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Sample records for increased fat oxidation

  1. Exercise Increases 24-h Fat Oxidation Only When It Is Performed Before Breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaito Iwayama

    2015-12-01

    Interpretation: Under energy-balanced conditions, 24-h fat oxidation was increased by exercise only when performed before breakfast. Transient carbohydrate deficits, i.e., glycogen depletion, observed after morning exercise may have contributed to increased 24-h fat oxidation.

  2. Effects of increased meal frequency on fat oxidation and perceived hunger.

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    Ohkawara, Kazunori; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kohrt, Wendy M; Melanson, Edward L

    2013-02-01

    Consuming smaller, more frequent meals is often advocated as a means of controlling body weight, but studies demonstrating a mechanistic effect of this practice on factors associated with body weight regulation are lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of consuming three (3M) vs. six meals (6M) per day on 24-h fat oxidation and subjective ratings of hunger. Lean (body mass index meal frequency from three to six per day has no significant effect on 24-h fat oxidation, but may increase hunger and the desire to eat. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  3. Increased fat oxidation and regulation of metabolic genes with ultraendurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Rehrer, N J; Pilegaard, H

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Regular endurance exercise stimulates muscle metabolic capacity, but effects of very prolonged endurance exercise are largely unknown. This study examined muscle substrate availability and utilization during prolonged endurance exercise, and associated metabolic genes. METHODS: Data were...... exercise markedly increases plasma fatty acid availability and fat utilization during exercise. Exercise-induced regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in fatty acid recruitment and oxidation may contribute to these changes....

  4. Breakfasts Higher in Protein Increase Postprandial Energy Expenditure, Increase Fat Oxidation, and Reduce Hunger in Overweight Children from 8 to 12 Years of Age.

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    Baum, Jamie I; Gray, Michelle; Binns, Ashley

    2015-10-01

    Currently 1 in every 3 children aged 2-19 y is overweight or obese. Breakfast is a key component of a healthy diet and has the potential to affect children's health. The objective of this study was to determine whether consumption of a protein-based breakfast (PRO) increases postprandial energy metabolism and substrate oxidation, reduces hunger, and reduces food intake at lunch compared with a carbohydrate-based breakfast (CHO) in normal weight (NW) vs. overweight/obese (OW) children. A randomized, crossover-design study was conducted in NW (n = 16; 33 ± 1 kg) and OW (n = 13; 46 ± 2 kg) children (10 ± 1 y). Participants were served either a PRO [344 kcal, 21% protein (18 g), 52% carbohydrate, and 27% fat] or CHO [327 kcal, 4% protein (3 g), 67% carbohydrate, and 29% fat]. Energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation, appetite, and blood glucose were measured over a 4 h period. Four hour postprandial participants were provided with access to a lunch buffet and food intake was recorded. After breakfast, OW children in the PRO group had higher (P fat oxidation over the 4 h period than did the NW children in the CHO and PRO groups. There was no difference in postprandial EE or carbohydrate oxidation between the CHO and PRO groups over the 4 h period; however, fat oxidation was 16% higher (P children. A PRO increases postprandial EE and fat oxidation, reduces hunger, and increases satiety when compared with a carbohydrate-based breakfast. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. A solid dietary fat containing fish oil redistributes lipoprotein subclasses without increasing oxidative stress in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Hellgren, Lars; Petersen, M.

    2004-01-01

    , a solid dietary fat containing (n-3) PUFA decreased plasma TAG, VLDL, and IDL cholesterol, and redistributed lipoprotein subclasses in LDL and HDL, with a higher concentration of the larger and less atherogenic subfractions. These changes took place without an increase in oxidative stress as measured...... of F than O fat (P oxidation measured as the ratio of plasma isoprostanes F-2 to arachidonic acid and urinary isoprostanes, whereas the vitamin E activity/plasma total lipids ratio was higher after intake of F than O (P = 0.008). In conclusion...

  6. Normal mitochondrial function and increased fat oxidation capacity in leg and arm muscles in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ara, I; Larsen, S; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2011-01-01

    was that fat oxidation during exercise might be differentially preserved in leg and arm muscles after weight loss.Methods:Indirect calorimetry was used to calculate fat and carbohydrate oxidation during both progressive arm-cranking and leg-cycling exercises. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from musculus...... deltoideus (m. deltoideus) and m. vastus lateralis muscles. Fibre-type composition, enzyme activity and O(2) flux capacity of saponin-permeabilized muscle fibres were measured, the latter by high-resolution respirometry.Results:During the graded exercise tests, peak fat oxidation during leg cycling...... and the relative workload at which it occurred (FatMax) were higher in PO and O than in C. During arm cranking, peak fat oxidation was higher in O than in C, and FatMax was higher in O than in PO and C. Similar fibre-type composition was found between groups. Plasma adiponectin was higher in PO than in C and O...

  7. Structured triglycerides were well tolerated and induced increased whole body fat oxidation compared with long-chain triglycerides in postoperative patients.

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    Sandström, R; Hyltander, A; Körner, U; Lundholm, K

    1995-01-01

    It has been proposed, on the basis of animal experiments, that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) may exert more favorable effects on whole body metabolism of injured animals than long-chain triglycerides (LCT). Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate whether structured triglycerides are associated with increased whole body fat oxidation without promotion of ketogenesis in postoperative patients. A structured lipid emulsion (73403 Pharmacia, Sweden) containing medium- and long-chain fatty acids, esterified randomly to glycerol in a triglyceride structure, was used. Whole body fat oxidation was determined by indirect calorimetry in the postoperative period. Patients were randomized to receive structured lipids 1 day followed by LCT (Intralipid, Pharmacia) the next day or vice versa during 6 postoperative days. In part 1 of the study patients received fat at 1.0 g/kg per day in the presence of 80% of the basal requirement of nonprotein calories. In part 2 patients received fat at 1.5 g/kg per day in the presence of 120% of the nonprotein caloric requirement. Amino acids were always provided at 0.15 g N/kg per day. Structured lipids were not associated with any side effects, were rapidly cleared from the plasma compartment, and were rapidly oxidized without any significant hyperlipidemia or ketosis. Provision of structured lipids in the presence of excess of nonprotein calories (part 2) caused a significantly higher whole body fat oxidation (2.4 +/- 0.05 g/kg per day) compared with LCT provision (1.9 +/- 0.06 g/kg per day) (p structured triglycerides were associated with increased whole body fat oxidation in stressed postoperative patients, which is in line with the original metabolic and biochemical concept for structured triglycerides. The study provided evidence to support that structured lipids may represent a next generation of IV fat emulsions that may be clinically advantageous compared with conventional LCT emulsions in certain clinical conditions.

  8. Obesity-related polymorphisms and their associations with the ability to regulate fat oxidation in obese europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corpeleijn, Eva; Petersen, Liselotte; Holst, Claus

    2010-01-01

    for fat oxidation, insulin resistance, and obesity, including FTO. Energy expenditure (EE) and fat oxidation were measured with indirect calorimetry during fasting and 3 h after a high fat load containing 95 energy% of fat (60% saturated fat, energy content 50% of estimated resting EE) in 722 obese......Both obesity and insulin resistance have been related to low fat oxidation rates, which may be genetically determined. The association between variation in fat oxidation rates among obese subjects and genotype was studied for 42 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 candidate genes.......01) was related to increased fat oxidation in the fasting state. The ability to increase fat oxidation after a high fat load was increased in subjects with -174 G>C IL6 (rs1800795) (P = 0.01). Effect sizes range from 1.1 to 3.1% differences in fat oxidation (expressed as % of EE). FTO rs9939609 was not related...

  9. Structured medium and long chain triglycerides show short-term increases in fat oxidation, but no changes in adiposity in men.

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    Roynette, Catherine E; Rudkowska, Iwona; Nakhasi, Dilip K; Jones, Peter J H

    2008-05-01

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) have been suggested as modulators of human energy expenditure (EE) and thus may influence total and regional body fat distribution. To investigate in overweight men the effects of structured medium and long chain triglycerides on EE, substrate oxidation and body adiposity, compared to extra virgin olive oil (OO). In a 6 week single-blind crossover study, 23 overweight men were randomly assigned to consume a standard high-fat diet of which 75% total fat was provided as either structured medium and long chain triglycerides referred to as structured oil (StO), or OO. EE and body composition were measured using indirect calorimetry and magnetic resonance imaging, respectively, at weeks 1 and 6 of each phase. Body weight decreased (pstructured medium and long chain triglyceride oil increases short-term fat oxidation but fails to modulate body weight or adiposity through a change in EE.

  10. Hypoxia, Oxidative Stress and Fat

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    Nikolaus Netzer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disturbances in white adipose tissue in obese individuals contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Impaired insulin action in adipocytes is associated with elevated lipolysis and increased free fatty acids leading to ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle. Chronic adipose tissue hypoxia has been suggested to be part of pathomechanisms causing dysfunction of adipocytes. Hypoxia can provoke oxidative stress in human and animal adipocytes and reduce the production of beneficial adipokines, such as adiponectin. However, time-dose responses to hypoxia relativize the effects of hypoxic stress. Long-term exposure of fat cells to hypoxia can lead to the production of beneficial substances such as leptin. Knowledge of time-dose responses of hypoxia on white adipose tissue and the time course of generation of oxidative stress in adipocytes is still scarce. This paper reviews the potential links between adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation caused by adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage infiltration and production of inflammatory mediators.

  11. Erythropoietin over-expression protects against diet-induced obesity in mice through increased fat oxidation in muscles.

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    Pernille Hojman

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin can be over-expressed in skeletal muscles by gene electrotransfer, resulting in 100-fold increase in serum EPO and significant increases in haemoglobin levels. Earlier studies have suggested that EPO improves several metabolic parameters when administered to chronically ill kidney patients. Thus we applied the EPO over-expression model to investigate the metabolic effect of EPO in vivo.At 12 weeks, EPO expression resulted in a 23% weight reduction (P<0.01 in EPO transfected obese mice; thus the mice weighed 21.9+/-0.8 g (control, normal diet, 21.9+/-1.4 g (EPO, normal diet, 35.3+/-3.3 g (control, high-fat diet and 28.8+/-2.6 g (EPO, high-fat diet. Correspondingly, DXA scanning revealed that this was due to a 28% reduction in adipose tissue mass.The decrease in adipose tissue mass was accompanied by a complete normalisation of fasting insulin levels and glucose tolerance in the high-fat fed mice. EPO expression also induced a 14% increase in muscle volume and a 25% increase in vascularisation of the EPO transfected muscle. Muscle force and stamina were not affected by EPO expression. PCR array analysis revealed that genes involved in lipid metabolism, thermogenesis and inflammation were increased in muscles in response to EPO expression, while genes involved in glucose metabolism were down-regulated. In addition, muscular fat oxidation was increased 1.8-fold in both the EPO transfected and contralateral muscles.In conclusion, we have shown that EPO when expressed in supra-physiological levels has substantial metabolic effects including protection against diet-induced obesity and normalisation of glucose sensitivity associated with a shift to increased fat metabolism in the muscles.

  12. Erythropoietin over-expression protects against diet-induced obesity in mice through increased fat oxidation in muscles.

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    Hojman, Pernille; Brolin, Camilla; Gissel, Hanne; Brandt, Claus; Zerahn, Bo; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Gehl, Julie

    2009-06-12

    Erythropoietin can be over-expressed in skeletal muscles by gene electrotransfer, resulting in 100-fold increase in serum EPO and significant increases in haemoglobin levels. Earlier studies have suggested that EPO improves several metabolic parameters when administered to chronically ill kidney patients. Thus we applied the EPO over-expression model to investigate the metabolic effect of EPO in vivo.At 12 weeks, EPO expression resulted in a 23% weight reduction (Pincrease in muscle volume and a 25% increase in vascularisation of the EPO transfected muscle. Muscle force and stamina were not affected by EPO expression. PCR array analysis revealed that genes involved in lipid metabolism, thermogenesis and inflammation were increased in muscles in response to EPO expression, while genes involved in glucose metabolism were down-regulated. In addition, muscular fat oxidation was increased 1.8-fold in both the EPO transfected and contralateral muscles.In conclusion, we have shown that EPO when expressed in supra-physiological levels has substantial metabolic effects including protection against diet-induced obesity and normalisation of glucose sensitivity associated with a shift to increased fat metabolism in the muscles.

  13. Role of glycogen-lowering exercise in the change of fat oxidation in response to a high-fat diet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwen, P.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. One of the candidate factors for determining the increase of fat oxidation after a switch from a reduced-fat diet to a high-fat diet is the size of the glycogen storage. Therefore, we studied the effect of low glycogen stores on

  14. Impaired fat oxidation after a single high-fat meal in insulin-sensitive nondiabetic individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes.

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    Heilbronn, Leonie K; Gregersen, Søren; Shirkhedkar, Deepali; Hu, Dachun; Campbell, Lesley V

    2007-08-01

    Individuals with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes have an impaired ability to switch appropriately between carbohydrate and fatty acid oxidation. However, whether this is a cause or consequence of insulin resistance is unclear, and the mechanism(s) involved in this response is not completely elucidated. Whole-body fat oxidation and transcriptional regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle were measured after a prolonged fast and after consumption of either high-fat (76%) or high-carbohydrate (76%) meals in individuals with no family history of type 2 diabetes (control, n = 8) and in age- and fatness-matched individuals with a strong family history of type 2 diabetes (n = 9). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed before and 3 h after each meal. Insulin sensitivity and fasting measures of fat oxidation were not different between groups. However, subjects with a family history of type 2 diabetes had an impaired ability to increase fatty acid oxidation in response to the high-fat meal (P FAT)/CD36 (P fat meal in both groups, but it was not changed after the high-carbohydrate meal. In conclusion, an impaired ability to increase fatty acid oxidation precedes the development of insulin resistance in genetically susceptible individuals. PGC1alpha and FAT/CD36 are likely candidates in mediating this response.

  15. Metabolism and Whole-Body Fat Oxidation Following Post-Exercise Carbohydrate or Protein Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Pettersson, Stefan; Edin, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    : Protein supplementation immediately post-exercise did not affect the doubling in whole body fat oxidation seen during a subsequent exercise trial 2 hours later. Neither did it affect resting fat oxidation during the post-exercise period despite increased insulin levels and attenuated ketosis. Carbohydrate...

  16. Lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color changes, and volatile compounds production in irradiated raw pork batters with different fat content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheo Run; Byun, Myung Woo

    2000-01-01

    An emulsion-type product was prepared to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color change, and volatile production in raw pork with different fat content. Lipid oxidation increased with an increase in fat content or irradiation dose. Irradiated batters had higher cholesterol oxides than did non-irradiated batters, and the major cholesterol oxides formed in irradiated pork batters were 7α- and 7β- hydroxycholesterol. Hunter color a- and b-values of raw pork batters were decreased by irradiation regardless of fat content. Irradiation significantly increased the amount of volatile compounds. Although lipid oxidation of high fat products (10 and 15% fat) was higher than that of low fat products (4%), high fat products did not always produce greater amount of volatile compounds in raw pork batters. In summary, irradiation increased lipid and cholesterol oxidation, and volatile compounds production, and had detrimental effects on the color of raw pork batter under aerobic conditions

  17. Systemic Oxidative Stress Is Increased to a Greater Degree in Young, Obese Women Following Consumption of a High Fat Meal

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    Richard J. Bloomer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available High fat meals induce oxidative stress, which is associated with the pathogenesis of disease. Obese individuals have elevated resting biomarkers of oxidative stress compared to non-obese. We compared blood oxidative stress biomarkers in obese (n = 14; 30 ± 2 years; BMI 35 ± 1 kg•m−2 and non-obese (n = 16; 24 ± 2 years; BMI 23 ± 1 kg•m−2 women, in response to a high fat meal. Blood samples were collected pre-meal (fasted, and at 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours post meal, and assayed for trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, xanthine oxidase activity (XO, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA, triglycerides (TAG, and glucose. An obesity status effect was noted for all variables (p 0.05, contrasts revealed greater values in obese compared to non-obese women for XO, H2O2, MDA, TAG and glucose, and lower values for TEAC at times from 1–6 hours post feeding (p ≤ 0.03. We conclude that young, obese women experience a similar pattern of increase in blood oxidative stress biomarkers in response to a high fat meal, as compared to non-obese women. However, the overall oxidative stress is greater in obese women, and values appear to remain elevated for longer periods of time post feeding. These data provide insight into another potential mechanism related to obesity-mediated morbidity.

  18. Does increased Nitric Oxide production and oxidative stress due to high fat diet affect cardiac function after myocardial infarction?

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    Marjan Aghajani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objectives: High fat (HF diet by affecting the oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO production may lead to different effects on function of the heart after myocardial infarction (MI. In the present study we aimed to address the hypothesis that high release of NO by activated macrophages affects LV function after MI.Methods: The animals were randomly divided into four groups comprising each of 10 rats: 1 Sham; 2 MI; 3 Sham+ HF diet; 4 MI+ HF diet. Animals fed with HF diet 30 days before sham and MI surgery. MI was induced by permanent ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD. Nitric oxide (NO production of peritoneal macrophages, the concentrations of MDA in the heart and the infarct size were measured.Results: Our study indicated that HF has adverse effects on myocardium and it may increase NO production as well as oxidative stress, resulting in augmentation of infarct size.Conclusion: Our results add to our knowledge that HF diet was associated with overproduction of NO by peritoneal macrophages and ROS that lead to development of infarct size and adverse remodeling.

  19. High Dietary Fat Selectively Increases Catalase Expression within Cardiac Mitochondria*

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    Rindler, Paul M.; Plafker, Scott M.; Szweda, Luke I.; Kinter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One consequence of obesity is dyslipidemia characterized by high blood triglycerides. It has been proposed that oxidative stress, driven by utilization of lipids for energy, contributes to these diseases. The effects of oxidative stress are mitigated by an endogenous antioxidant enzyme network, but little is known about its response to high fat utilization. Our experiments used a multiplexed quantitative proteomics method to measure antioxidant enzyme expression in heart tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. This experiment showed a rapid and specific up-regulation of catalase protein, with subsequent assays showing increases in activity and mRNA. Catalase, traditionally considered a peroxisomal protein, was found to be present in cardiac mitochondria and significantly increased in content and activity during high fat feeding. These data, coupled with the fact that fatty acid oxidation enhances mitochondrial H2O2 production, suggest that a localized catalase increase is needed to consume excessive mitochondrial H2O2 produced by increased fat metabolism. To determine whether the catalase-specific response is a common feature of physiological conditions that increase blood triglycerides and fatty acid oxidation, we measured changes in antioxidant expression in fasted versus fed mice. Indeed, a similar specific catalase increase was observed in mice fasted for 24 h. Our findings suggest a fundamental metabolic process in which catalase expression is regulated to prevent damage while preserving an H2O2-mediated sensing of diet composition that appropriately adjusts insulin sensitivity in the short term as needed to prioritize lipid metabolism for complete utilization. PMID:23204527

  20. Effect of salting on back fat hydrolysis and oxidation

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    Tunieva, E. К; Nasonova, V. V.; Stanovova, I. A.; Spiridonov, К I.; Kurzova, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Technological factors significantly affect the rate of hydrolytic and oxidative changes in fat. The aim of the research was to study the effect of sodium chloride on hydrolysis and oxidation of fat raw material, including the impact of thermal treatment. Back fat was minced, sodium chloride was added (in amounts of 0.0, 2.0, 3.5 or 5.0%), then it was thermally treated or not. Determination of the acid value (AV) was carried out by titration with aqueous potassium hydroxide of free fatty acids in the ether-alcohol solution of back fat; the peroxide value (PV) was based on oxidation of iodhydric acid with peroxides contained in fat followed by titration of released iodine with sodium thiosulphate. The thiobarbituric acid value (TBAV) was determined by the development of stained substances due to interaction of fat oxidation products with 2-thiobarbituric acid and measurement of color intensity using a spectrophotometer. Adding 5.0% sodium chloride to back fat led to a 30.1% decrease in AV. Addition of 2.0% sodium chloride inhibited the development of the oxidation products and led to a 17% decrease in the PV and to a 25% decrease in TBAV (p0.05). The results obtained showed an ambiguous effect of sodium chloride on the processes of fat oxidation, depending on dosage and the use of thermal treatment, justifying the necessity to develop approaches that allow reduction of the sodium chloride content in meat products that are not subjected to thermal treatment.

  1. Effect of a 1-hour single bout of moderate-intensity exercise on fat oxidation kinetics.

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    Chenevière, Xavier; Borrani, Fabio; Ebenegger, Vincent; Gojanovic, Boris; Malatesta, Davide

    2009-12-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of a prior 1-hour continuous exercise bout (CONT) at an intensity (Fat(max)) that elicits the maximal fat oxidation (MFO) on the fat oxidation kinetics during a subsequent submaximal incremental test (IncrC). Twenty moderately trained subjects (9 men and 11 women) performed a graded test on a treadmill (Incr), with 3-minute stages and 1-km.h(-1) increments. Fat oxidation was measured using indirect calorimetry and plotted as a function of exercise intensity. A mathematical model (SIN) including 3 independent variables (dilatation, symmetry, and translation) was used to characterize the shape of fat oxidation kinetics and to determine Fat(max) and MFO. On a second visit, the subjects performed CONT at Fat(max) followed by IncrC. After CONT performed at 57% +/- 3% (means +/- SE) maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)), the respiratory exchange ratio during IncrC was lower at every stage compared with Incr (P rates from 35% to 70% Vo(2max) (P .05), whereas symmetry tended to be greater in IncrC (P = .096). This study showed that the prior 1-hour continuous moderate-intensity exercise bout increased Fat(max), MFO, and fat oxidation rates over a wide range of intensities during the postexercise incremental test. Moreover, the shape of the postexercise fat oxidation kinetics tended to have a rightward asymmetry.

  2. Dietary oxidized poultry offal fat: broiler performance and oxidative stability of thigh meat during chilled storage

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    AMC Racanicci

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary oxidized poultry offal fat on the performance of broilers and on the oxidative stability of dark chicken meat. One hundred and sixty male chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 4% fresh or oxidized poultry fat from 10 to 47 days of age. Fresh fat was stored frozen until diets were produced, and oxidized fat was obtained by electrical heating (110 to 120 ºC. Birds were slaughtered at 47 days of age, and carcass characteristics were measured. Skinless and deboned thigh meat was stored chilled during 12 days, and samples were periodically collected to assess their quality and oxidative stability. Dietary oxidized fat did not affect bird performance or carcass characteristics. During chilled storage, meat color (L*, a* and b* was not affected by dietary treatments; however, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances values were higher (P<0.05 in thigh meat from chickens fed the oxidized fat, indicating that oxidative stability was adversely affected.

  3. A PUFA-rich diet improves fat oxidation following saturated fat-rich meal.

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    Stevenson, Jada L; Miller, Mary K; Skillman, Hannah E; Paton, Chad M; Cooper, Jamie A

    2017-08-01

    To determine substrate oxidation responses to saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich meals before and after a 7-day polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich diet versus control diet. Twenty-six, normal-weight, adults were randomly assigned to either PUFA or control diet. Following a 3-day lead-in diet, participants completed the pre-diet visit where anthropometrics and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured, and two SFA-rich HF meals (breakfast and lunch) were consumed. Indirect calorimetry was used to determine fat oxidation (Fox) and energy expenditure (EE) for 4 h after each meal. Participants then consumed a PUFA-rich diet (50 % carbohydrate, 15 % protein, 35 % fat, of which 21 % of total energy was PUFA) or control diet (50 % carbohydrate, 15 % protein, 35 % fat, of which 7 % of total energy was PUFA) for the next 7 days. Following the 7-day diet, participants completed the post-diet visit. From pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet, there was no change in RMR (16.3 ± 0.8 vs. 16.4 ± 0.8 kcal/20 min) or in incremental area under the curve for EE (118.9 ± 20.6-126.9 ± 14.1 kcal/8h, ns). Fasting respiratory exchange ratio increased from pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet only (0.83 ± 0.1-0.86 ± 0.1, p diet (0.03 ± 0.1-0.23 ± 0.1 g/15 min for cumulative Fox; p diet initiates greater fat oxidation after eating occasional high SFA meals compared to a control diet, an effect achieved in 7 days.

  4. All-trans retinoic acid increases oxidative metabolism in mature adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercader, Josep; Madsen, Lise; Felipe, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In rodents, retinoic acid (RA) treatment favors loss of body fat mass and the acquisition of brown fat features in white fat depots. In this work, we sought to examine to what extent these RA effects are cell autonomous or dependent on systemic factors. METHODS: Parameters of lipid......), and to an increased expression of proteins favoring fat oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha, uncoupling protein 2, fasting-induced adipose factor, enzymes of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation). These changes paralleled inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein and were...

  5. Swimming training induces liver adaptations to oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity in rats submitted to high-fat diet.

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    Zacarias, Aline Cruz; Barbosa, Maria Andrea; Guerra-Sá, Renata; De Castro, Uberdan Guilherme Mendes; Bezerra, Frank Silva; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Cardoso, Leonardo M; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza Dos; Campagnole-Santos, Maria José; Alzamora, Andréia Carvalho

    2017-11-01

    Oxidative stress, physical inactivity and high-fat (FAT) diets are associated with hepatic disorders such as metabolic syndrome (MS). The therapeutic effects of physical training (PT) were evaluated in rats with MS induced by FAT diet for 13 weeks, on oxidative stress and insulin signaling in the liver, during the last 6 weeks. FAT-sedentary (SED) rats increased body mass, retroperitoneal fat, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR), and total cholesterol, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose and insulin. Livers of FAT-SED rats increased superoxide dismutase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyl and oxidized glutathione (GSSG); and decreased catalase activity, reduced glutathione/GSSG ratio, and the mRNA expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and serine/threonine kinase 2. FAT-PT rats improved in fitness and reduced their body mass, retroperitoneal fat, and glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, MAP and HR; and their livers increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, the reduced glutathione/GSSG ratio and the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin receptor compared to FAT-SED rats. These findings indicated adaptive responses to PT by restoring the oxidative balance and insulin signaling in the liver and certain biometric and biochemical parameters as well as MAP in MS rats.

  6. Change in maximal fat oxidation in response to different regimes of periodized high-intensity interval training (HIIT).

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    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; Gallant, Rachael; King, Leesa; Ordille, Gina M; Heath, Brendyn; Montell, Matthew; Bandong, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Increased capacity for fat oxidation (FatOx) is demonstrated in response to chronic endurance training as well as high-intensity interval training (HIIT). This study examined changes in maximal fat oxidation (MFO) in response to 20 sessions of periodized HIIT in an attempt to identify if various regimes of HIIT similarly augment capacity for FatOx. Thirty-nine habitually active men and women (mean age and VO 2 max = 22.5 ± 4.4 year and 40.0 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) completed training and 32 men and women with similar physical activity and fitness level served as non-exercising controls (CON). Training consisted of ten sessions of progressive low-volume HIIT on the cycle ergometer after which participants completed an additional ten sessions of sprint interval training (SIT), high-volume HIIT, or periodized HIIT, whose assignment was randomized. Before and throughout training, MFO, FatOx, and carbohydrate oxidation (CHOOx) were assessed during progressive cycling to exhaustion. Compared to CON, there was no effect of HIIT on MFO (p = 0.11). Small increases (p = 0.03) in FatOx were evident in response to HIIT leading to an additional 4.3 g of fat oxidized, although this value may not be clinically meaningful. Our results refute the widely reported increases in capacity for FatOx demonstrated with HIIT, which is likely due to marked day-to-day variability in determinations of MFO and exercise fat oxidation as well as the heterogeneity of our sample.

  7. Fat oxidation at rest predicts peak fat oxidation during exercise and metabolic phenotype in overweight men

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    Rosenkilde, M; Nordby, P; Nielsen, L B

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate if fat oxidation at rest predicts peak fat oxidation during exercise and/or metabolic phenotype in moderately overweight, sedentary men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.Subjects:We measured respiratory exchange ratio (RER) at rest in 44 moderately overweight, normotensive...... the International Diabetes Federation criteria, we found that there was a lower accumulation of metabolic risk factors in L-RER than in H-RER (1.6 vs 3.5, P=0.028), and no subjects in L-RER and four of eight subjects in H-RER had the metabolic syndrome. Resting RER was positively correlated with plasma...... triglycerides (Pexercise was positively correlated with plasma free fatty acid concentration at rest (Pexercise and a healthy metabolic...

  8. High fat diet aggravates arsenic induced oxidative stress in rat heart and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mousumi; Ghosh, Debosree; Ghosh, Arnab Kumar; Bose, Gargi; Chattopadhyay, Aindrila; Rudra, Smita; Dey, Monalisa; Bandyopadhyay, Arkita; Pattari, Sanjib K; Mallick, Sanjaya; Bandyopadhyay, Debasish

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic is a well known global groundwater contaminant. Exposure of human body to arsenic causes various hazardous effects via oxidative stress. Nutrition is an important susceptible factor which can affect arsenic toxicity by several plausible mechanisms. Development of modern civilization led to alteration in the lifestyle as well as food habits of the people both in urban and rural areas which led to increased use of junk food containing high level of fat. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of high fat diet on heart and liver tissues of rats when they were co-treated with arsenic. This study was established by elucidating heart weight to body weight ratio as well as analysis of the various functional markers, oxidative stress biomarkers and also the activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Histological analysis confirmed the biochemical investigations. From this study it can be concluded that high fat diet increased arsenic induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Glucose and Fat Oxidation: Bomb Calorimeter Be Damned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For both respiration and combustion, the energy loss difference between glucose and fat oxidation often is referenced to the efficiency of the fuel. Yet, the addition of anaerobic metabolism with ATP resynthesis to complete respiratory glucose oxidation further contributes to energy loss in the form of entropy changes that are not measured or quantified by calorimetry; combustion and respiratory fat/lactate oxidation lack this anaerobic component. Indeed, the presence or absence of an anaerobic energy expenditure component needs to be applied to the estimation of energy costs in regard to glucose, lactate, and fuel oxidation, especially when the measurement of oxygen uptake alone may incorrectly define energy expenditure.

  10. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K

    2008-01-01

    )max) were measured in 10 older (age, 60 +/- 4 years; mean +/- SEM) and 10 younger (age, 35 +/- 4 years) body mass index-matched, obese, normal glucose-tolerant individuals. Fasting blood samples were also collected. Older subjects had slightly elevated fat mass (32.2 +/- 7.1 vs 36.5 +/- 6.7 kg, P......Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2...... is responsible for reduced basal fat oxidation and maximal oxidative capacity in older obese individuals, independent of changes in insulin resistance, body mass, and abdominal fat. This indicates that age, in addition to obesity, is an independent risk factor for weight gain and for the metabolic complications...

  11. Whole-body fat oxidation determined by graded exercise and indirect calorimetry: a role for muscle oxidative capacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, P; Saltin, B; Helge, J W

    2006-01-01

    During whole-body exercise, peak fat oxidation occurs at a moderate intensity. This study investigated whole-body peak fat oxidation in untrained and trained subjects, and the presence of a relation between skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity and whole-body peak fat oxidation. Healthy male...... subjects were recruited and categorized into an untrained (N=8, VO(2max) 3.5+/-0.1 L/min) and a trained (N=8, VO(2max) 4.6+/-0.2 L/min) group. Subjects performed a graded exercise test commencing at 60 W for 8 min followed by 35 W increments every 3 min. On a separate day, muscle biopsies were obtained...... oxidation was determined. The body composition was determined by DEXA. Whole-body peak fat oxidation (250+/-25 and 462+/-33 mg/min) was higher (Ptrained compared with untrained subjects, respectively. Muscle...

  12. Maximal fat oxidation rates in endurance trained and untrained women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, A.B.; Stougaard, O.; Langfort, J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the differences in fat oxidation between endurance trained (ET) and untrained (UT) women. Eight ET and nine UT women performed a progressive cycle ergometer test until exhaustion. The rate of fat oxidation was similar at low work rates (...

  13. Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Foods Containing Oils and Fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and oils and fats-containing foods in the food and pet food industries. Discusses oxidative stability and shelf life of low-moisture (dry) food, including dry pet food. Discusses lipid co-oxidation with protein because a number of food products contain both lipids and proteins. Directed mainly toward......Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Foods Containing Oils and Fats focuses on food stability and shelf life, both important factors in the improvement and development of food products. This book, relevant for professionals in the food and pet food industries, presents an evaluation of methods...... for studies on the oxidative stability and shelf life of bulk oils/fats, fried oils and foods, food emulsions, dried foods, meat and meat products, and seafood in food and pet food. Focuses on the application of various evaluation methods to studies of oxidative stability and shelf life in oils and fats...

  14. Preventive effect of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high-fat fed obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the beneficial effects of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high-fat fed male Wistar rats. Five-month-old male Wistar rats (n=20) were divided into two groups (10 rats in each group). Among the two groups, one group received 30 % high-fat diet (HFD) and another group received 30 % HFD with curcumin (200 mg/kg body weight). Food intake, body weight and biochemical parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. After 10 weeks, oxidative stress parameters in skeletal muscle and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) content were estimated. Histological examinations of the liver samples were performed at the end of the experiment. High-fat feeding caused increase in body weight, liver and adipose tissue mass. Rats fed with HFD showed increased levels of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), TAG, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). There was also increase in the plasma inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP)] and skeletal muscle oxidative stress parameters [malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS)] in these rats. In addition, high-fat feeding increased liver TAG content and caused fat accumulation in the liver. Treatment with curcumin significantly reduced body weight, relative organ weights (liver, adipose tissue), glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR. Curcumin supplementation decreased plasma levels of TC, TAG, VLDL-c, TNF-α and increased HDL-c. Administration of curcumin also reduced MDA, TOS in skeletal muscle, hepatic TAG content and liver fat deposition. Curcumin supplementation improved HFD-induced dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance.

  15. All-trans retinoic acid increases oxidative metabolism in mature adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercader, Josep; Madsen, Lise; Felipe, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    ), and to an increased expression of proteins favoring fat oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha, uncoupling protein 2, fasting-induced adipose factor, enzymes of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation). These changes paralleled inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein and were...

  16. Fat gain with physical detraining is correlated with increased glucose transport and oxidation in periepididymal white adipose tissue in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sertié, R.A.L.; Andreotti, S. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Proença, A.R.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP (Brazil); Campaña, A.B.; Lima, F.B. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-05-26

    As it is a common observation that obesity tends to occur after discontinuation of exercise, we investigated how white adipocytes isolated from the periepididymal fat of animals with interrupted physical training transport and oxidize glucose, and whether these adaptations support the weight regain seen after 4 weeks of physical detraining. Male Wistar rats (45 days old, weighing 200 g) were divided into two groups (n=10): group D (detrained), trained for 8 weeks and detrained for 4 weeks; and group S (sedentary). The physical exercise was carried out on a treadmill for 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks, at 50-60% of the maximum running capacity. After the training protocol, adipocytes isolated from the periepididymal adipose tissue were submitted to glucose uptake and oxidation tests. Adipocytes from detrained animals increased their glucose uptake capacity by 18.5% compared with those from sedentary animals (P<0.05). The same cells also showed a greater glucose oxidation capacity in response to insulin stimulation (34.55%) compared with those from the S group (P<0.05). We hypothesize that, owing to the more intense glucose entrance into adipose cells from detrained rats, more substrate became available for triacylglycerol synthesis. Furthermore, this increased glucose oxidation rate allowed an increase in energy supply for triacylglycerol synthesis. Thus, physical detraining might play a role as a possible obesogenic factor for increasing glucose uptake and oxidation by adipocytes.

  17. Fat gain with physical detraining is correlated with increased glucose transport and oxidation in periepididymal white adipose tissue in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sertié, R.A.L.; Andreotti, S.; Proença, A.R.G.; Campaña, A.B.; Lima, F.B.

    2015-01-01

    As it is a common observation that obesity tends to occur after discontinuation of exercise, we investigated how white adipocytes isolated from the periepididymal fat of animals with interrupted physical training transport and oxidize glucose, and whether these adaptations support the weight regain seen after 4 weeks of physical detraining. Male Wistar rats (45 days old, weighing 200 g) were divided into two groups (n=10): group D (detrained), trained for 8 weeks and detrained for 4 weeks; and group S (sedentary). The physical exercise was carried out on a treadmill for 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks, at 50-60% of the maximum running capacity. After the training protocol, adipocytes isolated from the periepididymal adipose tissue were submitted to glucose uptake and oxidation tests. Adipocytes from detrained animals increased their glucose uptake capacity by 18.5% compared with those from sedentary animals (P<0.05). The same cells also showed a greater glucose oxidation capacity in response to insulin stimulation (34.55%) compared with those from the S group (P<0.05). We hypothesize that, owing to the more intense glucose entrance into adipose cells from detrained rats, more substrate became available for triacylglycerol synthesis. Furthermore, this increased glucose oxidation rate allowed an increase in energy supply for triacylglycerol synthesis. Thus, physical detraining might play a role as a possible obesogenic factor for increasing glucose uptake and oxidation by adipocytes

  18. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet increases C-reactive protein during weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Janet W; Turpyn, Abigail D

    2007-04-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with elevated risk of heart disease and may be linked to oxidative stress in obesity. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of weight loss diet composition (low carbohydrate, high fat, LC or high carbohydrate, low fat, HC) on inflammation and to determine whether this was related to oxidative stress. Twenty nine overweight women, BMI 32.1 +/- 5.4 kg/m(2), were randomly assigned to a self-selected LC or HC diet for 4 wks. Weekly group sessions and diet record collections helped enhance compliance. Body weight, markers of inflammation (serum interleukin-6, IL-6; C-reactive protein, CRP) oxidative stress (urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha, 8-epi) and fasting blood glucose and free fatty acids were measured weekly. The diets were similar in caloric intake (1357 kcal/d LC vs. 1361 HC, p=0.94), but differed in macronutrients (58, 12, 30 and 24, 59, 18 for percent of energy as fat, carbohydrate, and protein for LC and HC, respectively). Although LC lost more weight (3.8 +/- 1.2 kg LC vs. 2.6 +/- 1.7 HC, p=0.04), CRP increased 25%; this factor was reduced 43% in HC (p=0.02). For both groups, glucose decreased with weight loss (85.4 vs. 82.1 mg/dl for baseline and wk 4, p<0.01), while IL-6 increased (1.39 to 1.62 pg/mL, p=0.04). Urinary 8-epi varied differently over time between groups (p<0.05) with no consistent pattern. Diet composition of the weight loss diet influenced a key marker of inflammation in that LC increased while HC reduced serum CRP but evidence did not support that this was related to oxidative stress.

  19. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  20. Slow-Absorbing Modified Starch before and during Prolonged Cycling Increases Fat Oxidation and Gastrointestinal Distress without Changing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Daniel A; Vargas, Fernanda de C S; Bach, Christopher W; Garvey, Jordan A; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2016-06-25

    While prior research reported altered fuel utilization stemming from pre-exercise modified starch ingestion, the practical value of this starch for endurance athletes who consume carbohydrates both before and during exercise is yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ingesting a hydrothermally-modified starch supplement (HMS) before and during cycling on performance, metabolism, and gastrointestinal comfort. In a crossover design, 10 male cyclists underwent three nutritional interventions: (1) a commercially available sucrose/glucose supplement (G) 30 min before (60 g carbohydrate) and every 15 min during exercise (60 g∙h(-1)); (2) HMS consumed at the same time points before and during exercise in isocaloric amounts to G (Iso HMS); and (3) HMS 30 min before (60 g carbohydrate) and every 60 min during exercise (30 g·h(-1); Low HMS). The exercise protocol (~3 h) consisted of 1 h at 50% Wmax, 8 × 2-min intervals at 80% Wmax, and 10 maximal sprints. There were no differences in sprint performance with Iso HMS vs. G, while both G and Iso HMS likely resulted in small performance enhancements (5.0%; 90% confidence interval = ±5.3% and 4.4%; ±3.2%, respectively) relative to Low HMS. Iso HMS and Low HMS enhanced fat oxidation (31.6%; ±20.1%; very likely (Iso); 20.9%; ±16.1%; likely (Low), and reduced carbohydrate oxidation (-19.2%; ±7.6%; most likely; -22.1%; ±12.9%; very likely) during exercise relative to G. However, nausea was increased during repeated sprints with ingestion of Iso HMS (17 scale units; ±18; likely) and Low HMS (18; ±14; likely) vs. G. Covariate analysis revealed that gastrointestinal distress was associated with reductions in performance with Low HMS vs. G (likely), but this relationship was unclear with Iso HMS vs. G. In conclusion, pre- and during-exercise ingestion of HMS increases fat oxidation relative to G. However, changes do not translate to performance improvements, possibly owing to HMS

  1. Slow-Absorbing Modified Starch before and during Prolonged Cycling Increases Fat Oxidation and Gastrointestinal Distress without Changing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Baur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available While prior research reported altered fuel utilization stemming from pre-exercise modified starch ingestion, the practical value of this starch for endurance athletes who consume carbohydrates both before and during exercise is yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ingesting a hydrothermally-modified starch supplement (HMS before and during cycling on performance, metabolism, and gastrointestinal comfort. In a crossover design, 10 male cyclists underwent three nutritional interventions: (1 a commercially available sucrose/glucose supplement (G 30 min before (60 g carbohydrate and every 15 min during exercise (60 g∙h−1; (2 HMS consumed at the same time points before and during exercise in isocaloric amounts to G (Iso HMS; and (3 HMS 30 min before (60 g carbohydrate and every 60 min during exercise (30 g·h−1; Low HMS. The exercise protocol (~3 h consisted of 1 h at 50% Wmax, 8 × 2-min intervals at 80% Wmax, and 10 maximal sprints. There were no differences in sprint performance with Iso HMS vs. G, while both G and Iso HMS likely resulted in small performance enhancements (5.0%; 90% confidence interval = ±5.3% and 4.4%; ±3.2%, respectively relative to Low HMS. Iso HMS and Low HMS enhanced fat oxidation (31.6%; ±20.1%; very likely (Iso; 20.9%; ±16.1%; likely (Low, and reduced carbohydrate oxidation (−19.2%; ±7.6%; most likely; −22.1%; ±12.9%; very likely during exercise relative to G. However, nausea was increased during repeated sprints with ingestion of Iso HMS (17 scale units; ±18; likely and Low HMS (18; ±14; likely vs. G. Covariate analysis revealed that gastrointestinal distress was associated with reductions in performance with Low HMS vs. G (likely, but this relationship was unclear with Iso HMS vs. G. In conclusion, pre- and during-exercise ingestion of HMS increases fat oxidation relative to G. However, changes do not translate to performance improvements, possibly owing to HMS

  2. Pineapple by-product and canola oil as partial fat replacers in low-fat beef burger: Effects on oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Rasera, Mariana L; Marabesi, Amanda C; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-05-01

    The effect of freeze-dried pineapple by-product and canola oil as fat replacers on the oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of low-fat beef burgers was evaluated. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple by-product (PA), canola oil (CO), and pineapple by-product and canola oil (PC). Low-fat cooked burgers showed a mean cholesterol content reduction of 9.15% compared to the CN. Canola oil addition improved the fatty acid profile of the burgers, with increase in the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio, in the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. The oxidative stability of the burgers was affected by the vegetable oil addition. However, at the end of the storage time (120 days), malonaldehyde values of CO and PC were lower than the threshold for the consumer's acceptance. Canola oil, in combination with pineapple by-product, can be considered promising fat replacers in the development of healthier burgers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hearts from mice fed a non-obesogenic high-fat diet exhibit changes in their oxidative state, calcium and mitochondria in parallel with increased susceptibility to reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohns, Ben; Pasdois, Philippe; Duggan, Simon; Bond, Andrew R; Heesom, Kate; Jackson, Christopher L; Angelini, Gianni D; Halestrap, Andrew P; Suleiman, M-Saadeh

    2014-01-01

    High-fat diet with obesity-associated co-morbidities triggers cardiac remodeling and renders the heart more vulnerable to ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the effect of high-fat diet without obesity and associated co-morbidities is presently unknown. To characterize a non-obese mouse model of high-fat diet, assess the vulnerability of hearts to reperfusion injury and to investigate cardiac cellular remodeling in relation to the mechanism(s) underlying reperfusion injury. Feeding C57BL/6J male mice high-fat diet for 20 weeks did not induce obesity, diabetes, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac dysfunction, atherosclerosis or cardiac apoptosis. However, isolated perfused hearts from mice fed high-fat diet were more vulnerable to reperfusion injury than those from mice fed normal diet. In isolated cardiomyocytes, high-fat diet was associated with higher diastolic intracellular Ca2+ concentration and greater damage to isolated cardiomyocytes following simulated ischemia/reperfusion. High-fat diet was also associated with changes in mitochondrial morphology and expression of some related proteins but not mitochondrial respiration or reactive oxygen species turnover rates. Proteomics, western blot and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques revealed that high-fat diet led to less cardiac oxidative stress, higher catalase expression and significant changes in expression of putative components of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Inhibition of the mPTP conferred relatively more cardio-protection in the high-fat fed mice compared to normal diet. This study shows for the first time that high-fat diet, independent of obesity-induced co-morbidities, triggers changes in cardiac oxidative state, calcium handling and mitochondria which are likely to be responsible for increased vulnerability to cardiac insults.

  4. Obesity-induced oxidative stress, accelerated functional decline with age and increased mortality in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Fischer, Kathleen E; Soto, Vanessa; Liu, Yuhong; Sosnowska, Danuta; Richardson, Arlan; Salmon, Adam B

    2015-06-15

    Obesity is a serious chronic disease that increases the risk of numerous co-morbidities including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and cancer as well as increases risk of mortality, leading some to suggest this condition represents accelerated aging. Obesity is associated with significant increases in oxidative stress in vivo and, despite the well-explored relationship between oxidative stress and aging, the role this plays in the increased mortality of obese subjects remains an unanswered question. Here, we addressed this by undertaking a comprehensive, longitudinal study of a group of high fat-fed obese mice and assessed both their changes in oxidative stress and in their performance in physiological assays known to decline with aging. In female C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet starting in adulthood, mortality was significantly increased as was oxidative damage in vivo. High fat-feeding significantly accelerated the decline in performance in several assays, including activity, gait, and rotarod. However, we also found that obesity had little effect on other markers of function and actually improved performance in grip strength, a marker of muscular function. Together, this first comprehensive assessment of longitudinal, functional changes in high fat-fed mice suggests that obesity may induce segmental acceleration of some of the aging process. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Novel approach on the risk assessment of oxidized fats and oils for perspectives of food safety and quality. I. Oxidized fats and oils induces neurotoxicity relating pica behavior and hypoactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, N; Watanabe, H; Osato, R; Inagaki, K; Iwasawa, A; Wada, S

    2006-04-01

    Food poisoning caused by deteriorated fat and oil in instant noodles was first reported in Japan approximately 40 years ago. In these cases, many people developed neurotoxic symptoms such as emesis and discomfort. The degree of oxidation of the fat and oil in the instant noodles that induced food poisoning was at least 100 meq/kg in peroxide value (PV). No general toxicity studies with animals, however, have examined the toxicity of fat and oil oxidized to that extent. In this study, pica behavior, a behavior characterized by eating a nonfood material such as kaolin and that relates to the degree of discomfort in animals, and alterations of locomotor activity of rats eating deteriorated fat and oil were measured. The groups fed fat and oil with at least 138.5 meq/kg PV consumed significantly more kaolin compared to the control group. Furthermore, rats that ate deteriorated fat and oil with at least 107.2 meq/kg PV had significantly decreased locomotor activity compared to control rats. These phenomena suggest that oxidized fat and oil with at least 100 meq/kg PV induce neurotoxicity. The toxicity of oxidized fat and oil has only been addressed using general toxicity tests, but the present results reveal the importance of evaluating toxicity by using other measures.

  6. Oxidative Stress and Dietary Fat Type in Relation to Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the main factors studied to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms of inflammatory conditions, such as periodontitis. In this respect, nutrition may be of great importance. Actually, research on nutrients’ effects on periodontal diseases has expanded to include those influencing the redox status, which correlates to the inflammatory process. Dietary fat or lipids are often blamed as the major source of excess energy. Consequently, when caloric intake exceeds energy expenditure, the resultant substrate-induced increase in citric acid cycle activity generates an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In addition, dietary fatty acid intake influences in relative fatty acid composition of biological membranes determining its susceptibility to oxidative alterations. From this standpoint, here, we reviewed studies analyzing the dietary fat role in periodontal disease. Research data suggest that periodontal health could be achieved by main dietary strategies which include substitution of saturated fats with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, particularly n-3 PUFA. Maybe in the future, we should analyze the diet and provide some advice to periodontitis patients to improve treatment outcomes.

