Ma, Stefan; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Magliano, Dianna J; Söderberg, Stefan; Chia, Kee Seng; Zimmet, Paul; Lim, Wei-Yen

    2017-09-01

    Asia is experiencing a type 2 diabetes epidemic, but prevalence differs by ethnicity and level of socioeconomic development. Singapore and Mauritius have implemented comprehensive campaigns to address this public health problem. We compared diabetes and obesity prevalence trends among Chinese and South Asians living in Singapore and Mauritius to determine the contribution of ethnicity and economic development to diabetes. Age-specific data from serial national population-based surveys in Singapore and Mauritius between 1987 and 2010 were used to estimate age-standardized diabetes and obesity prevalence. Modified Breslow-Cox proportional hazard models were used to obtain rate ratios for diabetes risk factors. In Singapore, the age-standardized prevalence of diabetes remained stable for Chinese (men: 14% in 1992, 13% in 2010; women: 12% in 1992, 10% in 2010), but increases were observed for South Asians (men: 20% in 1992, 26% in 2010; women: 18% in 1992, 20% in 2010). There were similar patterns in Mauritius. In both countries, obesity prevalence trends were stable for Chinese women, but increased for Chinese men and South Asians. Associations between obesity and diabetes were stronger in Chinese than South Asians regardless of country. Despite different socioeconomic settings in Singapore and Mauritius, we observed rising diabetes prevalence among South Asians but stable prevalence in Chinese in both countries. This provides further evidence that ethnicity contributes to the development of diabetes, and that there should be an increased emphasis on future prevention strategies targeting South Asian populations in these countries. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Viral prevalence increases with regional colony abundance in honey bee drones (Apis mellifera L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forfert, Nadège; Natsopoulou, Myrsini E; Paxton, Robert J; Moritz, Robin F A

    2016-10-01

    Transmission among colonies is a central feature for the epidemiology of honey bee pathogens. High colony abundance may promote transmission among colonies independently of apiary layout, making colony abundance a potentially important parameter determining pathogen prevalence in populations of honey bees. To test this idea, we sampled male honey bees (drones) from seven distinct drone congregation areas (DCA), and used their genotypes to estimate colony abundance at each site. A multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification assay (MLPA) was used to assess the prevalence of ten viruses, using five common viral targets, in individual drones. There was a significant positive association between colony abundance and number of viral infections. This result highlights the potential importance of high colony abundance for pathogen prevalence, possibly because high population density facilitates pathogen transmission. Pathogen prevalence in drones collected from DCAs may be a useful means of estimating the disease status of a population of honey bees during the mating season, especially for localities with a large number of wild or feral colonies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. High or Low Target Prevalence Increases the Dual-Target Cost in Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menneer, Tamaryn; Donnelly, Nick; Godwin, Hayward J.; Cave, Kyle R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a dual-target cost in visual search. In the current study, the relationship between search for one and search for two targets was investigated to examine the effects of target prevalence and practice. Color-shape conjunction stimuli were used with response time, accuracy and signal detection measures. Performance…

  13. Increased genetic variance of BMI with a higher prevalence of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokholm, Benjamin; Silventoinen, Karri; Ängquist, Lars

    2011-01-01

    populations. Several recent studies suggest that the genetic effects on adiposity may be stronger when combined with presumed risk factors for obesity. We tested the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight and a higher BMI mean is associated with a larger genetic variation in BMI....

  14. Acromegaly is associated with an increased prevalence of colonic diverticula: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, M. J. E.; Cazemier, M.; Biermasz, N. R.; Pereira, A. M.; Roelfsema, F.; Smit, J. W. A.; Hommes, D. W.; Felt-Bersma, R. J. F.; Romijn, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    In acromegaly, overproduction of GH and IGF-I causes abnormal extracellular matrix regulation. We hypothesized that this may predispose to the development of colonic diverticula. Because the relation between acromegaly and colonic diverticula is unknown, the study aim was to assess the prevalence of

  15. Increasing Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in a Chinese Elderly Population: 2001–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Sun, Dongling; Wu, Lei; Yang, Shanshan; Wang, Yiyan; Li, Xiaoying; He, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Objective The information on the changes of prevalence of MetS in China is limited. Our objective was to assess a 10-year’s change of the prevalence of MetS in a Chinese elderly population between 2001 and 2010. Methods We conducted two cross-sectional surveys in a representative sample of elderly population aged 60 to 95 years in Beijing in 2001 and 2010 respectively. MetS was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition. Results A total of 2,334 participants (943 male, 1,391 female) in 2001 and 2,102 participants (848 male, 1,254 female) in 2010 completed the survey. The prevalence of MetS was 50.4% (95%CI: 48.4%–52.4%) in 2001 and 58.1% (95%CI: 56.0%–60.2%) in 2010. The absolute change of prevalence of MetS was 7.7% over the 10-year’s period (pdislipidemia. PMID:23824753

  16. Detection of shrew-borne hantavirus in Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Radosa, L.; Schlegel, M.; Gebauer, P.; Ansorge, H.; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Stanko, M.; Mošanský, L.; Fričová, J.; Pejčoch, M.; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Groschup, M. H.; Krüger, D. H.; Ulrich, R. G.; Klempa, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, October (2013), s. 403-410 ISSN 1567-1348 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hantavirus * shrew Sorex minutus * Asikkala virus * Cental Europe Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.264, year: 2013

  17. Molecular evolution of Puumala hantavirus in Fennoscandia: phylogenetic analysis of strains from two recolonization routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asikainen, Kari; Hänninen, Tarja; Henttonen, Heikki

    2000-01-01

    Like other members of the genus Hantavirus in the family Bunyaviridae, Puumala virus (PUUV) is thought to be co-evolving with its natural host, the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus. To gain insight into the evolutionary history of PUUV in northern Europe during the last post-glacial period, we h...

  18. Puumala hantavirus infection in humans and in the reservoir host, Ardennes region, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, F; Penalba, C; Vuillaume, P; Boue, F; Coudrier, D; Pontier, D; Artois, M

    2002-12-01

    We compared the occurrence of nephropathia epidemica cases, over a multi-annual population cycle, in northeastern France with the hantavirus serology for bank voles captured in the same area. We discuss hypotheses to explain the pattern of infection in both humans and rodents and their synchrony.

  19. Drotrecogin alpha (activated) in two patients with the hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    McDermid, Robert C; Gibney, RT Noel; Brisebois, Ronald J; Skjodt, Neil M

    2006-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is associated with rapid cardiopulmonary collapse from endothelial injury, resulting in massive capillary leak, shock and severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. To date, treatment remains supportive and includes mechanical ventilation, vasopressors and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, with mortality approaching 50%. Two HCPS survivors initially given drotrecogin alpha (activated) (DAA) for presumed bacterial septic shock are described. Vasoactive ...

  20. Increased Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Patients with Unexplained Infertility in the United States: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Wang, Jeffrey; Lee, Susie K.; Murray, Joseph A.; Sauer, Mark V.; Green, Peter H. R.

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder which can present with a variety of non-gastrointestinal manifestations. In women, it may manifest with an assortment of gynecologic or obstetric disorders. Some reports have linked female infertility with undiagnosed celiac disease. Though there are a number of studies from Europe and the Middle East, only two prior American studies have examined the prevalence of “silent” celiac disease in a female infertility population. We prospectively performed serologic screening for celiac disease in 188 infertile women (ages 25–39). While we did not demonstrate an increased prevalence of celiac disease in our overall infertile female population, we were able to detect a significantly increased prevalence (5.9%) of undiagnosed celiac disease among women presenting with unexplained infertility (n=51). Our findings suggest the importance of screening infertile female patients, particularly those with unexplained infertility, for celiac disease. PMID:21682114

  1. Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii, and Laguna Negra hantavirus in an Indian reserve in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Lopes, Lívia; Guterres, Alexandro; Rozental, Tatiana; Carvalho de Oliveira, Renata; Mares-Guia, Maria Angélica; Fernandes, Jorlan; Figueredo, José Ferreira; Anschau, Inês; de Jesus, Sebastião; V Almeida, Ana Beatriz M; Cristina da Silva, Valéria; Gomes de Melo Via, Alba Valéria; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Barreira, Jairo Dias; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba Regina

    2014-04-17

    The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of rickettsia and hantavirus in wild rodents and arthropods in response to an outbreak of acute unidentified febrile illness among Indians in the Halataikwa Indian Reserve, northwest of the Mato Grosso state, in the Brazilian Amazon. Where previously surveillance data showed serologic evidence of rickettsia and hantavirus human infection. The arthropods were collected from the healthy Indian population and by flagging vegetation in grassland or woodland along the peridomestic environment of the Indian reserve. Wild rodents were live-trapped in an area bordering the reserve limits, due the impossibility of capturing wild animals in the Indian reserve. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and karyotype. DNA was extracted from spleen or liver samples of rodents and from invertebrate (tick and louse) pools, and the molecular characterization of the rickettsia was through PCR and DNA sequencing of fragments of two rickettsial genes (gltA and ompA). In relation to hantavirus, rodent serum samples were serologically screened by IgG ELISA using the Araraquara-N antigen and total RNA was extracted from lung samples of IgG-positive rodents. The amplification of the complete S segment was performed. A total of 153 wild rodents, 121 louse, and 36 tick specimens were collected in 2010. Laguna Negra hantavirus was identified in Calomys callidus rodents and Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii were identified in Amblyomma cajennense ticks. Zoonotic diseases such as HCPS and spotted fever rickettsiosis are a public health threat and should be considered in outbreaks and acute febrile illnesses among Indian populations. The presence of the genome of rickettsias and hantavirus in animals in this Indian reserve reinforces the need to include these infectious agents in outbreak investigations of febrile cases in Indian populations.

  2. Serologic survey for hantavirus infections among wild animals in rural areas of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    ROMANO-LIEBER Nicolina Silvana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey was conducted in wild animals captured close to two areas where hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS occurred in São Paulo State, Brazil. Serum samples from a total of 43 mammals were tested for antibodies reactive with Sin Nombre (SN hantavirus using a strip immunoblot assay. RNAs from the blood clots of the positive samples were submitted to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Two rodents of the genus Oligoryzomys were positive for hantavirus antibodies. These animals were captured in the Iguape region and represented 16.7% (2/12 of the sera from rodents and 100.0% (2/2 of the Oligoryzomys captured in that area. RT-PCR failed to amplify any viral cDNA. These results are in agreement with other data that suggest that members of this genus are important reservoirs of hantaviruses in Brazil.

  3. The prevalence of underweight is increased in chronic pancreatitis outpatients and associates with reduced life quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Søren S; Frandsen, Louise Kuhlman; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Vestergaard, Peter; Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    Underweight is a well-known complication of chronic pancreatitis (CP), but little is known about its prevalence in the outpatient setting. We investigated the prevalence of underweight in outpatients with CP and its association with quality of life (QOL) and various risk factors. This was a cross-sectional study of 166 outpatients with CP that was conducted at a tertiary referral center. The primary outcome was the prevalence of underweight (body mass index [BMI] pancreatic insufficiency (EPI), pain severity, pain pattern (constant versus intermittent), opioid use, and smoking and drinking habits were analyzed for their association with BMI. Patients with CP had a decreased mean BMI compared with controls (22.9 ± 4.2 kg/m 2 versus 26.8 ± 5.2 kg/m 2 ; P associated with underweight, including physical functioning (P = 0.024). Alcoholic etiology (P = 0.002), EPI (P = 0.004), and constant pain (P = 0.026) were independently associated with low BMI. One quarter of outpatients with CP are underweight and report reduced life quality compared with their normal-weight counterparts. EPI, alcoholic etiology, and pain-related symptoms are independent risk factors. Our findings emphasize the need for a multidisciplinary approach in the handling of patients with CP that focuses on alcohol cessation and the appropriate treatment of pain and EPI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations of long-term fine particulate matter exposure with prevalent hypertension and increased blood pressure in older Americans.

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    Honda, Trenton; Pun, Vivian C; Manjourides, Justin; Suh, Helen

    2018-07-01

    Hypertension is a highly prevalent cardiovascular risk factor. It is possible that air pollution, also an established cardiovascular risk factor, may contribute to cardiovascular disease through increasing blood pressure. Previous studies evaluating associations between air pollution and blood pressure have had mixed results. We examined the association between long-term (one-year moving average) air pollutant exposures, prevalent hypertension and blood pressure in 4121 older Americans (57+ years) enrolled in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. We estimated exposures to PM 2.5 using spatio-temporal models and used logistic regression accounting for repeated measures to evaluate the association between long-term average PM 2.5 and prevalence odds of hypertension. We additionally used linear regression to evaluate the associations between air pollutants and systolic, diastolic, mean arterial, and pulse pressures. Health effect models were adjusted for a number of demographic, health and socioeconomic covariates. An inter-quartile range (3.91 μg/m 3 ) increase in the one-year moving average of PM 2.5 was associated with increased: Odds of prevalent hypertension (POR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.38), systolic blood pressure (0.93 mm Hg, 95% CI: 0.05, 1.80) and pulse pressure (0.89 mm Hg, 95% CI: 0.21, 1.58). Dose-response relationships were also observed. PM 2.5 was associated with increased odds of prevalent hypertension, and increased systolic pressure and pulse pressure in a cohort of older Americans. These findings add to the growing evidence that air pollution may be an important risk factor for hypertension and perturbations in blood pressure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Increasing adolescent HIV prevalence in Eastern Zimbabwe--evidence of long-term survivors of mother-to-child transmission?

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    Jeffrey W Eaton

    Full Text Available Recent data from the Manicaland HIV/STD Prevention Project, a general-population open HIV cohort study, suggested that between 2004 and 2007 HIV prevalence amongst males aged 15-17 years in eastern Zimbabwe increased from 1.20% to 2.23%, and in females remained unchanged at 2.23% to 2.39%, while prevalence continued to decline in the rest of the adult population. We assess whether the more likely source of the increase in adolescent HIV prevalence is recent sexual HIV acquisition, or the aging of long-term survivors of perinatal HIV acquisition that occurred during the early growth of the epidemic. Using data collected between August 2006 and November 2008, we investigated associations between adolescent HIV and (1 maternal orphanhood and maternal HIV status, (2 reported sexual behaviour, and (3 reporting recurring sickness or chronic illness, suggesting infected adolescents might be in a late stage of HIV infection. HIV-infected adolescent males were more likely to be maternal orphans (RR = 2.97, p<0.001 and both HIV-infected adolescent males and females were more likely to be maternal orphans or have an HIV-infected mother (male RR = 1.83, p<0.001; female RR = 16.6, p<0.001. None of 22 HIV-infected adolescent males and only three of 23 HIV-infected females reported ever having had sex. HIV-infected adolescents were 60% more likely to report illness than HIV-infected young adults. Taken together, all three hypotheses suggest that recent increases in adolescent HIV prevalence in eastern Zimbabwe are more likely attributable to long-term survival of mother-to-child transmission rather than increases in risky sexual behaviour. HIV prevalence in adolescents and young adults cannot be used as a surrogate for recent HIV incidence, and health systems should prepare for increasing numbers of long-term infected adolescents.

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea combined dyslipidemia render additive effect on increasing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping; He, Zhiqing; Yang, Jing; Liang, Chun; Ren, Yusheng; Wu, Zonggui

    2016-05-26

    Current study was designed to investigate the effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) combined dyslipidemia on the prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD). This was a cross-sectional study and subjects with documented dyslipidemia and without previous diagnosis of OSA were enrolled. Polysomnography was applied to evaluate apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Based on AHI value, subjects were classified into four groups: without OSA, mild, moderate and severe OSA groups. Clinical characteristics and laboratory examination data were recorded. Relationship between AHI event and lipid profiles was analyzed, and logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of OSA combined dyslipidemia on ASCVD prevalence. Totally 248 subjects with dyslipidemia were enrolled. Compared to the other 3 groups, subjects with severe OSA were older, male predominant and had higher smoking rate. In addition, subjects with severe OSA had higher body mass index, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, and higher rates of overweight and obesity. Serum levels of fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, LDL-C and CRP were all significantly higher. ASCVD prevalence was considerably higher in subjects with severe OSA. AHI event in the severe OSA group was up to 35.4 ± 5.1 events per hour which was significantly higher than the other groups (P dyslipidemia plus no-OSA group (reference group), OSA enhanced ASCVD risk in subjects with dyslipidemia, regardless of OSA severity. After extensively adjusted for confounding variables, the odds of dyslipidemia plus mild-OSA was reduced to insignificance. While the effects of moderate- and severe-OSA on promoting ASCVD risk in subjects with dyslipidemia remained significant, with severe-OSA most prominent (odds ratio: 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.02). OSA combined dyslipidemia conferred additive adverse effects on cardiovascular system, with severe-OSA most prominent.

  7. Microevolution of Puumala hantavirus during a complete population cycle of its host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus.

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    Maria Razzauti

    Full Text Available Microevolution of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV was studied throughout a population cycle of its host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus. We monitored PUUV variants circulating in the host population in Central Finland over a five-year period that included two peak-phases and two population declines. Of 1369 bank voles examined, 360 (26.3% were found infected with PUUV. Partial sequences of each of the three genome segments were recovered (approx. 12% of PUUV genome from 356 bank voles. Analyses of these sequences disclosed the following features of PUUV evolution: 1 nucleotide substitutions are mostly silent and deduced amino acid changes are mainly conservative, suggesting stabilizing selection at the protein level; 2 the three genome segments accumulate mutations at a different rate; 3 some of the circulating PUUV variants are frequently observed while others are transient; 4 frequently occurring PUUV variants are composed of the most abundant segment genotypes (copious and new transient variants are continually generated; 5 reassortment of PUUV genome segments occurs regularly and follows a specific pattern of segments association; 6 prevalence of reassortant variants oscillates with season and is higher in the autumn than in the spring; and 7 reassortants are transient, i.e., they are not competitively superior to their parental variants. Collectively, these observations support a quasi-neutral mode of PUUV microevolution with a steady generation of transient variants, including reassortants, and preservation of a few preferred genotypes.

  8. Increased prevalence of malnutrition and reduced lean body mass in overweight/obese kidney transplant recipients

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    Sylwia Małgorzewicz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity are common in subjects after kidney transplantation. On the other hand, features of malnutrition are also frequently recognized in this group of patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of both abnormalities in a cohort of stable kidney recipients and to assess whether obesity precludes malnutrition in transplanted patients. We also investigated associations between the nutritional status, graft function and adipokines concentrations. The study was performed in 80 prevalent kidney transplant patients and in a control group which consisted of 23 healthy volunteers. Body composition (% of fat, lean body mass (LBM, water content was measured by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance (Body Composition Manager. Nutritional status was determined by a 7–point Subjective Global Assessment (SGA, anthropometric measurements and s-albumin concentration. C–reactive protein (CRP, Il–6 and plasminogen activator inhibitor–1 (PAI–1 were used as markers of inflammatory status. Concentration of leptin, adiponectin and visfatin were measured by ELISA. Results: Mean age was 52.4±13.9 years (45 men and 35 women. Diabetes mellitus was present in 29% (n=23 of them. Mean time after transplantation (transplantation vintage was 82.5±56.5 months (median=73 months. Mean eGFR was 41.7±14.9 ml/min (4 points MDRD, BMI was 25.7±4.2. Overweight was present in 41% of the patients and obesity in 14%. On the basis of SGA evaluation, signs of malnutrition were observed in 48% of the subjects. Malnutrition was present in 64% (21/33 of the overweight patients and in 91% (10/11 of the obese patients. Transplantation vintage was directly associated with fat mass and inversely associated with LBM. Malnourished patients (SGA had a longer transplantation vintage. Adiponectin levels were significantly lower in transplanted patients as compared to controls. In multivariate analysis, leptin was an independent predictor of serum

  9. Do elevated nutrients and organic carbon on Philippine reefs increase the prevalence of coral disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarsky, L.; Richardson, L. L.

    2011-03-01

    Characterizations of Philippine coral diseases are very limited. The two most common, ulcerative white spot disease (UWS) and massive Porites growth anomalies (MPGA), target the genus Porites, a dominant reef-building genus. This is the first investigation in the Philippines to detect positive correlations between coral disease, nutrient levels, and organic carbon. A total of 5,843 Porites colonies were examined. Water and sediment samples were collected for analyses of nutrients (total nitrogen and phosphorus) and total organic carbon at 15 sites along a 40.5 km disease gradient, which was previously shown to positively correlate with human population levels. Results suggest that outbreaks of UWS and MPGAs are driven by elevated nutrient and organic carbon levels. Although the variables analyzed could be proxies for other causative agents (e.g., high sediment levels), the results provide quantitative evidence linking relatively higher coral disease prevalence to an anthropogenically impacted environment.

  10. Rural to urban migration is associated with increased prevalence of childhood wheeze in a Latin-American city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alejandro; Vaca, Maritza G; Chico, Martha E; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L; Cooper, Philip J

    2017-01-01

    The urbanisation process has been associated with increases in asthma prevalence in urban and rural areas of low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, although rural to urban migration and migration between cities are considered important determinants of this process, few studies have evaluated the effects of internal migration on asthma in urban populations of LMICs. The present study evaluated the effects of internal migration on the prevalence of wheeze in an urban area of Latin America. We did a cross-sectional analysis of 2510 schoolchildren living in the city of Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Logistic regression was used to analyse associations between childhood wheeze and different aspects of migration among schoolchildren. 31% of schoolchildren were migrants. Rural to urban migrants had a higher prevalence of wheeze, (adj.OR=2.01,95% CI1.30 to 3.01, p=0.001) compared with non-migrants. Age of migration and time since migration were associated with wheeze only for rural to urban migrants but not for urban to urban migrants. Children who had migrated after 3 years of age had a greater risk of wheeze (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.56 to 3.97, p=0.001) than non-migrants while migrants with less than 5 years living in the new residence had a higher prevalence of wheeze than non-migrants (Latin-American city. Age of migration and time since migration were important determinants of wheeze only among migrants from rural areas. A better understanding of the social and environmental effects of internal migration could improve our understanding of the causes of the increase in asthma and differences in prevalence between urban and rural populations.

  11. Does first line antiretroviral therapy increase the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Indian patients?: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, R A B; Rupali, P; Abraham, O C; Kattula, D

    2013-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with a myriad of metabolic complications which are potential cardiovascular risk factors. Early detection of these risk factors could help in alleviating morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients on ART. To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in patients on a combination of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-NRTIs (NNRTIs) - the standard combination first line ART regimen used in tertiary referral center. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in HIV infected subjects with stage 1t disease on standard first line ART for at least 1 year, HIV infected subjects with stage 1 disease and not on ART and HIV negative subjects was assessed. The study was a cross-sectional study design. Basic demographic data was collected and patients were examined for anthropometric data and blood was collected for analysis of blood glucose, serum lipids, and fasting insulin levels. Chi-square test was used to calculate significance. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 16.0 was used for data analysis. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia was higher in the patients on ART when compared to patients not on ART (PART and those not on ART. First line ART is associated with increased prevalence of dyslipidemia. Early detection and treatment of dyslipidemia should help in reducing the cardiovascular morbidity in patients on ART.

  12. Increased prevalence of preeclampsia among women undergoing procedural intervention for renal artery fibromuscular dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Chardonnay J; Taylor, Robert N; Craven, Timothy E; Edwards, Matthew S; Corriere, Matthew A

    2015-08-01

    Renal artery fibromuscular dysplasia (RA-FMD) has a higher prevalence among women and a presumed hormonal etiology. Although preeclampsia has a clinical presentation similar to symptomatic RA-FMD and occurs exclusively in women, associations between these 2 diseases have not been characterized. To explore epidemiologic associations between RA-FMD and preeclampsia, we administered a validated screening instrument for preeclampsia to a cohort of women with a history of pregnancy who had previously been treated with procedural intervention for symptomatic RA stenosis. Women with a history of pregnancy who had previously undergone procedural intervention (including angioplasty and/or bypass) for symptomatic RA stenosis were identified from a prospectively maintained operative registry and screened for remote history of preeclampsia using a validated survey instrument. Univariable associations between RA-FMD and preeclampsia among participants with a history of pregnancy were evaluated using t-tests for continuous factors and chi-squared tests for dichotomous factors. Multivariable associations were evaluated using logistic regression models. A total of 144 women were identified who met the study inclusion criteria, including 94 with atherosclerotic RA stenosis and 50 with RA-FMD. Sixty-nine patients were contacted, 59 consented to participate, and 52 had a history of pregnancy (and therefore were at risk for preeclampsia). Participants completed the survey instrument at a mean of 7.1 ± 3.1 vs. 6.9 ± 3.6 years after RA procedural intervention, respectively. Survey responses indicated a history of preeclampsia in 19/52 (36.5%) of participants overall, including 14/27 (51.9%) with RA-FMD versus 5/20 (20.0%) with RA atherosclerosis (P = 0.02). Preeclampsia remained associated with FMD in a multivariable model adjusting for smoking status, age at time of surgery, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (odds ratio [OR] 9.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-60.6, P = 0

  13. Increased Prevalence of Cerebrovascular Disease in Hospitalized Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sarasa T; Cloft, Harry; Flemming, Kelly D; Kallmes, David F; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Brinjikji, Waleed

    2017-08-01

    Small studies have suggested that Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is associated with a number of cerebrovascular complications. We sought to determine whether a clinical diagnosis of EDS is associated with a higher prevalence of cerebrovascular diseases than the general population by performing a case-control study of hospitalized patients in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Using the 2000-2012 NIS, we performed a case-control study matching cases of EDS to controls without such a diagnosis. The prevalence of various cerebrovascular diseases between the 2 groups was compared, and multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for suspected comorbidities. Between 2000 and 2012, there were a total of 9067 discharges carrying a diagnosis of EDS. On univariate analysis, patients with EDS were more likely to be hospitalized for carotid dissection (.2% versus .01%, odds ratio [OR] = 18.0, confidence interval [CI] = 2.41-135.12, P < .0001), vertebral dissection (.1% versus 0%, P = .008), cervical artery aneurysm (.1% versus .01%, OR = 9.01, CI = 1.14-71.11, P < .0001), cerebral aneurysm (.4% versus .09%, OR = 4.89, CI = 2.28-10.47, P < .0001), and cerebrovascular malformation (.1% versus .02%, OR = 5, CI = 1.10-22.85, P = .021), compared to the controls. On multivariate analysis adjusted for age, race, and comorbidities, EDS patients had significantly higher odds of carotid dissection (OR = 15.02, CI = 3.08-270.87, P < .0001), vertebral dissection (OR = 2406539.5, P = .0037), cervical artery aneurysm (OR = 11.75, CI = 2.11-220.71, P = .0026), cerebral aneurysm (OR = 5.59, CI = 2.69-13.18, P < .0001), and cerebrovascular malformation (OR = 4.67, CI = 1.20-30.87, P = .0243). Carotid and vertebral dissections, cervical and cerebral aneurysms, as well as other cerebrovascular malformations are more common in hospitalized patients with EDS compared to controls

  14. Increased Prevalence of Cerebrovascular Disease in Hospitalized Patients with Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sarasa T; Cloft, Harry; Flemming, Kelly D; Kallmes, David F; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Brinjikji, Waleed

    2018-02-01

    Small studies have suggested that Marfan syndrome is associated with a number of cerebrovascular complications. We sought to determine whether a clinical diagnosis of Marfan syndrome is associated with a higher prevalence of cerebrovascular diseases than the general population by performing a case-control study of hospitalized patients in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Using the 2000-2012 NIS, we performed a case-control study matching cases of Marfan syndrome to controls without such a diagnosis. The prevalence of various cerebrovascular diseases between the 2 groups were compared, and multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for suspected comorbidities. Between 2000 and 2012, there were a total of 13,883 discharges carrying a diagnosis of Marfan syndrome. On univariate analysis, patients with Marfan syndrome were more likely to have a primary or secondary diagnosis of hemorrhagic stroke (0.5% versus 0.3%, odds ratio [OR] = 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-2.29, P = 0.02) as well as intracranial hemorrhage (subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH] and hemorrhagic stroke) (0.3% versus 0.2%, OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.05-2.82, P = 0.03). Patients hospitalized with Marfan syndrome were significantly more likely to have carotid dissection (0.3% versus 0.0%, OR = 11.69, 95% CI = 3.60-38.08, P Marfan syndrome had significantly higher odds of ischemic stroke (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.02-1.43, P = 0.03), hemorrhagic stroke (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.18-2.63, P = 0.005), carotid artery dissection (OR = 11.94, 95% CI = 4.23-50.03, P Marfan syndrome when compared with controls. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Declining Inconsistent Condom Use but Increasing HIV and Syphilis Prevalence Among Older Male Clients of Female Sex Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Abraham Bussell, Scottie; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Lan, Guanghua; Zhu, Qiuying; Liu, Wei; Tang, Shuai; Li, Rongjian; Huang, Wenbo; Huang, Yuman; Liang, Fuxiong; Wang, Lu; Shao, Yiming; Ruan, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Clients of female sex workers (CFSWs) are a bridge population for the spread of HIV and syphilis to low or average risk heterosexuals. Most studies have examined the point prevalence of these infections in CFSWs. Limited evidence suggests that older age CFSWs are at a higher risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases compared with younger clients. Thus, we sought to describe long-term trends in HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C (HCV) to better understand how these infections differ by sex worker classification and client age. We also examined trends in HIV, syphilis, and HCV among categories of female sex workers (FSWs). We conducted serial cross-sectional studies from 2010 to 2015 in Guangxi autonomous region, China. We collected demographic and behavior variables. FSWs and their clients were tested for HIV, syphilis, and HCV antibodies. Positive HIV and syphilis serologies were confirmed by Western blot and rapid plasma regain, respectively. Clients were categorized as middle age (40–49 years) and older clients (≥50 years). FSWs were categorized as high-tier, middle-tier, or low-tier based on the payment amount charged for sex and their work venue. Chi-square test for trends was used for testing changes in prevalence over time. By 2015, low-tier FSWs (LTFSWs) accounted for almost half of all FSWs; and they had the highest HIV prevalence at 1.4%. HIV prevalence declined significantly for FSWs (high-tier FSW, P = 0.003; middle-tier FSWs; P = 0.021; LTFSWs, P HIV prevalence increased for older age clients (1.3%–2.0%, P = 0.159) while syphilis prevalence remained stable. HCV infections were halved among older clients in 3 years (1.7%–0.8%, P sex with men or intravenous drug use. Clients preferred LTFSWs, especially older clients (81.9%). Our results suggest that HIV and syphilis infections are increasing in older clients who prefer LTFSWs. HIV and syphilis are likely increasing in Guangxi Province through heterosexual transmission

  16. Canine echinococcosis in northern Jordan: increased prevalence and dominance of sheep/dog strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qaoud, Khaled M; Abdel-Hafez, Sami K; Craig, Philip S

    2003-06-01

    A total of 112 stray and semi-stray dogs (Canis familiaris) from four different geographical areas in northern and middle Jordan were necropsied to evaluate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminthiasis. Of these, 33 dogs (29.5%) were infected with Echinococcus granulosus and 61 (54.5%) with other Taenia species. Other cestodes found included Dipylidium caninum in 36 dogs (32.1%), Diplopylidium in 6 dogs (5.4%), Mesocestoides sp. in 3 dogs (2.7%) and Joyuexiella in 1 dog (0.9%). Toxocara nematodes were found in 10 dogs (9.2%) and only 1 dog was positive for acanthocephalans. Among the dogs infected with E. granulosus, 8 dogs (24.2%) had a worm load higher than 1,000 worms. The ratio of infected male to female dogs was 1.9:1.0. Strain analysis of E. granulosus using random primers revealed the dominance of the G1 strain (sheep/dog strain) in the region. Only one dog harbored another E. granulosus strain, which resembled the G4 strain pattern.

  17. Genetic analysis of Thailand hantavirus in Bandicota indica trapped in Thailand

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    Hugot Jean-Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sixty one tissue samples from several rodent species trapped in five provinces of Thailand were examined for the presence of hantaviral markers by enzyme-immunoassay and immunoblotting. Four samples, all from the great bandicoot rat Bandicota indica, were confirmed positive for the hantaviral N-antigen. Two of them were trapped in Nakhon Pathom province, the other two in Nakhon Ratchasima province, approximately 250 km from the other trapping site. When analysed by RT-nested PCR, all four rodents were found positive for the hantaviral S- and M-segment nucleotide sequences. Genetic analysis revealed that the four newly described wild-type strains belong to Thailand hantavirus. On the phylogenetic trees they formed a well-supported cluster within the group of Murinae-associated hantaviruses and shared a recent common ancestor with Seoul virus.

  18. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (Rio Mamore Virus) in the Peruvian Amazon region

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    Casapía, Martín; Mamani, Enrique; García, María P; Miraval, María L; Valencia, Pedro; Quino, Alberto H; Álvarez, Carlos; Donaires, Luis F

    2012-01-01

    La hantavirosis es una infección viral zoonótica transmitida por roedores cuya forma clínica más letal es el síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH). La variante río Mamoré es autóctona de Sudamérica y fue descrita en roedores sin asociarla a enfermedad en humanos. Se presenta dos casos de SPH causados por hantavirus río Mamoré en la Amazonía peruana en noviembre de 2011. En ambos casos, el diagnóstico confirmatorio fue molecular, efectuados en el Instituto Nacional de Salud de Perú. Se realiz...

  19. Indirect immunofluorescence assay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies against clinically important old and new world hantaviruses.

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    Sabine Lederer

    Full Text Available In order to detect serum antibodies against clinically important Old and New World hantaviruses simultaneously, multiparametric indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs based on biochip mosaics were developed. Each of the mosaic substrates consisted of cells infected with one of the virus types Hantaan (HTNV, Puumala (PUUV, Seoul (SEOV, Saaremaa (SAAV, Dobrava (DOBV, Sin Nombre (SNV or Andes (ANDV. For assay evaluation, serum IgG and IgM antibodies were analyzed using 184 laboratory-confirmed hantavirus-positive sera collected at six diagnostic centers from patients actively or previously infected with the following hantavirus serotypes: PUUV (Finland, n=97; SEOV (China, n=5; DOBV (Romania, n=7; SNV (Canada, n=23; ANDV (Argentina and Chile, n=52. The control panel comprised 89 sera from healthy blood donors. According to the reference tests, all 184 patient samples were seropositive for hantavirus-specific IgG (n=177; 96% and/or IgM (n=131; 72%, while all control samples were tested negative. In the multiparametric IFA applied in this study, 183 (99% of the patient sera were IgG and 131 (71% IgM positive (accordance with the reference tests: IgG, 96%; IgM, 93%. Overall IFA sensitivity for combined IgG and IgM analysis amounted to 100% for all serotypes, except for SNV (96%. Of the 89 control sera, 2 (2% showed IgG reactivity against the HTNV substrate, but not against any other hantavirus. Due to the high cross-reactivity of hantaviral nucleocapsid proteins, endpoint titrations were conducted, allowing serotype determination in >90% of PUUV- and ANDV-infected patients. Thus, multiparametric IFA enables highly sensitive and specific serological diagnosis of hantavirus infections and can be used to differentiate PUUV and ANDV infection from infections with Murinae-borne hantaviruses (e.g. DOBV and SEOV.

  20. Life Style Related Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Increased Prevalence in Saudi Arabia: A Brief Review

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    Mohammad Fareed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Role of life style related risk factors is very important in the pathogenesis and progression of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The aim of this article is to review the disease burden of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM among the population of Saudi Arabia due to unhealthy life style. Methods: In this review, the information was collected from published literatures related to risk factors like unhealthy dietary pattern and sedentary life style leading to T2DM. Additionally, some epidemiological information for the prevalence of T2DM in Saudi Arabia was also collected. Results: Earlier studies have depicted that unhealthy life style and dietary patterns are risk factors involved in the development of insulin resistance in the body cells. In Saudi Arabia, rapid economic growth has provided a luxurious life style to the masses eventually leading to decrease in the physical activities and adoption of unhealthy dietary patterns. The increased prevalence of T2DM in Saudi Arabia is very much implicated to the life style related risk factors which needs to be improvise for the prevention of this disease. Conclusion: Since the increased prevalence of T2DM is associated with the sedentary life style and unhealthy dietary pattern, so it is recommended that creating awareness about the life style related risk factors for T2DM among general population and patients, will effectively contribute in lowering its incidence rate.

  1. The Increasing Prevalence of Crohn’s Disease in Industrialized Societies: The Price of Progress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron W Wells

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease (CD is an idiopathic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal system. While inflammation can activate one of a number of specific branches of the immune system, CD promotes a T helper cell type 1 (Th1 profile. The prospect that CD is a form of Th1-dominant autoimmune disease is gaining acceptance, with support from the current use of immunosuppressants. Recently, convincing evidence that the various branches of the immune system have the ability to keep each other in check has suggested that the Th1 profile of CD may stem from a greatly reduced T helper cell type 2 (Th2 immune response. A strong Th2 immune response is a characteristic of the once prevalent enteric parasitic diseases, now nearly eradicated from industrial society. This has led to the acceptance of a hygiene hypothesis, which suggests that the inverse relationship between CD and the level of a society’s industrialization is, in fact, causal -- that the lack of parasitic infections causes a weakened systemic Th2 cytokine profile, leading to elevated Th1 cytokines and, ultimately, the development of spontaneous Th1-mediated diseases such as CD. Supporting this, it has been recently demonstrated that an experimentally-induced Th2 response can help moderate Th1-dominant events in both animal and human studies. Based on this recent and convincing work, the present review focuses on the role of immunoregulation in the development of CD, with particular emphasis on the potential use of Th2-promoting agents (such as helminths or cytokines as therapeutics in the treatment or prevention of CD.

  2. Widespread rape does not directly appear to increase the overall HIV prevalence in conflict-affected countries: so now what?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Edward

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is severely affected by HIV/AIDS and conflict. Sexual violence as a weapon of war has been associated with concerns about heightened HIV incidence among women. Widespread rape by combatants has been documented in Burundi, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Sudan and Uganda. To examine the assertion that widespread rape may not directly increase HIV prevalence at the population level, we built a model to determine the potential impact of varying scenarios of widespread rape on HIV prevalence in the above seven African countries. Discussion Our findings show that even in the most extreme situations, where 15% of the female population was raped, where HIV prevalence among assailants was 8 times the country population prevalence, and where the HIV transmission rate was highest at 4 times the average high rate, widespread rape increased the absolute HIV prevalence of these countries by only 0.023%. These projections support the finding that widespread rape in conflict-affected countries in SSA has not incurred a major direct population-level change in HIV prevalence. However, this must not be interpreted to say that widespread rape does not pose serious problems to women's acquisition of HIV on an individual basis or in specific settings. Furthermore, direct and indirect consequences of sexual violence, such as physical and psychosocial trauma, unwanted pregnancies, and stigma and discrimination cannot be understated. Summary The conclusions of this article do not significantly change current practices in the field from an operational perspective. Proper care and treatment must be provided to every survivor of rape regardless of the epidemiological effects of HIV transmission at the population level. Sexual violence must be treated as a protection issue and not solely a reproductive health and psychosocial issue. It is worth publishing data and conclusions that could be

  3. Highly differentiated, resting gn-specific memory CD8+ T cells persist years after infection by andes hantavirus.

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    Tobias Manigold

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In man, infection with South American Andes virus (ANDV causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. HCPS due to ANDV is endemic in Southern Chile and much of Argentina and increasing numbers of cases are reported all over South America. A case-fatality rate of about 36% together with the absence of successful antiviral therapies urge the development of a vaccine. Although T-cell responses were shown to be critically involved in immunity to hantaviruses in mouse models, no data are available on the magnitude, specificity and longevity of ANDV-specific memory T-cell responses in patients. Using sets of overlapping peptides in IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays, we herein show in 78 Chilean convalescent patients that Gn-derived epitopes were immunodominant as compared to those from the N- and Gc-proteins. Furthermore, while the relative contribution of the N-specific response significantly declined over time, Gn-specific responses remained readily detectable ex vivo up to 13 years after the acute infection. Tetramer analysis further showed that up to 16.8% of all circulating CD3(+CD8(+ T cells were specific for the single HLA-B*3501-restricted epitope Gn(465-473 years after the acute infection. Remarkably, Gn(465-473-specific cells readily secreted IFN-gamma, granzyme B and TNF-alpha but not IL-2 upon stimulation and showed a 'revertant' CD45RA(+CD27(-CD28(-CCR7(-CD127(- effector memory phenotype, thereby resembling a phenotype seen in other latent virus infections. Most intriguingly, titers of neutralizing antibodies increased over time in 10/17 individuals months to years after the acute infection and independently of whether they were residents of endemic areas or not. Thus, our data suggest intrinsic, latent antigenic stimulation of Gn-specific T-cells. However, it remains a major task for future studies to proof this hypothesis by determination of viral antigen in convalescent patients. Furthermore, it remains to be seen whether Gn-specific T

  4. Chronic fatigue in 812 testicular cancer survivors during long-term follow-up: increasing prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprauten, M; Haugnes, H S; Brydøy, M; Kiserud, C; Tandstad, T; Bjøro, T; Bjerner, J; Cvancarova, M; Fosså, S D; Oldenburg, J

    2015-10-01

    Chronic fatigue (CF) has been reported to be slightly more prevalent in testicular cancer survivors (TCSs) than in the general population. In this study, we wished to explore possible determinants of CF in TCSs median 12 (survey I) and 19 years (survey II) after treatment, in particular the relation to late effects after treatment. Overall, 812 TCSs treated between 1980 and 1994 provided blood samples (testosterone and luteinizing hormone) and completed questionnaires at survey I (1998-2002) and survey II (2007-2008). Hormone levels were categorized according to quartile thresholds for decadal age groups of controls. Associations between CF and possible risk factors, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), treatment, physical activity, hormone levels, neurotoxicity, and comorbidity, were analyzed by logistic regression. Prevalence of CF increased from 15% at survey I to 27% at survey II (P < 0.001). At survey II, risk for CF was increased three- to four-fold for high levels of neuropathy compared with no neuropathy, and two- to three-fold for high levels of Raynaud-like phenomena, and having testosterone levels in the lowest quartile, while being moderately and highly physically active, had a protective effect. Risk for CF in TCSs with higher levels of HADS-Anxiety and HADS-Depression was increased two- to five-fold, respectively. The increasing prevalence of CF in TCSs is a novel finding. Lifestyle interventions, early detection and treatment of depression and anxiety, and possibly testosterone substitution might reduce the risk of CF. Extended long-term follow-up seems to be important. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Increasing prevalence of specific IgE to aeroallergens in an adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Nielsen, N H; Madsen, F

    2000-01-01

    E to aeroallergens had increased in an adult general population over an 8-year period. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 1990 and 1998. A mailed screening questionnaire on respiratory symptoms sent to random samples of 15- to 41-year-old subjects living in Copenhagen (Denmark) preceded both...

  6. Increased Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Disease Prevalence in Domestic Hybrids Among Free-Living Wild Boar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedbloed, D.J.; Hooft, van W.F.; Lutz, W.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Wieren, van S.E.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife immune genes are subject to natural selection exerted by pathogens. In contrast, domestic immune genes are largely protected from pathogen selection by veterinary care. Introgression of domestic alleles into the wild could lead to increased disease susceptibility, but observations are

  7. Smoking among adolescents in Muenster, Germany: increase in prevalence (1995-2000) and relation to tobacco advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziak, Wasim; Rzehak, Peter; Keil, Ulrich; Weiland, Stephan K

    2003-02-01

    Understanding patterns and trends of smoking among youths is of major importance for the assessment of the burden of smoking in the society and efforts to decrease it. The aims were to determine the prevalence and trends of smoking among adolescents in Muenster, Germany, and to assess its relation to youths' awareness of tobacco advertisement. Information on smoking habits was collected during two school-based surveys (1994/1995 and 1999/2000) of 12- to 15-year-old adolescents (3934 students in 1994/5 and 4028 students in 1999/2000) in Muenster, Germany. In addition, in 1994/1995 information about youths' awareness and appreciation of tobacco advertisement was collected. During the 5-year period, the prevalence of current smoking increased from 21.3 to 28.3%, and daily smoking increased from 10.0 to 14.2%. Among girls, daily smoking increased by 62% during this period. Almost all participants (94%) in 1994/1995 knew a tobacco brand, and appreciation of tobacco advertisement was strongly associated with the frequency of smoking. Smoking is increasing among adolescents in Germany especially among girls. These data are a cause of concern and call for efforts to reverse these trends, which should include a ban on tobacco advertisement in Germany.

  8. The prevalence of chromium allergy in Denmark is currently increasing as a result of leather exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Jensen, P; Carlsen, B C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chromium allergy has traditionally been caused by occupational skin contact with cement. In 1983, Danish legislation made the addition of ferrous sulphate compulsory in cement to reduce the water-soluble chromium content to not more than 2 ppm. An effect from this intervention has pre...... leather exposure increased significantly from 24.1% during 1989-1994 to 45.5% during 1995-2007 (P leather exposure....

  9. Prevalence of increased canine pancreas-specific lipase concentrations in young dogs with parvovirus enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalli, Irida V; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Patsika, Michael N; Pardali, Dimitra; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Menexes, George; Brellou, Georgia D; Rallis, Timoleon S

    2017-03-01

    Pancreatic abnormalities during canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis have not been studied prospectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic significance of canine serum pancreas-specific lipase (Spec cPL) concentration in dogs with CPV enteritis for the presence of acute pancreatitis (AP). Puppies with naturally occurring CPV enteritis were recruited and prospectively allocated into 2 groups according to normal or increased serum Spec cPL concentration. Clinical signs, laboratory findings, and pancreas-associated variables were compared between groups, and the impact of possible AP on disease course, duration of hospitalization, and outcome was assessed. Serum Spec cPL concentration in 35 puppies was above the upper limit of the RI in 17/35 (48.6%) dogs (Group A) and within the RI in 18 dogs (Group B). An increased serum lipase activity was present in 29/35 (82.9%) dogs, and Group A dogs had a higher serum lipase activity than Group B (P = .006). Serum Spec cPL in Group A dogs was positively correlated with serum lipase activity at the day of presentation (r = .667; P = .003) and day of discharge (r = .628; P = .007). No statistically significant difference was found between groups (P = .233) for the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) (6/17 or 35.3% dogs Group A, and 8/18 or 44.4% dogs Group B), the disease course, duration of hospitalization, or outcome between groups. Increased serum Spec cPL is relatively common in dogs with CPV enteritis. However, such increases do not seem to correlate with the outcome of disease. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. Increased Prevalence of the IL-6 -174C Genetic Polymorphism in Long Distance Swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Zaken Sigal; Meckel Yoav; Nemet Dan; Kassem Eias; Eliakim Alon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The IL-6 -174G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) functionally affects IL-6 activity, with the G-allele associated with increased IL-6 levels. The C-allele was found to be associated with exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism and athletic performance among elite swimmers and runners. The study sample included 180 track and field athletes and 80 swimmers. Track and field athletes w...

  11. Secular trends in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in a tertiary-care hospital: increasing prevalence and accelerated decline in antimicrobial susceptibility

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    Rodrigo de Carvalho Santana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION Klebsiella pneumoniae has become an increasingly important etiologic agent of nosocomial infections in recent years. This is mainly due to the expression of virulence factors and development of resistance to several antimicrobial drugs. METHODS This retrospective study examines data obtained from the microbiology laboratory of a Brazilian tertiary-care hospital. To assess temporal trends in prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility, K. pneumoniae isolates were analyzed from 2000 to 2013. The relative frequencies of K. pneumoniae isolation were calculated among all Gram-negative bacilli isolated in each period analyzed. Susceptibility tests were performed using automated systems. RESULTS: From 2000-2006, K. pneumonia isolates comprised 10.7% of isolated Gram-negative bacilli (455/4260. From 2007-2013, this percentage was 18.1% (965/5331. Strictly considering isolates from bloodstream infections, the relative annual prevalence of K. pneumoniae increased from 14-17% to 27-32% during the same periods. A progressive decrease in K. pneumoniae susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents assessed was detected. Partial resistance was also observed to antimicrobial drugs that have been used more recently, such as colistin and tigecycline. CONCLUSIONS Our study indicates that K. pneumoniae has become a major pathogen among hospitalized patients and confirms its recent trend of increasing antimicrobial resistance.

  12. Increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in asylum seekers at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland.

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    Constantine Bloch-Infanger

    Full Text Available The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland.At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations.Hundred ninety five of 2'544 and 516 of 6'243 asylum seekers registered at the national asylum reception and procedure centre Basel were referred to the University Hospital Basel in 2004/05 and 2014/15, and originated mainly from Europe (62.3%, mainly Turkey and Africa (49.1%, mainly Eritrea, respectively. Median age was similar in both study periods (26.9 and 26.2 years. Infectious diseases in asylum seekers increased from 22.6% to 36.6% (p<0.001 and were the main reasons for hospitalizations (33.3% of 45 and 55.6% of 81 hospitalized patients, p = 0.017 in 2004/05 compared to 2014/15. The leading infectious diseases in hospitalized patients were tuberculosis (n = 4 and bacterial skin infections (n = 2 in 2004/05; Malaria (n = 9, pneumonia (n = 6, Chickenpox (n = 5, other viral infections (n = 5 and bacterial skin infections (n = 5 in 2014/15. Infectious diseases like malaria, cutaneous diphtheria, louseborne-relapsing fever or scabies were only found in the second study period. Almost one third of the admitted asylum seekers required isolation precautions with median duration of 6-9.5 days in both study periods.The changing demography of asylum seekers arriving in Switzerland in the current refugee crisis has led to a shift in disease patterns with an increase of infectious diseases and the re-emergence of migration-associated neglected infections. Physicians should be aware of these new challenges.

  13. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is not increased in normal-weight women with PCOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelanis, Rasa; Mellembakken, Jan Roar; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2017-01-01

    of prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) which is closely linked to obesity and possibly age, ethnicity and PCOS phenotype. Several guidelines recommend OGTT upon diagnosis of PCOS and during follow-up. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A Nordic cross-sectional study including 876 women. PARTICIPANTS....../MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The 876 Nordic women with PCOS, aged 14-57 years, were examined for T2D and prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) by OGTT. MAIN RESULT AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Of all study subjects 3% (23/876) had T2D, 23% (204/876) prediabetes and 74% (649....../876) had normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Increased BMI and waist circumference were significantly (P prediabetes and T2D. No normal-weight woman (BMI

  14. Holocaust survivors: the pain behind the agony. Increased prevalence of fibromyalgia among Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablin, J N; Cohen, H; Eisinger, M; Buskila, D

    2010-01-01

    To assess the frequency of fibromyalgia among a population of Holocaust survivors in Israel as well as the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and concurrent psychiatric symptoms, including depression and anxiety among survivors. Eighty-three survivors of the Nazi Holocaust and 65 age-matched individuals not exposed to Nazi occupation were recruited. Physical examination and manual tender point assessment was performed for the establishment of the diagnosis of fibromyalgia and information was collected regarding quality of life (SF-36), physical function and health (FIQ), psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90) and PTSD symptoms (CAPS). Significantly increased rates of fibromyalgia were identified among Holocaust survivors compared with controls (23.81% vs. 10.94, pHolocaust survivors six decades after the end of the Second World War. This finding furthers our knowledge regarding the long-term effect of stress on the development of fibromyalgia.

  15. Increased prevalence of VNTR III of the insulin gene in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litou, Hariklia; Anastasiou, Eleni; Thalassinou, Louminitsa; Sarika, Helen-Leda; Philippou, George; Alevizaki, Maria

    2007-05-01

    The VNTR polymorphism in the promoter region of the insulin gene (INS-VNTR) affects transcription rate and has been associated with insulin resistance and DM2. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a multifactorial disorder, where both impaired insulin secretion and action may be involved. The aim of the study was to examine the distribution of the INS-VNTRs in women with GDM and to investigate possible associations with features of beta cell function and glycaemic control in this population. One hundred and sixty-one women with GDM and 111 normal pregnant women (n) were genotyped for INS-VNTR during the 24th-32nd pregnancy week. Glucose and insulin levels were determined during the diagnostic OGTT. The majority of the previous GDM women were also examined at 3-6 months post-partum. VNTR class III/III genotype was significantly more frequent in the GDM group 8.7% versus 2.7%, p=0.02 giving an OR of 3.97 (1.1-14.29). An increased frequency of the VNTR class III allele was found in those GDM women who required insulin for treatment compared to those controlled with diet alone (12.4% versus 4%, pwomen homozygous for the class III allele without reaching statistical significance (p=0.09). The INS-VNTR class III is more frequent in women who develop GDM, and may be associated with decreased ability of the beta cell to meet the increased insulin requirements as reflected by the need for insulin supplementation for adequate glycaemic control.

  16. Gene S characterization of Hantavirus species Seoul virus isolated from Rattus norvegicuson an Indonesian island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Perwitasari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Hantavirus hidup dan berkembang biak di tubuh hewan pengerat, salah satunya Rattus norvegicus yang banyak ditemukan di daerah kepulauan di Indonesia. Hantavirus spesies Seoul virus (SEOV adalah virus RNA negatif rantai tunggal yang termasuk dalam keluarga Bunyaviridae, mempunyai beberapa gen spesifik terutama gen S yang dapat dikembangkan untuk uji diagnostik. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui karakter dari gen S dari Hantavirus spesies Seoulvirus.Metode:Pada penelitian ini dilakukan sekuensing gen S yang berasal dari jaringan paru-paru rodensia.  Fragmen DNA yang disekuensing menggunakan primer DNA SEOS-28F danSEOS -360R,VNS-1501F dan VNS-CSR. Hasil sekuensing dianalisis menggunakan program seqscapedan dianalisis menggunakan program Bioedit dan Mega5. Analisis filogenetik untuk homologi nukleotida dan asam amino dari ketiga strain Kepulauan Seribu tersebut dibandingkan dengan spesies hantavirus lainnya yang diambil dari genebank. Hasil:Analisis Homologi nukleotida dan asam amino antara strain Kepulauan Seribu dengan SEOV menunjukkan homologi nukleotida tertinggi pada strain KS74 (88,4% dan terendah pada KS90 (87,2%, sedangkan homologi asam amino tertinggi adalah strain KS74 (91.3% dan terendah pada strain KS90 (89,5%. Kesimpulan:Karakter gen S virus yang ditemukan di Kepulauan Seribu sebanding dengan virus SEOV yang ditemukan di Singapura dan Korea.  (Health Science Indones 2014;1:1-6Kata kunci:Seoul virus, gen S, Kepulauan Seribu, IndonesiaAbstractBackground: Hantavirus lives and reproduces in the body of rodents. Rattus norvegicuswas one found in the Kepulauan Seribu islands of Indonesia. Hantavirus species Seoul virus (SEOV is a negative single chain RNA viruses included in the family Bunyaviridae. It has a few specific genes, especially genes S that can be developed for a diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to ascertain the character of gene S of hantavirus species Seoul virus. Methods: Gene

  17. Increased prevalence of anxiety symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokras, Anuja; Clifton, Shari; Futterweit, Walter; Wild, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that compared the prevalence of anxiety symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and control women. Meta-analysis and systematic review. University practice. Cross-sectional studies comparing PCOS subjects and geographically matched clearly defined non-PCOS control subjects with data on age and body mass index (BMI). Anxiety screening tool. The primary analysis contrasted prevalence of anxiety. Cochrane Review Manager 5.0.24 software was used to construct forest plots comparing frequency of anxiety symptoms in case and control subjects. Of 613 screened articles, nine met our selection criteria for a systematic review and four were included in the meta-analysis. The prevalence of generalized anxiety symptoms was available in four studies and was significantly greater in PCOS subjects (42/206, 20.4%) compared to controls (8/204, 3.9%). The odds for anxiety symptoms were significantly greater in women with PCOS compared with control subjects (odds ratio 6.88, 95% confidence interval 2.5-18.9). The mean anxiety score was significantly increased in three of the remaining five studies. Other anxiety disorders, such as social phobia, panic attacks, and obsessive compulsive disorders, were assessed infrequently. Our systematic review suggests an increased odds of anxiety symptoms in women with PCOS, underscoring the importance of screening all women with PCOS for anxiety symptoms. Follow-up evaluation and treatment are essential, because generalized anxiety disorder is a chronic condition. Potential contributors for anxiety symptoms, such as hirsutism, obesity, and/or infertility may be specific to women with PCOS but need further investigation. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Increased Prevalence of the IL-6-174C Genetic Polymorphism in Long Distance Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zaken, Sigal; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan; Kassem, Eias; Eliakim, Alon

    2017-09-01

    The IL-6 -174G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) functionally affects IL-6 activity, with the G-allele associated with increased IL-6 levels. The C-allele was found to be associated with exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism and athletic performance among elite swimmers and runners. The study sample included 180 track and field athletes and 80 swimmers. Track and field athletes were assigned to three sub-groups: long-distance runners, middle-distance runners and short-distance runners. Swimmers were assigned to two subgroups: long-distance swimmers and short-distance swimmers. The control group consisted of 123 non-athletic healthy individuals. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood following a standard protocol. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The CC genotype and C-allele frequency were significantly higher in the long-distance swimmers (18 and 43%, respectively) compared to the long-distance runners (3 and 14%, respectively, p < 0.001); middle-distance runners (4 and 22%, respectively, p < 0.001); and controls (5 and 19%, respectively, p < 0.001). In addition, the CC genotype and C-allele frequency were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in long-distance swimmers compared to short-distance swimmers (18 versus 5% and 43 versus 29% for the CC genotype and C-allele frequency, respectively). The higher frequency of the C-allele and CC genotype among long-distance swimmers suggests that the rarity of exercise-associated rhabdomyolysis among swimmers is probably related to other sports-specific or water-related protective mechanisms. It is possible that swimming selection in talented endurance athletes who are C-allele carriers represents an example of genetically-dependent sports selection.

  19. Increased Prevalence of the IL-6 -174C Genetic Polymorphism in Long Distance Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Zaken Sigal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The IL-6 -174G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP functionally affects IL-6 activity, with the G-allele associated with increased IL-6 levels. The C-allele was found to be associated with exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism and athletic performance among elite swimmers and runners. The study sample included 180 track and field athletes and 80 swimmers. Track and field athletes were assigned to three sub-groups: long-distance runners, middle-distance runners and short-distance runners. Swimmers were assigned to two subgroups: long-distance swimmers and short-distance swimmers. The control group consisted of 123 non-athletic healthy individuals. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood following a standard protocol. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The CC genotype and C-allele frequency were significantly higher in the long-distance swimmers (18 and 43%, respectively compared to the long-distance runners (3 and 14%, respectively, p < 0.001; middle-distance runners (4 and 22%, respectively, p < 0.001; and controls (5 and 19%, respectively, p < 0.001. In addition, the CC genotype and C-allele frequency were significantly higher (p < 0.001 in long-distance swimmers compared to short-distance swimmers (18 versus 5% and 43 versus 29% for the CC genotype and C-allele frequency, respectively. The higher frequency of the C-allele and CC genotype among long-distance swimmers suggests that the rarity of exercise-associated rhabdomyolysis among swimmers is probably related to other sports-specific or water-related protective mechanisms. It is possible that swimming selection in talented endurance athletes who are C-allele carriers represents an example of genetically-dependent sports selection.

  20. Is greater acculturation associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among Latinos in South Florida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Aileen; Kenya, Sonjia; Ilangovan, Kumar; Li, Hua; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Alonzo, Yisel; Carrasquillo, Olveen

    2015-05-01

    To examine the association of acculturation with various cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) among Latinos with diabetes in South Florida. In a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 300 Latinos with poorly controlled diabetes we measured acculturation using the Marin Short Acculturation Scale. We examined correlations between acculturation and the following 7 CRFs: hemoglobin A1C, low-density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, smoking status, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable intake. Cubans made up 38% of our population; no other Latino subgroup represented over 17% of the sample. Of the 8 outcomes examined, only smoking was associated with increased acculturation; 12% of Latinos in the 2 lowest acculturation groups were current smokers versus 25% in the highest acculturation group (P=0.02). Furthermore, Cuban Americans from our sample had over double the prevalence of smoking compared with non-Cubans in both the lowest and highest acculturation groups. With the exception of smoking, our data does not support a link between increased acculturation and higher prevalence of CRFs in Latinos with diabetes. Smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting Latinos and particularly among Cubans are needed.

  1. Increased heat resistance in mycelia from wood fungi prevalent in forests characterized by fire: a possible adaptation to forest fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Edman, Mattias; Holm, Svante; Eriksson, Anna-Maria; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar

    2012-10-01

    Forest fires have been the major stand-replacing/modifying disturbance in boreal forests. To adapt to fire disturbance, different strategies have evolved. This study focuses on wood fungi, and a specific adaptation to forest fire: increased heat resistance in their mycelia. Fifteen species of wood fungi were selected and a priori sorted in two groups according to their prevalence in fire-affected environments. The fungi were cultivated on fresh wood and exposed to 100, 140, 180, 220 °C for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min. under laboratory conditions. A clear difference was found among the two groups. Species prevalent in fire-affected habitats had a much higher survival rate over all combinations of time and temperature compared to species associated with other environments. Thus, the results indicate that fire adaptation in terms of increased heat resistance in mycelia occurs in some species of wood fungi. Such adaptation will influence the ecology and population dynamics of wood fungi, as well as having implications for best practices during restoration fires. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Using Geographic Information System-based Ecologic Niche Models to Forecast the Risk of Hantavirus Infection in Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lan; Qian, Quan; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Glass, Gregory E.; Song, Shao-Xia; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Li, Xiu-Jun; Yang, Hong; Wang, Xian-Jun; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important public health problem in Shandong Province, China. In this study, we combined ecologic niche modeling with geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing techniques to identify the risk factors and affected areas of hantavirus infections in rodent hosts. Land cover and elevation were found to be closely associated with the presence of hantavirus-infected rodent hosts. The averaged area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.864, implying good performance. The predicted risk maps based on the model were validated both by the hantavirus-infected rodents' distribution and HFRS human case localities with a good fit. These findings have the applications for targeting control and prevention efforts. PMID:21363991

  3. A case-control study after a hantavirus infection outbreak in the south of Belgium: who is at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loock, F; Thomas, I; Clement, J; Ghoos, S; Colson, P

    1999-04-01

    Puumala is the most common hantavirus serotype in Europe and is spread mainly by the red bank vole. Between 1 July 1992 and 31 January 1994, an outbreak of Puumala virus-induced nephropathia epidemica (NE) occurred in the Belgian Ardennes. Serologically confirmed cases (n = 41) were compared with two groups of asymptomatic seronegative controls. Risks identified included sighting of living rodents, exposure to rodent droppings, and trapping rodents during the 4 weeks preceding onset of symptoms. Activities during this 4-week period that presented the greatest risk were woodcutting, reopening of a nonaerated room, and strenuous physical effort. This is the first case-control study on risk factors for NE in Europe. In comparison with the American form of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, which is spread by deer mice, professional activity appears to be a more important risk factor for acquisition of hantavirus in Europe.

  4. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome One Year after Delivery in Finnish Women at Increased Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus during Pregnancy

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    Jatta Puhkala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are at increased risk for metabolic syndrome (MeS after delivery. We studied the prevalence of MeS at one year postpartum among Finnish women who in early pregnancy were at increased risk of developing GDM. Methods. This follow-up study is a part of a GDM prevention trial. At one year postpartum, 150 women (mean age 33.1 years, BMI 27.2 kg/m2 were evaluated for MeS. Results. The prevalence of MeS was 18% according tothe International Diabetes Federation(IDF criteria and 16% according toNational Cholestrol Education Program(NCEP criteria. Of MeS components, 74% of participants had an increased waist circumference (≥80 cm. Twenty-seven percent had elevated fasting plasma glucose (≥5.6 mmol/L, and 29% had reduced HDL cholesterol (≤1.3 mmol/L. The odds ratio for the occurrence of MeS at one year postpartum was 3.0 (95% CI 1.0–9.2 in those who were overweight before pregnancy compared to normal weight women. Conclusions. Nearly one-fifth of the women with an increased risk of GDM in early pregnancy fulfilled the criteria of MeS at one year postpartum. The most important factor associated with MeS was prepregnancy overweight. Weight management before and during pregnancy is important for preventing MeS after delivery.

  5. Increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in gulls sampled in southcentral Alaska is associated with urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atterby, Clara; Ramey, Andrew M.; Gustafsson Hall, Gabriel; Jarhult, Josef; Borjesson, Stefan; Bonnedahl, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAntibiotic-resistant bacteria pose challenges to healthcare delivery systems globally; however, limited information is available regarding the prevalence and spread of such bacteria in the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in large-bodied gulls (Larus spp.) at urban and remote locations in Southcentral Alaska to gain inference into the association between antibiotic resistance in wildlife and anthropogenically influenced habitats.MethodsEscherichia coli was cultured (n=115 isolates) from fecal samples of gulls (n=160) collected from a remote location, Middleton Island, and a more urban setting on the Kenai Peninsula.ResultsScreening of E. coli from fecal samples collected from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) at Middleton Island revealed 8% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 2% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In contrast, 55% of E. coli isolates derived from fecal samples collected from large-bodied gulls (i.e. glaucous, herring [Larus argentatus], and potentially hybrid gulls) on the Kenai Peninsula were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 22% were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In addition, total of 16% of the gull samples from locations on the Kenai Peninsula harbored extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli isolates (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBL] and plasmid-encoded AmpC [pAmpC]), in contrast to Middleton Island where no ESBL- or pAmpC-producing isolates were detected.ConclusionOur findings indicate that increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance is associated with urban environments in Southcentral Alaska and presumably influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Further investigation is warranted to assess how migratory birds may maintain and spread antimicrobial-resistant bacteria of relevance to human and animal health.

  6. Mechanistic Insight into Bunyavirus-Induced Membrane Fusion from Structure-Function Analyses of the Hantavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Gc.

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    Pablo Guardado-Calvo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses transmitted to humans by persistently infected rodents, giving rise to serious outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS or of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS, depending on the virus, which are associated with high case fatality rates. There is only limited knowledge about the organization of the viral particles and in particular, about the hantavirus membrane fusion glycoprotein Gc, the function of which is essential for virus entry. We describe here the X-ray structures of Gc from Hantaan virus, the type species hantavirus and responsible for HFRS, both in its neutral pH, monomeric pre-fusion conformation, and in its acidic pH, trimeric post-fusion form. The structures confirm the prediction that Gc is a class II fusion protein, containing the characteristic β-sheet rich domains termed I, II and III as initially identified in the fusion proteins of arboviruses such as alpha- and flaviviruses. The structures also show a number of features of Gc that are distinct from arbovirus class II proteins. In particular, hantavirus Gc inserts residues from three different loops into the target membrane to drive fusion, as confirmed functionally by structure-guided mutagenesis on the HPS-inducing Andes virus, instead of having a single "fusion loop". We further show that the membrane interacting region of Gc becomes structured only at acidic pH via a set of polar and electrostatic interactions. Furthermore, the structure reveals that hantavirus Gc has an additional N-terminal "tail" that is crucial in stabilizing the post-fusion trimer, accompanying the swapping of domain III in the quaternary arrangement of the trimer as compared to the standard class II fusion proteins. The mechanistic understandings derived from these data are likely to provide a unique handle for devising treatments against these human pathogens.

  7. Estimating Hantavirus Risk in Southern Argentina: A GIS-Based Approach Combining Human Cases and Host Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, Veronica; Neteler, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Provensal, Cecilia; Levis, Silvana; Porcasi, Ximena; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Lanfri, Mario; Scavuzzo, Marcelo; Pini, Noemi; Enria, Delia; Polop, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) caused by Andes virus (ANDV) in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with the highest infection probability for humans, through the combination with the distribution map for the competent rodent host (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Sites with confirmed cases of HPS in the period 1995–2009 were mostly concentrated in a narrow strip (~90 km × 900 km) along the Andes range from northern Neuquén to central Chubut province. This area is characterized by high mean annual precipitation (~1,000 mm on average), but dry summers (less than 100 mm), very low percentages of bare soil (~10% on average) and low temperatures in the coldest month (minimum average temperature −1.5 °C), as compared to the HPS-free areas, features that coincide with sub-Antarctic forests and shrublands (especially those dominated by the invasive plant Rosa rubiginosa), where rodent host abundances and ANDV prevalences are known to be the highest. Through the combination of predictive distribution maps of the reservoir host and disease cases, we found that the area with the highest probability for HPS to occur overlaps only 28% with the most suitable habitat for O. longicaudatus. With this approach, we made a step forward in the understanding of the risk factors that need to be considered in the forecasting and mapping of risk at the regional/national scale. We propose the implementation and use of thematic maps, such as the one built here, as a basic tool allowing public health authorities to focus surveillance efforts and normally scarce resources for prevention and control actions in vast areas like southern Argentina. PMID:24424500

  8. Estimating Hantavirus Risk in Southern Argentina: A GIS-Based Approach Combining Human Cases and Host Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Andreo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS caused by Andes virus (ANDV in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with the highest infection probability for humans, through the combination with the distribution map for the competent rodent host (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. Sites with confirmed cases of HPS in the period 1995–2009 were mostly concentrated in a narrow strip (~90 km × 900 km along the Andes range from northern Neuquén to central Chubut province. This area is characterized by high mean annual precipitation (~1,000 mm on average, but dry summers (less than 100 mm, very low percentages of bare soil (~10% on average and low temperatures in the coldest month (minimum average temperature −1.5 °C, as compared to the HPS-free areas, features that coincide with sub-Antarctic forests and shrublands (especially those dominated by the invasive plant Rosa rubiginosa, where rodent host abundances and ANDV prevalences are known to be the highest. Through the combination of predictive distribution maps of the reservoir host and disease cases, we found that the area with the highest probability for HPS to occur overlaps only 28% with the most suitable habitat for O. longicaudatus. With this approach, we made a step forward in the understanding of the risk factors that need to be considered in the forecasting and mapping of risk at the regional/national scale. We propose the implementation and use of thematic maps, such as the one built here, as a basic tool allowing public health authorities to focus surveillance efforts and normally scarce resources for prevention and control actions in vast areas like southern Argentina.

  9. Catalase protects Aedes aegypti from oxidative stress and increases midgut infection prevalence of Dengue but not Zika.

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    José Henrique M Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Digestion of blood in the midgut of Aedes aegypti results in the release of pro-oxidant molecules that can be toxic to the mosquito. We hypothesized that after a blood meal, the antioxidant capacity of the midgut is increased to protect cells against oxidative stress. Concomitantly, pathogens present in the blood ingested by mosquitoes, such as the arboviruses Dengue and Zika, also have to overcome the same oxidative challenge, and the antioxidant program induced by the insect is likely to influence infection status of the mosquito and its vectorial competence.We found that blood-induced catalase mRNA and activity in the midgut peaked 24 h after feeding and returned to basal levels after the completion of digestion. RNAi-mediated silencing of catalase (AAEL013407-RB reduced enzyme activity in the midgut epithelia, increased H2O2 leakage and decreased fecundity and lifespan when mosquitoes were fed H2O2. When infected with Dengue 4 and Zika virus, catalase-silenced mosquitoes showed no alteration in infection intensity (number of plaque forming units/midgut 7 days after the infectious meal. However, catalase knockdown reduced Dengue 4, but not Zika, infection prevalence (percent of infected midguts.Here, we showed that blood ingestion triggers an antioxidant response in the midgut through the induction of catalase. This protection facilitates the establishment of Dengue virus in the midgut. Importantly, this mechanism appears to be specific for Dengue because catalase silencing did not change Zika virus prevalence. In summary, our data suggest that redox balance in the midgut modulates mosquito vectorial competence to arboviral infections.

  10. Catalase protects Aedes aegypti from oxidative stress and increases midgut infection prevalence of Dengue but not Zika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, José Henrique M; Talyuli, Octávio A C; Goncalves, Renata L S; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela Oliveira; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique F; Alvarenga, Patricia Hessab; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2017-04-01

    Digestion of blood in the midgut of Aedes aegypti results in the release of pro-oxidant molecules that can be toxic to the mosquito. We hypothesized that after a blood meal, the antioxidant capacity of the midgut is increased to protect cells against oxidative stress. Concomitantly, pathogens present in the blood ingested by mosquitoes, such as the arboviruses Dengue and Zika, also have to overcome the same oxidative challenge, and the antioxidant program induced by the insect is likely to influence infection status of the mosquito and its vectorial competence. We found that blood-induced catalase mRNA and activity in the midgut peaked 24 h after feeding and returned to basal levels after the completion of digestion. RNAi-mediated silencing of catalase (AAEL013407-RB) reduced enzyme activity in the midgut epithelia, increased H2O2 leakage and decreased fecundity and lifespan when mosquitoes were fed H2O2. When infected with Dengue 4 and Zika virus, catalase-silenced mosquitoes showed no alteration in infection intensity (number of plaque forming units/midgut) 7 days after the infectious meal. However, catalase knockdown reduced Dengue 4, but not Zika, infection prevalence (percent of infected midguts). Here, we showed that blood ingestion triggers an antioxidant response in the midgut through the induction of catalase. This protection facilitates the establishment of Dengue virus in the midgut. Importantly, this mechanism appears to be specific for Dengue because catalase silencing did not change Zika virus prevalence. In summary, our data suggest that redox balance in the midgut modulates mosquito vectorial competence to arboviral infections.

  11. Factors that could explain the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes among adults in a Canadian province: a critical review and analysis

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    Véronique Thibault

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes has increased since the last decade in New Brunswick. Identifying factors contributing to the increase in diabetes prevalence will help inform an action plan to manage the condition. The objective was to describe factors that could explain the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in New Brunswick since 2001. Methods A critical literature review was conducted to identify factors potentially responsible for an increase in prevalence of diabetes. Data from various sources were obtained to draw a repeated cross-sectional (2001–2014 description of these factors concurrently with changes in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in New Brunswick. Linear regressions, Poisson regressions and Cochran Armitage analysis were used to describe relationships between these factors and time. Results Factors identified in the review were summarized in five categories: individual-level risk factors, environmental risk factors, evolution of the disease, detection effect and global changes. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased by 120% between 2001 and 2014. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, prediabetes, alcohol consumption, immigration and urbanization increased during the study period and the consumption of fruits and vegetables decreased which could represent potential factors of the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Physical activity, smoking, socioeconomic status and education did not present trends that could explain the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. During the study period, the mortality rate and the conversion rate from prediabetes to diabetes decreased and the incidence rate increased. Suggestion of a detection effect was also present as the number of people tested increased while the HbA1c and the age at detection decreased. Period and birth cohort effect were also noted through a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes across all age groups, but greater increases were

  12. Temporal variation in individual factors associated with hantavirus infection in bank voles during an epizootic: implications for Puumala virus transmission dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tersago, Katrien; Verhagen, Ron; Leirs, Herwig

    2011-06-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV), the causal agent of nephropathia epidemica in humans, is one of the many hantaviruses included in the list of emerging pathogens. Hantavirus infection is not distributed evenly among PUUV reservoir hosts (i.e., bank voles [Myodes glareolus]). Besides environmental factors and local population features, individual characteristics play an important role in vole PUUV infection risk. Identifying the relative importance of these individual characteristics can provide crucial information on PUUV transmission processes. In the present study, bank voles were monitored during the nephropathia epidemica outbreak of 2005 in Belgium. Vole sera were tested for presence of immunoglobulin G against PUUV, and a logistic mixed model was built to investigate the temporal variation in individual characteristics and their relative importance to PUUV infection risk in bank voles. Relative risk calculations for individual vole characteristics related to PUUV infection in the reservoir host show that reproductive activity dominates infection risk. The gender effect is only found in reproductively active voles, where reproductively active males have the highest infection risk. Results also revealed a clear seasonal variation in the importance of reproductive activity linked to PUUV infection. In contrast to the main effect found in other trapping sessions, no difference in infection risk ratio was found between reproductively active and nonactive voles in the spring period. Combined with increased infection risk for the reproductively nonactive group at that time, these results indicate a shift in the transmission process due to changes in bank vole behavior, physiology, or climate conditions. Hence, our results suggest that mathematical models should take into account seasonal shifts in transmission mechanisms. When these results are combined with the seasonal changes in population structure during the epizootic period, we identify vole reproductive activity and

  13. Increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome in patients with primary aldosteronism of the German Conn's Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslik, Gregor; Wallaschofski, Henri; Dietz, Anna; Riester, Anna; Reincke, Martin; Allolio, Bruno; Lang, Katharina; Quack, Ivo; Rump, Lars C; Willenberg, Holger S; Beuschlein, Felix; Quinkler, Marcus; Hannemann, Anke

    2015-11-01

    Abnormalities in glucose homeostasis have been described in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) but most studies show inconsistent results. Therefore, we aimed to compare the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in newly diagnosed PA patients to a matched control cohort of the background population. In total, 305 PA patients of the prospective German Conn's Registry were compared to the population-based Study of Health In Pomerania (SHIP1; n=2454). A 1:1 match regarding sex, age, and BMI resulted in 269 matched pairs regarding type 2 diabetes and 183 matched pairs regarding MetS. Of the total, 153 PA patients underwent oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) at diagnosis and 38 PA patients were reevaluated at follow-up. Type 2 diabetes and MetS were significantly more frequent in PA patients than in the control population (17.2% vs 10.4%, P=0.03; 56.8% vs 44.8%, P=0.02 respectively). Also, HbA1c levels were higher in PA patients than in controls (P<0.01). Of the total, 35.3% of non-diabetic PA patients showed an abnormal OGTT (¼ newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and ¾ impaired glucose tolerance). PA patients with an abnormal OGTT at baseline presented with significantly improved 2 h OGTT glucose (P=0.01) at follow-up. We detected a negative correlation between 2 h OGTT glucose levels and serum potassium (P<0.01). Type 2 diabetes and MetS are more prevalent in patients with PA than in controls matched for sex, age, BMI, and blood pressure. This may explain in part the increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality in PA patients. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  14. Tula and Puumala hantavirus NSs ORFs are functional and the products inhibit activation of the interferon-beta promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Kirsi M; Kaukinen, Pasi; Minskaya, Ekaterina S; Plyusnina, Angelina; Vapalahti, Olli; Elliott, Richard M; Weber, Friedemann; Vaheri, Antti; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2007-10-01

    The S RNA genome segment of hantaviruses carried by Arvicolinae and Sigmodontinae rodents encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein and has an overlapping (+1) open reading frame (ORF) for a putative nonstructural protein (NSs). The aim of this study was to determine whether the ORF is functional. A protein corresponding to the predicted size of Tula virus (TULV) NSs was detected using coupled in vitro transcription and translation from a cloned S segment cDNA, and a protein corresponding to the predicted size of Puumala virus (PUUV) NSs was detected in infected cells by Western blotting with an anti-peptide serum. The activities of the interferon beta (IFN-beta) promoter, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB)- and interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) responsive promoters, were inhibited in COS-7 cells transiently expressing TULV or PUUV NSs. Also IFN-beta mRNA levels in IFN-competent MRC5 cells either infected with TULV or transiently expressing NSs were decreased. These data demonstrate that Tula and Puumala hantaviruses have a functional NSs ORF. The findings may explain why the NSs ORF has been preserved in the genome of most hantaviruses during their long evolution and why hantavirus-infected cells secrete relatively low levels of IFNs. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Diagnóstico virológico y molecular de virus transmitidos por roedores. Hantavirus y arenavirus

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    Silvana Levis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Los hantavirus (familia Bunyaviridae y arenavirus (familia Arenaviridae son virus de roedores; cada uno de ellos parece estar estrictamente asociado con una especie de roedor en la que causa una infección persistente y asintomática. En las Américas tienen como reservorios primarios a roedores de la sub-familia Sigmodontinae, y son causantes de síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH y fiebres hemorrágicas, respectivamente (1,2. El número de estos virus identificados en los últimos años ha aumentado significativamente; actualmente, el género Hantavirus está compuesto por más de 28 tipos diferentes, mientras que al menos 23 arenavirus conforman el género Arenavirus. Entre los hantavirus asociados con SPH se destacan el virus Sin Nombre en Norteamérica, y los virus Andes, Laguna Negra, Caño Delgadito, Araraquara y Juquitiba, en el cono sur de América, entre otros (2. Los arenavirus asociados a fiebres hemorrágicas reconocidos en Sud América al presente son: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Sabiá (Brasil, y Machupo y Chapare (Bolivia (3.

  16. Serological Evidence of Hantavirus Infection in Apparently Healthy People from Rural and Slum Communities in Southern Chile

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    Claudia Muñoz-Zanzi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease in America has been recognizable because of its rapid progression in clinical cases, occurrence in previously healthy young adults, and high case fatality rate. Hantavirus disease has been proposed now to define the diversity of clinical manifestations. Since 1995, a total of 902 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome have been reported in Chile, caused by Andes virus (ANDV, with overall fatality of 32%. This report describes the sero-epidemiology of hantavirus in apparently healthy people in rural and urban slum communities from southern Chile. Ten of 934 samples yielded a positive result resulting in a seroprevalence of 1.07% (95% confidence intervals: 0.05%–2.0%. A higher proportion of positive samples was found among individuals from rural villages (1.3% and slums (1.5% compared with farms (0.5%. Seropositivity was associated with age (p = 0.011, low education level (p = 0.006 and occupations linked to the household (homemaker, retired, or student (p = 0.016. No evidence of infection was found in 38 sigmodontinae rodents trapped in the peri-domestic environment. Our findings highlight that exposure risk was associated with less documented risk factors, such as women in slum and rural villages, and the occurrence of infection that may have presented as flu-like illness that did not require medical attention or was misdiagnosed.