  7. Disrupted fat distribution and composition due to medium-chain triglycerides in mice with a β-oxidation defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Sara; Flögel, Ulrich; Sturm, Marga; Borsch, Elena; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2011-08-01

    Because of the enhanced recognition of inherited long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders by worldwide newborn screening programs, an increasing number of asymptomatic patients receive medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) supplements to prevent the development of cardiomyopathy and myopathy. MCT supplementation has been recognized as a safe dietary intervention, but long-term observations into later adulthood are still not available. We investigated the consequences of a prolonged MCT diet on abdominal fat distribution and composition and on liver fat. Mice with very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD(-/-)) were supplemented for 1 y with a diet in which MCTs replaced long-chain triglycerides without increasing the total fat content. The dietary effects on abdominal fat accumulation and composition were analyzed by in vivo (1)H- and (13)C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (9.4 Tesla). After 1 y of MCT supplementation, VLCAD(-/-) mice accumulated massive visceral fat and had a dramatic increase in the concentration of serum free fatty acids. Furthermore, we observed a profound shift in body triglyceride composition, ie, concentrations of physiologically important polyunsaturated fatty acids dramatically decreased. (1)H-Magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis and histologic evaluation of the liver also showed pronounced fat accumulation and marked oxidative stress. Although the MCT-supplemented diet has been reported to prevent the development of cardiomyopathy and skeletal myopathy in fatty acid oxidation disorders, our data show that long-term MCT supplementation results in a severe clinical phenotype similar to that of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and the metabolic syndrome.

  8. Preperitoneal Fat Thicknesses, Lipid Profile, and Oxidative Status in Women With Uterine Fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignini, Arianna; Sabbatinelli, Jacopo; Clemente, Nicolò; Delli Carpini, Giovanni; Tassetti, Marta; Zagaglia, Giulia; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    There is growing evidence supporting a possible role for metabolic syndrome and its determinants, such as dyslipidemia, in uterine fibroid (UF) pathogenesis. The present study aims to investigate the association between UFs and visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), lipid profile, and oxidative and antioxidative status. In this cross-sectional study, 35 patients diagnosed with UFs and 15 women without UFs were enrolled. Clinical history and anthropometric parameters were collected for every woman. Characteristics of UFs, preperitoneal fat thickness (PFT), and SFT were assessed ultrasonically. Lipid profile, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were evaluated on plasma from participants. Women with UFs showed a significantly increased PFT (11.63 ± 3.39 vs 7.01 ± 3.10 mm; P HDL-C; 45.4 ± 8.3 vs 57.2 ± 13.4 mg/dL; P = .017), higher levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 92.3 ± 21.5 vs 72.0 ± 14.6 mg/dL; P = .007), and oxidized LDL (65.2 ± 20.7 vs 43.0 ± 11.3 U/L; P = .002). In patients, TBARs concentration was significantly higher (9.41 ± 6.49 vs 2.92 ± 1.65 nmol malondialdehyde/100 μg prot; P body mass index, oxidized LDL, and TBARs. At multivariate analysis, PFT and HDL-C maintained a significant correlation with the diagnosis of UFs. Chronic inflammation triggered and sustained by visceral fat could play a determinant role in cell differentiation and proliferation processes, necessary for the development of UFs. Alterations in cholesterol fractions may be explained as a consequence of the increased visceral fat deposits and can reflect an increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with UF.

  9. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Vargas-Robles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.

  10. Effects of fat adaptation on glucose kinetics and substrate oxidation during low-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, J D; Geor, R J; Harris, P A; Hoekstra, K; Gardner, S; Hudson, C; Prince, A

    2002-09-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of fat adaptation on carbohydrate and fat oxidation in conditioned horses during low-intensity exercise. Five mature Arabians were studied. The study was conducted as a crossover design with 2 dietary periods, each of 10 week's duration: a) a control (CON) diet, and b) a fat-supplemented (FAT) diet. The total amount of digestible energy (DE) supplied by the fat in the CON and FAT diets was 7% and 29%, respectively. During each period, the horses completed exercise tests at the beginning of the period (Week 0) and after 5 and 10 weeks on the diet. Tests consisted of 90 min of exercise at a speed calculated to elicit 35% VO2max on a treadmill inclined to 3 degrees. Oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured at 15-min intervals. For determination of glucose kinetics, a stable isotope ([6-6-d2] glucose) technique was used. Compared to the CON diet, FAT diet consumption for 5-10 weeks was associated with an altered metabolic response to low-intensity exercise, as evidenced by a more than 30% reduction in the production and utilisation of glucose; a decrease in RER; a decrease in the estimated rate of whole-body carbohydrate utilisation; and an increase in the whole-body rate of lipid oxidation during exercise.

  11. Distal, not proximal, colonic acetate infusions promote fat oxidation and improve metabolic markers in overweight/obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Beek, Christina M; Canfora, Emanuel E; Lenaerts, Kaatje

    2016-01-01

    , circulating hormones or inflammatory markers. In conclusion distal colonic acetate infusions affected whole-body substrate metabolism, with a pronounced increase in fasting fat oxidation and plasma PYY. Modulating colonic acetate may be a nutritional target to treat or prevent metabolic disorders.......Gut microbial-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are believed to affect host metabolism and cardiometabolic risk factors. The present study aim was to investigate the effects of proximal and distal colonic infusions with the SCFA acetate on fat oxidation and other metabolic parameters in men...... in the colon for three consecutive test days, enabling colonic acetate (100 or 180 mmol/l) or placebo infusion during fasting conditions and after an oral glucose load (postprandial). Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured using an open-circuit ventilated hood system and blood samples were...

  12. Lipid oxidation, color changes and volatiles production in irradiated pork sausage with different fat content and packaging during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, C.; Lee, J.I.; Ahn, D.U.

    1999-01-01

    Effects of irradiation on lipid oxidation, color and volatiles production in pork sausages with different fat content and packaging were determined. Sausages (with 4.7, 10.5 and 15.8% fat content) were sliced and vacuum-packaged either in oxygen-permeable or impermeable bags, irradiated (0 or 4.5 kGy) and stored at 4°C for 7 days. Lipid oxidation, color and volatiles productions were analyzed at 0, 3 and 7 days of storage. TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values of cooked pork sausages increased with the increase of fat content regardless of storage, irradiation or packaging types. Irradiated samples had higher TBARS than nonirradiated at 0 day but the difference disappeared during storage in both packaging types. Lightness of sausages (Hunter L-value) increased with the increase of fat content and storage time but was not affected by irradiation. In aerobic packaging, irradiation reduced Hunter a-values of pork sausages at 0 day but irradiation effect on a-value disappeared during storage. In vacuum packaging, however, irradiated samples had higher Hunter a-values than nonirradiated samples. Irradiation increased 1-heptene and total volatiles, but the amount of 1-heptene was not associated well with TBARS values of pork sausages. In both irradiated and nonirradiated pork sausages, aerobic packaging produced more volatiles than vacuum packaging during storage. It was concluded that irradiation and fat content had significant effects on lipid oxidation, color and volatiles production of cooked pork sausages during storage but that oxygen availability had a stronger effect than irradiation and fat content

  13. Blocked muscle fat oxidation during exercise in neutral lipid storage disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laforêt, Pascal; Ørngreen, Mette; Preisler, Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether impaired exercise capacity in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is solely caused by muscle weakness or whether a defect in energy metabolism (blocked fat oxidation) may also play a role.......To determine whether impaired exercise capacity in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is solely caused by muscle weakness or whether a defect in energy metabolism (blocked fat oxidation) may also play a role....

  14. Independent effects of endurance training and weight loss on peak fat oxidation in moderately overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Pernille; Rosenkilde, Mads; Ploug, Thorkil

    2015-01-01

    Endurance training increases peak fat oxidation (PFO) during exercise, but whether this is independent of changes in body weight is not known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of endurance training with or without weight loss or a diet-induced weight loss on PFO...... and on key skeletal muscle mitochondrial proteins involved in fat oxidation. Sixty moderately overweight, sedentary but otherwise healthy men were randomized to 12 wk of training (T), diet (D), training and increased caloric intake (T-iD), or continuous sedentary control (C). Isoenergetic deficits...... corresponding to 600 kcal/day were comprised of endurance exercise for T and caloric restriction for D. T-iD completed similar training but was not in 600 kcal deficit because of dietary replacement. PFO and the exercise intensity at which this occurred (FatMax) were measured by a submaximal exercise test...

  15. Postprandial oxidative stress is increased after a phytonutrient-poor food but not after a kilojoule-matched phytonutrient-rich food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Amanda; Grant, Ross; Tung, Chin; Guest, Jade; Pope, Belinda; Morris, Margaret; Bilgin, Ayse

    2014-05-01

    Research indicates that energy-dense foods increase inflammation and oxidative activity, thereby contributing to the development of vascular disease. However, it is not clear whether the high kilojoule load alone, irrespective of the nutritional content of the ingested food, produces the postprandial oxidative and inflammatory activity. This study investigated the hypothesis that ingestion of a high-fat, high-sugar, phytonutrient-reduced food (ice cream) would increase oxidative and inflammatory activity greater than a kilojoule-equivalent meal of a phytonutrient-rich whole food (avocado). The individual contributions of the fat/protein and sugar components of the ice cream meal to postprandial inflammation and oxidative stress were also quantified. Using a randomized, crossover design, 11 healthy participants ingested 4 test meals: ice cream, avocado, the fat/protein component in ice cream, and the sugar equivalent component in ice cream. Plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were measured at baseline and 1, 2, and 4 hours (t1, t2, t4) after ingestion. Lipid peroxidation was increased at 2 hours after eating fat/protein (t0-t2, P stress markers. These data indicate that the ingestion of a phytonutrient-poor food and its individual fat/protein or sugar components increase plasma oxidative activity. This is not observed after ingestion of a kilojoule-equivalent phytonutrient-rich food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of 3 modified fats and a conventional fat on appetite, energy intake, energy expenditure, and substrate oxidation in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, H.; Flint, A.; Raben, A.

    2002-01-01

    energy intake, meal-induced thermogenesis, and postprandial substrate oxidation.Design: Eleven healthy, normal-weight men (mean age: 25.1 +/-0.5 y) consumed 4 different test fats [conventional fat (rapeseed oil) and 3 modified fats (lipase-structured fat, chemically structured fat, and physically mixed...... fat)] in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design.Results: No significant differences in appetite sensations or ad libitum energy intakes were observed between the 4 test fats. Overall, the 4 fats exerted different effects on energy expenditure (meal effect: P...

  17. Effects of acute ingestion of different fats on oxidative stress and inflammation in overweight and obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peairs Abigail D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies show that obese individuals have prolonged elevations in postprandial lipemia and an exacerbated inflammatory response to high fat meals, which can increase risk for cardiovascular diseases. As epidemiological studies indicate an association between type of fat and circulating inflammatory markers, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of different fat sources on inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight and obese individuals. Methods Eleven overweight and obese subjects consumed three high fat milkshakes rich in monounsaturated fat (MFA, saturated fat (SFA, or long-chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fat (O3FA in random order. Blood samples collected at baseline, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours postprandial were analyzed for markers of inflammation (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP, oxidative stress (8-epi-prostaglandin-F2α (8-epi and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, and metabolic factors (glucose, insulin, non-esterified free fatty acids, and triglycerides (TG. Results O3FA enhanced NF-kB activation compared to SFA, but did not increase any inflammatory factors measured. Conversely, SFA led to higher ICAM-1 levels than MFA (p = 0.051, while MFA increased TG more than SFA (p Conclusions While most of the inflammatory factors measured had modest or no change following the meal, ICAM-1 and NF-κB responded differently by meal type. These results are provocative and suggest that type of fat in meals may differentially influence postprandial inflammation and endothelial activation.

  18. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, B.R.; Hernandez Rodas, M.C.; Espinosa, A.; Rincon Cervera, M.A.; Romero, N.; Barrera Vazquez, C.; Marambio, M.; Vivero, J.; Valenzuela, B.A.

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD) generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation) in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols) which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group) were fed a control diet (CD) or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day). The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in fat accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver, accompanied by a reduction in the levels of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain. Supplementation with EVOO mitigated the increase in fat and oxidative stress produced by HFD in the liver, along with a normalization of LCPUFA levels in the liver, erythrocytes and brain. It is proposed that EVOO supplementation protects against fat accumulation, and oxidative stress and normalizes n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA depletion induced in mice fed a HFD. (Author)

  19. Impairment of fat oxidation under high- vs. low-glycemic index diet occurs before the development of an obese phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isken, F; Klaus, S; Petzke, K J; Loddenkemper, C; Pfeiffer, A F H; Weickert, M O

    2010-02-01

    Exposure to high vs. low glycemic index (GI) diets increases fat mass and insulin resistance in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. However, the longer-term effects and potentially involved mechanisms are largely unknown. We exposed four groups of male C57BL/6J mice (n = 10 per group) to long-term (20 wk) or short-term (6 wk) isoenergetic and macronutrient matched diets only differing in starch type and as such GI. Body composition, liver fat, molecular factors of lipid metabolism, and markers of insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility were investigated in all four groups of mice. Mice fed the high GI diet showed a rapid-onset (from week 5) marked increase in body fat mass and liver fat, a gene expression profile in liver consistent with elevated lipogenesis, and, after long-term exposure, significantly reduced glucose clearance following a glucose load. The long-term high-GI diet also led to a delayed switch to both carbohydrate and fat oxidation in the postprandial state, indicating reduced metabolic flexibility. In contrast, no difference in carbohydrate oxidation was observed after short-term high- vs. low-GI exposure. However, fatty acid oxidation was significantly blunted as early as 3 wk after beginning of the high-GI intervention, at a time where most measured phenotypic markers including body fat mass were comparable between groups. Thus long-term high-GI feeding resulted in an obese, insulin-resistant, and metabolically inflexible phenotype in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. Early onset and significantly impaired fatty acid oxidation preceded these changes, thereby indicating a potentially causal involvement.

  20. Fat oxidation, hormonal and plasma metabolite kinetics during a submaximal incremental test in lean and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Salvadori, Alberto; Brunani, Amelia; Malatesta, Davide

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare fat oxidation, hormonal and plasma metabolite kinetics during exercise in lean (L) and obese (O) men. Sixteen L and 16 O men [Body Mass Index (BMI): 22.9 ± 0.3 and 39.0 ± 1.4 kg · m(-2)] performed a submaximal incremental test (Incr) on a cycle-ergometer. Fat oxidation rates (FORs) were determined using indirect calorimetry. A sinusoidal model, including 3 independent variables (dilatation, symmetry, translation), was used to describe fat oxidation kinetics and determine the intensity (Fat(max)) eliciting maximal fat oxidation. Blood samples were drawn for the hormonal and plasma metabolite determination at each step of Incr. FORs (mg · FFM(-1) · min(-1)) were significantly higher from 20 to 30% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in O than in L and from 65 to 85% VO2peak in L than in O (p ≤ 0.05). FORs were similar in O and in L from 35 to 60% VO2peak. Fat max was 17% significantly lower in O than in L (poxidation kinetics were characterized by similar translation, significantly lower dilatation and left-shift symmetry in O compared with L (poxidation at high exercise intensities suggest that the difference in the fat oxidation kinetics is likely linked to impaired muscular capacity to oxidize NEFA in O. These results may have important implications for the appropriate exercise intensity prescription in training programs designed to optimize fat oxidation in O.

  1. Sex-dependent effects of high-fat-diet feeding on rat pancreas oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, Yolanda; Gianotti, Magdalena; Lladó, Isabel; Proenza, Ana M

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether sex differences in oxidative stress-associated insulin resistance previously reported in rats could be attributed to a possible sex dimorphism in pancreas redox status. Fifteen-month-old male and female Wistar rats were fed a control diet or a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. Serum glucose, lipids, and hormone levels were measured. Insulin immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis of islets were performed. Pancreas triglyceride content, oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzymatic activities were determined. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) levels were also measured. Male rats showed a more marked insulin resistance profile than females. In control female rats, pancreas Mn-superoxide dismutase activity and UCP2 levels were higher, and oxidative damage was lower compared with males. High-fat-diet feeding decreased pancreas triglyceride content in female rats and UCP2 levels in male rats. High-fat-diet female rats showed larger islets than both their control and sex counterparts. These results confirm the existence of a sex dimorphism in pancreas oxidative status in both control and high-fat-diet feeding situations, with female rats showing higher protection against oxidative stress, thus maintaining pancreatic function and contributing to a lower risk of insulin resistance.

  2. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  3. The impact of a low glycaemic index (GI diet on simultaneous measurements of blood glucose and fat oxidation: A whole body calorimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupinder Kaur

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Consumption of LGI meals was capable of attenuating 24-hour blood glucose profiles and decreasing postprandial glucose excursions in healthy Asian males. Additionally, LGI mixed meals were able to promote fat oxidation over carbohydrate oxidation when compared to HGI mixed meals. The consumption of low GI meals may be a strategic approach in improving overall glycaemia and increasing fat oxidation in Asians consuming a high carbohydrate diet.

  4. Dietary creatine supplementation lowers hepatic triacylglycerol by increasing lipoprotein secretion in rats fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Robin P; Leonard, Kelly-Ann; Jacobs, René L

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that dietary creatine supplementation can prevent lipid accumulation in the liver. Creatine is a small molecule that plays a large role in energy metabolism, but since the enzyme creatine kinase is not present in the liver, the classical role in energy metabolism does not hold in this tissue. Fat accumulation in the liver can lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a progressive disease that is prevalent in humans. We have previously reported that creatine can directly influence lipid metabolism in cell culture to promote lipid secretion and oxidation. Our goal in the current study was to determine whether similar mechanisms that occur in cell culture were present in vivo. We also sought to determine whether dietary creatine supplementation could be effective in reversing steatosis. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with creatine for 5 weeks. We found that rats supplemented with creatine had significantly improved rates of lipoprotein secretion and alterations in mitochondrial function that were consistent with greater oxidative capacity. We also find that introducing creatine into a high-fat diet halted hepatic lipid accumulation in rats with fatty liver. Our results support our previous report that liver cells in culture with creatine secrete and oxidize more oleic acid, demonstrating that dietary creatine can effectively change hepatic lipid metabolism by increasing lipoprotein secretion and oxidation in vivo. Our data suggest that creatine might be an effective therapy for NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Urinary F2-Isoprostanes and Metabolic Markers of Fat Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Il’yasova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic studies of increased fat oxidation showed increase in circulating acylcarnitines C2, C8, C10, and C12 and decrease in C3, C4, and C5. We hypothesize that urinary F2-isoprostanes reflect intensity of fatty acid oxidation and are associated with circulating C2, C8, C10, and C12 directly and with C3, C4, and C5 inversely. Four urinary F2-isoprostane isomers and serum acylcarnitines are quantified using LC-MS/MS within the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study nondiabetic cohort (n = 682. Cross-sectional associations between fasting urinary F2-isoprostanes (summarized as a composite index and the selected acylcarnitines are examined using generalized linear models. F2-isoprostane index is associated with C2 and C12 directly and with C5 inversely: the adjusted beta coefficients are 0.109, 0.072, and −0.094, respectively (P < 0.05. For these acylcarnitines and for F2-isoprostanes, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs of incident diabetes are calculated from logistic regression models: the ORs (95% CI are 0.77 (0.60–0.97, 0.79 (0.62–1.01, 1.18 (0.92–1.53, and 0.51 (0.35–0.76 for C2, C12, C5, and F2-isoprostanes, respectively. The direction of the associations between urinary F2-isoprostanes and three acylcarnitines (C2, C5, and C12 supports our hypothesis. The inverse associations of C2 and C12 and with incident diabetes are consistent with the suggested protective role of efficient fat oxidation.

  6. Fat metabolism during exercise in patients with McArdle disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, M C; Jeppesen, T D; Andersen, S Tvede

    2009-01-01

    carbohydrate oxidation was lower, during exercise in patients with McArdle disease vs healthy controls. We found augmented fat oxidation with the onset of a second wind, but further increases in FFA availability, as exercise continued, did not result in further increases in FAO. CONCLUSION: These results......OBJECTIVE: It is known that muscle phosphorylase deficiency restricts carbohydrate utilization, but the implications for muscle fat metabolism have not been studied. We questioned whether patients with McArdle disease can compensate for the blocked muscle glycogen breakdown by enhancing fat...... indicate that patients with McArdle disease have exaggerated fat oxidation during prolonged, low-intensity exercise and that increased fat oxidation may be an important mechanism of the spontaneous second wind. The fact that increasing availability of free fatty acids with more prolonged exercise did...

  7. Sodium acetate induces a metabolic alkalosis but not the increase in fatty acid oxidation observed following bicarbonate ingestion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon I; Jeukendrup, Asker E; Ball, Derek

    2007-07-01

    We conducted this study to quantify the oxidation of exogenous acetate and to determine the effect of increased acetate availability upon fat and carbohydrate utilization in humans at rest. Eight healthy volunteers (6 males and 2 females) completed 2 separate trials, 7 d apart in a single-blind, randomized, crossover design. On each occasion, respiratory gas and arterialized venous blood samples were taken before and during 180 min following consumption of a drink containing either sodium acetate (NaAc) or NaHCO3 at a dose of 2 mmol/kg body mass. Labeled [1,2 -13C] NaAc was added to the NaAc drink to quantify acetate oxidation. Both sodium salts induced a mild metabolic alkalosis and increased energy expenditure (P < 0.05) to a similar magnitude. NaHCO3 ingestion increased fat utilization from 587 +/- 83 kJ/180 min to 693 +/- 101 kJ/180 min (P = 0.01) with no change in carbohydrate utilization. Following ingestion of NaAc, the amount of fat and carbohydrate utilized did not differ from the preingestion values. However, oxidation of the exogenous acetate almost entirely (90%) replaced the additional fat that had been oxidized during the bicarbonate trial. We determined that 80.1 +/- 2.3% of an exogenous source of acetate is oxidized in humans at rest. Whereas NaHCO3 ingestion increased fat oxidation, a similar response did not occur following NaAc ingestion despite the fact both sodium salts induced a similar increase in energy expenditure and shift in acid-base balance.

  8. INCREASED FAT INTAKE MAY STABILIZED CKD PROGRESSION IN LOW-FAT INTAKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yu Chang

    2012-06-01

    Inadequate calories intake will induce excessive protein catabolism, which can cause accumulation of uremic toxins and acceleration of renal failure. Increasing fats intake is an easy way to achieve adequate calories acquirement and may stabilize the progression of CKD especially in low-fat intake patients.

  9. Long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis are increased in mouse skeletal muscle with high-fat feeding regardless of insulin-sensitizing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Sean A; Miller, Benjamin F; Hamilton, Karyn L; Ehrlicher, Sarah E; Stierwalt, Harrison D; Robinson, Matthew M

    2017-11-01

    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis is regulated in part by insulin. The development of insulin resistance with diet-induced obesity may therefore contribute to impairments to protein synthesis and decreased mitochondrial respiration. Yet the impact of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance on mitochondrial energetics is controversial, with reports varying from decreases to increases in mitochondrial respiration. We investigated the impact of changes in insulin sensitivity on long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a mechanism for changes to mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle. Insulin resistance was induced in C57BL/6J mice using 4 wk of a high-fat compared with a low-fat diet. For 8 additional weeks, diets were enriched with pioglitazone to restore insulin sensitivity compared with nonenriched control low-fat or high-fat diets. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis was measured using deuterium oxide labeling during weeks 10-12 High-resolution respirometry was performed using palmitoyl-l-carnitine, glutamate+malate, and glutamate+malate+succinate as substrates for mitochondria isolated from quadriceps. Mitochondrial protein synthesis and palmitoyl- l-carnitine oxidation were increased in mice consuming a high-fat diet, regardless of differences in insulin sensitivity with pioglitazone treatment. There was no effect of diet or pioglitazone treatment on ADP-stimulated respiration or H 2 O 2 emission using glutamate+malate or glutamate+malate+succinate. The results demonstrate no impairments to mitochondrial protein synthesis or respiration following induction of insulin resistance. Instead, mitochondrial protein synthesis was increased with a high-fat diet and may contribute to remodeling of the mitochondria to increase lipid oxidation capacity. Mitochondrial adaptations with a high-fat diet appear driven by nutrient availability, not intrinsic defects that contribute to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 the

  10. Human milk fat substitute from butterfat: production by enzymatic interesterification and evaluation of oxidative stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Xu, Xuebing; Zhang, Long

    2010-01-01

    Recent data have suggested that the fatty acid composition and molecular structure of fats in infant formulas should be as similar to human milk fat as possible to obtain optimal fat and calcium absorption from the infant formula. This work investigated the possibilities of using enzyme technology...... and butterfat as a material to produce a fat similar to human milk fat with respect to the above parameters. Moreover, the oxidative stability of the enzyme modified human milk fat substitute (HMFS) was compared to the fat blend used for the production of HMFS. Using a combination of enzyme technology......, fractionation and batch deodorization and with butterfat in combination with soybean oil and rapeseed oil as raw materials it was possible to produce HMFS with a molecular structure and fatty acid composition that was very similar to that of human milk fat. The oxidative stability of the HMFS oil was lower than...

  11. Antioxidant properties of green tea extract protect reduced fat soft cheese against oxidation induced by light exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huvaere, Kevin André Jurgen; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Bakman, Mette

    2011-01-01

    The effect of two different antioxidants, EDTA and green tea extract (GTE), used individually or in combination, on the light-induced oxidation of reduced fat soft cheeses (0.2 and 6% fat) was investigated. In samples with 0.2% fat, lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products were...

  12. Thiamine losses during storage of pasteurised and sterilized model systems of minced chicken meat with addition of fresh and oxidized fat, and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymandera-Buszka, Krystyna; Hęś, Marzanna; Waszkowiak, Katarzyna; Jędrusek-Golińska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of pasteurisation and sterilization of model systems of minced chicken meat in the presence of low or high-oxidised pork lard, soy and sunflower oil, as well as casein hydrolysate and rosemary extract, on losses of thiamine in model systems. In the samples, the thiamine content was analysed periodically by thiochromium method, as well as rate of lipid oxidation based on measurement of peroxide value (PV) by iodometric method and p-anisidine value (AV) by spectrophotometric method. It was observed that the thiamine losses in model systems of minced chicken after pasteurisation (61-71%) were higher than after sterilization (57-67%). Introduction of high-oxidised fat increased the total thiamine losses both during thermal processing and storage of meat samples (to 23%). A strong relationship was established between thiamine losses and rate of fat oxidation. The lowest total thiamine losses were observed in the samples with low-oxidised pork lard. Antioxidant addition (rosemary extract or casein hydrolysate) into meat samples limited the thiamine losses. However, the effect depended on oxidation of fat that was mixed with meat. In the samples with low-oxidised fat, higher protective effect was found for rosemary extract (7-11%). In the samples with high-oxidised fat, casein hydrolysate was superior to rosemary extract (14%). In order to increase the stability of thiamine in pasteurized or sterilized meat products with fats, the influence of fat type and its oxidative stability should be taken under consideration. Moreover, the addition of rosemary extract or casein hydrolysate has impact on the thiamine losses since it slows down lipid oxidation to a significant extent.

  13. Erythropoietin over-expression protects against diet-induced obesity in mice through increased fat oxidation in muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Brolin, Camilla; Gissel, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    patients. Thus we applied the EPO over-expression model to investigate the metabolic effect of EPO in vivo.At 12 weeks, EPO expression resulted in a 23% weight reduction (Pobese mice; thus the mice weighed 21.9+/-0.8 g (control, normal diet,) 21.9+/-1.4 g (EPO, normal diet), 35.......3+/-3.3 g (control, high-fat diet) and 28.8+/-2.6 g (EPO, high-fat diet). Correspondingly, DXA scanning revealed that this was due to a 28% reduction in adipose tissue mass.The decrease in adipose tissue mass was accompanied by a complete normalisation of fasting insulin levels and glucose tolerance......-physiological levels has substantial metabolic effects including protection against diet-induced obesity and normalisation of glucose sensitivity associated with a shift to increased fat metabolism in the muscles....

  14. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Di Felice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  15. Citrus flavanones prevent systemic inflammation and ameliorate oxidative stress in C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paula S; Spolidorio, Luis C; Manthey, John A; Cesar, Thais B

    2016-06-15

    The flavanones hesperidin, eriocitrin and eriodictyol were investigated for their prevention of the oxidative stress and systemic inflammation caused by high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice. The mice received a standard diet (9.5% kcal from fat), high-fat diet (45% kcal from fat) or high-fat diet supplemented with hesperidin, eriocitrin or eriodictyol for a period of four weeks. Hesperidin, eriocitrin and eriodictyol increased the serum total antioxidant capacity, and restrained the elevation of interleukin-6 (IL-6), macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). In addition, the liver TBARS levels and spleen mass (g per kg body weight) were lower for the flavanone-treated mice than in the unsupplemented mice. Eriocitrin and eriodictyol reduced TBARS levels in the blood serum, and hesperidin and eriodictyol also reduced fat accumulation and liver damage. The results showed that hesperidin, eriocitrin and eriodictyol had protective effects against inflammation and oxidative stress caused by high-fat diet in mice, and may therefore prevent metabolic alterations associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases in other animals.

  16. Dopamine Signaling Regulates Fat Content through β-Oxidation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Alexandre Guimarães de Almeida; Bridi, Jessika Cristina; de Souza, Bruno Rezende; de Castro Júnior, Célio; de Lima Torres, Karen Cecília; Malard, Leandro; Jorio, Ado; de Miranda, Débora Marques; Ashrafi, Kaveh; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of energy balance involves an intricate interplay between neural mechanisms that respond to internal and external cues of energy demand and food availability. Compelling data have implicated the neurotransmitter dopamine as an important part of body weight regulation. However, the precise mechanisms through which dopamine regulates energy homeostasis remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate mechanisms through which dopamine modulates energy storage. We showed that dopamine signaling regulates fat reservoirs in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that the fat reducing effects of dopamine were dependent on dopaminergic receptors and a set of fat oxidation enzymes. Our findings reveal an ancient role for dopaminergic regulation of fat and suggest that dopamine signaling elicits this outcome through cascades that ultimately mobilize peripheral fat depots. PMID:24465759

  17. Oxidized LDL Is Strictly Limited to Hyperthyroidism Irrespective of Fat Feeding in Female Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieglinde Zelzer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic dysfunctions might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a controlled diet (normal versus high fat feeding on hypothyroid and hyperthyroid Sprague Dawley rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (n = 30 and high-fat diet (n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment metabolic parameters, such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL, malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE, the lipid profile, body weight and food intake parameters were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunctions were shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunctions were accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight as well as in the lipid profile. In detail, hypothyroid rats showed significantly decreased oxLDL levels, whereas hyperthyroid rats showed significantly increased oxLDL levels. These effects were seen under high fat diet and were less pronounced with normal feeding. Taken together, we showed for the first time in female SD rats that only hyper-, but not hypothyroidism, is associated with high atherogenic oxidized LDL irrespective of normal or high-fat diet in Sprague Dawley rats.

  18. Oxidized LDL Is Strictly Limited to Hyperthyroidism Irrespective of Fat Feeding in Female Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelzer, Sieglinde; Mangge, Harald; Pailer, Sabine; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Kieslinger, Petra; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Scharnagl, Hubert; Prüller, Florian; Weghuber, Daniel; Datz, Christian; Haybaeck, Johannes; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Trummer, Christian; Gostner, Johanna; Gruber, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-05-21

    Metabolic dysfunctions might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a controlled diet (normal versus high fat feeding) on hypothyroid and hyperthyroid Sprague Dawley rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66) were grouped into normal diet (n = 30) and high-fat diet (n = 36) groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3) treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment metabolic parameters, such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL), malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), the lipid profile, body weight and food intake parameters were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunctions were shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunctions were accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight as well as in the lipid profile. In detail, hypothyroid rats showed significantly decreased oxLDL levels, whereas hyperthyroid rats showed significantly increased oxLDL levels. These effects were seen under high fat diet and were less pronounced with normal feeding. Taken together, we showed for the first time in female SD rats that only hyper-, but not hypothyroidism, is associated with high atherogenic oxidized LDL irrespective of normal or high-fat diet in Sprague Dawley rats.

  19. Twenty-four hour total and dietary fat oxidation in lean, obese and reduced-obese adults with and without a bout of exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Bergouignan

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept.To determine (1 whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2 whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations.We measured 24-hr total (whole-room calorimetry and dietary fat (14C-oleate oxidation in Sedentary Lean (BMI = 21.5±1.6; n = 10, Sedentary Obese (BMI = 33.6±2.5; n = 9, Sedentary Reduced-Obese (RED-SED; BMI = 26.9±3.7; n = 7 and in Physically Active Reduced-Obese (RED-EX; BMI = 27.3±2.8; n = 12 men and women with or without an acute exercise bout where energy expended during exercise was not replaced.Although Red-SED and Red-EX had a similar level of fatness, aerobic capacity and metabolic profiles were better in Red-EX only compared to Obese subjects. No significant between-group differences were seen in 24-hr respiratory quotient (RQ, Lean: 0.831±0.044, Obese: 0.852±0.023, Red-SED: 0.864±0.037, Red-EX: 0.842±0.039, total and dietary fat oxidation. A single bout of exercise increased total (+27.8%, p<0.0001 and dietary (+6.6%, p = 0.048 fat oxidation across groups. Although exercise did not impact RQ during the day, it decreased RQ during sleep (p = 0.01 in all groups. Red-EX oxidized more fat overnight than Red-SED subjects under both resting (p = 0.036 and negative energy balance (p = 0.003 conditions, even after adjustment for fat-free mass.Obese and reduced-obese individuals oxidize as much fat as lean both under eucaloric and negative energy balance conditions, which does not support the hypothesis of reduced oxidative capacity in these groups. Reduced-obese individuals who exercise regularly have markers of metabolic health similar to those seen in lean

  20. Effect of Regular Exercise on the Histochemical Changes of d-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Renal Injury in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sok; Kim, Chan-Sik; Lee, Jin; Suk Kim, Jung; Kim, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Renal lipid accumulation exhibits slowly developing chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased oxidative stress. The impact of exercise on the obese- and oxidative stress-related renal disease is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a high-fat diet (HFD) would accelerate d-galactose-induced aging process in rat kidney and to examine the preventive effect of regular exercise on the obese- and oxidative stress-related renal disease. Oxidative stress was induced by an administration of d-galactose (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally injected) for 9 weeks, and d-galactose-treated rats were also fed with a high-fat diet (60% kcal as fat) for 9 weeks to induce obesity. We investigated the efficacy of regular exercise in reducing renal injury by analyzing Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML), 8-hydroxygluanine (8-OHdG) and apoptosis. When rats were fed with a HFD for 9 weeks in d-galactose-treated rats, an increased CML accumulation, oxidative DNA damage and renal podocyte loss were observed in renal glomerular cells and tubular epithelial cells. However, the regular exercise restored all these renal changes in HFD plus d-galactose-treated rats. Our data suggested that long-term HFD may accelerate the deposition of lipoxidation adducts and oxidative renal injury in d-galactose-treated rats. The regular exercise protects against obese- and oxidative stress-related renal injury by inhibiting this lipoxidation burden

  1. Neutral fat hydrolysis and long-chain fatty acid oxidation during anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, L; Massé, D I; Kennedy, K J; Chou, S P

    2002-07-05

    Neutral fat hydrolysis and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation rates were determined during the digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors operated at 25 degrees C. The experimental substrate consisted of filtered slaughterhouse wastewater supplemented with pork fat particles at various average initial sizes (D(in)) ranging from 60 to 450 microm. At the D(in) tested, there was no significant particle size effect on the first-order hydrolysis rate. The neutral fat hydrolysis rate averaged 0.63 +/- 0.07 d(-1). LCFA oxidation rate was modelled using a Monod-type equation. The maximum substrate utilization rate (kmax) and the half-saturation concentration (Ks) averaged 164 +/- 37 mg LCFA/L/d and 35 +/- 31 mg LCFA/L, respectively. Pork fat particle degradation was mainly controlled by LCFA oxidation rate and, to a lesser extent, by neutral fat hydrolysis rate. Hydrolysis pretreatment of fat-containing wastewaters and sludges should not substantially accelerate their anaerobic treatment. At a D(in) of 450 microm, fat particles were found to inhibit methane production during the initial 20 h of digestion. Inhibition of methane production in the early phase of digestion was the only significant effect of fat particle size on anaerobic digestion of pork slaughterhouse wastewater. Soluble COD could not be used to determine the rate of lipid hydrolysis due to LCFA adsorption on the biomass.

  2. Effects of selective breeding for increased wheel-running behavior on circadian timing of substrate oxidation and ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónás, I; Vaanholt, L M; Doornbos, M; Garland, T; Scheurink, A J W; Nyakas, C; van Dijk, G

    2010-04-19

    Fluctuations in substrate preference and utilization across the circadian cycle may be influenced by the degree of physical activity and nutritional status. In the present study, we assessed these relationships in control mice and in mice from a line selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior, either when feeding a carbohydrate-rich/low-fat (LF) or a high-fat (HF) diet. Housed without wheels, selected mice, and in particular the females, exhibited higher cage activity than their non-selected controls during the dark phase and at the onset of the light phase, irrespective of diet. This was associated with increases in energy expenditure in both sexes of the selection line. In selected males, carbohydrate oxidation appeared to be increased compared to controls. In contrast, selected females had profound increases in fat oxidation above the levels in control females to cover the increased energy expenditure during the dark phase. This is remarkable in light of the finding that the selected mice, and in particular the females showed higher preference for the LF diet relative to controls. It is likely that hormonal and/or metabolic signals increase carbohydrate preference in the selected females, which may serve optimal maintenance of cellular metabolism in the presence of augmented fat oxidation. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A High-Fat, High-Fructose Diet Induces Antioxidant Imbalance and Increases the Risk and Progression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Jarukamjorn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fat liver is an important manifestation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. In the present study, the effects of a high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFFD on mRNA levels and activities of the antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, were determined in mouse livers and brains. The histomorphology of the livers was examined and the state of nonenzymatic reducing system was evaluated by measuring the glutathione system and the lipid peroxidation. Histopathology of the liver showed that fat accumulation and inflammation depended on the period of the HFFD-consumption. The levels of mRNA and enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx were raised, followed by the increases in malondialdehyde levels in livers and brains of the HFFD mice. The oxidized GSSG content was increased while the total GSH and the reduced GSH were decreased, resulting in the increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio in both livers and brains of the HFFD mice. These observations suggested that liver damage and oxidative stress in the significant organs were generated by continuous HFFD-consumption. Imbalance of antioxidant condition induced by long-term HFFD-consumption might increase the risk and progression of NAFLD.

  5. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J

    2013-01-01

    ), and postmenopausal (n = 14)]. Estimated insulin sensitivity was obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured during an acute exercise bout of 45 min of ergometer......-activated protein kinase (AMPK), vascular endothelial growth factor, pyruvate dehydrogenase-1Eα, cytochrome oxidase I], or enzyme activities (β-HAD, CS) in resting skeletal muscle, except for an increased protein level of cytochrome c in the post- and perimenopausal women relative to premenopausal women...

  6. The impact of a low glycaemic index (GI) diet on simultaneous measurements of blood glucose and fat oxidation: A whole body calorimetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Quek Yu Chin, Rina; Camps, Stefan; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-06-01

    Low glycaemic index (GI) foods are known to minimize large fluctuations in blood glucose levels and have been suggested to increase fat oxidation. The objective of this study was to simultaneously investigate glucose excursion and substrate oxidation in a whole body calorimetre when Chinese male subjects were provided a low or high GI meal. In a randomized, controlled crossover non blind design, 12 healthy Chinese male adults (BMI 21.8 ± 1.3 kgm -2 ) attended two sessions consisting of either four low or high glycaemic meals (LGI vs HGI). Breakfast, lunch and snack were consumed in a whole body calorimetre while dinner was consumed at home. Daily changes in glycaemic response (GR) and postprandial GR responses were measured using a continuous glucose monitoring system. The GR was further calculated to obtain the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for glucose concentrations. Glycaemic variability was calculated as mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (MAGE). Substrate oxidation was calculated by measuring respiratory quotient and urine nitrogen excretion. After LGI meals in the whole body calorimetre, iAUC for glucose (P = 0.008) was lower compared to the HGI session. The HGI treatment produced a significantly greater MAGE than the LGI treatment over the 24 hour period (P fat oxidation and lower carbohydrate oxidation were observed following breakfast and lunch when comparing LGI to HGI (P fat oxidation over carbohydrate oxidation when compared to HGI mixed meals. The consumption of low GI meals may be a strategic approach in improving overall glycaemia and increasing fat oxidation in Asians consuming a high carbohydrate diet.

  7. Metabolic and oxidative stress markers in Wistar rats after 2?months on a high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Auberval, Nathalie; Dal, St?phanie; Bietiger, William; Pinget, Michel; Jeandidier, Nathalie; Maillard-Pedracini, Elisa; Schini-Kerth, Val?rie; Sigrist, S?verine

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and hepatic complications. Oxidative stress in metabolic tissues has emerged as a universal feature of metabolic syndrome and its co-morbidities. We aimed to develop a rapidly and easily induced model of metabolic syndrome in rats to evaluate its impact on plasma and tissue oxidative stress. Materials and methods Metabolic syndrome was induced in rats using a high-fat diet (HFD), and these rats were compared ...

  8. Fatness-Associated FTO Gene Variant Increases Mortality Independent of Fatness - in Cohorts of Danish Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, E; Kring, SI; Berentzen, TL

    2009-01-01

    The A-allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the FTO gene is associated with increased fatness. We hypothesized that the SNP is associated with morbidity and mortality through the effect on fatness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a population of 362,200 Danish young...... prior to death suggested a general protective effect of the TT genotype, whereas there were only weak associations with disease incidence, except for diseases of the nervous system. CONCLUSION: Independent of fatness, the A-allele of the FTO SNP appears to increase mortality of a magnitude similar...

  9. 3-Keto-1,5-bisphosphonates Alleviate Serum-Oxidative Stress in the High-fat Diet Induced Obesity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahbib, Karima; Aouani, Iyadh; Cavalier, Jean-François; Touil, Soufiane

    2015-09-01

    Obesity has become a leading global health problem owing to its strong association with a high incidence of oxidative stress. Many epidemiologic studies showed that an antioxidant supplementation decreases the state of oxidative stress. In the present work, a HFD-induced rat obesity and oxidative stress were used to investigate the link between fat deposition and serum-oxidative stress markers. We also studied the effect of a chronic administration of 3-keto-1,5-bisphosphonates 1 (a & b) (40 μg/kg/8 weeks/i.p.). Exposure of rats to HFD during 16 weeks induced fat deposition, weight gain and metabolic disruption characterized by an increase in cholesterol, triglyceride and glycemia levels, and a decrease in ionizable calcium and free iron concentrations. HFD also induced serum-oxidative stress status vocalized by an increase in ROS (H2 O2 ), MDA and PC levels, with a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity (CAT, GPx, SOD). Importantly, 3-keto-1,5-bisphosphonates corrected all the deleterious effects of HFD treatment in vivo, but it failed to inhibit lipases in vitro and in vivo. These studies suggest that 3-keto-1,5-bisphosphonates 1 could be considered as safe antioxidant agents that should also find other potential biological applications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation in individuals with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandanell, Sune; Præst, Charlotte Boslev; Søndergård, Stine Dam; Skovborg, Camilla; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2017-04-01

    Maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and the exercise intensity that elicits MFO (Fat Max ) are commonly determined by indirect calorimetry during graded exercise tests in both obese and normal-weight individuals. However, no protocol has been validated in individuals with obesity. Thus, the aims were to develop a graded exercise protocol for determination of Fat Max in individuals with obesity, and to test validity and inter-method reliability. Fat oxidation was assessed over a range of exercise intensities in 16 individuals (age: 28 (26-29) years; body mass index: 36 (35-38) kg·m -2 ; 95% confidence interval) on a cycle ergometer. The graded exercise protocol was validated against a short continuous exercise (SCE) protocol, in which Fat Max was determined from fat oxidation at rest and during 10 min of continuous exercise at 35%, 50%, and 65% of maximal oxygen uptake. Intraclass and Pearson correlation coefficients between the protocols were 0.75 and 0.72 and within-subject coefficient of variation (CV) was 5 (3-7)%. A Bland-Altman plot revealed a bias of -3% points of maximal oxygen uptake (limits of agreement: -12 to 7). A tendency towards a systematic difference (p = 0.06) was observed, where Fat Max occurred at 42 (40-44)% and 45 (43-47)% of maximal oxygen uptake with the graded and the SCE protocol, respectively. In conclusion, there was a high-excellent correlation and a low CV between the 2 protocols, suggesting that the graded exercise protocol has a high inter-method reliability. However, considerable intra-individual variation and a trend towards systematic difference between the protocols reveal that further optimization of the graded exercise protocol is needed to improve validity.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of the effects of chitosan on the hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Sicong; Wang, Xiaoya; Yang, Shuo; Jiang, Qixing; Xu, Yanshun; Xia, Wenshui

    2017-09-01

    Transcriptome analysis was performed to investigate the alterations in gene expression after chitosan (CS) treatment on the liver of mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). The results showed that the body weight, the liver weight and the epididymal fat mass of HFD mice, which were 62.98%, 46.51% and 239.37%, respectively, higher than those of control mice, could be significantly decreased by chitosan supplementation. Also, high-fat diet increased both plasma lipid and liver lipid as compared with the control mice. Chitosan supplementation decreased the plasma lipid and liver lipid, increased the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) activity, increased T-AOC and decreased MDA in the liver and the epididymis adipose as compared with the HFD mice. Transcriptome analysis indicated that increased Mups, Lcn2, Gstm3 and CYP2E1 expressions clearly indicated HFD induced lipid metabolism disorder and oxidative damage. Especially, chitosan treatment decreased the Mup17 and Lcn2 expressions by 64.32% and 82.43% respectively as compared with those of HFD mice. These results indicated that chitosan possess the ability to improve the impairment of lipid metabolism as strongly associated with increased Mups expressions and gene expressions related to oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fat intake and energy-balance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2004-12-30

    This paper focuses on the effects of dietary fats or fatty acids on key targets of metabolic intermediates for body-weight control, i.e. satiety, thermogenesis, fat oxidation and body composition. With respect to sensory satiety, it appeared, e.g. that linoleic acid tasters showed a different mechanism for meal termination than non-tasters did. They stopped eating linoleic acid containing food based upon satiety, whereas the non-tasters stopped eating based upon the change in pleasantness of taste. Moreover, in the normal range of body mass index, an inverse relationship was shown between % 'tasters' and BMI. In a high fat diet vs. a low fat high protein high carbohydrate diet, metabolic satiety appeared to be continuously lower and correlated positively to diet-induced energy expenditure. However, with respect to the intermeal interval, satiety appeared to be more sustained following a high fat vs. a high CHO preload, resulting in a lower meal frequency. Covert fat replacement during breakfast by sucrose polyester was successful in combination with dietary restraint, yet overt fat replacement in snacks was successful in the dietary-unrestrained subjects, i.e. those who habitually ate snacks. With respect to fat oxidation, from a respiration-chamber experiment on the effects of diacylglycerol compared (DG) to triacylglycerol (TG) intake, it was concluded that consumption of DG increased fat oxidation and beta-hydroxy-butyrate levels, but did not affect energy metabolism or triacylglycerol level. Parameters of appetite were all lowered by DG compared to TG. With respect to body composition, the effects of 13 weeks CLA supplementation in overweight subjects during weight regain were assessed. Although CLA did not affect %body-weight regain, the regain of fat-free mass was increased by CLA, independently of %body-weight regain and physical activity, and as a consequence resting metabolic rate was increased. At the same time, appetite was reduced and satiety and

  13. A High-Fat Meal, or Intraperitoneal Administration of a Fat Emulsion, Increases Extracellular Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartley G. Hoebel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence links dopamine (DA in the nucleus accumbens (NAc shell to the ingestion of palatable diets. Less is known, however, about the specific relation of DA to dietary fat and circulating triglycerides (TG, which are stimulated by fat intake and promote overeating. The present experiments tested in Sprague-Dawley rats whether extracellular levels of NAc DA increase in response to acute access to fat-rich food or peripheral injection of a fat emulsion and, if so, whether this is related to caloric intake or elevated circulating lipids. When rats consumed more calories of a high-fat meal compared with a low-fat meal, there was a significant increase in extracellular accumbens DA (155% vs. 119%. Systemic injection of a fat emulsion, which like a high-fat diet raises circulating TG but eliminates the factor of taste and allows for the control of caloric intake, also significantly increased extracellular levels of DA (127% compared to an equicaloric glucose solution (70% and saline (85%. Together, this suggests that a rise in circulating TG may contribute to the stimulatory effect of a high-fat diet on NAc DA.

  14. Anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Hemidesmus indicus in rats fed with high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganya Venkateshan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dietary changes playmajor risk roles in oxidative stress andcardiovascular disease and modulate normal metabolic function. The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of different extracts of Hemidesmus indicus to experimental high-fat diet in wistar rats, and their possible mechanism of action.  Materials and Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6/group andfed with a standard diet (control, high-fat diet (HFD, high-fat diet supplemented with different extracts and positive control for 9 weeks. High-fat diet induced changes in average body weight andoxidative stress and elevated levels of plasma lipid profilein rats. Results: Oral administration of methanolic extract of H. indicus(200 mg/kg offered a significant dose-dependent protection against HFD-induced oxidative stress, as reflected in the levels of catalase (pConclusion: The present study revealed that the methanolic extract of H.indicus protects against oxidative stress, hyperlipidemia and liver damage.

  15. Impact of phenylketonuria type meal on appetite, thermic effect of feeding and postprandial fat oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfheeaid, Hani; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Năstase, Ana-Maria; Elhauge, Mie; Cochrane, Barbara; Malkova, Dalia

    2017-03-08

    Dietary management of phenylketonuria (PKU) requires the replacement of natural protein-containing foods with special low protein foods. The effect of a PKU type diet on factors contributing to energy balance requires investigation. To investigate the impact of a PKU type meal on appetite ratings, gut appetite hormones, thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and fat oxidation. Twenty-three healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 24.3 ± 5.1 years; BMI: 22.4 ± 2.5 kg/m 2 ) participated in a randomized, crossover design study. Each participant conducted two (PKU and Control) experimental trials which involved consumption of a PKU type meal and protein substitute drink or an isocaloric and weight matched ordinary meal and protein-enriched milk. Appetite, metabolic rate, fat oxidation measurements and blood collections were conducted for the duration of 300 min. On the completion of the measurements ad libitum buffet dinner was served. Responses of appetite ratings, plasma concentrations of GLP-1 and PYY (P > 0.05, trial effect, two-way ANOVA) and energy intake during ad libitum buffet dinner (P > 0.05, paired t-test) were not significantly different between the two trials. The TEF (PKU, 10.2 ± 1.5%; Control, 13.2 ± 1.0%) and the total amount of fat oxidized (PKU, 18.90 ± 1.10 g; Control, 22.10 ± 1.10 g) were significantly (P meal period. Consumption of a meal composed of special low protein foods has no detrimental impact on appetite and appetite hormones but produces a lower TEF and postprandial fat oxidation than an ordinary meal. These metabolic alterations may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity reported in patients with PKU on contemporary dietary management. The trial has been registered in ClinicalTrials as NCT02440932. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Increase of hepatic nitric oxide levels in a nutritional model of fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) is a metabolic condition of laying hens characterized by the accumulation of excess fat in the liver and liver hemorrhage. It suggested that oxidative damage to the cellular and organelle membranes of the liver increases the susceptibility of the liver to hemorrhage. However, a local ...

  17. Ameliorative effect of vitamin E on hepatic oxidative stress and hypoimmunity induced by high-fat diet in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yudong; Jing, Qiqi; Niu, Huaxin; Huang, Bin

    2017-08-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of vitamin E on growth performance, oxidative stress and non-specific immunity of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) fed with high-fat diet. Results showed that high-fat diet significantly increased hepatosomatic index, viscerosomatic index, hepatic malondialdehyde level and decreased catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, whereas final weight, specific growth rate and survival rate remained unchanged. Meanwhile, nitro blue tetrazolium positive leucocytes of head kidney, respiratory burst activity in head-kidney macrophage, phagocytic index and serum lysozyme activity were significantly reduced after feeding with high-fat diet. Furthermore, fish fed with high-fat diet promoted higher expression of heat shock protein (hsp70, hsp90), and inhibited expression of complement component 3 (c3) in the liver and tumor necrosis factor-α (tnf-α), interleukine 1β (il-1β), toll like receptor 22 (tlr-22) in the spleen and head-kidney, respectively. However, simultaneous supplementation with 480 mg kg -1 vitamin E protected turbot against high-fat diet-induced hepatic oxidative stress, hypoimmunity through attenuating lipid peroxidation, renewing antioxidant enzymes activities and nonspecific immune responses, and modulating the expression of stress protein (hsp70, hsp90) and immune-related genes (c3, tnf-α, il-1β, tlr-22). In conclusion, the obtained results indicate the vitamin E as a wildly used functional feed additive contributes potentially to alleviate high-fat diet-induced hepatic oxidative stress and hypoimmunity, maintain the health, and improve the broodstock management for turbot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Short-Term High Fat Diet Inducing Obesity on Hematological, Some Biochemical Parameters and Testicular Oxidative Stress in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif M. Shawky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity constitutes a health problem due to its increasing worldwide prevalence. Among the health detriments caused by obesity, reproduction is disrupted. Some studies have shown a relationship between obesity and infertility, but until now it remains controversial. The objective of the current work was to examine the effect of diet-induced obesity on blood parameters, liver and kidney function tests, lipid profile and testicular oxidative stress. For that purpose, Male rats were fed ad libitum with a standard diet (control group; n.= 15 and high fat diet (HFD group; n.= 15 for 6 weeks. Hematological parameters, urea, creatinine, albumin were similar between the two groups. Intergroup testosterone levels were also comparable. The high fat diet induced significant increase in serum triglycerides, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. This diet also increases significantly alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and decreased total protein level and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration. Furthermore, HFD showed a significant increasing in malondialdehyde contents in testes and decreasing in superoxide dismutase activity, the results of this study concluded that short-term high fat diet affect on liver enzymes and causing oxidative stress in testes.

  19. High-fat diet induces an initial adaptation of mitochondrial bioenergetics in the kidney despite evident oxidative stress and mitochondrial ROS production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Christine; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Cleland, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with an increased risk for several diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy and chronic kidney diseases. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are often proposed mechanisms in various organs in obesity models, but limited data are available on the kidney. Here, we fed a lard-based high-fat diet to mice to investigate structural changes, cellular and subcellular oxidative stress and redox status, and mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the kidney. The diet induced characteristic changes, including glomerular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and interstitial scarring, which were accompanied by a proinflammatory transition. We demonstrate evidence for oxidative stress in the kidney through 3-nitrotyrosine and protein radical formation on high-fat diet with a contribution from iNOS and NOX-4 as well as increased generation of mitochondrial oxidants on carbohydrate- and lipid-based substrates. The increased H2O2 emission in the mitochondria suggests altered redox balance and mitochondrial ROS generation, contributing to the overall oxidative stress. No major derailments were observed in respiratory function or biogenesis, indicating preserved and initially improved bioenergetic parameters and energy production. We suggest that, regardless of the oxidative stress events, the kidney developed an adaptation to maintain normal respiratory function as a possible response to an increased lipid overload. These findings provide new insights into the complex role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial redox status in the pathogenesis of the kidney in obesity and indicate that early oxidative stress-related changes, but not mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction, may contribute to the pathogenesis and development of obesity-linked chronic kidney diseases. PMID:21386058

  20. Weight increase and overweight are associated with DNA oxidative damage in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Maza, María-Pía; Olivares, Daniela; Hirsch, Sandra; Sierralta, Walter; Gattás, Vivien; Barrera, Gladys; Bunout, Daniel; Leiva, Laura; Fernández, Mireya

    2006-12-01

    Weight maintenance within normal standards is recommended for prevention of conditions associated with oxidative injury. To compare oxidative damage in a post mitotic tissue, between adults differing in long-term energy balance. During hernia surgery, a sample of skeletal muscle was obtained in 17 non-obese adults. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their self-reported weight change: weight maintainers (WM) reported 5kg increment. Muscle immunohistochemistry for 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG), 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE), and TNF-alpha, as markers of oxidative injury and inflammation, were performed. As known positive controls for oxidative injury, we included 10 elderly subjects (66-101yr). Anthropometric measures and blood samples for clinical laboratory and serum cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) were obtained. 8OHdG was higher in WG compared with WM (149.1+/-16.2 versus 117.8+/-29.5, P=0.03), and was associated with anthropometric indicators of fat accumulation. 4HNE was similar in WG compared with WM (10.9+/-7.6 versus 9.8+/-6.3) but noticeably higher in elderly subjects (21.5+/-15.3, P=0.059). TNF-alpha protein in WG was higher compared with WM (114.0+/-41.7 versus 70.1+/-23.3, P=0.025), and was associated with weight increase. Moderate self-reported weight increase, and body fat accumulation, suggesting long-term positive energy balance is associated with muscle DNA oxidative injury and inflammation.

  1. Fat metabolism in formerly obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranneries, C; Bülow, J; Buemann, B

    1998-01-01

    An impaired fat oxidation has been implicated to play a role in the etiology of obesity, but it is unclear to what extent impaired fat mobilization from adipose tissue or oxidation of fat is responsible. The present study aimed to examine fat mobilization from adipose tissue and whole body fat...... oxidation stimulated by exercise in seven formerly obese women (FO) and eight matched controls (C). Lipolysis in the periumbilical subcutaneous adipose tissue, whole body energy expenditure (EE), and substrate oxidation rates were measured before, during, and after a 60-min bicycle exercise bout of moderate.......32 +/- 0.84 vs. 3.70 +/- 0.57 kJ/min, P obese group. In conclusion, fat mobilization both at rest and during exercise is intact in FO, whereas fat oxidation...

  2. Fat Content and Nitrite-Curing Influence the Formation of Oxidation Products and NOC-Specific DNA Adducts during In Vitro Digestion of Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Thomas; Vossen, Els; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Raes, Katleen; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    The effects of fat content and nitrite-curing of pork were investigated on the formation of cytotoxic and genotoxic lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, volatile simple aldehydes), protein oxidation products (protein carbonyl compounds) and NOC-specific DNA adducts (O6-carboxy-methylguanine) during in vitro digestion. The formation of these products during digestion is suggested to be responsible for the association between red meat and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk. Digestion of uncured pork to which fat was added (total fat content 5 or 20%), resulted in significantly higher lipid and protein oxidation in the mimicked duodenal and colonic fluids, compared to digestion of pork without added fat (1% fat). A higher fat content also significantly favored the formation of O6-carboxy-methylguanine in the colon. Nitrite-curing of meat resulted in significantly lower lipid and protein oxidation before and after digestion, while an inconsistent effect on the formation of O6-carboxy-methylguanine was observed. The presented results demonstrate that haem-Fe is not solely responsible for oxidation and nitrosation reactions throughout an in vitro digestion approach but its effect is promoted by a higher fat content in meat. PMID:24978825

  3. Fat content and nitrite-curing influence the formation of oxidation products and NOC-specific DNA adducts during in vitro digestion of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Thomas; Vossen, Els; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Raes, Katleen; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    The effects of fat content and nitrite-curing of pork were investigated on the formation of cytotoxic and genotoxic lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, volatile simple aldehydes), protein oxidation products (protein carbonyl compounds) and NOC-specific DNA adducts (O6-carboxy-methylguanine) during in vitro digestion. The formation of these products during digestion is suggested to be responsible for the association between red meat and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk. Digestion of uncured pork to which fat was added (total fat content 5 or 20%), resulted in significantly higher lipid and protein oxidation in the mimicked duodenal and colonic fluids, compared to digestion of pork without added fat (1% fat). A higher fat content also significantly favored the formation of O6-carboxy-methylguanine in the colon. Nitrite-curing of meat resulted in significantly lower lipid and protein oxidation before and after digestion, while an inconsistent effect on the formation of O6-carboxy-methylguanine was observed. The presented results demonstrate that haem-Fe is not solely responsible for oxidation and nitrosation reactions throughout an in vitro digestion approach but its effect is promoted by a higher fat content in meat.

  4. Fat content and nitrite-curing influence the formation of oxidation products and NOC-specific DNA adducts during in vitro digestion of meat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Van Hecke

    Full Text Available The effects of fat content and nitrite-curing of pork were investigated on the formation of cytotoxic and genotoxic lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, volatile simple aldehydes, protein oxidation products (protein carbonyl compounds and NOC-specific DNA adducts (O6-carboxy-methylguanine during in vitro digestion. The formation of these products during digestion is suggested to be responsible for the association between red meat and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk. Digestion of uncured pork to which fat was added (total fat content 5 or 20%, resulted in significantly higher lipid and protein oxidation in the mimicked duodenal and colonic fluids, compared to digestion of pork without added fat (1% fat. A higher fat content also significantly favored the formation of O6-carboxy-methylguanine in the colon. Nitrite-curing of meat resulted in significantly lower lipid and protein oxidation before and after digestion, while an inconsistent effect on the formation of O6-carboxy-methylguanine was observed. The presented results demonstrate that haem-Fe is not solely responsible for oxidation and nitrosation reactions throughout an in vitro digestion approach but its effect is promoted by a higher fat content in meat.

  5. Tocotrienol rich tocomin attenuates oxidative stress and improves endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortae from rats fed a high-fat western diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher F Ali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that tocomin, a mixture high in tocotrienol content and also containing tocopherol, acutely preserves endothelial function in the presence of oxidative stress. In this study we investigated whether tocomin treatment would preserve endothelial function in aortae isolated from rats fed a high fat diet known to cause oxidative stress. Wistar hooded rats were fed a western diet (WD, 21% fat or control rat chow (SD, 6% fat for 12 weeks. Tocomin (40 mg/kg/day sc or its vehicle (peanut oil was administered for the last 4 weeks of the feeding regime. Aortae from WD rats showed an impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation that was associated with an increased expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox2 subunit and an increase in the vascular generation of superoxide measured using L-012 chemiluminescence. The increase in vascular oxidative stress was accompanied by a decrease in basal NO release and impairment of the contribution of NO to ACh-induced relaxation. The impaired relaxation is likely contributed to by a decreased expression of eNOS, calmodulin and phosphorylated Akt and an increase in caveolin-Tocotrienol rich tocomin, which prevented the diet-induced changes in vascular function, reduced vascular superoxide production and abolished the diet-induced changes in eNOS and other protein expression. Using selective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC and calcium activated potassium (KCa channels we demonstrated that tocomin increased NO mediated relaxation, without affecting the contribution of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization type relaxation to the endothelium-dependent relaxation. The beneficial actions of tocomin in this diet-induced model of obesity suggests that it may have potential to be used as a therapeutic agent to prevent vascular disease in obesity.

  6. Cardamom powder supplementation prevents obesity, improves glucose intolerance, inflammation and oxidative stress in liver of high carbohydrate high fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Alam, Mohammad Nazmul; Ulla, Anayt; Sumi, Farzana Akther; Subhan, Nusrat; Khan, Trisha; Sikder, Bishwajit; Hossain, Hemayet; Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2017-08-14

    Cardamom is a well-known spice in Indian subcontinent, used in culinary and traditional medicine practices since ancient times. The current investigation was untaken to evaluate the potential benefit of cardamom powder supplementation in high carbohydrate high fat (HCHF) diet induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats (28 rats) were divided into four different groups such as Control, Control + cardamom, HCHF, HCHF + cardamom. High carbohydrate and high fat (HCHF) diet was prepared in our laboratory. Oral glucose tolerance test, organs wet weight measurements and oxidative stress parameters analysis as well as liver marker enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were assayed on the tissues collected from the rats. Plasma lipids profiles were also measured in all groups of animals. Moreover, histological staining was also performed to evaluate inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in liver. The current investigation showed that, HCHF diet feeding in rats developed glucose intolerance and increased peritoneal fat deposition compared to control rats. Cardamom powder supplementation improved the glucose intolerance significantly (p > 0.05) and prevented the abdominal fat deposition in HCHF diet fed rats. HCHF diet feeding in rats also developed dyslipidemia, increased fat deposition and inflammation in liver compared to control rats. Cardamom powder supplementation significantly prevented the rise of lipid parameters (p > 0.05) in HCHF diet fed rats. Histological assessments confirmed that HCHF diet increased the fat deposition and inflammatory cells infiltration in liver which was normalized by cardamom powder supplementation in HCHF diet fed rats. Furthermore, HCHF diet increased lipid peroxidation, decreased antioxidant enzymes activities and increased advanced protein oxidation product level significantly (p > 0.05) both in plasma and liver tissue which were modulated by

  7. Increased nocturnal fat oxidation in young healthy men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Lilleøre, S K; Jensen, C B

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight (LBW), a marker of disturbed fetal growth, is associated with adiposity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the study was to investigate whether LBW is associated with changes in 24-h energy expenditure (EE) and/or substrate utilization rates......, potentially contributing to the development of adiposity and/or T2D compared to matched control subjects. MATERIALS/METHODS: Forty-six young, healthy men were included in the study; 20 with LBW (= 10th percentile) and 26 control subjects with normal birth weight (NBW) (50th-90th percentile). The subjects were...... fed a weight maintenance diet and 24-h energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), and substrate oxidation were assessed in a respiratory chamber. RESULTS: No differences in 24-h EE, RQ or substrate oxidation were observed between LBW and controls. Interestingly, the LBW group exhibited lower...

  8. Effects of an 8-weeks erythropoietin treatment on mitochondrial and Whole body fat oxidation capacity during exercise in healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guadalupe Grau, Amelia; Plenge, Ulla; Bønding, Signe Helbo

    2015-01-01

    fat oxidation were measured. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained before and after the intervention. Recombinant erythropoietin treatment increased mitochondrial O2 flux during ADP stimulated state 3 respiration in the presence of complex I and II substrates (malate, glutamate...

  9. Moderate High Fat Diet Increases Sucrose Self-Administration In Young Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Figlewicz, Dianne P.; Jay, Jennifer L.; Acheson, Molly A.; Magrisso, Irwin J.; West, Constance H.; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C.; Davis, Jon F.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adult rats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However...

  10. Chronic CNS oxytocin signaling preferentially induces fat loss in high-fat diet-fed rats by enhancing satiety responses and increasing lipid utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, James E; Thompson, Benjamin W; Anekonda, Vishwanath T; Ho, Jacqueline M; Graham, James L; Roberts, Zachary S; Hwang, Bang H; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wolden-Hanson, Tami; Nelson, Jarrell; Kaiyala, Karl J; Havel, Peter J; Bales, Karen L; Morton, Gregory J; Schwartz, Michael W; Baskin, Denis G

    2016-04-01

    Based largely on a number of short-term administration studies, growing evidence suggests that central oxytocin is important in the regulation of energy balance. The goal of the current work is to determine whether long-term third ventricular (3V) infusion of oxytocin into the central nervous system (CNS) is effective for obesity prevention and/or treatment in rat models. We found that chronic 3V oxytocin infusion between 21 and 26 days by osmotic minipumps both reduced weight gain associated with the progression of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and elicited a sustained reduction of fat mass with no decrease of lean mass in rats with established diet-induced obesity. We further demonstrated that these chronic oxytocin effects result from 1) maintenance of energy expenditure at preintervention levels despite ongoing weight loss, 2) a reduction in respiratory quotient, consistent with increased fat oxidation, and 3) an enhanced satiety response to cholecystokinin-8 and associated decrease of meal size. These weight-reducing effects persisted for approximately 10 days after termination of 3V oxytocin administration and occurred independently of whether sucrose was added to the HFD. We conclude that long-term 3V administration of oxytocin to rats can both prevent and treat diet-induced obesity.

  11. Jinlida reduces insulin resistance and ameliorates liver oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yixuan; Song, An; Zang, Shasha; Wang, Chao; Song, Guangyao; Li, Xiaoling; Zhu, Yajun; Yu, Xian; Li, Ling; Wang, Yun; Duan, Liyuan

    2015-03-13

    Jinlida (JLD) is a compound preparation formulated on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine and is officially approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in China. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of JLD treatment, in comparison to metformin treatment, on ameliorating insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant rats and to reveal its anti-oxidant properties. Rats were fed with standard or high-fat diet for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, the high-fat fed rats were subdivided into five groups and orally fed with JLD or metformin for 8 weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin, blood lipid and antioxidant enzymes were measured. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique were carried out to measure insulin sensitivity. Gene expression of the major signaling pathway molecules that regulate glucose uptake, including insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase beta (AKT), and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2), were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. The totle and phosphorylation expression of IRS-1, AKT, JNK and p38MAPK were determined by Western blot. Treatment with JLD effectively ameliorated the high-fat induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia. Similar to metformin, the high insulin resistance in high-fat fed rats was significantly decreased by JLD treatment. JLD displayed anti-oxidant effects, coupled with up-regulation of the insulin signaling pathway. The attenuation of hepatic oxidative stress by JLD treatment was associated with reduced phosphorylation protein levels of JNK and p38MAPK. Treatment with JLD could moderate glucose and lipid metabolism as well as reduce hepatic oxidative stress, most likely through the JNK and p38MAPK pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary supplementation of organic selenium could improve performance, antibody response, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed on diets containing oxidized fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laika, M; Jahanian, R

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of organic selenium (Se) on performance, egg quality indices, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed diets with different fat sources. A total of 270 Hy-line W-36 Leghorn hens of 47 weeks of age were randomly distributed into the 5 replicate cages of 9 dietary treatments. Experimental diets consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three different fat sources (soybean oil, SO; yellow grease, YG; and palm fat powder, PFP) and three different levels of supplemental Se (0, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg of diet) as supplied by zinc-L-selenomethionine (ZnSeMet) complex, which fed during a 77-day feeding trial including 7 days for adaptation and 70 days as the main recording period. Results showed that the highest (P hens fed on SO-supplemented diets. Hen-day egg production was affected by both dietary fat source (P feed intake was not affected by experimental diets during the first 35-day period, dietary inclusion of PFP reduced feed intake during both second 35-day (P feed conversion ratio during the first 35-day period was assigned to the birds fed on SO-diets, followed by those fed YG-diets. Dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet improved (P feed efficiency during the first 35-day period. Supplementation of ZnSeMet into the diets increased yolk index, with more impact in hens fed on YG-diets. The highest concentration of yolk malondialdehyde was observed in YG-fed groups, and ZnSeMet supplementation of diets decreased (P hens fed on diets supplemented by YG, followed by those on SO-diets. Although different fat sources had no effect on antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus, supplemental ZnSeMet improved (P hens, with the highest impact in diets containing oxidized (high peroxide values) fat sources.

  13. Fat utilization during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. 2. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62 % fat, 21...... % carbohydrate) and six consumed a carbohydrate-rich diet (20 % fat, 65 % carbohydrate). After 7 weeks of training and diet, 60 min of bicycle exercise was performed at 68 +/- 1 % of maximum oxygen uptake. During exercise [1-(13)C]palmitate was infused, arterial and venous femoral blood samples were collected......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than...

  14. Ablation of TRIP-Br2, a regulator of fat lipolysis, thermogenesis and oxidative metabolism, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Chong Wee; Boucher, Jeremie; Cheong, Jit Kong; Vernochet, Cecile; Koh, Ho-Jin; Mallol, Cristina; Townsend, Kristy; Langin, Dominique; Kawamori, Dan; Hu, Jiang; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Hellerstein, Marc K; Farmer, Stephen R; Goodyear, Laurie; Doria, Alessandro; Blüher, Matthias; Hsu, Stephen I-Hong; Kulkarni, Rohit N

    2013-02-01

    Obesity develops as a result of altered energy homeostasis favoring fat storage. Here we describe a new transcription co-regulator for adiposity and energy metabolism, SERTA domain containing 2 (TRIP-Br2, also called SERTAD2). TRIP-Br2-null mice are resistant to obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance. Adipocytes of these knockout mice showed greater stimulated lipolysis secondary to enhanced expression of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and β3-adrenergic (Adrb3) receptors. The knockout mice also have higher energy expenditure because of increased adipocyte thermogenesis and oxidative metabolism caused by upregulating key enzymes in their respective processes. Our data show that a cell-cycle transcriptional co-regulator, TRIP-Br2, modulates fat storage through simultaneous regulation of lipolysis, thermogenesis and oxidative metabolism. These data, together with the observation that TRIP-Br2 expression is selectively elevated in visceral fat in obese humans, suggests that this transcriptional co-regulator is a new therapeutic target for counteracting the development of obesity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia.

  15. Assessment of body fat in the pony: part II. Validation of the deuterium oxide dilution technique for the measurement of body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, A H A; Curtis, G C; Milne, E; Harris, P A; Argo, C Mc

    2011-09-01

    Excessive accumulations or depletions of body fat have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in horses and ponies. An objective, minimally-invasive method to accurately quantify body fat in living animals is required to aid nutritional management and define welfare/performance limits. To compare deuterium oxide (D(2) O) dilution-derived estimates of total body water (TBW) and body fat with values obtained by 'gold standard' proximate analysis and cadaver dissection. D(2) O dilution offers a valid method for the determination of TBW and body fat in equids. Seven mature (mean ± s.e. 13 ± 3 years, 212 ± 14 kg, body condition scores 1.25-7/9), healthy, Welsh Mountain pony mares, destined for euthanasia (for nonresearch purposes) were used. Blood samples were collected before and 4 h after D(2) O (0.11-0.13 g/kg bwt, 99.8 atom percent excess) administration. Plasma was analysed by gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry following filtration and zinc reduction. After euthanasia, white adipose tissue (WAT) mass was recorded before all body tissues were analysed by proximate chemical analyses. D(2) O-derived estimates of TBW and body fat were strongly associated with proximate analysis- and dissection-derived values (all r(2) >0.97, P≤0.0001). Bland-Altman analyses demonstrated good agreements between methods. D(2) O dilution slightly overestimated TBW (0.79%, limits of agreement (LoA) -3.75-2.17%) and underestimated total body lipid (1.78%, LoA -0.59-4.15%) and dissected WAT (0.72%, LoA -2.77-4.21%). This study provides the first validation of the D(2) O dilution method for the minimally-invasive, accurate, repeatable and objective measurement of body water and fat in living equids. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Long-term fat diet adaptation effects on performance, training capacity, and fat utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that adaptation to a fat-rich carbohydrate-poor diet results in lower resting muscle glycogen content and a higher rate of fat oxidation during exercise when compared with a carbohydrate-rich diet. The net effect of such an adaptation could potentially be a sparing of muscle...... glycogen, and because muscle glycogen storage is coupled to endurance performance, it is possible that adaptation to a high-fat diet potentially could enhance endurance performance. Therefore, the first issue in this review is to critically evaluate the available evidence for a potential endurance...... performance enhancement after long-term fat-rich diet adaptation. Attainment of optimal performance is among other factors dependent also on the quality and quantity of the training performed. When exercise intensity is increased, there is an increased need for carbohydrates. On the other hand, consumption...

  17. Non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) increased by high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Marckmann, P; Sandström, B

    1994-01-01

    :Bt/FVII:Am (a measure of FVII activation) increased from fasting levels on both diets, but most markedly on the high-fat diet. In contrast, FVII:Am (a measure of FVII protein) tended to decrease from fasting levels on both diets. FVII:C rose from fasting levels on the high-fat diet, but not on the low-fat diet....... The findings suggest that high-fat diets increase non-fasting FVII:C, and consequently may be associated with increased risk of thrombosis. Udgivelsesdato: 1994-Jun......Preliminary observations have suggested that non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) may be related to the dietary fat content. To confirm this, we performed a randomised cross-over study. Seventeen young volunteers were served 2 controlled isoenergetic diets differing in fat content (20...

  18. Moderate high fat diet increases sucrose self-administration in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlewicz, Dianne P; Jay, Jennifer L; Acheson, Molly A; Magrisso, Irwin J; West, Constance H; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C; Davis, Jon F

    2013-02-01

    We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adult rats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However, AGRP mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly elevated. We demonstrated that increased activation of AGRP neurons is associated with motivated behavior, and that exogenous (third cerebroventricular) AGRP administration resulted in significantly increased motivation for sucrose. These observations suggest that increased expression and activity of AGRP in the medial hypothalamus may underlie the increased responding for sucrose caused by the high fat diet intervention. Finally, we compared motivation for sucrose in pubertal vs. adult rats and observed increased motivation for sucrose in the pubertal rats, which is consistent with previous reports that young animals and humans have an increased preference for sweet taste, compared with adults. Together, our studies suggest that background diet plays a strong modulatory role in motivation for sweet taste in adolescent animals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Methodological Aspects and Relevance of the Study of Vegetable Oil, Fat and Lipoprotein Oxidation Using Pancreatic Lipase and Arylesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Nus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils as major dietary components are involved in the development of chronic diseases. In this paper the physiological relevance and some methodological aspects related to the determination of two enzymes enrolled in metabolism of fat – pancreatic lipase and arylesterase – are discussed. Pancreatic lipase has been extensively used to study the triacylglycerol fatty acid composition and the in vitro digestion of oils and fats. The action of this enzyme may be coupled to analytical methods as GC, HPLC, HPSEC, TLC- -FID, etc. as a useful tool for understanding the composition and digestion of thermal oxidized oils. Pancreatic lipase hydrolysis occurs in the water/oil interface, and it presents a behaviour that seems to be Michaelian, in which the apparent Km and the apparent Vmax of the enzymatic process depend more on the type of oil tested than on the degree of alteration. The kinetic behaviour of pancreatic lipase towards thermally oxidized oils also depends on the presence of natural tensioactive compounds present in the oil and surfactants formed during the frying. Arylesterase is an HDL binding enzyme that inhibits LDL oxidation. Low serum concentration of this enzyme has been related to increased cardiovascular disease risk. In this paper the most widely used methods for the determination of arylesterase activity are commented on. The importance of intrinsic factors (e.g. substrates, cofactors participating in the enzyme reaction is also discussed. Moreover, several suggestions about further researches on the influence of extrinsic factors (e.g. diet, oxidative stress upon the enzyme activity are proposed.

  20. Ablation of TRIP-Br2, a novel regulator of fat lipolysis, thermogenesis and oxidative metabolism, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Chong Wee; Boucher, Jeremie; Cheong, Jit Kong; Vernochet, Cecile; Koh, Ho-Jin; Mallol, Cristina; Townsend, Kristy; Langin, Dominique; Kawamori, Dan; Hu, Jiang; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Hellerstein, Marc K; Farmer, Stephen R; Goodyear, Laurie; Doria, Alessandro; Blüher, Matthias; Hsu, Stephen I-Hong; Kulkarni, Rohit N

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Obesity develops due to altered energy homeostasis favoring fat storage. Here we describe a novel transcription co-regulator for adiposity and energy metabolism, TRIP-Br2 (also called SERTAD2). TRIP-Br2 null mice are resistant to obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance. Adipocytes of the knockout (KO) mice exhibited greater stimulated lipolysis secondary to enhanced expression of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and β3-adrenergic (Adrb3) receptors. The KOs also exhibit higher energy expenditure due to increased adipocyte thermogenesis and oxidative metabolism by up-regulating key enzymes in respective processes. Our data show for the first time that a cell cycle transcriptional co-regulator, TRIP-Br2, modulates fat storage through simultaneous regulation of lipolysis, thermogenesis and oxidative metabolism. These data together with the observation that TRIP-BR2 expression is selectively elevated in visceral fat in obese humans suggests that this transcriptional co-regulator is a novel therapeutic target for counteracting the development of obesity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. PMID:23291629

  1. Finger millet bran supplementation alleviates obesity-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and gut microbial derangements in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Nida; Baboota, Ritesh K; Jagtap, Sneha; Singh, Dhirendra P; Khare, Pragyanshu; Sarma, Siddhartha M; Podili, Koteswaraiah; Alagesan, Subramanian; Chandra, T S; Bhutani, K K; Boparai, Ravneet K; Bishnoi, Mahendra; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran

    2014-11-14

    Several epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of finger millet (FM) alleviates diabetes-related complications. In the present study, the effect of finger millet whole grain (FM-WG) and bran (FM-BR) supplementation was evaluated in high-fat diet-fed LACA mice for 12 weeks. Mice were divided into four groups: control group fed a normal diet (10 % fat as energy); a group fed a high-fat diet; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-BR; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-WG. The inclusion of FM-BR at 10 % (w/w) in a high-fat diet had more beneficial effects than that of FM-WG. FM-BR supplementation prevented body weight gain, improved lipid profile and anti-inflammatory status, alleviated oxidative stress, regulated the expression levels of several obesity-related genes, increased the abundance of beneficial gut bacteria (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria and Roseburia) and suppressed the abundance of Enterobacter in caecal contents (P≤ 0·05). In conclusion, FM-BR supplementation could be an effective strategy for preventing high-fat diet-induced changes and developing FM-BR-enriched functional foods.

  2. A Low Glycaemic Index Diet Incorporating Isomaltulose Is Associated with Lower Glycaemic Response and Variability, and Promotes Fat Oxidation in Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiani Jeyakumar Henry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Low glycaemic index (GI foods minimize large blood glucose fluctuations and have been advocated to enhance fat oxidation and may contribute to weight management. We determined whether the inclusion of isomaltulose compared to sucrose in a low/high GI meal sequence can modulate the glycaemic response and substrate oxidation in an Asian population. Twenty Chinese men (body mass index (BMI: 17–28 kg/m2 followed a 24 h low GI (isomaltulose, PalatinoseTM or high GI (sucrose diet in a randomized double-blind, controlled cross-over design. Treatment meals included dinner (day 1, breakfast, lunch, and snack (day 2. Continuous glucose monitoring provided incremental area under the curve (iAUC and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (MAGE and 10 h indirect calorimetry (whole body calorimeter (day 2 provided energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. Our results demonstrated that the low GI diet resulted in lower 24 h glucose iAUC (502.5 ± 231.4 vs. 872.6 ± 493.1 mmol/L; p = 0.002 and lower 24 h glycaemic variability (MAGE: 1.67 ± 0.53 vs. 2.68 ± 1.13 mmol/L; p < 0.001. Simultaneously, 10 h respiratory quotient increased more during high GI (p = 0.014 and fat oxidation was higher after low GI breakfast (p = 0.026, lunch (p < 0.001 and snack (p = 0.013. This indicates that lower GI mixed meals incorporating isomaltulose are able to acutely reduce the glycaemic response and variability and promote fat oxidation.

  3. The effect of high-intensity training on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Danielsen, J H; Søndergård, Stine Dam

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIT) is known to increase mitochondrial content in a similar way as endurance training [60-90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak )]. Whether HIT increases the mitochondria's ability to oxidize lipids is currently debated. We investigated the effect of HIT...... of HIT (three times per week at 298 ± 21 W). HIT significantly increased VO2peak from 2.9 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.2 L/min. No differences were seen in maximal fat oxidation in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. Km (app) for octanoyl carnitine or palmitoyl carnitine were similar after training in skeletal...... muscle and adipose tissue. Maximal OXPHOS capacity with complex I- and II-linked substrates was increased after training in skeletal muscle but not in adipose tissue. In conclusion, 6 weeks of HIT increased VO2peak . Mitochondrial content and mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity were increased in skeletal...

  4. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-04-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores.

  5. Coenzyme Q Metabolism Is Disturbed in High Fat Diet-Induced Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Botham

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is believed to be a major contributory factor in the development of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the most common liver disorder worldwide. In this study, the effects of high fat diet-induced NAFLD on Coenzyme Q (CoQ metabolism and plasma oxidative stress markers in rats were investigated. Rats were fed a standard low fat diet (control or a high fat diet (57% metabolizable energy as fat for 18 weeks. The concentrations of total (reduced + oxidized CoQ9 were increased by > 2 fold in the plasma of animals fed the high fat diet, while those of total CoQ10 were unchanged. Reduced CoQ levels were raised, but oxidized CoQ levels were not, thus the proportion in the reduced form was increased by about 75%. A higher percentage of plasma CoQ9 as compared to CoQ10 was in the reduced form in both control and high fat fed rats. Plasma protein thiol (SH levels were decreased in the high fat-fed rats as compared to the control group, but concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides and low density lipoprotein (LDL conjugated dienes were unchanged. These results indicate that high fat diet-induced NAFLD in rats is associated with altered CoQ metabolism and increased protein, but not lipid, oxidative stress.

  6. Metabolic and oxidative stress markers in Wistar rats after 2 months on a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auberval, Nathalie; Dal, Stéphanie; Bietiger, William; Pinget, Michel; Jeandidier, Nathalie; Maillard-Pedracini, Elisa; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Sigrist, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and hepatic complications. Oxidative stress in metabolic tissues has emerged as a universal feature of metabolic syndrome and its co-morbidities. We aimed to develop a rapidly and easily induced model of metabolic syndrome in rats to evaluate its impact on plasma and tissue oxidative stress. Metabolic syndrome was induced in rats using a high-fat diet (HFD), and these rats were compared to rats fed a normal diet (ND) for 2 months. Metabolic control was determined by measuring body weight, blood glucose, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation in plasma. Insulinemia was evaluated through the measure of C-peptide. Histological analysis was performed on the pancreas, liver and blood vessels. After 2 months, the HFD induced an increase in body weight, insulin and triglycerides. Liver steatosis was also observed in the HFD group, which was associated with an increase in glycogen storage. In the pancreas, the HFD induced islet hyperplasia. Tissue oxidative stress was also increased in the liver, pancreas and blood vessels, but plasma oxidative stress remained unchanged. This paper reports the development of a fast and easy model of rat metabolic syndrome associated with tissue oxidative stress. This model may be a good tool for the biological validation of drugs or antioxidants to limit or prevent the complications of metabolic syndrome.

  7. A high-fat diet increases oxidative renal injury and protein glycation in D-galactose-induced aging rats and its prevention by Korea red ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sok; Kim, Chan-Sik; Min, Jinah; Lee, Soo Hwan; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Declining renal function is commonly observed with age. Obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) may reduce renal function. Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been reported to ameliorate oxidative tissue injury and have an anti-aging effect. This study was designed to investigate whether HFD would accelerate the D-galactose-induced aging process in the rat kidney and to examine the preventive effect of KRG on HFD and D-galactose-induced aging-related renal injury. When rats with D-galactose-induced aging were fed an HFD for 9 wk, enhanced oxidative DNA damage, renal cell apoptosis, protein glycation, and extracellular high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a signal of tissue damage, were observed in renal glomerular cells and tubular epithelial cells. However, treatment of rats with HFD- plus D-galactose-induced aging with KRG restored all of these renal changes. Our data suggested that a long-term HFD may enhance D-galactose-induced oxidative renal injury in rats and that this age-related renal injury could be suppressed by KRG through the repression of oxidative injury.

  8. Methodological aspects of crossover and maximum fat-oxidation rate point determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michallet, A-S; Tonini, J; Regnier, J; Guinot, M; Favre-Juvin, A; Bricout, V; Halimi, S; Wuyam, B; Flore, P

    2008-11-01

    Indirect calorimetry during exercise provides two metabolic indices of substrate oxidation balance: the crossover point (COP) and maximum fat oxidation rate (LIPOXmax). We aimed to study the effects of the analytical device, protocol type and ventilatory response on variability of these indices, and the relationship with lactate and ventilation thresholds. After maximum exercise testing, 14 relatively fit subjects (aged 32+/-10 years; nine men, five women) performed three submaximum graded tests: one was based on a theoretical maximum power (tMAP) reference; and two were based on the true maximum aerobic power (MAP). Gas exchange was measured concomitantly using a Douglas bag (D) and an ergospirometer (E). All metabolic indices were interpretable only when obtained by the D reference method and MAP protocol. Bland and Altman analysis showed overestimation of both indices with E versus D. Despite no mean differences between COP and LIPOXmax whether tMAP or MAP was used, the individual data clearly showed disagreement between the two protocols. Ventilation explained 10-16% of the metabolic index variations. COP was correlated with ventilation (r=0.96, P<0.01) and the rate of increase in blood lactate (r=0.79, P<0.01), and LIPOXmax correlated with the ventilation threshold (r=0.95, P<0.01). This study shows that, in fit healthy subjects, the analytical device, reference used to build the protocol and ventilation responses affect metabolic indices. In this population, and particularly to obtain interpretable metabolic indices, we recommend a protocol based on the true MAP or one adapted to include the transition from fat to carbohydrate. The correlation between metabolic indices and lactate/ventilation thresholds suggests that shorter, classical maximum progressive exercise testing may be an alternative means of estimating these indices in relatively fit subjects. However, this needs to be confirmed in patients who have metabolic defects.

  9. Changes in fat oxidation in response to various regimes of high intensity interval training (HIIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd Anthony; Schubert, Matthew M

    2018-01-01

    Increased whole-body fat oxidation (FOx) has been consistently demonstrated in response to moderate intensity continuous exercise training. Completion of high intensity interval training (HIIT) and its more intense form, sprint interval training (SIT), has also been reported to increase FOx in different populations. An explanation for this increase in FOx is primarily peripheral adaptations via improvements in mitochondrial content and function. However, studies examining changes in FOx are less common in response to HIIT or SIT than those determining increases in maximal oxygen uptake which is concerning, considering that FOx has been identified as a predictor of weight gain and glycemic control. In this review, we explored physiological and methodological issues underpinning existing literature concerning changes in FOx in response to HIIT and SIT. Our results show that completion of interval training increases FOx in approximately 50% of studies, with the frequency of increased FOx higher in response to studies using HIIT compared to SIT. Significant increases in β-HAD, citrate synthase, fatty acid binding protein, or FAT/CD36 are likely responsible for the greater FOx seen in these studies. We encourage scientists to adopt strict methodological procedures to attenuate day-to-day variability in FOx, which is dramatic, and develop standardized procedures for assessing FOx, which may improve detection of changes in FOx in response to HIIT.

  10. When do fat taxes increase consumer welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Jayson L; Schroeter, Christiane

    2012-11-01

    Previous analyses of fat taxes have generally worked within an empirical framework in which it is difficult to determine whether consumers benefit from the policy. This note outlines on simple means to determine whether consumers benefit from a fat tax by comparing the ratio of expenditures on the taxed good to the weight effect of the tax against the individual's willingness to pay for a one-pound weight reduction. Our empirical calculations suggest that an individual would have to be willing to pay about $1500 to reduce weight by one pound for a tax on sugary beverages to be welfare enhancing. The results suggest either that a soda tax is very unlikely to increase individual consumer welfare or that the policy must be justified on some other grounds that abandon standard rationality assumptions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Acute effects of capsaicin on energy expenditure and fat oxidation in negative energy balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilou L H R Janssens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Addition of capsaicin (CAPS to the diet has been shown to increase energy expenditure; therefore capsaicin is an interesting target for anti-obesity therapy. AIM: We investigated the 24 h effects of CAPS on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure during 25% negative energy balance. METHODS: Subjects underwent four 36 h sessions in a respiration chamber for measurements of energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure. They received 100% or 75% of their daily energy requirements in the conditions '100%CAPS', '100%Control', '75%CAPS' and '75%Control'. CAPS was given at a dose of 2.56 mg (1.03 g of red chili pepper, 39,050 Scoville heat units (SHU with every meal. RESULTS: An induced negative energy balance of 25% was effectively a 20.5% negative energy balance due to adapting mechanisms. Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT and resting energy expenditure (REE at 75%CAPS did not differ from DIT and REE at 100%Control, while at 75%Control these tended to be or were lower than at 100%Control (p = 0.05 and p = 0.02 respectively. Sleeping metabolic rate (SMR at 75%CAPS did not differ from SMR at 100%CAPS, while SMR at 75%Control was lower than at 100%CAPS (p = 0.04. Fat oxidation at 75%CAPS was higher than at 100%Control (p = 0.03, while with 75%Control it did not differ from 100%Control. Respiratory quotient (RQ was more decreased at 75%CAPS (p = 0.04 than at 75%Control (p = 0.05 when compared with 100%Control. Blood pressure did not differ between the four conditions. CONCLUSION: In an effectively 20.5% negative energy balance, consumption of 2.56 mg capsaicin per meal supports negative energy balance by counteracting the unfavorable negative energy balance effect of decrease in components of energy expenditure. Moreover, consumption of 2.56 mg capsaicin per meal promotes fat oxidation in negative energy balance and does not increase blood pressure significantly. TRIAL REGISTRATION

  12. Inhibition of serum cholesterol oxidation by dietary vitamin C and selenium intake in high fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Carreño, M; Ansorena, D; Milagro, F I; Campión, J; Martínez, J A; Astiasarán, I

    2008-04-01

    Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) have been considered as specific in vivo markers of oxidative stress. In this study, an increased oxidative status was induced in Wistar rats by feeding them a high-fat diet (cafeteria diet). Another group of animals received the same diet supplemented with a combination of two different antioxidants, ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg rat/day) and sodium selenite (200 microg/kg rat/day) and a third group fed on a control diet. Total and individual COPs analysis of the different diets showed no differences among them. At the end of the experimental trial, rats were sacrificed and serum cholesterol, triglycerides and COPs were measured. None of the diets induced changes in rats body weight, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Serum total COPs in rats fed on the high-fat diet were 1.01 microg/ml, two times the amount of the control rats (0.47 microg/ml). When dietary antioxidant supplementation was given, serum total COPs concentration (0.44 microg/ml) showed the same levels than those of the rats on control diet. 7beta-hydroxycholesterol, formed non-enzymatically via cholesterol peroxidation in the presence of reactive oxygen species, showed slightly lower values in the antioxidant-supplemented animals compared to the control ones. This study confirms the importance of dietary antioxidants as protective factors against the formation of oxysterols.

  13. Effects of aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea L. on oxidative stress and liver, spleen leptin, PARα and FAS mRNA expression in high-fat diet induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bendong; Zhou, Haining; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhou, Wenyan; Yuan, Quan; Yang, Guangshun

    2012-08-01

    We reported that an aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea L. inhibited high-fat-diet-induced oxidative injury in a dose-dependent manner. Male kunming mice (5-weeks-old, 24 g) were used in this experiment. After a 4-day adaptation period, animals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 in each group); Group 1: animals received normal powdered rodent diet; Group 2: animals received high fat diet; Groups 3 and 4: animals received high fat diet and were fed by gavage to mice once a day with aqueous extract at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively. In mice fed with high-fat diet, blood and liver lipid peroxidation level was significantly increased, whereas antioxidant enzymes activities were markedly decreased compared to normal control mice. Administration of an aqueous extract of P. oleracea L. significantly dose-dependently reduced levels of blood and liver lipid peroxidation and increased the activities of blood and liver antioxidant enzymes activities in high fat mice. Moreover, administration of an aqueous extract of P. oleracea L. significantly dose-dependently increase liver Leptin/β-actin (B), and Liver PPARα/β-actin, decrease liver, spleen FAS mRNA, p-PERK and p-PERK/PERK protein expression levels. Taken together, these data demonstrate that aqueous extract of P. oleracea L. can markedly alleviate high fat diet-induced oxidative injury by enhancing blood and liver antioxidant enzyme activities, modulating Leptin/β-actin (B), and Liver PPARα/β-actin, decrease liver, spleen FAS mRNA, p-PERK and p-PERK/PERK protein expression levels in mice.

  14. Consumption of blueberries with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast decreases postprandial serum markers of oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, Bryan C; Snyder, Shannon M; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2013-05-01

    We sought to determine whether consumption of blueberries could reduce postprandial oxidation when consumed with a typical high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast. Participants (n 14) received each of the three treatments over 3 weeks in a cross-over design. Treatments consisted of a high blueberry dose (75 g), a low blueberry dose (35 g) and a control (ascorbic acid and sugar content matching that of the high blueberry dose). Serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), serum lipoprotein oxidation (LO) and serum ascorbate, urate and glucose were measured at fasting, and at 1, 2 and 3 h after sample consumption. The mean serum ORAC was significantly higher in the 75 g group than in the control group during the first 2 h postprandially, while serum LO lag time showed a significant trend over the 3 h for both blueberry doses. Changes in serum ascorbate, urate and glucose were not significantly different among the groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report that has demonstrated that increased serum antioxidant capacity is not attributable to the fructose or ascorbate content of blueberries. In summary, a practically consumable quantity of blueberries (75 g) can provide statistically significant oxidative protection in vivo after a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast. Though not tested directly, it is likely that the effects are due to phenolic compounds, either directly or indirectly, as they are a major family of compounds in blueberries with potential bioactive activity.

  15. Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation in individuals with obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Dandanell; Præst, Charlotte Boslev; Søndergård, Stine Dam

    2017-01-01

    . The graded exercise protocol was validated against a short continuous exercise (SCE) protocol, in which FatMax was determined from fat oxidation at rest and during 10-min continuous exercise at 35, 50 and 65% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Intraclass and Pearson correlation coefficients between......2max with the graded and the SCE protocol, respectively. In conclusion, there was a high-excellent correlation and a low CV between the two protocols, suggesting that the graded exercise protocol has a high inter-method reliability. However, considerable intra-individual variation and a trend...