  17. Complete genome characterisation and phylogenetic position of Tigray hantavirus from the Ethiopian white-footed mouse, Stenocephalemys albipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Těšíková, Jana; Meheretu, Y.; Čížková, Dagmar; Bryjová, Anna; Leirs, H.; Bryja, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, November (2016), s. 242-245 ISSN 1567-1348 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP502/11/J070 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hantavirus * Murinae * Ethiopia * High throughput sequencing * Genomics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.885, year: 2016

  18. Increased prevalences of left-handedness and left-eye sighting dominance in individuals with Williams-Beuren syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van Strien (Jan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractHandedness and eye sighting dominance were assessed in a sample of 50 individuals (25 male, 25 female; aged 5 – 38 years) with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS). The prevalences of left-handedness and left-eyedness were compared to the normative prevalences in the general population. We

  19. A rapid method for infectivity titration of Andes hantavirus using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Gonzalo P; Martínez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Galeno, Héctor; Ferrés, Marcela; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    The focus assay is currently the most commonly used technique for hantavirus titer determination. This method requires an incubation time of between 5 and 11 days to allow the appearance of foci after several rounds of viral infection. The following work presents a rapid Andes virus (ANDV) titration assay, based on viral nucleocapsid protein (N) detection in infected cells by flow cytometry. To this end, an anti-N monoclonal antibody was used that was developed and characterized previously. ANDV N could be detected as early as 6 h post-infection, while viral release was not observed until 24-48 h post-infection. Given that ANDV detection was performed during its first round of infection, a time reduction for titer determination was possible and provided results in only two days. The viral titer was calculated from the percentage of N positive cells and agreed with focus assay titers. Furthermore, the assay was applied to quantify the inhibition of ANDV cell entry by patient sera and by preventing endosome acidification. This novel hantavirus titration assay is a highly quantitative and sensitive tool that facilitates infectivity titration of virus stocks, rapid screening for antiviral drugs, and may be further used to detect and quantify infectious virus in human samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Changing epidemiology of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections: increasing prevalence of Gram-negative pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Miguel; Soriano, Alex; Iñurrieta, Amaia; Martínez, José A; Romero, Alberto; Cobos, Nazaret; Hernández, Cristina; Almela, Manel; Marco, Francesc; Mensa, Josep

    2011-09-01

    Gram-positive microorganisms have been the predominant pathogens in central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). Recent guidelines recommend empirical therapy according to this and restrict coverage for Gram-negatives to specific circumstances. This study aimed to analyse the epidemiological changes in CRBSIs over the 1991-2008 period and to analyse predictors of Gram-negative CRBSIs. A prospectively collected cohort of patients with confirmed CRBSIs was analysed. Strains isolated and antimicrobial susceptibility, as well as clinical and demographic variables were recorded. Differences observed during the study period were analysed by means of a χ² trend test and factors associated with Gram-negative CRBSIs by means of multivariable analysis. Between 1991 and 2008, 1129 episodes of monomicrobial CRBSIs were recorded. There was an increase in the incidence of CRBSIs, from 0.10 (1991-92) to 0.31 (2007-08) episodes/1000 patient-days. A significant increase in the number of Gram-negative strains among the total isolates was also found, from 3 (4.7%) in 1991-92 to 70 (40.23%) in 2007-08, with a parallel decrease in the percentage of Gram-positives. Solid organ transplantation, prior use of penicillins and hospital stay longer than 11 days were independently associated with a significantly higher risk of Gram-negative CRBSIs, while cirrhosis, diabetes and use of quinolones were associated with a higher risk of Gram-positives. Gram-negative strains are an increasing cause of CRBSIs, reaching a prevalence of 40% in the 2007-08 period in our hospital. If this trend is confirmed in other centres, a broad-spectrum empirical therapy should be considered in managing these infections.

  1. Spatial and Temporal Factors Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Spinach Fields in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    While rain and irrigation events have been associated with an increased prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments, quantitative data are needed to determine the effects of various spatial and temporal factors on the risk of produce contamination following these events. This study was performed to quantify these effects and to determine the impact of rain and irrigation events on the detection frequency and diversity of Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes) and L. monocytogenes in produce fields. Two spinach fields, with high and low predicted risks of L. monocytogenes isolation, were sampled 24, 48, 72, and 144 to 192 h following irrigation and rain events. Predicted risk was a function of the field's proximity to water and roads. Factors were evaluated for their association with Listeria species and L. monocytogenes isolation by using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). In total, 1,492 (1,092 soil, 334 leaf, 14 fecal, and 52 water) samples were collected. According to the GLMM, the likelihood of Listeria species and L. monocytogenes isolation from soil samples was highest during the 24 h immediately following an event (odds ratios [ORs] of 7.7 and 25, respectively). Additionally, Listeria species and L. monocytogenes isolates associated with irrigation events showed significantly lower sigB allele type diversity than did isolates associated with precipitation events (P = monocytogenes contamination. Small changes in management practices (e.g., not irrigating fields before harvest) may therefore reduce the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination of fresh produce. PMID:26116668

  2. Increased Prevalence of Intermittent Rhythmic Delta or Theta Activity (IRDA/IRTA) in the Electroencephalograms (EEGs) of Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Fleck, Max; Bartels, Susanne; Altenm?ller, Dirk-Matthias; Riedel, Andreas; Bubl, Emanuel; Matthies, Swantje; Feige, Bernd; Perlov, Evgeniy; Endres, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An increased prevalence of pathological electroencephalography (EEG) signals has been reported in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In an elaborative case description of such a patient with intermittent rhythmic delta and theta activity (IRDA/IRTA), the BPD symptoms where linked to the frequency of the IRDAs/IRTAs and vanished with the IRDAs/IRTAs following anticonvulsive therapy. This observation raised a question regarding the prevalence of such EEG abnormal...

  3. Protection from annual flooding is correlated with increased cholera prevalence in Bangladesh: a zero-inflated regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Mohammad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration of natural or historical aquatic flows can have unintended consequences for regions where waterborne diseases are endemic and where the epidemiologic implications of such change are poorly understood. The implementation of flood protection measures for a portion of an intensely monitored population in Matlab, Bangladesh, allows us to examine whether cholera outcomes respond positively or negatively to measures designed to control river flooding. Methods Using a zero inflated negative binomial model, we examine how selected covariates can simultaneously account for household clusters reporting no cholera from those with positive counts as well as distinguishing residential areas with low counts from areas with high cholera counts. Our goal is to examine how residence within or outside a flood protected area interacts with the probability of cholera presence and the effect of flood protection on the magnitude of cholera prevalence. Results In Matlab, living in a household that is protected from annual monsoon flooding appears to have no significant effect on whether the household experiences cholera, net of other covariates. However, counter-intuitively, among households where cholera is reported, living within the flood protected region significantly increases the number of cholera cases. Conclusions The construction of dams or other water impoundment strategies for economic or social motives can have profound and unanticipated consequences for waterborne disease. Our results indicate that the construction of a flood control structure in rural Bangladesh is correlated with an increase in cholera cases for residents protected from annual monsoon flooding. Such a finding requires attention from both the health community and from governments and non-governmental organizations involved in ongoing water management schemes.

  4. Diferencias regionales y Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus (enfermedad emergente y tropical en Argentina Regional differences and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (an emerging and tropical disease in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sosa-Estani

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen algunos factores que habrían favorecido a caracterizar la expresión del Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus en Argentina. Estos factores muestran diversos orígenes que van desde los procesos de ocupación del espacio y de producción, la estructura laboral, el patrón de migración humana, la etnia, la dinámica de reservorios y su relación con los tipos de virus, y el comportamiento del hombre. Estos factores se expresan en tres marcos ecológicos asociados a diferentes regiones geográficas de Argentina: 1 Noroeste, 2 Central (Pampa húmeda y 3 Sur Andina. Este complejo escenario obliga a abordar con la misma complejidad las investigaciones, para identificar determinantes primarios, biológicos, sociales y ambientales, causales de salud o enfermedad en su estrecha interacción y no individualmente. Este abordaje permitirá diseñar estrategias apropiadas para mejorar las condiciones de salud. Las mismas deberían ser diseñadas y transferidas por equipos transdisciplinarios de investigación, donde la participación de la comunidad desde las primeras etapas de desarrollo es esencial para la sustentabilidad de la estrategia.Factors related to the characteristics of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina are described. Factors from different scientific fields converge to form the syndrome's analytical framework. Some of these factors are the history of spatial occupation, work and production structures, human migration patterns, ethnic composition, reservoir dynamics and its relationship to the different circulating viruses, and human behavior. Furthermore, the multiple factors are expressed in three ecological frameworks, associated with three different geographical regions of Argentina: 1 Northwest; 2 Central ("wet Pampa"; and 3 South Andean. In order to understand the actual causality of health or disease as an interaction of many factors, research on the primary biological, social, and environmental determinants of

  5. [Social marketers' lack of success in using CSM discipline to harness commercial resources and increase contraceptive prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J

    1984-01-01

    Social marketers have certainly shown that the CSM discipline can quickly and cost-effectively harness commercial resources to increase contraceptive prevalence. But why hasn't the social marketing idea caught on in more countries? According to Social Marketing Forum, only a tiny number of countries have active programs after more than a decade of effort. The most likely reason for this lack of success is doubt and fear on the part of both developing countries' officials and donor agencies about allowing marketing enthusiasts--with our very noticeable advertising methods--to join the family planning fight. And what has our answer been? Usually, a head-on retort such as, "But look at all the condoms we've sold]" And that gets us nowhere, because the successful peddling of 1 not-so-impressive method doesn't begin to balance the fears of a possible backlash that brash condom promotions could bring down on official heads. The lesson we should be learning is that social marketers possess to narrow an outlook and promote a small range of products that don't enthuse decisionmakers. Hence, we are often perceived as condom salesmen--and not much more. What should we be doing? We should be selling the idea of using private sector experience to assist national development. That means social development, particularly improved health, family planning and women's education. These 3 activities have proven effective in reducing fertility and would add up to a marketing opportunity--a longterm challenge that should enthuse dicisionmakers, private sector entrepreneurs and donor agencies alike. Further, our model--the commercial sector--is renowned for branching out and secceeding in a broad range of endeavors. As an example, Procter and Gamble uses separate divisions to market different products. Initiatives already exist in many countries to harness the private sector as a development tool. Social marketers should be leading the initiative--and benefitting from it, too. full text

  6. Spatial and Temporal Factors Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Spinach Fields in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2015-09-01

    While rain and irrigation events have been associated with an increased prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments, quantitative data are needed to determine the effects of various spatial and temporal factors on the risk of produce contamination following these events. This study was performed to quantify these effects and to determine the impact of rain and irrigation events on the detection frequency and diversity of Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes) and L. monocytogenes in produce fields. Two spinach fields, with high and low predicted risks of L. monocytogenes isolation, were sampled 24, 48, 72, and 144 to 192 h following irrigation and rain events. Predicted risk was a function of the field's proximity to water and roads. Factors were evaluated for their association with Listeria species and L. monocytogenes isolation by using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). In total, 1,492 (1,092 soil, 334 leaf, 14 fecal, and 52 water) samples were collected. According to the GLMM, the likelihood of Listeria species and L. monocytogenes isolation from soil samples was highest during the 24 h immediately following an event (odds ratios [ORs] of 7.7 and 25, respectively). Additionally, Listeria species and L. monocytogenes isolates associated with irrigation events showed significantly lower sigB allele type diversity than did isolates associated with precipitation events (P = <0.001), suggesting that irrigation water may be a point source of L. monocytogenes contamination. Small changes in management practices (e.g., not irrigating fields before harvest) may therefore reduce the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination of fresh produce. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. An Irish outbreak of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-1 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: increasing but unrecognized prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, C; Cormican, M; Boo, T W; McGrath, E; Slevin, B; O'Gorman, A; Commane, M; Mahony, S; O'Donovan, E; Powell, J; Monahan, R; Finnegan, C; Kiernan, M G; Coffey, J C; Power, L; O'Connell, N H; Dunne, C P

    2016-12-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) may cause healthcare-associated infections with high mortality rates. New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) is among the most recently discovered carbapenemases. To report the first outbreak of NDM-1 CPE in Ireland, including microbiological and epidemiological characteristics, and assessing the impact of infection prevention and control measures. This was a retrospective microbiological and epidemiological review. Cases were defined as patients with a CPE-positive culture. Contacts were designated as roommates or ward mates. This outbreak involved 10 patients with a median age of 71 years (range: 45-90), located in three separate but affiliated healthcare facilities. One patient was infected (the index case); the nine others were colonized. Nine NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, an NDM-1-producing Escherichia coli and a K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacter cloacae were detected between week 24, 2014 and week 37, 2014. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated similarity. NDM-1-positive isolates were meropenem resistant with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 12 to 32 μg/mL. All were tigecycline susceptible (MICs ≤1 μg/mL). One isolate was colistin resistant (MIC 4.0 μg/mL; mcr-1 gene not detected). In 2015, four further NDM-1 isolates were detected. The successful management of this outbreak was achieved via the prompt implementation of enhanced infection prevention and control practices to prevent transmission. These patients did not have a history of travel outside of Ireland, but several had frequent hospitalizations in Ireland, raising concerns regarding the possibility of increasing but unrecognized prevalence of NDM-1 and potential decline in value of travel history as a marker of colonization risk. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic Hypopituitarism Associated with Increased Postconcussive Symptoms Is Prevalent after Blast-Induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arundhati Undurti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent injury sustained by US service members deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan is mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI, or concussion, by far most often caused by blast waves from improvised explosive devices or other explosive ordnance. TBI from all causes gives rise to chronic neuroendocrine disorders with an estimated prevalence of 25–50%. The current study expands upon our earlier finding that chronic pituitary gland dysfunction occurs with a similarly high frequency after blast-related concussions. We measured circulating hormone levels and accessed demographic and testing data from two groups of male veterans with hazardous duty experience in Iraq or Afghanistan. Veterans in the mTBI group had experienced one or more blast-related concussion. Members of the deployment control (DC group encountered similar deployment conditions but had no history of blast-related mTBI. 12 of 39 (31% of the mTBI participants and 3 of 20 (15% veterans in the DC group screened positive for one or more neuroendocrine disorders. Positive screens for growth hormone deficiency occurred most often. Analysis of responses on self-report questionnaires revealed main effects of both mTBI and hypopituitarism on postconcussive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms. Symptoms associated with pituitary dysfunction overlap considerably with those of PTSD. They include cognitive deficiencies, mood and anxiety disorders, sleep problems, diminished quality of life, deleterious changes in metabolism and body composition, and increased cardiovascular mortality. When such symptoms are due to hypopituitarism, they may be alleviated by hormone replacement. These findings suggest consideration of routine post-deployment neuroendocrine screening of service members and veterans who have experienced blast-related mTBI and are reporting postconcussive symptoms.

  9. Chronic Hypopituitarism Associated with Increased Postconcussive Symptoms Is Prevalent after Blast-Induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurti, Arundhati; Colasurdo, Elizabeth A.; Sikkema, Carl L.; Schultz, Jaclyn S.; Peskind, Elaine R.; Pagulayan, Kathleen F.; Wilkinson, Charles W.

    2018-01-01

    The most frequent injury sustained by US service members deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan is mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI), or concussion, by far most often caused by blast waves from improvised explosive devices or other explosive ordnance. TBI from all causes gives rise to chronic neuroendocrine disorders with an estimated prevalence of 25–50%. The current study expands upon our earlier finding that chronic pituitary gland dysfunction occurs with a similarly high frequency after blast-related concussions. We measured circulating hormone levels and accessed demographic and testing data from two groups of male veterans with hazardous duty experience in Iraq or Afghanistan. Veterans in the mTBI group had experienced one or more blast-related concussion. Members of the deployment control (DC) group encountered similar deployment conditions but had no history of blast-related mTBI. 12 of 39 (31%) of the mTBI participants and 3 of 20 (15%) veterans in the DC group screened positive for one or more neuroendocrine disorders. Positive screens for growth hormone deficiency occurred most often. Analysis of responses on self-report questionnaires revealed main effects of both mTBI and hypopituitarism on postconcussive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Symptoms associated with pituitary dysfunction overlap considerably with those of PTSD. They include cognitive deficiencies, mood and anxiety disorders, sleep problems, diminished quality of life, deleterious changes in metabolism and body composition, and increased cardiovascular mortality. When such symptoms are due to hypopituitarism, they may be alleviated by hormone replacement. These findings suggest consideration of routine post-deployment neuroendocrine screening of service members and veterans who have experienced blast-related mTBI and are reporting postconcussive symptoms. PMID:29515515

  10. Mapas de riesgo para Hantavirus en el Parque Nacional Conguillío, sur de Chile Hantavirus risk maps for Conguillío National Park, southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉS MUÑOZ-PEDREROS

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El riesgo de infección con Hantavirus depende de factores, que determinan una probabilidad de contagio con los reservorios, tales como: (a la estructura vegetacional y el uso del suelo como un escenario primario, donde los factores específicos de composición, estructura y densidad de la vegetación detallan elementos relacionados con el habitat de los reservorios. (b La existencia de poblaciones de roedores reservorio. (c Establecimientos humanos, como disponibilidad y densidad de caminos, áreas habitadas o de presencia humana (e.g., casas, bodegas. Estos tres factores, habitat (probabilidad de ocurrencia del reservorio, roedores seropositivos (peligro de contagio y humanos (población expuesta, conjugados, proporcionan los elementos de juicio necesarios para establecer el riesgo. Es importante considerar que estos factores tienen una dinámica de cambio estacional durante el año y modificaciones ambientales naturales y antrópicas. Así, buscamos comprender el riesgo a que está sometido el ser humano en el espacio rural. Los modelos espaciales corresponden a representaciones de la realidad observada en un área determinada y condicionada a diversos factores geográficos, topográficos, biológicos, climáticos, etc. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer sectores potenciales de riesgo al hantavirus en un parque nacional de la IX Región de Chile empleando cartas temáticas de variables ambientales en un Sistema de Información Geográfica para analizar fotografías aéreas mediante fotointerpretación, transferencia, digitalización y manejo de base de datos gráfica y alfanumérica, validada en terreno. La capa vectorial fue "rasterizada" con un tamaño de pixel de 50 m. El mapa de riesgo se construyó utilizando un modelo aditivo de capas mediante el uso del software Model Builder 1.0, extensión de Arc View 3.2. La base del procedimiento fue el proceso de "overlay" aritmético, que sobrepone las capas adicionando los términos de

  11. Low but Increasing Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in a French Area from Register-Based Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bakel, Marit Maria; Delobel-Ayoub, Malika; Cans, Christine; Assouline, Brigitte; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Raynaud, Jean-Philippe; Arnaud, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Register-based prevalence rates of childhood autism (CA), Asperger's syndrome (AS) and other autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were calculated among children aged 7 years old of the 1997-2003 birth cohorts, living in four counties in France. The proportion of children presenting comorbidities was reported. 1123 children with ASD were recorded (M/F…

  12. High-resolution computed tomography findings in eight patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Diego de Lacerda; Hochhegger, Bruno; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Zanetti, Glaucia; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Ultra X, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Grupo Fleury, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2017-05-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed HRCT findings from eight cases of HPS. All patients were men, aged 19-70 (mean, 41.7) years. Diagnoses were established by serological test (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in all patients. Two chest radiologists analyzed the images and reached decisions by consensus. Results: The predominant HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and smooth inter- and intralobular septal thickening, found in all eight cases; however, the crazy-paving pattern was found in only three cases. Pleural effusion and peribronchovascular thickening were observed in five patients. The abnormalities were bilateral in all patients. Conclusion: The predominant HRCT findings in patients with HPS were GGOs and smooth inter- and intralobular septal thickening, which probably correlate with the histopathologic findings of pulmonary edema. (author)

  13. Drotrecogin Alpha (Activated in Two Patients with the Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C McDermid

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is associated with rapid cardiopulmonary collapse from endothelial injury, resulting in massive capillary leak, shock and severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. To date, treatment remains supportive and includes mechanical ventilation, vasopressors and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, with mortality approaching 50%. Two HCPS survivors initially given drotrecogin alpha (activated (DAA for presumed bacterial septic shock are described. Vasoactive medications were required for a maximum of 52 h, whereas creatinine levels and platelet counts normalized within seven to nine days. Given the similar presentations of HCPS and bacterial septic shock, empirical DAA therapy will likely be initiated before a definitive diagnosis of HCPS is made. Further observations of DAA in HCPS seem warranted.

  14. High-resolution computed tomography findings in eight patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Diego de Lacerda; Hochhegger, Bruno; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Zanetti, Glaucia; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao; Marchiori, Edson; Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS; Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto; Ultra X, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP; Universidade Federal do Parana; Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo; Grupo Fleury, Sao Paulo, SP; Universidade de Sao Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed HRCT findings from eight cases of HPS. All patients were men, aged 19-70 (mean, 41.7) years. Diagnoses were established by serological test (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in all patients. Two chest radiologists analyzed the images and reached decisions by consensus. Results: The predominant HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and smooth inter- and intralobular septal thickening, found in all eight cases; however, the crazy-paving pattern was found in only three cases. Pleural effusion and peribronchovascular thickening were observed in five patients. The abnormalities were bilateral in all patients. Conclusion: The predominant HRCT findings in patients with HPS were GGOs and smooth inter- and intralobular septal thickening, which probably correlate with the histopathologic findings of pulmonary edema. (author)

  15. Síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus Hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Pimentel Pincelli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus é uma doença de conhecimento relativamente recente e freqüentemente fatal, apresentando-se como síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. No Brasil, desde o primeiro surto, relatado em novembro/dezembro de 1993, em Juquitiba, 226 casos já foram registrados pela Fundação Nacional da Saúde. A doença afeta indivíduos previamente hígidos, apresentando-se com pródromo febril e sintomas semelhantes aos de um resfriado comum, podendo rapidamente evoluir para edema pulmonar, insuficiência respiratória aguda e choque. A hemoconcentração e a plaquetopenia são comuns da síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus, e o quadro radiológico típico é de um infiltrado intersticial bilateral difuso, que progride rapidamente para consolidações alveolares, paralelamente à piora do quadro clínico. A mortalidade inicial era em torno de 75% e declinou para aproximadamente 35%, nos últimos anos. Os pacientes que sobrevivem geralmente recuperam-se completamente, cerca de uma semana após o estabelecimento do quadro respiratório. O agente causal, não reconhecido até há pouco, foi identificado como um hantavírus, cujo reservatório natural são animais roedores da família Muridae, subfamília Sigmodontinae. O tratamento específico antiviral ainda não é bem estabelecido, estando em estudo a eficácia de ribavirina. Cuidados de terapia intensiva como ventilação mecânica e monitoramento hemodinâmico invasivo são necessários nas formas mais graves da doença. Essas medidas, se instituídas precocemente, podem melhorar o prognóstico e a sobrevida dos pacientes com síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus.Hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome is a recently identified and often fatal disease, which presents as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Since the first outbreak, in Nov/Dec 1993, in Juquitiba, Brazil, 226 cases have been registered by

  16. Increased Prevalence of Intermittent Rhythmic Delta or Theta Activity (IRDA/IRTA) in the Electroencephalograms (EEGs) of Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Fleck, Max; Bartels, Susanne; Altenmüller, Dirk-Matthias; Riedel, Andreas; Bubl, Emanuel; Matthies, Swantje; Feige, Bernd; Perlov, Evgeniy; Endres, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    An increased prevalence of pathological electroencephalography (EEG) signals has been reported in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In an elaborative case description of such a patient with intermittent rhythmic delta and theta activity (IRDA/IRTA), the BPD symptoms where linked to the frequency of the IRDAs/IRTAs and vanished with the IRDAs/IRTAs following anticonvulsive therapy. This observation raised a question regarding the prevalence of such EEG abnormalities in BPD patients. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify the frequency of EEG abnormalities in a carefully analyzed psychiatric collective. Following earlier reports, we hypothesized an increased prevalence of EEG abnormalities in BPD patients. We recruited 96 consecutive patients with BPD from the archive of a university clinic for psychiatry and psychotherapy, and compared the prevalence of EEG abnormalities to those of 76 healthy controls subjects. The EEGs were rated by three different blinded clinicians, including a consultant specializing in epilepsy from the local epilepsy center. We found a significant increase in the prevalence of IRDAs and IRTAs in BPD patients (14.6%) compared to the control subjects (3.9%; p = 0.020). In this blinded retrospective case-control study, we were able to confirm an increased prevalence of pathological EEG findings (IRDAs/IRTAs only) in BPD patients. The major limitation of this study is that the control group was not matched on age and gender. Therefore, the results should be regarded as preliminary findings of an open uncontrolled, retrospective study. Future research performing prospective, controlled studies is needed to verify our findings and answer the question of whether such EEG findings might predict a positive response to anticonvulsive pharmacological treatment.

  17. Increased prevalence of intermittent rhythmic delta or theta activity (IRDA/IRTA in the electroencephalograms (EEGs of patients with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger eTebartz Van Elst

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An increased prevalence of pathological electroencephalography (EEG signals has been reported in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD. In an elaborative case description of such a patient with intermittent rhythmic delta and theta activity (IRDA/IRTA, the BPD symptoms where linked to the frequency of the IRDAs/IRTAs and vanished with the IRDAs/IRTAs following anticonvulsive therapy. This observation raised a question regarding the prevalence of such EEG abnormalities in BPD patients. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify the frequency of EEG abnormalities in a carefully analyzed psychiatric collective. Following earlier reports, we hypothesized an increased prevalence of EEG abnormalities in BPD patients.Participants and Methods: We recruited 96 consecutive patients with BPD from the archive of a university clinic for psychiatry and psychotherapy, and compared the prevalence of EEG abnormalities to those of 76 healthy controls subjects. The EEGs were rated by three different blinded clinicians, including a consultant specializing in epilepsy from the local epilepsy center.Results: We found a significant increase in the prevalence of IRDAs and IRTAs in BPD patients (14.6% compared to the control subjects (3.9%; p=0.020. Discussion: In this blinded retrospective case-control study, we were able to confirm an increased prevalence of pathological EEG findings (IRDAs/IRTAs only in BPD patients. The major limitation of this study is that the control group was not matched on age and gender. Therefore, the results should be regarded as preliminary findings of an open uncontrolled, retrospective study. Future research performing prospective, controlled studies is needed to verify our findings and answer the question of whether such EEG findings might predict a positive response to anticonvulsive pharmacological treatment.

  18. Síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (Virus Río Mamoré en la Amazonía Peruana Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (Rio Mamore Virus in the Peruvian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Casapía

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La hantavirosis es una infección viral zoonótica transmitida por roedores cuya forma clínica más letal es el síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH. La variante río Mamoré es autóctona de Sudamérica y fue descrita en roedores sin asociarla a enfermedad en humanos. Se presenta dos casos de SPH causados por hantavirus río Mamoré en la Amazonía peruana en noviembre de 2011. En ambos casos, el diagnóstico confirmatorio fue molecular, efectuados en el Instituto Nacional de Salud de Perú. Se realizó análisis filogenético del fragmento de genoma viral y la evaluación histopatológica. Ambos pacientes evolucionaron a síndrome de distrés respiratorio del adulto y estado de choque refractario. Un paciente falleció y el otro se recuperó a los doce díasHantavirus infection is a viral zoonotic infection borne by rodents which most letal form clinical is the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (SPH, Spanish abbreviation. The Mamore River variant originates in South America and was found in rodents without any association to human diseases. Two cases of SPH were identified in the Peruvian Amazon region in November 2011. In both cases, a molecular diagnostic testing was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Salud from Peru. A phylogenetic analysis of a viral genome fragment and a histopathological evaluation were conducted. Both patients developed adult respiratory distress syndrome and refractory shock. A patient died and another one recovered 12 days later

  19. A COMMUNITY BASED CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY: INCREASING PREVALENCE OF TYPE 2 DIABETES AMONG RURAL ADULT POPULATION OF KARNATAKA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Brata Tripathy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A community based cross-sectional study in the age group 25 years and above conducted at the field area of primary health centre Chakenahalli, Hassan district, Karnataka, India. The population was similar in characteristics regarding occupation, socio-economic status and food habits. Total of 626 subjects were included by multi-stage sampling. Information collected by the interviewers through face to face interview, after informed consent. The individuals were assessed on anthropometric parameters and screening was done by Random Blood Glucose (RBG with a standardized technique; diagnosis of type 2 diabetes done by WHO criteria. Prevalence of diabetes was found in 11.3% males and 15% females, altogether the total prevalence was 13.09% with 8.79% self reported cases of diabetes . Hypertension was associated with 25.6% diabetic subjects. It was also observed that 28.1% of study population had BMI ≥ 25.

  20. Ambush marketing is dead ; long live ambush marketing – a re-definition and typology of an increasingly prevalent phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, SM; Burton, N

    2017-01-01

    Ambush marketing is more than thirty years old, and its prevalence continues to grow. Recent cases indicate that brands perpetrating ambushes are becoming more creative, but the literature has failed to keep pace, offering scant analysis of the different forms that ambushing can take and the implications it can have, and little investigation or consideration from the ambusher’s perspective. This study proposes a new definition of ambushing and typology of the three types of ambush marketing s...

  1. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study shows increased prevalence of primary recurrent headaches among adolescents over a four-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsena, Brit A; Dyb, Grete; Hagen, Knut; Stovner, Lars J; Holmen, Turid L; Zwart, John-Anker

    2017-12-29

    Objective Earlier epidemiological studies have shown that headaches are frequent among adolescents, especially girls. In particular, recurrent primary headache disorders such as migraine and tension-type headaches are common complaints in this age group. Headaches are increasingly being recognized as a significant health problem in adolescents and can lead to significant disabilities by affecting their lives, their school performance and their social lives. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of primary headaches among adolescents aged 16-20 years in Norway in two periods. Very few replicate studies have re-evaluated the prevalence of primary headaches in this age range and it is uncertain whether the prevalence is increasing. Methods Two cross-sectional, population-based studies were conducted in Norway from 1995 to 1997 (Young-HUNT 1) and from 1999 to 2001 (Young-HUNT 2). In Young-HUNT 1, 2594 adolescents in 2nd and 3rd grade in upper secondary school (aged 16-20 years) completed a comprehensive questionnaire including one question regarding headache during the last 12 months. In addition, 1730 of the students were interviewed about their headache complaints. In Young-HUNT 2, 2373 adolescents aged 16-20 years completed the same questionnaire and 1655 were interviewed in the same way as the earlier survey. The interviews were performed by trained nurses, and respondents were asked if they had experienced recurrent headache during the last year. If so, the headache was classified as migraine (MI), tensiontype headache (TTH) or non-classifiable headache (NCH). Headache frequency during the past year was recorded according to the following categories: Less than 1 day per month (less than monthly), 1-3 days per month (monthly), 1-5 days per week (weekly), or more than 5 days per week (daily). Results The participation rate was 88% in Young-HUNT 1 and 81% in Young-HUNT 2. The overall prevalence of having had headaches during the last 12 months did not

  2. Cigarette tax and public health: what are the implications of financially stressed smokers for the effects of price increases on smoking prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Kristy A; Mattick, Richard P; Doran, Christopher M; Hall, Wayne D

    2011-03-01

    This paper models the predicted impact of tobacco price increases proposed in the United States and Australia during 2009 on smoking prevalence in 2010 while taking account of the effects of financial stress among smokers on cessation rates. Two models of smoking prevalence were developed for each country. In model 1, prevalence rates were determined by price elasticity estimates. In model 2 price elasticity was moderated by financial stress. Each model was used to estimate smoking prevalence in 2010 in Australia and the United States. Proposed price increases resulted in a 1.89% and 7.84% decrease in smoking participation among low socio-economic status (SES) groups in the United States and Australia, respectively. Model 1 overestimated the number of individuals expected to quit in both the United States (0.13% of smokers) and Australia (0.36% of smokers) by failing to take account of the differential effects of the tax on financially stressed smokers. The proportion of low-income smokers under financial stress increased in both countries in 2010 (by 1.06% in the United States and 3.75% in Australia). The inclusion of financial stress when modelling the impact of price on smoking prevalence suggests that the population health returns of increased cigarette price will diminish over time. As it is likely that the proportion of low-income smokers under financial stress will also increase in 2010, future population-based approaches to reducing smoking will need to address this factor. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. No further increase in the parent reported prevalence of allergies in Bavarian preschool children: Results from three cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alisa; Herr, Caroline; Hendrowarsito, Lana; Meyer, Nicole; Nennstiel-Ratzel, Uta; von Mutius, Erika; Bolte, Gabriele; Colon, Diana; Kolb, Stefanie

    2016-07-01

    After three decades of an increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergies, new findings show a plateau in the prevalence of industrialized nations. The objective of this study was to determine whether there was a change in the parent reported prevalence of asthma and allergies among Bavarian preschool children since 2004. A parent questionnaire was administered as part of the Bavarian school entrance examination in three cross-sectional studies from 2004/2005, 2006/2007 and 2012/2013. The questionnaire included items on allergy testing history, identified allergens, symptoms (e.g. wheezing, itchy eyes, rash), medically diagnosed asthma, hay fever and atopic dermatitis. Logistic regression was performed to observe time patterns and adjust for risk factors. Data were available for 6350 (2004/2005), 6483 (2006/2007) and 5052 (2012/2013) individuals. Symptoms and diseases were more frequent in boys, except for allergies which affect the skin. From 2004 to 2012 the parent reported prevalence of asthma (2.6% to 2.8%), hay fever (4.7% to 4.0%) and atopic dermatitis (12.4% to 11.1%) either remained quite stable or decreased not significantly. Results from these three cross-sectional surveys of parent reports suggest that the parent reported prevalences of asthma and allergies are quite stable with small fluctuations since 2004 for Bavarian preschool children. Future research is needed to determine if this trend will continue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Pulmonary hantavirus syndrome: case report and brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanHook CJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 31-year-old white man presented to the emergency department complaining of fever, headache, mild confusion, and muscle aches. Approximately three days earlier he had developed non-quantified fever and diffuse muscle aches and pains. He was employed as a feedlot worker. He had visited an urgent care center one day earlier and had been advised to increase his oral fluid intake and to use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents as needed. Upon arrival to the emergency department he was found to have a temperature of 103.6º Fahrenheit, blood pressure of 125/72 mm Hg, respiratory rate of 40 breaths per minute, and room-air oxygen saturation of 84% by pulse oximetry. Auscultation of the chest disclosed diffuse rales. Heart sounds were rapid and regular. Abdominal exam was benign. There was no skin rash. Central nervous exam demonstrated agitation and confusion, but was otherwise non-focal. Laboratory examination revealed a white blood count of 11.7 K/uL, hemoglobin ...

  5. Increased pre-school overweight and obesity prevalence between 2004 and 2013 is associated with appetite, eating frequency and supportive facilities: the Jiaxing Birth Cohort in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijuan; Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Li, Jing; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Tao; Yang, Bo; Li, Duo

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing. However, little is known about the changes in di-etary factors and supportive facilities associated with childhood obesity. We aimed to document the changes in various dietary factors and supportive facilities and their associations with obesity among pre-school children. Among 42,531 children 4-5 years old, recruited between 2004 and 2013 in the Jiax-ing Birth Cohort, we examined the changes in the prevalence of various dietary factors and supportive facilities and overweight/obesity over 10 years. We used logistic regression to investigate the cross-sectional association between these factors and childhood overweight/obesity risk, adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity increased steadily from 11.8% (boy: 14.8%; girl: 9%) during 2004-2005 to 18% (boy: 21.4%%; girl: 15%) during 2012-2013. The prevalence of meal/snack frequency 3 times /day decreased substantially from 23% during 2004-2005 to 8% during 2012-2013, with more children having 5 times /day: from 32% to 45.6%. Children with a fair/bad appetite, compared with those with a good appetite, had a 45% (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.62) lower risk of overweight/obesity. Children with a meal frequency >=6 times/day (compared with 3 times/day) had a 0.12 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.2) higher BMI-z-score. The prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity has increased substantially within a decade in southeast China. A better appetite and greater eating frequency were associated with the increased prevalence.

  6. KARAKTERISTIK LINGKUNGAN DAN ASPEK SOSIAL DEMOGRAFI DALAM KAITANNYA DENGAN PENYAKIT INFEKSI HANTAVIRUS DI WILAYAH PELABUHAN TANJUNG PRIOK DAN SUNDA KELAPA, JAKARTA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasnodihardjo Kasnodihardjo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological study on hantavirus infection diseases in the area of Tanjung Priok and Sunda Kelapa Harbours has been conducted in the year of 1997; Considering a harbour may become a very potential port d'antre of diseases between islands, regions and countries. Hantavirus infection is well known as haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, cause by some species of genus Hantavirus and transmitted to human by air droplet contaminated by urine, saliva or faeces of infected rodents. This is toreport a part of the study which is stress on sociocultural aspects, especially character of demography and community perceptions to hantavirus infection diseases. The data were collected by interviewing using questionaires and field observations. Sample population were household (HH while family members above 13 year of age including head of HH (Kepala Rumah Tangga were chosen as individual respondents and become analitical units. In total the number of samples were 113 HH, consisting 58 HH in Kelurahan Koja and 55 HH in Kelurahan Ancol. The number of individual respondents were 410 people. The results showed that most of respondents work as a labor in the harbours. In general they have low level formal education, mostly only elementary school graduated. The relatively low of their formal education they have might influence their wrong perceptions to any disease. The wrong community perceptions in the two areas mistaken hantavirus infection diseases with typhoid diseases.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of Puumala virus strains from Central Europe highlights the need for a full-genome perspective on hantavirus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Róbert; Radosa, Lukáš; Ličková, Martina; Sláviková, Monika; Heroldová, Marta; Stanko, Michal; Pejčoch, Milan; Osterberg, Anja; Laenen, Lies; Schex, Susanne; Ulrich, Rainer G; Essbauer, Sandra; Maes, Piet; Klempa, Boris

    2017-12-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV), carried by bank voles (Myodes glareolus), is the medically most important hantavirus in Central and Western Europe. In this study, a total of 523 bank voles (408 from Germany, 72 from Slovakia, and 43 from Czech Republic) collected between the years 2007-2012 were analyzed for the presence of hantavirus RNA. Partial PUUV genome segment sequences were obtained from 51 voles. Phylogenetic analyses of all three genome segments showed that the newfound strains cluster with other Central and Western European PUUV strains. The new sequences from Šumava (Bohemian Forest), Czech Republic, are most closely related to the strains from the neighboring Bavarian Forest, a known hantavirus disease outbreak region. Interestingly, the Slovak strains clustered with the sequences from Bohemian and Bavarian Forests only in the M but not S segment analyses. This well-supported topological incongruence suggests a segment reassortment event or, as we analyzed only partial sequences, homologous recombination. Our data highlight the necessity of sequencing all three hantavirus genome segments and of a broader bank vole screening not only in recognized endemic foci but also in regions with no reported human hantavirus disease cases.

  8. "Impact of and response to increased tuberculosis prevalence among Syrian refugees compared with Jordanian tuberculosis prevalence: case study of a tuberculosis public health strategy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Susan T; Abaza, Hiba; Clarke, Kevin R; Burton, Ann; Sabrah, Nadia A; Rumman, Khaled A; Odeh, Nedal; Naoum, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    By the summer of 2014, the Syrian crisis resulted in a regional humanitarian emergency with 2.9 million refugees, including 608,000 in Jordan. These refugees access United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-sponsored clinics or Jordan Ministry of Health clinics, including tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. Tuberculosis care in Syria has deteriorated with destroyed health infrastructure and drug supply chain. Syrian refugees may have undiagnosed tuberculosis; therefore, the UNHCR, the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Public Health Strategy for Tuberculosis among Syrian Refugees in Jordan. This case study presents that strategy, its impact, and recommendations for other neighboring countries. UNHCR determined that World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for implementing a tuberculosis program in an emergency were met for the Syrian refugees in Jordan. Jordan NTP assessed their tuberculosis program and found that access to Syrian refugees was the one component of their program missing. Therefore, a strategy for tuberculosis control among Syrian refugees was developed. Since that development through work with IOM, UNHCR, and NTP, tuberculosis case detection among Syrian refugees is almost 40 % greater (74 cases/12 months or 1.01/100,000 monthly through June 2014 vs. 56 cases/16 months or 0.73/100,000 monthly through June 2013) using estimated population figures; more than two fold the 2012 Jordan tuberculosis incidence. Additionally, the WHO objective of curing ≥85 % of newly identified infectious tuberculosis cases was met among Syrian refugees. Tuberculosis (TB) rates among displaced persons are high, but increased detection is possible. High TB rates were found among Syrian refugees through active screening and will probably persist as the Syrian crisis continues. Active screening can detect tuberculosis early and reduce risk

  9. Irrigation Is Significantly Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Produce Production Environments in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2015-06-01

    Environmental (i.e., meteorological and landscape) factors and management practices can affect the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes), Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in produce production environments and to identify environmental factors and management practices associated with their isolation. Ten produce farms in New York State were sampled during a 6-week period in 2010, and 124 georeferenced samples (80 terrestrial, 33 water, and 11 fecal) were collected. L. monocytogenes, Listeria spp., Salmonella, and STEC were detected in 16, 44, 4, and 5% of terrestrial samples, 30, 58, 12, and 3% of water samples, and 45, 45, 27, and 9% of fecal samples, respectively. Environmental factors and management practices were evaluated for their association with terrestrial samples positive for L. monocytogenes or other Listeria species by univariate logistic regression; analysis was not conducted for Salmonella or STEC because the number of samples positive for these pathogens was low. Although univariate analysis identified associations between isolation of L. monocytogenes or Listeria spp. from terrestrial samples and various water-related factors (e.g., proximity to wetlands and precipitation), multivariate analysis revealed that only irrigation within 3 days of sample collection was significantly associated with isolation of L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 39) and Listeria spp. (odds ratio = 5) from terrestrial samples. These findings suggest that intervention at the irrigation level may reduce the risk of produce contamination.

  10. Modelling the implications of reducing smoking prevalence: the benefits of increasing the UK tobacco duty escalator to public health and economic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuchel-Takano, Andre; Hunt, Daniel; Jaccard, Abbygail; Bhimjiyani, Arti; Brown, Martin; Retat, Lise; Brown, Katrina; Hinde, Sebastian; Selvarajah, Chit; Bauld, Linda; Webber, Laura

    2017-12-06

    Taxing tobacco is one of the most effective ways to reduce smoking prevalence, mitigate its devastating consequential health harms and progress towards a tobacco-free society. This study modelled the health and economic impacts of increasing the existing cigarette tobacco duty escalator (TDE) in the UK from the current 2% above consumer price inflation to 5%. A two-stage modelling process was used. First, a non-linear multivariate regression model was fitted to cross-sectional smoking data, creating longitudinal projections from 2015 to 2035. Second, these projections were used to predict the future incidence, prevalence and cost of 17 smoking-related diseases using a Monte Carlo microsimulation approach. A sustained increase in the duty escalator was evaluated against a baseline of continuing historical smoking trends and the existing duty escalator. A sustained increase in the TDE is projected to reduce adult smoking prevalence to 6% in 2035, from 10% in a baseline scenario. After increasing the TDE, only 65% of female and 60% of male would-be smokers would actually be smoking in 2035. The intervention is projected to avoid around 75 200 new cases of smoking-related diseases between 2015 and 2035. In 2035 alone, £49 m in National Health Service and social care costs and £192 m in societal premature mortality and morbidity costs are projected to be avoided. Increasing the UK TDE to 5% above inflation could effectively reduce smoking prevalence, prevent diseases and avoid healthcare costs. It would deliver substantial progress towards a tobacco-free society and should be implemented by the UK Government with urgency. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Increased prevalence of autoimmune disorders and autoantibodies in parents of children with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasenbrink, I; Fühlhuber, V; Juhasz-Boess, I; Stolz, E; Hahn, A; Kaps, M; Hero, B; Blaes, F

    2007-06-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurological disease in childhood which can be associated with neuroblastoma. Since autoantibodies have been detected in some patients with OMS, an autoimmune etiology is suspected. We compared the prevalence of autoimmune disorders and autoantibodies in parents of children with OMS and in a group of controls of same age and sex. Autoimmune diseases were found in 15.8% of the parents of OMS children, but only in 2.0% of the controls (pOMS parents (42.8% vs. 8.0%, pOMS parents also had significantly more autoantibodies against CNS structures than the controls (pOMS and may also hint to a genetic susceptibility for OMS.