  16. Consumption of reduced-fat products: Effects on parameters of anti-oxidative capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis- Wierik, E.J.M. te; Berg, H. van den; Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, K.H. van het; Graaf, C. de

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Dietary fat intake is higher than recommended in most western countries and is associated with the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, obesity and cancer. The growing public concern about the adverse effects of a high fat intake has led to an increased availability of 'reduced-fat'

  17. Low-fat frankfurters formulated with a healthier lipid combination as functional ingredient: microstructure, lipid oxidation, nitrite content, microbiological changes and biogenic amine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Solas, Maria Teresa; Triki, Mehdi; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Oil (healthier lipid combination of olive, linseed and fish oils)-in-water emulsions stabilized with different protein systems (prepared with sodium caseinate (SC), soy protein isolate (SPI), and microbial transglutaminase (MTG)) were used as pork backfat replacers in low-fat frankfurters. Microstructure, lipid oxidation, nitrite content, microbiological changes and biogenic amine formation of frankfurters were analyzed and found to be affected by the type of oil-in-water emulsion and by chilling storage (2° C, 41 days). Although the lipid oxidation levels attained were low, replacement of animal fat by healthier oil combinations in frankfurter formulation did promote a slight increase in lipid oxidation. Residual nitrite was affected (P nitrite was detectable in the product after processing and 17-46% at the end of storage. The microbial population was low in all formulations during chilling storage. Spermine was the most abundant amine (19-20 mg/kg), but similar in level to all samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Red wine intake but not other alcoholic beverages increases total antioxidant capacity and improves pro-inflammatory profile after an oral fat diet in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A; Cachofeiro, V; Millán, J; Lahera, V; Nieto, M L; Martín, R; Bello, E; Alvarez-Sala, L A

    2015-12-01

    Different alcoholic beverages exert different effects on inflammation and oxidative stress but these results are controversial and scanty in some aspects. We analyze the effect of different alcoholic beverages after a fat-enriched diet on lipid profile, inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in healthy people in a controlled environment. We have performed a cross-over design in five different weeks. Sixteen healthy volunteers have received the same oral fat-enriched diet (1486kcal/m(2)) and a daily total amount of 16g/m(2) of alcohol, of different beverages (red wine, vodka, brandy or rum) and equivalent caloric intakes as sugar with water in the control group. We have measured the levels of serum lipids, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Red wine intake was associated with decreased of mean concentrations of hsCRP, TNFα and IL-6 induced by fat-enriched diet (p<0.05); nevertheless, sPLA2 concentrations were not significantly modified. After a fat-enriched diet added with red wine, TAC increased as compared to the same diet supplemented with rum, brandy, vodka or the control (water with sugar) (p<0.05). Moderate red wine intake, but not other alcoholic beverages, decreased pro-inflammatory factors and increased total antioxidant capacity despite a fat-enriched diet intake in healthy young volunteers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  19. Oxidative stability of dark chicken meat through frozen storage: influence of dietary fat and alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, A; Guardiola, F; Grimpa, S; Barroeta, A C; Codony, R

    2001-11-01

    We used factorial design to ascertain the influence of dietary fat source (linseed, sunflower and oxidized sunflower oils, and beef tallow) and the dietary supplementation with alpha-tocopheryl acetate (alpha-TA) (225 mg/kg of feed) and ascorbic acid (AA) (110 mg/kg) on dark chicken meat oxidation (lipid hydroperoxide and TBA values and cholesterol oxidation product content). alpha-TA greatly protected ground and vacuum-packaged raw or cooked meat from fatty acid and cholesterol oxidation after 0, 3.5, or 7 mo of storage at -20 C. In contrast, AA provided no protection, and no synergism between alpha-TA and AA was observed. Polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched diets (those containing linseed, sunflower, or oxidized sunflower oils) increased meat susceptibility to oxidation. Cooking always involved more oxidation, especially in samples from linseed oil diets. The values of all the oxidative parameters showed a highly significant negative correlation with the alpha-tocopherol content of meat.

  20. Exercise Training at Maximal Fat Oxidation Intensity for Older Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sijie; Du, Ping; Zhao, Wanting; Pang, Jiaqi; Wang, Jianxiong

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pleiotropic effects of 12 weeks of supervised exercise training at maximal fat oxidation (FATmax) intensity on body composition, lipid profile, glycemic control, insulin sensitivity and serum adipokine levels in older women with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-one women with type 2 diabetes, aged 60 to 69 years, were randomly allocated into exercise and control groups. Body composition, lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin resistance and serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Exercise group (n=16) walked at individualized FATmax intensities for 1 h/day for 3 days/week over 12 weeks. No dietary intervention was introduced during the experimental period. Maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.37±0.10 g/min, and occurred at 37.3±7.3% of the estimated VO 2 max. Within the exercise group, significant improvements were observed for most of the measured variables compared to non-exercising controls; in particular, the FATmax program reduced body fat% (presistance (pchange in daily energy intake for all participants during the intervention period. These results suggest that individualized FATmax training is an effective exercise training intensity for managing type 2 diabetes in older women. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. BL153 Partially Prevents High-Fat Diet Induced Liver Damage Probably via Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to investigate whether a magnolia extract, named BL153, can prevent obesity-induced liver damage and identify the possible protective mechanism. To this end, obese mice were induced by feeding with high fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal as fat and the age-matched control mice were fed with control diet (10% kcal as fat for 6 months. Simultaneously these mice were treated with or without BL153 daily at 3 dose levels (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg by gavage. HFD feeding significantly increased the body weight and the liver weight. Administration of BL153 significantly reduced the liver weight but without effects on body weight. As a critical step of the development of NAFLD, hepatic fibrosis was induced in the mice fed with HFD, shown by upregulating the expression of connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor beta 1, which were significantly attenuated by BL153 in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanism study revealed that BL153 significantly suppressed HFD induced hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress and slightly prevented liver inflammation. These results suggest that HFD induced fibrosis in the liver can be prevented partially by BL153, probably due to reduction of hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  2. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Machida, Tatsuya; Miyai, Hisataka; Fujimori, Kouhei; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-13

    Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats ( n = 18) were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water) and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.

  3. Increasing stringiness of low-fat mozzarella string cheese using polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, E N; Oberg, C J; Motawee, M M; Martini, S; McMahon, D J

    2015-07-01

    When fat content of pasta filata cheese is lowered, a loss of fibrous texture occurs and low-fat (LF) mozzarella cheese loses stringiness, making it unsuitable for the manufacture of string cheese. We investigated the use of various polysaccharides that could act as fat mimetics during the stretching and extruding process to aid in protein strand formation and increase stringiness. Low-fat mozzarella cheese curd was made, salted, and then 3.6-kg batches were heated in hot (80°) 5% brine, stretched, and formed into a homogeneous mass. Hot (80°C) slurries of various polysaccharides were then mixed with the hot cheese and formed into LF string cheese using a small piston-driven extruder. Polysaccharides used included waxy corn starch, waxy rice starch, instant tapioca starch, polydextrose, xanthan gum, and guar gum. Adding starch slurries increased cheese moisture content by up to 1.6% but was not effective at increasing stringiness. Xanthan gum functioned best as a fat mimetic and produced LF string cheese that most closely visually resembled commercial string cheese made using low-moisture part skim (LMPS) mozzarella cheese without any increase in moisture content. Extent of stringiness was determined by pulling apart the cheese longitudinally and observing size, length, and appearance of individual cheese strings. Hardness was determined using a modified Warner-Bratzler shear test. When LF string cheese was made using a 10% xanthan gum slurry added at ~1%, increased consumer flavor liking was observed, with scores after 2wk of storage of 6.44 and 6.24 compared with 5.89 for the LF control cheese; although this was lower than an LMPS string cheese that scored 7.27. The 2-wk-old LF string cheeses containing xanthan gum were considered still slightly too firm using a just-about-right (JAR) test, whereas the LMPS string cheese was considered as JAR for texture. With further storage up to 8wk, all of the LF string cheeses softened (JAR score was closer to 3

  4. Increased fat catabolism sustains water balance during fasting in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Joanna; Sadowska, Edyta T; Cichoń, Mariusz; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2016-09-01

    Patterns of physiological flexibility in response to fasting are well established, but much less is known about the contribution of water deprivation to the observed effects. We investigated body composition and energy and water budget in three groups of zebra finches: birds with access to food and water, food-deprived birds having access to drinking water and food-and-water-deprived birds. Animals were not stimulated by elevated energy expenditure and they were in thermoneutral conditions; thus, based on previous studies, water balance of fasting birds was expected to be maintained by increased catabolism of proteins. In contrast to this expectation, we found that access to water did not prevent reduction of proteinaceous tissue, but it saved fat reserves of the fasting birds. Thus, water balance of birds fasting without access to water seemed to be maintained by elevated fat catabolism, which generated 6 times more metabolic water compared with that in birds that had access to water. Therefore, we revise currently established views and propose fat to serve as the primary source for metabolic water production. Previously assumed increased protein breakdown for maintenance of water budget would occur if fat stores were depleted or if fat catabolism reached its upper limits due to high energy demands. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. The effect of puberty on fat oxidation rates during exercise in overweight and normal-weight girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, L; Riddell, M C; Schneiderman, J E; McCrindle, B W; Hamilton, J K

    2014-01-01

    Excess weight is often associated with insulin resistance (IR) and may disrupt fat oxidation during exercise. This effect is further modified by puberty. While studies have shown that maximal fat oxidation rates (FOR) during exercise decrease with puberty in normal-weight (NW) and overweight (OW) boys, the effect of puberty in NW and OW girls is unclear. Thirty-three NW and OW girls ages 8-18 yr old completed a peak aerobic capacity test on a cycle ergometer. FOR were calculated during progressive submaximal exercise. Body composition and Tanner stage were determined. For each participant, a best-fit polynomial curve was constructed using fat oxidation vs. exercise intensity to estimate max FOR. In a subset of the girls, IR derived from an oral glucose tolerance test (n = 20), and leptin and adiponectin levels (n = 11) were assessed in relation to FOR. NW pre-early pubertal girls had higher max FOR [6.9 ± 1.4 mg·kg fat free mass (FFM)(-1)·min(-1)] than NW mid-late pubertal girls (2.2 ± 0.9 mg·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1)) (P = 0.002), OW pre-early pubertal girls (3.8 ± 2.1 mg·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1)), and OW mid-late pubertal girls (3.3 ± 0.9 mg·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1)) (P puberty; however, this decrease associated with puberty was blunted in OW girls due to lower FOR in pre-early puberty. The presence of IR due to obesity potentially masks the effect of puberty on FOR during exercise in girls.

  6. Ethanol Extract from Ulva prolifera Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulva prolifera is the major causative species in the green tide, a serious marine ecological disaster, which bloomed in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea of China. However, it is also a popular edible seaweed and its extracts exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The present study investigated the effects of ethanol extract of U. prolifera (EUP on insulin sensitivity, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress in high-fat-diet- (HFD- treated mice. HFD-treated mice obtained drinking water containing 2% or 5% EUP. The results showed that EUP supplementation significantly prevented HFD-induced weight gain of liver and fat. EUP supplementation also improved glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD-treated mice. Moreover, EUP supplementation prevented the increased expression of genes involved in triglyceride synthesis and proinflammatory genes and the decreased expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in liver of HFD-treated mice. Furthermore, EUP supplementation decreased reactive oxygen species content, while increasing glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity in HFD-treated mice. In conclusion, our results showed that EUP improved insulin resistance and had antilipid accumulation and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects on HFD-treated mice. We suggested that U. prolifera extracts may be regarded as potential candidate for the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  7. Reduced efficiency, but increased fat oxidation, in mitochondria from human skeletal muscle after 24-h ultraendurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernström, Maria; Bakkman, Linda; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that ultraendurance exercise influences muscle mitochondrial function has been investigated. Athletes in ultraendurance performance performed running, kayaking, and cycling at 60% of their peak O(2) consumption for 24 h. Muscle biopsies were taken preexercise (Pre-Ex), postexercise...... exercise (+13%). The increased mitochondrial capacity for PC oxidation indicates plasticity in substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, which may be of advantage during prolonged exercise....

  8. Impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased CPT1b levels as a contributing factor to fat accumulation in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Cecilia; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Kristensen, Line Vildbrad

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize mechanisms responsible for fat accumulation we used a selectively bred obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rat model, where the rats were fed a Western diet for 76 days. Body composition was assessed by MRI scans and as expected the OP rats developed a higher...... likewise had higher RER values indicating that this trait may be a primary and contributing factor to their obese phenotype. When the adult obese rats were exposed to the orexigenic and adipogenic hormone ghrelin, we observed increased RER values in both OP and OR rats, while OR rats were more sensitive...... to ghrelin's orexigenic effects as well as ghrelin-induced attenuation of activity and energy expenditure. Thus, increased fat accumulation characterizing obesity may be caused by impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b levels in the white adipose tissue, while ghrelin...

  9. Beneficial effects of metformin on energy metabolism and visceral fat volume through a possible mechanism of fatty acid oxidation in human subjects and rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Tokubuchi

    Full Text Available Metformin is known to have a beneficial effect on body weight and body composition, although the precise mechanism has not been elucidated yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of metformin on energy metabolism and anthropometric factors in both human subjects and rats.In human studies, metformin (1500mg/day was administered to 23 healthy subjects and 18 patients with type 2 diabetes for 2 weeks. Metabolic parameters and energy metabolism were measured during a meal tolerance test in the morning before and after the treatment of metformin. In animal studies, 13 weeks old SD rats were fed 25-26 g of standard chow only during 12-hours dark phase with either treated by metformin (2.5mg/ml in drinking water or not for 2 weeks, and metabolic parameters, anthropometric factors and energy metabolism together with expressions related to fat oxidation and adaptive thermogenesis were measured either in fasting or post-prandial state at 15 weeks old.Post-prandial plasma lactate concentration was significantly increased after the metformin treatment in both healthy subjects and diabetic patients. Although energy expenditure (EE did not change, baseline respiratory quotient (RQ was significantly decreased and post-prandial RQ was significantly increased vice versa following the metformin treatment in both groups. By the administration of metformin to SD rats for 2 weeks, plasma levels of lactate and pyruvate were significantly increased in both fasting and post-prandial states. RQ during a fasting state was significantly decreased in metformin-treated rats compared to controls with no effect on EE. Metformin treatment brought about a significant reduction of visceral fat mass compared to controls accompanied by an up-regulation of fat oxidation-related enzyme in the liver, UCP-1 in the brown adipose tissue and UCP-3 in the skeletal muscle.From the results obtained, beneficial effects of metformin on visceral fat reduction has been

  10. The role of Odontella aurita, a marine diatom rich in EPA, as a dietary supplement in dyslipidemia, platelet function and oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimeur Adil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary changes are a major factor in determining cardiovascular risk. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism. We therefore investigated the effect of Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in EPA, which is already used as a food supplement, on the risk factors for high-fat diet induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and were fed with a standard diet (control; with the standard diet supplemented with 3% freeze-dried O. aurita (COA; with a high-fat diet (HF; or with the high-fat diet supplemented with 3% of freeze-dried O. aurita (HFOA for 7 weeks. In this study we evaluated the impact of these different diets on the risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, thromboxane B2 production, and oxidative stress. Results After 7 weeks of treatment, high fat feeding had increased final body weight, glycemia, triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol levels in plasma and liver compared to the control diet. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation and basal platelet thromboxane B2 were also higher in the high-fat fed rats than in those in the control group. In the liver, oxidative stress was greater in the HF group than in the control group. O. aurita intake in HFOA-fed rats resulted in lower glycemia and lipid levels in the plasma and liver relative than in the HF group. Thus, in the HFOA group, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the tissues studied (plasma, liver, and platelets were higher than in the HF group. Platelet hyper-aggregability tended to decrease in HFOA-fed rats as basal platelet thromboxane B2 production decreased. Finally, O. aurita reduced oxidative stress in the liver, with lower malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusions O. aurita is a marine diatom rich in EPA as well as in other

  11. The role of Odontella aurita, a marine diatom rich in EPA, as a dietary supplement in dyslipidemia, platelet function and oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimeur, Adil; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Guéno, Frédérique; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Meskini, Nadia; Tremblin, Gérard

    2012-10-31

    Dietary changes are a major factor in determining cardiovascular risk. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism. We therefore investigated the effect of Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in EPA, which is already used as a food supplement, on the risk factors for high-fat diet induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and were fed with a standard diet (control); with the standard diet supplemented with 3% freeze-dried O. aurita (COA); with a high-fat diet (HF); or with the high-fat diet supplemented with 3% of freeze-dried O. aurita (HFOA) for 7 weeks. In this study we evaluated the impact of these different diets on the risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, thromboxane B2 production, and oxidative stress. After 7 weeks of treatment, high fat feeding had increased final body weight, glycemia, triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol levels in plasma and liver compared to the control diet. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation and basal platelet thromboxane B2 were also higher in the high-fat fed rats than in those in the control group. In the liver, oxidative stress was greater in the HF group than in the control group. O. aurita intake in HFOA-fed rats resulted in lower glycemia and lipid levels in the plasma and liver relative than in the HF group. Thus, in the HFOA group, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the tissues studied (plasma, liver, and platelets) were higher than in the HF group. Platelet hyper-aggregability tended to decrease in HFOA-fed rats as basal platelet thromboxane B2 production decreased. Finally, O. aurita reduced oxidative stress in the liver, with lower malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. O. aurita is a marine diatom rich in EPA as well as in other bioactive molecules, such as pigments. The synergistic effect

  12. Olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, K; Ishikawa, T; Shige, H; Tomiyasu, K; Yoshida, H; Ito, T; Nakajima, K; Yonemura, A; Sawada, S; Nakamura, H

    1997-10-01

    The acute effects of olive oil, milk fat and safflower oil on postprandial lipemia and remnant lipoprotein metabolism were investigated. Eight Healthy male volunteers randomly underwent three types of oral fat-vitamin A loading tests. The test drink was a mixture of retinyl palmitate (RP)(50,000 IU of aqueous vitamin A/m2 body surface area) and one of the three types of oils (40 g of fat/m2 body surface area): olive oil (70.7% oleic acid of total fatty acids); milk fat (69.3% saturated fatty acid); safflower oil (74.2% linoleic acid). Olive oil significantly increased plasma triacylglycerol and RP concentrations 4 hours after fat loading, as compared to other fats. Increases of remnant like particle concentrations were higher after olive oil than after the other two fats. These results show that olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

  13. Understanding hydrodeoxygenation of oils and fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    Production of diesel fuels from renewable feedstock is increasing. One auspicious route could be by hydrodeoxygenating waste fats and oils to result long-chain alkanes, a process well suited for existing fuel infrastructure. This was studied over metal oxide-supported platinum-group metals...

  14. Oil Bodies Extracted from High-Fat and Low-Fat Soybeans: Stability and Composition During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu Ling; Li Cui, Chun; Jiang, Lian Zhou; Liu, Yue; Liang, Xin Ting; Hou, Jun Cai

    2017-06-01

    Soybeans contain oil bodies (OBs) that encapsulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) with a phospholipid monolayer carrying scattered proteins. In nature, soybean OBs can form natural emulsions in aqueous media and may serve as natural, minimally processed, stable, and pre-emulsified oil for addition into appropriate food systems. In this study, OBs were obtained by aqueous extraction from the mature seeds of 2 soybean crop cultivars, high-fat soybean and low-fat soybeans. The compositions of the extracted OBs were analyzed during storage at room temperature up to 14 d (pH = 7). The oxidative stability of these OBs, stored at 60 °C, was evaluated by measuring the presence of primary (lipid hydroperoxides) and secondary lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde) by determining the standard peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value. During storage, the contents of unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, and tocopherols declined in both OBs, while their mean particle diameters (d 32 ) and ζ-potentials increased. The changes in PV and TBARS values exhibited a similar trend for both OBs, but the OBs from low-fat soybeans had significantly lower PV and higher TBARS values than the OBs from high-fat soybean cultivars (P soybean cultivars had good stability during storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Colonic aberrant crypt formation accompanies an increase of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Liu, Zhenhua; Bukowski, Michael R

    2018-04-01

    The increasing worldwide incidence of colon cancer has been linked to obesity and consumption of a high-fat Western diet. To test the hypothesis that a high-fat diet (HFD) promotes colonic aberrant crypt (AC) formation in a manner associated with gut bacterial dysbiosis, we examined the susceptibility to azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic AC and microbiome composition in C57/BL6 mice fed a modified AIN93G diet (AIN, 16% fat, energy) or an HFD (45% fat, energy) for 14 weeks. Mice receiving the HFD exhibited increased plasma leptin, body weight, body fat composition and inflammatory cell infiltration in the ileum compared with those in the AIN group. Consistent with the gut inflammatory phenotype, we observed an increase in colonic AC, plasma interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the ileum of the HFD-AOM group compared with the AIN-AOM group. Although the HFD and AIN groups did not differ in bacterial species number, the HFD and AIN diets resulted in different bacterial community structures in the colon. The abundance of certain short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producing bacteria (e.g., Barnesiella) and fecal SCFA (e.g., acetic acid) content were lower in the HFD-AOM group compared with the AIN and AIN-AOM groups. Furthermore, we identified a high abundance of Anaeroplasma bacteria, an opportunistic pathogen in the HFD-AOM group. Collectively, we demonstrate that an HFD promotes AC formation concurrent with an increase of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in the colon of C57BL/6 mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Increasing NAD Synthesis in Muscle via Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase Is Not Sufficient to Promote Oxidative Metabolism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David W.; Davis, James G.; Dávila, Antonio; Agarwal, Beamon; Michan, Shaday; Puchowicz, Michelle A.; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Baur, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The NAD biosynthetic precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside are reported to confer resistance to metabolic defects induced by high fat feeding in part by promoting oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle. Similar effects are obtained by germ line deletion of major NAD-consuming enzymes, suggesting that the bioavailability of NAD is limiting for maximal oxidative capacity. However, because of their systemic nature, the degree to which these interventions exert cell- or tissue-autonomous effects is unclear. Here, we report a tissue-specific approach to increase NAD biosynthesis only in muscle by overexpressing nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway that converts nicotinamide to NAD (mNAMPT mice). These mice display a ∼50% increase in skeletal muscle NAD levels, comparable with the effects of dietary NAD precursors, exercise regimens, or loss of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases yet surprisingly do not exhibit changes in muscle mitochondrial biogenesis or mitochondrial function and are equally susceptible to the metabolic consequences of high fat feeding. We further report that chronic elevation of muscle NAD in vivo does not perturb the NAD/NADH redox ratio. These studies reveal for the first time the metabolic effects of tissue-specific increases in NAD synthesis and suggest that critical sites of action for supplemental NAD precursors reside outside of the heart and skeletal muscle. PMID:25411251

  17. Aging increases the susceptibility of hepatic inflammation, liver fibrosis and aging in response to high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Hee; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xiao; Koyama, Yukinori; Ma, Hsiao-Yen; Diggle, Karin; You, Young-Hyun; Schilling, Jan M; Jeste, Dilip; Sharma, Kumar; Brenner, David A; Kisseleva, Tatiana

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate whether aging increases the susceptibility of hepatic and renal inflammation or fibrosis in response to high-fat diet (HFD) and explore the underlying genetic alterations. Middle (10 months old) and old (20 months old) aged, male C57BL/6N mice were fed either a low-fat diet (4 % fat) or HFD (60 % fat) for 4 months. Young (3 months old) aged mice were included as control group. HFD-induced liver and kidney injuries were analyzed by serum and urine assay, histologic staining, immunohistochemistry, and reverse-transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Total RNA sequencing with next-generation technology was done with RNA extracted from liver tissues. With HFD feeding, aged was associated with higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels, marked infiltration of hepatic macrophages, and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17A). Importantly, aged mice showed more advanced hepatic fibrosis and increased expression of fibrogenic markers (Col-I-α1, αSMA, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGFβRII, PDGF, PDGFRβII, TIMP1) in response to HFD. Aged mice fed on HFD also showed increased oxidative stress and TLR4 expression. In the total RNA seq and gene ontology analysis of liver, old-aged HFD group showed significant up-regulation of genes linked to innate immune response, immune response, defense response, inflammatory response compared to middle-aged HFD group. Meanwhile, aging and HFD feeding showed significant increase in glomerular size and mesangial area, higher urine albumin/creatinine ratio, and advanced renal inflammation or fibrosis. However, the difference of HFD-induced renal injury between old-aged group and middle-aged group was not significant. The susceptibility of hepatic fibrosis as well as hepatic inflammation in response to HFD was significantly increased with aging. In addition, aging was associated with glomerular alterations and increased renal inflammation or

  18. Short-term beef consumption promotes systemic oxidative stress, TMAO formation and inflammation in rats, and dietary fat content modulates these effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Thomas; Jakobsen, Louise M A; Vossen, Els; Guéraud, Françoise; De Vos, Filip; Pierre, Fabrice; Bertram, Hanne C S; De Smet, Stefaan

    2016-09-14

    A high consumption of red and/or processed meat is associated with a higher risk to develop several chronic diseases in which oxidative stress, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and/or inflammation are involved. We aimed to elucidate the effect of white (chicken) vs. red (beef) meat consumption in a low vs. high dietary fat context (2 × 2 factorial design) on oxidative stress, TMAO and inflammation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Higher malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were found in gastrointestinal contents (up to 96% higher) and colonic tissues (+8.8%) of rats fed the beef diets (all P stress, TMAO formation and inflammation, depending on the dietary fat content and composition.

  19. Long-term high-fat diet induces pancreatic injuries via pancreatic microcirculatory disturbances and oxidative stress in rats with hyperlipidemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Mingxian; Li Yanqing; Meng Min; Ren Hongbo; Kou Yi

    2006-01-01

    Relations between hyperlipidemia and chronic pancreatitis remain unclear. Microcirculatory disturbances and oxidative stress are involved in pathogeneses of a high numbers of diseases. The objective of this study was to induce hyperlipidemia in rats by long-term high-fat diet intake, then investigate the biochemical, microcirculatory, and histological alterations in blood and pancreatic tissues of these animals, and discuss their potential significances. Pancreatic blood flow was detected by intravital microscope; malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in pancreatic tissues for assessment of oxidative stress and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression was determined by immunohistochemical staining and RT-PCR. The results showed that the velocity of pancreatic microvascular blood flow of rats with hyperlipidemia decreased significantly as compared to control value (p = 0.008). Pancreatic MDA content increased whereas SOD activity decreased in these rats (p = 0.022; p = 0.039, respectively). Histologically, microvesicles in acinar and islet cells, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, swollen mitochondrion and modified vascular endothelial cells were observed under light microscope and transmission electron microscope. In addition, α-SMA expression was up-regulated significantly (p < 0.05). These results suggest that long-term high-fat diet can induce chronic pancreatic injuries which could be considered as 'nonalcoholic fatty pancreatic disease', and pancreatic microcirculatory disturbances and oxidative stress may play an important part in the underlying pathogenesis

  20. Increased susceptibility of post-weaning rats on high-fat diet to metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sheng Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the effects of the types of high-calorie diets (high-fat and high-fat-high-sucrose diets and two different developmental stages (post-weaning and young adult on the induction of metabolic syndrome. Male, post-weaning and adult (3- and 8-week old, respectively Sprague Dawley rats were given control, high-fat (60% kcal, and high-fat-high-sucrose (60% kcal fat + 30% sucrose water diets for eight weeks (n = 6 to 7 per group. Physical, biochemical, and transcriptional changes as well as liver histology were noted. Post-weaning rats had higher weight gain, abdominal fat mass, fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, faster hypertension onset, but lower circulating advanced glycation end products compared to adult rats. This is accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR α and γ in the liver and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE in the visceral adipose tissue. Post-weaning rats on high-fat diet manifested all phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and increased hepatic steatosis, which are linked to increased hepatic and adipocyte PPARγ expression. Adult rats on high-fat-high-sucrose diet merely became obese and hypertensive within the same treatment duration. Thus, it is more effective and less time-consuming to induce metabolic syndrome in male post-weaning rats with high-fat diet compared to young adult rats. As male rats were selectively included into the study, the results may not be generalisable to all post-weaning rats and further investigation on female rats is required.

  1. Body fat of stock-type horses predicted by rump fat thickness and deuterium oxide dilution and validated by near-infrared spectroscopy of dissected tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjak, E N; Cavinder, C A; Burnett, D D; Argo, C Mc; Dinh, T T N

    2017-10-01

    Body condition score and percent body fat (BF; %) of horses are positively correlated with reproductive efficiency and are indicative of metabolic issues. However, BF in horses may be poorly predicted because current procedures are either subjective or dependent on one anatomical location. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were to compare 2 methods of predicting BF using rump fat thickness (RFT) and deuterium oxide (DO) dilution with actual tissue fat analysis by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in stock-type horses and to identify the relationship between BF and BCS. Twenty-four stock-type horses were selected to be humanely euthanized based on 3 primary criteria: geriatric, crippled, and/or unsafe. Approximately 20 h before slaughter, horses were weighed and BCS assessed to be 1 ( = 1; 433 kg), 2 ( = 1; 415 kg), 3 ( = 1; 376 kg), 4 ( = 7; 468 ± 13 kg), 5 ( = 10; 455 ± 11 kg), and 6 ( = 4; 493 ± 12 kg) and RFT was measured using ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected immediately before and 4 h after DO infusion (0.12 g/kg BW). Deuterium oxide concentration of plasma was determined by gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Horses were housed in a dry lot overnight before being individually sedated (1.1 mg xylazine/kg BW) and anesthetized using a jugular venipuncture (2.2 mg ketamine/kg BW), and potassium chloride (KCl) solution was administered to cease cardiac function before exsanguination. After euthanasia, horse carcasses were processed and dissected and tissues were collected for NIRS analysis. Body fat predicted by DO dilution was correlated with BF measured by NIRS analysis on various weight bases ( = 0.76 to 0.81, horses.

  2. Resveratrol improves high-fat diet induced insulin resistance by rebalancing subsarcolemmal mitochondrial oxidation and antioxidantion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haohao, Zhang; Guijun, Qin; Juan, Zheng; Wen, Kong; Lulu, Chen

    2015-03-01

    Although resveratrol (RES) is thought to be a key regulator of insulin sensitivity in rodents, the exact mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. Therefore, we sought to investigate how RES affects skeletal muscle oxidative and antioxidant levels of subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondrial populations in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance (IR) rats. Systemic and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity together with expressions of several genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and skeletal muscle SIRT1, SIRT3 protein levels were studied in rats fed a normal diet, a HFD, and a HFD with intervention of RES for 8 weeks. Oxidative stress levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed in SS and IMF mitochondria. HFD fed rats exhibited obvious systemic and skeletal muscle IR as well as decreased SIRT1 and SIRT3 expressions, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and mitochondrial biogenesis (p diet induced IR, increased SIRT1 and SIRT3 expressions, mtDNA, and mitochondrial biogenesis (p competence in HFD rats.

  3. Does dietary fat intake influence oocyte competence and embryo quality by inducing oxidative stress in follicular fluid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein; Saboor Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Ahmadi, Mehdi

    2013-12-01

    Fat-rich diet may alter oocyte development and maturation and embryonic development by inducing oxidative stress (OS) in follicular environment. To investigate the relationship between fat intake and oxidative stress with oocyte competence and embryo quality. In observational study follicular fluid was collected from 236 women undergoing assisted reproduction program. Malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) levels and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels of follicular fluid were assessed as oxidative stress biomarkers. In assisted reproduction treatment cycle fat consumption and its component were assessed. A percentage of metaphase ΙΙ stage oocytes, fertilization rate were considered as markers of oocyte competence and non-fragmented embryo rate, mean of blastomer and good cleavage (embryos with more than 5 cells on 3 days post insemination) rate were considered as markers of embryo quality. The MDA level in follicular fluid was positively related to polyunsaturated fatty acids intake level (p=0.02) and negatively associated with good cleavage rate (p=0.045). Also good cleavage rate (p=0.005) and mean of blastomer (p=0.006) was negatively associated with polyunsaturated fatty acids intake levels. The percentage of metaphase ΙΙ stage oocyte was positively related to the TAC levels in follicular fluid (p=0.046). The relationship between the OS biomarkers in FF and the fertilization rate was not significant. These findings revealed that fat rich diet may induce the OS in oocyte environment and negatively influence embryonic development. This effect can partially be accounted by polyunsaturated fatty acids uptake while oocyte maturation is related to TAC and oocytes with low total antioxidant capacity have lower chance for fertilization and further development.

  4. Does dietary fat intake influence oocyte competence and embryo quality by inducing oxidative stress in follicular fluid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein; Saboor Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Ahmadi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fat-rich diet may alter oocyte development and maturation and embryonic development by inducing oxidative stress (OS) in follicular environment. Objective: To investigate the relationship between fat intake and oxidative stress with oocyte competence and embryo quality. Materials and Methods: In observational study follicular fluid was collected from 236 women undergoing assisted reproduction program. Malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) levels and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels of follicular fluid were assessed as oxidative stress biomarkers. In assisted reproduction treatment cycle fat consumption and its component were assessed. A percentage of metaphase ΙΙ stage oocytes, fertilization rate were considered as markers of oocyte competence and non-fragmented embryo rate, mean of blastomer and good cleavage (embryos with more than 5 cells on 3 days post insemination) rate were considered as markers of embryo quality. Results: The MDA level in follicular fluid was positively related to polyunsaturated fatty acids intake level (p=0.02) and negatively associated with good cleavage rate (p=0.045). Also good cleavage rate (p=0.005) and mean of blastomer (p=0.006) was negatively associated with polyunsaturated fatty acids intake levels. The percentage of metaphase ΙΙ stage oocyte was positively related to the TAC levels in follicular fluid (p=0.046). The relationship between the OS biomarkers in FF and the fertilization rate was not significant. Conclusion: These findings revealed that fat rich diet may induce the OS in oocyte environment and negatively influence embryonic development. This effect can partially be accounted by polyunsaturated fatty acids uptake while oocyte maturation is related to TAC and oocytes with low total antioxidant capacity have lower chance for fertilization and further development. PMID:24639727

  5. Proprietary tomato extract improves metabolic response to high-fat meal in healthy normal weight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Deplanque

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lycopene and tomato-based products have been described as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with a carotenoid-rich tomato extract (CRTE standardized for a 1:1 ratio of lycopene and phytosterols, on post-prandial LDL oxidation after a high-fat meal. Design: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled study, 146 healthy normal weight individuals were randomly assigned to a daily dose of CRTE standardized for tomato phytonutrients or placebo during 2 weeks. Oxidized LDL (OxLDL, glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG responses were measured for 8 h after ingestion of a high-fat meal before and at the end of intervention. Results: Plasma lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene were increased throughout the study period in the CRTE group compared to placebo. CRTE ingestion significantly improved changes in OxLDL response to high-fat meal compared to placebo after 2 weeks (p<0.0001. Changes observed in glucose, insulin, and TG responses were not statistically significant after 2 weeks of supplementation, although together they may suggest a trend of favorable effect on metabolic outcomes after a high-fat meal. Conclusions: Two-week supplementation with CRTE increased carotenoids levels in plasma and improved oxidized LDL response to a high-fat meal in healthy normal weight individuals.

  6. High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Boutcher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of regular aerobic exercise on body fat is negligible; however, other forms of exercise may have a greater impact on body composition. For example, emerging research examining high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE indicates that it may be more effective at reducing subcutaneous and abdominal body fat than other types of exercise. The mechanisms underlying the fat reduction induced by HIIE, however, are undetermined. Regular HIIE has been shown to significantly increase both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. HIIE also significantly lowers insulin resistance and results in a number of skeletal muscle adaptations that result in enhanced skeletal muscle fat oxidation and improved glucose tolerance. This review summarizes the results of HIIE studies on fat loss, fitness, insulin resistance, and skeletal muscle. Possible mechanisms underlying HIIE-induced fat loss and implications for the use of HIIE in the treatment and prevention of obesity are also discussed.

  7. Increased abdominal fat levels measured by bioelectrical impedance are associated with histological lesions of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, Aikaterini; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Tileli, Nafsika; Georgoulis, Michael; Deutsch, Melanie; Zafeiropoulou, Rodessa; Tiniakos, Dina; Manios, Yannis; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Papatheodoridis, George V

    2015-08-01

    Abdominal fat is considered to play an important role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), although it is not adequately studied because abdominal fat levels cannot be estimated easily. In this study, associations between abdominal obesity, as assessed by abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and the characteristics of patients with NAFLD were explored. Seventy-four consecutive NAFLD patients who underwent measurement of abdominal fat levels by BIA were included. Levels of abdominal fat 12.5 or less and more than 12.5 were considered to be average and increased, respectively. The mean±SD BMI was 30±4 kg/m and the mean abdominal fat levels were 16±5, whereas 26% of patients had average abdominal fat levels. Patients with average compared with those with increased abdominal fat levels were more frequently women (50 vs. 12%, P=0.001), had lower BMI (27±3 vs. 31±4 kg/m, Pabdominal fat levels (78 vs. 38%, P=0.030) and in patients with BMI 30 or more compared with less than 30 kg/m (87 vs. 48%, P=0.033), but similar in patients with increased or normal waist circumference (67 vs. 56%, P=0.693). Average levels of abdominal fat, as assessed by abdominal BIA, are mainly present in female patients with NAFLD and are associated with a lower degree of insulin resistance. Increased abdominal fat as assessed by BIA and obesity seem to represent strong risk factors for histological steatohepatitis.

  8. Type 2 diabetes mellitus induces congenital heart defects in murine embryos by increasing oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanqing; Reece, E Albert; Zhong, Jianxiang; Dong, Daoyin; Shen, Wei-Bin; Harman, Christopher R; Yang, Peixin

    2016-09-01

    Maternal type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus are strongly associated with high rates of severe structural birth defects, including congenital heart defects. Studies in type 1 diabetic embryopathy animal models have demonstrated that cellular stress-induced apoptosis mediates the teratogenicity of maternal diabetes leading to congenital heart defect formation. However, the mechanisms underlying maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus-induced congenital heart defects remain largely unknown. We aim to determine whether oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and excessive apoptosis are the intracellular molecular mechanisms underlying maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus-induced congenital heart defects. A mouse model of maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus was established by feeding female mice a high-fat diet (60% fat). After 15 weeks on the high-fat diet, the mice showed characteristics of maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus. Control dams were either fed a normal diet (10% fat) or the high-fat diet during pregnancy only. Female mice from the high-fat diet group and the 2 control groups were mated with male mice that were fed a normal diet. At E12.5, embryonic hearts were harvested to determine the levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide, endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, cleaved caspase 3 and 8, and apoptosis. E17.5 embryonic hearts were harvested for the detection of congenital heart defect formation using India ink vessel patterning and histological examination. Maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus significantly induced ventricular septal defects and persistent truncus arteriosus in the developing heart, along with increasing oxidative stress markers, including superoxide and lipid peroxidation; endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, including protein levels of phosphorylated-protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, phosphorylated-IRE1α, phosphorylated-eIF2α, C/EBP homologous protein, and binding immunoglobulin protein; endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gene

  9. Transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted production of interleukin-6 are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Juan; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine involved in both normal physiological brain functions and underlying significant neuropathology. IL-6 has been suggested to play a role in the control of body weight but the results are somewhat controversial. In this study we have challenged transgenic mice...... with astrocyte-targeted IL-6 expression (GFAP-IL6 mice) with a high-fat diet (55% kcal from fat) versus a control diet (10%). The results demonstrate that the GFAP-IL6 mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat, apparently without altering food intake and with no evidences...... of increased sympathetic tone. The high-fat diet-induced impaired responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT), and to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in both genotypes. The GFAP-IL6 mice did not differ from littermate wild-type (WT) mice in ITT, but they were more glucose intolerant following the high...

  10. Malonyl-CoA and carnitine in regulation of fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, Carsten; Halberg, Nils; Hillig, Thore

    2005-01-01

    Intracellular mechanisms regulating fat oxidation were investigated in human skeletal muscle during exercise. Eight young, healthy, moderately trained men performed bicycle exercise (60 min, 65% peak O2 consumption) on two occasions, where they ingested either 1) a high-carbohydrate diet (H-CHO) ...

  11. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Eun Park

    Full Text Available Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation.

  12. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Choi, Jung Mook; Chang, Eugene; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Kang, Eun Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio) increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation.

  13. Pioglitazone retrieves hepatic antioxidant DNA repair in a mice model of high fat diet

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    Yang Ching-Hsiu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pioglitazone was reported to improve hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation in human studies. To investigate whether the hepato-protective effect of pioglitazone was associated with an improvement of antioxidant defense mechanism, oxidative DNA damage and repair activity were determined in a high fat diet model. Male C57BL/6 mice were respectively fed with a 30% fat diet, the same diet with pioglitazone 100 mg/kg/day, or a chow diet as control for 8 weeks. Tissue oxidative stress was indicated by malondialdehyde concentration. Oxidative DNA damage was detected by immunohistochemical 8-oxoG staining. Enzymatic antioxidant defense was detected by the real-time PCR of superoxide dismutase (Sod1, Sod2 and DNA glycosylase (Ogg1, MutY. Oxidative DNA repair was detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting of OGG1 expression. Results Our results show that hepatic steatosis was induced by a high-fat diet and improved by adding pioglitazone. Malondialdehyde concentration and 8-oxoG staining were strongly increased in the high-fat diet group, but attenuated by pioglitazone. Gene expressions of antioxidant defense mechanism: Sod1, Sod2, Ogg1 and MutY significantly decreased in the high-fat diet group but reversed by pioglitazone co-administration. Conclusion The attenuation of hepatic oxidative DNA damage by pioglitazone in a high-fat diet may be mediated by up-regulation of the antioxidant defense mechanism and oxidative DNA repair activity. The diminution of oxidative damage may explain the clinical benefit of pioglitazone treatment in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  14. Pioglitazone retrieves hepatic antioxidant DNA repair in a mice model of high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Kuo, Kung-Kai; Hung, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Kun-Bow; Yang, Ching-Hsiu; Yu, Ming-Lung; Shin, Shyi-Jang

    2008-01-01

    Background Pioglitazone was reported to improve hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation in human studies. To investigate whether the hepato-protective effect of pioglitazone was associated with an improvement of antioxidant defense mechanism, oxidative DNA damage and repair activity were determined in a high fat diet model. Male C57BL/6 mice were respectively fed with a 30% fat diet, the same diet with pioglitazone 100 mg/kg/day, or a chow diet as control for 8 weeks. Tissue oxidative stress was indicated by malondialdehyde concentration. Oxidative DNA damage was detected by immunohistochemical 8-oxoG staining. Enzymatic antioxidant defense was detected by the real-time PCR of superoxide dismutase (Sod1, Sod2) and DNA glycosylase (Ogg1, MutY). Oxidative DNA repair was detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting of OGG1 expression. Results Our results show that hepatic steatosis was induced by a high-fat diet and improved by adding pioglitazone. Malondialdehyde concentration and 8-oxoG staining were strongly increased in the high-fat diet group, but attenuated by pioglitazone. Gene expressions of antioxidant defense mechanism: Sod1, Sod2, Ogg1 and MutY significantly decreased in the high-fat diet group but reversed by pioglitazone co-administration. Conclusion The attenuation of hepatic oxidative DNA damage by pioglitazone in a high-fat diet may be mediated by up-regulation of the antioxidant defense mechanism and oxidative DNA repair activity. The diminution of oxidative damage may explain the clinical benefit of pioglitazone treatment in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:18822121

  15. Increased Flap Weight and Decreased Perforator Number Predict Fat Necrosis in DIEP Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn L. Mulvey, BS

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: Flaps with increasing weight have increased risk of fat necrosis. These data suggest that inclusion of more than 1 perforator may decrease odds of fat necrosis in large flaps. Perforator flap breast reconstruction can be performed safely; however, considerations concerning race, body mass index, staging with tissue expanders, perforator number, and flap weight may optimize outcomes.

  16. Sex differences in the effects of 12 weeks sprint interval training on body fat mass and the rates of fatty acid oxidation and VO2max during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Liam; Slevin, Mark; Bradburn, Steven; Liu, Donghui; Murgatroyd, Chris; Morrissey, George; Carroll, Michael; Piasecki, Mathew; Gilmore, William S; McPhee, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether very short duration, very high intensity sprint interval training (SIT) leads to loss of body fat mass in association with improvements to VO 2 max and fatty acid oxidation, and to assess the extent of sex dimorphism in these physiological responses. A total of 24 men and 17 women (mean (SEM) age: 39 (±2) years; body mass index 24.6 (0.6)) completed measurements of the maximal rate of oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) and fatty acid oxidation (FATmax). Body fat and lean mass were measured by dual emission x-ray absorptiometry, and fasting blood lipid, glucose and insulin profiles were assessed before and after training. SIT consisted of 4×20 s sprints on a cycle ergometer at approximately 175% VO 2 max, three times per week for 12 weeks. Fat mass decreased by 1.0 kg, although men lost statistically significantly more fat than women both when expressed in Kg and as % body fat. VO 2 max increased by around 9%, but women improved VO 2 max significantly more than men. FATmax improved by around 13%, but fasting plasma glucose, insulin, total triglyceride, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) did not change after training, while low-density lipoprotein decreased by 8% (p=0.028) and the HDL:Total Cholesterol ratio improved by 6%. There were no sex differences in these metabolic responses to training. These results show lower body fat %, and higher rates of fatty acid oxidation and VO 2 max after 12 weeks of training for just 4 min per week. Notably, women improved VO 2 max more than men, while men lost more fat than women.

  17. Sex differences in the effects of 12 weeks sprint interval training on body fat mass and the rates of fatty acid oxidation and VO2max during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Liam; Slevin, Mark; Bradburn, Steven; Liu, Donghui; Murgatroyd, Chris; Morrissey, George; Carroll, Michael; Piasecki, Mathew; Gilmore, William S; McPhee, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine whether very short duration, very high intensity sprint interval training (SIT) leads to loss of body fat mass in association with improvements to VO2max and fatty acid oxidation, and to assess the extent of sex dimorphism in these physiological responses. Methods A total of 24 men and 17 women (mean (SEM) age: 39 (±2) years; body mass index 24.6 (0.6)) completed measurements of the maximal rate of oxygen uptake (VO2max) and fatty acid oxidation (FATmax). Body fat and lean mass were measured by dual emission x-ray absorptiometry, and fasting blood lipid, glucose and insulin profiles were assessed before and after training. SIT consisted of 4×20 s sprints on a cycle ergometer at approximately 175% VO2max, three times per week for 12 weeks. Results Fat mass decreased by 1.0 kg, although men lost statistically significantly more fat than women both when expressed in Kg and as % body fat. VO2max increased by around 9%, but women improved VO2max significantly more than men. FATmax improved by around 13%, but fasting plasma glucose, insulin, total triglyceride, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) did not change after training, while low-density lipoprotein decreased by 8% (p=0.028) and the HDL:Total Cholesterol ratio improved by 6%. There were no sex differences in these metabolic responses to training. Conclusions These results show lower body fat %, and higher rates of fatty acid oxidation and VO2max after 12 weeks of training for just 4 min per week. Notably, women improved VO2max more than men, while men lost more fat than women. PMID:27900150

  18. A paradoxical signal intensity increase in fatty livers using opposed-phase gradient echo imaging with fat-suppression pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkern, Robert V.; Voss, Stephan; Loeb Salsberg, Sandra; Krauel, Marta Ramon; Ludwig, David S.

    2008-01-01

    With the increase in obese and overweight children, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has become more prevalent in the pediatric population. Appreciating subtleties of magnetic resonance (MR) signal intensity behavior from fatty livers under different imaging conditions thus becomes important to pediatric radiologists. We report an initially confusing signal behavior - increased signal from fatty livers when fat-suppression pulses are applied in an opposed-phase gradient echo imaging sequence - and seek to explain the physical mechanisms for this paradoxical signal intensity behavior. Abdominal MR imaging at 3 T with a 3-D volumetric interpolated breath-hold (VIBE) sequence in the opposed-phase condition (TR/TE 3.3/1.3 ms) was performed in five obese boys (14±2 years of age, body mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) with spectroscopically confirmed fatty livers. Two VIBE acquisitions were performed, one with and one without the use of chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulse fat suppression. The ratios of fat-suppressed over non-fat-suppressed signal intensities were assessed in regions-of-interest (ROIs) in five tissues: subcutaneous fat, liver, vertebral marrow, muscle and spleen. The boys had spectroscopically estimated hepatic fat levels between 17% and 48%. CHESS pulse fat suppression decreased subcutaneous fat signals dramatically, by more than 85% within regions of optimal fat suppression. Fatty liver signals, in contrast, were elevated by an average of 87% with CHESS pulse fat suppression. Vertebral marrow signal was also significantly elevated with CHESS pulse fat suppression, while spleen and muscle signals demonstrated only small signal increases on the order of 10%. We demonstrated that CHESS pulse fat suppression actually increases the signal intensity from fatty livers in opposed-phase gradient echo imaging conditions. The increase can be attributed to suppression of one partner of the opposed-phase pair that normally contributes to the

  19. A paradoxical signal intensity increase in fatty livers using opposed-phase gradient echo imaging with fat-suppression pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulkern, Robert V.; Voss, Stephan [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Loeb Salsberg, Sandra; Krauel, Marta Ramon; Ludwig, David S. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Medicine, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-10-15

    With the increase in obese and overweight children, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has become more prevalent in the pediatric population. Appreciating subtleties of magnetic resonance (MR) signal intensity behavior from fatty livers under different imaging conditions thus becomes important to pediatric radiologists. We report an initially confusing signal behavior - increased signal from fatty livers when fat-suppression pulses are applied in an opposed-phase gradient echo imaging sequence - and seek to explain the physical mechanisms for this paradoxical signal intensity behavior. Abdominal MR imaging at 3 T with a 3-D volumetric interpolated breath-hold (VIBE) sequence in the opposed-phase condition (TR/TE 3.3/1.3 ms) was performed in five obese boys (14{+-}2 years of age, body mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) with spectroscopically confirmed fatty livers. Two VIBE acquisitions were performed, one with and one without the use of chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulse fat suppression. The ratios of fat-suppressed over non-fat-suppressed signal intensities were assessed in regions-of-interest (ROIs) in five tissues: subcutaneous fat, liver, vertebral marrow, muscle and spleen. The boys had spectroscopically estimated hepatic fat levels between 17% and 48%. CHESS pulse fat suppression decreased subcutaneous fat signals dramatically, by more than 85% within regions of optimal fat suppression. Fatty liver signals, in contrast, were elevated by an average of 87% with CHESS pulse fat suppression. Vertebral marrow signal was also significantly elevated with CHESS pulse fat suppression, while spleen and muscle signals demonstrated only small signal increases on the order of 10%. We demonstrated that CHESS pulse fat suppression actually increases the signal intensity from fatty livers in opposed-phase gradient echo imaging conditions. The increase can be attributed to suppression of one partner of the opposed-phase pair that normally contributes to the

  20. Xanthan gum as a fat replacer in goshtaba-a traditional meat product of India: effects on quality and oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Sajad A; Masoodi, F A; Akhter, Rehana; Gani, Adil; Wani, S M; Malik, A H

    2015-12-01

    Goshtaba is a restructured meat product of Kashmiri wazwan prepared from meat emulsion with added fat (20 %), salt, spices and condiments and cooked in the curd. The present study was undertaken for the development of low fat goshtaba with the addition of xanthan gum as a fat replacer and was evaluated for proximate composition, pH, colour, lipid and protein oxidation, texture, microstructure and sensory properties. Low fat goshtaba formulations containing xanthan gum were higher in protein and moisture contents but, lower in fat content and pH value than the high fat control (p product containing 1.5 % xanthan gum. SEM results indicate that xanthan gum lead to formation of an additional gel network which holds more water. Sensory evaluation revealed that goshtaba product with 0.5 % xanthan gum had quality characteristics that were similar to the control product containing 20 % fat.

  1. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  2. Increased expression of PPARγ in high fat diet-induced liver steatosis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Mitsutaka; Ohtake, Takaaki; Motomura, Wataru; Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Hosoki, Yayoi; Miyoshi, Shigeki; Suzuki, Yasuaki; Saito, Hiroyuki; Kohgo, Yutaka; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2005-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine a hypothesis that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is implicated in high fat diet-induced liver steatosis. Mice were fed with control or high fat diet containing approximately 10% or 80% cholesterol, respectively. Macroscopic and microscopic findings demonstrated that lipid accumulation in the liver was observed as early as 2 weeks after high fat diet and that high fat diet for 12 weeks developed a fatty liver phenotype, establishing a novel model of diet-induced liver steatosis. Gene profiling with microarray and real-time PCR studies demonstrated that among genes involved in lipid metabolism, adipogenesis-related genes, PPARγ and its targeted gene, CD36 mRNA expression was specifically up-regulated in the liver by high fat diet for 2 weeks. Immunohistochemical study revealed that PPARγ protein expression is increased in the nuclei of hepatocytes by high fat diet. It was also shown that protein expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), an upstream molecule of PPARγ, in the liver was drastically suppressed by high fat diet. All these results suggest for the first time that the CREB-PPARγ signaling pathway may be involved in the high fat diet-induced liver steatosis

  3. Obesity development in neuron-specific lipoprotein lipase deficient mice is not responsive to increased dietary fat content or change in fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Taussig, Matthew D; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Bruce, Kimberley; Piomelli, Daniele; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    We have previously reported that mice with neuron-specific LPL deficiency (NEXLPL-/-) become obese by 16weeks of age on chow. Moreover, these mice had reduced uptake of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein-derived fatty acids and lower levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in the hypothalamus. Here, we asked whether increased dietary fat content or altered dietary composition could modulate obesity development in NEXLPL-/- mice. Male NEXLPL-/- mice and littermate controls (WT) were randomly assigned one of three synthetic diets; a high carbohydrate diet (HC, 10% fat), a high-fat diet (HF, 45% fat), or a HC diet supplemented with n-3 PUFAs (HCn-3, 10% fat, Lovaza, GSK®). After 42weeks of HC feeding, body weight and fat mass were increased in the NEXLPL-/- mice compared to WT. WT mice fed a HF diet displayed typical diet-induced obesity, but weight gain was only marginal in HF-fed NEXLPL-/- mice, with no significant difference in body composition. Dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation did not prevent obesity in NEXLPL-/- mice, but was associated with differential modifications in hypothalamic gene expression and PUFA concentration compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that neuronal LPL is involved in the regulation of body weight and composition in response to either the change in quantity (HF feeding) or quality (n-3 PUFA-enriched) of dietary fat. The precise role of LPL in lipid sensing in the brain requires further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of an individualized physical training program on resting cortisol and growth hormone levels and fat oxidation during exercise in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ounis, O; Elloumi, M; Zouhal, H; Makni, E; Lac, G; Tabka, Z; Amri, M

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the resting levels of cortisol and growth hormone (GH), and the substrate profile during exercise of obese children before and after an individualized training program. Twenty-two obese children (13.1 ± 0.8 yrs) were included in the study. Twelve individuals (six boys and six girls; 31.1 ± 1.1 kg/m², VO₂(peak)=1.92 ± 0.16l/min) participated in a two-month endurance training program and 10 individuals (five boys and five girls; 30.9 ± 1.7 kg/m², VO₂(peak)=1.98 ± 0.12l/min) served as controls. Training was individualized and targeting at the point were fat oxidation was maximal (Lipox(max)). Substrate oxidation was evaluated by indirect calorimetry. To determine plasma cortisol and GH concentrations, blood was collected at rest before and after the two-month period. Before the program, no significant differences were detected between the training group and the control group for any of the measured anthropometric, metabolic or hormonal variables. At the end of the two-month program, training group showed an increase in VO₂(peak) and fat oxidation during exercise. After the program, resting levels of GH and cortisol were significantly increased in the training group (+0.9 ± 0.3 ng/mL and +55.4 ± 10.3 ng/mL respectively, p levels of GH and cortisol. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Short-term HIIT and Fat max training increase aerobic and metabolic fitness in men with class II and III obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Capodaglio, Paolo; Brunani, Amelia; Fanari, Paolo; Salvadori, Alberto; Malatesta, Davide

    2015-10-01

    To compare the effects of two different 2-week-long training modalities [continuous at the intensity eliciting the maximal fat oxidation (Fatmax) versus high-intensity interval training (HIIT)] in men with class II and III obesity. Nineteen men with obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg · m(-2)) were assigned to Fatmax group (GFatmax) or to HIIT group (GHIIT). Both groups performed eight cycling sessions matched for mechanical work. Aerobic fitness and fat oxidation rates (FORs) during exercise were assessed prior and following the training. Blood samples were drawn to determine hormones and plasma metabolites levels. Insulin resistance was assessed by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR). Aerobic fitness and FORs during exercise were significantly increased in both groups after training (P ≤ 0.001). HOMA2-IR was significantly reduced only for GFatmax (P ≤ 0.001). Resting non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin decreased significantly only in GFatmax (P ≤ 0.002). Two weeks of HIIT and Fatmax training are effective for the improvement of aerobic fitness and FORs during exercise in these classes of obesity. The decreased levels of resting NEFA only in GFatmax may be involved in the decreased insulin resistance only in this group. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  6. Early metabolic adaptation in C57BL/6 mice resistant to high fat diet induced weight gain involves an activation of mitochondrial oxidative pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulangé, Claire L; Claus, Sandrine P; Chou, Chieh J; Collino, Sebastiano; Montoliu, Ivan; Kochhar, Sunil; Holmes, Elaine; Rezzi, Serge; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Dumas, Marc E; Martin, François-Pierre J

    2013-04-05

    We investigated the short-term (7 days) and long-term (60 days) metabolic effect of high fat diet induced obesity (DIO) and weight gain in isogenic C57BL/6 mice and examined the specific metabolic differentiation between mice that were either strong-responders (SR), or non-responders (NR) to weight gain. Mice (n = 80) were fed a standard chow diet for 7 days prior to randomization into a high-fat (HF) (n = 56) or a low-fat (LF) (n = 24) diet group. The (1)H NMR urinary metabolic profiles of LF and HF mice were recorded 7 and 60 days after the diet switch. On the basis of the body weight gain (BWG) distribution of HF group, we identified NR mice (n = 10) and SR mice (n = 14) to DIO. Compared with LF, HF feeding increased urinary excretion of glycine conjugates of β-oxidation intermediate (hexanoylglycine), branched chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism intermediates (isovalerylglycine, α-keto-β-methylvalerate and α-ketoisovalerate) and end-products of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism (N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide, N1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide) suggesting up-regulation of mitochondrial oxidative pathways. In the HF group, NR mice excreted relatively more hexanoylglycine, isovalerylglycine, and fewer tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate (succinate) in comparison to SR mice. Thus, subtle regulation of ketogenic pathways in DIO may alleviate the saturation of the TCA cycle and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

  7. Influence of animal fat substitution by vegetal fat on Mortadella-type products formulated with different hydrocolloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Saldaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat has played a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well-balanced diet on account of its nutritional properties, its high biological value as a source of protein, and the vitamins and minerals it supplies. We studied the effects of animal fat reduction and substitution by hydrogenated vegetal fat, sodium alginate and guar gum. Fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation, color and instrumental texture as well as the sensorial difference between low, substituted-fat and the traditional formulations for mortadella-type products were analyzed. Both substitution and reduction of animal fat decreased the saturated fatty acids percentage from 40% down to 31%. A texture profile analysis showed differences between the formulations. Furthermore, lipid oxidation values were not significant for treatments as regards the type and quantity of fat used while the use of sodium alginate and guar gum reduced the amounts of liquid released after cooking. Animal fat substitution does cause, however, a difference in overall sensorial perception compared with non-substituted products. The results confirm the viability of substituting vegetal fat for animal fat.

  8. Silymarin alleviates hepatic oxidative stress and protects against metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Meng, Ran; Huang, Bin; Shen, Shanmei; Bi, Yan; Zhu, Dalong

    2016-01-01

    Silymarin is a potent antioxidant medicine and has been widely used for the treatment of liver diseases over 30 years. Recent studies suggest that silymarin may benefit patients with glucose intolerance. However, the mechanism underlying the action of silymarin is not clarified. The aim of this work was to assess the impact of silymarin on glucose intolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, and explore the potential therapeutic mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were fed with HFD for 12 weeks, randomized, and treated orally with vehicle saline or silymarin (30 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. We found that silymarin significantly improved HFD-induced body weight gain, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in mice. Silymarin treatment reduced HFD-increased oxidative stress indicators (reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation) and restored HFD-down-regulated activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) in the plasma and/or liver of the HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, silymarin decreased HFD-up-regulated hepatic NADPH oxidase expression and NF-κB activation in mice. Additionally, silymarin treatment mitigated HFD-increased plasma IL-1β, TNF-α levels, and HFD-enhanced hepatic NO, TLR4, and iNOS expression in mice. These novel data indicate that silymarin has potent anti-diabetic actions through alleviating oxidative stress and inflammatory response, partially by inhibiting hepatic NADPH oxidase expression and the NF-κB signaling.

  9. High-Fat and Fat-Enriched Diets Impair the Benefits of Moderate Physical Training in the Aorta and the Heart in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleverson Rodrigues Fernandes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available AimMillions of people die each year due to cardiovascular disease (CVD. A Western lifestyle not only fuses a significant intake of fat with physical inactivity and obesity but also promotes CVD. Recent evidence suggests that dietary fat intake impairs the benefits of physical training. We investigated whether aerobic training could reverse the adverse effects of a high-fat diet (HFD on the aorta. Then, we explored whether this type of exercise could reverse the damage to the heart that is imposed by fat-enriched diet (FED.MethodsRats were randomly assigned to two experiments, which lasted 8 weeks each. First, rats swam for 60 min and were fed either a regular diet [standard diet (STD] or an HFD. After aortic samples had been collected, the rats underwent a histopathological analysis for different biomarkers. Another experiment subjected rats that were fed either an STD or an FED to swimming for 20 or 90 min.ResultsThe first experiment revealed that rats that were subjected to an HFD-endured increased oxidative damage in the aorta that exercises could not counteract. Together with increased cyclooxygenase 2 expression, an HFD in combination with physical training increased the number of macrophages. A reduction in collagen fibers with an increased number of positive α-actin cells and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 occurred concomitantly. Upon analyzing the second experiment, we found that physically training rats that were given an FED for 90 min/day decreased the cardiac adipose tissue density, although it did not protect the heart from fat-induced oxidative damage. Even though the physical training lowered cholesterol levels that were promoted by the FED, the levels were still higher than those in the animals that were given an STD. Feeding rats an FED impaired the swimming protocol’s effects on lowering triglyceride concentration. Additionally, exercise was unable to reverse the fat-induced deregulation in hepatic

  10. Haloperidol and Rimonabant Increase Delay Discounting in Rats Fed High-Fat and Standard-Chow Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomhower, Steven R.; Rasmussen, Erin B.

    2016-01-01

    The dopamine and endocannabinoid neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in delay discounting, a measure of impulsive choice, and obesity. The current study was designed to determine the extent to which haloperidol and rimonabant affected delay discounting in rats fed standard-chow and high-fat diets. Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to free-feed under a high-fat diet (4.73 kcal/g) or a standard-chow diet (3.0 kcal/g) for three months. Then, operant sessions began in which rats (n = 9 standard chow; n = 10 high-fat) chose between one sucrose pellet delivered immediately vs. three sucrose pellets after a series of delays. In another condition, carrot-flavored pellets replaced sucrose pellets. After behavior stabilized, acute injections of rimonabant (0.3-10 mg/kg) and haloperidol (0.003-0.1 mg/kg) were administered i.p. before some choice sessions in both pellet conditions. Haloperidol and rimonabant increased discounting in both groups of rats by decreasing percent choice for the larger reinforcer and area-under-the-curve (AUC) values. Rats in the high-fat diet condition demonstrated increased sensitivity to haloperidol compared to chow-fed controls: haloperidol increased discounting in both dietary groups in the sucrose condition,, but only in the high-fat-fed rats in the carrot-pellet condition. These findings indicate that blocking D2 and CB1 receptors results in increased delay discounting, and that a high-fat diet may alter sensitivity to dopaminergic compounds using the delay-discounting task. PMID:25000488

  11. Liver protein expression in young pigs in response to a high-fat diet and diet restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Henrik; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the liver response in young pigs to a high-fat diet (containing 25% animal fat) and diet restriction (equivalent to 60% of maintenance) using differential proteome analysis. The objective was to investigate whether young pigs can be used to model the liver response in adolescents...... to a high-fat diet and diet restriction-induced BW loss. The high-fat diet increased (P high-fat diet had normal glucose tolerance and liver lipid content despite a general increase (P ...-density lipoprotein decreased (P high-fat diet in young pigs is similar to that of humans in terms of increased fatty acid oxidation whereas the liver response to diet restriction is similar to humans...

  12. Geraniol improves endothelial function by inhibiting NOX-2 derived oxidative stress in high fat diet fed mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Shiqi; Su, Mengqi; Sun, Li; Zhang, Song; Wang, Dingyu; Liu, Zhaorui; Yuan, Yue; Liu, Yang; Li, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese patients and high-fat diet (HFD) fed experimental animals. While geraniol has been reported to ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress, inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and improve atherosclerosis, its direct effect on endothelial function remains uncharacterized. The present study therefore investigated the effect of geraniol on endothelial function in HFD mice and its underlying mechanisms. C57 BL/6 mice were fed an HFD (n = 40) or a normal diet (n = 20) for 8 weeks. HFD fed mice then were randomized to intraperitoneal treatment with geraniol (n = 20) or vehicle (n = 20) for another 6 weeks. Acetylcholine (Ach)-induced endothelial dependent vasorelaxation was measured on wire myography; reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by fluorescence imaging, and NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and adhesive molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression by western blotting. Geraniol improved endothelial function in HFD fed mice, as evidenced by its: 1. restoring endothelial dependent vasorelaxation induced by Ach, and reversing increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression; 2. attenuating HFD induced increased serum TBARS and aortic ROS generation; and 3. downregulating aortic NOX-2 expression in both HFD fed mice and in palmitic acid treated endothelial cells. Geraniol therefore protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by HFD through reducing NOX-2 associated ROS generation. -- Highlights: •Geraniol improved endothelial dependent relaxation in high fat diet fed mice. •Geraniol alleviated vascular injury in high fat diet fed mice. •Geraniol inhibited ROS generation through downregulating NOX-2 expression.

  13. Geraniol improves endothelial function by inhibiting NOX-2 derived oxidative stress in high fat diet fed mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Shiqi; Su, Mengqi; Sun, Li; Zhang, Song; Wang, Dingyu; Liu, Zhaorui; Yuan, Yue; Liu, Yang [Department of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China); Li, Yue, E-mail: ly99ly@vip.163.com [Department of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China); Key Laboratory of Cardiac Diseases and Heart Failure, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China)

    2016-05-20

    Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese patients and high-fat diet (HFD) fed experimental animals. While geraniol has been reported to ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress, inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and improve atherosclerosis, its direct effect on endothelial function remains uncharacterized. The present study therefore investigated the effect of geraniol on endothelial function in HFD mice and its underlying mechanisms. C57 BL/6 mice were fed an HFD (n = 40) or a normal diet (n = 20) for 8 weeks. HFD fed mice then were randomized to intraperitoneal treatment with geraniol (n = 20) or vehicle (n = 20) for another 6 weeks. Acetylcholine (Ach)-induced endothelial dependent vasorelaxation was measured on wire myography; reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by fluorescence imaging, and NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and adhesive molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression by western blotting. Geraniol improved endothelial function in HFD fed mice, as evidenced by its: 1. restoring endothelial dependent vasorelaxation induced by Ach, and reversing increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression; 2. attenuating HFD induced increased serum TBARS and aortic ROS generation; and 3. downregulating aortic NOX-2 expression in both HFD fed mice and in palmitic acid treated endothelial cells. Geraniol therefore protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by HFD through reducing NOX-2 associated ROS generation. -- Highlights: •Geraniol improved endothelial dependent relaxation in high fat diet fed mice. •Geraniol alleviated vascular injury in high fat diet fed mice. •Geraniol inhibited ROS generation through downregulating NOX-2 expression.

  14. Increased fat in pancreas not associated with risk of pancreatitis post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokhrel B

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bhupesh Pokhrel,1 Eun Kwang Choi,1 Omer Khalid,2 Kumar Sandrasegaran,3 Evan L Fogel,1 Lee McHenry,1 Stuart Sherman,1 James Watkins,1 Gregory A Cote,1 Henry A Pitt,4 Nicholas J Zyromski,4 Beth Juliar,1 Glen A Lehman11Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, 2Department of Gastroenterology, St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, 3Department of Radiology, 4Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USABackground: A preliminary study has shown increased pancreatic fat in patients with idiopathic pancreatitis and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. In this study, we aimed to determine if an increased quantity of pancreatic fat is an independent risk factor for pancreatitis post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP.Methods: In this case control study, we retrospectively reviewed a local radiological and ERCP database to identify patients who had had abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI followed by ERCP no more than 60 days later between September 2003 and January 2011. Percentage of fat was determined by recording signal intensity in the in-phase (Sin and out-of-phase (Sout T1-weighted gradient sequences, and calculation of the fat fraction as (Sin - Sout/(Sin × 2 by an abdominal radiologist blinded to clinical history. Controls matched for age, gender, and other pancreatobiliary disease were selected from a group with no post-ERCP pancreatitis (before fat content of the pancreas was analyzed.Results: Forty-seven patients were enrolled. Compared with controls, subjects with post-ERCP pancreatitis were similar in terms of age (41.4 years versus 41.1 years, gender (21.2% versus 20.2% males, pancreatobiliary disease characteristics, and most ERCP techniques. Measurements of pancreatic head, body, and tail fat and body mass index were similar in patients and controls.Conclusion: Increased pancreatic fat on MRI criteria is not an independent

  15. Hyperandrogenism Accompanies Increased Intra-Abdominal Fat Storage in Normal Weight Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, Daniel A; Akopians, Alin L; Madrigal, Vanessa K; Ramirez, Emmanuel; Margolis, Daniel J; Sarma, Manoj K; Thomas, Albert M; Grogan, Tristan R; Haykal, Rasha; Schooler, Tery A; Okeya, Bette L; Abbott, David H; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D

    2016-11-01

    Normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women may have altered adipose structure-function underlying metabolic dysfunction. This study examines whether adipose structure-functional changes exist in normal weight PCOS women and correlate with hyperandrogenism and/or hyperinsulinemia. This is a prospective cohort study. The setting was an academic medical center. Six normal weight PCOS women and 14 age- and body mass index-matched normoandrogenic ovulatory (NL) women were included. All women underwent circulating hormone and metabolic measurements; frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing; total body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; abdominal magnetic resonance imaging; and SC abdominal fat biopsy. Circulating hormones and metabolites, body fat and its distribution, and adipocyte size were compared between PCOS and NL women, and were correlated with each other in all women. Circulating LH and androgen levels were significantly greater in PCOS than NL women, as were fasting insulin levels, pancreatic β-cell responsiveness to glucose, and total abdominal fat mass. Intra-abdominal fat mass also was significantly increased in PCOS women and was positively correlated with circulating androgen, fasting insulin, triglyceride, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in all women. SC abdominal fat mass was not significantly increased in PCOS women, but contained a greater proportion of small SC abdominal adipocytes that positively correlated with serum androgen levels in all women. Hyperandrogenism in normal weight PCOS women is associated with preferential intra-abdominal fat deposition and an increased population of small SC abdominal adipocytes that could constrain SC adipose storage and promote metabolic dysfunction.

  16. Evaluation of increased vitamin D fortification in high-temperature, short-time-processed 2% milk, UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk, and low-fat strawberry yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, A L; Metzger, L E

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased vitamin D fortification (250 IU/serving) of high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-processed 2% fat milk, UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk, and low-fat strawberry yogurt on the sensory characteristics and stability of vitamin D during processing and storage. Three replicates of HTST pasteurized 2% fat milk, UHT pasteurized 2% fat chocolate milk, and low-fat strawberry yogurt were manufactured. Each of the 3 replicates for all products contained a control (no vitamin D fortification), a treatment group with 100 IU vitamin D/serving (current level of vitamin D fortification), and a treatment group with 250 IU vitamin D/serving. A cold-water dispersible vitamin D(3) concentrate was used for all fortifications. The HTST-processed 2% fat milk was stored for 21 d, with vitamin D analysis done before processing and on d 0, 14, and 21. Sensory analysis was conducted on d 14. The UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk was stored for 60 d, with vitamin D analysis done before processing and on d 0, 40, and 60. Sensory analysis was conducted on d 40. Low-fat strawberry yogurt was stored for 42 d, with vitamin D analysis done before processing, and on d 0, 28, and 42. Sensory analysis was conducted on d 28. Vitamin D levels in the fortified products were found to be similar to the target levels of fortification (100 and 250 IU vitamin D per serving) for all products, indicating no loss of vitamin D during processing. Vitamin D was also found to be stable over the shelf life of each product. Increasing the fortification of vitamin D from 100 to 250 IU/serving did not result in a change in the sensory characteristics of HTST-processed 2% fat milk, UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk, or low-fat strawberry yogurt. These results indicate that it is feasible to increase vitamin D fortification from 100 to 250 IU per serving in these products. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  17. Increased physical activity ameliorates high fat diet-induced bone resorption in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been recognized that mechanical stresses associated with physical activity (PA) have beneficial effects on increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and improving bone quality. On the other hand, high fat diet (HFD) and obesity increase bone marrow adiposity leading to increased excretion of pro-...

  18. High-fat diet reduces the formation of butyrate, but increases succinate, inflammation, liver fat and cholesterol in rats, while dietary fibre counteracts these effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Jakobsdottir

    Full Text Available Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes and risk factors associated to the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of dietary fibres has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as by increasing satiety, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels. These effects may be associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, particularly propionic and butyric acids, formed by microbial degradation of dietary fibres in colon, and by their capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation.To investigate whether dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFAs, would affect metabolic risk markers in low-fat and high-fat diets using a model with conventional rats for 2, 4 and 6 weeks.Conventional rats were administered low-fat or high-fat diets, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks, supplemented with fermentable dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFA patterns (pectin - acetic acid; guar gum - propionic acid; or a mixture - butyric acid. At the end of each experimental period, liver fat, cholesterol and triglycerides, serum and caecal SCFAs, plasma cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. The caecal microbiota was analysed after 6 weeks.Fermentable dietary fibre decreased weight gain, liver fat, cholesterol and triglyceride content, and changed the formation of SCFAs. The high-fat diet primarily reduced formation of SCFAs but, after a longer experimental period, the formation of propionic and acetic acids recovered. The concentration of succinic acid in the rats increased in high-fat diets with time, indicating harmful effect of high-fat consumption. The dietary fibre partly counteracted these harmful effects and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, the number of Bacteroides was higher with guar gum, while noticeably that of Akkermansia was highest with the fibre-free diet.

  19. Day to day variability in fat oxidation and the effect after only 1 day of change in diet composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støa, Eva Maria; Nyhus, Lill-Katrin; Børresen, Sandra Claveau; Nygaard, Caroline; Hovet, Åse Marie; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Helgerud, Jan; Støren, Øyvind

    2016-04-01

    Indirect calorimetry is a common and noninvasive method to estimate rate of fat oxidation (FatOx) during exercise, and test-retest reliability should be considered when interpreting results. Diet also has an impact on FatOx. The aim of the present study was to investigate day to day variations in FatOx during moderate exercise given the same diet and 2 different isoenergetic diets. Nine healthy, moderately-trained females participated in the study. They performed 1 maximal oxygen uptake test and 4 FatOx tests. Habitual diets were recorded and repeated to assess day to day variability in FatOx. FatOx was also measured after 1 day of fat-rich (26.8% carbohydrates (CHO), 23.2% protein, 47.1% fat) and 1 day of CHO-rich diet (62.6% CHO, 20.1% protein, 12.4% fat). The reliability test revealed no differences in FatOx, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, or blood glucose between the 2 habitual diet days. FatOx decreased after the CHO-rich diet compared with the habitual day 2 (from 0.42 ± 0.15 to 0.29 ± 0.13 g·min(-1), p diet and the 2 habitual diet days. FatOx was 31% lower (from 0.42 ± 0.14 to 0.29 ± 0.13 g·min(-1), p diet compared with the fat-rich diet. Using RER data to measure FatOx is a reliable method as long as the diet is strictly controlled. However, even a 1-day change in macronutrient composition will likely affect the FatOx results.

  20. Kefir Peptides Prevent Hyperlipidemia and Obesity in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats via Lipid Metabolism Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yu-Tang; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Wu, Hsin-Shan; Ho, Mei-Hsuan; Chong, Kowit-Yu; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2018-02-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Obesity is a complex metabolic disorder that is linked to numerous serious health complications with high morbidity. The present study evaluated the effects of kefir peptides on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in rats. Kefir peptides markedly improved obesity, including body weight gain, inflammatory reactions and the formation of adipose tissue fat deposits around the epididymis and kidney, and adipocyte size. Treating high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats with kefir peptides significantly reduced the fatty acid synthase protein and increased the p-acetyl-CoA carboxylase protein to block lipogenesis in the livers. Kefir peptides also increased fatty acid oxidation by increasing the protein expressions of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, and hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in the livers. In addition, administration of kefir peptides significantly decreased the inflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-1β, and TGF-β) to modulate oxidative damage. These results demonstrate that kefir peptides treatment improves obesity via inhibition of lipogenesis, modulation of oxidative damage, and stimulation of lipid oxidation. Therefore, kefir peptides may act as an anti-obesity agent to prevent body fat accumulation and obesity-related metabolic diseases. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E.; Bharathi, Sivakama S.; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. - Highlights: • Aspirin increases mitochondrial—but inhibits peroxisomal—fatty acid oxidation. • Aspirin acetylates mitochondrial proteins including fatty acid oxidation enzymes. • SIRT3 does not influence the effect of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. • Increased fatty acid oxidation is likely due to altered mitochondrial morphology and respiration.

  2. Physical and oxidative stability of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with combinations of sodium caseinate and sodium alginate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yesiltas, Betül; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke

    2017-01-01

    .2 ratio NaCas:NaAlg by Box-Behnken's design, the formulae 70%-1.4%-1.2 was decided due to high fish oil content's decreasing effect on droplet size and peroxide value. Practical applications: Physically and oxidatively stable high fat (50-70%) omega-3 delivery fish oil-in-water emulsions are of high......A systematic study was carried out in order to evaluate the physical and oxidative stability of high fat omega-3 delivery fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with combinations of sodium caseinate (NaCas) and sodium alginate (NaAlg). The influence of 3 factors related to emulsion composition...... (fish oil content: 50, 60 and 70%; total amount of NaCas and NaAlg: 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8 %; and ratio NaCas:NaAlg: 0.4, 1.2 and 2) on physical (droplet size, viscosity and zeta potential) and oxidative (primary and secondary oxidation products) parameters was evaluated. It was possible to produce emulsions...

  3. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  4. Hyperandrogenism Accompanies Increased Intra-Abdominal Fat Storage in Normal Weight Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopians, Alin L.; Madrigal, Vanessa K.; Ramirez, Emmanuel; Margolis, Daniel J.; Sarma, Manoj K.; Thomas, Albert M.; Grogan, Tristan R.; Haykal, Rasha; Schooler, Tery A.; Okeya, Bette L.; Abbott, David H.; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women may have altered adipose structure-function underlying metabolic dysfunction. Objective: This study examines whether adipose structure-functional changes exist in normal weight PCOS women and correlate with hyperandrogenism and/or hyperinsulinemia. Design: This is a prospective cohort study. Setting: The setting was an academic medical center. Patients: Six normal weight PCOS women and 14 age- and body mass index-matched normoandrogenic ovulatory (NL) women were included. Intervention(s): All women underwent circulating hormone and metabolic measurements; frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing; total body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; abdominal magnetic resonance imaging; and SC abdominal fat biopsy. Main Outcome Measure(s): Circulating hormones and metabolites, body fat and its distribution, and adipocyte size were compared between PCOS and NL women, and were correlated with each other in all women. Results: Circulating LH and androgen levels were significantly greater in PCOS than NL women, as were fasting insulin levels, pancreatic β-cell responsiveness to glucose, and total abdominal fat mass. Intra-abdominal fat mass also was significantly increased in PCOS women and was positively correlated with circulating androgen, fasting insulin, triglyceride, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in all women. SC abdominal fat mass was not significantly increased in PCOS women, but contained a greater proportion of small SC abdominal adipocytes that positively correlated with serum androgen levels in all women. Conclusion: Hyperandrogenism in normal weight PCOS women is associated with preferential intra-abdominal fat deposition and an increased population of small SC abdominal adipocytes that could constrain SC adipose storage and promote metabolic dysfunction. PMID:27571186

  5. Colonic inflammation accompanies an increase of β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Wright, André-Denis G

    2016-09-01

    Consumption of an obesigenic/high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with a high colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that long-term high-fat (HF) feeding accelerates inflammatory process and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD (45% energy) or a low-fat (LF) diet (10% energy) for 36 weeks. At the end of the study, body weights in the HF group were 35% greater than those in the LF group. These changes were associated with dramatic increases in body fat composition, inflammatory cell infiltration, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein concentration and cell proliferation marker (Ki67) in ileum and colon. Similarly, β-catenin expression was increased in colon (but not ileum). Consistent with gut inflammation phenotype, we also found that plasma leptin, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HFD, indicative of chronic inflammation. Fecal DNA was extracted and the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the microbial 16S rRNA gene was amplified using primers suitable for 454 pyrosequencing. Compared to the LF group, the HF group had high proportions of bacteria from the family Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae, which is known to be involved in the development of metabolic disorders, diabetes and colon cancer. Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that long-term HF consumption not only increases inflammatory status but also accompanies an increase of colonic β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Increase in peripheral oxidative stress during hypercholesterolemia is not reflected in the central nervous system: evidence from two mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tao; Yao, Yeumang; Praticò, Domenico

    2005-05-01

    In recent years oxidative stress has been widely implicated as a pathogenetic mechanism of several diseases, and a variety of indices and assays have been developed to assess this phenomenon in complex biological systems. Most of these biomarkers can be measured virtually in every biological fluid and tissue, providing us with the opportunity to assess their formation at local site of oxidative injury. However, despite their widespread use, it is still not completely clear how their peripheral formation correlates with the levels measured in the central nervous system. For this reason, we utilized two well-characterized animal models of chronic peripheral oxidative stress, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-deficient and C57BL/6 mice on a high fat diet. After 8 weeks on the diet, we assessed isoprostane, marker of lipid peroxidation, and carbonyls, marker of protein oxidation, in several organs of these animals. Compared with animals on chow, mice on the high fat diet showed a significant increase in both biomarkers in plasma, heart, aorta and liver but not in brain tissues. This observation was confirmed by the selective accumulation of radioactivity in the peripheral organs but not in the brains of mice injected with tritiated isoprostane. Our findings indicate that in hypercholesterolemia the peripheral formation of oxidative products does not contribute to their levels found in the central nervous system.

  7. Fabp1 gene ablation inhibits high-fat diet-induced increase in brain endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Chung, Sarah; Dangott, Lawrence J; Seeger, Drew R; Murphy, Eric J; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2017-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system shifts energy balance toward storage and fat accumulation, especially in the context of diet-induced obesity. Relatively little is known about factors outside the central nervous system that may mediate the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain endocannabinoid levels. One candidate is the liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), a cytosolic protein highly prevalent in liver, but not detected in brain, which facilitates hepatic clearance of fatty acids. The impact of Fabp1 gene ablation (LKO) on the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain and plasma endocannabinoid levels was examined and data expressed for each parameter as the ratio of high-fat diet/control diet. In male wild-type mice, HFD markedly increased brain N-acylethanolamides, but not 2-monoacylglycerols. LKO blocked these effects of HFD in male mice. In female wild-type mice, HFD slightly decreased or did not alter these endocannabinoids as compared with male wild type. LKO did not block the HFD effects in female mice. The HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonic acid-derived arachidonoylethanolamide in males correlated with increased brain-free and total arachidonic acid. The ability of LKO to block the HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonoylethanolamide correlated with reduced ability of HFD to increase brain-free and total arachidonic acid in males. In females, brain-free and total arachidonic acid levels were much less affected by either HFD or LKO in the context of HFD. These data showed that LKO markedly diminished the impact of HFD on brain endocannabinoid levels, especially in male mice. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. Fructo-oligosaccharides reduce energy intake but do not affect adiposity in rats fed a low-fat diet but increase energy intake and reduce fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadri, Zouheyr; Rasoamanana, Rojo; Fromentin, Gilles; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Even, Patrick C; Gaudichon, Claire; Darcel, Nicolas; Bouras, Abdelkader Dilmi; Tomé, Daniel; Chaumontet, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    The ingestion of low or high lipid diets enriched with fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) affects energy homeostasis. Ingesting protein diets also induces a depression of energy intake and decreases body weight. The goal of this study was to investigate the ability of FOS, combined or not with a high level of protein (P), to affect energy intake and body composition when included in diets containing different levels of lipids (L). We performed two studies of similar design over a period of 5weeks. During the first experiment (exp1), after a 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-low fat diet, the rats received one of the following four diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein (14% P/E (Energy) low fat (10% L/E) diet, (ii) normal protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein (55%P/E) low fat diet, and (iv) high protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In a second experiment (exp2) after the 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-high fat diet, the rats received one of the following 4 diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein, high fat diet (35% of fat), (ii) normal protein, high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein high fat diet and (iv) high protein high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In low-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass but the protein level reduced fat mass and tended to reduce adiposity. In high-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect LBM but reduced fat mass and adiposity. No additive or antagonistic effects between FOS and the protein level were observed. FOS reduced energy intake in low-fat fed rats, did not affect energy intake in normal-protein high-fat fed rats but surprisingly, and significantly, increased energy intake in high-protein high-fat fed rats. The results thus showed that FOS added to a high-fat diet reduced body fat and body adiposity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Abrigo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes.

  10. Effects of low-fat or full-fat fermented and non-fermented dairy foods on selected cardiovascular biomarkers in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestel, Paul J; Mellett, Natalie; Pally, Suzana; Wong, Gerard; Barlow, Chris K; Croft, Kevin; Mori, Trevor A; Meikle, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    The association between consumption of full-fat dairy foods and CVD may depend partly on the nature of products and may not apply to low-fat dairy foods. Increased circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers after consumption of dairy product-rich meals suggest an association with CVD. In the present study, we tested the effects of low-fat and full-fat dairy diets on biomarkers associated with inflammation, oxidative stress or atherogenesis and on plasma lipid classes. Within full-fat dairy diets, we also compared fermented v. non-fermented products. In a randomised cross-over study, twelve overweight/obese subjects consumed during two 3-week periods two full-fat dairy diets containing either yogurt plus cheese (fermented) or butter, cream and ice cream (non-fermented) or a low-fat milk plus yogurt diet, with the latter being consumed between and at the end of the full-fat dairy dietary periods. The concentrations of six inflammatory and two atherogenic biomarkers known to be raised in CVD were measured as well as those of plasma F2-isoprostanes and lipid classes. The concentrations of six of the eight biomarkers tended to be higher on consumption of the low-fat dairy diet than on that of the fermented dairy diet and the concentrations of two plasmalogen lipid classes reported to be associated with increased oxidisability were also higher on consumption of the low-fat dairy diet than on that of the fermented dairy diet (Pfermented dairy diet than on that of the low-fat dairy diet (Pdairy products did not lead to a more favourable biomarker profile associated with CVD risk compared with the full-fat dairy products, suggesting that full-fat fermented dairy products may be the more favourable.

  11. Production and release of acylcarnitines by primary myotubes reflect the differences in fasting fat oxidation of the donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Magnus; Chen, Shili; Zhao, Xinjie; Scheler, Mika; Irmler, Martin; Staiger, Harald; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Schleicher, Erwin D; Xu, Guowang; Lehmann, Rainer; Weigert, Cora

    2013-06-01

    Acylcarnitines are biomarkers of incomplete β-oxidation and mitochondrial lipid overload but indicate also high rates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. It is unknown whether the production of acylcarnitines in primary human myotubes obtained from lean, metabolically healthy subjects reflects the fat oxidation in vivo. Our objective was to quantify the acylcarnitine production in myotubes obtained from subjects with low and high fasting respiratory quotient (RQ). Fasting RQ was determined by indirect calorimetry. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken from 6 subjects with low fasting RQ (mean 0.79 ± 0.03) and 6 with high fasting RQ (0.90 ± 0.03), and satellite cells were isolated, cultured, and differentiated to myotubes. Myotubes were cultivated with 125 μM (13)C-labeled palmitate for 30 minutes and 4 and 24 hours. Quantitative profiling of 42 intracellular and 31 extracellular acylcarnitines was performed by stable isotope dilution-based metabolomics analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Myotubes from donors with high fasting RQ produced and released significant higher amounts of medium-chain acylcarnitines. High (13)C8 and (13)C10 acylcarnitine levels in the extracellular compartment correlated with high fasting RQ. The decreased expression of medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) in these myotubes can explain the higher rate of incomplete fatty acid oxidation. A lower intracellular [(13)C]acetylcarnitine to carnitine and lower intracellular (13)C16/(13)C18 acylcarnitine to carnitine ratio indicate reduced fatty acid oxidation capacity in these myotubes. Mitochondrial DNA content was not different. Acylcarnitine production and release from primary human myotubes of donors with high fasting RQ indicate a reduced fatty acid oxidation capacity and a higher rate of incomplete fatty acid oxidation. Thus, quantitative profiling of acylcarnitine production in human myotubes can be a suitable tool to

  12. Effects of Berberine on Amelioration of Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress in High Glucose and High Fat Diet-Induced Diabetic Hamsters In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of berberine on amelioration of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and the mechanism involved in high glucose and high fat diet-induced diabetic hamsters. Golden hamsters fed with high glucose and high fat diet were medicated with metformin, simvastatin, and low or high dose of berberine (50 and 100 mg·kg−1 for 6 weeks. The results showed that the body weights were significantly lower in berberine-treated groups than control group. Histological analyses revealed that the treatment of berberine inhibited hepatic fat accumulation. Berberine significantly reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance, and 8-isoprostane level but significantly increased plasma superoxide dismutase activity. Glucose and insulin levels were significantly reduced in metformin and berberine-treated groups. Glucose tolerance tests documented that berberine-treated mice were more glucose tolerant. Berberine treatment increased expression of skeletal muscle glucose transporter 4 mRNA and significantly decreased liver low density lipoprotein receptor mRNA expression. The study suggested that berberine was effective in lowering blood glucose and lipids levels, reducing the body weight, and alleviating the oxidative stress in diabetic hamsters, which might be beneficial in reducing the cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes.

  13. High maysin corn silk extract reduces body weight and fat deposition in C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Sun Lim; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2016-12-01

    The study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high maysin corn silk extract on body weight and fat deposition in experimental animals. A total of 30 male C57BL/6J mice, 4-weeks-old, were purchased and divided into three groups by weight using a randomized block design. The normal-fat (NF) group received 7% fat (diet weight basis), the high-fat (HF) group received 25% fat and 0.5% cholesterol, and the high-fat corn silk (HFCS) group received high-fat diet and high maysin corn silk extract at 100 mg/kg body weight through daily oral administration. Body weight and body fat were measured, and mRNA expression levels of proteins involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, fat synthesis, lipolysis, and fat oxidation in adipose tissue and the liver were measured. After experimental diet intake for 8 weeks, body weight was significantly lower in the HFCS group compared to the HF group ( P corn silk extract inhibits expression of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, and fat synthesis as well as promotes expression of genes involved in lipolysis and fat oxidation, further inhibiting body fat accumulation and body weight elevation in experimental animals.

  14. Geraniin Protects High-Fat Diet-Induced Oxidative Stress in Sprague Dawley Rats

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    Alexis Panny Y. S. Chung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Geraniin, a hydrolysable polyphenol derived from Nephelium lappaceum L. fruit rind, has been shown to possess significant antioxidant activity in vitro and recently been recognized for its therapeutic potential in metabolic syndrome. This study investigated its antioxidative strength and protective effects on organs in high-fat diet (HFD-induced rodents. Rats were fed HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 10 and 50 mg/kg of geraniin supplementation for 4 weeks to assess its protective potential. The control groups were maintained on standard rat chows and HFD for the same period. At the 10th week, oxidative status was assessed and the pancreas, liver, heart and aorta, kidney, and brain of the Sprague Dawley rats were harvested and subjected to pathological studies. HFD rats demonstrated changes in redox balance; increased protein carbonyl content, decreased levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase with a reduction in the non-enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms and total antioxidant capacity, indicating a higher oxidative stress (OS index. In addition, HFD rats demonstrated significant diet-induced changes particularly in the pancreas. Four-week oral geraniin supplementation, restored the OS observed in the HFD rats. It was able to restore OS biomarkers, serum antioxidants, and the glutathione redox balance (reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio to levels comparable with that of the control group, particularly at dosage of 50 mg geraniin. Geraniin was not toxic to the HFD rats but exhibited protection against glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity particularly in the pancreas of the obese rodents. It is suggested that geraniin has the pharmaceutical potential to be developed as a supplement to primary drugs in the treatment of obesity and its pathophysiological sequels.

  15. IL-6 selectively stimulates fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Mygind, Helene; Grøndahl, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    and glucose metabolism and signaling of both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Eight healthy postabsorptive males were infused with either rhIL-6 or saline for 4 h, eliciting IL-6 levels of ~40 and ~1 pg/ml, respectively. Systemic, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue fat and glucose metabolism was assessed......Interleukin (IL)-6 is chronically elevated in type 2 diabetes but also during exercise. However, the exact metabolic role, and hence the physiological significance, has not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of recombinant human (rh) IL-6 on human fat...... before, during, and 2 h after cessation of the infusion. Glucose metabolism was unaffected by rhIL-6. In contrast, rhIL-6 increased systemic fatty acid oxidation approximately twofold after 60 min, and it remained elevated even 2 h after the infusion. The increase in oxidation was followed by an increase...

  16. IL-6 selectively stimulates fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Mygind, Helene; Grøndahl, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    and glucose metabolism and signaling of both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Eight healthy postabsorptive males were infused with either rhIL-6 or saline for 4 h, eliciting IL-6 levels of ∼40 and ∼1 pg/ml, respectively. Systemic, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue fat and glucose metabolism was assessed......Interleukin (IL)-6 is chronically elevated in type 2 diabetes but also during exercise. However, the exact metabolic role, and hence the physiological significance, has not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of recombinant human (rh) IL-6 on human fat...... before, during, and 2 h after cessation of the infusion. Glucose metabolism was unaffected by rhIL-6. In contrast, rhIL-6 increased systemic fatty acid oxidation approximately twofold after 60 min, and it remained elevated even 2 h after the infusion. The increase in oxidation was followed by an increase...