  12. Reported high salt intake is associated with increased prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm and larger aortic diameter in older men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Golledge

    Full Text Available Salt intake has been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA through studies in rodent models but not previously studied in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the association between reported addition of salt to food and the prevalence of AAA.A risk factor questionnaire which contained a question about salt intake was included as part of a population screening study for AAA in 11742 older men. AAA presence was assessed by abdominal ultrasound imaging using a reproducible protocol.The prevalence of AAA was 6.9, 8.5 and 8.6% in men who reported adding salt to food never, sometimes and always, respectively, p = 0.005. Addition of salt to food sometimes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.44 or always (OR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.47 was independently associated with AAA after adjustment for other risk factors including age, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, history of hypertension, high cholesterol, angina, diabetes, myocardial infarction and stroke. Salt intake was also independently associated with aortic diameter (beta 0.023, p = 0.012. In men with no prior history of hypertension, high cholesterol, angina, myocardial infarction or stroke (n = 4185, the association between addition of salt to food sometimes (OR: 1.41, 95% CI 0.96-2.08 or always (OR: 1.52, 95% CI 1.04-2.22 and AAA remained evident.Reported salt intake is associated with AAA in older men. Additional studies are needed to determine whether reducing salt intake would protect against AAA.

  13. The increasing prevalence of myopia in junior high school students in the Haidian District of Beijing, China: a 10-year population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Jia; Qi, Pengcheng

    2017-06-12

    Myopia is a leading cause of preventable blindness. Although, multiple cross-sectional epidemiological studies have confirmed that there is a high prevalence of myopia in high school-aged students in China. However, few longitudinal studies have been performed to assess junior high school students. In the present study, we investigate changes in the prevalence of myopia in third year junior high school (grade 9) students in the Haidian District of Beijing, China, from 2006 to 2015. A retrospective, longitudinal cohort study was performed over 10 years. A total of 37,424 third-year middle school (grade 9) students from 8 junior high schools in Haidian district, Beijing, were included. Participants underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination in which they were evaluated using autorefraction under cycloplegia and submitted to retinoscopy to assess accuracy. According to the spherical equivalent refraction (SER) of the right eye, subjects were separated into the following groups: non-myopia, -0.5 ≤ SER diopters (D); low myopia, -3.0 ≤ SER  -6.0 D. The following characteristics were measured: refractive error; the proportion of subjects with non- myopia, low myopia, moderate myopia and high myopia; and the difference in the prevalence of myopia between male and female subjects. From 2006 to 2015, the prevalence of non-myopia (from 44.05% to 34.52%) and low myopia (from 32.27% to 20.73%) decreased, while the prevalence of moderate myopia (from 19.72% to 38.06%) and high myopia (from 3.96% to 6.69%) significantly increased. For refractive error, the worse eye was -2.23 ± 2.42 D (median, -1.75; range - 12.75 to +8.50) in 2006 and -3.13 ± 2.66 D (median, -2.75; range - 12.75 to +8.50) in 2015. When the entire population was considered, the overall prevalence of myopia increased from 55.95% in 2005 to 65.48% in 2015. There was a significant positive relationship between the year and the prevalence of myopia in both girls and boys. Girls were more

  14. Increasing condom use and declining STI prevalence in high-risk MSM and TGs: evaluation of a large-scale prevention program in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Aridoss, Santhakumar; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Kanguswami, Boopathi; Shajan, Mathew; Adhikary, Rajat; Purushothaman, Girish Kumar Chethrapilly; Ramamoorthy, Senthil Kumar; Chinnaswamy, Eswaramurthy; Veeramani, Ilaya Bharathy; Paranjape, Ramesh Shivram

    2013-09-17

    This paper presents an evaluation of Avahan, a large scale HIV prevention program that was implemented using peer-mediated strategies, condom distribution and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinical services among high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM) and male to female transgender persons (TGs) in six high-prevalence state of Tamil Nadu, in southern India. Two rounds of large scale cross-sectional bio-behavioural surveys among HR-MSM and TGs and routine program monitoring data were used to assess changes in program coverage, condom use and prevalence of STIs (including HIV) and their association to program exposure. The Avahan program for HR-MSM and TGs in Tamil Nadu was significantly scaled up and contacts by peer educators reached 77 percent of the estimated denominator by the end of the program's fourth year. Exposure to the program increased between the two rounds of surveys for both HR-MSM (from 66 percent to 90 percent; AOR = 4.6; p Tamil Nadu achieved a high coverage, resulting in improved condom use by HR-MSM with their regular and commercial male partners. Declining STI prevalence and stable HIV prevalence reflect the positive effects of the prevention strategy. Outcomes from the program logic model indiacte the effectiveness of the program for HR-MSM and TGs in Tamil Nadu.

  15. A cautious iodization programme bringing iodine intake to a low recommended level is associated with an increase in the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in the population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge B.; Knudsen, Nils; Carlé, Allan

    2011-01-01

    ·7 vs 19·9% (P women and especially observed at low...... concentrations of antibodies. Conclusion The prevalence of both TPO‐Ab and Tg‐Ab was higher 4–5 years after a cautious iodine fortification of salt was introduced in Denmark. The increase was most pronounced in young women and in the low concentrations of antibody. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long...

  16. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend treatments induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, gene microarray analysis showed that diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.

  17. Declining Inconsistent Condom Use but Increasing HIV and Syphilis Prevalence Among Older Male Clients of Female Sex Workers: Analysis From Sentinel Surveillance Sites (2010-2015), Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Abraham Bussell, Scottie; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Lan, Guanghua; Zhu, Qiuying; Liu, Wei; Tang, Shuai; Li, Rongjian; Huang, Wenbo; Huang, Yuman; Liang, Fuxiong; Wang, Lu; Shao, Yiming; Ruan, Yuhua

    2016-05-01

    Clients of female sex workers (CFSWs) are a bridge population for the spread of HIV and syphilis to low or average risk heterosexuals. Most studies have examined the point prevalence of these infections in CFSWs. Limited evidence suggests that older age CFSWs are at a higher risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases compared with younger clients. Thus, we sought to describe long-term trends in HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C (HCV) to better understand how these infections differ by sex worker classification and client age. We also examined trends in HIV, syphilis, and HCV among categories of female sex workers (FSWs).We conducted serial cross-sectional studies from 2010 to 2015 in Guangxi autonomous region, China. We collected demographic and behavior variables. FSWs and their clients were tested for HIV, syphilis, and HCV antibodies. Positive HIV and syphilis serologies were confirmed by Western blot and rapid plasma regain, respectively. Clients were categorized as middle age (40-49 years) and older clients (≥50 years). FSWs were categorized as high-tier, middle-tier, or low-tier based on the payment amount charged for sex and their work venue. Chi-square test for trends was used for testing changes in prevalence over time.By 2015, low-tier FSWs (LTFSWs) accounted for almost half of all FSWs; and they had the highest HIV prevalence at 1.4%. HIV prevalence declined significantly for FSWs (high-tier FSW, P = 0.003; middle-tier FSWs; P = 0.021; LTFSWs, P HIV prevalence increased for older age clients (1.3%-2.0%, P = 0.159) while syphilis prevalence remained stable. HCV infections were halved among older clients in 3 years (1.7%-0.8%, P sex with men or intravenous drug use. Clients preferred LTFSWs, especially older clients (81.9%).Our results suggest that HIV and syphilis infections are increasing in older clients who prefer LTFSWs. HIV and syphilis are likely increasing in Guangxi Province through heterosexual transmission.

  18. Obesity increases the prevalence and severity of focal knee abnormalities diagnosed using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects - data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laberge, Marc A.; Baum, Thomas; Virayavanich, Warapat; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M.; Nevitt, M.C.; Lynch, J.; McCulloch, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of BMI on the prevalence, severity, and 36-month progression of early degenerative changes in the knee by using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). We examined baseline and 36-month follow-up MR studies from 137 middle-aged individuals (45-55 years old) with risk factors for knee OA but no radiographic OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Subjects were grouped into three categories: normal BMI (BMI 2 , n = 38), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m 2 , n = 37), and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 , n = 62). Using 3T MRI, cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow abnormalities were graded using the OA Whole-organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS). The statistical analysis was corrected as necessary for differences in age, sex, and OA risk factors other than BMI. The overall prevalence of lesions was 64% for meniscus and 79% for cartilage (including low grade lesions). At baseline, the prevalence and severity of knee lesions was positively associated with BMI, with a nearly fourfold increase in meniscal tears and more than twofold increase in high-grade cartilage defects in obese individuals relative to normal-weight subjects. Over the 36-month follow-up period, the number of new or worsening cartilage lesions of any grade was significantly higher in obese subjects (p = 0.039), while there was no significant difference in meniscal lesion progression. Obesity was associated with both higher prevalence and severity of early degenerative changes in the knee in middle-aged individuals without radiographic OA and with significantly increased cartilage lesion progression (of any grade) over 36 months. (orig.)

  19. Obesity increases the prevalence and severity of focal knee abnormalities diagnosed using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects - data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laberge, Marc A.; Baum, Thomas; Virayavanich, Warapat; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nevitt, M.C.; Lynch, J.; McCulloch, C.E. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    To study the effect of BMI on the prevalence, severity, and 36-month progression of early degenerative changes in the knee by using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). We examined baseline and 36-month follow-up MR studies from 137 middle-aged individuals (45-55 years old) with risk factors for knee OA but no radiographic OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Subjects were grouped into three categories: normal BMI (BMI < 25 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 38), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 37), and obese (BMI {>=} 30 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 62). Using 3T MRI, cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow abnormalities were graded using the OA Whole-organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS). The statistical analysis was corrected as necessary for differences in age, sex, and OA risk factors other than BMI. The overall prevalence of lesions was 64% for meniscus and 79% for cartilage (including low grade lesions). At baseline, the prevalence and severity of knee lesions was positively associated with BMI, with a nearly fourfold increase in meniscal tears and more than twofold increase in high-grade cartilage defects in obese individuals relative to normal-weight subjects. Over the 36-month follow-up period, the number of new or worsening cartilage lesions of any grade was significantly higher in obese subjects (p = 0.039), while there was no significant difference in meniscal lesion progression. Obesity was associated with both higher prevalence and severity of early degenerative changes in the knee in middle-aged individuals without radiographic OA and with significantly increased cartilage lesion progression (of any grade) over 36 months. (orig.)

  20. Spatial and Temporal Epidemiology of Nephropathia Epidemica Incidence and Hantavirus Seroprevalence in Rodent Hosts: Identification of the Main Environmental Factors in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchatre-Leroy, E; Crespin, L; Boué, F; Marianneau, P; Calavas, D; Hénaux, V

    2017-08-01

    In Europe, the increasing number of nephropathia epidemica (NE) infections in humans, caused by Puumala virus carried by bank voles (Myodes glareolus), has triggered studies of environmental factors driving these infections. NE infections have been shown to occur in specific geographical areas characterized by environmental factors that influence the distribution and dynamics of host populations and virus persistence in the soil. Here, we review the influence of environmental conditions (including climate factors, food availability and habitat conditions) with respect to incidence in humans and seroprevalence in rodents, considering both direct and indirect transmission pathways. For each type of environmental factor, results and discrepancies between studies are presented and examined in the light of biological hypotheses. Overall, food availability and temperature appear to be the main drivers of host seroprevalence and NE incidence, but data quality and statistical approaches varied greatly among studies. We highlight the issues that now need to be addressed and suggest improvements for study design in regard to the current knowledge on hantavirus epidemiology. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. [Increase in prevalence of childhood asthma in Budapest between 1995 and 2003: correlation with air pollution data and total pollen count].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endre, László; Láng, Sarolta; Vámos, Adrienn; Bobvos, János; Páldy, Anna; Farkas, Ildikó; Collinsné Horváth, Zsuzsa; Varró, Mihály János

    2007-02-04

    According to the data of the Hungarian pulmonological network, the prevalence of asthma in the last 15 years has increased (almost linearly) in Hungary. In 2004 it was 1.8%. There are only a few data about the prevalence of childhood asthma. The aim of the authors was to measure the prevalence of bronchial asthma in childhood in Budapest in 1995, 1999 and 2003, using questionnaires directed to district pediatricians. There were only two questions in these questionnaires: how many children are in their districts, and how many are suffering from asthma? Besides of this survey the dust, CO, NO(2) and SO(2) concentrations in the air were measured on-line at 8 points in Budapest, while ozone level measurements were also made at 2 stations. The counts of pollen and of fungal elements in the air were calculated separately for Buda and for Pest. In 1995, replies were received from 118 pediatricians in 11 districts, who were responsible for the supervision of 104,060 children, out of these 1.88+/-0.87% had been diagnosed as having asthma. In 1999 replies were sent by 153 physicians in 22 of the 23 districts, who had a total of 142,679 children under their care. These included 3228 asthmatics, i.e. a prevalence of 2.26+/-0.95%. In 2003 the authors received answers from all of the 23 districts of Budapest. The 204 pediatricians were responsible for the supervision of 176 049 children. The number of patients with the diagnosis of asthma was 4712 (corresponding for a prevalence of 2.68+/-1.3%). The increase between 1995 and 1999, and between 1999 and 2003 was highly significant (p Budapest did not deteriorate in the period in question, and the concentration of pollen grains of plants causing allergy did not increase compared to previous years. On the basis of the results of more than 100 thousand children, the authors conclude that between 1995 and 2003 the proportion of asthmatic children increased by 50% in Budapest, while the air pollution did not deteriorate and the pollen

  2. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome did not increase in Mexico City between 1990-1992 and 1997-1999 despite more central obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carlos; Williams, Ken; Gonzalez-Villalpando, Clicerio; Haffner, Steven M

    2005-10-01

    Trends in the metabolic syndrome might follow trends in obesity. We examined this hypothesis in the Mexico City Diabetes Study (MCDS), a study that showed rising trends in obesity, and the effect of the metabolic syndrome on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Designed as a population-based study, the MCDS enrolled subjects in 1990-1992 (n = 2,282). Follow-up visits were held in 1993-1995 (n = 1,764) and 1997-1999 (n = 1,754). We used the revised metabolic syndrome definition of the National Cholesterol Education Program and the Framingham equations to estimate the 10-year CHD risk. In men, the age-adjusted prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 38.9% in 1990-1992, 43.4% in 1993-1995, and 39.9% in 1997-1999; in women, the prevalences were 65.4, 65.7, and 59.9%, respectively. The prevalence did not change in men (P = 0.349) between 1990-1992 and 1997-1999, but decreased in women (P metabolic syndrome nor CHD risk has increased in Mexico City. Lower blood pressure and triglyceride values appear to have counteracted increases in central obesity and fasting glucose.

  3. Type D personality is associated with increased metabolic syndrome prevalence and an unhealthy lifestyle in a cross-sectional Dutch community sample

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    Denollet Johan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with Type D-Distressed-personality have a general tendency towards increased negative affectivity (NA, while at the same time inhibiting these emotions in social situations (SI. Type D personality is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Whether Type D personality is a cardiovascular risk factor in healthy populations remains to be investigated. In the present study, the relations between Type D personality and classical cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. metabolic syndrome and lifestyle were investigated in a Dutch community sample. Methods In a cross-sectional study 1592 participants were included, aged 20-80 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined by self-report, following the International Diabetes Federation-IDF-guidelines including an increased waist circumference, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. In addition lifestyle factors smoking, alcohol use, exercise and dietary habits were examined. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was stratified by Type D personality (a high score on both NA and SI, lifestyle and confounders age, gender, having a partner, higher education level, cardiac history, family history of cardiovascular disease. Results Metabolic syndrome was more prevalent in persons with a Type D personality (13% vs. 6%. Persons with Type D personality made poorer lifestyle choices, adhered less to the physical activity norm (OR = 1.5, 95%CI = 1.1-2.0, p = .02, had a less varied diet (OR = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.40-0.70, p p = .01. Type D personality was related to a twofold increased risk of metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.2, 95%CI = 1.2-4.0, p = .011, independent of lifestyle factors and confounders. Conclusions Type D personality is related to an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and unhealthy lifestyle, which suggests both behavioral and biological vulnerability for development of cardiovascular disorders and diabetes.

  4. Cases of Clinically Proven Hantavirus Infection with a Pulmonary Syndrome among Pregnant Women in Tashkent, Uzbekistan

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    Andrey V. An

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: For nearly a decade, a disease likely to have been misdiagnosed was observed in pregnant women in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. It caused the rapid decline and death of patients, with about 45% mortality rate. The disease was suspected to be caused by a virus of the HVP (Hantavirus family, and clinical studies were conducted to ascertain. Methods: As no system for registration of such cases had been maintained, researchers developed a questionnaire with indicators chiefly based on relevant literature. All the women admitted exhibiting the symptoms listed were covered by the study. Results: Among the 16 cases identified from September to December 2008, ten survived; 80% belonged to the indigenous ethnic group; 80% were housewives. Most (90% were between 16 and 34 weeks’ pregnancy, 24.5 weeks on average. Almost all of them experienced labored breathing and abnormally high body temperature. About 75% of the women lived in the vicinity of rodents’ habitats, and about half of them could have been in direct contact with the aerosolized rodent excreta. Conclusions: Researchers believe that those women exposed to the excreta were cases of HPS. In practice, the surgical removal of the fetus proved to be the most efficient treatment. However, the medical community has a growing concern about patients with HPV being misdiagnosed and the related difficulties in diagnosing and treating them.

  5. Puumala hantavirus infections in bank vole populations: host and virus dynamics in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, Daniela; Rosenfeld, Ulrike M; Imholt, Christian; Schmidt, Sabrina; Ulrich, Rainer G; Eccard, Jana A; Jacob, Jens

    2017-02-28

    In Europe, bank voles (Myodes glareolus) are widely distributed and can transmit Puumala virus (PUUV) to humans, which causes a mild to moderate form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, called nephropathia epidemica. Uncovering the link between host and virus dynamics can help to prevent human PUUV infections in the future. Bank voles were live trapped three times a year in 2010-2013 in three woodland plots in each of four regions in Germany. Bank vole population density was estimated and blood samples collected to detect PUUV specific antibodies. We demonstrated that fluctuation of PUUV seroprevalence is dependent not only on multi-annual but also on seasonal dynamics of rodent host abundance. Moreover, PUUV infection might affect host fitness, because seropositive individuals survived better from spring to summer than uninfected bank voles. Individual space use was independent of PUUV infections. Our study provides robust estimations of relevant patterns and processes of the dynamics of PUUV and its rodent host in Central Europe, which are highly important for the future development of predictive models for human hantavirus infection risk.

  6. Type D personality is associated with increased metabolic syndrome prevalence and an unhealthy lifestyle in a cross-sectional Dutch community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2010-11-19

    People with Type D-Distressed-personality have a general tendency towards increased negative affectivity (NA), while at the same time inhibiting these emotions in social situations (SI). Type D personality is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Whether Type D personality is a cardiovascular risk factor in healthy populations remains to be investigated. In the present study, the relations between Type D personality and classical cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. metabolic syndrome and lifestyle were investigated in a Dutch community sample. In a cross-sectional study 1592 participants were included, aged 20-80 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined by self-report, following the International Diabetes Federation-IDF-guidelines including an increased waist circumference, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. In addition lifestyle factors smoking, alcohol use, exercise and dietary habits were examined. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was stratified by Type D personality (a high score on both NA and SI), lifestyle and confounders age, gender, having a partner, higher education level, cardiac history, family history of cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome was more prevalent in persons with a Type D personality (13% vs. 6%). Persons with Type D personality made poorer lifestyle choices, adhered less to the physical activity norm (OR = 1.5, 95%CI = 1.1-2.0, p = .02), had a less varied diet (OR = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.40-0.70, p lifestyle factors and confounders. Type D personality is related to an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and unhealthy lifestyle, which suggests both behavioral and biological vulnerability for development of cardiovascular disorders and diabetes.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of increased lung/heart ratio of thallium-201 during dipyridamole stress imaging for suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, F.S.; Kaul, S.; Smith, W.H.; Watson, D.D.; Varma, S.K.; Beller, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is little information concerning the prevalence and clinical correlates of increased pulmonary thallium-201 uptake during dipyridamole thallium-201 stress imaging. Accordingly, the clinical characteristics and quantitative thallium-201 findings were correlated with quantitative lung/heart thallium-201 ratio in 87 patients undergoing dipyridamole thallium-201 stress testing. Nineteen patients (22%) had an elevated ratio (greater than 0.51). These patients were more likely to have had an infarction, to be taking beta blockers, and have a lower rate-pressure product after dipyridamole administration than those with a normal ratio (p less than 0.03). An elevated ratio was associated with a greater likelihood of initial, redistribution and persistent defects, as well as left ventricular cavity dilatation on thallium-201 imaging (p less than 0.05). In addition, the number of myocardial segments demonstrating initial, redistribution and persistent defects was also greater in patients with increased ratios (p less than 0.03). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of redistribution and left ventricular cavity dilatation were the most significant correlates of lung/heart thallium-201 ratio. It is concluded that the prevalence of increased lung/heart thallium-201 ratio with dipyridamole thallium-201 stress imaging is similar to that seen with exercise stress imaging. As with exercise thallium-201 imaging, increased pulmonary thallium-201 uptake may be a marker of functionally more significant coronary artery disease

  8. Increased synthetic drug abuse and trends in HIV and syphilis prevalence among female drug users from 2010-2014 from Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanming; Guo, Wei; Li, Guiying; He, Shufang; Lu, Hongyan

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the trend of addiction drug use and its relationship with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female drug users (FDUs). Serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted during 2010-2014 among FDUs in Beijing to collect information on addiction drug usage, sexual behaviors, and STI prevalence. Characteristics were analyzed and compared between traditional and synthetic drug users among FDUs by logistic regression method. A total of 3859 FDUs were surveyed during 2010-2014, with the median age being 32.7 years old. The proportion of synthetic drug users among FDUs increased from 43.7% in 2010 to 70.7% in 2014. Compared with traditional drug users, synthetic drug users were younger (P drug FDUs. However, the engagement of commercial sexual activities (P drug users were significantly higher than traditional drug users. Synthetic drug abuse appears to be correlated with commercial sex behavior and higher syphilis prevalence among FDUs. Tailored strategies on health education to curb the prevalence of synthetic drug abuse are urgently needed in Beijing.

  9. Increased prevalence of depression and anxiety among subjects with metabolic syndrome and known type 2 diabetes mellitus - a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkov, Alexander; Borissova, Anna-Maria; Kovatcheva, Roussanka; Vlahov, Jordan; Dakovska, Lilia; Atanassova, Iliana; Petkova, Paulina

    2018-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The MetS and its elements have been linked to anxiety and depressive disorders. The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of depression and anxiety, measured by the Zung Self-Rating Scale in subjects with and without the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. A total of 2111 adults were included, 1155 female, age 47.6 (13.7) and 956 male, age 45.2 (13.5). All participants filled questionnaires covering current and past disorders and medication, smoking and family history. Zung self-rating depression and anxiety scales were completed. Body weight, height and waist circumference were measured, BMI was calculated, serum glucose and lipids were measured. Depression (SDSi) and anxiety scores (SASi) were higher in the females and increased with age (p anxiety were more prevalent in the subjects with known diabetes than in those with normal glucose tolerance but not in the newly-diagnosed diabetes. The OR for depressiveness was 2.0 (1.3; 2.6) in subjects with MetS and 4.2 (2.3; 7.8) in those with known diabetes. In conclusion, depressiveness and anxiety were associated positively with age and female gender and were more prevalent among subjects with MetS and known diabetes mellitus.

  10. Pre-existing malignancy results in increased prevalence of distinct populations of CD4+ T cells during sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianfeng; Robertson, Jennifer M; Chen, Ching-Wen; Zhang, Wenxiao; Coopersmith, Craig M; Ford, Mandy L

    2018-01-01

    The presence of pre-existing malignancy in murine hosts results in increased immune dysregulation and risk of mortality following a septic insult. Based on the known systemic immunologic changes that occur in cancer hosts, we hypothesized that the presence of pre-existing malignancy would result in phenotypic and functional changes in CD4+ T cell responses following sepsis. In order to conduct a non-biased, unsupervised analysis of phenotypic differences between CD4+ T cell compartments, cohorts of mice were injected with LLC1 tumor cells and tumors were allowed to grow for 3 weeks. These cancer hosts and age-matched non-cancer controls were then subjected to CLP. Splenocytes were harvested at 24h post CLP and flow cytometry and SPADE (Spanning-tree Progression Analysis of Density-normalized Events) were used to analyze populations of CD4+ cells most different between the two groups. Results indicated that relative to non-cancer controls, cancer mice contained more resting memory CD4+ T cells, more activated CD4+ effectors, and fewer naïve CD4+ T cells during sepsis, suggesting that the CD4+ T cell compartment in cancer septic hosts is one of increased activation and differentiation. Moreover, cancer septic animals exhibited expansion of two distinct subsets of CD4+ T cells relative to previously healthy septic controls. Specifically, we identified increases in both a PD-1hi population and a distinct 2B4hi BTLAhi LAG-3hi population in cancer septic animals. By combining phenotypic analysis of exhaustion markers with functional analysis of cytokine production, we found that PD-1+ CD4+ cells in cancer hosts failed to make any cytokines following CLP, while the 2B4+ PD-1lo cells in cancer mice secreted increased TNF during sepsis. In sum, the immunophenotypic landscape of cancer septic animals is characterized by both increased CD4+ T cell activation and exhaustion, findings that may underlie the observed increased mortality in mice with pre-existing malignancy

  11. Pre-existing malignancy results in increased prevalence of distinct populations of CD4+ T cells during sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Xie

    Full Text Available The presence of pre-existing malignancy in murine hosts results in increased immune dysregulation and risk of mortality following a septic insult. Based on the known systemic immunologic changes that occur in cancer hosts, we hypothesized that the presence of pre-existing malignancy would result in phenotypic and functional changes in CD4+ T cell responses following sepsis. In order to conduct a non-biased, unsupervised analysis of phenotypic differences between CD4+ T cell compartments, cohorts of mice were injected with LLC1 tumor cells and tumors were allowed to grow for 3 weeks. These cancer hosts and age-matched non-cancer controls were then subjected to CLP. Splenocytes were harvested at 24h post CLP and flow cytometry and SPADE (Spanning-tree Progression Analysis of Density-normalized Events were used to analyze populations of CD4+ cells most different between the two groups. Results indicated that relative to non-cancer controls, cancer mice contained more resting memory CD4+ T cells, more activated CD4+ effectors, and fewer naïve CD4+ T cells during sepsis, suggesting that the CD4+ T cell compartment in cancer septic hosts is one of increased activation and differentiation. Moreover, cancer septic animals exhibited expansion of two distinct subsets of CD4+ T cells relative to previously healthy septic controls. Specifically, we identified increases in both a PD-1hi population and a distinct 2B4hi BTLAhi LAG-3hi population in cancer septic animals. By combining phenotypic analysis of exhaustion markers with functional analysis of cytokine production, we found that PD-1+ CD4+ cells in cancer hosts failed to make any cytokines following CLP, while the 2B4+ PD-1lo cells in cancer mice secreted increased TNF during sepsis. In sum, the immunophenotypic landscape of cancer septic animals is characterized by both increased CD4+ T cell activation and exhaustion, findings that may underlie the observed increased mortality in mice with pre

  12. The Andes hantavirus NSs protein is expressed from the viral small mRNA by a leaky scanning mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Solis, Loretto; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P; Pino, Karla; Tischler, Nicole D; Ohlmann, Théophile; Darlix, Jean-Luc; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    The small mRNA (SmRNA) of all Bunyaviridae encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein. In 4 out of 5 genera in the Bunyaviridae, the smRNA encodes an additional nonstructural protein denominated NSs. In this study, we show that Andes hantavirus (ANDV) SmRNA encodes an NSs protein. Data show that the NSs protein is expressed in the context of an ANDV infection. Additionally, our results suggest that translation initiation from the NSs initiation codon is mediated by ribosomal subunits that have bypassed the upstream N protein initiation codon through a leaky scanning mechanism.

  13. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus en población infantil. Chile: Regiones IX y X. 1998-2000

    OpenAIRE

    SOZA C., GUILLERMO; LORCA O., PEDRO; PUEBLA M., SERGIO; WENZEL M., MARISOL; NAVARRETE C., MARITZA; VILLAGRA C., ELIECER; MORA R., JUDITH; LEVIS C., SILVANA; AVILES A., GABRIELA

    2000-01-01

    El síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH) ha estado presente en Chile desde 1993 y ha sido detectado desde 1997 en la IX Región. Es una grave zoonosis con alta mortalidad, que afecta a gente joven incluyendo niños. Se ha estimado oportuno dar a conocer nuestra experiencia en la atención de 6 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos en las unidades de Cuidados Intensivos y Aislamiento en el Hospital Regional de Temuco, entre enero de 1998 y enero de 2000 mediante un estudio descriptivo de la experienc...

  14. Increased prevalence of pregnancy and comparative risk of program attrition among individuals starting HIV treatment in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B Holmes

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization now recommends initiating all pregnant women on life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART, yet there is limited information about the characteristics and program outcomes of pregnant women already on ART in Africa. Our hypothesis was that pregnant women comprised an increasing proportion of those starting ART, and that sub-groups of these women were at higher risk for program attrition.We used the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS- East Africa (IeDEA-EA to conduct a retrospective cohort study including HIV care and treatment programs in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. The cohort consecutively included HIV-infected individuals 13 years or older starting ART 2004-2014. We examined trends over time in the proportion pregnant, their characteristics and program attrition rates compared to others initiating and already receiving ART. 156,474 HIV-infected individuals (67.0% women started ART. The proportion of individuals starting ART who were pregnant women rose from 5.3% in 2004 to 12.2% in 2014. Mean CD4 cell counts at ART initiation, weighted for annual program size, increased from 2004 to 2014, led by non-pregnant women (annual increase 20 cells/mm3 and men (17 cells/mm3 annually, with lower rates of change in pregnant women (10 cells/mm3 per year (p<0.0001. There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of program attrition at 6 months among pregnant women starting ART and non-pregnant women. However, healthy pregnant women starting ART (WHO stage 1/2 had a higher rate of attrition rate (9.6%, compared with healthy non-pregnant women (6.5%; in contrast among women with WHO stage 3/4 disease, pregnant women had lower attrition (8.4% than non-pregnant women (14.4%. Among women who initiated ART when healthy and remained in care for six months, subsequent six-month attrition was slightly higher among pregnant women at ART start (3.5% compared to those who were not pregnant (2.4%, (absolute

  15. Increased prevalence of pregnancy and comparative risk of program attrition among individuals starting HIV treatment in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Charles B; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Elul, Batya; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Ssali, John; Kambugu, Andrew; Musick, Beverly S; Cohen, Craig; Williams, Carolyn; Diero, Lameck; Padian, Nancy; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara K

    2018-01-01

    The World Health Organization now recommends initiating all pregnant women on life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART), yet there is limited information about the characteristics and program outcomes of pregnant women already on ART in Africa. Our hypothesis was that pregnant women comprised an increasing proportion of those starting ART, and that sub-groups of these women were at higher risk for program attrition. We used the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS- East Africa (IeDEA-EA) to conduct a retrospective cohort study including HIV care and treatment programs in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. The cohort consecutively included HIV-infected individuals 13 years or older starting ART 2004-2014. We examined trends over time in the proportion pregnant, their characteristics and program attrition rates compared to others initiating and already receiving ART. 156,474 HIV-infected individuals (67.0% women) started ART. The proportion of individuals starting ART who were pregnant women rose from 5.3% in 2004 to 12.2% in 2014. Mean CD4 cell counts at ART initiation, weighted for annual program size, increased from 2004 to 2014, led by non-pregnant women (annual increase 20 cells/mm3) and men (17 cells/mm3 annually), with lower rates of change in pregnant women (10 cells/mm3 per year) (p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of program attrition at 6 months among pregnant women starting ART and non-pregnant women. However, healthy pregnant women starting ART (WHO stage 1/2) had a higher rate of attrition rate (9.6%), compared with healthy non-pregnant women (6.5%); in contrast among women with WHO stage 3/4 disease, pregnant women had lower attrition (8.4%) than non-pregnant women (14.4%). Among women who initiated ART when healthy and remained in care for six months, subsequent six-month attrition was slightly higher among pregnant women at ART start (3.5%) compared to those who were not pregnant (2.4%), (absolute

  16. Plateaued national utilization of adolescent bariatric surgery despite increasing prevalence of obesity-associated co-morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindel, Tammy L; Lomelin, Daniel; McBride, Corrigan; Kothari, Vishal; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2016-05-01

    The number of adolescent bariatric surgeries (ABS) performed from 2003 to 2009 has been stable despite reports of an increase in adolescent morbid obesity. We sought to determine the trend in national ABS volume and the changes in obesity-associated co-morbidities (OACM) from 2004 to 2011. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample database. The National Inpatient Sample database was queried for adolescents undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, adjustable gastric banding, or sleeve gastrectomy from 2004 to 2011. Twelve OACM categories were created by ICD-9 code. From 2004 to 2011, an estimated 968 ABS cases per year were performed with no significant change in yearly volumes. There was a significant decrease in the annual volume of Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses (85.7%-54.4%, Padolescent increased significantly, from 1.44±1.3 in 2004-2005 to 1.85±1.5 in 2010-2011 (Padolescent bariatric surgical evaluation and treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The crisis in leadership in the context of the nursing shortage and the increasing prevalence of nursing unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balogh-Robinson LL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Latisha L Balogh-RobinsonMarist College, School of Global and Professional Programs, Poughkeepsie, NY, USAAbstract: Developing nurse leaders in a unionized environment presents unique challenges that are beyond those traditionally experienced in nonunion settings. This literature review examines multiple factors contributing to increasing nursing union membership, including population aging, the nursing shortage, and the relationship between leadership and staff engagement. Current trends in succession planning and leadership development are also highlighted. Job dissatisfaction related to the inability to provide quality care in the context of a protracted nursing shortage and current health care trends is identified as the driver in nursing union growth. The discussion that follows assumes current trends in nursing unionization will continue and proposes that adversarial relationships between management and union nurses will further amplify the dearth in leadership by reducing the pool of nurses willing to leave the union for nonunion leadership roles.Keywords: succession planning, baby boomer, staff engagement, population aging

  18. The increased prevalence of multiple sclerosis among people who were born and bred in areas where goitre is endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, T R

    1984-06-01

    The adverse effects of feeding vitamin A deficient diets to newborn infants are found to include an increased propensity for them to fall victim to multiple sclerosis (MS) later in life. When they are artificially fed on cow's milk, this deficiency is accentuated by a number of factors such as the need to dilute the milk in view of its high protein content, births occurring during the winter when the vitamin A content of the milk reaches its lowest value, insufficient selenium (Se) in the cow's forage which is otherwise required to safeguard the vitamin against peroxidation, and finally a lack of iodine in the soil which deprives the cattle of the thyroid hormone thyroxin necessary to effect the conversion of the carotene in their diet to vitamin A. Whichever of these factors preponderates, newborn infants who are fed on cow's milk for the normal period of approximately six months are at risk of suffering from MS.

  19. The increasing prevalence of HIV/Helicobacter pylori co-infection over time, along with the evolution of antiretroviral therapy (ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Radovanović Spurnić

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is one of the most common human bacterial infections with prevalence rates between 10–80% depending upon geographical location, age and socioeconomic status. H. pylori is commonly found in patients complaining of dyspepsia and is a common cause of gastritis. During the course of their infection, people living with HIV (PLHIV often have a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms including dyspepsia and while previous studies have reported HIV and H. pylori co-infection, there has been little data clarifying the factors influencing this. The aim of this case-control study was to document the prevalence of H. pylori co-infection within the HIV community as well as to describe endoscopic findings, gastritis topography and histology, along with patient demographic characteristics across three different periods of time during which antiretroviral therapy (ART has evolved, from pre- highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART to early and modern HAART eras. These data were compared to well-matched HIV negative controls. Two hundred and twelve PLHIV were compared with 1,617 controls who underwent their first esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD to investigate dyspepsia. The prevalence of H. pylori co-infection among PLHIV was significantly higher in the early (30.2% and modern HAART period (34.4% compared with those with coinfection from the pre-HAART period (18.2%. The higher rates seen in patients from the HAART eras were similar to those observed among HIV negative controls (38.5%. This prevalence increase among co-infected patients was in contrast to the fall in prevalence observed among controls, from 60.7% in the early period to 52.9% in the second observed period. The three PLHIV co-infected subgroups differed regarding gastritis topography, morphology and pathology. This study suggests that ART has an important impact on the endoscopic and histological features of gastritis among HIV/H. pylori co-infected individuals

  20. Evaluation of prostate cancer prevalence in Iranian male population with increased PSA level, a one center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslemi, Mohammad Kazem; Lotfi, Fariborz; Tahvildar, Seyed Ali

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) in Iranian male patients with increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and normal or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) that underwent prostate biopsy. From March 2006 to April 2009, a total of 346 consecutive males suspected of having PCa due to increased PSA levels underwent transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided sextant biopsy of the prostate. The total PSA (tPSA), demographic data, incidence of PCa, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), and prostatitis were assessed. The patients were divided into two groups according to their PSA values (group A serum tPSA level, 4–10 ng/mL; group B serum tPSA level, 10.1–20.0 ng/mL). Of the 346 biopsied cases, 193 cases (56%) had PCa, 80 cases (23%) had BPH, and 73 cases (21%) had prostatitis. The mean PSA and the age of the carcinoma group were significantly higher than those of the benign group (P < 0.01). The biopsy results were grouped as PCa, BPH, and prostatitis. Incidence of PCa for group A and group B cases were 115 cases (51%), and 78 cases (65%), respectively. In the case of PCa, BPH, and prostatitis, the mean PSAs were 10.02 ng/mL, 8.76 ng/mL, and 8.41 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.40). TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and interpretation by a skilled team is highly recommended for early detection of PCa or its ruling-out. It seems that a PSA cutoff value of 4 ng/mL may be applied to the Iranian population. Although the chance of PCa is high in the PSA levels of 4–10 ng/mL, the combination of some data, like age and prostate volume, can decrease the rate of unnecessary prostate biopsies. We recommend prostate biopsy when PSA and/or DRE is elevated in symptomatic patients with obstructive and/or irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as dysuria, frequency, or nocturia. Due to the very high incidence of PCa in the patients with PSA greater than 10 ng/mL, TRUS-guided biopsy is indicated, whatever the findings on DRE and

  1. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy: the clinical phenomenon and the current pathobiology of an increasingly prevalent and devastating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Karadimas, Spyridon K; Fehlings, Michael G

    2013-08-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a common disorder involving chronic progressive compression of the cervical spinal cord due to degenerative disc disease, spondylosis, or other degenerative pathology. CSM is the most common form of spinal cord impairment and causes functional decline leading to reduced independence and quality of life. Despite a sound understanding of the disease process, clinical presentation and management, a universal definition of CSM and a standardized index of severity are not currently used universally. Work is required to develop a definition and establish clinical predictors of progression to improve management of CSM. Despite advances in decompressive and reconstructive surgery, patients are often left with residual disability. Gaps in knowledge of the pathobiology of CSM have limited therapeutic advances to complement surgery. Although the histopathologic and pathophysiologic similarities between CSM and traumatic spinal cord injury have long been acknowledged, the unique pathomechanisms of CSM remain unexplored. Increased efforts to elucidate CSM pathobiology could lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic targets for human CSM and other spinal cord diseases. Here, the natural history of CSM, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and current methods of clinical management are reported, along with the current state of basic scientific research in the field.

  2. Fourfold increase in prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus after adoption of the new International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, Evelyn A; Massaro, Nadine; Streckeisen, Simone; Manegold-Brauer, Gwendolin; Schoetzau, Andreas; Schulzke, Sven M; Winzeler, Bettina; Hoesli, Irene; Lapaire, Olav

    2017-04-01

    The aim was to evaluate the influence of the new International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) guidelines for screening of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on GDM prevalence in a cohort from a Swiss tertiary hospital. This was a retrospective cohort study involving all pregnant women who were screened for GDM between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. From 2008 until 2010 (period 1), a two-step approach with 1-h 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) was used, followed by fasting, 1- and 2-h glucose measurements after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in case of a positive GCT. From 2010 until 2013 (period 2), all pregnant women were tested with a one-step 75 g OGTT according to new IADPSG guidelines. In both periods, women with risk factors could be screened directly with a 75 g OGTT in early pregnancy. Overall, 647 women were eligible for the study in period 1 and 720 in period 2. The introduction of the IADPSG criteria resulted in an absolute increase of GDM prevalence of 8.5% (3.3% in period 1 to 11.8% in period 2). The adoption of the IADPSG criteria resulted in a considerable increase in GDM diagnosis in our Swiss cohort. Further studies are needed to investigate if the screening is cost effective and if treatment of our additionally diagnosed GDM mothers might improve short-term as well as long-term outcome.