  17. Evidence and Mechanisms of Fat Depletion in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Maryam; Mazurak, Vera C.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of cancer patients experience wasting characterized by muscle loss with or without fat loss. In human and animal models of cancer, body composition assessment and morphological analysis reveals adipose atrophy and presence of smaller adipocytes. Fat loss is associated with reduced quality of life in cancer patients and shorter survival independent of body mass index. Fat loss occurs in both visceral and subcutaneous depots; however, the pattern of loss has been incompletely characterized. Increased lipolysis and fat oxidation, decreased lipogenesis, impaired lipid depositionand adipogenesis, as well as browning of white adipose tissue may underlie adipose atrophy in cancer. Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) produced by the tumor or adipose tissue may also contribute to adipose depletion. Identifying the mechanisms and time course of fat mass changes in cancer may help identify individuals at risk of adipose depletion and define interventions to circumvent wasting. This review outlines current knowledge of fat mass in cancer and illustrates the need for further studies to assess alterations in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots and possible mechanisms for loss of fat during cancer progression. PMID:25415607

  18. Role of Nitric Oxide Synthase on Blood Pressure Regulation and Vascular Function in Pregnant Rats on a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palei, Ana C; Spradley, Frank T; Granger, Joey P

    2017-03-01

    While obesity is a leading risk factor for preeclampsia, the mechanisms whereby obese women are more susceptible to pregnancy-induced hypertension are unclear. As high-fat diet (HFD) is an important contributor to the development of obesity, we tested the hypothesis that pregnant rats on HFD have hypertension and endothelial dysfunction due to reduced nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Twelve-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed normal diet (ND, 13% fat kcal) or HFD (40% fat kcal) for 9 weeks. Timed-pregnant rats were then generated and the effect of HFD on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and vascular function was assessed on gestational day (GD) 19. MAP was not different between HFD and ND pregnant rats. Intriguingly, sensitivity to acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation was enhanced in small mesenteric arteries of HFD dams compared to ND controls (logEC50 -7.9 ± 0.3 vs. -6.7 ± 0.3 M; P hydrochloride (100 mg/l, drinking water) from GD 14 to 19. It was found that NOS inhibition increased MAP equally in HFD and ND groups. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, HFD dams were normotensive and presented increased endothelial function and NO/NOS3 levels. This enhanced NOS-mediated vascular function does not appear to have a major impact on blood pressure regulation of HFD-fed pregnant rats. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Maternal omega-3 supplementation increases fat mass in male and female rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly Sara Muhlhausler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipogenesis and lipogenesis are highly sensitive to the nutritional environment in utero and in early postnatal life. Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adult rats, however it is not known whether supplementing the maternal diet with omega-3 LCPUFA results in reduced fat deposition in the offspring. Female Albino Wistar rats were fed either a standard chow (Control, n=10 or chow designed to provide ~15mg/kg/day of omega-3 LCPUFA, chiefly as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, throughout pregnancy and lactation (Omega-3, n=11 and all pups were weaned onto a commercial rat chow. Blood and tissues were collected from pups at 3wks and 6wks of age and weights of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots recorded. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the subcutaneous and visceral fat depots were determined using qRT-PCR. Birth weight and postnatal growth were not different between groups. At 6 weeks of age, total percentage body fat was significantly increased in both male (5.09 ± 0.32% vs 4.56 ± 0.2%, P<0.04 and female (5.15 ± 0.37% vs 3.89 ± 0.36%, P<0.04 offspring of omega-3 dams compared to controls. The omega-3 LCPUFA content of erythrocyte phospholipids (as a % of total fatty acids was higher in omega-3 offspring (6.7 ± 0.2 % vs 5.6 ± 0.2%, P<0.001. There was no effect of maternal omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation on the expression of adipogenic or lipogenic genes in the offspring in either the visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. We have therefore established that an omega-3 rich environment during pregnancy and lactation in a rodent model increases fat accumulation in both male and female offspring, particularly in subcutaneous depots, but that this effect is not mediated via upregulation adipogenic/lipogenic gene transcription. These data suggest that maternal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy/lactation may not be an effective strategy for reducing fat deposition in

  20. Biochemical Study of Oxidative Stress Markers in the Liver, Kidney and Heart of High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Rats

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    Noeman Saad A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has become a leading global health problem owing to its strong association with a high incidence of diseases. Aim To induce rat obesity using high fat diet (HFD and to estimate oxidative stress markers in their liver, heart and kidney tissues in order to shed the light on the effect of obesity on these organs. Materials and methods Sixty white albino rats weighing 150-200 g were randomly divided into two equal groups; group I: received high fat diet for 16 weeks, and group II (control group: received only normal diet (rat chow for 16 weeks. Blood samples were taken for measurement of lipid profile, tissue samples from liver, heart and kidney were taken for determination of malondialdehyde (MDA, protein carbonyl (PCO, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, and the activities of glutathione S- transferase (GST glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT and paraoxonase1 (PON1 enzymes. Results Data showed that feeding HFD diet significantly increased final body weight and induced a state of dyslipideamia. Also our results showed a significant increase MDA and PCO levels in the hepatic, heart and renal tissues of obese rats, as well as a significant decrease in the activity of GST, GPx and PON 1 enzymes. On the other hand CAT enzyme activity showed significant decrease only in renal tissues of obese rats with non significant difference in hepatic and heart tissues. GSH levels showed significant decrease in both renal and hepatic tissues of obese animals and significant increase in their heart tissues. Correlation studies in obese animals showed a negative correlation between MDA and PCO tissue levels and the activities of GPx, GST and PON1 in all tissues and also with CAT enzyme activity in renal tissues. Also a negative correlation was detected between MDA & PCO tissues levels and GSH levels in both hepatic and renal tissues. While positive correlation was found between them and GSH levels in heart tissues. Conclusion High fat

  1. Frying temperatures and minor constituents of oils and fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boskou, Dimitrios

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Two important classes of minor constituents of oils and fats are tocopherols and sterols. Both these classes are biologically active and they also affect the stability and performance of an oil at elevated temperatures. Tocopherols are phenolic antioxidants that react with free radicals and their concentration is reduced signifantly when the oil is heated. α-TocopheroI is lost faster during deep-fat frying than the beta, gamma and delta homologues. In the presence of stronger antioxidants, natural or synthetic, losses of α-tocopherol can be eliminated. Unchanged phytosterols naturally present in vegetable oils are believed to be beneficial for the health. Depending on the chemical structure, phytosterols may act as prooxidants or antioxidants. Sterols with an ethylidene group in the side chain have been found effective in retarding polymerisation at temperatures similar to those of deep-fat frying. Under unfavourable conditions (high temperature, presence of air oxidation products are formed from sterols and a marked increase in the oxidation rate of the fat is observed. Oxidation products of the main phytosterols, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, are: hydrocarbons (3,5-diene and 3,5,22-triene, mono-, di- and triunsaturated ketosteroids (4-en-3-one, 3,5-dien-7-one, 3,5,22-trien-7-one, 5,6-epoxy derivatives, 3,7-diols and pregnane derivatives. Other minor constituents which may affect the rate of degradation of unsaturated triacylglycerols at high temperatures are squalene, pigments and phospholipids. Squalene and phospholipids have both been reported to retard the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids under simulated frying conditions. High chlorophyll levels were found to increase the rate of tocopherol decomposition and formation of polymers in rape seed oil heated at 180°C.

  2. High-fat-diet-induced obesity is associated with decreased antiinflammatory Lactobacillus reuteri sensitive to oxidative stress in mouse Peyer's patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin; Qiao, Yi; Qi, Ce; Jiang, Wei; Xiao, Hang; Shi, Yonghui; Le, Guo-Wei

    2016-02-01

    Diet-induced inflammation in the small intestine may represent an early event that precedes and predisposes to obesity and insulin resistance. This is related to decrease of lactobacilli in Peyer's patches (PP) revealed in our previous study. The present study aimed to clarify specific changes of PP Lactobacillus on the strain level and related biological activity. C57 BL/6 J male mice were fed with either low-fat diet (control [CT]; 10% calories from fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 50% calories from fat) for 25 wk, and the HFD-fed mice were classified into obesity prone (OP) or obesity resistant (OR) on the basis of their body weight gain. Lactobacillus was isolated from PP using a selective medium. Oxidative resistance and cytokine-inducing effect were analyzed in vitro. We obtained 52, 18, and 22 isolates from CT, OP, and OR mice, respectively. They belonged to 13 different types according to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-PCR analysis. Lactobacillus reuteri was the most abundant strain, but its abundance in OP mice was much lower than that in CT and OR mice. This strain includes eight subgroups according to genotyping. L. reuteri L3 and L. reuteri L8 were the specific strains found in CT and OP mice, respectively. Oxidative-resistant L. reuteri was much higher in HFD-fed mice. When co-cultured with PP cells, L8 induced higher production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α, whereas L3 induced higher production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). HFD may induce oxidative stress that drives strain selection of Lactobacillus strains, resulting in decreased anti-inflammatory response in PP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Overfeeding reduces insulin sensitivity and increases oxidative stress, without altering markers of mitochondrial content and function in humans.

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    Dorit Samocha-Bonet

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. High fat feeding induces insulin resistance and increases skeletal muscle oxidative stress in rodents, but there is controversy as to whether skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and function is altered.Forty (37 ± 2 y non-obese (25.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2 sedentary men (n = 20 and women (n = 20 were overfed (+1040 ± 100 kcal/day, 46 ± 1% of energy from fat for 28 days. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed at baseline and day 28 of overfeeding and skeletal muscle biopsies taken at baseline, day 3 and day 28 of overfeeding in a sub cohort of 26 individuals (13 men and 13 women that consented to having all 3 biopsies performed. Weight increased on average in the whole cohort by 0.6 ± 0.1 and 2.7 ± 0.3 kg at days 3 and 28, respectively (P<0.0001, without a significant difference in the response between men and women (P = 0.4. Glucose infusion rate during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp decreased from 54.8 ± 2.8 at baseline to 50.3 ± 2.5 µmol/min/kg FFM at day 28 of overfeeding (P = 0.03 without a significant difference between men and women (P = 0.4. Skeletal muscle protein carbonyls and urinary F2-isoprostanes increased with overfeeding (P<0.05. Protein levels of muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC1α and subunits from complex I, II and V of the electron transport chain were increased at day 3 (all P<0.05 and returned to basal levels at day 28. No changes were detected in muscle citrate synthase activity or ex vivo CO(2 production at either time point.Peripheral insulin resistance was induced by overfeeding, without reducing any of the markers of mitochondrial content that were examined. Oxidative stress was however increased, and may have contributed to the reduction in insulin sensitivity observed.

  4. Effect of changes in fat availability on exercise capacity in McArdle disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.T.; Jeppesen, T.D.; Taivassalo, T.

    2009-01-01

    for oxidation during exercise. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. SETTING: Hospitalized care. PATIENTs: Ten patients (8 men and 2 women) with McArdle disease. INTERVENTIONS: Patients cycled at a constant workload corresponding to 70% of their maximum oxygen consumption. In random order......Ardle disease, but maximal rates of fat oxidation seem limited and cannot be increased above physiologically normal rates during exercise. This limitation is probably caused by a metabolic bottleneck in the tricarboxylic acid cycle due to impaired glycolytic flux in McArdle disease. Therapies aimed at enhancing......BACKGROUND: The major fuel for exercising muscle at low exercise intensities is fat. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of fat metabolism in McArdle disease (also known as glycogen storage disease type V), an inborn error of muscle glycogenolysis, by manipulating free fatty acid availability...

  5. Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) fat body persists through metamorphosis with a few apoptotic cells and an increased autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Douglas Elias; Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Campos, Lúcio Antônio Oliveira; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    Fat body, typically comprising trophocytes, provides energy during metamorphosis. The fat body can be renewed once the larval phase is complete or recycled and relocated to form the fat body of the adult insect. This study aims to identify the class of programmed cell death that occurs within the fat body cells during the metamorphosis of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Using immunodetection techniques, the fat body of the post-defecating larvae and the white-, pink-, brown-, and black-eyed pupae were tested for cleaved caspase-3 and DNA integrity, followed by ultrastructural analysis and identification of autophagy using RT-PCR for the Atg1 gene. The fat body of M. quadrifasciata showed some apoptotic cells positive for cleaved caspase-3, although without DNA fragmentation. During development, the fat body cells revealed an increased number of mitochondria and free ribosomes, in addition to higher amounts of autophagy Atg1 mRNA, than that of the pupae. The fat body of M. quadrifasciata showed few cells which underwent apoptosis, but there was evidence of increased autophagy at the completion of the larval stage. All together, these data show that some fat body cells persist during metamorphosis in the stingless bee M. quadrifasciata.

  6. Effect of fluorescent light on quality and stability of edible fats and oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, T.; Atta, S.; Sohail, M.; Khan, A.R.; Akhter, S.

    2011-01-01

    Photo oxidative stress were applied to commonly consumed edible oil and fat i.e., animal fat (AF), vanaspati ghee (VG), sunflower oil (SFO), desi ghee (DG), rapeseed oil (RSO), soybean oil (SBO) as well as sea buckthorn seed oil (SB Seed oil) and sea buckthorn pulp oil (SB Pulp oil). The changes in their quality parameters i.e. free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (POV), beta-carotene and color (OD) were determined. Photo oxidative stress significantly (p < 0.05) increased the FFA, POV and OD, however, concentration of beta carotene decreased in all the samples with the increase in storage time. The Sea buckthorn oil was found to be more stable than other oils owing to the presence of tocopherol contents and beta-carotene. (author)

  7. Responses of skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in rat gastrocnemius to hypothyroidism and iodothyronine administration: a putative role for FAT/CD36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Assunta; De Matteis, Rita; Moreno, Maria; Napolitano, Laura; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Senese, Rosalba; de Lange, Pieter; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando

    2012-11-15

    Iodothyronines such as triiodothyronine (T(3)) and 3,5-diiodothyronine (T(2)) influence energy expenditure and lipid metabolism. Skeletal muscle contributes significantly to energy homeostasis, and the above iodothyronines are known to act on this tissue. However, little is known about the cellular/molecular events underlying the effects of T(3) and T(2) on skeletal muscle lipid handling. Since FAT/CD36 is involved in the utilization of free fatty acids by skeletal muscle, specifically in their import into that tissue and presumably their oxidation at the mitochondrial level, we hypothesized that related changes in lipid handling and in FAT/CD36 expression and subcellular redistribution would occur due to hypothyroidism and to T(3) or T(2) administration to hypothyroid rats. In gastrocnemius muscles isolated from hypothyroid rats, FAT/CD36 was upregulated (mRNA levels and total tissue, sarcolemmal, and mitochondrial protein levels). Administration of either T(3) or T(2) to hypothyroid rats resulted in 1) little or no change in FAT/CD36 mRNA level, 2) a decreased total FAT/CD36 protein level, and 3) further increases in FAT/CD36 protein level in sarcolemma and mitochondria. Thus, the main effect of each iodothyronine seemed to be exerted at the level of FAT/CD36 cellular distribution. The effect of further increases in FAT/CD36 protein level in sarcolemma and mitochondria was already evident at 1 h after iodothyronine administration. Each iodothyronine increased the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate. However, the mechanisms underlying their rapid effects seem to differ; T(2) and T(3) each induce FAT/CD36 translocation to mitochondria, but only T(2) induces increases in carnitine palmitoyl transferase system activity and in the mitochondrial substrate oxidation rate.

  8. Oxidized fish oil in rat pregnancy causes high newborn mortality and increases maternal insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Benjamin B; Vickers, Mark H; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Derraik, José G B; Lewandowski, Paul A; Garg, Manohar L; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2016-09-01

    Fish oil is commonly taken by pregnant women, and supplements sold at retail are often oxidized. Using a rat model, we aimed to assess the effects of supplementation with oxidized fish oil during pregnancy in mothers and offspring, focusing on newborn viability and maternal insulin sensitivity. Female rats were allocated to a control or high-fat diet and then mated. These rats were subsequently randomized to receive a daily gavage treatment of 1 ml of unoxidized fish oil, a highly oxidized fish oil, or control (water) throughout pregnancy. At birth, the gavage treatment was stopped, but the same maternal diets were fed ad libitum throughout lactation. Supplementation with oxidized fish oil during pregnancy had a marked adverse effect on newborn survival at day 2, leading to much greater odds of mortality than in the control (odds ratio 8.26) and unoxidized fish oil (odds ratio 13.70) groups. In addition, maternal intake of oxidized fish oil during pregnancy led to increased insulin resistance at the time of weaning (3 wks after exposure) compared with control dams (HOMA-IR 2.64 vs. 1.42; P = 0.044). These data show that the consumption of oxidized fish oil is harmful in rat pregnancy, with deleterious effects in both mothers and offspring. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. A Lower-Carbohydrate, Higher-Fat Diet Reduces Abdominal and Intermuscular Fat and Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Barbara A; Goss, Amy M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity, particularly visceral and ectopic adiposity, increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if restriction of dietary carbohydrate is beneficial for body composition and metabolic health. Methods: Two studies were conducted. In the first, 69 overweight/obese men and women, 53% of whom were European American (EA) and 47% of whom were African American (AA), were provided with 1 of 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 43%, 18%, and 39%, respectively) for 8 wk at a eucaloric level and 8 wk at a hypocaloric level. In the second study, 30 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were provided with 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 41%, 19%, and 40%, respectively) at a eucaloric level for 8 wk in a random-order crossover design. Results: As previously reported, among overweight/obese adults, after the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the lower-carbohydrate vs. the lower-fat diet lost more intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) (11 ± 3% vs. 1 ± 3%; P diet had 4.4% less total fat mass. Original to this report, across the entire 16-wk study, AAs lost more fat mass with a lower-carbohydrate diet (6.2 vs. 2.9 kg; P diets. As previously reported, among women with PCOS, the lower-carbohydrate arm showed decreased fasting insulin (−2.8 μIU/mL; P < 0.001) and fasting glucose (−4.7 mg/dL; P < 0.01) and increased insulin sensitivity (1.06 arbitrary units; P < 0.05) and “dynamic” β-cell response (96.1 · 109; P < 0.001). In the lower-carbohydrate arm, women lost both IAAT (−4.8 cm2; P < 0.01) and intermuscular fat (−1.2 cm2; P < 0.01). In the lower-fat arm, women lost lean mass (−0.6 kg; P < 0.05). Original to this report, after the lower-carbohydrate arm, the change in IAAT was positively associated with the

  10. Does prior acute exercise affect postexercise substrate oxidation in response to a high carbohydrate meal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickey Matthew S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of a mixed meal increases postprandial carbohydrate utilization and decreases fat oxidation. On the other hand, acute endurance exercise increases fat oxidation and decreases carbohydrate utilization during the post-exercise recovery period. It is possible that the resulting post-exercise increase in circulating nonesterified fatty acids could attenuate the ability of ingested carbohydrate to inhibit lipid oxidation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior exercise attenuates the usual meal-induced decline in lipid oxidation. Methods Six healthy, physically active young subjects (x age = 26.3 years, 4 males, 2 females completed three treatments in random order after a ~10 h fast: (a Exercise/Carbohydrate (Ex/CHO – subjects completed a bout of exercise at 70% VO2peak (targeted net energy cost of 400 kcals, followed by consumption of a carbohydrate-rich meal; (b Exercise/Placebo (Ex/Placebo – subjects completed an identical bout of exercise followed by consumption of a placebo; and (c No Exercise/Carbohydrate (NoEx/CHO – subjects sat quietly rather than exercising and then consumed the carbohydrate-rich meal. Blood samples were obtained before and during the postprandial period to determine plasma glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA. Respiratory gas exchange measures were used to estimate rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Results Plasma NEFA were approximately two-fold higher immediately following the two exercise conditions compared to the no-exercise condition, while meal consumption significantly increased insulin and glucose in both Ex/CHO and NoEx/CHO. NEFA concentrations fell rapidly during the 2-h postprandial period, but remained higher compared to the NoEx/CHO treatment. Carbohydrate oxidation increased rapidly and fat oxidation decreased in response to the meal, with no differences in the rates of carbohydrate and fat oxidation during recovery between the Ex

  11. Effect of GABA on oxidative stress in the skeletal muscles and plasma free amino acids in mice fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z X; Xia, S F; Qiao, Y; Shi, Y H; Le, G W

    2015-06-01

    Increased levels of plasma free amino acids (pFAAs) can disturb the blood glucose levels in patients with obesity, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS) and are associated with enhanced protein oxidation. Oxidation of proteins, especially in the muscles, can promote protein degradation and elevate the levels of pFAAs. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a food additive, can reduce high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycaemia; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GABA on protein oxidation and pFAAs changes. One hundred male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups that were fed with control diet, HFD and HFD supplied with 0.2%, 0.12% and 0.06% GABA in drinking water for 20 weeks respectively. HFD feeding led to muscular oxidative stress, protein oxidation, pFAA disorders, hyperglycaemia and augmented plasma GABA levels. Treatment with GABA restored normally fasting blood glucose level and dose-dependently inhibited body weight gains, muscular oxidation and protein degradation. While medium and low doses of GABA mitigated HFD-induced pFAA disorders, the high dose of GABA deteriorated the pFAA disorders. Medium dose of GABA increased the levels of GABA, but high dose of GABA reduced the levels of plasma GABA and increased the activity of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase in the liver. Therefore, treatment with GABA mitigated HFD-induced hyperglycaemia probably by repairing HFD-induced muscular oxidative stress and pFAA disorders in mice. Our data also suggest that an optimal dose of GABA is crucial for the prevention of excess GABA-related decrease in the levels of pFAA and GABA as well as obesity. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Matthias J; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Mauracher, Brigitte; Abplanalp, William; Müller, Hans-Helge; Pieper, Korbinian; Ramisch, Juliane; Tschöp, Matthias H; Beuschlein, Felix; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Slawik, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF) diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein): control (64.3/16.7/19), LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5), LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1), and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7). Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1α and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience) and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint), explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets. All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by increased adaptive thermogenesis in BAT.

  13. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Betz

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein: control (64.3/16.7/19, LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5, LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1, and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7. RESULTS: Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1α and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint, explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets. CONCLUSION: All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by

  14. Resveratrol Increases Nephrin and Podocin Expression and Alleviates Renal Damage in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Rong Pan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is well known for its anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties, and has been shown to be effective in alleviating the development of obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effect of resveratrol on renal damage in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD and its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, HFD, and HFD plus resveratrol (treated with 100 mg/kg/day resveratrol. Body weight, serum and urine metabolic parameters, and kidney histology were measured. Meanwhile, the activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and superoxide dismutase (SOD, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, and the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, nephrin and podocin in kidney were detected. Our work showed that resveratrol alleviated dyslipidemia and renal damage induced by HFD, decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity. Furthermore, the elevated NF-κB activity, increased TNF-α and MCP-1 levels, and reduced expressions of nephrin and podocin induced by HFD were significantly reversed by resveratrol. These results suggest resveratrol could ameliorate renal injury in rats fed a HFD, and the mechanisms are associated with suppressing oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway that in turn up-regulate nephrin and podocin protein expression.

  15. High-fat feeding increases hepatic vitamin C synthesis and its circulatory mobilization in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt Tranberg; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    , glucose and vitC concentrations. Hepatic vitC concentration and gulonolactone oxidase (GLO) capacity, as a measure of vitC de novo biosynthesis, were analyzed in liver homogenates. RESULTS: HF diet significantly increased plasma concentrations of vitC compared with a control diet low in fat (P ... to modulate their vitC homeostasis during high-fat (HF) feeding. METHODS: Twenty-five male 5-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed high- or low-fat diets for 14 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed after 12 weeks of intervention. Terminal fasting plasma samples were analyzed for insulin.......05). Hepatic de novo biosynthesis of vitC was upregulated (P glucose and insulin concentrations...

  16. Low-fat diet with omega-3 fatty acids increases plasma insulin-like growth factor concentration in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lindsay R; Kurzer, Mindy S; Thomas, William; Redmon, J Bruce; Raatz, Susan K

    2013-07-01

    The insulin-like growth factor pathway plays a central role in the normal and abnormal growth of tissues; however, nutritional determinants of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding proteins in healthy individuals are not well defined. Three test diets-high-fat diet (40% energy as fat), low-fat diet (LF; 20% energy as fat), and a diet with low fat and high omega-3 fatty acid (LFn3; 23% energy as fat)--were tested in a randomized crossover designed controlled feeding trial in healthy postmenopausal women. Plasma IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), insulin, glucose, and ratio of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 concentrations were measured in response to diets. Insulin sensitivity was calculated using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance We hypothesized that IGF-I, insulin, and glucose concentrations would decrease and IGFBP-3 concentration would increase in response to the low-fat diets. Eight weeks of the LFn3 diet increased circulating IGF-I (P diet increased IGFBP-3 (P = .04), resulting in trends toward an increased IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio with the LFn3 diet and a decreased IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio with the LF diet (P = .13 for both comparisons). No statistically significant differences were detected between treatments at baseline or 8 weeks for IGF-1, IGFBP-3, or the ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3. Insulin, glucose, and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were not altered by the interventions. Low-fat diet with high n-3 fatty acids may increase circulating IGF-I concentrations without adversely affecting insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Intrauterine growth retardation increases the susceptibility of pigs to high-fat diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Liu

    Full Text Available It has been recognized that there is a relationship between prenatal growth restriction and the development of metabolic-related diseases in later life, a process involved in mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR increases the susceptibility of offspring to high-fat (HF diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggested that HF feeding decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the long-term consequences of IUGR on mitochondrial biogenesis and function make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal birth weight (NBW, and IUGR pigs were allotted to control or HF diet in a completely randomized design, individually. After 4 weeks of feeding, growth performance and molecular pathways related to mitochondrial function were determined. The results showed that IUGR decreased growth performance and plasma insulin concentrations. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with enhanced plasma leptin levels, increased concentrations of triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced glycogen and ATP contents in skeletal muscle. High fat diet-fed IUGR offspring exhibited decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD. These alterations in metabolic traits of IUGR pigs were accompanied by impaired mitochondrial respiration function, reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA contents, and down-regulated mRNA expression levels of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that IUGR make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

  18. Intrauterine Growth Retardation Increases the Susceptibility of Pigs to High-Fat Diet-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbo; Chen, Daiwen; Yao, Ying; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Huang, Zhiqing; Zheng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that there is a relationship between prenatal growth restriction and the development of metabolic-related diseases in later life, a process involved in mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) increases the susceptibility of offspring to high-fat (HF) diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggested that HF feeding decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the long-term consequences of IUGR on mitochondrial biogenesis and function make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal birth weight (NBW), and IUGR pigs were allotted to control or HF diet in a completely randomized design, individually. After 4 weeks of feeding, growth performance and molecular pathways related to mitochondrial function were determined. The results showed that IUGR decreased growth performance and plasma insulin concentrations. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with enhanced plasma leptin levels, increased concentrations of triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced glycogen and ATP contents in skeletal muscle. High fat diet-fed IUGR offspring exhibited decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). These alterations in metabolic traits of IUGR pigs were accompanied by impaired mitochondrial respiration function, reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents, and down-regulated mRNA expression levels of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that IUGR make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:22523560

  19. Galectin-3 levels relate in children to total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, and cardiac size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Arvidsson, Daniel; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2018-03-01

    Galectin-3 has recently been proposed as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease in adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess relationships between galectin-3 levels and total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, left atrial size, and increase in body fat over a 2-year period in a population-based sample of children. Our study included 170 children aged 8-11 years. Total fat mass and abdominal fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Body fat distribution was expressed as abdominal fat/total fat mass. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were measured. Left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness were measured by echocardiography. Frozen serum samples were analyzed for galectin-3 by the Proximity Extension Assay technique. A follow-up DXA scan was performed in 152 children 2 years after the baseline exam. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex and age, between galectin-3 versus body fat measurements indicated weak to moderate relationships. Moreover, left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness and pulse pressure were also correlated with galectin-3. Neither systolic blood pressure nor maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with galectin-3. There was also a correlation between galectin-3 and increase in total body fat over 2 years, while no such correlations were found for the other fat measurements. More body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, more left ventricular mass, and increased left atrial size were all associated with higher levels of galectin-3. Increase in total body fat over 2 years was also associated with higher levels of galectin-3. What is Known: • Galectin-3 has been linked to obesity and been proposed to be a novel biomarker

  20. Bovine serum albumin as the dominant form of dietary protein reduces subcutaneous fat mass, plasma leptin and plasma corticosterone in high fat-fed C57/BL6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Bettina L; Korpela, Riitta; Speakman, John R; Cryan, John F; Cotter, Paul D; Nilaweera, Kanishka N

    2015-08-28

    Increasing evidence suggests that the source of dietary protein can have an impact on weight gain and fat mass during high-fat feeding in both humans and rodents. The present study examined whether dietary bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the dominant source of protein alters energy balance and adiposity associated with high-fat feeding. C57/BL6J mice were given a diet with 10 % of energy from fat and 20 % of energy from casein or a diet with 45 % of energy from fat and either 20 % of energy from casein (HFD) or BSA (HFD+BSA) for 13 weeks. The HFD+BSA diet did not significantly alter daily energy expenditure, locomotor activity and RER, but did increase cumulative energy intake and percentage of lean mass while reducing feed efficiency and percentage of fat mass when compared with the HFD (Plevels of PPARα (PPARA), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), but reduced the mRNA level of leptin when compared with the HFD (Plevels of PPARA, CPT1b and UCP3 were negatively correlated (Plevels compared with the HFD (Plevels were associated with the percentage of fat mass (Plevels via SAT mass reduction where mRNA levels of genes linked to β-oxidation were increased, whereas differences in plasma corticosterone levels were not related to fat mass reduction.

  1. The GPR120 agonist TUG-891 promotes metabolic health by stimulating mitochondrial respiration in brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilperoort, Maaike; van Dam, Andrea D; Hoeke, Geerte

    2018-01-01

    the therapeutic potential of GPR120 agonism and addressed GPR120-mediated signaling in BAT We found that activation of GPR120 by the selective agonist TUG-891 acutely increases fat oxidation and reduces body weight and fat mass in C57Bl/6J mice. These effects coincided with decreased brown adipocyte lipid content...

  2. Fat and carbohydrate metabolism during submaximal exercise in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucouturier, Julien; Baker, Julien S; Duché, Pascale

    2008-01-01

    During exercise, the contribution of fat and carbohydrate to energy expenditure is largely modulated by the intensity of exercise. Age, a short- or long-term diet enriched in carbohydrate or fat substrate stores, training and gender are other factors that have also been found to affect this balance. These factors have been extensively studied in adults from the perspective of improving performance in athletes, or from a health perspective in people with diseases. During the last decade, lifestyle changes associated with high-energy diets rich in lipid and reduced physical activity have contributed to the increase in childhood obesity. This lifestyle change has emerged as a serious health problem favouring the early development of cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Increasing physical activity levels in young people is important to increase energy expenditure and promote muscle oxidative capacity. Therefore, it is surprising that the regulation of balance between carbohydrate and lipid use during exercise has received much less attention in children than in adults. In this review, we have focused on the factors that affect carbohydrate and lipid metabolism during exercise and have identified areas that may be relevant in explaining the higher contribution of lipid to energy expenditure in children when compared with adults. Low muscle glycogen content is possibly associated with a low activity of glycolytic enzymes and high oxidative capacity, while lower levels of sympathoadrenal hormones are likely to favour lipid metabolism in children. Changes in energetic metabolism occurring during adolescence are also dependent on pubertal events with an increase in testosterone in boys and estrogen and progesterone in girls. The profound effects of ovarian hormones on carbohydrate and fat metabolism along with their effects on oxidative enzymes could explain that differences in substrate metabolism have not always been observed between

  3. Effects of disturbed liver growth and oxidative stress of high-fat diet-fed dams on cholesterol metabolism in offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyoung; Kim, Juhae; Kwon, Young Hye

    2016-08-01

    Changes in nutritional status during gestation and lactation have detrimental effects on offspring metabolism. Several animal studies have shown that maternal high-fat diet (HFD) can predispose the offspring to development of obesity and metabolic diseases, however the mechanisms underlying these transgenerational effects are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the effect of maternal HFD consumption on metabolic phenotype and hepatic expression of involved genes in dams to determine whether any of these parameters were associated with the metabolic outcomes in the offspring. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD: 10% calories from fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD: 45% calories from fat) for three weeks before mating, and during pregnancy and lactation. Dams and their male offspring were studied at weaning. Dams fed an HFD had significantly higher body and adipose tissue weights and higher serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels than dams fed an LFD. Hepatic lipid levels and mRNA levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism, including LXRα, SREBP-2, FXR, LDLR, and ABCG8 were significantly changed by maternal HFD intake. Significantly lower total liver DNA and protein contents were observed in dams fed an HFD, implicating the disturbed liver adaptation in the pregnancy-related metabolic demand. HFD feeding also induced significant oxidative stress in serum and liver of dams. Offspring of dams fed an HFD had significantly higher serum cholesterol levels, which were negatively correlated with liver weights of dams and positively correlated with hepatic lipid peroxide levels in dams. Maternal HFD consumption induced metabolic dysfunction, including altered liver growth and oxidative stress in dams, which may contribute to the disturbed cholesterol homeostasis in the early life of male mice offspring.

  4. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-04-06

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation.

  5. Does caffeine alter muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Terry E; Battram, Danielle S; Dela, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    and carbohydrate metabolism. While caffeine certainly mobilizes fatty acids from adipose tissue, rarely have measures of the respiratory exchange ratio indicated an increase in fat oxidation. However, this is a difficult measure to perform accurately during exercise, and small changes could be physiologically...... important. The few studies examining human muscle metabolism directly have also supported the fact that there is no change in fat or carbohydrate metabolism, but these usually have had a small sample size. We combined the data from muscle biopsy analyses of several similar studies to generate a sample size...

  6. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    % of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat......The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper...

  7. Effects of p-Synephrine and Caffeine Ingestion on Substrate Oxidation during Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Hellín, Jorge; Del Coso, Juan

    2018-04-27

    Caffeine and p-synephrine are substances usually included in commercially-available products for weight loss because of their purported thermogenic effects. However, scientific information is lacking about the effects of combining these substances on substrate oxidation during exercise. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the isolated and combined effects of p-synephrine and caffeine on fat oxidation rate during exercise. In a double-blind randomized experiment, 13 healthy subjects participated in 4 experimental trials after the ingestion of a capsule containing either a placebo, 3 mg·kg of caffeine, 3 mg·kg of p-synephrine, or the combination of these doses of caffeine and p-synephrine. Energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rates were measured by indirect calorimetry during a cycle ergometer ramp test from 30 to 90% of VO2max. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of caffeine, p-synephrine, or p-synephrine+caffeine did not alter total energy expenditure or heart rate during the whole exercise test. However, the ingestion of caffeine (0.44 ± 0.15 g·min, P = 0.03), p-synephrine (0.43 ± 0.19 g·min, P < 0.01), and p-synephrine+caffeine (0.45 ± 0.15 g·min, P = 0.02) increased the maximal rate of fat oxidation during exercise when compared to the placebo (0.30 ± 0.12 g·min). The exercise intensity that elicited maximal fat oxidation was similar in all trials (~46.2 ± 10.2% of VO2max). Caffeine, p-synephrine and p-synephrine+caffeine increased the maximal rate of fat oxidation during exercise compared to a placebo, without modifying energy expenditure or heart rate. However, the co-ingestion of p-synephrine and caffeine did not present an additive effect to further increase fat oxidation during exercise.

  8. Inclusion of grape pomace in the diet of pigs on pork quality and oxidative stability of omega-3 enriched fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha Marisa Bertol

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the effects of including grape pomace in the diet of pigs on pork quality and oxidative stability of body fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Four treatments were compared: T1 Control diet based on corn and soybean meal; T2 Diet with inclusion of 3% of a canola (50% and flaxseed (50% oil blend; T3 Diet with inclusion of 3% of the oil blend and sequential levels of 3 and 5% of grape pomace; T4 Diet with inclusion of 3% of the oil blend and sequential levels of 6 and 10% of grape pomace. Inclusion of grape pomace in the diet led to an increase (P0.10 with dietary inclusion of oils blend. Neither the inclusion of the oil blend, nor the grape pomace had any effect (P>0.10 on the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in the loin samples, despite the higher PUFA content in the fat of pigs fed the oil blend. Antioxidant effect of grape pomace was not possible to prove when measured by TBARS, but the increased redness of the pork from pigs fed with this ingredient suggested a possible antioxidant effect of grape pomace.

  9. Comparison of purple carrot juice and β-carotene in a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rat model of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Hemant; Panchal, Sunil; Brown, Lindsay

    2010-11-01

    Anthocyanins, phenolic acids and carotenoids are the predominant phytochemicals present in purple carrots. These phytochemicals could be useful in treatment of the metabolic syndrome since anthocyanins improve dyslipidaemia, glucose tolerance, hypertension and insulin resistance; the phenolic acids may also protect against CVD and β-carotene may protect against oxidative processes. In the present study, we have compared the ability of purple carrot juice and β-carotene to reverse the structural and functional changes in rats fed a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet as a model of the metabolic syndrome induced by diet. Cardiac structure and function were defined by histology, echocardiography and in isolated hearts and blood vessels; liver structure and function, oxidative stress and inflammation were defined by histology and plasma markers. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats developed hypertension, cardiac fibrosis, increased cardiac stiffness, endothelial dysfunction, impaired glucose tolerance, increased abdominal fat deposition, altered plasma lipid profile, liver fibrosis and increased plasma liver enzymes together with increased plasma markers of oxidative stress and inflammation as well as increased inflammatory cell infiltration. Purple carrot juice attenuated or reversed all changes while β-carotene did not reduce oxidative stress, cardiac stiffness or hepatic fat deposition. As the juice itself contained low concentrations of carotenoids, it is likely that the anthocyanins are responsible for the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of purple carrot juice to improve glucose tolerance as well as cardiovascular and hepatic structure and function.

  10. Loss-of-function myostatin mutation increases insulin sensitivity and browning of white fat in Meishan pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunbo; Qian, Lili; Jiang, Shengwang; Sun, Youde; Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Dezun; Xiao, Gaojun; Li, Biao; Xie, Shanshan; Gao, Ting; Chen, Yaoxing; Liu, Jie; An, Xiaorong; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2017-05-23

    Myostatin-deficient mice showed a remarkable hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, with a decreased fat mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Currently, it is unclear if the inhibition of myostatin could be used as an approach to treat human obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated if the inhibition of porcine myostatin has any effect on fat deposition and insulin sensitivity using genetically engineered Meishan pigs containing a myostatin loss-of-function mutation (Mstn -/- ). Our results indicated that, when compared with wild-type pigs, the amount of subcutaneous fat and leaf fat of Mstn -/- pigs were significantly decreased mainly due to the browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Additionally, the serum insulin level decreased and the insulin sensitivity increased significantly in Mstn -/- pigs. Moreover, we found a significant increase in levels of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate proteins in skeletal muscle of Mstn -/- pigs, which then activating the insulin signaling pathway. Irisin-mediated regulation is not the only pathway for the activation of insulin signal in Mstn -/- skeletal muscle. This study provides valuable insight for the treatment of human obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  11. Periodontitis and increase in circulating oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Tomofuji

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are products of normal cellular metabolism. However, excessive production of ROS oxidizes DNA, lipids and proteins, inducing tissue damage. Studies have shown that periodontitis induces excessive ROS production in periodontal tissue. When periodontitis develops, ROS produced in the periodontal lesion diffuse into the blood stream, resulting in the oxidation of blood molecules (circulating oxidative stress. Such oxidation may be detrimental to systemic health. For instance, previous animal studies suggested that experimental periodontitis induces oxidative damage of the liver and descending aorta by increasing circulating oxidative stress. In addition, it has been revealed that clinical parameters in chronic periodontitis patients showed a significant improvement 2 months after periodontal treatment, which was accompanied by a significant reduction of reactive oxygen metabolites in plasma. Improvement of periodontitis by periodontal treatment could reduce the occurrence of circulating oxidative stress. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that the increase in circulating oxidative stress following diabetes mellitus and inappropriate nutrition damages periodontal tissues. In such cases, therapeutic approaches to systemic oxidative stress might be necessary to improve periodontal health.

  12. High-Fat Diet Induces Oxidative Stress and MPK2 and HSP83 Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade de Paula, Mariane; Poetini Silva, Márcia Rósula; Machado Araujo, Stífani; Cardoso Bortolotto, Vandreza; Barreto Meichtry, Luana; Zemolin, Ana Paula Pegoraro; Wallau, Gabriel L; Jesse, Cristiano Ricardo; Franco, Jeferson Luís; Posser, Thaís; Prigol, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) causes alteration in normal metabolism affecting lifespan of flies; however molecular mechanism associated with this damage in flies is not well known. This study evaluates the effects of ingestion of a diet supplemented with 10% and 20% of coconut oil, which is rich in saturated fatty acids, on oxidative stress and cells stress signaling pathways. After exposure to the diet for seven days, cellular and mitochondrial viability, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT activity, and mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes HSP83 and MPK2 were analyzed. To confirm the damage effect of diet on flies, survival and lifespan were investigated. The results revealed that the HFD augmented the rate of lipid peroxidation and SOD and CAT activity and induced a higher expression of HSP83 and MPK2 mRNA. In parallel, levels of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (ACSL1 and ACeCS1) were increased. Our data demonstrate that association among metabolic changes, oxidative stress, and protein signalization might be involved in shortening the lifespan of flies fed with a HFD.

  13. High-Fat Diet Induces Oxidative Stress and MPK2 and HSP83 Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Trindade de Paula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD causes alteration in normal metabolism affecting lifespan of flies; however molecular mechanism associated with this damage in flies is not well known. This study evaluates the effects of ingestion of a diet supplemented with 10% and 20% of coconut oil, which is rich in saturated fatty acids, on oxidative stress and cells stress signaling pathways. After exposure to the diet for seven days, cellular and mitochondrial viability, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT activity, and mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes HSP83 and MPK2 were analyzed. To confirm the damage effect of diet on flies, survival and lifespan were investigated. The results revealed that the HFD augmented the rate of lipid peroxidation and SOD and CAT activity and induced a higher expression of HSP83 and MPK2 mRNA. In parallel, levels of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (ACSL1 and ACeCS1 were increased. Our data demonstrate that association among metabolic changes, oxidative stress, and protein signalization might be involved in shortening the lifespan of flies fed with a HFD.

  14. Influence of Acute Coffee Consumption on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Bloomer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Coffee has been reported to be rich in antioxidants, with both acute and chronic consumption leading to enhanced blood antioxidant capacity. High-fat feeding is known to result in excess production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, promoting a condition of postprandial oxidative stress. Methods We tested the hypothesis that coffee intake following a high-fat meal would attenuate the typical increase in blood oxidative stress during the acute postprandial period. On 3 different occasions, 16 men and women consumed a high-fat milk shake followed by either 16 ounces of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee or bottled water. Blood samples were collected before and at 2 and 4 hours following intake of the milk shake and analyzed for triglycerides (TAG, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 , and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC. Results Values for TAG and MDA ( P 0.05. Conclusions Acute coffee consumption following a high-fat milk shake has no impact on postprandial oxidative stress.

  15. Substantial replacement of lactose with fat in a high-lactose milk replacer diet increases liver fat accumulation but does not affect insulin sensitivity in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, A J; Gerrits, W J J; Vonk, R J; van den Borne, J J G C

    2016-12-01

    In veal calves, the major portion of digestible energy intake originates from milk replacer (MR), with lactose and fat contributing approximately 45 and 35%, respectively. In veal calves older than 4 mo, prolonged high intakes of MR may lead to problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, ultimately resulting in sustained insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and impaired animal performance. The contribution of each of the dietary energy sources (lactose and fat) to deteriorated glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance is currently unknown. Therefore, an experiment was designed to compare the effects of a high-lactose and a high-fat MR on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Sixteen male Holstein-Friesian calves (120±2.8kg of BW) were assigned to either a high-lactose (HL) or a high-fat (HF) MR for 13 consecutive weeks. After at least 7 wk of adaptation, whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic clamps, respectively. Postprandial blood samples were collected to assess glucose, insulin, and triglyceride responses to feeding, and 24-h urine was collected to quantify urinary glucose excretion. At the end of the trial, liver and muscle biopsies were taken to assess triglyceride contents in these tissues. Long-term exposure of calves to HF or HL MR did not affect whole-body insulin sensitivity (averaging 4.2±0.5×10 -2 [(mg/kg∙min)/(μU/mL)]) and insulin secretion. Responses to feeding were greater for plasma glucose and tended to be greater for plasma insulin in HL calves than in HF calves. Urinary glucose excretion was substantially higher in HL calves (75±13g/d) than in HF calves (21±6g/d). Muscle triglyceride content was not affected by treatment and averaged 4.5±0.6g/kg, but liver triglyceride content was higher in HF calves (16.4±0.9g/kg) than in HL calves (11.2±0.7g/kg), indicating increased hepatic fat accumulation. We conclude that

  16. Characterization of fat metabolism in the fatty liver caused by a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet: A study under equal energy conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaka, Yuka; Shiroya, Yoko; Yamauchi, Hideki; Kitamura, Hiromi; Minato, Kumiko

    2017-05-20

    The pathology of fatty liver due to increased percentage of calories derived from fat without increased overall caloric intake is largely unclear. In this study, we aimed to characterize fat metabolism in rats with fatty liver resulting from consumption of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HFLC) diet without increased caloric intake. Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the control (Con) and HFLC groups, and rats were fed the corresponding diets ad libitum. Significant decreases in food intake per gram body weight were observed in the HFLC group compared with that in the Con group. Thus, there were no significant differences in body weights or caloric intake per gram body weight between the two groups. Marked progressive fat accumulation was observed in the livers of rats in the HFLC group, accompanied by suppression of de novo lipogenesis (DNL)-related proteins in the liver and increased leptin concentrations in the blood. In addition, electron microscopic observations revealed that many lipid droplets had accumulated within the hepatocytes, and mitochondrial numbers were reduced in the hepatocytes of rats in the HFLC group. Our findings confirmed that consumption of the HFLC diet induced fatty liver, even without increased caloric intake. Furthermore, DNL was not likely to be a crucial factor inducing fatty liver with standard energy intake. Instead, ultrastructural abnormalities found in mitochondria, which may cause a decline in β-oxidation, could contribute to the development of fatty liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genistein induces estrogen-like effects in ovariectomized rats but fails to increase cardiac GLUT4 and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nakkash, Layla; Markus, Brandon; Batia, Lyn; Prozialeck, Walter C; Broderick, Tom L

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a 2-week genistein treatment induced estrogen-like effects in ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley rats, after 2 weeks of subcutaneous genistein injections (250 mg/kg of body weight/day). Uterine weight, uterine-to-body weight ratio, femur weight, and femur-to-body weight ratio were all significantly increased with genistein in OVX rats. Body weight was significantly decreased with genistein in OVX rats. Genistein had no effect on the weights of heart, heart-to-body ratio, and fat pad but significantly decreased heart rate and pulse pressure. Genistein had no effect on cardiac GLUT4 protein, oxidative stress, plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, or low-density lipoprotein levels; however, plasma insulin levels were significantly increased. Our results show that a 2-week genistein treatment produced favorable estrogen-like effects on some physical and physiological characteristics in OVX rats. However, based on our experimental conditions, the effects of genistein were not associated with changes in cardiac GLUT4 or oxidative stress.

  18. Insulin and insulin signaling play a critical role in fat induction of insulin resistance in mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jie; Hong, Tao; Yang, Xuefeng; Mei, Shuang; Liu, Zhenqi; Liu, Hui-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The primary player that induces insulin resistance has not been established. Here, we studied whether or not fat can cause insulin resistance in the presence of insulin deficiency. Our results showed that high-fat diet (HFD) induced insulin resistance in C57BL/6 (B6) mice. The HFD-induced insulin resistance was prevented largely by the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced moderate insulin deficiency. The STZ-induced insulin deficiency prevented the HFD-induced ectopic fat accumulation and oxidative stress in liver and gastrocnemius. The STZ-induced insulin deficiency prevented the HFD- or insulin-induced increase in hepatic expression of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL), which are necessary for fatty acid activation. HFD increased mitochondrial contents of long-chain acyl-CoAs, whereas it decreased mitochondrial ADP/ATP ratio, and these HFD-induced changes were prevented by the STZ-induced insulin deficiency. In cultured hepatocytes, we observed that expressions of ACSL1 and -5 were stimulated by insulin signaling. Results in cultured cells also showed that blunting insulin signaling by the PI3K inhibitor LY-294002 prevented fat accumulation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance induced by the prolonged exposure to either insulin or oleate plus sera that normally contain insulin. Finally, knockdown of the insulin receptor prevented the oxidative stress and insulin resistance induced by the prolonged exposure to insulin or oleate plus sera. Together, our results show that insulin and insulin signaling are required for fat induction of insulin resistance in mice and cultured mouse hepatocytes. PMID:21586696

  19. Eating high fat chow increases the sensitivity of rats to 8-OH-DPAT-induced lower lip retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Xu; Ju, Shutian; Baladi, Michelle G; Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P

    2011-12-01

    Eating high fat food can alter sensitivity to drugs acting on dopamine systems; this study examined whether eating high fat food alters sensitivity to a drug acting on serotonin (5-HT) systems. Sensitivity to (+)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino) tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT; 5-HT1A receptor agonist)-induced lower lip retraction was examined in separate groups (n=8-9) of rats with free access to standard (5.7% fat) or high fat (34.3% fat) chow; sensitivity to quinpirole (dopamine D3/D2 receptor agonist)-induced yawning was also examined. Rats eating high fat chow gained more body weight than rats eating standard chow and, after 6 weeks of eating high fat chow, they were more sensitive to 8-OH-DPAT (0.01-0.1 mg/kg)-induced lower lip retraction and quinpirole (0.0032-0.32 mg/kg)-induced yawning. These changes were not reversed when rats that previously ate high fat chow were switched to eating standard chow and sensitivity to 8-OH-DPAT and quinpirole increased when rats that previously ate standard chow ate high fat chow. These data extend previous results showing changes in sensitivity to drugs acting on dopamine systems in animals eating high fat chow to a drug acting at 5-HT1A receptors and they provide support for the notion that eating certain foods impacts sensitivity to drugs acting on monoamine systems.