  3. Hypertension and diabetes prevalence among adults with moderately increased BMI (23·0-24·9 kg/m2): findings from a nationwide survey in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muntasirur; Williams, Gail; Mamun, Abdullah Al

    2017-06-01

    BMI is a proxy for fat accumulation in the body. Increased diabetes and CVD risks have been observed for Asian populations at lower BMI than the WHO-recommended BMI cut-off points for overweight (≥25·0 kg/m2) and obesity (≥30·0 kg/m2). The current study aimed to quantify the increased hypertension (HTN) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence in Bangladeshi adults with moderately increased BMI (23·0-24·9 kg/m2). Data from the most recent Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (2011) were analysed. Modified Poisson regression models with robust error variance were used to calculate prevalence ratios (PR) for HTN or T2DM by BMI category, considering BMI=18·5-22·9 kg/m2 as the reference. All analyses incorporated the complex sampling design of the survey. BMI, blood pressure, blood sugar and related information were collected from a nationally representative sample. Adults (n 7433) aged≥35 years. About 12 % of Bangladeshi adults, both male and female, were within the BMI range 23·0-24·9 kg/m2 or moderately overweight. Compared with the reference BMI group (18·5-22·9 kg/m2), they had an increased PR for HTN (1·55-1·77) and T2DM (1·54-1·93). These increased PR are similar to those for the WHO-defined overweight group (BMI=25·0-29·9 kg/m2). Our findings support the recommendation that calls for setting the optimum BMI for Asian populations to 18·5-23·0 kg/m2 for health promotion and for public health interventions like leisure-time physical activity. WHO cut-off points for overweight (≥25 kg/m2) should be used to facilitate international comparisons.

  4. Evidence of increasing sedentarism in Mexico City during the last decade: Sitting time prevalence, trends, and associations with obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Catalina; Tolentino-Mayo, Lizbeth; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Barquera, Simón

    2017-01-01

    Sedentary behaviors such as sitting time are associated with obesity and diabetes independently of total reported physical activity. This study aimed to describe the current sitting time/day prevalence and trends and to examine the association of sitting time with sociodemographic and clinical variables in Mexico City. Two cross-sectional representative surveys in Mexico City were used for this analysis (2006: n = 1148 and 2015: n = 1329). Sedentary behavior questions from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire included time spent sitting on a weekday in the last week or on a Wednesday. Sitting time /day was divided into deciles, and participants in the highest decile (≥ 420 minutes/day) were classified within the high sitting category; others were classified in the low sitting time category. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of sitting time with sociodemographic and clinical indicators, controlling for confounders and testing for potential interactions. A total of 13.7% (2006) and 14.8% (2015) adults were classified in the highest sitting time category (≥ 420 minutes/day). There was a significant increase in the average sitting time/day between the surveys (216.0 minutes in 2006 vs. 233.3 minutes in 2015, p obesity (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.11, 5.09) and those with high glucose levels (survey finding) (OR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.04, 5.25) were more likely to report sitting time in the highest category. Sitting time/day prevalence increased 8%, and average daily sitting minutes significantly increased by 8.2% (18 minutes) in the nine-year study period (2006-2015). Current public health policies should consider strategies not only for increasing physical activity levels, but also for reducing sitting time/day among the population as a measure to fight the growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes in Mexico.

  5. Suicidal behaviour in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia: Prevalence data suggest disparities increase across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gregory; Pirkis, Jane; Arabena, Kerry; Currier, Dianne; Spittal, Matthew J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2017-12-01

    We compare the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia, and examine the extent to which any disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males varies across age groups. We used data from the baseline wave of The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men), a large-scale cohort study of Australian males aged 10-55 years residing in urban and regional areas. Indigenous identification was determined through participants self-reporting as Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander or both. The survey collected data on suicidal thoughts in the preceding 2 weeks and lifetime suicide attempts. A total of 432 participants (2.7%) identified as Indigenous and 15,425 as non-Indigenous (97.3%). Indigenous males were twice as likely as non-Indigenous males to report recent suicidal thoughts (17.6% vs 9.4%; odds ratio = 2.1, p age groups, but a significant gap emerged among men aged 30-39 years and was largest among men aged 40-55 years. Similarly, the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts did not differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in the 14- to 17-years age group, but a disparity emerged in the 18- to 24-years age group and was even larger among males aged 25 years and older. Our paper presents unique data on suicidal thoughts and attempts among a broad age range of Indigenous and non-Indigenous males. The disparity in the prevalence of suicidal thoughts increased across age groups, which is in contrast to the large disparity between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous suicide rates in younger age groups.

  6. Increasing Incidence and Prevalence of World Health Organization Groups 1 to 4 Pulmonary Hypertension: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, D Thiwanka; Lajkosz, Katherine; Brogly, Susan B; Lougheed, M Diane; Jiang, Li; Housin, Ahmad; Barber, David; Johnson, Ana; Doliszny, Katharine M; Archer, Stephen L

    2018-02-01

    The World Health Organization recognizes 5 groups of pulmonary hypertension (PH), categorized by pathogenesis or comorbidity: 1-pulmonary arterial hypertension 2-left-heart disease, 3-lung disease and hypoxia 4-chronic thromboembolic disease, and 5-miscellaneous. The epidemiology of PH, apart from group 1, is largely unknown. We describe incidence, prevalence, comorbidities, mortality and prescribing patterns for groups 1 to 4 PH from 1993 to 2012. Case definitions are based on hospitalizations and emergency department visits, using the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences data, which comprises linked databases of universal coverage health service records for Ontario residents. This cohort included 50 529 patients with PH. The annual incidence of adult PH increased from 2003 to 2012 from 24.1 to 28.7 cases/100 000 population and the annual prevalence from 1993 to 2012 from 99.8 to 127.3 cases/100 000 population, respectively. The most common form of adult PH was group 2, alone (34.2%) or combined with group 3 PH (29.3%). A diagnosis of PH increased the 1-year standardized mortality ratio 7.2-fold. Mortality in adults with PH was 13.0%, 36.4%, and 62.4%, at 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years, respectively. Mortality was highest in groups 2 and 3 and lowest in group 1. PH was present in only 3.6% of people with left heart disease, 0.7% with lung disease, and 1.4% with thromboembolic disease, suggesting that PH is a relatively rare complication of these common diseases. Children (age<16 years) accounted for 3.6% of the cohort. In children group 1 PH was most common (65.2%), and 5-year mortality was lower (21.4%) than in adults. Group 1-specific PH therapies were increasingly prescribed over time and paradoxically were often used in patients who seemed to have group 2, PH based on diagnostic codes indicating left heart disease. The incidence and prevalence of adult PH are increasing. Groups 2 and 3 are the most common and lethal forms of PH. This study identifies an

  7. Smoking and physical inactivity increase cancer prevalence in BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 mutation carriers: results from a retrospective observational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Sabine; Yahiaoui-Doktor, Maryam; Dukatz, Ricarda; Lammert, Jacqueline; Ullrich, Mirjam; Engel, Christoph; Pfeifer, Katharina; Basrai, Maryam; Siniatchkin, Michael; Schmidt, Thorsten; Weisser, Burkhard; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Schmutzler, Rita; Bischoff, Stephan C; Halle, Martin; Kiechle, Marion

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this analysis in a pilot study population was to investigate whether we can verify seemingly harmful lifestyle factors such as nicotine and alcohol indulgence, obesity, and physical inactivity, as well as a low socioeconomic status for increased cancer prevalence in a cohort of BRCA 1 and 2 mutation carriers. The analysis data are derived from 68 participants of the lifestyle intervention study LIBRE-1, a randomized, prospective trial that aimed to test the feasibility of a lifestyle modification in BRCA 1 and 2 mutation carriers. At study entry, factors such as medical history, lifestyle behavior, and socioeconomic status were retrospectively documented by interview and the current BMI was determined by clinical examination. The baseline measurements were compared within the cohort, and presented alongside reference values for the German population. Study participants indicating a higher physical activity during their adolescence showed a significantly lower cancer prevalence (p = 0.019). A significant difference in cancer occurrence was observed in those who smoked prior to the disease, and those who did not smoke (p physical activity level than diseased mutation carriers (p = 0.046). The present data in this small cohort of 68 mutation carriers suggest that smoking and low physical activity during adolescence are risk factors for developing breast cancer in women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Further data of the ongoing LIBRE 2 study are necessary to confirm these findings in a larger cohort of 600 mutation carriers.

  8. Increasing prevalence of wildtypes in the dihydrofolate reductase gene of Plasmodium falciparum in an area with high levels of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance after introduction of treated bed nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alifrangis, Michael; Lemnge, Martha M; Rønn, Anita M

    2003-01-01

    years old living in the villages from 1998 to 2000. In 2000, after two years of bed net use, the prevalence of wild types in codon 51, 59, and 108 of dhfr increased significantly in Magoda compared with previous years. Furthermore, the prevalence of dhfr wild types was significantly higher in Magoda...

  9. Prevalence of antiseptic resistance genes increases in staphylococcal isolates from orthokeratology lens wearers over initial six-month period of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang-Sen, Shi; Boost, Maureen; Cho, Pauline

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antiseptic-resistance (QAC) genes in staphylococci colonizing periorbital tissues and accessories of orthokeratology (ortho-k) lens wearers over a 6-month period and determine the effect of their presence on minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of disinfectants and log reduction of multipurpose contact lens solutions (MPS). Staphylococci were isolated from periorbital tissues and accessories of patients before commencing ortho-k therapy and at two subsequent visits. Presence of QAC genes in 116 S. aureus and 67 CNS isolates was determined by PCR and association with period of ortho-k use determined. MICs and MBCs of staphylococci gene-positive were compared with gene-negative strains and the effectiveness of four MPS for rigid contact lenses investigated. S. aureus carriage rates in the conjunctiva decreased significantly from 41.2 % (baseline) to 11.8 % (3-months), and 13.3 % (6-months) (p trend 0.03), while CNS increased from 58.8 %(baseline) to 94.1 % (3-months), and 93.3 % (6-months) (p trend 0.02). Prevalence of qacA/B increased considerably over time (S. aureus: 4.4 % to 15.4 %, CNS: 6.7 % to 25 %), but frequency of smr was relatively stable. Only five CNS isolates harboured qacH. MICs and MBCs of gene-positive isolates were significantly increased and three MPS did not achieve a 3-log reduction of many QAC-positive strains. Ortho-k lens wear contributed to changes of staphylococcal carriage rates in the conjunctival sac. Use of MPS containing quaternary ammonium compounds may select for the carriage of organisms harbouring QAC genes, as the low concentration of disinfecting agents is not adequate for killing gene-positive strains.

  10. Effect of climatic changes on the prevalence of zoonotic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Sachan and V.P.Singh

    Full Text Available Combustion of fossil fuels and human activities has led to sharp increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These climate changes have tremendous effect on prevalence of zoonotic diseases. The changes in climate may increase the insect vectors, prolong transmission cycles or increase the importation of vectors or animal reservoirs. It may also have an adverse effect on biodiversity, distribution of animals and microflora which may lead to emergence of zoonotic disease outbreaks. A historical perspective on major vector-borne diseases such as arboviral encephalitides, dengue fever and Rift Valley fever, Lyme disease, West Nile virus, malaria, plague, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and dengue fever have been shown to have a distinct seasonal pattern and in some instances their frequency has been shown to be weather sensitive. Because of the sensitivities of the vectors and animal hosts of these diseases to climactic factors, climate change-driven ecological changes such as variations in rainfall and temperature could significantly alter the range, seasonality and human incidence of many zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. The evolution of emerging zoonotic diseases globally during the period 1996 to 2007 was Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever, avian influenza H5N1, plague and Nipah virus. Whereas, bird flu and swine flu like diseases are still creating havoc for human and animal health worldwide. It is a today’s and tomorrow’s demand that interdisciplinary communication between health professionals, veterinarians, environmental scientists, ecologists, geographers and economists seeking to understand climate change will be key to protecting people in India and worldwide against these threats. Rigorous cross-disciplinary studies using a variety of methodological tools will enable us to predict the transmission dynamics of diseases under different climate scenarios and estimate the cost-effectiveness of mitigation strategies. In this

  11. The Increasing Prevalence in Intersex Variation from Toxicological Dysregulation in Fetal Reproductive Tissue Differentiation and Development by Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa L. Rich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of children are born with intersex variation (IV; ambiguous genitalia/hermaphrodite, pseudohermaphroditism, etc.. Evidence shows that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs in the environment can cause reproductive variation through dysregulation of normal reproductive tissue differentiation, growth, and maturation if the fetus is exposed to EDCs during critical developmental times in utero. Animal studies support fish and reptile embryos exhibited IV and sex reversal when exposed to EDCs. Occupational studies verified higher prevalence of offspring with IV in chemically exposed workers (male and female. Chemicals associated with endocrine-disrupting ability in humans include organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, bisphenol A, phthalates, dioxins, and furans. Intersex individuals may have concurrent physical disorders requiring lifelong medical intervention and experience gender dysphoria. An urgent need exists to determine which chemicals possess the greatest risk for IV and the mechanisms by which these chemicals are capable of interfering with normal physiological development in children.

  12. Rapid Increase in Ownership and Use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets and Decrease in Prevalence of Malaria in Three Regional States of Ethiopia (2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estifanos Biru Shargie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Following recent large scale-up of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia, this study aimed to compare ownership and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN, and the change in malaria prevalence using two population-based household surveys in three regions of the country. Each survey used multistage cluster random sampling with 25 households per cluster. Household net ownership tripled from 19.6% in 2006 to 68.4% in 2007, with mean LLIN per household increasing from 0.3 to 1.2. Net use overall more than doubled from 15.3% to 34.5%, but in households owning LLIN, use declined from 71.7% to 48.3%. Parasitemia declined from 4.1% to 0.4%. Large scale-up of net ownership over a short period of time was possible. However, a large increase in net ownership was not necessarily mirrored directly by increased net use. Better targeting of nets to malaria-risk areas and sustained behavioural change communication are needed to increase and maintain net use.

  13. Worldwide increased prevalence of human adenovirus type 3 (HAdV-3) respiratory infections is well correlated with heterogeneous hypervariable regions (HVRs) of hexon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Ezazul; Banik, Urmila; Monwar, Tahmina; Anthony, Leela; Adhikary, Arun Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Human adenovirus type 3 (HAdV-3) respiratory infections occurs worldwide in both children and adults, leading to severe morbidity and mortality, particularly in the paediatric age group and especially in neonates. During HAdV infection, neutralizing antibodies are formed against the epitopes located in the hyper variable regions (HVRs) of the hexon protein. These neutralizing antibodies provide protection against reinfection by viruses of the same type. Therefore it is reasonable to speculate that variations of HAdV-3 in the HVRs could impair the immunity acquired by previous infection with a different strain with variation in its HVRs. HAdV-3 has recently become the major agent of acute respiratory infection worldwide, being responsible for 15% to 87% of all adenoviral respiratory infections. However, despite the increased prevalence of HAdV-3 as respiratory pathogen, the diversity of hexon proteins in circulating strains remains unexplored. This study was designed to explore the variation in HVRs of hexon among globally distributed strains of HAdV-3 as well as to discover possible relationship among them, thus possibly shedding light on the cause for the increased prevalence of HAdV-3. In this study, for the first time we analysed the hexon proteins of all 248 available strains of HAdV-3 from the NCBI database and compared them with those of the HAdV-3 prototype (GB stain). We found that the HVRs of HAdV-3 strains circulating worldwide were highly heterogeneous and have been mutating continuously since -their original isolation. Based on their immense heterogeneity, the strains can be categorized into 25 hexon variants (3Hv-1 to 3Hv-25), 4 of which (3Hv-1 to 3Hv-4) comprises 80% of the strains. This heterogeneity may explain why HAdV-3 has become the most prevalent HAdVs type worldwide. The heterogeneity of hexon proteins also shows that the development of a vaccine against HAdV-3 might be challenging. The data on hexon variants provided here may be useful for

  14. Increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk biomarkers in patients with unknown type 2 diabetes visiting cardiology specialists: results from the DIASPORA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöndorf, Thomas; Lübben, Georg; Karagiannis, Efstrathios; Erdmann, Erland; Forst, Thomas; Pfützner, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus and IGT have a high risk for cardiovascular events. It is tempting to speculate that these patients are often first seen by cardiologists. This cross-sectional study investigates the diabetes prevalence in cardiology care units and the correlated metabolic conditions as assessed by several circulating biomarkers. Patients aged 55 or older with suspected or overt coronary heart disease were eligible for trial participation. Fasting blood samples were drawn from patients to determine HOMA score, glycaemic and lipid profile, and several risk biomarkers. An OGTT was performed in patients without known diabetes. We enrolled 530 patients (181 male, 349 female, mean age, 68+/-7 years) in this study from 22 German cardiology centres; 156 patients (29.4%) had known diabetes and OGTT revealed that 184 patients (34.7%) had no diabetes, 106 patients (20.0%) had IGT or IFG and 84 patients (15.9%) were newly diagnosed with diabetes. Increased cardiovascular risk as reflected by increased hsCRP, ICAM and MMP-9 values was observed in diabetes patients. A higher cardiovascular biomarkers risk profile was seen in the IGT/IFG cohort. This study confirms the observation that one third of patients of a cardiologic care unit suffer from impaired glucose regulation. Furthermore, the cardiology patients with previously unknown glucose homeostasis abnormalities had a higher prevalence of macrovacular disease and an impaired biomarker risk profile. This study underlines the importance of joint treatment efforts by cardiologists in concert with diabetologists for treatment of this patient group at high risk for cardiovascular events.

  15. Rapid extirpation of a North American frog coincides with an increase in fungal pathogen prevalence: Historical analysis and implications for reintroduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Andrea J; Pessier, Allan P; Briggs, Cheryl J

    2017-12-01

    As extinctions continue across the globe, conservation biologists are turning to species reintroduction programs as one optimistic tool for addressing the biodiversity crisis. For repatriation to become a viable strategy, fundamental prerequisites include determining the causes of declines and assessing whether the causes persist in the environment. Invasive species-especially pathogens-are an increasingly significant factor contributing to biodiversity loss. We hypothesized that Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the causative agent of the deadly amphibian disease chytridiomycosis, was important in the rapid (herpetological experts, analysis of archived field notes and museum specimen collections, and field sampling of the extant amphibian assemblage to examine (1) historical relative abundance of R. boylii ; (2) potential causes of R. boylii declines; and (3) historical and contemporary prevalence of Bd. We found that R. boylii were relatively abundant prior to their rapid extirpation, and an increase in Bd prevalence coincided with R. boylii declines during a time of rapid change in the region, wherein backcountry recreation, urban development, and the amphibian pet trade were all on the rise. In addition, extreme flooding during the winter of 1969 coincided with localized extirpations in R. boylii populations observed by interview respondents. We conclude that Bd likely played an important role in the rapid extirpation of R. boylii from southern California and that multiple natural and anthropogenic factors may have worked in concert to make this possible in a relatively short period of time. This study emphasizes the importance of recognizing historical ecological contexts in making future management and reintroduction decisions.

  16. Condiciones para la transmision del hantavirus en zona andina de Río negro, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Talmon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH es una enfermedad de etiología viral que causa en el hombre un cuadro respiratorio grave. En Patagonia, la enfermedad es causada por el virus Andes Sur (AND, transmitido por el roedor Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar las actividades del hombre que favorecen su exposición a roedores, denominados escenarios de contagio. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo a partir de información recolectada en investigaciones de casos ocurridos en Río Negro, mediante Fichas Clínico-Epidemiológicas e informes de evaluación ecológico/ambiental. Se definieron como variables a ser consideradas: edad, sexo, época del año, grado de urbanización, localización geográfica, integración del hombre al hábitat de roedores, fuente probable de exposición, actividad humana y nivel de saneamiento. Se estudiaron 32 casos. La exposición rural se verificó en 18 (56.2% de los casos y 10 (31.3% en paraje rural (grupo de viviendas en zona rural. En relación al ambiente antropogénico 24 (75% resultaron en ambientes modificados por el hombre y 8 (25% en áreas poco modificadas. El sitio de exposición de mayor importancia en El Bolsón fue el interior de edificaciones en 8 de los 18 casos allí registrados (44.5%, mientras que en Bariloche fueron ambientes de exterior con 8/14 (57.1% casos. La actividad de riesgo fue laboral en 23 (71.9% de los casos y recreacional en 7 (28.1%. Determinar los escenarios de contagio a nivel local ha aportado información para aplicar todos los recursos disponibles en materia de prevención y educación sanitaria.

  17. Evidence of increasing sedentarism in Mexico City during the last decade: Sitting time prevalence, trends, and associations with obesity and diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Medina

    Full Text Available Sedentary behaviors such as sitting time are associated with obesity and diabetes independently of total reported physical activity. This study aimed to describe the current sitting time/day prevalence and trends and to examine the association of sitting time with sociodemographic and clinical variables in Mexico City.Two cross-sectional representative surveys in Mexico City were used for this analysis (2006: n = 1148 and 2015: n = 1329. Sedentary behavior questions from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire included time spent sitting on a weekday in the last week or on a Wednesday. Sitting time /day was divided into deciles, and participants in the highest decile (≥ 420 minutes/day were classified within the high sitting category; others were classified in the low sitting time category. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of sitting time with sociodemographic and clinical indicators, controlling for confounders and testing for potential interactions.A total of 13.7% (2006 and 14.8% (2015 adults were classified in the highest sitting time category (≥ 420 minutes/day. There was a significant increase in the average sitting time/day between the surveys (216.0 minutes in 2006 vs. 233.3 minutes in 2015, p < 0.001. In 2015, men, those aged 20-49 years, those in low-intensity jobs, students, and those with a high socioeconomic level were more likely to be in the highest sitting time category. Participants with overweight/obesity (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.11, 5.09 and those with high glucose levels (survey finding (OR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.04, 5.25 were more likely to report sitting time in the highest category.Sitting time/day prevalence increased 8%, and average daily sitting minutes significantly increased by 8.2% (18 minutes in the nine-year study period (2006-2015. Current public health policies should consider strategies not only for increasing physical activity levels, but also for reducing sitting

  18. Expansión geográfica del síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus en la Argentina: Informe del caso más austral Geographic expansion of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina: The southernest case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bellomo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1995 se han informado más de 1000 casos de síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH en la Argentina, enfermedad grave y muchas veces fatal para los humanos. La mayoría de los casos fueron asociados al virus Andes (AND único hantavirus que ha sido informado como causante de transmisión persona a persona. Se han descrito varios linajes patogénicos del virus AND, de los cuales AND Sur, cuyo reservorio es el roedor Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, afecta a la región patagónica de Argentina y Chile. En el presente estudio se informan las manifestaciones clínicas y las características epidemiológicas de un caso de SPH. El objetivo fue describir la presentación clínica del caso, su entorno epidemiológico, el sitio probable de contagio, la variante viral implicada y su relación con los casos más cercanos notificados. Se realizó el seguimiento clínico, el diagnóstico serológico y molecular y la investigación epidemiológica, incluyendo un estudio de la población de roedores reservorios en las áreas involucradas. Se trató de una presentación clásica de SPH moderada, causada por el linaje viral AND sur y su secuencia nucleotídica se comparó con casos del sur argentino y chileno. El caso de hantavirus investigado resultó ser el más austral (48° 46´ 1.2´´ S; 70° 15´ 0´´ O notificado hasta el momento e involucró a una nueva provincia argentina.Since 1995 more than 1000 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS were reported in Argentina, a severe disease and often fatal to humans. Most cases were associated with Andes virus (AND that caused few events of person-to-person transmission. Several lineages of pathogenic AND viruses have been described, including AND South, hosted by the rodent Oligoryzomys longicaudatus which affects the Patagonian region of Argentina and Chile. We studied the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a HPS case. The objective was to describe the clinical presentation of the case, its

  19. Detection of Increased Plasma Interleukin-6 Levels and Prevalence of Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus in the Feces of Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Zazeri Leite

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal dysbiosis and metabolic endotoxemia have been associated with metabolic disorders, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the intestinal dysbiosis in Brazilian T2D patients and correlate these data with inflammatory cytokines and lipopolysaccharides (LPS plasma concentrations. This study was approved by the Ethics Committees from Barretos Cancer Hospital and all individuals signed the informed consent form. Stool samples were required for DNA extraction, and the V3/V4 regions of bacterial 16S were sequenced using an Illumina platform. Peripheral blood was used to quantify inflammatory cytokines and plasma LPS concentrations, by CBA flex and ELISA, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using Mann–Whitney and Spearman’s tests. Analysis of variance, diversity indexes, and analysis of alpha- and beta-diversity were conducted using an annotated Operational Taxonomic Unit table. This study included 20 patients and 22 controls. We observed significant differences (P < 0.01 in the microbiota composition (beta-diversity between patients and controls, suggesting intestinal dysbiosis in Brazilian T2D patients. The prevalent species found in patients’ feces were the Gram-negatives Prevotella copri, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides rodentium, and Bacteroides xylanisolvens. The proinflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6 was significantly increased (P < 0.05 in patients’ plasma and LPS levels were decreased. We find correlations between the proinflammatory interferon-gamma with Gram-negatives Bacteroides and Prevotella species, and a positive correlation between the LPS levels and P. copri reads. The P. copri and B. vulgatus species were associated with insulin resistance in previous studies. In this study, we suggested that the prevalence of Gram-negative species in the gut and the increased plasma IL-6 in patients could be linked to low

  20. Spatial and temporal patterning of bank vole demography and the epidemiology of the Puumala hantavirus in northeastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augot, D; Sauvage, F; Boue, F; Bouloy, M; Artois, M; Demerson, J M; Combes, B; Coudrier, D; Zeller, H; Cliquet, F; Pontier, D

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiological data from bank voles, Myodes glareolus, naturally infected by the hantavirus Puumala (PUUV) were collected by a capture-mark-recapture protocol from 2000 to 2002 in the French department of Ardennes. Four monitored trapping sites were established in two forests located in two cantons (Flize and Monthermé). We captured 912 bank voles corresponding to 557 different individuals during 8820 trapping nights for an overall trapping success of 10.34%. The average PUUV seroprevalence was 22.4%. Characteristics of the system reported in North European countries are confirmed in France. PUUV seroprevalence and abundance of rodents appeared weakly linked. Adult voles were more frequently antibody-positive, but no difference between sexes was established. Anti-PUUV seropositive voles were captured and high seroprevalence was observed from both forests, without human infection reported in Flize canton during the study. One site among the four exhibited peculiar infection dynamics, where vole weight and infection risk were negatively correlated.

  1. Mild riboflavin deficiency is highly prevalent in school-age children but does not increase risk for anaemia in Cote d'Ivoire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohner, F.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Wegmueller, R.; Tschannen, A.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    There are few data on the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa, and it remains unclear whether riboflavin status influences the risk for anaemia. The aims of this study were to: (1) measure the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in children in south-central Côte d'Ivoire; (2)

  2. Rapid Increase in Prevalence of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and Emergence of Colistin Resistance Gene mcr-1 in CRE in a Hospital in Henan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Sun, Qiao-Ling; Shen, Yingbo; Zhang, Yangjunna; Yang, Jun-Wen; Shu, Ling-Bin; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yang; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Shaolin; Shen, Zhangqi

    2018-04-01

    The global spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is one of the most severe threats to human health in a clinical setting. The recent emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 among CRE strains greatly compromises the use of colistin as a last resort for the treatment of infections caused by CRE. This study aimed to understand the current epidemiological trends and characteristics of CRE from a large hospital in Henan, the most populous province in China. From 2014 to 2016, a total of 7,249 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected from clinical samples, among which 18.1% (1,311/7,249) were carbapenem resistant. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli were the two most common CRE species, with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases (NDM), respectively, responsible for the carbapenem resistance of the two species. Notably, >57.0% ( n = 589) of the K. pneumoniae isolates from the intensive care unit were carbapenem resistant. Furthermore, bla NDM-5 and mcr-1 were found to coexist in one E. coli isolate, which exhibited resistance to almost all tested antibiotics. Overall, we observed a significant increase in the prevalence of CRE isolates during the study period and suggest that carbapenems may no longer be considered to be an effective treatment for infections caused by K. pneumoniae in the studied hospital. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. The triplet repeats of the Sin Nombre hantavirus 5' untranslated region are sufficient in cis for nucleocapsid-mediated translation initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Mohammad A; Panganiban, Antonito T

    2010-09-01

    Hantavirus nucleocapsid protein (N) can replace the cellular cap-binding complex, eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F), to mediate translation initiation. Although N can augment translation initiation of nonviral mRNA, initiation of viral mRNA by N is superior. All members of the Bunyaviridae family, including the species of the hantavirus genus, express either three or four primary mRNAs from their tripartite negative-sense genomes. The 5' ends of the mRNAs contain nonviral heterologous oligonucleotides that originate from endonucleolytic cleavage of cellular mRNA during the process of cap snatching. In the hantaviruses these caps terminate with a 3' G residue followed by nucleotides arising from the viral template. Further, the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of viral mRNA uniformly contains, near the 5' end, either two or three copies of the triplet repeat sequence, UAGUAG or UAGUAGUAG. Through analysis of a panel of mutants with mutations in the viral UTR, we found that the sequence GUAGUAG is sufficient for preferential N-mediated translation initiation and for high-affinity binding of N to the UTR. This heptanucleotide sequence is present in viral mRNA containing either two or three copies of the triplet repeat.

  4. X Chromosome Dose and Sex Bias in Autoimmune Diseases: Increased Prevalence of 47,XXX in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Sjögren's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Kurien, Biji T; Zimmerman, Sarah L; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Taft, Diana H; Kottyan, Leah C; Lazaro, Sara; Weaver, Carrie A; Ice, John A; Adler, Adam J; Chodosh, James; Radfar, Lida; Rasmussen, Astrid; Stone, Donald U; Lewis, David M; Li, Shibo; Koelsch, Kristi A; Igoe, Ann; Talsania, Mitali; Kumar, Jay; Maier-Moore, Jacen S; Harris, Valerie M; Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram; Jonsson, Roland; Lessard, James A; Lu, Xianglan; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Cunninghame-Graham, Deborah S; Huang, Andrew J W; Brennan, Michael T; Hughes, Pamela; Illei, Gabor G; Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Keystone, Edward C; Bykerk, Vivian P; Hirschfield, Gideon; Xie, Gang; Ng, Wan-Fai; Nordmark, Gunnel; Eriksson, Per; Omdal, Roald; Rhodus, Nelson L; Rischmueller, Maureen; Rohrer, Michael; Segal, Barbara M; Vyse, Timothy J; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie; Witte, Torsten; Pons-Estel, Bernardo; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E; Guthridge, Joel M; James, Judith A; Lessard, Christopher J; Kelly, Jennifer A; Thompson, Susan D; Gaffney, Patrick M; Montgomery, Courtney G; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Kimberly, Robert P; Alarcón, Graciela S; Langefeld, Carl L; Gilkeson, Gary S; Kamen, Diane L; Tsao, Betty P; McCune, W Joseph; Salmon, Jane E; Merrill, Joan T; Weisman, Michael H; Wallace, Daniel J; Utset, Tammy O; Bottinger, Erwin P; Amos, Christopher I; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Mariette, Xavier; Sivils, Kathy L; Harley, John B; Scofield, R Hal

    2016-05-01

    More than 80% of autoimmune disease predominantly affects females, but the mechanism for this female bias is poorly understood. We suspected that an X chromosome dose effect accounts for this, and we undertook this study to test our hypothesis that trisomy X (47,XXX; occurring in ∼1 in 1,000 live female births) would be increased in patients with female-predominant diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE], primary Sjögren's syndrome [SS], primary biliary cirrhosis, and rheumatoid arthritis [RA]) compared to patients with diseases without female predominance (sarcoidosis) and compared to controls. All subjects in this study were female. We identified subjects with 47,XXX using aggregate data from single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays, and, when possible, we confirmed the presence of 47,XXX using fluorescence in situ hybridization or quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found 47,XXX in 7 of 2,826 SLE patients and in 3 of 1,033 SS patients, but in only 2 of 7,074 controls (odds ratio in the SLE and primary SS groups 8.78 [95% confidence interval 1.67-86.79], P = 0.003 and odds ratio 10.29 [95% confidence interval 1.18-123.47], P = 0.02, respectively). One in 404 women with SLE and 1 in 344 women with SS had 47,XXX. There was an excess of 47,XXX among SLE and SS patients. The estimated prevalence of SLE and SS in women with 47,XXX was ∼2.5 and ∼2.9 times higher, respectively, than that in women with 46,XX and ∼25 and ∼41 times higher, respectively, than that in men with 46,XY. No statistically significant increase of 47,XXX was observed in other female-biased diseases (primary biliary cirrhosis or RA), supporting the idea of multiple pathways to sex bias in autoimmunity. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Increased Prevalence of Human Polyomavirus JC Viruria in Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases Patients in Treatment with Anti-TNF α: A 18 Month Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodio, Donatella Maria; Anzivino, Elena; Mischitelli, Monica; Bellizzi, Anna; Scrivo, Rossana; Scribano, Daniela; Conte, Gianlorenzo; Prezioso, Carla; Trancassini, Maria; Valesini, Guido; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Pietropaolo, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRDs) are immune-mediated pathologies involving joints. To date, TNFα-blocking agents administration is the most promising therapy, although these treatments are associated with an increased Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) reactivation, the etiological agent of the Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). The aim of this study was the recruitment and the analysis of a CIRDs cohort in order to investigate a possible correlation between JCPyV presence and the influence of anti-TNF-α agents on viral loads. Blood and urine samples were collected from 34 CIRDs subjects prior the first anti-TNF-α infusion (T0) and after 3 (T3), 6 (T6), 12 (T12), and 18 (T18) months. Results showed persistent JC viruria significantly higher than JC viremia throughout the 18 month follow-up study (p = 0.002). In JCPyV positive samples, the non-coding control region (NCCR) was analyzed. Results evidenced archetypal structures (type II-S) in all isolates with the exception of a sequence isolated from a plasma sample, that corresponds to the type II-R found in PML subjects. Finally, the viral protein 1 (VP1) genotyping was performed and results showed the prevalence of the European genotypes 1A, 1B, and 4. Since only few studies have been carried out to understand whether there is a PML risk in CIRDs population infected by JCPyV, this study contributes to enrich literature insight on JCPyV biology in this cluster. Further investigations are necessary in order to recognize the real impact of biologics on JCPyV life cycle and to identify possible and specific viral variants related to increased virulence in CIRDs patients.

  6. The Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in Out-of-Home Care: Increased Risk for Children with a Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Tharner, Anne; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children without disabilities in out-of-home care have a higher risk of child sexual abuse [CSA (Euser et al. 2013)]. In this study, we examined the year prevalence of CSA in out-of-home care for children with a mild intellectual disability, and compared it with the prevalence in out-of-home care for non-disabled children and children…

  7. High prevalence of malaria in Zambezia, Mozambique: the protective effect of IRS versus increased risks due to pig-keeping and house construction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A Temu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: African countries are scaling up malaria interventions, especially insecticide treated nets (ITN and indoor residual spraying (IRS, for which ambitious coverage targets have been set. In spite of these efforts infection prevalence remains high in many parts of the continent. This study investigated risk factors for malaria infection in children using three malaria indicator surveys from Zambezia province, Mozambique. The impact of IRS and ITNs, the effects of keeping farm animals and of the construction material of roofs of houses and other potential risk factors associated with malaria infection in children were assessed. METHODS: Cross-sectional community-based surveys were conducted in October of 2006, 2007 and 2008. A total of 8338 children (ages 1-15 years from 2748 households were included in the study. All children were screened for malaria by rapid diagnostic tests. Caregiver interviews were used to assess household demographic and wealth characteristics and ITN and IRS coverage. Associations between malaria infection, vector control interventions and potential risk factors were assessed. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of malaria infection was 47.8% (95%CI: 38.7%-57.1% in children 1-15 years of age, less than a quarter of children (23.1%, 95%CI: 19.1%-27.6% were sleeping under ITN and almost two thirds were living in IRS treated houses (coverage 65.4%, 95%CI: 51.5%-77.0%. Protective factors that were independently associated with malaria infection were: sleeping in an IRS house without sleeping under ITN (Odds Ratio (OR= 0.6; 95%CI: 0.4-0.9; additional protection due to sleeping under ITN in an IRS treated house (OR = 0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.7 versus sleeping in an unsprayed house without a ITN; and parental education (primary/secondary: OR = 0.6; 95%CI: 0.5-0.7 versus parents with no education. Increased risk of infection was associated with: current fever (OR = 1.2; 95%CI: 1.0-1.5 versus no fever; pig keeping (OR

  8. Seroprevalencia de Hantavirus, Rickettsia y Chikungunya en población indígena del municipio de Tuchín, Córdoba

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    Samia Barrera

    Full Text Available Introducción: La vigilancia de las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores es importante para establecer medidas de control en salud pública. Las poblaciones indígenas de Córdoba viven en condiciones geoclimáticas que favorecen la presencia de vectores que podrían permitir la diseminación y aparición de hantavirosis, rickettsiosis y fiebre por el virus Chikungunya. Objetivo: Establecer la seroprevalencia de Hantavirus, Rickettsia sp. y Chikungunya en la población indígena de Tuchín, Córdoba. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 190 individuos del resguardo indígena del municipio de Tuchín; el muestreo fue realizado entre agosto y diciembre del 2012. La detección de anticuerpos IgG contra Hantavirus se llevó a cabo con la prueba IgG DxSelectTM (Focus Technologies, EL1600G, California, EE. UU., anticuerpos IgG contra Rickettsia sp. se determinaron por inmunofluorescencia indirecta y se realizó detección de anticuerpos IgG contra el virus Chikungunya mediante ELISA de captura (Nova-Tec, inmunodiagnostica GmbH, CHIG0590, Alemania. Resultados: De 190 sueros analizados, el 5,2% (10/190 fueron positivos para Rickettsia sp. del grupo de la fiebre manchada, para Hantavirus 7 de 87 (8% fueron positivos y no se encontraron positivos para Chikungunya. No se encontraron diferencias significativas (p = 0,05 entre los seropositivos de Hantavirus y Rickettsia sp. para las variables género, edad y ocupación. Conclusiones: Los hallazgos demuestran exposición previa a Rickettsia sp. y a Hantavirus en la población indígena de Tuchín. Los resultados pueden ser útiles para establecer una alerta sobre estas fiebres hemorrágicas. Aunque no se hallaron seropositivos para Chikungunya, este fue el primer trabajo de vigilancia epidemiológica realizado en Colombia sobre este virus.

  9. Problem drinking is associated with increased prevalence of sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiss, Robert G; Clark, Jesse L; Konda, Kelika A; Leon, Segundo R; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Caceres, Carlos F; Coates, Thomas J

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol use is an important but understudied HIV risk factor among men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly in Latin America. We studied the relationship between problem drinking and sexual risk among MSM in Lima, Peru. We recruited 718 participants from 24 neighborhoods for a study on sexually transmitted infections and community-building among MSM. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with problem drinking, which was defined via the CAGE Questionnaire. Of 718 participants, 58% met criteria for problem drinking. In univariate analysis, problem drinkers were significantly more likely to report failing to always use condoms, use alcohol or drugs prior to their most recent sexual encounter, report a history of sexual coercion and to engage in transactional sex. Problem drinkers also reported significantly higher numbers of recent and lifetime sexual partners. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with problem drinking included a history of sexual coercion [OR 1.8 95%, CI 1.2-2.6], having consumed alcohol prior to the most recent sexual encounter [OR 2.1 95%, CI 1.5-2.9], receiving compensation for sex in the last six months [OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2] or having reported a prior HIV+ test [OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-0.9]. We found a high prevalence of problem drinking among MSM in Lima, Peru, which was associated with increased sexual risk in our study. Of note, individuals who were already HIV-infected were less likely to be problem drinkers. Further studies and targeted interventions to reduce problem drinking among MSM are warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High circulating folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations in women during pregnancy are associated with increased prevalence of atopic dermatitis in their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A; de Jongste, Johan C; Moll, Henriette A

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that in utero exposure of methyl donors influences programming of the fetal immune system in favor of development of allergic disease. The aim of this study was to assess whether the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, folic acid supplementation, and circulating folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy were associated with wheezing, shortness of breath, and atopic dermatitis in offspring. The study was a population-based birth cohort from fetal life until 48 mo (n = 8742). The use of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy was assessed by questionnaire. Plasma folate and serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism were available from blood collected in early pregnancy. Atopic dermatitis, wheezing, and shortness of breath in the offspring were assessed by parental-derived questionnaires at 12, 24, 36, and 48 mo. Maternal folate >16.2 nmol/L and vitamin B-12 >178 pmol/L were positively associated with the development of atopic dermatitis [adjusted OR: 1.18 (95% CI: 1.05-1.33) and adjusted OR: 1.30 (95% CI: 1.06-1.60) for the highest quartiles of folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations, respectively] but not with wheezing and shortness of breath. Maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism and folic acid supplementation were not associated with wheezing, shortness of breath, and atopic dermatitis. No interactions were found by age, family history of atopy, folic acid supplementation, MTHFR C677T polymorphism, or maternal smoking (P-interaction > 0.10). High folate and vitamin B-12 levels during pregnancy are associated with increased prevalence of atopic dermatitis in the offspring. Potential risks of high folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations on allergic outcomes should be evaluated when discussing mandatory fortification programs.