  20. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P mass (r = -0.68, P mass (r = -0.576, P mass (r = -0.439, P mass, visceral fat mass and percentage fat mass were lower in the HFDE group than the HFD group (all P values mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  1. Process Optimization for Solid Extraction, Flavor Improvement and Fat Removal in the Production of Soymilk From Full Fat Soy Flakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prawiradjaja, Stanley [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    lower than the undeodorized triple null and HPSF soymilk. The triple null soymilk was perceived to be more bitter than the HPSF soymilk by the sensory panel due to oxidation on the triple null soy flakes. This oxidation may produce other aroma that was not analyzed using the GC but noticed by the panelists. The sensory evaluation results did show that the deodorizer was able to reduce the soymilk aroma in HPSF soymilk so it would be similar to triple null soymilk at 8 °Brix level. Regardless of skimming method and solids levels, the fat from the whole soybean milk was removed less efficiently than soy flake milk (7 to 30% fat extraction in contrast to 50 to 80% fat extraction respectively). In soy flake milk, less fat was removed as the % solid increases regardless of the processing method. In whole soybean milk, the fat was removed less efficiently at lower solids level milk using the commercial dairy skimmer and more efficient at lower solids level using the centrifuge-decant method. Based on the Hunter L, a, b measurement, the color of the reduced fat soy flake milk yielded a darker, greener and less yellow colored milk than whole soymilk (α < 0.05), whereas no differences were noticed in reduced fat soybean milk (α < 0.05). Color comparison of whole and skim cow's milk showed the same the same trend as in the soymilk.

  2. Increasing protein intake modulates lipid metabolism in healthy young men and women consuming a high-fat hypercaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, Annemarie; Schwarz, Jessica; Blokker, Britt A; Siebelink, Els; Kok, Frans J; Afman, Lydia A; Tomé, Daniel; Mensink, Marco

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing protein intake, at the expense of carbohydrates, on intrahepatic lipids (IHLs), circulating triglycerides (TGs), and body composition in healthy humans consuming a high-fat, hypercaloric diet. A crossover randomized trial with a parallel control group was performed. After a 2-wk run-in period, participants were assigned to either the control diet [n = 10; 27.8 energy percent (en%) fat, 16.9 en% protein, 55.3 en% carbohydrates] for 4 wk or a high-fat, hypercaloric diet (n = 17; >2 MJ/d) crossover trial with 2 periods of 2 wk, with either high-protein (HP) (37.7 en% fat, 25.7 en% protein, 36.6 en% carbohydrates) or normal-protein (NP) (39.4 en% fat, 15.4 en% protein, 45.2 en% carbohydrates) content. Measurements were performed after 2 wk of run-in (baseline), 2 wk of intervention (period 1), and 4 wk of intervention (period 2). A trend toward lower IHL and plasma TG concentrations during the HP condition compared with the NP condition was observed (IHL: 0.35 ± 0.04% vs. 0.51 ± 0.08%, P = 0.08; TG: 0.65 ± 0.03 vs. 0.77 ± 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.07, for HP and NP, respectively). Fat mass was significantly lower (10.6 ± 1.72 vs. 10.9 ± 1.73 kg; P = 0.02) with the HP diet than with the NP diet, whereas fat-free mass was higher (55.7 ± 2.79 vs. 55.2 ± 2.80 kg; P = 0.003). This study indicated that an HP, high-fat, hypercaloric diet affects lipid metabolism. It tends to lower the IHL and circulating TG concentrations and significantly lowers fat mass and increases fat-free mass compared with an NP, high-fat, hypercaloric diet. This trail was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01354626. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Bioactive food stimulants of sympathetic activity: effect on 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, A; Jessen, A B

    2005-06-01

    Bioactive food ingredients influence energy balance by exerting weak thermogenic effects. We studied whether the thermogenic effect of a combination of capsaicin, green tea extract (catechins and caffeine), tyrosine, and calcium was maintained after 7-day treatment and whether local effects in the gastric mucosa were involved in the efficacy. The present study was designed as a 3-way crossover, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention. Department of Human Nutrition, RVAU, Denmark. A total of 19 overweight to obese men (BMI: 28.0+/-2.7 kg/m2) were recruited by advertising locally. The subjects took the supplements for a period of 7 days. The supplements were administrated as a simple supplement with the bioactive ingredients, a similar enterocoated version, or placebo. In all, 24-h energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidations, spontaneous physical activity (SPA), and heart rate were measured in respiration chambers on the seventh day of each test period. After adjustment for changes in body weight and SPA, 24-h EE was increased by 160 kJ/day (95% CI: 15-305) by the simple preparation as compared to placebo, whereas the enterocoated preparation had no such effect (53 kJ/day, -92 to 198); simple vs enterocoated versions (P=0.09). The simple preparation produced a deficit in 24-h energy balance of 193 kJ/day (49-338, P=0.03). Fat and carbohydrate oxidation were equally increased by the supplements. A supplement containing bioactive food ingredients increased daily EE by approximately 200 kJ or 2%, without raising the heart rate or any observed adverse effects. The lack of effect of the enterocoated preparation suggests that a local action of capsaicin in the gastric mucosa is a prerequisite for exerting the thermogenic effect.

  4. High fat diet-induced non alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia caused by down regulation of the transsulphuration pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napolitano Mariarosaria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy causes increased oxidative stress and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Oxidative stress is now believed to be a major contributory factor in the development of non alcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common liver disorder worldwide. In this study, the changes which occur in homocysteine (Hcy metabolism in high fat-diet induced non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in rats were investigated. Methods and results After feeding rats a standard low fat diet (control or a high fat diet (57% metabolisable energy as fat for 18 weeks, the concentration of homocysteine in the plasma was significantly raised while that of cysteine was lowered in the high fat as compared to the control diet fed animals. The hepatic activities of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS and cystathionine γ-lyase (CGS, the enzymes responsible for the breakdown of homocysteine to cysteine via the transsulphuration pathway in the liver, were also significantly reduced in the high fat-fed group. Conclusions These results indicate that high fat diet-induced NAFLD in rats is associated with increased plasma Hcy levels caused by down-regulation of hepatic CBS and CGL activity. Thus, HHcy occurs at an early stage in high fat diet-induced NAFLD and is likely to contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with the condition.

  5. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D Kunkel

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II, blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1. As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  6. Combined epigallocatechin-3-gallate and resveratrol supplementation for 12 wk increases mitochondrial capacity and fat oxidation, but not insulin sensitivity, in obese humans: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Most, Jasper; Timmers, S.; Warnke, I.; Jocken, J.J.W.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Groot, de Philip; Bendik, Igor; Schrauwen, Patrick; Goossens, Gijs H.; Blaak, Ellen E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The obese insulin-resistant state is characterized by
    impairments in lipid metabolism.We previously showed that 3-d supplementation
    of combined epigallocatechin-3-gallate and resveratrol
    (EGCG+RES) increased energy expenditure and improved the
    capacity to switch from fat

  7. Increasing the maximally random jammed density with electric field to reduce the fat level in chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.; Tang, H.

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.

  8. Desire to eat high- and low-fat foods following a low-fat dietary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Frederick G; Vander Weg, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    This study examined changes in desires to eat high-fat and low-fat foods across an obesity treatment program. The hypotheses under examination were (1) preferences for low-fat foods would increase across time and (2) preferences for high-fat foods would decrease across time. Single-group, prospective examination of desires to eat 48 foods, categorized according to fat content, before and after the 16-week treatment program. University clinic, Memphis, Tennessee. 118 obese (mean weight = 194.4 lbs) women (mean age = 45.24 years) participating in an obesity treatment program. A 16-week cognitive-behavioral program for obesity. Desires to eat 48 foods varying in fat content and whether or not participants actually ate these foods. Analysis of variance, multiple regression, and paired t tests. The results indicate that during the program, preferences for low-fat foods increased, whereas preferences for high-fat foods decreased. These changes mirrored the changes in consumption of both low-fat and high-fat foods. Within a behavioral economic perspective, the reinforcement value of low-fat foods may increase following a low-fat dietary intervention, whereas the reinforcing properties of high-fat foods may decline. This is desirable as low-fat foods hold many advantages over high-fat foods in terms of weight maintenance.

  9. Chronic high-fat diet-induced obesity decreased survival and increased hypertrophy of rats with experimental eccentric hypertrophy from chronic aortic regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhahri, Wahiba; Drolet, Marie-Claude; Roussel, Elise; Couet, Jacques; Arsenault, Marie

    2014-09-24

    The composition of a diet can influence myocardial metabolism and development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The impact of a high-fat diet in chronic left ventricular volume overload (VO) causing eccentric LVH is unknown. This study examined the effects of chronic ingestion of a high-fat diet in rats with chronic VO caused by severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR) on LVH, function and on myocardial energetics and survival. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: Shams on control or high-fat (HF) diet (15 rats/group) and AR rats fed with the same diets (ARC (n = 56) and ARHF (n = 32)). HF diet was started one week before AR induction and the protocol was stopped 30 weeks later. As expected, AR caused significant LV dilation and hypertrophy and this was exacerbated in the ARHF group. Moreover, survival in the ARHF group was significantly decreased compared the ARC group. Although the sham animals on HF also developed significant obesity compared to those on control diet, this was not associated with heart hypertrophy. The HF diet in AR rats partially countered the expected shift in myocardial energy substrate preference usually observed in heart hypertrophy (from fatty acids towards glucose). Systolic function was decreased in AR rats but HF diet had no impact on this parameter. The response to HF diet of different fatty acid oxidation markers as well as the increase in glucose transporter-4 translocation to the plasma membrane compared to ARC was blunted in AR animals compared to those on control diet. HF diet for 30 weeks decreased survival of AR rats and worsened eccentric hypertrophy without affecting systolic function. The expected adaptation of myocardial energetics to volume-overload left ventricle hypertrophy in AR animals seemed to be impaired by the high-fat diet suggesting less metabolic flexibility.

  10. Consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup does not increase liver fat or ectopic fat deposition in muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Stephen; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James

    2013-06-01

    It has been postulated that fructose-induced triglyceride synthesis is augmented when accompanied by glucose. Chronic elevations could lead to excess fat accumulation in the liver and ectopic fat deposition in muscles, which in turn could contribute to the induction of abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the addition of commonly consumed fructose- and (or) glucose-containing sugars in the usual diet on liver fat content and intramuscular adipose tissue. For 10 weeks, 64 individuals (mean age, 42.16 ± 11.66 years) consumed low-fat milk sweetened with either high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose; the added sugar matched consumption levels of fructose in the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of the population. The fat content of the liver was measured with unenhanced computed tomography imaging, and the fat content of muscle was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. When the 6 HFCS and sucrose groups were averaged, there was no change over the course of 10 weeks in the fat content of the liver (13.32% ± 10.49% vs. 13.21% ± 10.75%; p > 0.05), vastus lateralis muscle (3.07 ± 0.74 g per 100 mL vs. 3.15 ± 0.84 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05), or gluteus maximus muscle (4.08 ± 1.50 g per 100 mL vs. 4.24 ± 1.42 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05). Group assignment did not affect the result (interaction > 0.05). These data suggest that when fructose is consumed as part of a typical diet in normally consumed sweeteners, such as sucrose or HFCS, ectopic fat storage in the liver or muscles is not promoted.

  11. Male mice that lack the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR41 have low energy expenditure and increased body fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahcene, Mohamed; O'Dowd, Jacqueline F; Wargent, Ed T; Zaibi, Mohamed S; Hislop, David C; Ngala, Robert A; Smith, David M; Cawthorne, Michael A; Stocker, Claire J; Arch, Jonathan R S

    2013-05-28

    SCFA are produced in the gut by bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates. Activation of the Gαi-protein-coupled receptor GPR41 by SCFA in β-cells and sympathetic ganglia inhibits insulin secretion and increases sympathetic outflow, respectively. A possible role in stimulating leptin secretion by adipocytes is disputed. In the present study, we investigated energy balance and glucose homoeostasis in GPR41 knockout mice fed on a standard low-fat or a high-fat diet. When fed on the low-fat diet, body fat mass was raised and glucose tolerance was impaired in male but not female knockout mice compared to wild-type mice. Soleus muscle and heart weights were reduced in the male mice, but total body lean mass was unchanged. When fed on the high-fat diet, body fat mass was raised in male but not female GPR41 knockout mice, but by no more in the males than when they were fed on the low-fat diet. Body lean mass and energy expenditure were reduced in male mice but not in female knockout mice. These results suggest that the absence of GPR41 increases body fat content in male mice. Gut-derived SCFA may raise energy expenditure and help to protect against obesity by activating GPR41.

  12. Keap1 knockdown increases markers of metabolic syndrome after long-term high fat diet feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Vijay R; Xu, Jialin; Shimpi, Prajakta C; Belgrave, Clyde; Luyendyk, James P; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Slitt, Angela L

    2013-08-01

    The nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway upregulates antioxidant and biotransformation enzyme expression to counter cellular oxidative stress. The contributions of Nrf2 to other cellular functions, such as lipid homeostasis, are emerging. This study was conducted to determine how enhanced Nrf2 activity influences the progression of metabolic syndrome with long-term high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. C57BL/6 and Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice, which exhibit enhanced Nrf2 activity, were fed a HFD for 24 weeks. Keap1-KD mice had higher body weight and white adipose tissue mass compared to C57BL/6 mice on HFD, along with increased inflammation and lipogenic gene expression. HFD feeding increased hepatic steatosis and inflammation to a greater extent in Keap1-KD mice compared to C57BL/6 mice, which was associated with increased liver Cd36, fatty acid-binding protein 4, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 mRNA expression, as well as increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 protein expression. The HFD altered short-term glucose homeostasis to a greater degree in Keap-KD mice compared to C57BL/6 mice, which was accompanied by downregulation of insulin receptor substrate 1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. Together, the results indicate that Keap1 knockdown, on treatment with HFD, increases certain markers of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High-Fat Diet Induces Oxidative Stress and MPK2 and HSP83 Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Trindade de Paula, Mariane; Poetini Silva, M?rcia R?sula; Machado Araujo, St?fani; Cardoso Bortolotto, Vandreza; Barreto Meichtry, Luana; Zemolin, Ana Paula Pegoraro; Wallau, Gabriel L.; Jesse, Cristiano Ricardo; Franco, Jeferson Lu?s; Posser, Tha?s; Prigol, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) causes alteration in normal metabolism affecting lifespan of flies; however molecular mechanism associated with this damage in flies is not well known. This study evaluates the effects of ingestion of a diet supplemented with 10% and 20% of coconut oil, which is rich in saturated fatty acids, on oxidative stress and cells stress signaling pathways. After exposure to the diet for seven days, cellular and mitochondrial viability, lipid peroxidation and a...

  14. Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB3 gene associated with maximal fat oxidation and LDL-C levels in non-obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Íncare Correa de; Alle, Lupe Furtado; Munhoz, Eva Cantalejo; Silva, Larissa Rosa da; Lopes, Wendell Arthur; Tureck, Luciane Viater; Purim, Katia Sheylla Malta; Titski, Ana Claudia Kapp; Leite, Neiva

    2017-09-21

    To analyze the association between the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB3 gene, maximal fat oxidation rates and the lipid profile levels in non-obese adolescents. 72 schoolchildren, of both genders, aged between 11 and 17 years, participated in the study. The anthropometric and body composition variables, in addition to total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, triglycerides, insulin, and basal glycemia, were evaluated. The sample was divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of the polymorphism: non-carriers of the Arg64 allele, i.e., homozygous (Trp64Trp: n=54), and carriers of the Arg64 allele (Trp64Arg+Arg64Arg: n=18), in which the frequency of the Arg64 allele was 15.2%. The maximal oxygen uptake and peak of oxygen uptake during exercise were obtained through the symptom-limited, submaximal treadmill test. Maximal fat oxidation was determined according to the ventilatory ratio proposed in Lusk's table. Adolescents carrying the less frequent allele (Trp64Arg and Arg64Arg) had higher LDL-c levels (p=0.031) and lower maximal fat oxidation rates (p=0.038) when compared with non-carriers (Trp64Trp). Although the physiological processes related to lipolysis and lipid metabolism are complex, the presence of the Arg 64 allele was associated with lower rates of FATMAX during aerobic exercise, as well as with higher levels of LDL-c in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Eating high-fat chow increases the sensitivity of rats to quinpirole-induced discriminative stimulus effects and yawning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; France, Charles P

    2010-10-01

    Discriminative stimulus effects of direct acting dopamine receptor agonists (e.g. quinpirole) appear to be mediated by D3 receptors in free-feeding rats. Free access to high-fat chow increases sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning, and this study examined whether eating high-fat chow increases sensitivity to the discriminative stimulus effects of quinpirole. Five rats discriminated between 0.032 mg/kg quinpirole and vehicle while responding under a continuous reinforcement schedule of stimulus shock termination. When rats had free access to high-fat chow (discrimination training was suspended), the quinpirole discrimination dose-response curve shifted leftward, possibly indicating enhanced sensitivity at D3 receptors. In the same rats, both the ascending (mediated by D3 receptors) and descending (mediated by D2 receptors) limbs of the dose-response curve for quinpirole-induced yawning shifted leftward. When rats had free access to a standard chow (discrimination training was suspended), the quinpirole discrimination and yawning dose-response curves did not change. Together with published data showing that the discriminative stimulus effects of quinpirole in free-feeding rats are mediated by D3 receptors and the insensitivity of this effect of quinpirole to food restriction (shown to increase sensitivity to D2 but not D3-mediated effects), these results suggest that the leftward shift of the discrimination dose-response curve when rats eat high-fat chow is likely because of enhanced sensitivity at D3 receptors. Thus, eating high-fat food enhances drug effects in a manner that might impact clinical effects of drugs or vulnerability to drug abuse.

  16. Eating high fat chow increases the sensitivity of rats to quinpirole-induced discriminative stimulus effects and yawning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; France, Charles P

    2010-01-01

    Discriminative stimulus effects of directly-acting dopamine receptor agonists (e.g. quinpirole) appear to be mediated by D3 receptors in free-feeding rats. Free access to high fat chow increases sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning and the current study examined whether eating high fat chow increases sensitivity to the discriminative stimulus effects of quinpirole. Five rats discriminated between 0.032 mg/kg quinpirole and vehicle while responding under a continuous reinforcement schedule of stimulus shock termination. When rats had free access to high fat chow (discrimination training was suspended), the quinpirole discrimination dose-response curve shifted leftward, possibly indicating enhanced sensitivity at D3 receptors. In the same rats, both the ascending (mediated by D3 receptors) and descending (mediated by D2 receptors) limbs of the dose- response curve for quinpirole-induced yawning shifted leftward. When rats had free access to a standard chow (discrimination training was suspended), the quinpirole discrimination and yawning dose-response curves did not change. Together with published data showing that the discriminative stimulus effects of quinpirole in free- feeding rats are mediated by D3 receptors and the insensitivity of this effect of quinpirole to food restriction (shown to increase sensitivity to D2 but not D3-mediated effects), these results suggest that the leftward shift of the discrimination dose-response curve when rats eat high fat chow is likely due to enhanced sensitivity at D3 receptors. Thus, eating high fat food enhances drug effects in a manner that might impact clinical effects of drugs or vulnerability to drug abuse. PMID:20729718

  17. Plasma acylcarnitine profiling indicates increased fatty acid oxidation relative to tricarboxylic acid cycle capacity in young, healthy low birth weight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Amalie; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Brøns, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that an increased, incomplete fatty acid beta‐oxidation in mitochondria could be part of the metabolic events leading to insulin resistance and thereby an increased type 2 diabetes risk in low birth weight (LBW) compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals. Therefore, we...... measured fasting plasma levels of 45 acylcarnitine species in 18 LBW and 25 NBW men after an isocaloric control diet and a 5‐day high‐fat, high‐calorie diet. We demonstrated that LBW men had higher C2 and C4‐OH levels after the control diet compared with NBW men, indicating an increased fatty acid beta...

  18. Effect of high-fat diets on body composition, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and the role of exercise on these parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Coelho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fat composition can interfere in the development of obesity due to the specific roles of some fatty acids that have different metabolic activities, which can alter both fat oxidation and deposition rates, resulting in changes in body weight and/or composition. High-fat diets in general are associated with hyperphagia, but the type of dietary fat seems to be more important since saturated fats are linked to a positive fat balance and omental adipose tissue accumulation when compared to other types of fat, while polyunsaturated fats, omega-3 and omega-6, seem to increase energy expenditure and decrease energy intake by specific mechanisms involving hormone-sensitive lipase, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα and others. Saturated fat intake can also impair insulin sensitivity compared to omega-3 fat, which has the opposite effect due to alterations in cell membranes. Obesity is also associated with impaired mitochondrial function. Fat excess favors the production of malonyl-CoA, which reduces GLUT4 efficiency. The tricarboxylic acid cycle and beta-oxidation are temporarily uncoupled, forming metabolite byproducts that augment reactive oxygen species production. Exercise can restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity, which may be crucial for a better prognosis in treating or preventing obesity.

  19. Hyperthyroidism increases brown fat metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahesmaa, Minna; Orava, Janne; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Soinio, Minna; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Noponen, Tommi; Kirjavainen, Anna; Iida, Hidehiro; Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Enerbäck, Sven; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are important regulators of brown adipose tissue (BAT) development and function. In rodents, BAT metabolism is up-regulated by thyroid hormones. The purpose of this article was to investigate the impact of hyperthyroidism on BAT metabolism in humans. This was a follow-up study using positron emission tomography imaging. Glucose uptake (GU) and perfusion of BAT, white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and thyroid gland were measured using [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and [15O]H2O and positron emission tomography in 10 patients with overt hyperthyroidism and in 8 healthy participants. Five of the hyperthyroid patients were restudied after restoration of euthyroidism. Supraclavicular BAT was quantified with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography and energy expenditure (EE) with indirect calorimetry. Compared with healthy participants, hyperthyroid participants had 3-fold higher BAT GU (2.7±2.3 vs 0.9±0.1 μmol/100 g/min, P=.0013), 90% higher skeletal muscle GU (Phyperthyroidism, serum free T4 and free T3 were strongly associated with EE and lipid oxidation rates (Pmetabolism (PHyperthyroidism had no effect on BAT perfusion, whereas it stimulated skeletal muscle perfusion (P=.04). Thyroid gland GU did not differ between hyperthyroid and euthyroid study subjects. Hyperthyroidism increases GU in BAT independently of BAT perfusion. Hyperthyroid patients are characterized by increased skeletal muscle metabolism and lipid oxidation rates.

  20. Increased adipose tissue lipolysis after a 2-week high-fat diet in sedentary overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Harold R; Heidal, Kimberly; Choi, Myung Dong; Kraus, Ray M; Boyle, Kristen; Hickner, Robert C

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a high-fat diet would result in a higher lipolytic rate in subcutaneous adipose tissue than a lower-fat diet in sedentary nonlean men. Six participants (healthy males; 18-40 years old; body mass index, 25-37 kg/m(2)) underwent 2 weeks on a high-fat or well-balanced diet of similar energy content (approximately 6695 kJ) in randomized order with a 10-day washout period between diets. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was determined over the course of a day using microdialysis after both 2-week diet sessions. Average interstitial glycerol concentrations (index of lipolysis) as determined using microdialysis were higher after the high-fat diet (210.8 ± 27.9 μmol/L) than after a well-balanced diet (175.6 ± 23.3 μmol/L; P = .026). There was no difference in adipose tissue microvascular blood flow as determined using the microdialysis ethanol technique. These results demonstrate that healthy nonlean men who diet on the high-fat plan have a higher lipolytic rate in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue than when they diet on a well-balanced diet plan. This higher rate of lipolysis may result in a higher rate of fat mass loss on the high-fat diet; however, it remains to be determined if this higher lipolytic rate in men on the high-fat diet results in a more rapid net loss of triglyceride from the abdominal adipose depots, or if the higher lipolytic rate is counteracted by an increased rate of lipid storage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary moderately oxidized oil induces expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 in the liver of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varady Juliane

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21, whose expression is induced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, has been recently identified as a novel metabolic regulator which plays a crucial role in glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity and obesity. Previous studies have shown that administration of oxidized fats leads to an activation of PPARα in the liver. Therefore, the present study investigated the hypothesis that feeding of oxidized fats causes an induction of FGF21 in the liver. Methods Twenty four crossbred pigs were allocated to two groups of 12 pigs each and fed nutritionally adequate diets with either fresh rapeseed oil or oxidized rapeseed oil prepared by heating at a temperature of 175°C for 72 h. Results In pigs fed the oxidized fat mRNA abundance and protein concentrations of FGF21 in liver were significantly increased (P P P Conclusion The present study shows for the first time that administration of an oxidized fat induces the expression of FGF21 in the liver, probably mediated by activation of PPARα. Induction of FGF21 could be involved in several effects observed in animals administered an oxidized fat.

  2. Long-term increase of fat mass after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limitation of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernersson, Asa; Nystrom, Fredrik H; Lindström, Torbjörn

    2010-08-25

    A sedentary lifestyle and increased consumption of energy dense food have become more common in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to study long term effects on body composition after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limited physical activity in young normal weight subjects. Eighteen subjects, mean age 26 (6.6) years, increased their energy intake with in average 70% and physical activity were not to exceed 5000 steps/day. Body composition was measured by Dual energy x-ray (DXA) at baseline, after the intervention and after 12 months. A matched control group was also included. ANOVA and Student's paired and unpaired t-test were used. During the intervention body weight increased with 6.4 (2.8) kg and DXA measurements showed increases of both fat free mass and fat mass. Six months after the intervention the subjects had lost most of the weight gain, - 4.7 (3.1) kg. Twelve months after the intervention body weight had increased with 1.5 (2.4) kg compared to baseline (p = 0.018). DXA measurements at 12 months showed unchanged fat free mass compared to baseline but higher fat mass, + 1.4 (1.9) kg (p = 0.01). After 2.5 years the increase of body weight was 3.1 (4.0) kg (p = 0.01) while there was no change in controls compared to baseline, + 0.1(2.5) kg (p = 0.88). One year after a short term intervention with increased fast food based hyper-alimentation there was an increase of fat mass but unchanged fat free mass. As the change of fat mass was larger than expected from prospective epidemiological studies and as there was no increase of body weight in controls it raises the issue whether there is a long-term effect to increase fat mass of a short period of hyper-alimentation.

  3. Long-term increase of fat mass after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limitation of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernersson Åsa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sedentary lifestyle and increased consumption of energy dense food have become more common in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to study long term effects on body composition after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limited physical activity in young normal weight subjects. Methods Eighteen subjects, mean age 26 (6.6 years, increased their energy intake with in average 70% and physical activity were not to exceed 5000 steps/day. Body composition was measured by Dual energy x-ray (DXA at baseline, after the intervention and after 12 months. A matched control group was also included. ANOVA and Student's paired and unpaired t-test were used. Results During the intervention body weight increased with 6.4 (2.8 kg and DXA measurements showed increases of both fat free mass and fat mass. Six months after the intervention the subjects had lost most of the weight gain, - 4.7 (3.1 kg. Twelve months after the intervention body weight had increased with 1.5 (2.4 kg compared to baseline (p = 0.018. DXA measurements at 12 months showed unchanged fat free mass compared to baseline but higher fat mass, + 1.4 (1.9 kg (p = 0.01. After 2.5 years the increase of body weight was 3.1 (4.0 kg (p = 0.01 while there was no change in controls compared to baseline, + 0.1(2.5 kg (p = 0.88. Conclusion One year after a short term intervention with increased fast food based hyper-alimentation there was an increase of fat mass but unchanged fat free mass. As the change of fat mass was larger than expected from prospective epidemiological studies and as there was no increase of body weight in controls it raises the issue whether there is a long-term effect to increase fat mass of a short period of hyper-alimentation.

  4. Aging Increases Susceptibility to High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in C57BL/6 Mice: Improvement in Glycemic and Lipid Profile after Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Nunes-Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been considered a novel component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, with the oxidative stress participating in its progression. This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic profile in young and old mice with MetS, and the effects of apocynin and tempol on glycemic and lipid parameters. Young and old C57BL/6 mice with high fat diet- (HFD- induced MetS received apocynin and tempol 50 mg·kg−1/day in their drinking water for 10 weeks. After HFD, the young group showed elevated fasting glucose, worsened lipid profile in plasma, steatosis, and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, the old group presented significant increase in fasting insulin levels, insulin resistance, plasma and hepatic lipid peroxidation, and pronounced steatosis. The hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase activity did not differ between the groups. Tempol and apocynin seemed to prevent hepatic lipid deposition in both groups. Furthermore, apocynin improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in old mice. In summary, old mice are more susceptible to HFD-induced metabolic changes than their young counterparts. Also, the antioxidant therapy improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and in addition, apocynin seemed to prevent the HFD-induced hepatic fat deposition, suggesting an important role of oxidative stress in the induction of NAFLD.

  5. Effects of biodiesel made from swine and chicken fat residues on carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddern, Vivian; Cunha Junior, Anildo; De Prá, Marina C; Busi da Silva, Marcio L; Nicoloso, Rodrigo da S; Higarashi, Martha M; Coldebella, Arlei; de Abreu, Paulo G

    2017-07-01

    The effects of two alternative sources of animal fat-derived biodiesel feedstock on CO 2 , CO, NO x tailpipe emissions as well as fuel consumption were investigated. Biodiesel blends were produced from chicken and swine fat waste (FW-1) or floating fat (FW-2) collected from slaughterhouse wastewater treatment processes. Tests were conducted in an unmodified stationary diesel engine operating under idling conditions in attempt to simulate slow traffic in urban areas. Significant reductions in CO (up to 47% for B100; FW-2) and NO x (up to 20% for B5; FW-2 or B100; FW-1) were attained when using biodiesel fuels at the expense of 5% increase in fuel consumption. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to elucidate possible associations among gas (CO 2 , CO, and NO x ) emissions, cetane number and iodine index with different sources of feedstock typically employed in the biodiesel industry. NO x , cetane number and iodine index were inversely proportional to CO 2 and biodiesel concentration. High NO x emissions were reported from high iodine index biodiesel derived especially from forestry, fishery and some agriculture feedstocks, while the biodiesel derived from animal sources consistently presented lower iodine index mitigating NO x emissions. The obtained results point out the applicability of biodiesel fuels derived from fat-rich residues originated from animal production on mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. The information may encourage practitioners from biodiesel industry whilst contributing towards development of sustainable animal production. Emissions from motor vehicles can contribute considerably to the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The use of biodiesel to replace or augment diesel can not only decrease our dependency on fossil fuels but also help decrease air pollution. Thus, different sources of feedstocks are constantly being explored for affordable biodiesel production. However, the amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon

  6. Rapamycin-ameliorated diabetic symptoms involved in increasing adiponectin expression in diabetic mice on a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fang-Hua; Ye, Yan-Na; Li, Jin-Meng; Zhao, Hai-Yang; Li, Xiao-Kun

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies showed that rapamycin improved diabetic complications. Here, we investigated the metabolic effects of rapamycin in type 2 diabetes model (T2DM) mice. Mice were treated with a daily intraperitoneal injection of rapamycin at 2 mg/kg or vehicle only for 3 weeks and were maintained on a high-fat diet. The treated diabetic mice exhibited decreased body weight, blood glucose levels, and fat mass. FGF21 expression was suppressed in C57B/L6 mice, but adiponectin expression increased both in FGF21 KO and C57B/L6 mice. These results suggest that rapamycin may alleviate FGF21 resistance in mice on a high-fat diet. The reduction of adipose tissue mass of the diabetic mice may be due to the increased adiponectin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  7. Effects of dietary heme iron and exercise training on abdominal fat accumulation and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumura, Masanori; Takagi, Shoko; Oya, Hana; Tamura, Shohei; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue. In addition, total weight of abdominal adipose tissues was significantly decreased in the Exercise + WSHI group. Dietary WSHI significantly increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. WSHI-fed mice also tended to show increased mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase in their epididymal adipose tissue. Dietary WSHI also significantly decreased the mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related enzymes in the liver, but did not influence levels in the Gastrocnemius muscle. Exercise training did not influence the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in the epididymal adipose tissue, liver or the Gastrocnemius muscle. These findings suggest that the accumulation of abdominal fat can be efficiently decreased by the combination of dietary WSHI and exercise training in mice fed high-fat diet. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Increased Hypothalamic Inflammation Associated with the Susceptibility to Obesity in Rats Exposed to High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has been implicated in the hypothalamic leptin and insulin resistance resulting defective food intake during high fat diet period. To investigate hypothalamic inflammation in dietary induced obesity (DIO and obesity resistant (DIO-R rats, we established rat models of DIO and DIO-R by feeding high fat diet for 10 weeks. Then we switched half of DIO and DIO-R rats to chow food and the other half to high fat diet for the following 8 weeks to explore hypothalamic inflammation response to the low fat diet intervention. Body weight, caloric intake, HOMA-IR, as well as the mRNA expression of hypothalamic TLR4, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in DIO/HF rats were significantly increased compared to DIO-R/HF and CF rats, whereas IL-10 mRNA expression was lower in both DIO/HF and DIO-R/HF rats compared with CF rats. Switching to chow food from high fat diet reduced the body weight and improved insulin sensitivity but not affecting the expressions of studied inflammatory genes in DIO rats. Take together, upregulated hypothalamic inflammation may contribute to the overeating and development of obesity susceptibility induced by high fat diet. Switching to chow food had limited role in correcting hypothalamic inflammation in DIO rats during the intervention period.

  9. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, E.; Galgani, J.; Morales, I.; Salazar, G.; Uauy, R.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of changes in dietary fatty acid composition on macronutrient oxidation were studied on controls and 6 obese women, 30-45 years old. Anthropometry, body composition, physical activity, continuous indirect calorimetry (200 min), plasma fatty acids, serum insulin and glucose were measured. The study was performed using a crossover design: baseline and three-period 2wk each: canola oil supplementation, washout and sunflower oil supplementation. Subjects were provided with commercially available oil (1 L/wk) either canola or sunflower during the corresponding period. Oil treatment produced significant modifications of plasma fatty acid profile, according to the type of oil consumed. In both groups, most of the fat provided was oxidised (ratio oxidised/intake: 79-102%) in the two dietary regimes, no differences were found between groups. Controls however, had a higher fat oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) with sunflower compared to canola treatment. Changes in plasma polyunsaturated/saturated ratio (P/S) from canola to sunflower treatment were not associated to fat oxidation. Changes in plasma n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment showed a positive association with fat oxidation in controls (r=0. 72) and a negative association in obese (r=-0.79). Carbohydrate oxidation was on average 20-29% of CHO intake. Glucose oxidation was not associated to n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment, but it was inversely correlated to PIS ratio changes in both groups. With sunflower treatment obese showed a higher CHO oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) associated to a greater insulin response compared to controls. This study showed that the type of oil can induce differences in substrate oxidation. Canola oil intake could be stimulated based on its smaller insulin response in subjects predisposed to hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. (author)

  10. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, E; Galgani, J; Morales, I; Salazar, G; Uauy, R [Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile (Chile)

    2002-07-01

    The effects of changes in dietary fatty acid composition on macronutrient oxidation were studied on controls and 6 obese women, 30-45 years old. Anthropometry, body composition, physical activity, continuous indirect calorimetry (200 min), plasma fatty acids, serum insulin and glucose were measured. The study was performed using a crossover design: baseline and three-period 2wk each: canola oil supplementation, washout and sunflower oil supplementation. Subjects were provided with commercially available oil (1 L/wk) either canola or sunflower during the corresponding period. Oil treatment produced significant modifications of plasma fatty acid profile, according to the type of oil consumed. In both groups, most of the fat provided was oxidised (ratio oxidised/intake: 79-102%) in the two dietary regimes, no differences were found between groups. Controls however, had a higher fat oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) with sunflower compared to canola treatment. Changes in plasma polyunsaturated/saturated ratio (P/S) from canola to sunflower treatment were not associated to fat oxidation. Changes in plasma n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment showed a positive association with fat oxidation in controls (r=0. 72) and a negative association in obese (r=-0.79). Carbohydrate oxidation was on average 20-29% of CHO intake. Glucose oxidation was not associated to n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment, but it was inversely correlated to PIS ratio changes in both groups. With sunflower treatment obese showed a higher CHO oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) associated to a greater insulin response compared to controls. This study showed that the type of oil can induce differences in substrate oxidation. Canola oil intake could be stimulated based on its smaller insulin response in subjects predisposed to hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. (author)

  11. Dietary fat affects heat production and other variables of equine performance, under hot and humid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld, D S

    1996-07-01

    Does dietary fat supplementation during conditioning improve athletic performance, especially in the heat? Fat adaptation has been used to increase energy density, decrease bowel bulk and faecal output and reduce health risks associated with hydrolysable carbohydrate overload. It may also reduce spontaneous activity and reactivity (excitability), increase fatty acid oxidation, reduce CO2 production and associated acidosis, enhance metabolic regulation of glycolysis, improve both aerobic and anaerobic performance and substantially reduce heat production. A thermochemical analysis of ATP generation showed the least heat release during the direct oxidation of long chain fatty acids, which have a 3% advantage over glucose and 20 to 30% over short chain fatty acids and amino acids. Indirect oxidation via storage as triglyceride increased heat loss during ATP generation by 3% for stearic acid, 65% for glucose and 174% for acetic acid. Meal feeding and nutrient storage, therefore, accentuates the advantage of dietary fat. A calorimetric model was based on initial estimates of net energy for competitive work (10.76 MJ for the Endurance Test of an Olympic level 3-day-event), other work (14.4 MJ/day) and maintenance (36 MJ), then applied estimates of efficiencies to derive associated heat productions for the utilisation of 3 diets, Diet A: hay (100), Diet B: hay and oats (50:50) and Diet C: hay, oats and vegetable oil (45:45:10), the difference between the last 2 diets representing fat adaptation. During a 90.5 min speed and stamina test, heat production was estimated as 37, 35.4 and 34.6 MJ for the 3 diets, respectively, an advantage 0.8 MJ less heat load for the fat adapted horse, which would reduce water needed for evaporation by 0.33 kg and reduce body temperature increase by about 0.07 degree C. Total estimated daily heat production was 105, 93 and 88 MJ for the 3 diets, respectively, suggesting a 5 MJ advantage for the fat adapted horse (Diet C vs. Diet B). Estimated

  12. Low Fat Loss Response after Medium-Term Supervised Exercise in Obese Is Associated with Exercise-Induced Increase in Food Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Finlayson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R or non-responders (NR to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss.

  13. Leucine deprivation stimulates fat loss via increasing CRH expression in the hypothalamus and activating the sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Zhang, Qian; Meng, Qingshu; Xia, Tingting; Huang, Zhiying; Wang, Chunxia; Liu, Bin; Chen, Shanghai; Xiao, Fei; Du, Ying; Guo, Feifan

    2011-09-01

    We previously showed that leucine deprivation decreases abdominal fat mass largely by increasing energy expenditure, as demonstrated by increased lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The goal of the present study was to investigate the possible involvement of central nervous system (CNS) in this regulation and elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms. For this purpose, levels of genes and proteins related to lipolysis in WAT and UCP1 expression in BAT were analyzed in wild-type mice after intracerebroventricular administration of leucine or corticotrophin-releasing hormone antibodies, or in mice deleted for three β-adrenergic receptors, after being maintained on a leucine-deficient diet for 7 d. Here, we show that intracerebroventricular administration of leucine significantly attenuates abdominal fat loss and blocks activation of hormone sensitive lipase in WAT and induction of UCP1 in BAT in leucine-deprived mice. Furthermore, we provide evidence that leucine deprivation stimulates fat loss by increasing expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus via activation of stimulatory G protein/cAMP/protein kinase A/cAMP response element-binding protein pathway. Finally, we show that the effect of leucine deprivation on fat loss is mediated by activation of the sympathetic nervous system. These results suggest that CNS plays an important role in regulating fat loss under leucine deprivation and thereby provide novel and important insights concerning the importance of CNS leucine in the regulation of energy homeostasis.

  14. Differential activation of Fyn kinase distinguishes saturated and unsaturated fats in mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabra, Elena; An Lee, Ting-Wen; Zammit, Victor A; Vatish, Manu; Yamada, Eijiro; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Bastie, Claire C

    2017-10-17

    Diet-induced obesity is associated with increased adipose tissue activated macrophages. Yet, how macrophages integrate fatty acid (FA) signals remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that Fyn deficiency ( fynKO ) protects against high fat diet-induced adipose tissue macrophage accumulation. Herein, we show that inflammatory markers and reactive oxygen species are not induced in fynKO bone marrow-derived macrophages exposed to the saturated FA palmitate, suggesting that Fyn regulates macrophage function in response to FA signals. Palmitate activates Fyn and re-localizes Fyn into the nucleus of RAW264.7, J774 and wild-type bone marrow-derived macrophages. Similarly, Fyn activity is increased in cells of adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction of high fat-fed control mice, with Fyn protein being located in the nucleus of these cells. We demonstrate that Fyn modulates palmitate-dependent oxidative stress in macrophages. Moreover, Fyn catalytic activity is necessary for its nuclear re-localization and downstream effects, as Fyn pharmacological inhibition abolishes palmitate-induced Fyn nuclear redistribution and palmitate-dependent increase of oxidative stress markers. Importantly, mono-or polyunsaturated FAs do not activate Fyn, and fail to re-localize Fyn to the nucleus. Together these data demonstrate that macrophages integrate nutritional FA signals via a differential activation of Fyn that distinguishes, at least partly, the effects of saturated versus unsaturated fats.

  15. Effect of active edible coatings made by basil seed gum and thymol on oil uptake and oxidation in shrimp during deep-fat frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Naimeh; Esmaiili, Mohsen; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra

    2016-02-10

    The effect of active coating treatments on oil uptake, moisture loss, lipid oxidation, texture, color, and sensory evaluation of shrimp after deep-fat frying process was investigated. Compared with the uncoated samples, coating treatments decreased the oil uptake and moisture loss of fried shrimp by 34.50 and 13.9%, respectively. Fried shrimp samples were analyzed for peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA). The most reduction in lipid oxidation (46.4% for PV and 40.8% for TBA) was observed when shrimp samples were coated with CS4 (containing 10% thyme), while the control samples had the highest values of PV and TBA after deep-fat frying process. Coated fried samples had significantly lower toughness and stiffness than control samples (P0.05). However, for the texture, juiciness, chewiness, and overall acceptability, coated fried samples had higher scores than control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of natural antioxidants on the rate of accumulation of oxidation products in the fat phase of butter cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Voronina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Describes the main finishing prefabricated pastries and cakes-cream. Researched range of cream depending on the fruit components and method of production. Aim: to study the degree of oxidation cream with natural antioxidants from fruits and berries processing products, namely in the form of concentrated juice of fruits and berries. Outlines the process of oxidation of lipids, one of the fundamental processes of loss of quality food products. Describes the action of antioxidants as antioxidants on accumulation intensity concentrations of primary and secondary oxidation products, making the final product unsuitable for the consumer and the bounding its shelf life. Presents the results of a study of the contents of primary and secondary oxidation products in butter cream immediately after cooking, as well as samples, stored for five days with the addition of antioxidants in the form of concentrated juice of fruits and berries in the amount of 2–7% by weight of cream. As a control sample has been used cream with no additives. Quality indicators to characterize the degree of oxidation of the product: acid, peroxide, anizidin and tioburbit number. The study found that adding a concentrated juice of fruits and berries as antioxidant in recipe cream reduces the growth rate of the concentration of free fatty acids on the fifth day, as compared with the reference sample. Adding concentrated juice of fruits and berries slows down the process of dissolution of the fat molecules in fat fraction of cream with the formation of free fatty acids; intensity decay reaction of peroxides and hydroxides slows down and, consequently, decreases the formation of aldehydes, deteriorating the taste and smell of the cream; quantitatively reduced the growth of education malondial′degida.

  17. A HIGHER PROPORTION OF PUFA IN DIET INCREASES THE PUFA CONTENT IN RABBIT MEAT, BUT REDUCES THE OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Trebušak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the changes in the fatty acid composition of rabbit meat, if palm fat (99% of saturated fatty acids (SFA, as a source of fat in rabbit diet, was replaced with linseed oil (71% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, containing 52% of α-linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA. The Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves were added in the diet as potential antioxidant in order to protect the PUFA against oxidation. 48 SIKA rabbits were randomly divided by mass and gender in four groups: CONT- 6% palm fat, CONT+ 6% linseed oil, REISHI 6% linseed oil and 1% Ganoderma lucidum, OLIVE 6% linseed oil and 1% olive leaves. After 22 days of the experimental procedure, the samples of back muscle were taken and divided in 7 portions. One was for fatty acid determination, other six for malondialdehyde (MDA determination after different storage condition; fresh, 6 days at 4°C or 3 months at -20°C, raw or cooked (60 minutes, 85°C. Addition of linseed oil resulted in a significant higher proportion of PUFA (n-3 PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and lower proportion of SFA in the back muscle, but the oxidative stability of meat was reduced, since the level of MDA was significantly higher. After cooking, the level of MDA increased in all the groups, but more in the groups with linseed oil in the diet, the addition of Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves slightly decreased the level of MDA, but the difference was not significant.

  18. Total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution and surrogate markers for health related to adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Danielson, Anton; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess possible relationships between adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) and total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, cardiac dimensions and the increase in body fat over 2 years in a community sample of children. A cross-sectional study was used in a community sample of 170 (92 boys and 78 girls) children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat (AFM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). TBF was also expressed as percentage of total body mass (BF%), and body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) were measured. Echocardiography was performed. Left atrial (LA) size was measured, and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. A follow-up DXA scan was available in 152 children (84 boys and 68 girls). Frozen serum samples were analyzed for FABP4. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex, between FABP4 vs. ln TBF, ln BF%, ln AFM, AFM/TBF and VO2PEAK were (r=0.69, 0.68, 0.69, 0.49 and -0.39, pfat or change in fat distribution were not correlated.) Conclusions: Findings from this community-based cohort of young children show that increased body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, low fitness, more LVM and increased LA, increased SBP and PP were all associated with increased levels of FABP4. Increase in TBF and abdominal fat over 2 years were also associated with increased levels of FABP4.

  19. Relation of Pericardial Fat, Intrathoracic Fat, and Abdominal Visceral Fat with Incident Atrial Fibrillation (From the Framingham Heart Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jane J.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF). Different fat depots may have differential associations with cardiac pathology. We examined the longitudinal associations between pericardial, intrathoracic, and visceral fat with incident AF. We studied Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation Cohorts who participated in the multi-detector computed tomography sub-study examination 1. We constructed multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models for risk of incident AF. Body mass index (BMI) was included in the multivariable-adjusted model as a secondary adjustment. We included 2,135 participants (53.3% women; mean age 58.8 years). During a median follow-up of 9.7 years, we identified 162 cases of incident AF. Across the increasing tertiles of pericardial fat volume, age- and sex-adjusted incident AF rate per 1000 person-years of follow-up were 8.4, 7.5, and 10.2. Based on an age- and sex-adjusted model, greater pericardial fat [hazard ratio (HR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.34] and intrathoracic fat (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.45) were associated with increased risk of incident AF. The HRs (95% CI) for incident AF were 1.13 (0.99-1.30) for pericardial fat, 1.19 (1.01-1.40) for intrathoracic fat, and 1.09 (0.93-1.28) for abdominal visceral fat after multivariable adjustment. After additional adjustment of BMI, none of the associations remained significant (all p>0.05). Our findings suggest that cardiac ectopic fat depots may share common risk factors with AF, which may have led to a lack of independence in the association between pericardial fat with incident AF. PMID:27666172

  20. High-fat diet-induced insulin resistance does not increase plasma anandamide levels or potentiate anandamide insulinotropic effect in isolated canine islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolcott, Orison O; Richey, Joyce M; Kabir, Morvarid; Chow, Robert H; Iyer, Malini S; Kirkman, Erlinda L; Stefanovski, Darko; Lottati, Maya; Kim, Stella P; Harrison, L Nicole; Ionut, Viorica; Zheng, Dan; Hsu, Isabel R; Catalano, Karyn J; Chiu, Jenny D; Bradshaw, Heather; Wu, Qiang; Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with elevated plasma anandamide levels. In addition, anandamide has been shown to stimulate insulin secretion in vitro, suggesting that anandamide might be linked to hyperinsulinemia. To determine whether high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance increases anandamide levels and potentiates the insulinotropic effect of anandamide in isolated pancreatic islets. Dogs were fed a high-fat diet (n = 9) for 22 weeks. Abdominal fat depot was quantified by MRI. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Fasting plasma endocannabinoid levels were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All metabolic assessments were performed before and after fat diet regimen. At the end of the study, pancreatic islets were isolated prior to euthanasia to test the in vitro effect of anandamide on islet hormones. mRNA expression of cannabinoid receptors was determined in intact islets. The findings in vitro were compared with those from animals fed a control diet (n = 7). Prolonged fat feeding increased abdominal fat content by 81.3±21.6% (mean±S.E.M, Pcanines, high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance does not alter plasma anandamide levels or further potentiate the insulinotropic effect of anandamide in vitro.