  11. Avian malaria in a boreal resident species: long-term temporal variability, and increased prevalence in birds with avian keratin disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura C.; Handel, Colleen M.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Loiseau, Claire; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of vector-borne parasitic diseases is widely influenced by biological and ecological factors. Environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation can have a marked effect on haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium spp.) that cause malaria and those that cause other malaria-like diseases in birds. However, there have been few long-term studies monitoring haemosporidian infections in birds in northern latitudes, where weather conditions can be highly variable and the effects of climate change are becoming more pronounced. We used molecular methods to screen more than 2,000 blood samples collected from black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), a resident passerine bird. Samples were collected over a 10 year period, mostly during the non-breeding season, at seven sites in Alaska, USA. We tested for associations between Plasmodium prevalence and local environmental conditions including temperature, precipitation, site, year and season. We also evaluated the relationship between parasite prevalence and individual host factors of age, sex and presence or absence of avian keratin disorder. This disease, which causes accelerated keratin growth in the beak, provided a natural study system in which to test the interaction between disease state and malaria prevalence. Prevalence of Plasmodium infection varied by year, site, age and individual disease status but there was no support for an effect of sex or seasonal period. Significantly, birds with avian keratin disorder were 2.6 times more likely to be infected by Plasmodium than birds without the disorder. Interannual variation in the prevalence of Plasmodium infection at different sites was positively correlated with summer temperatures at the local but not statewide scale. Sequence analysis of the parasite cytochrome b gene revealed a single Plasmodiumspp. lineage, P43. Our results demonstrate associations between prevalence of avian malaria and a variety of biological and

  12. Increasing HIV and decreasing syphilis prevalence in a context of persistently high unprotected anal intercourse, six consecutive annual surveys among men who have sex with men in Guangzhou, China, 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Fei; Liang, Boheng; Xu, Huifang; Cheng, Weibin; Fan, Lirui; Han, Zhigang; Liang, Caiyun; Gao, Kai; Mai, Huixia; Qin, Faju; Zhao, Jinkou; Ling, Li

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported a possibly increasing HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. However there have been limited systematic analyses of existing surveillance data to learn the trend of HIV prevalence and factors driving the trend. The aims of this study were to examine the trend of HIV prevalence among MSM in Guangzhou and to explore the role of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the trend. Snow-ball sampling was applied in the subject recruitment for the annual serological and behavioral surveys among MSM from 2008 to 2013. Data collected in the behavioral survey include demographic information, HIV related sexual behavior with men and women, access to HIV prevention services, and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. Chi-square test was used to analyze the trend of HIV prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to test the factors associated with HIV infection. HIV prevalence increased significantly from 5.0% in 2008 to 11.4% in 2013 while syphilis prevalence decreased from 17.4% to 3.3% in the same period. UAI rates were high and stable in every single year, ranging from 54.5% to 62.0%. Those who were having UAI (OR = 1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26-2.58), being migrants, having more than 10 partners, and infected with syphilis had higher risk for HIV infection. HIV epidemic is expanding in Guangzhou. The persistently high UAI may have played a major role in the increasing trend of HIV prevalence. Targeted prevention program should be conducted among MSM who are migrants, low educational level, syphilis infected, or having multiple partners to encourage HIV test and change UAI behavior. The general high UAI calls for tailored intervention program to promote healthy culture and form a safe sex social norm in the MSM community.

  13. Increase in prevalence of overweight in dutch children and adolescents: A comparison of nationwide growth studies in 1980, 1997 and 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönbeck, Y.; Talma, H.; Dommelen, P. van; Bakker, B.; Buitendijk, S.E.; HiraSing, R.A.; Buuren, S. van

    2011-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Dutch children and adolescents, to examine the 30-years trend, and to create new body mass index reference charts. Design: Nationwide cross-sectional data collection by trained health care professionals. Participants: 10,129 children of Dutch

  14. The main autoimmune and nonautoimmune etiologies of endogenous hyperthyroidism do not seem to influence the increased prevalence of morphometric vertebral fractures and osteoporosis in Portuguese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Barbosa

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that in a group of hyperthyroid men aged over 50 there are significant decreases in cortical bone BMD and lean mass and a higher prevalence of osteoporosis and silent vertebral fractures, but the etiology of the hyperthyroidism does not seem to influence it. Besides the antithyroid drugs, some patients may benefit from bone-directed treatments.

  15. DNA vaccine-generated duck polyclonal antibodies as a postexposure prophylactic to prevent hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Brocato

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV is the predominant cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS in South America and the only hantavirus known to be transmitted person-to-person. There are no vaccines, prophylactics, or therapeutics to prevent or treat this highly pathogenic disease (case-fatality 35-40%. Infection of Syrian hamsters with ANDV results in a disease that closely mimics human HPS in incubation time, symptoms of respiratory distress, and disease pathology. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of two postexposure prophylaxis strategies in the ANDV/hamster lethal disease model. First, we evaluated a natural product, human polyclonal antibody, obtained as fresh frozen plasma (FFP from a HPS survivor. Second, we used DNA vaccine technology to manufacture a polyclonal immunoglobulin-based product that could be purified from the eggs of vaccinated ducks (Anas platyrhynchos. The natural "despeciation" of the duck IgY (i.e., Fc removed results in an immunoglobulin predicted to be minimally reactogenic in humans. Administration of ≥ 5,000 neutralizing antibody units (NAU/kg of FFP-protected hamsters from lethal disease when given up to 8 days after intranasal ANDV challenge. IgY/IgYΔFc antibodies purified from the eggs of DNA-vaccinated ducks effectively neutralized ANDV in vitro as measured by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT. Administration of 12,000 NAU/kg of duck egg-derived IgY/IgYΔFc protected hamsters when administered up to 8 days after intranasal challenge and 5 days after intramuscular challenge. These experiments demonstrate that convalescent FFP shows promise as a postexposure HPS prophylactic. Moreover, these data demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA vaccine technology coupled with the duck/egg system to manufacture a product that could supplement or replace FFP. The DNA vaccine-duck/egg system can be scaled as needed and obviates the necessity of using limited blood products obtained from a small number of HPS survivors. This

  16. Has the prevalence of congenital abnormalities after intracytoplasmic sperm injection increased? The Leuven data 1994-2000 and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindryckx, An; Peeraer, Karen; Debrock, Sophie; Legius, Eric; de Zegher, Francis; Francois, Inge; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Demyttenaere, Koen; Rijkers, Anna; D'Hooghe, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Although intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is now accepted as the treatment of choice for severe male infertility, concerns about its safety and the potential risks for the offspring remain. We reviewed the literature with respect to the prevalence of major congenital malformations after the ICSI technique and supplemented these data with the results of a prospective follow-up study performed in our center. From January 1994 till June 2000, 776 ICSI cycles were carried out at the Leuven University Fertility Center. The resulting pregnancies (n = 172) were followed for biochemical and obstetrical parameters, prenatal diagnosis and congenital abnormalities. A total of 134/172 (78%) ongoing pregnancies resulted in 132 deliveries of 166 live born children. Two terminations of pregnancy were carried out due to the presence of major congenital anomalies, diagnosed at prenatal ultrasound. Prenatal diagnosis was carried out in 55 fetuses. Two de novo chromosomal aberrations were found. Major congenital abnormalities were observed at birth in 9/150 (6.0%) children. The total malformation rate was 6.5%. The prevalence of congenital abnormalities in children born after ICSI in our center (6.5%) was comparable to the prevalence of congenital abnormalities after ICSI reported in the literature. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Prone Position Ventilation Used during a Transfer as a Bridge to Ecmo Therapy in Hantavirus-Induced Severe Cardiopulmonary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cornejo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transport of critically ill patients is a complex issue. We present a case using prone positioning as a bridge to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, performed by a critical retrieval team from a university hospital. Case Report. A 28-year-old male developed fever, progressive respiratory failure, and shock. He was admitted to ICU from a public hospital, and mechanical ventilation was begun, but clinical response was not adequate. ECMO was deemed necessary due to severe respiratory failure and severe shock. A critical retrieval team of our center was assembled to attempt transfer. Prone positioning was employed to stabilize and transfer the patient, after risk-benefit assessment. Once in our hospital, ECMO was useful to resolve shock and pulmonary edema secondary to Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Finally, he was discharged with normal functioning. Conclusion. This case exemplifies the relevance of a retrieval team and bridge therapy. Prone positioning improves oxygenation and is safe to perform as transport if performed by a trained team as in this case. Preparation and organization is necessary to improve outcomes, using teams and organized networks. Catastrophic respiratory failure and shock should not be contraindications to transferring patients, but it must be done with an experienced team.

  18. Cerebral palsy in eastern Denmark: declining birth prevalence but increasing numbers of unilateral cerebral palsy in birth year period 1986-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne Holst; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Uldall, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Cerebral Palsy Registry in eastern Denmark has been collecting cases using a uniform data sampling procedure since birth year 1979. Children are included by two child neurologists and an obstetrician. Information on pregnancy, birth, neonatal period, impairments and demographic data...... are registered. The total cerebral palsy birth prevalence has been significantly decreasing since the birth period 1983-1986 with 3.0 per 1000 live births until the period 1995-1998 with 2.1 per 1000 live births. The overall decrease was seen in preterm infants (...

  19. Increased genetic diversity and prevalence of co-infection with Trypanosoma spp. in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus and their ticks identified using next-generation sequencing (NGS.

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    Amanda D Barbosa

    Full Text Available Infections with Trypanosoma spp. have been associated with poor health and decreased survival of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus, particularly in the presence of concurrent pathogens such as Chlamydia and koala retrovirus. The present study describes the application of a next-generation sequencing (NGS-based assay to characterise the prevalence and genetic diversity of trypanosome communities in koalas and two native species of ticks (Ixodes holocyclus and I. tasmani removed from koala hosts. Among 168 koalas tested, 32.2% (95% CI: 25.2-39.8% were positive for at least one Trypanosoma sp. Previously described Trypanosoma spp. from koalas were identified, including T. irwini (32.1%, 95% CI: 25.2-39.8%, T. gilletti (25%, 95% CI: 18.7-32.3%, T. copemani (27.4%, 95% CI: 20.8-34.8% and T. vegrandis (10.1%, 95% CI: 6.0-15.7%. Trypanosoma noyesi was detected for the first time in koalas, although at a low prevalence (0.6% 95% CI: 0-3.3%, and a novel species (Trypanosoma sp. AB-2017 was identified at a prevalence of 4.8% (95% CI: 2.1-9.2%. Mixed infections with up to five species were present in 27.4% (95% CI: 21-35% of the koalas, which was significantly higher than the prevalence of single infections 4.8% (95% CI: 2-9%. Overall, a considerably higher proportion (79.7% of the Trypanosoma sequences isolated from koala blood samples were identified as T. irwini, suggesting this is the dominant species. Co-infections involving T. gilletti, T. irwini, T. copemani, T. vegrandis and Trypanosoma sp. AB-2017 were also detected in ticks, with T. gilletti and T. copemani being the dominant species within the invertebrate hosts. Direct Sanger sequencing of Trypanosoma 18S rRNA gene amplicons was also performed and results revealed that this method was only able to identify the genotypes with greater amount of reads (according to NGS within koala samples, which highlights the advantages of NGS in detecting mixed infections. The present study provides new insights

  20. Increased genetic diversity and prevalence of co-infection with Trypanosoma spp. in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) and their ticks identified using next-generation sequencing (NGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Amanda D; Gofton, Alexander W; Paparini, Andrea; Codello, Annachiara; Greay, Telleasha; Gillett, Amber; Warren, Kristin; Irwin, Peter; Ryan, Una

    2017-01-01

    Infections with Trypanosoma spp. have been associated with poor health and decreased survival of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), particularly in the presence of concurrent pathogens such as Chlamydia and koala retrovirus. The present study describes the application of a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based assay to characterise the prevalence and genetic diversity of trypanosome communities in koalas and two native species of ticks (Ixodes holocyclus and I. tasmani) removed from koala hosts. Among 168 koalas tested, 32.2% (95% CI: 25.2-39.8%) were positive for at least one Trypanosoma sp. Previously described Trypanosoma spp. from koalas were identified, including T. irwini (32.1%, 95% CI: 25.2-39.8%), T. gilletti (25%, 95% CI: 18.7-32.3%), T. copemani (27.4%, 95% CI: 20.8-34.8%) and T. vegrandis (10.1%, 95% CI: 6.0-15.7%). Trypanosoma noyesi was detected for the first time in koalas, although at a low prevalence (0.6% 95% CI: 0-3.3%), and a novel species (Trypanosoma sp. AB-2017) was identified at a prevalence of 4.8% (95% CI: 2.1-9.2%). Mixed infections with up to five species were present in 27.4% (95% CI: 21-35%) of the koalas, which was significantly higher than the prevalence of single infections 4.8% (95% CI: 2-9%). Overall, a considerably higher proportion (79.7%) of the Trypanosoma sequences isolated from koala blood samples were identified as T. irwini, suggesting this is the dominant species. Co-infections involving T. gilletti, T. irwini, T. copemani, T. vegrandis and Trypanosoma sp. AB-2017 were also detected in ticks, with T. gilletti and T. copemani being the dominant species within the invertebrate hosts. Direct Sanger sequencing of Trypanosoma 18S rRNA gene amplicons was also performed and results revealed that this method was only able to identify the genotypes with greater amount of reads (according to NGS) within koala samples, which highlights the advantages of NGS in detecting mixed infections. The present study provides new insights on the

  1. Knowledge and practices about hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a cluster of Japanese communities in Argentina Conocimientos y prácticas relacionados con el síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus en un conglomerado de comunidades japonesas en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniaki Suzuki

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To provide information on hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS knowledge and practices among a cluster of the rural Japanese communities near La Plata in central Ar gentina, an area with confirmed HPS cases. Particular emphasis was placed on testing the hy pothesis that there would be differences between household use of HPS prevention measures based on the head-of-household's knowledge of HPS. METHODS: A questionnaire was designed in three sections: (1 household demographic char acteristics, (2 HPS knowledge, and (3 HPS preventive measures. Questionnaires were given to the household head or other adult representing the household at an HPS prevention semi nar sponsored by the Japanese Association of La Plata in February 2007. Total HPS knowl edge scores were dichotomized into high (equal to or more than the median knowledge score and low (less than the median. Differences between the two household groups were catego rized, according to the degree of HPS knowledge, and analyzed. RESULTS: The 86 households that responded accounted for about 72% of the total study households in the area. The median knowledge score of 5 (range: 0-9, of 10 divided the study households into two groups: high knowledge score group (n = 40 and low knowledge score group (n = 46. The findings suggest an association between a household's accurate HPS knowledge and its respective use of HPS preventive measures. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study have important implications for taking further steps toward improved HPS management and prevention strategies.OBJETIVOS: Documentar los conocimientos y las prácticas relacionadas con el síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH en un conglomerado de comunidades rurales japonesas cerca de La Plata, en la parte central de Argentina, una zona con casos confirmados de SPH. Se hizo hincapié especial en probar la hipótesis de que habría diferencias en el empleo de medidas preventivas contra el SPH en los hogares según el

  2. Can cognitive dissonance methods developed in the West for combatting the 'thin ideal' help slow the rapidly increasing prevalence of eating disorders in non-Western cultures?

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    Witcomb, Gemma L; Arcelus, Jon; Chen, Jue

    2013-12-01

    Eating disorders are common, life-threatening conditions in Western countries, but until relatively recently they were regarded as uncommon in non-Western cultures. However, the prevalence of eating disorders in many of the more affluent non-Western countries is rising rapidly as community members, particularly young women, internalize the 'thin ideal' that has been widely promoted by the international media. This review discusses the factors involved in the development of eating disorders in non-Western settings with a particular emphasis on the influences of urbanization, modernization, Westernization, and the resulting changes in women's roles. The cognitive dissonance programs developed in Western countries that have proven successful in countering the negative effects of the thin idea are described and their potential application to East Asia and other non-Western countries are discussed.

  3. An amino-terminal segment of hantavirus nucleocapsid protein presented on hepatitis B virus core particles induces a strong and highly cross-reactive antibody response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldmacher, Astrid; Skrastina, Dace; Petrovskis, Ivars; Borisova, Galina; Berriman, John A.; Roseman, Alan M.; Crowther, R. Anthony; Fischer, Jan; Musema, Shamil; Gelderblom, Hans R.; Lundkvist, Aake; Renhofa, Regina; Ose, Velta; Krueger, Detlev H.; Pumpens, Paul; Ulrich, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV) core particles tolerate the insertion of the amino-terminal 120 amino acids (aa) of the Puumala hantavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein. Here, we demonstrate that the insertion of 120 amino-terminal aa of N proteins from highly virulent Dobrava and Hantaan hantaviruses allows the formation of chimeric core particles. These particles expose the inserted foreign protein segments, at least in part, on their surface. Analysis by electron cryomicroscopy of chimeric particles harbouring the Puumala virus (PUUV) N segment revealed 90% T = 3 and 10% T = 4 shells. A map computed from T = 3 shells shows additional density splaying out from the tips of the spikes producing the effect of an extra shell of density at an outer radius compared with wild-type shells. The inserted Puumala virus N protein segment is flexibly linked to the core spikes and only partially icosahedrally ordered. Immunisation of mice of two different haplotypes (BALB/c and C57BL/6) with chimeric core particles induces a high-titered and highly cross-reactive N-specific antibody response in both mice strains

  4. Increase in condom use and decline in prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among high-risk men who have sex with men and transgender persons in Maharashtra, India: Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Shreena; Deshpande, Sucheta; Gautam, Abhishek; Pardeshi, Dilip B; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Mainkar, Mandar M

    2014-08-03

    The present study assessed coverage, changes in condom use, and prevalence of HIV and other STIs among high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM; highly visible, recruited from cruising sites/sex venues) and transgender (TG; male-to-female transgender persons, also called hijras) in the Indian state of Maharashtra. Data from Avahan's computerized management information system; two rounds of integrated behavioral and biological assessment (IBBA) surveys (Round 1 with 653 HR-MSM/TG and Round 2 with 652 HR-MSM/TG); and project-supported condom social marketing was used for the present analysis. Logistic regression models were used to assess changes in key indicators over these two rounds and to explore the association between exposure to Avahan interventions and condom use and STI prevalence in HR-MSM/TG. By December 2007, Avahan had reached about 90% of the estimated HR-MSM/TG population, and 83% of the estimated total population had visited STI clinics by March 2009. Free direct condom distribution by Avahan program NGOs and social marketing outlets in Maharashtra increased from about 2.7 million condoms in 2004 to 15.4 million in 2008. HR-MSM/TG were more likely to report higher consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-3.58) with regular male partners (spouse/lover/boyfriend) in Round 2 of IBBA, compared to Round 1. HR-MSM/TG exposed to Avahan interventions were more likely to report consistent condom use with regular male partners (AOR: 2.46; CI 1.34-4.52) than those who were unexposed. Prevalence of reactive syphilis serology declined significantly from 8.8% in Round 1 to 1.1% in Round 2 (p = 0.001), while the observed change HIV prevalence (12.3% to 6.3%, p = 0.16) was insignificant. The current evaluation provides evidence for successful scale up and coverage of target population by Avahan interventions in Maharashtra. The assessment findings showed improved accessibility to condoms and reduced risk

  5. Presence of celiac disease epitopes in modern and old hexaploid wheat varieties: wheat breeding may have contributed to increased prevalence of celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.; Jong, de H.C.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Dekking, L.; Bosch, H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat can induce celiac disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals. Specific gluten peptides can be presented by antigen presenting cells to gluten-sensitive T-cell lymphocytes leading to CD. During the last decades, a significant increase has been observed in the

  6. Prevalence of stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfert, A R; Rosenfield, D B

    1978-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering in a university population was 2.1%; 3.4% were former stutterers. More men than women stuttered. Right handed female stutterers were less likely to have "lost" their stutter than were right handed males. Stutterers, past stutterers, and questionable stutterers all had a family history of stuttering. The significant prevalence of stuttering, the increased prevalence among males, the lack of a decline of this disorder over the past few decades despite the increased number of speech clinicians and data concerning handedness, emphasise the need to investigate organic causes of stuttering. PMID:731247

  7. Shadows of Beauty - Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Concerns in Germany is Increasing: Data from Two Representative Samples from 2002 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieler, Tanja; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Braehler, Elmar; Schut, Christina; Peters, Eva; Kupfer, Jörg

    2016-08-23

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychosomatic disease associated with reduced quality of life and suicidal ideations. Increasing attention to beauty and the development of beauty industries lead to the hypothesis that BDD is increasing. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis in two representative samples of Germans, assessed in 2002 and 2013. In 2002, n = 2,066 and in 2013, n = 2,508 Germans were asked to fill in the Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ), which assesses dysmorphic concerns. Subclinical and clinical dysmorphic concerns increased from 2002 to 2013 (subclinical from 0.5% to 2.6%, OR = 5.16 (CI95% = 2.64; 10.06); clinical from 0.5% to 1.0%, OR = 2.20 (CI95% = 1.03; 4.73). Women reported more dysmorphic concerns than men, with rates of 0.7% subclinical and 0.8 clinical BDD in women and 0.3% subclinical and 0.1% clinical BDD in men in 2002. In 2013, 2.8% subclinical and 1.2% clinical BDD were found in women and 2.4% subclinical and 0.8% clinical BDD in men. Further studies should assess predictors for developing a BDD and evaluate factors determining the efficacy of disease-specific psychotherapeutic and psychotropic drug treatments.

  8. Infection of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by ANDES Hantavirus enhances pro-inflammatory state, the secretion of active MMP-9 and indirectly enhances endothelial permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Lastra Marcelo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Andes virus (ANDV, a rodent-borne Hantavirus, is the major etiological agent of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in South America, which is mainly characterized by a vascular leakage with high rate of fatal outcomes for infected patients. Currently, neither specific therapy nor vaccines are available against this pathogen. ANDV infects both dendritic and epithelial cells, but in despite that the severity of the disease directly correlates with the viral RNA load, considerable evidence suggests that immune mechanisms rather than direct viral cytopathology are responsible for plasma leakage in HCPS. Here, we assessed the possible effect of soluble factors, induced in viral-activated DCs, on endothelial permeability. Activated immune cells, including DC, secrete gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteases (gMMP-2 and -9 that modulate the vascular permeability for their trafficking. Methods A clinical ANDES isolate was used to infect DC derived from primary PBMC. Maturation and pro-inflammatory phenotypes of ANDES-infected DC were assessed by studying the expression of receptors, cytokines and active gMMP-9, as well as some of their functional status. The ANDES-infected DC supernatants were assessed for their capacity to enhance a monolayer endothelial permeability using primary human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC. Results Here, we show that in vitro primary DCs infected by a clinical isolate of ANDV shed virus RNA and proteins, suggesting a competent viral replication in these cells. Moreover, this infection induces an enhanced expression of soluble pro-inflammatory factors, including TNF-α and the active gMMP-9, as well as a decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-β. These viral activated cells are less sensitive to apoptosis. Moreover, supernatants from ANDV-infected DCs were able to indirectly enhance the permeability of a monolayer of primary HUVEC. Conclusions Primary human DCs

  9. Clinical application of RT-nested PCR integrated with RFLP in Hantavirus detection and genotyping: a prospective study in Shandong Province, PR China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-Xi; Zhao, Zhong-Tang; Cao, Wu-Chun; Xu, Xiao-Qun; Suo, Ji-Jiang; Xing, Yu-Bin; Jia, Ning; Du, Ming-Mei; Liu, Bo-Wei; Yao, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of applying RT-nested PCR along with RFLP as a method for diagnosis and genotypic differentiation of Hantavirus in the acute-stage sera of HFRS patients as compared to the ELISA technique. A prospective study of patients with suspected HFRS patients was carried out. Sera were collected for serological evaluation by ELISA and RT-nested PCR testing. Primers were selected from the published sequence of the S segment of HTNV strain 76-118 and SEOV strain SR-11, which made it possible to obtain an amplicon of 403 bp by RT-nested PCR. The genotypic differentiations of the RT-nested PCR amplicons were carried out by RFLP. Sequence analyses of the amplicons were used to confirm the accuracy of the results obtained by RFLP. Of the 48 acute-stage sera from suspected HFRS patients, 35 were ELISA-positive while 41 were positive by RT-nested PCR. With Hind III and Hinf I, RFLP profiles of the RT-nested PCR amplicons of the 41 positive sera exhibited two patterns. 33 had RFLP profiles similar to the reference strain R22, and thus belonged to the SEOV type. The other 8 samples which were collected during October-December had RFLP profiles similar to the reference strain 76-118, and thus belonged to the HTNV type. Sequence phylogenetic analysis of RT-nested PCR amplicons revealed sdp1, sdp2 YXL-2008, and sdp3 as close relatives of HTNV strain 76-118, while sdp22 and sdp37 as close relatives of SEOV strain Z37 and strain R22 located in two separate clusters in the phylogenetic tree. These results were identical to those acquired by RFLP. RT-nested PCR integrated with RFLP was a rapid, simple, accurate method for detecting and differentiating the genotypes of Hantavirus in the acute-stage sera of suspected HFRS patients. In Shandong province, the main genotypes of Hantavirus belonged to the SEOV types, while the HTNV types were observed during the autumn-winter season.

  10. Spatial prediction and validation of zoonotic hazard through micro-habitat properties: where does Puumala hantavirus hole - up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hussein; Olsson, Gert; Magnusson, Magnus; Evander, Magnus; Hörnfeldt, Birger; Ecke, Frauke

    2017-07-26

    To predict the risk of infectious diseases originating in wildlife, it is important to identify habitats that allow the co-occurrence of pathogens and their hosts. Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is a directly-transmitted RNA virus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans, and is carried and transmitted by the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In northern Sweden, bank voles undergo 3-4 year population cycles, during which their spatial distribution varies greatly. We used boosted regression trees; a technique inspired by machine learning, on a 10 - year time-series (fall 2003-2013) to develop a spatial predictive model assessing seasonal PUUV hazard using micro-habitat variables in a landscape heavily modified by forestry. We validated the models in an independent study area approx. 200 km away by predicting seasonal presence of infected bank voles in a five-year-period (2007-2010 and 2015). The distribution of PUUV-infected voles varied seasonally and inter-annually. In spring, micro-habitat variables related to cover and food availability in forests predicted both bank vole and infected bank vole presence. In fall, the presence of PUUV-infected voles was generally restricted to spruce forests where cover was abundant, despite the broad landscape distribution of bank voles in general. We hypothesize that the discrepancy in distribution between infected and uninfected hosts in fall, was related to higher survival of PUUV and/or PUUV-infected voles in the environment, especially where cover is plentiful. Moist and mesic old spruce forests, with abundant cover such as large holes and bilberry shrubs, also providing food, were most likely to harbor infected bank voles. The models developed using long-term and spatially extensive data can be extrapolated to other areas in northern Fennoscandia. To predict the hazard of directly transmitted zoonoses in areas with unknown risk status, models based on micro-habitat variables and developed through machine learning techniques in

  11. Antiviral Biologic Produced in DNA Vaccine/Goose Platform Protects Hamsters Against Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome When Administered Post-exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Haese

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV and ANDV-like viruses are responsible for most hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS cases in South America. Recent studies in Chile indicate that passive transfer of convalescent human plasma shows promise as a possible treatment for HPS. Unfortunately, availability of convalescent plasma from survivors of this lethal disease is very limited. We are interested in exploring the concept of using DNA vaccine technology to produce antiviral biologics, including polyclonal neutralizing antibodies for use in humans. Geese produce IgY and an alternatively spliced form, IgYΔFc, that can be purified at high concentrations from egg yolks. IgY lacks the properties of mammalian Fc that make antibodies produced in horses, sheep, and rabbits reactogenic in humans. Geese were vaccinated with an ANDV DNA vaccine encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins. All geese developed high-titer neutralizing antibodies after the second vaccination, and maintained high-levels of neutralizing antibodies as measured by a pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA for over 1 year. A booster vaccination resulted in extraordinarily high levels of neutralizing antibodies (i.e., PsVNA80 titers >100,000. Analysis of IgY and IgYΔFc by epitope mapping show these antibodies to be highly reactive to specific amino acid sequences of ANDV envelope glycoproteins. We examined the protective efficacy of the goose-derived antibody in the hamster model of lethal HPS. α-ANDV immune sera, or IgY/IgYΔFc purified from eggs, were passively transferred to hamsters subcutaneously starting 5 days after an IM challenge with ANDV (25 LD50. Both immune sera, and egg-derived purified IgY/IgYΔFc, protected 8 of 8 and 7 of 8 hamsters, respectively. In contrast, all hamsters receiving IgY/IgYΔFc purified from normal geese (n=8, or no-treatment (n=8, developed lethal HPS. These findings demonstrate that the DNA vaccine/goose platform can be used to produce a candidate antiviral

  12. Increased plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activities are associated with high prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, T P; Liu, Y H; Yang, L X; Qin, S H; Liu, H B

    2015-10-01

    Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dislipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented risk factors for subclinical atherosclerosis. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4(DPP4) is a newly identified adipokine related to these risk factors. Hence, we aimed to investigate the association between plasma DPP4 activities and subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. A total of 985 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects were studied. Plasma DPP4 activity, mannose 6-phosphate receptor (M6P-R), oxidative stress parameters, inflammatory markers and common carotid artery Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT) were measured in all participants. Participants in the highest quartile of DPP4 activity had higher HbA1c, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance(HOMA-IR), triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), oxidized LDL, nitrotyrosine, 8-iso-PGF2a, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), M6P-R, c-IMT compared with participants in the lowest quartile (all P dislipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation were higher with increasing DPP4 quartiles (P < 0.001 for trend). In the highest DPP4 quartile, subclinical atherosclerosis risk was significantly higher (OR 4.97; 95% CI 3.03-8.17) than in the lowest quartile. This association remained strong (2.17; 1.21-3.89) after further controlling for HbA1c, HOMA-IR, triglyceride, oxidized LDL, nitrotyrosine, and IL-6. This study shows that increased DPP4 activities are positively and independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. Our findings suggest of potential role of DPP4 in the pathogenesis of subclinical atherosclerosis and in the prevention and management of this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Social Franchising and a Nationwide Mass Media Campaign Increased the Prevalence of Adequate Complementary Feeding in Vietnam: A Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Rahul; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Lan Mai; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Huan Van; Baker, Jean; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Menon, Purnima

    2017-04-01

    Background: Rigorous evaluations of health system-based interventions in large-scale programs to improve complementary feeding (CF) practices are limited. Alive & Thrive applied principles of social franchising within the government health system in Vietnam to improve the quality of interpersonal counseling (IPC) for infant and young child feeding combined with a national mass media (MM) campaign and community mobilization (CM). Objective: We evaluated the impact of enhanced IPC + MM + CM (intensive) compared with standard IPC + less-intensive MM and CM (nonintensive) on CF practices and anthropometric indicators. Methods: A cluster-randomized, nonblinded evaluation design with cross-sectional surveys ( n = ∼500 children aged 6-23.9 mo and ∼1000 children aged 24-59.9 mo/group) implemented at baseline (2010) and endline (2014) was used. Difference-in-difference estimates (DDEs) of impact were calculated for intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses and modified per-protocol analyses (MPAs; mothers who attended the social franchising at least once: 62%). Results: Groups were similar at baseline. In ITT analyses, there were no significant differences between groups in changes in CF practices over time. In the MPAs, greater improvements in the intensive than in the nonintensive group were seen for minimum dietary diversity [DDE: 6.4 percentage points (pps); P franchising approach to improve IPC, delivered through the existing health care system, significantly improved CF practices, but not child growth, among mothers who used counseling services at least once. A greater impact may be achieved with strategies designed to increase service utilization. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01676623.

  14. Social Franchising and a Nationwide Mass Media Campaign Increased the Prevalence of Adequate Complementary Feeding in Vietnam: A Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluation123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Rahul; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Lan Mai; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Huan Van; Baker, Jean; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Menon, Purnima

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rigorous evaluations of health system–based interventions in large-scale programs to improve complementary feeding (CF) practices are limited. Alive & Thrive applied principles of social franchising within the government health system in Vietnam to improve the quality of interpersonal counseling (IPC) for infant and young child feeding combined with a national mass media (MM) campaign and community mobilization (CM). Objective: We evaluated the impact of enhanced IPC + MM + CM (intensive) compared with standard IPC + less-intensive MM and CM (nonintensive) on CF practices and anthropometric indicators. Methods: A cluster-randomized, nonblinded evaluation design with cross-sectional surveys (n = ∼500 children aged 6–23.9 mo and ∼1000 children aged 24–59.9 mo/group) implemented at baseline (2010) and endline (2014) was used. Difference-in-difference estimates (DDEs) of impact were calculated for intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses and modified per-protocol analyses (MPAs; mothers who attended the social franchising at least once: 62%). Results: Groups were similar at baseline. In ITT analyses, there were no significant differences between groups in changes in CF practices over time. In the MPAs, greater improvements in the intensive than in the nonintensive group were seen for minimum dietary diversity [DDE: 6.4 percentage points (pps); P franchising approach to improve IPC, delivered through the existing health care system, significantly improved CF practices, but not child growth, among mothers who used counseling services at least once. A greater impact may be achieved with strategies designed to increase service utilization. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01676623. PMID:28179488

  15. Increasing prevalence of extended-spectrum-betalactamase among Gram-negative bacilli in Latin America: 2008 update from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART

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    Maria Virginia Villegas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This analysis of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART evaluated the susceptibility patterns of Enterobacteriaceae in Latin America in 2008, with emphasis on susceptibility trends of E. coli and K. pneumoniae. METHODS: Clinical isolates were recovered from intra-abdominal infections (IAI from 23 centers in 10 Latin American countries. Isolates were sent to a central laboratory for confirmation of identification, antimicrobial susceptibility and ESBL testing, following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. RESULTS: Of 1,003 Gram-negative bacilli collected from intra-abdominal infections, E. coli and K. pneumoniae were the most commonly isolated organisms, and 26.8% of E. coli and 37.7% of K. pneumoniae were ESBL positive. Ertapenem and imipenem were the most consistently active agents tested; 99% of ESBLpositive E. coli isolates were susceptible to ertapenem and 100% to imipenem as well, and 91% of ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae were susceptible to ertapenem and 98% to imipenem. Quinolones and cephalosporins were less active, achieving 1.5% to 76% inhibition against ESBL-producing E. coli and 3.5% to 61% inhibition against K. pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS: Local and unit-specific surveillance data is particularly important for selection of empiric therapy and in community-acquired infections as they can help the clinician with antibiotic selection by providing guidance regarding the likely pathogens and their resistance profiles. Our data also confirm the increasing frequency with which ESBL-producing organisms are found in the community setting, with 31.4% of communityacquired and 24.9% of hospital-acquired infections found to produce ESBLs. Imipenem and ertapenem are the most active agents tested for ESBL-positive E. coli and K. pneumoniae.

  16. Increased prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Honduras, Central America Aumento de la prevalencia de malaria por Plasmodium falciparum en Honduras, Centroamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol J. Palmer

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on our investigation of a malaria outbreak in Honduras, Central America, in January 1997. We tested 202 patients with fever and chills using thin and thick blood film microscopy. Sixteen patients lived in the city and the rest lived in rural areas. A total of 95 samples (47% were positive for malaria parasites. Seventy-nine percent (63/80 of the rural patients were infected with Plasmodium vivax and 21% (17/80 were infected with P. falciparum. In the urban area, all 15 infected patients had P. vivax malaria and none showed evidence of P. falciparum. Since previous reports indicate that falciparum malaria accounts for only 2% of the overall malaria infections in Honduras, the results reported here suggest that there is a dramatic increase in falciparum malaria in the area of Honduras investigated in this study.Notificamos los resultados de un estudio de un brote de malaria que se produjo en Honduras, Centroamérica, en enero de 1997. Sometimos a examen microscópico frotis delgados y frotis gruesos de la sangre de 202 pacientes con fiebre y escalofríos. Dieciséis pacientes eran habitantes de la zona urbana y el resto de la zona rural. Un total de 95 especímenes (47% fueron positivos a parásitos de la malaria. Setenta y ocho por ciento (62/80 de los pacientes del área rural estaban infestados con Plasmodium vivax y 22% (17/80 con P. falciparum. En la zona urbana, todos los 15 pacientes que estaban infestados tenían P. vivax y en ninguno se detectó P. falciparum. Ya que según informes previos la malaria de tipo falciparum representa solamente 2% de todos los casos de malaria en Honduras, nuestros resultados sugieren que hay un gran incremento del número de casos de malaria falciparum en la zona de Honduras en que se llevó a cabo esta investigación.

  17. Hantavirus disease (nephropathia epidemica) in Belgium: effects of tree seed production and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tersago, K; Verhagen, R; Servais, A; Heyman, P; Ducoffre, G; Leirs, H

    2009-02-01

    Recently, human cases of nephropathia epidemica (NE) due to Puumala virus infection in Europe have increased. Following the hypothesis that high reservoir host abundance induces higher transmission rates to humans, explanations for this altered epidemiology must be sought in factors that cause bank vole (Myodes glareolus) abundance peaks. In Western Europe, these abundance peaks are often related to high tree seed production, which is supposedly triggered by specific weather conditions. We evaluated the relationship between tree seed production, climate and NE incidence in Belgium and show that NE epidemics are indeed preceded by abundant tree seed production. Moreover, a direct link between climate and NE incidence is found. High summer and autumn temperatures, 2 years and 1 year respectively before NE occurrence, relate to high NE incidence. This enables early forecasting of NE outbreaks. Since future climate change scenarios predict higher temperatures in Europe, we should regard Puumala virus as an increasing health threat.

  18. prevalence and risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-12-26

    Dec 26, 2012 ... increase the frequency of occurrence of hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia is a ... not only in increased frequency of falciparum malaria, but also .... of illness before presentation. Table 3: Prevalence of hypoglycaemia according to time of last meal. Table 4, shows the higher the parasite density the greater.

  19. Prevalence of marijuana use does not differentially increase among youth after states pass medical marijuana laws: Commentary on and reanalysis of US National Survey on Drug Use in Households data 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Melanie M; Mauro, Christine; Hasin, Deborah S; Keyes, Katherine M; Cerda, Magdalena; Martins, Silvia S; Feng, Tianshu

    2016-03-01

    There is considerable interest in the effects of medical marijuana laws (MML) on marijuana use in the USA, particularly among youth. The article by Stolzenberg et al. (2015) "The effect of medical cannabis laws on juvenile cannabis use" concludes that "implementation of medical cannabis laws increase juvenile cannabis use". This result is opposite to the findings of other studies that analysed the same US National Survey on Drug Use in Households data as well as opposite to studies analysing other national data which show no increase or even a decrease in youth marijuana use after the passage of MML. We provide a replication of the Stolzenberg et al. results and demonstrate how the comparison they are making is actually driven by differences between states with and without MML rather than being driven by pre and post-MML changes within states. We show that Stolzenberg et al. do not properly control for the fact that states that pass MML during 2002-2011 tend to already have higher past-month marijuana use before passing the MML in the first place. We further show that when within-state changes are properly considered and pre-MML prevalence is properly controlled, there is no evidence of a differential increase in past-month marijuana use in youth that can be attributed to state MML. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. [TULA HANTAVIRUS IN CRIMEA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashina, L N; Zaykovskaya, A V; Protopopova E K; Babkin, I V; Malyshev, B S; Tovpinets, N N; Evstafiev, I L

    2015-01-01

    Genetic evidence of the Tula virus (TULV) in Crimea region of Russia is presented. Based on the reverse transcription PCR and subsequent sequence analysis, a total of 4 RNA isolates of the TULV were identified from the tissue samples of the Altai voles Microtus obscurus captured in the Bakhchisaray district of the Republic Crimea. Phylogenetic analysis of the S-, M-, and L-segment sequences of the Crimean TULV strains showed that they formed distinct genetic lineage, Russia IV, in the TULV variant. New sequences were most closely related to the lineage Russia I sequences obtained from common vole (M. arvalis) captured in the Tula region in Central Russia

  1. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infectious Diseases Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology How is HPS diagnosed? Diagnosing HPS in an individual who has only been infected for a few days is difficult, because early symptoms such as fever, muscle aches, and fatigue are easily confused with influenza. ...

  2. Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with increased prevalence of diabetes: a cross-sectional study in the Zimapán and Lagunera regions in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Razo, Luz M; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G; Valenzuela, Olga L; Castellanos, Erika Hernández; Sánchez-Peña, Luz C; Currier, Jenna M; Drobná, Zuzana; Loomis, Dana; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2011-08-24

    Human exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) have been linked to an increased risk of diabetes mellitus. Recent laboratory studies showed that methylated trivalent metabolites of iAs may play key roles in the diabetogenic effects of iAs. Our study examined associations between chronic exposure to iAs in drinking water, metabolism of iAs, and prevalence of diabetes in arsenicosis-endemic areas of Mexico. We used fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) to characterize diabetic individuals. Arsenic levels in drinking water and urine were determined to estimate exposure to iAs. Urinary concentrations of iAs and its trivalent and pentavalent methylated metabolites were measured to assess iAs metabolism. Associations between diabetes and iAs exposure or urinary metabolites of iAs were estimated by logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, hypertension and obesity. The prevalence of diabetes was positively associated with iAs in drinking water (OR 1.13 per 10 ppb, p < 0.01) and with the concentration of dimethylarsinite (DMAsIII) in urine (OR 1.24 per inter-quartile range, p = 0.05). Notably, FPI and HOMA-IR were negatively associated with iAs exposure (β -2.08 and -1.64, respectively, p < 0.01), suggesting that the mechanisms of iAs-induced diabetes differ from those underlying type-2 diabetes, which is typically characterized by insulin resistance. Our study confirms a previously reported, but frequently questioned, association between exposure to iAs and diabetes, and is the first to link the risk of diabetes to the production of one of the most toxic metabolites of iAs, DMAsIII.

  3. Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with increased prevalence of diabetes: a cross-sectional study in the Zimapán and Lagunera regions in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Human exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) have been linked to an increased risk of diabetes mellitus. Recent laboratory studies showed that methylated trivalent metabolites of iAs may play key roles in the diabetogenic effects of iAs. Our study examined associations between chronic exposure to iAs in drinking water, metabolism of iAs, and prevalence of diabetes in arsenicosis-endemic areas of Mexico. Methods We used fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) to characterize diabetic individuals. Arsenic levels in drinking water and urine were determined to estimate exposure to iAs. Urinary concentrations of iAs and its trivalent and pentavalent methylated metabolites were measured to assess iAs metabolism. Associations between diabetes and iAs exposure or urinary metabolites of iAs were estimated by logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, hypertension and obesity. Results The prevalence of diabetes was positively associated with iAs in drinking water (OR 1.13 per 10 ppb, p < 0.01) and with the concentration of dimethylarsinite (DMAsIII) in urine (OR 1.24 per inter-quartile range, p = 0.05). Notably, FPI and HOMA-IR were negatively associated with iAs exposure (β -2.08 and -1.64, respectively, p < 0.01), suggesting that the mechanisms of iAs-induced diabetes differ from those underlying type-2 diabetes, which is typically characterized by insulin resistance. Conclusions Our study confirms a previously reported, but frequently questioned, association between exposure to iAs and diabetes, and is the first to link the risk of diabetes to the production of one of the most toxic metabolites of iAs, DMAsIII. PMID:21864395

  4. Síndrome cardiopulmonar por hantavírus no Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais, 1998-2005: aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de 23 casos Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba regions, State of Minas Gerais, 1998-2005: clinical-epidemiological aspects of 23 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Ezequiel Limongi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados os achados epidemiológicos, clínicos, laboratoriais e terapêuticos de 23 casos de síndrome cardiopulmonar por hantavírus, identificados sorologicamente ou por imunohistoquímica em hospitais do município de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Febre (100%, dispnéia (100% e mialgias (78% foram os sintomas mais frequentemente observados nesta casuística. Os sinais físicos mais prevalentes foram hipotensão (65% e taquicardia (65%. Achados laboratoriais mais comuns incluíram trombocitopenia (96%, hemoconcentração (83% e leucocitose (74%. Valores anormais de enzimas hepáticas foram encontrados em todos os pacientes testados e alterações em radiografias de tórax foram muito (95,6% freqüentes. Em 55,5% dos pacientes, foi necessário intubação orotraqueal e suporte hemodinâmico. O presente estudo confirmou o padrão sazonal da síndrome cardiopulmonar por hantavírus na região de Uberlândia e o envolvimento, no ciclo de transmissão da doença, de grupos profissionais considerados de baixo risco de infecção. A alta (39% taxa de letalidade e a gravidade da doença observadas neste estudo podem estar associadas ao atendimento tardio dos pacientes.The epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and treatment findings from 23 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome were analyzed. These cases were identified either serologically or immunohistochemically in hospitals in the municipality of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais. Fever (100%, dyspnea (100% and myalgia (78% were the symptoms most frequently observed in this sample. The most prevalent physical signs were hypotension (65% and tachycardia (65%. The most common laboratory findings included thrombocytopenia (96%, hemoconcentration (83% and leukocytosis (74%. Abnormal values for liver enzymes were found in all the patients tested and abnormalities in chest radiography were very frequent (95.6%. In 55.5% of the patients, orotracheal intubation and hemodynamic support were

  5. Síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por Hantavirus: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, do diagnóstico laboratorial e do tratamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Luiz Tadeu M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por Hantavirus (SPCVH, é doença emergente com descrição crescente de casos no Brasil. Neste trabalho, estudou-se 8 casos confirmados da doença. Todos apresentaram febre e dispnéia. Taquicardia, astenia, hipotensão e estertoração pulmonar ocorreram em 75 a 87,5% dos casos. Plaquetopenia e hipoxemia ocorreram em 100% dos casos, hemoconcentração, leucocitose com desvio à esquerda e elevação de uréia e creatinina séricas em 75 a 87,5%. Assistência respiratória, hidratação endovenosa e utilização de aminas vasoativas foram as medidas utilizadas nos pacientes. Ressalta-se que o suporte ventilatório e cardiovascular deve ser precocemente instituído, preferencialmente em unidades de terapia intensiva, com precauções universais e respiratórias de isolamento. Deve-se ter cuidados com infusão excessiva de líquidos para não agravar o edema pulmonar. A mortalidade observada, de 50%, é elevada, deveu-se à gravidade da doença e ao comparecimento tardio para tratamento intensivo. Deve-se informar sobre a SPCVH aos profissionais de saúde, considerando que casos de SPCVH, provavelmente, vêm passando desapercebidos.

  6. Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus from Germany shows receptor usage and innate immunity induction consistent with the pathogenicity of the virus in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Popugaeva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV is a European hantavirus causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in humans with fatality rates of up to 12%. DOBV-associated clinical cases typically occur also in the northern part of Germany where the virus is carried by the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius. However, the causative agent responsible for human illness has not been previously isolated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report on characterization of a novel cell culture isolate from Germany obtained from a lung tissue of "spillover" infected yellow necked mouse (A. flavicollis trapped near the city of Greifswald. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated close clustering of the new strain, designated Greifswald/Aa (GRW/Aa with the nucleotide sequence obtained from a northern German HFRS patient. The virus was effectively blocked by specific antibodies directed against β3 integrins and Decay Accelerating Factor (DAF indicating that the virus uses same receptors as the highly pathogenic Hantaan virus (HTNV. In addition, activation of selected innate immunity markers as interferon β and λ and antiviral protein MxA after viral infection of A549 cells was investigated and showed that the virus modulates the first-line antiviral response in a similar way as HTNV. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, our study reveals novel data on DOBV receptor usage and innate immunity induction in relationship to virus pathogenicity and underlines the potency of German DOBV strains to act as human pathogen.

  7. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess addictive eating and how prevalent addictive eating patterns were in the respective studies. It is concluded that the prevalence of food addiction is increased in obese individuals and even more so in obese patients with binge eating disorder. However, prevalence of food addiction is not sufficient to account for the obesity epidemic. Conversely, an arguably high prevalence of food addiction can also be found in under-, normal-, and overweight individuals. Future studies may investigate which factors are associated with addictive eating in non-obese individuals.

  8. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study......, to investigate the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities. METHODS: 6236 people participated. All non-asthmatic participants aged 35 years or older with adequate lung...... function data were included for the final prevalence analyses (n = 5,299). COPD staging was done according to the GOLD criteria. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of COPD was 17.4%. The prevalence increased with age and was higher among males. 6.2% had mild COPD, 9.2% had moderate COPD, and 2.0% had severe...

  9. Factores salivales asociados a prevalencia e incremento de caries dental en escolares rurales Fatores salivares associados à prevalência e ao aumento de cáries dentais em escolares de área rural Salivary factors associated to the prevalence and increase of dental caries in rural schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Susana Cornejo

    2008-02-01

    caracterizadas segundo a mediana como ponto de corte. RESULTADOS: Observou-se alta prevalência de cáries (50%-90% nos três momentos de estudo. O incremento de cáries foi significativamente maior aos 12 meses (p=0,000, comparado com o observado aos 24 meses. No estudo base se observou concentração baixa e homogênea dos íons fosfato e cálcio, e associação significativa (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between saliva and prevalence of dental caries. METHODS: Two-year longitudinal study in rural schoolchildren at Cruz del Eje, Argentina between 2000 and 2002. The study population comprised all schoolchildren (N=196 aged 5 to 14 years of both sexes attending eight rural schools. They were assessed at three different time points (N=46: baseline, 12 and 24 months. Salivary components and DMFT and dmft indexes were used. Nominal variables, "decay" and "new decay", were created to assess risk of decay at baseline, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Principal component analysis was applied to select salivary factors associated to decay and then they were categorized according to the median as a cutoff value. RESULTS: High prevalence of decay (50%-90% was found at the three time points of study. There was significantly increase in caries at 12 months (p=0.000 compared to that seen at 24 months. At baseline there were homogeneous low levels of calcium and phosphate and a significant association (p<0.050 between calcium and phosphorus and calcium/phosphorus molar ratio and decay. CONCLUSIONS: Phosphorus levels and calcium/phosphorus molar ratio can be considered risk factors for the development of caries in populations with characteristics similar to those studied.

  10. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Joan K; Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    .01). CONCLUSIONS: EUROCAT could detect increases in the prevalence of microcephaly from the Zika virus of a similar magnitude to those observed in Brazil. Because of the rarity of microcephaly and discrepant diagnostic criteria, however, the smaller increases expected in Europe would probably not be detected...

  11. Can cognitive dissonance methods developed in the West for combatting the ‘thin ideal’ help slow the rapidly increasing prevalence of eating disorders in non-Western cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcomb, Gemma L.; Arcelus, Jon; Chen, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Summary Eating disorders are common, life-threatening conditions in Western countries, but until relatively recently they were regarded as uncommon in non-Western cultures. However, the prevalence of eating disorders in many of the more affluent non-Western countries is rising rapidly as community members, particularly young women, internalize the ‘thin ideal’ that has been widely promoted by the international media. This review discusses the factors involved in the development of eating disorders in non-Western settings with a particular emphasis on the influences of urbanization, modernization, Westernization, and the resulting changes in women's roles. The cognitive dissonance programs developed in Western countries that have proven successful in countering the negative effects of the thin idea are described and their potential application to East Asia and other non-Western countries are discussed. PMID:24991176

  12. Single-nucleotide polymorphism in the 5-α-reductase gene (SRD5A2) is associated with increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in chemotherapy-treated testicular cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Hink; Westerink, Nico-Derk L; Altena, Renske; Nuver, Janine; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; van Faassen, Martijn; Klont, Frank; Kema, Ido P; Lefrandt, Joop D; Zwart, Nynke; Boezen, H Marike; Smit, Andries J; Meijer, Coby; Gietema, Jourik A

    2016-02-01

    Chemotherapy-treated testicular cancer survivors are at risk for development of the metabolic syndrome, especially in case of decreased androgen levels. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding steroid 5-α-reductase type II (SRD5A2) are involved in altered androgen metabolism. We investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs523349 (V89L) and rs9282858 (A49T) in SRD5A2 are associated with cardiometabolic status in testicular cancer survivors. In 173 chemotherapy-treated testicular cancer survivors, hormone levels and cardiometabolic status were evaluated cross-sectionally (median 5 years [range 3-20] after chemotherapy) and correlated with SNPs in SRD5A2. The metabolic syndrome was more prevalent in survivors who were homozygous or heterozygous variant for SRD5A2 rs523349 compared to wild type (33% versus 19%, P = 0.032). In particular, patients with lower testosterone levels (testicular cancer survivors homozygous or heterozygous variant for SNP rs523349 in SRD5A2. Altered androgen sensitivity appears to be involved in the development of adverse metabolic and vascular changes in testicular cancer survivors and is a target for intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Hantavirus Rodent-Borne Infection by Oligoryzomys fulvescens in the Agua Buena Region--Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armién, Blas; Ortiz, Paulo Lazaro; Gonzalez, Publio; Cumbrera, Alberto; Rivero, Alina; Avila, Mario; Armién, Aníbal G; Koster, Frederick; Glass, Gregory

    2016-02-01

    Hotspot detection and characterization has played an increasing role in understanding the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Identifying the specific environmental factors (or their correlates) that influence reservoir host abundance help increase understanding of how pathogens are maintained in natural systems and are crucial to identifying disease risk. However, most recent studies are performed at macro-scale and describe broad temporal patterns of population abundances. Few have been conducted at a microscale over short time periods that better capture the dynamical patterns of key populations. These finer resolution studies may better define the likelihood of local pathogen persistence. This study characterizes the landscape distribution and spatio-temporal dynamics of Oligoryzomys fulvescens (O. fulvescens), an important mammalian reservoir in Central America. Information collected in a longitudinal study of rodent populations in the community of Agua Buena in Tonosí, Panama, between April 2006 and December 2009 was analyzed using non-spatial analyses (box plots) and explicit spatial statistical tests (correlograms, SADIE and LISA). A 90 node grid was built (raster format) to design a base map. The area between the nodes was 0.09 km(2) and the total study area was 6.43 km(2) (2.39 x 2.69 km). The temporal assessment dataset was divided into four periods for each year studied: the dry season, rainy season, and two months-long transitions between seasons (the months of April and December). There were heterogeneous patterns in the population densities and degrees of dispersion of O. fulvescens that varied across seasons and among years. The species typically was locally absent during the late transitional months of the season, and re-established locally in subsequent years. These populations re-occurred in the same area during the first three years but subsequently re-established further south in the final year of the study. Spatial

  14. Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Hantavirus Rodent-Borne Infection by Oligoryzomys fulvescens in the Agua Buena Region - Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Publio; Cumbrera, Alberto; Rivero, Alina; Avila, Mario; Armién, Aníbal G.; Koster, Frederick; Glass, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Background Hotspot detection and characterization has played an increasing role in understanding the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Identifying the specific environmental factors (or their correlates) that influence reservoir host abundance help increase understanding of how pathogens are maintained in natural systems and are crucial to identifying disease risk. However, most recent studies are performed at macro-scale and describe broad temporal patterns of population abundances. Few have been conducted at a microscale over short time periods that better capture the dynamical patterns of key populations. These finer resolution studies may better define the likelihood of local pathogen persistence. This study characterizes the landscape distribution and spatio-temporal dynamics of Oligoryzomys fulvescens (O. fulvescens), an important mammalian reservoir in Central America. Methods Information collected in a longitudinal study of rodent populations in the community of Agua Buena in Tonosí, Panama, between April 2006 and December 2009 was analyzed using non-spatial analyses (box plots) and explicit spatial statistical tests (correlograms, SADIE and LISA). A 90 node grid was built (raster format) to design a base map. The area between the nodes was 0.09 km2 and the total study area was 6.43 km2 (2.39 x 2.69 km). The temporal assessment dataset was divided into four periods for each year studied: the dry season, rainy season, and two months-long transitions between seasons (the months of April and December). Results There were heterogeneous patterns in the population densities and degrees of dispersion of O. fulvescens that varied across seasons and among years. The species typically was locally absent during the late transitional months of the season, and re-established locally in subsequent years. These populations re-occurred in the same area during the first three years but subsequently re-established further south in the final year of the

  15. Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of ... manage and associated with severe sequelae. Key Words: – Prevalence; Chlamydia trachomatis; ... genital infection during pregnancy increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, premature delivery and ...

  16. Prevalence of Hypertension in School going Adolescents in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of hypertension seems to be increasing in children and adults in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Different studies have been carried out on the prevalence of hypertension amongst adolescents living in urban areas reflecting this seeming increase in the prevalence of hypertension. However ...

  17. Suicide: Incidence or Prevalence? Comments on Hernández-Alvarado et al. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 552

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Alfredo Fernández-Niño

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available I recently reviewed the paper published in this journal by Hernández-Alvarado et al., titled “Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012” [1], and I noticed that the epidemiological concept “prevalence” is not correctly used.[...

  18. Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Seoul Virus Infection Testing for Seoul Virus in Pet Rats: Information For Veterinarians Yosemite National Park Case Count Maps Epi ... or minimize contact with rodents in your home, workplace, or campsite. If rodents don’t find that ...

  19. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavírus com disfunção de múltiplos órgãos: relato de caso Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome with multiple organ dysfunctions: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Spegiorin Moreno

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A hantavirose é uma zoonose que apresenta distribuição mundial e sua transmissão está relacionada com o íntimo contato com roedores. Causa dois tipos de doença: a febre hemorrágica com síndrome renal (FHSR, endêmica na Ásia e Europa e a síndrome pulmonar por hantavírus (SPH, encontrada no continente americano, inclusive no Brasil, com elevadas taxas de mortalidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um caso de SPH com disfunção de múltiplos órgãos, que recebeu tratamento intensivo precoce e reanimação guiada por parâmetros de fluxo e de perfusão tecidual. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 36 anos, iniciou quadro febril inespecífico, dispnéia progressiva, hipóxia grave e insuficiência respiratória aguda. Apresentava infiltrado interstício-alveolar difuso na radiografia de tórax. Evoluiu com disfunção de múltiplos órgãos (pulmonar, renal, hematológica, cardiovascular e metabólica. Recebeu tratamento e monitorização hemodinâmica invasiva precoces. As alterações laboratoriais mais importantes foram plaquetopenia, elevação dos níveis de hematócrito e hemoglobina, leucocitose, elevação de transaminases, de lactado desidrogenase e sorologia positiva para hantavírus (ELISA IgM positivo. O paciente apresentou reversão das disfunções orgânicas, recebendo alta hospitalar após 21 dias de hospitalização. CONCLUSÕES: A reanimação precoce e agressiva dirigida por metas levou à reversão da síndrome de falência de múltiplos órgãos e a um desfecho clínico favorável, apesar da gravidade da doença.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hantavirus infection is a zoonose with worldwide distribution. The transmission is related to the intimal contact with rodents. It causes two syndromes: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, endemic in Asia and Europe and the Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS, found in the American continent, including Brazil, with high mortality

  20. Alcohol dependence and physical comorbidity: Increased prevalence but reduced relevance of individual comorbidities for hospital-based mortality during a 12.5-year observation period in general hospital admissions in urban North-West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, D; Heun, R

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is associated with an increase in physical comorbidities. The effects of these diseases on general hospital-based mortality are unclear. Consequently, we conducted a mortality study in which we investigated if the burden of physical comorbidities and their relevance on general hospital-based mortality differs between individuals with and without AD during a 12.5-year observation period in general hospital admissions. During 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2012, 23,371 individuals with AD were admitted at least once to seven General Manchester Hospitals. Their physical comorbidities with a prevalence≥1% were compared to those of 233,710 randomly selected hospital controls, group-matched for age and gender (regardless of primary admission diagnosis or specialized treatments). Physical comorbidities that increased the risk of hospital-based mortality (but not outside of the hospital) during the observation period were identified using multiple logistic regression analyses. Hospital-based mortality rates were 20.4% in the AD sample and 8.3% in the control sample. Individuals with AD compared to controls had a higher burden of physical comorbidities, i.e. alcoholic liver and pancreatic diseases, diseases of the conducting airways, neurological and circulatory diseases, diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract, renal diseases, cellulitis, iron deficiency anemia, fracture neck of femur, and peripheral vascular disease. In contrast, coronary heart related diseases, risk factors of cardiovascular disease, diverticular disease and cataracts were less frequent in individuals with AD than in controls. Thirty-two individual physical comorbidities contributed to the prediction of hospital-based mortality in univariate analyses in the AD sample; alcoholic liver disease (33.7%), hypertension (16.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (14.1%), and pneumonia (13.3%) were the most frequent diagnoses in deceased individuals with AD. Multiple forward

  1. Range expansion of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae in Patagonian Chile, and first record of Hantavirus in the region Ampliación del rango de distribución de Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae en la Patagonia de Chile y primer registro de Hantavirus en la región

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIÁN BELMAR-LUCERO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, 20 species of Oligoryzomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae are recognized in the Neotropical region, most of them distinguished by their karyotypes, which fluctuates between 46-70 chromosomes. Two species are currently recognized in Chile, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Bennet, 1832; "colilargo" or the long-tailed pygmy rice rat; 2n = 56, which ranges from 27° to approximately 51° S, and O. magellanicus (Bennet, 1836; Magellanic pygmy rice rat; 2n = 54, south of 51° S in the Patagonian region of Chile and Argentina. As part of an ongoing research on the southern Patagonia of Chile, we report the results of small mammal samplings in six localities. We karyotyped 28 specimens and we also sequenced the hypervariable mtDNA region I in 22 individuals, aligning these sequences with an under development phylogeny of O. longicaudatus. We also evaluated the serology and viral charge in all captured specimens to detect the presence of antibodies to Andes virus (ANDV through Strip Immunoblot Assay (SIA, and of viral genome by RT-PCR. The results consistently showed that the karyotype of southern Patagonia specimens was 2n = 56, equal to that of O. longicaudatus, and that individuals from this area do not differentiate phylogenetically from those of the northern range of distribution. In addition, the serology showed the presence of antibodies IgG anti-ANDV and of viral genome in heart, kidney, spleen, and lungs of a single specimen of Oligoryzomys from the locality of Fuerte Bulnes in the Magallanes region. We conclude that all specimens trapped south of 51° S correspond to Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, thus expanding the distribution of this specie! from 51° to at least 55° S. The results also extended the disiribution of the Andes strain of Hantavirus to southernmost Patagonia.Actualmente se reconocen 20 especies de Oligoryzomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae en la región Neotropical, la mayoría de ellas distinguidas por sus cariotipos, los que fluct

  2. Tula hantavirus isolate with the full-length ORF for nonstructural protein NSs survives for more consequent passages in interferon-competent cells than the isolate having truncated NSs ORF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Kirsi M; Plyusnina, Angelina; Lundkvist, Ake; Vaheri, Antti; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2008-01-11

    The competitiveness of two Tula hantavirus (TULV) isolates, TULV/Lodz and TULV/Moravia, was evaluated in interferon (IFN) -competent and IFN-deficient cells. The two isolates differ in the length of the open reading frame (ORF) encoding the nonstructural protein NSs, which has previously been shown to inhibit IFN response in infected cells. In IFN-deficient Vero E6 cells both TULV isolates survived equally well. In contrast, in IFN-competent MRC5 cells TULV/Lodz isolate, that possesses the NSs ORF for the full-length protein of 90 aa, survived for more consequent passages than TULV/Moravia isolate, which contains the ORF for truncated NSs protein (66-67 aa). Our data show that expression of a full-length NSs protein is beneficial for the virus survival and competitiveness in IFN-competent cells and not essential in IFN-deficient cells. These results suggest that the N-terminal aa residues are important for the full activity of the NSs protein.

  3. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    408 heads of cattle to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and assess its public health implications. A comparative ..... (78.6%) of the respondents consume raw and poorly heat ... compromises related to certain stress factors.

  4. Increasing prevalence of group B streptococcal infection among pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Rosthoj, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    the Clinical Microbiology Database. Maternal data were obtained from a local database at the RH. RESULTS: In our cohort, a total of 638 (3.8%) women were diagnosed with GBS, 517 (81%) from urine, 92 (14%) from vaginal swabs and 29 (5%) from both. The overall rate of women colonised with GBS rose from 3......INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococci (GBS) can cause preterm delivery for women and sepsis and meningitis in infants younger than 90 days of age. The present retrospective cohort study determines the trend over time in the rates of GBS and in demographic risk factors for GBS among pregnant women...... delivering at Rigshospitalet (RH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period from 2002 to 2010, a total of 33,616 women gave birth at the RH. Our cohort was defined as 16,587 (49%) women examined by 24,724 cultures. All microbiological requisitions from the Department of Obstetrics at RH were extracted from...

  5. Cobalt Cardiomyopathy Secondary to Hip Arthroplasty: An Increasingly Prevalent Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russel Tilney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A forty-year-old man experienced worsening heart failure four years following bilateral complicated total hip replacement. His condition was extensively worked up but no underlying pathology was immediately evident. Given the cobalt-chromium alloy component present in the hip arthroplasties, the raised cobalt blood levels, and a fitting clinical picture coupled with radiological findings, the patient underwent right hip revision. Evidence of biotribocorrosion was present on direct visualisation intraoperatively. The patient subsequently experienced symptomatic improvement (NYHA class III to class I and echocardiography showed recovery of ejection fraction. Cobalt exists as a bivalent and trivalent molecule in circulation and produces a cytotoxicity profile similar to nanoparticles, causing neurological, thyroid, and cardiological pathology. Blood levels are not entirely useful as there is no identifiable conversion factor for levels in whole blood, serum, and erythrocytes which seem to act independently of each other. Interestingly cobalt cardiomyopathy is frequently compounded by other possible causes of cardiomyopathy such as alcohol and a link has been postulated. Definitive treatment is revision of the arthroplasty as other treatments are unproven.

  6. Increased Prevalence of Activated Protein C Resistance During ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acquired resistance to protein C in pregnancy has been established as one of the factors associated with ..... diabetes, sickle cell disease, smoking, anti-phospholipid syndrome inherited thrombophilia, and previous history of.

  7. Prevalence of occupational disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhouse, M.L.

    1976-12-01

    When discussing the prevalence of occupational disease, both the prescribed diseases and the diseases where occupation has an important etiological component should be considered. Available statistics indicate that there has been a substantial improvement in the control of important prescribed diseases such as lead poisoning and pneumoconiosis. In the United Kingdom in 1900 there were 1000 cases of lead poisoning with 38 fatalities. This number decreased to 49 cases in 1956 when the number again increased due to a change from clinical diagnosis to diagnosis on biochemical evidence. The number of cases of coal workers' pneumoconiosis has declined since the 1950s but the number of coal miners has also been reduced by more than /sup 1///sub 3/. Industrial dermatitis is still a considerable problem. Vibration induced white fingers was mentioned as a disease with a very large occupational component but which for a variety of reasons is not prescribed for industrial injury benefit. Illnesses due to injuries to the back, to sciatica, disc disease or lumbago cause a very large amount of sickness and are often associated with heavy manual labor particularly if an awkward posture has to be adopted for the job. The average absence after a back injury in the London Docks was 61 days. Chronic bronchitis is the biggest single cause of sickness absence. Many studies have shown that the etiology is multifactorial but that hard physical work and a dusty environment in the work place are important adverse factors. Improved control of the working environment and methods of work may influence the development of chronic disease in the older worker.

  8. Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Yazan

    2016-01-01

    One of the main ways in transmitting parasites to humans is through consuming contaminated raw vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitological contamination (helminthes eggs, Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica cysts) of salad vegetables sold at supermarkets and street vendors in Amman and Baqa’a – Jordan. A total of 133 samples of salad vegetables were collected and examined for the prevalence of parasites. It was found that 29% of the samples were contaminated with different parasites. Of the 30 lettuce, 33 tomato, 42 parsley and 28 cucumber samples examined the prevalence of Ascaris spp. eggs was 43%, 15%, 21% and 4%; Toxocara spp. eggs was 30%, 0%, 0% and 4%; Giardia spp. cysts was 23%, 6%, 0% and 0%; Taenia/Echinococcus eggs was 20%, 0%, 5% and 0%; Fasciola hepatica eggs was 13%, 3%, 2% and 0%; and E. histolytica cysts was 10%, 6%, 0% and 0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of parasite in salad vegetables either between supermarkets and street vendors, or between Amman and Baqa’a, Ascaris spp. was found to be the highest prevalent parasite in salad vegetables from supermarkets and street vendors and from Amman and Baqa’a. Our results pointed out that, the parasitic contamination of salad vegetables found in our study might be caused by irrigating crops with faecal contaminated water. We concluded that salad vegetables sold in Amman and Baqa’a may cause a health risk to consumers.

  9. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihangir Erem

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem affecting an important proportion of the Turkish population. The prevalence of obesity has significantly increased among adult Turkish population over the past 20 years. In 1990, 18.8% of the adult population was obese (28.5% among women and 9% among men, and the prevalence increased to 36% in 2010 (44% among women and 27% among men. From the data, we found that the prevalence of obesity in Turkey has increased steadily from 1990 to 2010 in both genders. Adult obesity-associated risk factors are age, gender, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking cessation, alcohol consumption, high household income, low education level and physical activity, occupation, marital status and a family of selected medical conditions (e.g. obesity, diabetes and hypertension. To control obesity, necessary precautions should urgently be taken. The precautions include serious public health education encouraging a well-balanced diet and increasing physical activity.

  10. Incremento en la prevalencia del VIH y en las conductas de riesgo asociadas en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres: 12 años de encuestas de vigilancia conductual en Cataluña Increase in the prevalence of HIV and in associated risk behaviors in men who have sex with men: 12 years of behavioral surveillance surveys in Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinta Folch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir las tendencias en la prevalencia de la infección por VIH, las conductas de riesgo asociadas a su transmisión y las actitudes respecto a los tratamientos antirretrovirales en el colectivo de hombres que tienen sexo con hombres reclutados en Cataluña entre 1995 y 2006. Métodos: Estudios transversales bianuales en una muestra de conveniencia de hombres que tienen sexo con hombres reclutados en saunas, sex-shops, bares y un parque público, y por correo a los socios de la Coordinadora Gai-Lesbiana, mediante un cuestionario anónimo y autoadministrado. Se recogieron muestras de saliva para determinar la prevalencia de la infección por VIH. La significación de las tendencias lineales en las proporciones se analizó mediante el test de ji² de tendencia lineal, estratificando por edad. Resultados: La prevalencia global del VIH aumentó del 8,5% (1995 al 14,1% (2006 en los menores de 30 años (p=0,162, y del 18,2% (1995 al 21,2% (2006 en los de 30 años y más (p=0,07. El uso consistente del preservativo en la penetración anal con parejas ocasionales descendió del 72,9% al 58,7% en los menores de 30 años (pObjectives: To describe trends in HIV prevalence, in risk behaviors associated with HIV transmission, and in knowledge and attitudes related to antiretroviral therapy (ART among men who have sex with men (MSM recruited in Catalonia between 1995 and 2006. Methods: Biannual cross-sectional surveys were performed. An opportunistic sample of MSM was recruited in saunas, sex shops, bars and a cruising site in a public park. In addition, an anonymous self-administered questionnaire was sent by mail to all members of a gay and lesbian association (Coordinadora Gai-Lesbiana. Oral fluid samples were collected to determine HIV prevalence. Linear trends in proportions were assessed by the chi² test, stratified by age. Results: The overall prevalence of HIV infection increased from 8.5% (1995 to 14.1% (2006 among men aged less than

  11. [Pedophilia. Prevalence, etiology, and diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokros, A; Osterheider, M; Nitschke, J

    2012-03-01

    Pedophilia is a disorder of sexual preference that increases the risk for committing sexual offenses against children. Consequently, pedophilia is not only relevant in psychiatric therapy and prognostics, but also greatly influences the public attitude towards criminality. Public opinion seems to equate pedophilia with child sexual abuse and vice versa which leads to stigmatization of patients and may impede treatment. The present paper provides information on recent studies on the potential origins of the disorder and introduces new diagnostic methods. Moreover, the article presents estimates on the prevalence of pedophilic sexual interest.

  12. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne L. McLean; Remo G. Lobetti; Johan P. Schoeman

    2014-01-01

    Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s) of this common disease is or are no...

  13. Forma grave da síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus tratada com pressurização positiva através de máscara facial Severe form of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome managed with continuous positive airway plessure through facial mask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Pimentel Pincelli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O primeiro surto no Brasil da síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus foi descrito em Juquitiba (SP, em 1993. Desde então têm sido descritos novos casos, especialmente nos estados do sul e sudeste do país. Em 2002 ocorreu a observação dos primeiros três casos em São Carlos (SP. Um dos pacientes recebeu suporte respiratório sem intubação traqueal, utilizando-se pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas (CPAP através de máscara facial. Este é o primeiro caso grave descrito de insuficiência respiratória por hantavírus em que houve sucesso com essa terapêutica ventilatória.In 1993 the first Brazilian cluster of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS was described in Juquitiba, SP. Since then, there have been descriptions of new cases specially on the southeast and south states of Brazil. Only in 2002 there were observed the first three cases of HCPS in our city: São Carlos. One of our patients was successfully supported with CPAP through facial mask. This is the first severe case of acute respiratory failure induced by Hantavirus that was successfully managed with this kind of respiratory strategy.

  14. Global Increases in Individualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Henri C; Varnum, Michael E W; Grossmann, Igor

    2017-09-01

    Individualism appears to have increased over the past several decades, yet most research documenting this shift has been limited to the study of a handful of highly developed countries. Is the world becoming more individualist as a whole? If so, why? To answer these questions, we examined 51 years of data on individualist practices and values across 78 countries. Our findings suggest that individualism is indeed rising in most of the societies we tested. Despite dramatic shifts toward greater individualism around the world, however, cultural differences remain sizable. Moreover, cultural differences are primarily linked to changes in socioeconomic development, and to a lesser extent to shifts in pathogen prevalence and disaster frequency.

  15. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  16. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  17. [Prevalence and diagnosis of depression in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belló, Mariana; Puentes-Rosas, Esteban; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Lozano, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    To present the prevalence of depressive episodes, as well as the percentage of the population with medical diagnosis. The definition of depression was based on a schedule with DSM IV diagnostic criteria. Using data from the 2002-2003 National Assessment Performance Survey, the prevalence of depression was estimated at the national level, by sex, age, education, size of residence community, and state. The percentage of individuals with medically diagnosed depression and the percentage of those under treatment were also estimated. The national prevalence of depression was 4.5%: 5.8% in women and 2.5% in men. The prevalence of depression increased with age and decreased with higher education. Among males, the prevalence was higher in rural than urban communities. A large percentage of affected individuals have no medical diagnosis. Depression is a frequent disease in adults.A higher prevalence is associated with social vulnerability. The low percentage of diagnosis represents a challenge for mental health service planning and provision.

  18. Seasonal variation in the prevalence of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Janani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension in pregnancy is one of the three factors of maternal mortality. Etiology of the disease is unknown, but the many factors contributing to the identification and control of it can be taken a step to prevent and reduce the symptoms of the disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of preeclampsia (high-blood pressure in different seasons of the year. Methods: The present retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on more than 8,000 pregnant women visiting Assali specialized hospital from 2011 to 2013. Required data was collected through questionnaire checklist. The Chi-square test with multiple comparisons was used to compare the frequencies of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH according to the month of year, and adjustment of multiplicity was conducted using Bonferroni's method. Student's t-test was used to compare the means of PIH prevalence rates. In all analyses, P < 0.05 was taken to indicate statistical significance. Results: In these 8000 woman admitted to labor, overall prevalence of PIH was 3.8 ± 0.6%. The prevalence rate of PIH was highest in the summer (4.5% and lowest frequent in the winter (2.7%, respectively. In July, the prevalence rate was significantly higher than those for any other month (4.7%, and in March, it was lower prevalence than for any month (2.2%, respectively. Using the Chi-square test, a significant difference between the incidence of disease was observed in summer and winter (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of PIH was higher for delivery in summer and early spring and lowest for winter delivery among Khorramabad women based on these results; it seems that changes in temperature and humidity in different seasons can affect preeclampsia, and preeclampsia increases with increasing frequency temperature.

  19. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders: data review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco ALCANTUD MARÍN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Published data on the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders point to a significant increase in this indicator. This increase is being studied in numerous publications of analysis, meta-analysis and systematic reviews. The prevalence indicates the proportion of people who suffer at a given time or are diagnosed with a disease. The consequences of the increasing prevalence are relevant from the point of health, social and educational, but especially relevant when as is the case, the cause of the disorder is unknown. It is in this sense that the prevalence study gains importance in order to delimit various circumstances that may give clues to the possible cause or causes that generate disorder. This article reviews studies, summarizes the last data, and reflects on them and possible causes that justify the increased reporting. It looks like these epidemiological indicators can or are influenced by possible methodological flaws behind, which can explain the variations between studies and others. It concludes by stating the need population studies and monitoring that allows us to know the reality of the evolution of these disorders in order to provide reliable information to those responsible for the institutions involved in the detection and treatment of ASD.

  20. Prevalence & Correlates of Intimate Partner physical violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the reproductive, physical and mental well-being of women. In Ethiopia however, knowledge of the prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence against women is ... socio-economic, relationship and behavioral factors increase women's risk of being victimized. Thus .... exchange are the main types of marriage.

  1. Prevalence & consequences of anaemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, K

    2009-11-01

    Prevalence of anaemia in India is among the highest in the world. Prevalence of anaemia is higher among pregnant women and preschool children. Even among higher income educated segments of population about 50 per cent of children, adolescent girls and pregnant women are anaemic. Inadequate dietary iron, folate intake due to low vegetable consumption, perhaps low B12 intake and poor bioavailability of dietary iron from the fibre, phytate rich Indian diets are the major factors responsible for high prevalence of anaemia. Increased requirement of iron during growth and pregnancy and chronic blood loss contribute to higher prevalence in specific groups. In India, anaemia is directly or indirectly responsible for 40 per cent of maternal deaths. There is 8 to 10-fold increase in MMR when the Hb falls below 5 g/dl. Early detection and effective management of anaemia in pregnancy can contribute substantially to reduction in maternal mortality. Maternal anaemia is associated with poor intrauterine growth and increased risk of preterm births and low birth weight rates. This in turn results in higher perinatal morbidity and mortality, and higher infant mortality rate. A doubling of low birth weight rate and 2 to 3 fold increase in the perinatal mortality rates is seen when the Hb is anaemia contributes to intergenerational cycle of poor growth in the offspring. Early detection and effective management of anaemia in pregnancy can lead to substantial reduction in undernutrition in childhood, adolescence and improvement in adult height.

  2. Prevalence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS predisposes to malnutrition. Malnutrition exacerbates HIV/AIDS progression resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. The magnitude of malnutrition in HIV/AIDS patients has not been well studied in Ethiopian setup. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated ...

  3. Prevalence of Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhavan Karbasi Sedighah

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformation (CM will begin to emerge as one of the major childhood health problems .Treatment and rehabilitation of children with congenital malformations are costly and complete recovery is usually impossible. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of CM in Yazd central city of the Islamic Republic of Iran to find out if there has been any difference in the rate and types of CM in this area. This descriptive-observational study carried on 4800 births delivered at all maternity hospitals in Yazd from October 2003 to June 2004. Prevalence of CM was 2.83% (2.86 % in male and 2.68 % in female out of the 136 cases 69(51.88% were males and 64 (48.12% were females and 3 with ambiguous genitalia. Positive family history of CM in sibling was in only 6 cases (4.41%.Overall, musculoskeletal (0.83%, central nerv-ous system (0.47% and genital system (0.37% were accounted as the most common. Frequency of CM was more seen in still birth (12.5% as in comparison to live birth (2.71%. There was not statistical difference be-tween prevalence of CM and neonatal's gender, gestational age, birth order and mother's age, drug ingestion, illness and parental consanguinity. In this study the overall prevalence of congenital malformation among the newborn was higher than those previous reported in Iran and determining the causes of this difference needs more extensive studies.

  4. Estimating the prevalence of infertility in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnik, Tracey; Cook, Jocelynn L.; Yuzpe, A. Albert; Tough, Suzanne; Collins, John

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in Canada, however, little is known about the overall prevalence of infertility in the population. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of current infertility in Canada according to three definitions of the risk of conception. METHODS Data from the infertility component of the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed for married and common-law couples with a female partner aged 18–44. The three definitions of the risk of conception were derived sequentially starting with birth control use in the previous 12 months, adding reported sexual intercourse in the previous 12 months, then pregnancy intent. Prevalence and odds ratios of current infertility were estimated by selected characteristics. RESULTS Estimates of the prevalence of current infertility ranged from 11.5% (95% CI 10.2, 12.9) to 15.7% (95% CI 14.2, 17.4). Each estimate represented an increase in current infertility prevalence in Canada when compared with previous national estimates. Couples with lower parity (0 or 1 child) had significantly higher odds of experiencing current infertility when the female partner was aged 35–44 years versus 18–34 years. Lower odds of experiencing current infertility were observed for multiparous couples regardless of age group of the female partner, when compared with nulliparous couples. CONCLUSIONS The present study suggests that the prevalence of current infertility has increased since the last time it was measured in Canada, and is associated with the age of the female partner and parity. PMID:22258658

  5. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  6. Prevalence of oppositional defiant disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villalobos, José Antonio; Andrés-De Llano, Jesús María; Rodríguez-Molinero, Luis; Garrido-Redondo, Mercedes; Sacristán-Martín, Ana María; Martínez-Rivera, María Teresa; Alberola-López, Susana; Sánchez-Azón, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, defiant, disobedient and hostile behavior toward authority figures. ODD is one of the most frequent reasons for clinical consultation on mental health during childhood and adolescence. ODD has a high morbidity and dysfunction, and has important implications for the future if not treated early. To determine the prevalence of ODD in schoolchildren aged 6-16 years in Castile and Leon (Spain). Population study with a stratified multistage sample, and a proportional cluster design. Sample analyzed: 1,049. Cases were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. An overall prevalence rate of 5.6% was found (95% CI: 4.2%-7%). Male gender prevalence=6.8%; female=4.3%. Prevalence in secondary education=6.2%; primary education=5.3%. No significant differences by gender, age, grade, type of school, or demographic area were found. ODD prevalence without considering functional impairment, such as is performed in some research, would increase the prevalence to 7.4%. ODD cases have significantly worse academic outcomes (overall academic performance, reading, maths and writing), and worse classroom behavior (relationship with peers, respect for rules, organizational skills, academic tasks, and disruption of the class). Castile and Leon has a prevalence rate of ODD slightly higher to that observed in international publications. Depending on the distribution by age, morbidity and clinical dysfunctional impact, an early diagnosis and a preventive intervention are required for health planning. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique T

    2017-05-01

    Congenital amusia (commonly known as tone deafness) is a lifelong musical disorder that affects 4% of the population according to a single estimate based on a single test from 1980. Here we present the first large-based measure of prevalence with a sample of 20 000 participants, which does not rely on self-referral. On the basis of three objective tests and a questionnaire, we show that (a) the prevalence of congenital amusia is only 1.5%, with slightly more females than males, unlike other developmental disorders where males often predominate; (b) self-disclosure is a reliable index of congenital amusia, which suggests that congenital amusia is hereditary, with 46% first-degree relatives similarly affected; (c) the deficit is not attenuated by musical training and (d) it emerges in relative isolation from other cognitive disorder, except for spatial orientation problems. Hence, we suggest that congenital amusia is likely to result from genetic variations that affect musical abilities specifically.

  8. The prevalence of childhood asthma in China: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzong Yangzong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that the prevalence of asthma has been reported to increase in many places around the world during the last decades. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify and review studies of asthma prevalence among children in China and address time trends and regional variation in asthma. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI databases. Selected articles had to describe an original study that showed the prevalence of asthma among children aged 0−14 years. Results A total of 74 articles met the inclusion criteria. The lifetime prevalence of asthma varied between 1.1% in Lhasa (Tibet and 11.0% in Hong Kong in studies following the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC protocol. The prevalence was 3% or lower in most articles following Chinese diagnostic criteria. One article reported the results from two national surveys and showed that the current average prevalence of asthma for the total study population had increased from 1990 to 2000 (0.9% to 1.5%. The lowest current prevalence was found in Lhasa (0.1% in 1990, 0.5% in 2000. Conclusions The prevalence of childhood asthma was generally low, both in studies following the ISAAC and Chinese diagnostic criteria. Assessment of time trends and regional variations in asthma prevalence was difficult due to insufficient data, variation in diagnostic criteria, difference in data collection methods, and uncertainty in prevalence measures. However, the findings from one large study of children from 27 different cities support an increase in current prevalence of childhood asthma from 1990 to 2000. The lowest current prevalence of childhood asthma was found in Tibet.

  9. Prevalence of food allergies in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakali, Schweta R; Green, Todd D; Dinakar, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the published medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergies in South Asia. A PubMed search was performed using the keywords India and food allergy, Asia and food allergy, and South Asia and food allergy for any period. Articles cited in selected studies were reviewed for their appropriateness of inclusion into this review. Publications were included that were original research and fit the topic of food allergy and South Asia. South Asia is defined as region inclusive of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. A total of 169 articles were initially identified, and 47 were reviewed in detail for inclusion in this review. The primary focus was placed on 10 studies that consisted of case reports of newly reported or documented food allergy, survey studies that investigated food allergy prevalence in specific demographics, and prospective and cross-sectional studies with case controls, all of which investigated food allergy prevalence by allergy testing in a selected population. The medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergy in South Asia indicates that there is a variety of unusual and unique allergens and an overall low incidence of food allergy. There is also an association of increased food allergy prevalence in individuals who live in metropolitan regions or who migrate to communities that have adopted westernization. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimating the global prevalence of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington‐Cruz, Márcia; Botteman, Marc F.; Carter, John A.; Chopra, Avijeet S.; Hopps, Markay; Stewart, Michelle; Fallet, Shari; Amass, Leslie

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: This study sought to estimate the global prevalence of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (ATTR‐FAP). Methods: Prevalence estimates and information supporting prevalence calculations was extracted from records yielded by reference‐database searches (2005–2016), conference proceedings, and nonpeer reviewed sources. Prevalence was calculated as prevalence rate multiplied by general population size, then extrapolated to countries without prevalence estimates but with reported cases. Results: Searches returned 3,006 records; 1,001 were fully assessed and 10 retained, yielding prevalence for 10 “core” countries, then extrapolated to 32 additional countries. ATTR‐FAP prevalence in core countries, extrapolated countries, and globally was 3,762 (range 3639–3884), 6424 (range, 1,887–34,584), and 10,186 (range, 5,526–38,468) persons, respectively. Discussion: The mid global prevalence estimate (10,186) approximates the maximum commonly accepted estimate (5,000–10,000). The upper limit (38,468) implies potentially higher prevalence. These estimates should be interpreted carefully because contributing evidence was heterogeneous and carried an overall moderate risk of bias. This highlights the requirement for increasing rare‐disease epidemiological assessment and clinician awareness. Muscle Nerve 57: 829–837, 2018 PMID:29211930

  11. Prevalence of overweight in Dutch children with Down Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M. van; Dommelen, P. van; Schönbeck, Y.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.; Wouwen, J.P. van; Buitendijk, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of overweight in children is increasing, causing various health problems. This study aims to establish growth references for weight and to assess the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in a nationwide sample of Dutch children with Down syndrome (DS), taking into account the

  12. The Prevalence of Obesity as Indicated by BMI and Waist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in most developed countries and in urban areas of many less developed countries has been increasing markedly over the past twenty years. This study\\'s aims were to determine the prevalence of obesity using BMI and waist circumference among Nigerian adults ...

  13. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide and has implications for a variety of diseases. This has been due to various causes such as poor nutrition, inactivity or both. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary ...

  14. Prevalence of asthma among school children in Gaborone, Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asthma prevalence is high (>10%) in developed countries and although data is still missing for most of Africa, rates are increasing in developing regions as they become more westernized. We investigated the prevalence of asthma in school children in Gaborone, Botswana. Methods: This was a cross sectional ...

  15. Studies on the Prevalence of Trichomoniasis among Women in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexually Transmitted Diseases(STDs) have been prevalent human infections and is on the increase in most tropical and sub-tropical African countries including Nigeria. A survey of the prevalence of Trichomoniasis, was carried out in Jos-North Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria in 2010. A total of 300 women ...

  16. The Prevalence of Depression among patients and its detection by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Little information is available on the prevalence of depression in Malawi in primary health care settings and yet there is increased number of cases of depression presenting at tertiary level in severe form. Aim The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of depression among patients and its detection ...

  17. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Type 58 in Women With or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    most sexually active individuals are exposed to and acquire infection from this virus at some phase in their lives.[2,3] HPV infection is most prevalent in young adults, at the beginning of their sexual activity, with a subsequent decline in the prevalence with increasing age, likely a result of the development of an immune ...

  18. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients seeking medical care at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a key metabolic endocrine disorder escalating in the course of rapid population growth, aging, urbanization, and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. This study was conducted to assess prevalence of DM and associated risk factors among outpatients seeking ...

  19. Prevalence and awareness of type 2 diabetes mellitus among adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence is increasing rapidly around the world. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and awareness of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mwanza city, Tanzania. A multistage random sampling technique was used to obtain representative subjects. Information ...

  20. Meta-Analysis of Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction in Mainland China: Evidence Based on Epidemiological Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying Wang, MD, PhD

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: ED is highly prevalent in mainland China, and its prevalence increases with age. More high-quality surveys on ED with larger samples throughout mainland China are needed to confirm these findings.

  1. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Denmark 1950-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Joan; Meulengracht Flachs, Esben; Stenager, Egon

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system of unknown aetiology. Its prevalence varies by ethnicity and place: persons of northern European descent are at increased risk while persons living at lower latitudes appear to be protected against the disease. The Danish...... Multiple Sclerosis Registry is a national registry established in 1956 after a population-based survey which receives information from numerous sources. It is considered to be more than 90% complete, with a validity of 94%. Using data from the Registry, we calculated prevalences per 100,000 inhabitants....... The standardized prevalence of multiple sclerosis increased from 58.8 (95% confidence interval: 54.9-62.7) in 1950 to 154.5 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval: 148.8-160.2) in 2005, and the female to male ratio increased from 1.31 in 1950 to 2.02 in 2005. The increase in prevalence is due to both increased...

  2. Prevalence of astigmatism in Native American infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Messer, Dawn H; Miller, Joseph M

    2010-06-01

    To describe the prevalence of high astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. SureSight autorefraction measurements were obtained for 1461 Tohono O'odham children aged 6 months to 8 years. The prevalence of astigmatism >2.00 diopters was 30% in Tohono O'odham children during infancy (6 months to O'odham infants show a high prevalence of astigmatism, which decreases in the second year of life. However, the prevalence of high astigmatism in Tohono O'odham children increases by age 2 to <3 years to a level near that seen in infancy and remains at that level until at least age 8 years. Longitudinal data are needed to determine whether the increase in high astigmatism after infancy occurs in infants who had astigmatism as infants or is due to the development of high astigmatism in children who did not show astigmatism during infancy.

  3. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients seeking medical care at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KINIMI

    rapid population growth, aging, urbanization, and increasing prevalence of obesity ... causing gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and cardiovascular symptoms and sexual dysfunction ..... in men older than 60 years of age (Kautzky et al., 2016).

  4. Prevalence of schizophrenia: recent developments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long held view that schizophrenia affects about 1% of the population has been shown to be an overestimate and in fact derived from incorrect data.1 Also, for many years, it was believed that the prevalence of schizophrenia varied little between sites.2,3 It is in fact the case that the estimates of the prevalence of ...

  5. Prevalence of Food Additive Intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence estimates vary with a factor 100. As the results vary so do the study populations. 6 If the different study populations are accounted for, a common conclusion can be drawn: Food additive intolerance is found in adults with atopic symptoms from the respiratory tract and skin. The prevalence......1 The existing prevalence estimates of food additive intolerance(1-4) are being reviewed. 2 In the EEC report the estimated frequency of food additive intolerance is 0.03% to 0.15% based on data from patient groups. 3 The British population study results in a prevalence estimate of 0.......026%. The challenged population is 81 children and adults with a history of reproducible clinical symptoms after ingestion of food additives. 4 In the Danish population study a prevalence of 1-2% is found in children age 5-16. In this study a total of 606 children mainly with atopic disease have been challenged. 5...

  6. Prevalence of mobile dependency and adolescence aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyebeh Khazaie; Alireza Saadatjoo; Samaneh Dormohamadi; Mansooreh Soleimani; Marzieh Toosinia; Fatemeh Mullah Hassan Zadeh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Various studies indicate that increasing and complicating use of cell phones in all age groups and in both sexes is associated with aggression. Despite the widespread use of mobile phones in Iran, psychological and behavioral effects of addiction to it and the consequences have not been investigated yet. The present study aimed at determining prevalence of mobile dependency and its relationship with aggression during adolescence in Birjand in 2011. Materials and Methods...

  7. Teens' distracted driving behavior: Prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Pnina; Zhu, Chunming; Klauer, Sheila G; Dingus, Tom; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Teen drivers' over-involvement in crashes has been attributed to a variety of factors, including distracted driving. With the rapid development of in-vehicle systems and portable electronic devices, the burden associated with distracted driving is expected to increase. The current study identifies predictors of secondary task engagement among teenage drivers and provides basis for interventions to reduce distracted driving behavior. We described the prevalence of secondary tasks by type and driving conditions and evaluated the associations between the prevalence of secondary task engagement, driving conditions, and selected psychosocial factors. The private vehicles of 83 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with Data Acquisition Systems (DAS), which documented driving performance measures, including secondary task engagement and driving environment characteristics. Surveys administered at licensure provided psychosocial measures. Overall, teens engaged in a potentially distracting secondary task in 58% of sampled road clips. The most prevalent types of secondary tasks were interaction with a passenger, talking/singing (no passenger), external distraction, and texting/dialing the cell phone. Secondary task engagement was more prevalent among those with primary vehicle access and when driving alone. Social norms, friends' risky driving behaviors, and parental limitations were significantly associated with secondary task prevalence. In contrast, environmental attributes, including lighting and road surface conditions, were not associated with teens' engagement in secondary tasks. Our findings indicated that teens engaged in secondary tasks frequently and poorly regulate their driving behavior relative to environmental conditions. Practical applications: Peer and parent influences on secondary task engagement provide valuable objectives for countermeasures to reduce distracted driving among teenage drivers. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and

  8. Prevalence of sickle cell gene among apparently healthy under-two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None of the subjects had SCD and the prevalence of sickle cell trait (SCT) among them was 22%. Premarital counselling intervention in families seemed to increase the prevalence of SCT when compared to those not counselled but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.30). The lower prevalence of SCT among children ...

  9. HIV infection among tuberculosis patients in Vietnam: prevalence and impact on tuberculosis notification rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, D. H.; Sy, D. N.; Linh, N. D.; Hoan, T. M.; Dien, H. T.; Thuy, T. B.; Hoa, N. P.; Tung, L. B.; Cobelens, F.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnam has an emerging human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic (estimated population prevalence 0.5%), but valid data on HIV prevalence among tuberculosis (TB) patients are limited. Recent increases in TB notification rates among young adults may be related to HIV. To assess the prevalence of

  10. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  11. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4 had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2 smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8 smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use

  12. Dynamics of Puumala virus infection in bank voles in Ardennes department (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augot, D; Muller, D; Demerson, J M; Boué, F; Caillot, C; Cliquet, F

    2006-12-01

    The hantaviruses (genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae) include human pathogens and occur worldwide. In Western and Central Europe, the predominant serotype is Puumala (PUU) virus, which causes epidemic nephropathy. Voles are considered to be the main reservoir and the vector of PUU virus. A total of 719 rodents (mainly Clethrionomys glareolus, Apodemus sp.) trapped by capture-mark-recapture (CMR) in four sites in Ardennes department (France) between April 2004 and October 2005 were tested for the presence of PUU virus antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The predominant species, C. glareolus (86.5% [622 of 719]), also had the highest antibody prevalence (37.6% [291 of 773]). In C. glareolus, the antibody prevalence rate increased with age (weight) in site A, B and D, reaching more than 50% in the heaviest weight, and suggesting that horizontal infection may be important.

  13. Prevalence and associated f

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Yousif Abdel Wahed

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: A substantial proportion of medical students are suffering from depression, stress, and anxiety. Female sex, increasing age, overweight and obesity are significant associated factors. Further studies need to be carried to identify other associated factors related to academic medical education.

  14. [Evolution of Asthma Prevalence and Sociodemographic and Health Factors Associated in Madrid Region (1996-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Pereira, Patricia; Gandarillas Grande, Ana María; Díez Gañán, Lucía; Ordobás Gavín, María

    2017-05-25

    Asthma is an important public health issue. The goal of this study is to analyse the trends in self-reported asthma prevalence in the Madrid Region and its association with socio-demographic and health factors. Data from the "Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Surveillance System" in adult population (SIVFRENT-A) 1996-2013 were used. Prevalences and 95% CI were estimated for: current asthma, cumulative prevalence of asthma and asthma attack in the last 12 months, in five periods. Changes in inter-period prevalence were estimated by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% CI by Poisson regression. The association between asthma prevalence socio-demographic and health variables was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Current prevalence of asthma and cumulative prevalence of asthma increased per study period an average of 14%. Asthma attack prevalence in the last 12 months increased an average of 19%. It was associated (statistically significant) to an increase of current prevalence of asthma, cumulative prevalence of asthma and asthma attack prevalence in the last 12 months: being a woman, ORa: 1.55; ORa: 1.35 and ORa: 1.46 respectively; have poor self-perceived health, ORa: 3.09; ORa: 2.63 and ORa: 2.89; and intense physical activity, ORa: 1.48; ORa: 1.32 and ORa: 1.49. In the case of current prevalence of asthma and cumulative prevalence of asthma also be studying, ORa: 1.34 and ORa: 1.46 respectively. Self-reported asthma prevalence increased in the last decades. The prevalence was higher in woman, persons with poor self-perceived health and adults with intense physical activity.

  15. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, to investigate...... the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities....

  16. Serogroup prevalence of Shigellae in Bombay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonawala M

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Shigellae serotypes in Bombay was studied from June 1988 to May 1991. A total of 2758 faecal specimens were collected from paediatric patients (< 12 yrs with acute gastroenteritis. A total of 90 Shigella were isolated giving the isolation rate of 3.2%. Shigella flexneri was the predominant serogroup (73.3% followed by Shigella dysenteriae (16.6%. All the isolates were sensitive to nalidixic acid. Eighty percent of the Shigellae were multidrug resistant. Present data were compared with the study carried out during the period of 1983-87 from the same institute. A change in the serogroup prevalence was noted wherein Shigella flexneri dominated over Shigella dysenteriae since 1985. Increase in resistance to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole was seen in Shigella flexneri strains as compared to previous years.

  17. Novel Strain of Andes Virus Associated with Fatal Human Infection, Central Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cristhopher D.; Vallejo, Efrain; Agudo, Roberto; Vargas, Jorge; Blazes, David L.; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2012-01-01

    To better describe the genetic diversity of hantaviruses associated with human illness in South America, we screened blood samples from febrile patients in Chapare Province in central Bolivia during 2008–2009 for recent hantavirus infection. Hantavirus RNA was detected in 3 patients, including 1 who died. Partial RNA sequences of small and medium segments from the 3 patients were most closely related to Andes virus lineages but distinct (1 hantaviruses; the highest prevalence was among agricultural workers. Because of the high level of human exposure to hantavirus strains and the severity of resulting disease, additional studies are warranted to determine the reservoirs, ecologic range, and public health effect of this novel strain of hantavirus. PMID:22515983

  18. [Prevalence of asthma and determination of symptoms as risk indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Hernández, Eleazar; Medina-Ávalos, Miguel Alejandro; Barnica-Alvarado, Raúl Humberto; Soto-Candia, Diego; Guerrero-Venegas, Rosario; Zecua-Nájera, Yahvéh

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease whose prevalence has increased, especially in developed countries; the results of studies of asthma prevalence vary in different populations and even within the same country; in Mexico we observed fluctuations in prevalence of asthma from 7% to 33%. To determine the prevalence of asthma and severity of symptoms as risk indicators in school population in cities in various states of Mexico. A descriptive study of detection of asthma prevalence and analytical-comparative observational study of determination of symptoms of asthma. The surveys were applied to preschool, elementary, middle and high school population, in the cities of Puebla, Puebla; Tulancingo, Hidalgo; Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala, and Cancún, Quintana Roo; new validated questionnaire was used as instrument: Asthma Diagnostic Questionnaire for Epidemiologic Studies, consisting of eight questions with summation value for diagnosis. 8,754 surveys showed a 14% prevalence in Puebla, 17% in Tulancingo, 7% in Tlaxcala, and 14% in Cancún; average in four cities surveyed was 13%; the strength of association with asthma symptoms in descending order with significant odds ratio were: recurrent wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, recurrent cough, cough cold, recurrent cold symptoms, predominantly nocturnal cough, cough that increases with exercise. The average prevalence of asthma in the surveyed cities was 13% and the main symptoms indicators of risk of asthma in school children were: recurrent wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness and recurrent cough.

  19. Prevalence of Domestic Violence Among Trauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Khalil, Mazhar; Zangbar, Bardiya; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Orouji, Tahereh; Pandit, Viraj; O'Keeffe, Terence; Tang, Andrew; Gries, Lynn; Friese, Randall S; Rhee, Peter; Davis, James W

    2015-12-01

    Domestic violence is an extremely underreported crime and a growing social problem in the United States. However, the true burden of the problem remains unknown. To assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients. A 6-year (2007-2012) retrospective analysis of the prospectively maintained National Trauma Data Bank. Trauma patients who experienced domestic violence and who presented to trauma centers participating in the National Trauma Data Bank were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes (995.80-995.85, 995.50, 995.52-995.55, and 995.59) and E codes (E967.0-E967.9). Patients were stratified by age into 3 groups: children (≤18 years), adults (19-54 years), and elderly patients (≥55 years). Trend analysis was performed on April 10, 2014, to assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence over the years. Trauma patients presenting to trauma centers participating in the National Trauma Data Bank. To assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients. A total of 16 575 trauma patients who experienced domestic violence were included. Of these trauma patients, 10 224 (61.7%) were children, 5503 (33.2%) were adults, and 848 (5.1%) were elderly patients. The mean (SD) age was 15.9 (20.6), the mean (SD) Injury Severity Score was 10.9 (9.6), and 8397 (50.7%) were male patients. Head injuries (46.8% of patients) and extremity fractures (31.2% of patients) were the most common injuries. A total of 12 515 patients (75.1%) were discharged home, and the overall mortality rate was 5.9% (n = 980). The overall reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients was 5.7 cases per 1000 trauma center discharges. The prevalence of domestic violence increased among children (14.0 cases per 1000 trauma center discharges in 2007 to 18.5 case per 1000 trauma center discharges in 2012; P = .001) and adults (3.2 cases per 1000 discharges in 2007 to 4.5 cases per

  20. Constipation prevalence in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Álvaro de Freitas Lins Neto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of constipation in diabetic patients treated at the endocrinology outpatient clinic at Hospital Universitário Professor Alberto Antunes and PAM Salgadinho, from April to August 2013. Methods: a descriptive and cross-sectional study, carried out through a questionnaire using the Rome III criteria in 372 patients treated at the outpatient endocrinology clinic. Results: of 372 patients evaluated, the frequency of constipation found was 31.2% among diabetic patients. Females predominated in the sample (72.8% as well as for the frequency of constipation (80.2%. The incidence of type II diabetes was 97.3% and it was observed that 80.2% of the sample was older than 50 years. One hundred and twelve patients with inadequate glycemic control (HgA1c ≥ 7 had an association with constipation. Conclusion: there was an increased frequency of constipation in patients with diabetes mellitus according to the Rome III criteria, in relation to the general population. The inadequate glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus increases the frequency of constipation and it is necessary to perform studies that allow the confirmation of this association to demonstrate this hypothesis. Resumo: Objetivo: analisar a prevalência da constipação intestinal em pacientes diabéticos atendidos no ambulatório de endocrinologia do Hospital Universitário Professor Alberto Antunes e no PAM Salgadinho (HUPAA, de abril de 2013 a agosto 2013. Método: estudo descritivo e transversal, realizado através da aplicação de um questionário com os critérios de Roma III no ambulatório de endocrinologia do HUPAA. Resultado: em 372 pacientes, 271 feminino, 101 masculino, 162 de etnia branca, 55 negros e 155 pardos, 297 pacientes estavam acima de 50 anos, houve uma frequência de constipação de 31,2% nos pacientes diabéticos. O gênero feminino prevaleceu na amostra (73% assim como no índice de frequ

  1. Prevalence of myasthenia gravis in the Catalan county of Osona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, J M; Altimiras, J; Roura, P; Alonso, F; Bufill, E; Munmany, A; Alfonso, S; Illa, I

    The reported prevalence of myasthenia gravis ranges between 5 and 24 cases per 100,000, and people over 65years account for less than 50% of all cases. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of myasthenia gravis in the county of Osona were studied in patients younger and older than 65. The study draws from the county-based prospective myasthenia gravis register implemented by the Neurology Department at Hospital General de Vic in 1991. The prevalence of myasthenia gravis was 32.89×10 5 inhabitants (95%CI, 23.86-41.91). The standardized prevalence (European population) was 35.47×10 5 inhabitants (95%CI, 26.10-44.84). The ratio of women to men was 1.3. Overall, the group of patients older than 65 accounted for 62.75% of all cases. The prevalence of myasthenia gravis increased considerably in older age groups. No cases were registered among patients under 25years old, prevalence was 21.87×10 5 in the 25 to 64 age group, and prevalence in patients over 65 years increased to 122.35×10 5 . The clinical characteristics prior to treatment and at the cut-off date are similar (P>.05) in patients younger than 65 and those aged 65 and older. These figures show the highest prevalence rate reported to date. This high prevalence is due to the rate observed among patients older than 65. These results provide a new warning that myasthenia gravis may be underdiagnosed in the elderly population. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Refractory Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, Pedro; Calhoun, David A; Oliveras, Anna; Blanch, Pedro; Vinyoles, Ernest; Banegas, Jose R; Gorostidi, Manuel; Segura, Julián; Ruilope, Luis M; Dudenbostel, Tanja; de la Sierra, Alejandro

    2017-12-07

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of refractory hypertension (RfH) and to determine the clinical differences between these patients and resistant hypertensives (RH). Secondly, we assessed the prevalence of white-coat RfH and clinical differences between true- and white-coat RfH patients. The present analysis was conducted on the Spanish Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Registry database containing 70 997 treated hypertensive patients. RH and RfH were defined by the presence of elevated office blood pressure (≥140 and/or 90 mm Hg) in patients treated with at least 3 (RH) and 5 (RfH) antihypertensive drugs. White-coat RfH was defined by RfH with normal (<130/80 mm Hg) 24-hour blood pressure. A total of 11.972 (16.9%) patients fulfilled the standard criteria of RH, and 955 (1.4%) were considered as having RfH. Compared with RH patients, those with RfH were younger, more frequently male, and after adjusting for age and sex, had increased prevalence of target organ damage, and previous cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of white coat RfH was lower than white-coat RH (26.7% versus 37.1%, P <0.001). White-coat RfH, in comparison with those with true RfH, showed a lower prevalence of both left ventricular hypertrophy (22% versus 29.7%; P =0.018) and microalbuminuria (28.3% versus 42.9%; P =0.047). The prevalence of RfH was low and these patients had a greater cardiovascular risk profile compared with RH. One out of 4 patients with RfH have normal 24-hour blood pressure and less target organ damage, thus indicating the important role of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in guiding antihypertensive therapy in difficult-to-treat patients. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. Socioeconomic status is associated with global diabetes prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiye; Yu, Dan; Yin, Xueyao; Zheng, Fenping; Li, Hong

    2017-07-04

    The incidence of diabetes is increasing globally. We investigated the relationship between diabetes prevalence and patient socioeconomic status across multiple countries. We searched PubMed to identify population-based surveys reporting diabetes prevalence between 1990 and May 2016. Search results were filtered, and Human Development Index (HDI) values from the United Nations Development Programme were used to assess socioeconomic status for a given nation. Our analysis included 45 national surveys from 32 countries. Diabetes prevalence was positively correlated with national HDI (r = 0.421 P = 0.041) in developing countries, and negatively correlated with HDI (r = -0.442 P = 0.045) in developed countries. Diabetes prevalence trends were the same in women and men, although men were associated with increased diabetes risk in developed countries (r = 0.459 P = 0.048). Thus, diabetes prevalence rises with increasing HDI in developing countries, and this is reversed in developed countries. Ours is the first study to investigate the relationship between diabetes and socioeconomic status at global level using HDI values. These results will aid in evaluating global diabetes prevalence and risk with respect to patient socioeconomic status, and will be useful in the development of policies that help reduce disease incidence.

  4. How People Get Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventing Seoul Virus Infection in Pet Rats and People FAQs: Seoul Virus Cleaning Up After Pet Rodents to Reduce the Risk of Seoul Virus ... Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Panama, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Can pets ... rodents into contact with people if they catch such animals and carry them ...

  5. Reported Cases of HPS (Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, Panama and Uruguay and Venezuela. Large outbreaks have been rare and have usually ... Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton ...

  6. Hantavirus disease (nephropathia epidemica) in Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersago, K.; Verhagen, R.; Servais, A.

    2009-01-01

    vole (Myodes glareolus) abundance peaks. In Western Europe, these abundance peaks are often related to high tree seed production, which is supposedly triggered by specific weather conditions. We evaluated the relationship between tree seed production, climate and NE incidence in Belgium and show...... that NE epidemics are indeed preceded by abundant tree seed production. Moreover, a direct link between climate and NE incidence is found. High summer and autumn temperatures, 2 years and 1 year respectively before NE occurrence, relate to high NE incidence. This enables early forecasting of NE outbreaks...

  7. A multilevel model for cardiovascular disease prevalence in the US and its application to micro area prevalence estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congdon Peter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of disease prevalence for small areas are increasingly required for the allocation of health funds according to local need. Both individual level and geographic risk factors are likely to be relevant to explaining prevalence variations, and in turn relevant to the procedure for small area prevalence estimation. Prevalence estimates are of particular importance for major chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease. Methods A multilevel prevalence model for cardiovascular outcomes is proposed that incorporates both survey information on patient risk factors and the effects of geographic location. The model is applied to derive micro area prevalence estimates, specifically estimates of cardiovascular disease for Zip Code Tabulation Areas in the USA. The model incorporates prevalence differentials by age, sex, ethnicity and educational attainment from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Influences of geographic context are modelled at both county and state level, with the county effects relating to poverty and urbanity. State level influences are modelled using a random effects approach that allows both for spatial correlation and spatial isolates. Results To assess the importance of geographic variables, three types of model are compared: a model with person level variables only; a model with geographic effects that do not interact with person attributes; and a full model, allowing for state level random effects that differ by ethnicity. There is clear evidence that geographic effects improve statistical fit. Conclusion Geographic variations in disease prevalence partly reflect the demographic composition of area populations. However, prevalence variations may also show distinct geographic 'contextual' effects. The present study demonstrates by formal modelling methods that improved explanation is obtained by allowing for distinct geographic effects (for counties and states and for

  8. Prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis, prevalence of malaria and nutritional status of school going children in honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Franco Garcia, Dora Nelly; Fontecha Sandoval, Gustavo Adolfo; Hernandez Santana, Adriana; Singh, Prabhjot; Mancero Bucheli, Sandra Tamara; Saboya, Martha; Paz, Mirian Yolanda

    2014-10-01

    Many small studies have been done in Honduras estimating soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) prevalence but a country-wide study was last done in 2005. The country has the highest burden of malaria among all Central American countries. The present study was done to estimate country-wide STH prevalence and intensity, malaria prevalence and nutritional status in school going children. A cross-sectional study was conducted following PAHO/WHO guidelines to select a sample of school going children of 3rd to 5th grades, representative of ecological regions in the country. A survey questionnaire was filled; anthropometric measurements, stool sample for STH and blood sample for malaria were taken. Kato-Katz method was used for STH prevalence and intensity and rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for malaria parasite detection. A total of 2554 students were studied of which 43.5% had one or more STH. Trichuriasis was the most prevalent (34%) followed by ascariasis (22.3%) and hookworm (0.9%). Ecological regions II (59.7%) and VI (55.6%) in the north had the highest STH prevalence rates while IV had the lowest (10.6%). Prevalence of one or more high intensity STH was low (1.6%). Plasmodium vivax was detected by PCR in only 5 students (0.2%), all of which belonged to the same municipality; no P. falciparum infection was detected. The majority of children (83%) had normal body mass index for their respective age but a significant proportion were overweight (10.42%) and obese (4.35%). Biannual deworming campaigns would be necessary in ecological regions II and VI, where STH prevalence is >50%. High prevalence of obesity in school going children is a worrying trend and portends of future increase in obesity related diseases. Malaria prevalence, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, was low and provides evidence for Honduras to embark on elimination of the disease.

  9. Prevalence and causes of corneal blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijing; Zhang, Yaoguang; Li, Zhijian; Wang, Tiebin; Liu, Ping

    2014-04-01

    The study aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of corneal blindness in a rural northern Chinese population. Cross-sectional study. The cluster random sampling method was used to select the sample. This population-based study included 11 787 participants of all ages in rural Heilongjiang Province, China. These participants underwent a detailed interview and eye examination that included the measurement of visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy and direct ophthalmoscopy. An eye was considered to have corneal blindness if the visual acuity was blindness and low vision. Among the 10 384 people enrolled in the study, the prevalence of corneal blindness is 0.3% (95% confidence interval 0.2-0.4%). The leading cause was keratitis in childhood (40.0%), followed by ocular trauma (33.3%) and keratitis in adulthood (20.0%). Age and illiteracy were found to be associated with an increased prevalence of corneal blindness. Blindness because of corneal diseases in rural areas of Northern China is a significant public health problem that needs to be given more attention. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  10. PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN GRANITE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srilakshmi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS has significantly increased over the last few decades and has become a main health challenge worldwide. Prevalence of MS is quickly rising in developing countries due to changing lifestyle. It was considered worthwhile to study MS and its components in granite workers since granite factories are situated in and around Khammam area. Moreover, no studies of MS in granite workers have been reported in literature. OBJECTIVES: Aim of our study is to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in granite workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 210 male workers in the age group of 20 - 50 working in granite industries located in and around the Khammam town of Telangana State are selected for the present study. Blood pressures (BP, waist circumference (WC were measured. Fasting blood samples were collected for the estimation of glucose and lipids. RESULTS: 69 subjects out of 210 were identified as having MS based on updated National cholesterol education programme - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP - ATP III guidelines. CONCLUSION: MS should be identified and remedial measures may be suggested, so that the risk of hypertension, cardiovascular risk, diabetes and the resultant morbidity is minimized and can be delayed

  11. Prevalence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyun Chang; Bae, Geum Dong; Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Kun Sang

    1990-01-01

    Controversy exists about the lumbosacral transitional vertebrae(LSTV) causing low back pain and lumbar disk abnormalities such as herniated nucleus pulposus(HNP), early disk degeneration or annulus bulging. The prevalence of the lumbosacral transitional vertebrae were evaluated. The classification of LSTV is presented based upon the radiomorphological changes of transverse process of the last presacral vertebra. The type I is dysplastic transverse process, type II is incomplete lumbarization/ sacralization, type III is complete lumbarization/ sacralization, and type IV is mixed is mixed (type II and type III). Simple radiographic findings of (804 patients including) 300 patients without low back pain. 400 patients with low back pain and 104 patients with disk abnormalities on CT scan have been analyzed. The prevalence of LSTV were 51.5% in normal control group, 40.8% in low back pain group and 46.2% in disk abnormality group. The type I is regarded as the forerunner of a true transitional vertebra and the prevalence of the true LSTB (type II, III, IV) were 11.6%, 18.3% and 13.5% on each groups. The type II and III in low back pain group and type II in disk abnormality group were relatively increased in incidence of LSTV than in normal control group. A patient with the type II or III of the LSTV may show low back pain more frequently than a patient without such a LSTV. The type II of LSTV may cause lumbar disk abnormalities more frequently

  12. Review article: the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and the incidence of gastric cancer across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S E; Morrison-Rees, S; Samuel, D G; Thorne, K; Akbari, A; Williams, J G

    2016-02-01

    There is little up-to-date review evidence on the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori across Europe. To establish regional and national patterns in H. pylori prevalence across Europe. Secondly, to establish trends over time in H. pylori prevalence and gastric cancer incidence and, thirdly, to report on the relationship between H. pylori prevalence and age group across Europe. A review of H. pylori prevalence from unselected surveys of adult or general populations across 35 European countries and four European regions since 1990. Secondly, an analysis of trends over time in H. pylori prevalence and in gastric cancer incidence from cancer registry data. Helicobacter pylori prevalence was lower in northern and western Europe than in eastern and southern Europe (P Europe from 1993 to 2007 was 2.1% with little variation regionally across Europe (north 2.2%, west 2.3%, east 1.9% and south 2.0%). Sharp increases in age-related prevalence of H. pylori often levelled off for middle age groups of about 50 years onwards, especially in areas with high prevalence. This review shows that H. pylori prevalence is much higher in less affluent regions of Europe and that age-related increases in prevalence are confined to younger age groups in some areas. There were sharp reductions in both H. pylori prevalence and gastric cancer incidence throughout Europe. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish populations: A reanalysis of dementia prevalence surveys, 1990-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boix Raquel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish elderly. Methods We identified screening surveys, both published and unpublished, in Spanish populations, which fulfilled specific quality criteria and targeted prevalence of dementia in populations aged 70 years and above. Surveys covering 13 geographically different populations were selected (prevalence period: 1990-2008. Authors of original surveys provided methodological details of their studies through a systematic questionnaire and also raw age-specific data. Prevalence data were compared using direct adjustment and logistic regression. Results The reanalyzed study population (aged 70 year and above was composed of Central and North-Eastern Spanish sub-populations obtained from 9 surveys and totaled 12,232 persons and 1,194 cases of dementia (707 of Alzheimer's disease, 238 of vascular dementia. Results showed high variation in age- and sex-specific prevalence across studies. The reanalyzed prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in women; increased with age, particularly for Alzheimer's disease; and displayed a significant geographical variation among men. Prevalence was lowest in surveys reporting participation below 85%, studies referred to urban-mixed populations and populations diagnosed by psychiatrists. Conclusion Prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Central and North-Eastern Spain is higher in females, increases with age, and displays considerable geographic variation that may be method-related. People suffering from dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Spain may approach 600,000 and 400,000 respectively. However, existing studies may not be completely appropriate to infer prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in Spain until surveys in Southern Spain are conducted.

  14. Chronic disease prevalence among elderly Saudi men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquib, Nazmus; Saquib, Juliann; Alhadlag, Abdulrahman; Albakour, Mohamad Anas; Aljumah, Bader; Sughayyir, Mohammed; Alhomidan, Ziad; Alminderej, Omar; Aljaser, Mohamed; Al-Mazrou, Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    Saudi demographic composition has changed because of increased life expectancy and decreased fertility rates. Little data are available about health conditions among older adults in Saudi Arabia, who are expected to represent 20% of the population by 2050. The study aim was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for chronic conditions among older Saudi men. The sample pertained to 400 men (age ≥55 years) from Buraidah, Al-Qassim. Research assistants recruited participants in all the mosques from the randomly selected neighborhoods (16 of 95). They administered a structured questionnaire that assessed self-reported disease history (heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, gastric/peptic ulcer, and cancer), and medication use; participants' height, weight, blood pressure, and random blood glucose (glucometer) were measured. Multinomial logistic regressions were employed to assess correlates of number of chronic diseases. The mean and standard deviation for age and body mass index (BMI) were 63.0 ± 7.5 years and 28.9 ± 4.8 (kg/m 2 ), respectively. 78% (77.8%) were overweight or obese, 35.0% were employed, 54.5% walked daily, 9.3% were current smokers, and 85.0% belonged to the middle class. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, asthma, ulcer, and cancer were: 71.3% 27.3%, 16.4%, 9.7%, 8.9%, and 2.0%, respectively. Of the participants, 31.0% had one, 34.5% had two or more, and 34.5% did not have any chronic diseases. The likelihood of chronic diseases increased with increased age, higher BMI, and current smoking. The chronic disease prevalence among the Saudi elderly men is substantial.

  15. Hepatitis B prevalence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Hay, G; Cowan, S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Denmark is not clear. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in Denmark. The capture–recapture method was used to estimate the total population diagnosed with chronic HBV infection......, and the capture–recapture estimate of the total population diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B was 7,112 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6,953–10,747). Only 17% of the identified patients attended recommended clinical care according to national guidelines. Including undiagnosed patients, the current population...

  16. Contributions of incidence and persistence to the prevalence of childhood obesity during the emerging epidemic in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity is the result of preceding incidence of newly developed obesity and persistence of obesity. We investigated whether increasing incidence and/or persistence during childhood drove the prevalence of childhood obesity during the emerging epidemic....

  17. Prevalence of maternal chronic diseases during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølving, Line Riis; Nielsen, Jan; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is substantial evidence of a negative impact of maternal chronic disease during pregnancy on reproductive outcomes. Knowledge of the prevalence of chronic diseases during pregnancy is limited, but essential for a focused preventive effort regarding optimal disease control during...... chronic diseases were chronic lung diseases/asthma (1.73%), thyroid disorders (1.50%) and anxiety and personality disorders (1.33%). Taking increasing maternal age at birth into account, the relative risk for women to have a chronic disease from 2009 to 2013 was 4.14 (95% CI 4.05-4.22), compared...

  18. The prevalence and perception of obesity and its association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This investigation was prompted by the increase of obesity in developing countries with the simultaneous increased risk of preventable noncommunicable diseases. We aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity among women serving a predominantly black peri-urban community, who visited a healthcare ...

  19. Prevalence of upper limb disorders among female librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandy, R

    2013-09-01

    Work as a librarian involves exposure to potential risk factors for developing upper limb disorders. The prevalence of upper limb symptoms has, however, not previously been assessed in this occupational group. To estimate the 7-day and annual prevalence of self-reported neck and upper limb symptoms in librarians and to examine associations with specific tasks and ergonomic risk factors. A cross-sectional study using components of the standardized Nordic questionnaire. The study population consisted of librarians employed by a large local authority, and data collection was by means of a self-administered questionnaire. from studies on keyboard workers and on the general population were used as comparators. The 7-day prevalence of self-reported neck and upper limb pain in female librarians was 42% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33.7-50.5) and the annual prevalence was 65% (95% CI 56.6-72.8). The prevalence of reported wrist and hand pain increased with increased working involving a wide thumb-index span (P librarians was high, but there was insufficient evidence to confirm whether the prevalence was higher than in the general population or among keyboard workers. Working with a wide thumb-index span was associated with reporting upper limb symptoms.

  20. Prevalence of breast arterial calcification in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, M.; Cetin, R.; Tamer, N.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the age-specific prevalence of breast arterial calcifications in patients with systemic hypertension. METHODS: The mammograms and patient records of 2406 women who underwent screening or diagnostic mammography were reviewed retrospectively. Mammograms were evaluated for the presence of arterial calcification and results were coded. Hypertension was defined as use of anti-hypertensive agents and diabetes was defined as use of oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin. RESULTS: The prevalence of breast arterial calcification among hypertensives (17.6%) was lower than among diabetics (25.4%). The prevalence in the non-diabetic, non-hypertensive group was lowest (7.3%). The prevalence increased with age in all three groups. The highest prevalence was found in diabetics older than 60 years (81.8%). Breast arterial calcification was not found among women younger than 40 years. CONCLUSION: Breast arterial calcification is associated with hypertension and prevalence increases with age. Breast arterial calcification on mammograms may indicate unsuspected hypertension especially in non-diabetic patients

  1. Prevalence of human cysticercosis and taeniasis in rural Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, S H; Motghare, D D; Ferreira, A M; Kulkarni, M S; Vaz, F S

    2008-06-01

    A cross sectional study among 450 individuals selected by strafified random sampling was carried out in rural Goa to find out the prevalence of cysticercosis and taeniasis, as well as to study the role of various factors associated with this diseases. The study participants were administered a pre-tested structured questionnaire and subsequently blood and stool samples were examined. SPSS software was used to analyze the data statistically. The sero-prevalence of cysterosis was 22.4%, which increased with age. Prevalence of taeniasis was 9.7% by stool examination. Individuals with taeniasis were thrice more likely to have cysticercosis; however no association between sero-positivity for cysterosis and pork consumption as well as religion could be established. The study confirmed a high sero-prevalence of cysticercosis in Goa underscoring the need to general awareness about good cooking habits and sanitation.

  2. [Rotator cuff tear athropathy prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Soriano, F; Encalada-Díaz, M I; Ruiz-Suárez, M; Valero-González, F S

    2017-01-01

    Glenohumeral arthritis secondary to massive rotator cuff tear presents with a superior displacement and femoralization of the humeral head with coracoacromial arch acetabular