  1. Increased perirenal fat area is not associated with adverse outcomes after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levic, Katarina; Bulut, Orhan; Schødt, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Intraabdominal visceral obesity may increase technical challenges during laparoscopic rectal resection and hypothetically therefore increase the risk of perioperative complications. The aim of this study was to analyze intraabdominal obesity by means of perirenal fat against risk...... of adverse outcomes in patients undergoing laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. Methods This study was a single-institution retrospective analysis of consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic total mesorectal surgery for rectal cancer between January 2009 and January 2013. Abdominal CT scans...... with intravenous contrast were assessed in a blinded manner to estimate the perirenal fat area (cm2). Result A total of 195 patients were included (median age 70 years (range 27–87), 58 women and 137 men) for analysis. There was a moderate correlation between BMI and perirenal fat area (r = 0.499, p = 0...

  2. Effects of Mixed Isoenergetic Meals on Fat and Carbohydrate Metabolism during Exercise in Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Bassami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of four different meals on fat and CHO metabolism during subsequent exercise in elderly males. Eight healthy males (age: 63.3 ± 5.2 years reported to the physiology laboratory on four separate occasions, each of which was allocated for the performance of a 30-minute exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% ̇VO2max after having normal (N, high fat (HF, high carbohydrate high glycaemic index (HGI and high carbohydrate low glycaemic index (LGI meals. Fat oxidation during exercise after the meals (HF=0.26±0.04 g/min; N=0.21±0.04 g/min; HGI=0.22±0.03 g/min; LGI=0.19±0.03 g/min was not significant (>.05, and neither were the rates of carbohydrate oxidation (N=1.79±0.28, HF=1.58±0.22, HGI=1.68±0.22, and LGI=1.77±0.21 g/m. NEFA concentration increased after HF (<.05 but decreased after HGI and LGI (<.05. Glucose concentration decreased as a result of exercise after HF, and LGI (<.05 whereas insulin concentration decreased significantly during exercise after N, HF, and HGI (<.05. It can be concluded that, in elderly males, feeding isoenergetic meals containing different proportions of carbohydrate and fat do not significantly alter oxidation of fat and CHO during exercise in spite of changes in some circulating metabolites.

  3. Impact of hydrogenated fat consumption on endogenous cholesterol synthesis and susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation in moderately hypercholesterolemic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuchel, M; Schwab, U S; Jones, P J; Vogel, S; Lammi-Keefe, C; Li, Z; Ordovas, J; McNamara, J R; Schaefer, E J; Lichtenstein, A H

    1996-02-01

    size tended to be smaller after subjects consumed the margarine-enriched diet versus the corn oil-enriched diet (P = .103). Susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was similar after consumption of the corn oil- and margarine-enriched diets. These data suggest that an increased rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis did not contribute to the higher plasma cholesterol concentrations during the period when subjects consumed the margarine-enriched diet. Therefore, the increase in cholesterol concentration resulting from margarine consumption was likely attributable, at least in part, to a decreased catabolic rate of cholesterol. Additionally, susceptibility of LDL to in vitro oxidation was not altered by consumption of hydrogenated fat.

  4. High Fat Diet-Induced Changes in Mouse Muscle Mitochondrial Phospholipids Do Not Impair Mitochondrial Respiration Despite Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Martijn F. M.; van den Berg, Sjoerd A. A.; Schaart, Gert; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Smit, Egbert; Mariman, Edwin C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus and muscle insulin resistance have been associated with reduced capacity of skeletal muscle mitochondria, possibly as a result of increased intake of dietary fat. Here, we examined the hypothesis that a prolonged high-fat diet consumption (HFD) increases the saturation of muscle mitochondrial membrane phospholipids causing impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity and possibly insulin resistance. Methodology C57BL/6J mice were fed an 8-week or 20-week low fat diet (10 kcal%; LFD) or HFD (45 kcal%). Skeletal muscle mitochondria were isolated and fatty acid (FA) composition of skeletal muscle mitochondrial phospholipids was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography followed by GC. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess oxidation of pyruvate and fatty acids by mitochondria. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-IR. Principal Findings At 8 weeks, mono-unsaturated FA (16∶1n7, 18∶1n7 and 18∶1n9) were decreased (−4.0%, p<0.001), whereas saturated FA (16∶0) were increased (+3.2%, p<0.001) in phospholipids of HFD vs. LFD mitochondria. Interestingly, 20 weeks of HFD descreased mono-unsaturated FA while n-6 poly-unsaturated FA (18∶2n6, 20∶4n6, 22∶5n6) showed a pronounced increase (+4.0%, p<0.001). Despite increased saturation of muscle mitochondrial phospholipids after the 8-week HFD, mitochondrial oxidation of both pyruvate and fatty acids were similar between LFD and HFD mice. After 20 weeks of HFD, the increase in n-6 poly-unsaturated FA was accompanied by enhanced maximal capacity of the electron transport chain (+49%, p = 0.002) and a tendency for increased ADP-stimulated respiration, but only when fuelled by a lipid-derived substrate. Insulin sensitivity in HFD mice was reduced at both 8 and 20 weeks. Conclusions/Interpretation Our findings do not support the concept that prolonged HF feeding leads to increased saturation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial phospholipids resulting in a decrease in

  5. High fat diet-induced changes in mouse muscle mitochondrial phospholipids do not impair mitochondrial respiration despite insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris Hoeks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and muscle insulin resistance have been associated with reduced capacity of skeletal muscle mitochondria, possibly as a result of increased intake of dietary fat. Here, we examined the hypothesis that a prolonged high-fat diet consumption (HFD increases the saturation of muscle mitochondrial membrane phospholipids causing impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity and possibly insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY: C57BL/6J mice were fed an 8-week or 20-week low fat diet (10 kcal%; LFD or HFD (45 kcal%. Skeletal muscle mitochondria were isolated and fatty acid (FA composition of skeletal muscle mitochondrial phospholipids was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography followed by GC. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess oxidation of pyruvate and fatty acids by mitochondria. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-IR. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At 8 weeks, mono-unsaturated FA (16∶1n7, 18∶1n7 and 18∶1n9 were decreased (-4.0%, p<0.001, whereas saturated FA (16∶0 were increased (+3.2%, p<0.001 in phospholipids of HFD vs. LFD mitochondria. Interestingly, 20 weeks of HFD descreased mono-unsaturated FA while n-6 poly-unsaturated FA (18∶2n6, 20∶4n6, 22∶5n6 showed a pronounced increase (+4.0%, p<0.001. Despite increased saturation of muscle mitochondrial phospholipids after the 8-week HFD, mitochondrial oxidation of both pyruvate and fatty acids were similar between LFD and HFD mice. After 20 weeks of HFD, the increase in n-6 poly-unsaturated FA was accompanied by enhanced maximal capacity of the electron transport chain (+49%, p = 0.002 and a tendency for increased ADP-stimulated respiration, but only when fuelled by a lipid-derived substrate. Insulin sensitivity in HFD mice was reduced at both 8 and 20 weeks. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our findings do not support the concept that prolonged HF feeding leads to increased saturation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial phospholipids resulting in a decrease in

  6. Fat as fuel during exercise | Goedecke | Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbohydrate (CHO) and fat serve as the two main substrates for the production of energy during prolonged muscle contraction. Although CHO and fat are oxidised simultaneously, the relative contribution of these substrates to oxidative metabolism during exercise varies, and is dependent on a variety of factors, including ...

  7. Fat-specific protein 27 regulates storage of triacylglycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, P.; Petrie, J.T.; Rose, P. De

    2008-01-01

    FSP27 (fat-specific protein 27) is a member of the cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like effector (CIDE) family. Although Cidea and Cideb were initially characterized as activators of apoptosis, recent studies have demonstrated important metabolic roles for these proteins...... in several cell types without induction of adipocyte genes. Increased triacylglycerol is likely due to decreased beta-oxidation of nonesterified fatty acids. Altered flux of fatty acids into triacylglycerol may be a direct effect of FSP27 function, which is localized to lipid droplets in 293T cells and 3T3-L...... decreases with total fat mass but is not associated with measures of insulin resistance (e.g. homeostasis model assessment). Together, these data indicate that FSP27 binds to lipid droplets and regulates their enlargement Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5/23...

  8. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet impairs exercise economy and negates the performance benefit from intensified training in elite race walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Megan L.; Garvican‐Lewis, Laura A.; Welvaert, Marijke; Heikura, Ida A.; Forbes, Sara G.; Mirtschin, Joanne G.; Cato, Louise E.; Strobel, Nicki; Sharma, Avish P.; Hawley, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Key points Three weeks of intensified training and mild energy deficit in elite race walkers increases peak aerobic capacity independent of dietary support.Adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet markedly increases rates of whole‐body fat oxidation during exercise in race walkers over a range of exercise intensities.The increased rates of fat oxidation result in reduced economy (increased oxygen demand for a given speed) at velocities that translate to real‐life race performance in elite race walkers.In contrast to training with diets providing chronic or periodised high carbohydrate availability, adaptation to an LCHF diet impairs performance in elite endurance athletes despite a significant improvement in peak aerobic capacity. Abstract We investigated the effects of adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate (CHO), high fat diet (LCHF) during 3 weeks of intensified training on metabolism and performance of world‐class endurance athletes. We controlled three isoenergetic diets in elite race walkers: high CHO availability (g kg−1 day−1: 8.6 CHO, 2.1 protein, 1.2 fat) consumed before, during and after training (HCHO, n = 9); identical macronutrient intake, periodised within or between days to alternate between low and high CHO availability (PCHO, n = 10); LCHF (diets providing chronic or periodised high‐CHO availability, and despite a significant improvement in V˙O2 peak , adaptation to the topical LCHF diet negated performance benefits in elite endurance athletes, in part due to reduced exercise economy. PMID:28012184

  9. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low aerobic capacity rats fed an acute high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that low capacity running (LCR) rats fed acute high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with...

  10. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  11. IGF-1 Alleviates High Fat Diet-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction: Role of Insulin Signaling and Mitochondrial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingmei; Yuan, Ming; Bradley, Katherine M.; Dong, Feng; Anversa, Piero; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is often associated with reduced plasma IGF-1 levels, oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and cardiac dysfunction. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of IGF-1 on high fat diet-induced oxidative, myocardial, geometric and mitochondrial responses. FVB and cardiomyocyte-specific IGF-1 overexpression transgenic mice were fed a low (10%) or high fat (45%) diet to induce obesity. High fat diet feeding led to glucose intolerance, elevated plasma levels of leptin, interleukin-6, insulin and triglyceride as well as reduced circulating IGF-1 levels. Echocardiography revealed reduced fractional shortening, increased end systolic and diastolic diameter, increased wall thickness, and cardiac hypertrophy in high fat-fed FVB mice. High fat diet promoted ROS generation, apoptosis, protein and mitochondrial damage, reduced ATP content, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, contractile and intracellular Ca2+ dysregulation, including depressed peak shortening and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, prolonged duration of relengthening, and dampened intracellular Ca2+ rise and clearance. Western blot analysis revealed disrupted phosphorylation of insulin receptor, post-receptor signaling molecules IRS-1 (tyrosine/serine phosphorylation), Akt, GSK3β, Foxo3a, mTOR, as well as downregulated expression of mitochondrial proteins PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) and UCP-2. Intriguingly, IGF-1 mitigated high fat diet feeding-induced alterations in ROS, protein and mitochondrial damage, ATP content, apoptosis, myocardial contraction, intracellular Ca2+ handling and insulin signaling, but not whole body glucose intolerance and cardiac hypertrophy. Exogenous IGF-1 treatment also alleviated high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction. Our data revealed that IGF-1 alleviates high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction despite persistent cardiac remodeling, possibly due to preserved cell survival, mitochondrial function and insulin signaling. PMID:22275536

  12. Perinatal, sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of increased total and visceral fat mass levels in schoolchildren in Greece: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonis, George; Kaliora, Adriana C; Karatzi, Kalliopi; Michaletos, Aggelos; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Karachaliou, Alexandra K; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Manios, Yannis

    2017-03-01

    To identify possibly independent associations of perinatal, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors with childhood total and visceral body fat. A representative sample of 2655 schoolchildren (9-13 years) participated in the Healthy Growth Study, a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Seventy-seven primary schools in four large regions in Greece. A sample of 1228 children having full data on total and visceral fat mass levels, as well as on anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, physical examination, socio-economic and perinatal indices, was examined. Maternal (OR=3·03 and 1·77) and paternal obesity (OR=1·62 and 1·78), maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR=1·72 and 1·93) and rapid infant weight gain (OR=1·42 and 1·96) were significantly and positively associated with children's increased total and visceral fat mass levels, respectively. Children's television watching for >2 h/d (OR=1·40) and maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR=2·46) were associated with children's increased total and visceral fat mass level, respectively. Furthermore, increased children's physical activity (OR=0·66 and 0·47) were significantly and negatively associated with children's total and visceral fat mass levels, respectively. Lastly, both father's age >46 years (OR=0·57) and higher maternal educational level (OR=0·45) were associated with children's increased total visceral fat mass level. Parental sociodemographic characteristics, perinatal indices and pre-adolescent lifestyle behaviours were associated with children's abnormal levels of total and visceral fat mass. Any future programme for childhood prevention either from the perinatal age or at late childhood should take these indices into consideration.

  13. Dietary saturated and unsaturated fats as determinants of blood pressure and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wendy L

    2009-06-01

    The amount and type of dietary fat have long been associated with the risk of CVD. Arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction are important risk factors in the aetiology of CHD. A range of methods exists to assess vascular function that may be used in nutritional science, including clinic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, pulse wave analysis, pulse wave velocity, flow-mediated dilatation and venous occlusion plethysmography. The present review focuses on the quantity and type of dietary fat and effects on blood pressure, arterial compliance and endothelial function. Concerning fat quantity, the amount of dietary fat consumed habitually appears to have little influence on vascular function independent of fatty acid composition, although single high-fat meals postprandially impair endothelial function compared with low-fat meals. The mechanism is related to increased circulating lipoproteins and NEFA which may induce pro-inflammatory pathways and increase oxidative stress. Regarding the type of fat, cross-sectional data suggest that saturated fat adversely affects vascular function whereas polyunsaturated fat (mainly linoleic acid (18 : 2n-6) and n-3 PUFA) are beneficial. EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) can reduce blood pressure, improve arterial compliance in type 2 diabetics and dyslipidaemics, and augment endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The mechanisms for this vascular protection, and the nature of the separate physiological effects induced by EPA and DHA, are priorities for future research. Since good-quality observational or interventional data on dietary fatty acid composition and vascular function are scarce, no further recommendations can be suggested in addition to current guidelines at the present time.

  14. A prescribed Chinese herbal medicine improves glucose profile and ameliorates oxidative stress in Goto-Kakisaki rats fed with high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wu

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS plays a role in hyperglycemia induced islet β cell dysfunction, however, studies on classic anti-oxidants didn't show positive results in treating diabetes. We previously demonstrated that the prescribed Chinese herbal medicine preparation "Qing Huo Yi Hao" (QHYH improved endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients. QHYH protected endothelial cells from high glucose-induced damages by scavenging superoxide anion and reducing production of reactive oxygen species. Its active component protected C2C12 myotubes against palmitate-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated whether QHYH protected islet β cell function exacerbated by high fat diet (HFD in hyperglycemic GK rats. 4-week-old male rats were randomly divided into high HFD feeding group (n = 20 and chow diet feeding group (n = 10. Each gram of HFD contained 4.8 kcal of energy, 52% of which from fat. Rats on HFD were further divided into 2 groups given either QHYH (3 ml/Kg/d or saline through gastric tube. After intervention, serum glucose concentrations were monitored; IPGTTs were performed without anesthesia on 5 fasting rats randomly chosen from each group on week 4 and 16. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations and activities of serum antioxidant enzymes were measured on week 4 and 16. Islet β cell mass and OS marker staining was done by immunohistochemistry on week 16. QHYH prevented the exacerbation of hyperglycemia in HFD feeding GK rats for 12 weeks. On week 16, it improved the exacerbated glucose tolerance and prevented the further loss of islet β cell mass induced by HFD. QHYH markedly decreased serum MDA concentration, increased serum catalase (CAT and SOD activities on week 4. However, no differences of serum glucose concentration or OS were observed on week 16. We concluded that QHYH decreased hyperglycemia exacerbated by HFD in GK rats by improving β cell function partly via its

  15. Impact of exercise training without caloric restriction on inflammation, insulin resistance and visceral fat mass in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, M; Michallet, A-S; Monneret, D; Perrin, C; Estève, F; Lombard, P R; Faure, P; Lévy, P; Favre-Juvin, A; Pépin, J-L; Wuyam, B; Flore, P

    2015-08-01

    Exercise training has been shown to improve cardiometabolic health in obese adolescents. Evaluate the impact of a 12-week exercise-training programme (without caloric restriction) on obese adolescents' cardiometabolic and vascular risk profiles. We measured systemic markers of oxidation, inflammation, metabolic variables and endothelial function in 20 obese adolescents (OB) (age: 14.5 ± 1.5 years; body mass index: 34.0 ± 4.7 kg m(-2) ) and 20 age- and gender-matched normal-weight adolescents (NW). Body composition was assessed by magnetic resonance imagery. Peak aerobic capacity and maximal fat oxidation were evaluated during specific incremental exercise tests. OB participated in a 12-week exercise-training programme. OB presented lower peak aerobic capacity (24.2 ± 5.9 vs. 39.8 ± 8.3 mL kg(-1)  min(-1) , P < 0.05) and maximal fat oxidation compared with NW (P < 0.05). OB displayed greater F2t-Isoprostanes (20.5 ± 6.7 vs. 13.4 ± 4.2 ng mmol(-1) creatinine), Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) (1794.8 ± 532.2 vs. 835.1 ± 1027.4 pg mL(-1) ), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) (2.1 ± 1.2 vs. 1.5 ± 1.0 pg mL(-1) ), Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Type II Receptor (sTNFαRII), leptin, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, version 2 (HOMA2-IR), high-sensitive C-reactive protein, triglycerides and lower adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (all P < 0.05). After exercise training, despite lack of weight loss, VO2peak (mL.kg(-1) .min(-1) ) and maximal fat oxidation increased (P < 0.05). IL-1Ra and IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) decreased (P < 0.05). Insulin and HOMA2-IR decreased (14.8 ± 1.5 vs. 10.2 ± 4.2 μUI mL(-1) and 1.9 ± 0.8 vs. 1.3 ± 0.6, respectively, P < 0.05). Change in visceral fat mass was inversely associated with change in maximal fat oxidation (r = -0.54; P = 0.024). The

  16. Dissociation between fat-induced in vivo insulin resistance and proximal insulin signaling in skeletal muscle in men at risk for type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Jensen, Christine B; Björnholm, Marie

    2004-01-01

    The effect of short- (2 h) and long-term (24 h) low-grade Intralipid infusion on whole-body insulin action, cellular glucose metabolism, and proximal components of the insulin signal transduction cascade was studied in seven obese male glucose intolerant first degree relatives of type 2 diabetic...... h Intralipid infusion (0.4 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)). Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal decreased approximately 25% after short- and long-term fat infusion in both IGT relatives and controls. Glucose oxidation decreased and lipid oxidation increased after both short- and long-term fat infusion in both...... groups. Insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation was higher after long-term as compared with short-term fat infusion in control subjects. Short- or long-term infusion did not affect the absolute values of basal or insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, tyrosine...

  17. Efficacy of sequential or simultaneous interactive computer-tailored interventions for increasing physical activity and decreasing fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Sallis, James F; Spittaels, Heleen; Brug, Johannes

    2005-04-01

    Little evidence exists about the effectiveness of "interactive" computer-tailored interventions and about the combined effectiveness of tailored interventions on physical activity and diet. Furthermore, it is unknown whether they should be executed sequentially or simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effectiveness of interactive computer-tailored interventions for increasing physical activity and decreasing fat intake and (b) which intervening mode, sequential or simultaneous, is most effective in behavior change. Participants (N = 771) were randomly assigned to receive (a) the physical activity and fat intake interventions simultaneously at baseline, (b) the physical activity intervention at baseline and the fat intake intervention 3 months later, (c) the fat intake intervention at baseline and the physical activity intervention 3 months later, or (d) a place in the control group. Six months postbaseline, the results showed that the tailored interventions produced significantly higher physical activity scores, F(2, 573) = 11.4, p physical activity intervention, the simultaneous mode appeared to work better than the sequential mode.

  18. [PPARβ/δ Activation prevents hypertriglyceridemia caused by a high fat diet. Involvement of AMPK and PGC-1α-Lipin1-PPARα pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Emma; Astudillo, Alma M; Balsinde, Jesús; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Excessive consume of hypercaloric and high in saturated fat food causes an atherogenic dyslipidemia. In this study we analyzed the effects of PPARβ/δ activator GW501516 on the hypertriglyceridemia induced by a high-fat diet. Male mice were randomized in three groups: control (standard chow), high fat diet (HFD, 35% fat by weight, 58% Kcal from fat) and high fat diet plus GW501516 (3mg/Kg/day). Treatment duration was three weeks. HFD-induced hypertriglyceridemia was accompanied by a reduction in hepatic levels of phospho-AMPK and in PGC-1α and Lipin1 mRNA levels. All these effects were reversed by GW501516 treatment. The lack of changes in phospho-AMPK levels after GW501516 treatment in HFD-fed animals could be the result of an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio. GW501516 treatment also increased Lipin1 protein levels in the nucleus, led to the amplification of the PGC-1α-PPARα pathway and increased PPARα DNA-binding activity, as well as the expression of PPARα-target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. GW501516 also increased β-hydroxibutirate plasmatic levels, a hepatic β-oxidation end product. Finally, GW501516 increased the hepatic levels of the PPARα endogenous ligand 16:0/18:1-PC and the expression of the VLDL receptor. These data indicate that the hypotriglyceridemic effect of GW501516 in mice subjected to HFD-fed mice is accompanied by an increase in phospho-AMPK levels and the amplification of the PGC-1α-Lipin1-PPARα pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEA. All rights reserved.

  19. Tissue-specific inactivation of type 2 deiodinase reveals multilevel control of fatty acid oxidation by thyroid hormone in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Tatiana L; Werneck-De-Castro, Joao Pedro; Castillo, Melany; Bocco, Barbara M L C; Fernandes, Gustavo W; McAninch, Elizabeth A; Ignacio, Daniele L; Moises, Caio C S; Ferreira, Alexander R; Ferreira, Alexandre; Gereben, Balázs; Bianco, Antonio C

    2014-05-01

    Type 2 deiodinase (D2) converts the prohormone thyroxine (T4) to the metabolically active molecule 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), but its global inactivation unexpectedly lowers the respiratory exchange rate (respiratory quotient [RQ]) and decreases food intake. Here we used FloxD2 mice to generate systemically euthyroid fat-specific (FAT), astrocyte-specific (ASTRO), or skeletal-muscle-specific (SKM) D2 knockout (D2KO) mice that were monitored continuously. The ASTRO-D2KO mice also exhibited lower diurnal RQ and greater contribution of fatty acid oxidation to energy expenditure, but no differences in food intake were observed. In contrast, the FAT-D2KO mouse exhibited sustained (24 h) increase in RQ values, increased food intake, tolerance to glucose, and sensitivity to insulin, all supporting greater contribution of carbohydrate oxidation to energy expenditure. Furthermore, FAT-D2KO animals that were kept on a high-fat diet for 8 weeks gained more body weight and fat, indicating impaired brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and/or inability to oxidize the fat excess. Acclimatization of FAT-D2KO mice at thermoneutrality dissipated both features of this phenotype. Muscle D2 does not seem to play a significant metabolic role given that SKM-D2KO animals exhibited no phenotype. The present findings are unique in that they were obtained in systemically euthyroid animals, revealing that brain D2 plays a dominant albeit indirect role in fatty acid oxidation via its sympathetic control of BAT activity. D2-generated T3 in BAT accelerates fatty acid oxidation and protects against diet-induced obesity.

  20. Exposure to automotive pollution increases plasma susceptibility to oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, James E; Coombes, Jeff S; Geraghty, Dominic P; Fraser, David I

    2002-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein oxidation is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Plasma susceptibility to oxidation may be used as a marker of low-density lipoprotein oxidation and thus predict atherosclerotic risk. In this study the authors investigated the relationship between plasma susceptibility to oxidation and exposure to automotive pollution in a group of automobile mechanics (n = 16) exposed to high levels of automotive pollution, vs. matched controls (n = 13). The authors induced plasma oxidation by a free radical initiator and they determined susceptibility to oxidation by (1) change in absorbance at 234 nm, (2) lag time to conjugated diene formation, and (3) linear slope of the oxidation curve. Mechanics had significantly higher values (mean +/- standard error) for change in absorbance (1.60 +/- 0.05 vs. 1.36 +/- 0.05; p automotive pollutants increases plasma susceptibility to oxidation and may, in the long-term, increase the risk of developing atherosclerosis.

  1. Formation of trans fats during food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Oman; Aladedunye, Felix A

    2012-01-01

    An investigation was completed to determine how typical cooking procedures used in food preparation, such as baking and stir-frying, affect trans fats formation. Canola oil was used as the main fat ingredient. Zucchini cake and gingersnap cookies were baked at 180o C and 200o C, while stir-fried chicken was prepared at 200o C and 275o C. The lipids from the food were extracted following the Folch procedure, and analyzed for trans fatty acids according to ISO official method 15304. Minimal changes were observed in the amount of trans fats during baking. Application of extreme temperatures during baking, which caused carbonization of the outer layer of products, yielded an insignificant increase in the amount of trans isomers. As with baking, stir-frying did not result in significant isomerization of the fatty acids, even when the oil was heated to 275o C and smoking heavily before the food was placed in it. Irrespective of the cooking procedure, linolenic acid was the most prone to isomerization with the highest amount of trans isomers formation. Baking and stir-frying at normal and/or extreme temperatures do not significantly affect the amounts of trans fats. Likewise, heating oil to the smoking point during stir-frying may decrease the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids because of oxidative degradation.

  2. Cholesterol photosensitised oxidation of horse meat slices stored under different packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, Emanuele; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Ferioli, Federico; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Lercker, Giovanni

    2010-07-01

    The effect of the type of packaging film (transparent vs. light-protecting red film) was evaluated on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in refrigerated horse meat slices stored in retail conditions under light exposure for 8h. In meat wrapped with a transparent film, COPs increased from 233 (control) to 317 microg/g of fat, whereas the red film delayed cholesterol oxidation and offered protection against COPs formation, since COPs decreased from 173 (control) to 139 microg/g of fat after 8h of light exposure. In addition, light opened the epoxy ring and led to the formation of triol, which was actually absent at T(0.) A proper packaging film may represent a useful strategy to retard oxidative degradation in a light-sensitive, high pigment- and fat-containing food, such as horse meat. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Change in postprandial substrate oxidation after a high fructose meal is related to Body Mass Index (BMI) in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeraglio, Anne C.; Kennedy, Emily K.; Horgan, Angela; Purnell, Jonathan Q.; Gillingham, Melanie B.

    2013-01-01

    Oral fructose decreases fat oxidation and increases carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation in obese subjects, but the metabolic response to fructose in lean individuals is less well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a single fructose-rich mixed meal on substrate oxidation in young healthy non-obese males. We hypothesized that a decrease in fat oxidation and an increase in carbohydrate oxidation would be observed following a fructose-rich mixed meal compared to a glucose-rich mixed meal. Twelve healthy males, normal to overweight and age 23–31 years old, participated in a double-blind, cross-over study. Each participant completed two study visits, eating a mixed meal containing 30% of the calories from either fructose or glucose. Blood samples for glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and leptin as well as gas exchange by indirect calorimetry were measured intermittently for 7 hours. Serum insulin was higher after a fructose mixed meal but plasma glucose, plasma leptin and serum triglycerides were not different. Mean postprandial respiratory quotient and estimated fat oxidation did not differ between the fructose and glucose meals. The change in fat oxidation between the fructose and glucose rich meals negatively correlated with BMI (r=−0.59, P=0.04 and r=−0.59, P=0.04 at the 4 and 7 hour time points, respectively). In healthy non-obese males, BMI correlates with altered postprandial fat oxidation after a high-fructose mixed meal. The metabolic response to a high fructose meal may be modulated by BMI. PMID:23746558

  4. Facial fat necrosis following autologous fat transfer and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous fat transfer (AFT is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the benefits and risks of AFT highlighting common causes of fat graft failure.

  5. Fat and fat-free mass at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Wells, Jonathan CK

    2011-01-01

    LBW increases the risk of a number of noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. However, birth weight (BW) cannot describe variability in infant body composition (BC). Variability in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth may be particularly important in low-income countries because they und......LBW increases the risk of a number of noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. However, birth weight (BW) cannot describe variability in infant body composition (BC). Variability in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth may be particularly important in low-income countries because...... they undergo nutritional transition. There is a need for data on birth BC and its predictors from low-income countries in transition. We assessed absolute FM and FFM at birth and examined the role of gender, parity, GA, and LBW as predictors of birth BC. FM and FFM were assessed within 48 h of birth on 350...... Ethiopian newborns using air displacement plethysmography (ADP). Female gender and being an infant of primi- or secundiparous mothers predicted lower BW and lower birth FFM but not FM, compared with male gender and infants of multiparous mothers, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship...

  6. Increased oxidative DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes in vitiligo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannelli, Lisa [Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: lisag@pharm.unifi.it; Bellandi, Serena [Department of Dermatological Sciences, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Pitozzi, Vanessa [Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Fabbri, Paolo [Department of Dermatological Sciences, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Dolara, Piero [Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Moretti, Silvia [Department of Dermatological Sciences, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy)

    2004-11-22

    Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder of the skin of unknown aetiology. The autocytotoxic hypothesis suggests that melanocyte impairment could be related to increased oxidative stress. Evidences have been reported that in vitiligo oxidative stress might also be present systemically. We used the comet assay (single cell alkaline gel electrophoresis) to evaluate DNA strand breaks and DNA base oxidation, measured as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites, in peripheral blood cells from patients with active vitiligo and healthy controls. The basal level of oxidative DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes was increased in vitiligo compared to normal subjects, whereas DNA strand breaks (SBs) were not changed. This alteration was not accompanied by a different capability to respond to in vitro oxidative challenge. No differences in the basal levels of DNA damage in polymorphonuclear leukocytes were found between patients and healthy subjects. Thus, this study supports the hypothesis that in vitiligo a systemic oxidative stress exists, and demonstrates for the first time the presence of oxidative alterations at the nuclear level. The increase in oxidative DNA damage shown in the mononuclear component of peripheral blood leukocytes from vitiligo patients was not particularly severe. However, these findings support an adjuvant role of antioxidant treatment in vitiligo.

  7. Increased oxidative DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes in vitiligo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannelli, Lisa; Bellandi, Serena; Pitozzi, Vanessa; Fabbri, Paolo; Dolara, Piero; Moretti, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder of the skin of unknown aetiology. The autocytotoxic hypothesis suggests that melanocyte impairment could be related to increased oxidative stress. Evidences have been reported that in vitiligo oxidative stress might also be present systemically. We used the comet assay (single cell alkaline gel electrophoresis) to evaluate DNA strand breaks and DNA base oxidation, measured as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites, in peripheral blood cells from patients with active vitiligo and healthy controls. The basal level of oxidative DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes was increased in vitiligo compared to normal subjects, whereas DNA strand breaks (SBs) were not changed. This alteration was not accompanied by a different capability to respond to in vitro oxidative challenge. No differences in the basal levels of DNA damage in polymorphonuclear leukocytes were found between patients and healthy subjects. Thus, this study supports the hypothesis that in vitiligo a systemic oxidative stress exists, and demonstrates for the first time the presence of oxidative alterations at the nuclear level. The increase in oxidative DNA damage shown in the mononuclear component of peripheral blood leukocytes from vitiligo patients was not particularly severe. However, these findings support an adjuvant role of antioxidant treatment in vitiligo

  8. Analysis of time-dependent adaptations in whole-body energy balance in obesity induced by high-fat diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghdoori Babak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-fat (HF diet has been extensively used as a model to study metabolic disorders of human obesity in rodents. However, the adaptive whole-body metabolic responses that drive the development of obesity with chronically feeding a HF diet are not fully understood. Therefore, this study investigated the physiological mechanisms by which whole-body energy balance and substrate partitioning are adjusted in the course of HF diet-induced obesity. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum either a standard or a HF diet for 8 weeks. Food intake (FI and body weight were monitored daily, while oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, physical activity, and energy expenditure (EE were assessed weekly. At week 8, fat mass and lean body mass (LBM, fatty acid oxidation and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1 content in brown adipose tissue (BAT, as well as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC content in liver and epidydimal fat were measured. Results Within 1 week of ad libitum HF diet, rats were able to spontaneously reduce FI to precisely match energy intake of control rats, indicating that alterations in dietary energy density were rapidly detected and FI was self-regulated accordingly. Oxygen consumption was higher in HF than controls throughout the study as whole-body fat oxidation also progressively increased. In HF rats, EE initially increased, but then reduced as dark cycle ambulatory activity reached values ~38% lower than controls. No differences in LBM were detected; however, epidydimal, inguinal, and retroperitoneal fat pads were 1.85-, 1.89-, and 2.54-fold larger in HF-fed than control rats, respectively. Plasma leptin was higher in HF rats than controls throughout the study, indicating the induction of leptin resistance by HF diet. At week 8, UCP-1 content and palmitate oxidation in BAT were 3.1- and 1.5-fold higher in HF rats than controls, respectively, while ACC content in liver and epididymal fat was markedly reduced

  9. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Leads to Greater Body Fat Loss in Overweight/Obese Women than High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Cardenosa, Alba; Camacho-Cardenosa, Marta; Burtscher, Martin; Martínez-Guardado, Ismael; Timon, Rafael; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Olcina, Guillermo

    2018-01-01

    A moderate hypoxic stimulus is considered a promising therapeutic modality for several pathological states including obesity. There is scientific evidence suggesting that when hypoxia and physical activity are combined, they could provide benefits for the obese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate if exposure to hypoxia combined with two different protocols of high-intensity interval exercise in overweight/obese women was more effective compared with exercise in normoxia. Study participants included 82 overweight/obese women, who started a 12 week program of 36 sessions, and were randomly divided into four groups: (1) aerobic interval training in hypoxia (AitH; FiO 2 = 17.2%; n = 13), (2) aerobic interval training in normoxia (AitN; n = 15), (3) sprint interval training in hypoxia (SitH; n = 15), and (4) sprint interval training in normoxia (SitN; n = 18). Body mass, body mass index, percentage of total fat mass, muscle mass, basal metabolic rate, fat, and carbohydrate oxidation, and fat and carbohydrate energy were assessed. Outcomes were measured at baseline (T1), after 18 training sessions (T2), 7 days after the last session (T3), and 4 weeks after the last session (T4). The fat mass in the SitH group was significantly reduced compared with the SitN group from T1 to T3 ( p Fat mass in the AitH group decreased significantly ( p fat mass, with a statistically significant reduction in the hypoxia groups ( p fat oxidation tended to increase and oxidation of carbohydrates tended to decrease in both hypoxia groups, the tendency was reversed in the normoxia groups. Thus, high-intensity interval training under normobaric intermittent hypoxia for 12 weeks in overweight/obese women seems to be promising for reducing body fat content with a concomitant increase in muscle mass.

  10. Combination Therapy with Losartan and Pioglitazone Additively Reduces Renal Oxidative and Nitrative Stress Induced by Chronic High Fat, Sucrose, and Sodium Intake

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    Xiang Kong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that combination therapy with losartan and pioglitazone provided synergistic effects compared with monotherapy in improving lesions of renal structure and function in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a high-fat, high-sodium diet and 20% sucrose solution. This study was designed to explore the underlying mechanisms of additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy. Losartan, pioglitazone, and their combination were orally administered for 8 weeks. The increased level of renal malondialdehyde and expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit p47phox and nitrotyrosine as well as the decreased total superoxide dismutase activity and copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase expression were tangible evidence for the presence of oxidative and nitrative stress in the kidney of model rats. Treatment with both drugs, individually and in combination, improved these abnormal changes. Combination therapy showed synergistic effects in reducing malondialdehyde level, p47phox, and nitrotyrosine expression to almost the normal level compared with monotherapy. All these results suggest that the additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy might be attributed to a further reduction of oxidative and nitrative stress.

  11. Myostatin inhibition in muscle, but not adipose tissue, decreases fat mass and improves insulin sensitivity.

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    Tingqing Guo

    Full Text Available Myostatin (Mstn is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Mstn(-/- mice have a dramatic increase in muscle mass, reduction in fat mass, and resistance to diet-induced and genetic obesity. To determine how Mstn deletion causes reduced adiposity and resistance to obesity, we analyzed substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity in Mstn(-/- mice fed a standard chow. Despite reduced lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, Mstn(-/- mice had no change in the rate of whole body lipid oxidation. In contrast, Mstn(-/- mice had increased glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity as measured by indirect calorimetry, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. To determine whether these metabolic effects were due primarily to the loss of myostatin signaling in muscle or adipose tissue, we compared two transgenic mouse lines carrying a dominant negative activin IIB receptor expressed specifically in adipocytes or skeletal muscle. We found that inhibition of myostatin signaling in adipose tissue had no effect on body composition, weight gain, or glucose and insulin tolerance in mice fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet. In contrast, inhibition of myostatin signaling in skeletal muscle, like Mstn deletion, resulted in increased lean mass, decreased fat mass, improved glucose metabolism on standard and high-fat diets, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that Mstn(-/- mice have an increase in insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, and that the reduction in adipose tissue mass in Mstn(-/- mice is an indirect result of metabolic changes in skeletal muscle. These data suggest that increasing muscle mass by administration of myostatin antagonists may be a promising therapeutic target for treating patients with obesity or diabetes.

  12. Curcumin suppresses intestinal polyps in APC Min mice fed a high fat diet

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    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Various risk factors have been associated with CRC including increasing age and diet. Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated a diet high in fat as an important risk factor for colon cancer. High fat diets can promote obesity resulting in insulin resistance and inflammation and the development of oxidative stress, increased cell proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis. Because of the high consumption of dietary fats, especially saturated fats, by Western countries, it is of interest to see if non-nutrient food factors might be effective in preventing or delaying CRC in the presence of high saturated fat intake. Curcumin (Curcuma longa, the main yellow pigment in turmeric, was selected to test because of its reported anti-tumor activity. APC Min mice, which develop intestinal polyps and have many molecular features of CRC, were fed a diet containing 35% pork fat, 33% sucrose, and a protein and vitamin mineral mixture (HFD with or without 0.5% curcumin. These cohorts were compared to APC Min mice receiving standard rodent chow (RC with 8% fat. APC Min mice fed the HFD for 3 months had a 23% increase in total number of polyps compared to APC Min mice on RC. Curcumin was able to significantly reverse the accelerated polyp development associated with the HFD suggesting it may be effective clinically in helping prevent colon cancer even when ingesting high amounts of fatty foods. The anti-tumor effect of curcumin was shown to be associated with enhanced apoptosis and increased efficiency of DNA repair. Since curcumin prevented the gain in body weight seen in APC Min mice ingesting the HFD, modulation of energy metabolism may also be a factor.

  13. Exercise restores decreased physical activity levels and increases markers of autophagy and oxidative capacity in myostatin/activin-blocked mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulmi, Juha J; Oliveira, Bernardo M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Hoogaars, Willem M H; Pasternack, Arja; Kainulainen, Heikki; Ritvos, Olli

    2013-07-15

    The importance of adequate levels of muscle size and function and physical activity is widely recognized. Myostatin/activin blocking increases skeletal muscle mass but may decrease muscle oxidative capacity and can thus be hypothesized to affect voluntary physical activity. Soluble activin receptor IIB (sActRIIB-Fc) was produced to block myostatin/activins. Modestly dystrophic mdx mice were injected with sActRIIB-Fc or PBS with or without voluntary wheel running exercise for 7 wk. Healthy mice served as controls. Running for 7 wk attenuated the sActRIIB-Fc-induced increase in body mass by decreasing fat mass. Running also enhanced/restored the markers of muscle oxidative capacity and autophagy in mdx mice to or above the levels of healthy mice. Voluntary running activity was decreased by sActRIIB-Fc during the first 3-4 wk correlating with increased body mass. Home cage physical activity of mice, quantified from the force plate signal, was decreased by sActRIIB-Fc the whole 7-wk treatment in sedentary mice. To understand what happens during the first weeks after sActRIIB-Fc administration, when mice are less active, healthy mice were injected with sActRIIB-Fc or PBS for 2 wk. During the sActRIIB-Fc-induced rapid 2-wk muscle growth period, oxidative capacity and autophagy were reduced, which may possibly explain the decreased running activity. These results show that increased muscle size and decreased markers of oxidative capacity and autophagy during the first weeks of myostatin/activin blocking are associated with decreased voluntary activity levels. Voluntary exercise in dystrophic mice enhances the markers of oxidative capacity and autophagy to or above the levels of healthy mice.

  14. Consumption Safety of Pastries, Confectioneries, and Potato Products as Related to Fat Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żbikowska, Anna; Rutkowska, Jarosława; Kowalska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    To determine the content of the main groups of fatty acids in pastries, confectionery, and potato products, paying special attention to trans fatty acids and the products of fat oxidation and hydrolysis, as factors affecting the safety of consumption. A total of 157 products were collected in Poland in 2009-2010. In fats extracted from samples, products of oxidation and hydrolysis were assayed using peroxide (PV), anisidine (AnV), and acid (AV) values. The fatty acid (FA) composition, especially the trans FAs (TFAs) content, was determined by gas chromatography. When assessing the TFA intake, Household Budget Surveys were considered. Highest content of fat was found for wafers with filling and crisps (32.3% and 29.3%, respectively). In 4 out of 9 groups of pastry and confectionery products studied, the quality of fat was decreased due to an excessive oxidation, as evidenced by a substantial content of secondary products of fat oxidation. The extracted fat was rich in SFA (on average, 50 g SFA/100 g FA) except fries and mixes. A great diversity of TFA content in fat of the products was found (0.1-24.8 g TFA/100 g FA). Wafers were characterized by the highest average content of TFA in the group of pastries (1.94 g TFA/100 g of product). Products of natural origin supplied 0.496 g of TFA per day, and those of industrial origin supplied about 1.5 g. The average TFA consumption, about 2 g/day, does not seem to affect health. However, an excessive consumption of pastry and confectionery products may present a risk, due not only to TFA but also to a high consumption of toxic secondary oxidation lipid products. Moreover, because 75% of TFAs in the diet were isomers of industrial origin, their further limitation and monitoring of their level in food seems highly recommendable.

  15. Effects of balanced deep-sea water on adipocyte hypertrophy and liver steatosis in high-fat, diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Byung Geun; Park, Jung-Eun; Shin, Eun Ji; Shon, Yun Hee

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effects of balanced deep-sea water (BDSW) on adipocyte hypertrophy and liver steatosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. BDSW was prepared by mixing deep-sea water (DSW) mineral extracts and desalinated water. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet or HFD with or without BDSW with different hardness (500, 1000, or 2000) for 20 weeks. BDSW suppressed body weight gain in HFD-fed mice. Histopathologic assays of the fat and liver revealed that BDSW inhibited the increase in adipocyte size and improved severe liver steatosis in HFD-fed mice. BDSW suppressed the expression of adipogenic, lipogenic, lipolytic, and pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and increased the expression of adipokines and β-oxidation genes in fat. In the liver, BDSW suppressed the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis, and increased the expression of genes related to β-oxidation. Furthermore, BDSW improved the impaired phosphorylation of IRS-1, LKB1, AMPK, and mTOR in fat and liver tissues of HFD-fed mice. These results suggest that BDSW has potential as an anti-lipidemic agent, given its ability to suppress body weight gain and liver steatosis through the regulation of lipid metabolism by signal molecule activation. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  16. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat with high-fat diets rich in lard or safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Tsalouhidou, Sofia; Yepuri, Gayathri; Mougios, Vassilis; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated whether altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics could explain the differential effects of high-fat diets with low or high ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content (lard vs. safflower oil) on the efficiency of body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. After 2 weeks of caloric restriction, rats were isocalorically refed with a low-fat diet (LF) or high-fat diets made from either lard or safflower oil for 1 week, and energy balance and body composition changes were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak. Compared to rats refed the LF, the groups refed high-fat diets showed lower energy expenditure and increased efficiency of fat gain; these differences were less marked with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet. The increase in efficiency of catch-up fat by the high-fat diets could not be attributed to differences in liver mitochondrial activity. By contrast, the lower fat gain with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet is accompanied by higher mitochondrial proton leak and increased proportion of arachidonic acid in mitochondrial membranes. In conclusion, the higher efficiency for catch-up fat on high-lard diet than on LF cannot be explained by altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics. By contrast, the ability of the high-safflower oil diet to produce a less pronounced increase in the efficiency of catch-up fat may partly reside in increased incorporation of arachidonic acid in hepatic mitochondrial membranes, leading to enhanced proton leak and mitochondrial uncoupling.

  17. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 levels are increased and partially related to body fat distribution in patients with familial partial lipodystrophy type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Cynthia Melissa; de Almeida, Juliana Severo; Moreira, Rodrigo Oliveira; Aguiar, Luiza Barreto S; Siciliano, Priscila O; Carvalho, Denise P; Godoy-Matos, Amelio F

    2017-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP4) is an enzyme responsible for glucagon-like peptide-1 inactivation and plays an important role in glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate DPP4 levels in patients with familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 (FPLD2) and correlate it with body fat distribution. Fourteen patients with FPLD2 were selected to participate in this study and matched to a healthy control group (n = 8). All participants had anthropometrical data registered. Body adiposity index (BAI) was used to evaluate fat distribution in this population. Body fat content and distribution were analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Biochemical exams, including DPP4 levels, were performed in all individuals. Despite the same body mass index, lipodystrophic patients had a significant lower hip (median 92.0 vs 94.5; p = 0.028), HDL cholesterol (42.6 ± 10.4 vs 66.1 ± 16.0; p correlation was found between DPP4 levels and percentage of total body fat (r = 0.86; p = 0.0025) and android fat (r = 0.78; p = 0.014). Patients with FPLD2 exhibit an increase in DDP4 levels in comparison to a healthy control group. The increase in the levels of this enzyme does not seem to be related to the diagnosis of diabetes and might be associated with an increase in central fat (estimated using BAI and measured using DXA). These results might be used to reinforce the concept that DDP4 is an adipokine related to central fat distribution.

  18. Increased cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress and salt-loading in adult male offspring of fat fed non-obese rats.

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    Olena Rudyk

    Full Text Available Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11 or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16 chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry. The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF and controls (OC. However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP and Δheart rate (HR with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05 in the awake phase (night-time and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli.

  19. A maternal high-protein diet predisposes female offspring to increased fat mass in adulthood whereas a prebiotic fibre diet decreases fat mass in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Megan C; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-11-14

    The negative effects of malnourishment in utero have been widely explored; the effects of increased maternal macronutrient intake are not known in relation to high fibre, and have been inconclusive with regard to high protein. In the present study, virgin Wistar dams were fed either a control (C), high-protein (40 %, w/w; HP) or high-prebiotic fibre (21·6 %, w/w; HF) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups consumed the C diet from 3 to 14·5 weeks of age, and then switched to a high-fat/sucrose diet for 8 weeks. A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and an oral glucose tolerance test were performed and plasma satiety hormones measured. The final body weight and the percentage of body fat were significantly affected by the interaction between maternal diet and offspring sex: weight and fat mass were higher in the female offspring of the HP v. HF dams. No differences in body weight or fat mass were seen in the male offspring. There was a significant sex effect for fasting and total AUC for ghrelin and fasting GIP, with females having higher levels than males. Liver TAG content and plasma NEFA were lower in the offspring of high-prebiotic fibre dams (HF1) than in those of high-protein dams (HP1) and control dams (C1). Intestinal expression of GLUT2 was decreased in HF1 and HP1 v. C1. The maternal HP and HF diets had lasting effects on body fat and hepatic TAG accumulation in the offspring, particularly in females. Whereas the HP diet predisposes to an obese phenotype, the maternal HF diet appears to reduce the susceptibility to obesity following a high-energy diet challenge in adulthood.

  20. Fatty liver accompanies an increase in lactobacillus species in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Liu, Jun; Jackson, Matthew I; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Yan, Lin; Combs, Gerald F

    2013-05-01

    High-fat (HF) diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and changes in the gut microbiome. To test the hypothesis that HF feeding increases certain predominant hind gut bacteria and development of steatohepatitis, C57BL/6 mice were fed an HF (45% energy) or low-fat (LF) (10% energy) diet for 10 wk. At the end of the feeding period, body weights in the HF group were 34% greater than those in the LF group (P < 0.05). These changes were associated with dramatic increases in lipid droplet number and size, inflammatory cell infiltration, and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase protein concentration in the livers of mice fed the HF diet. Consistent with the fatty liver phenotype, plasma leptin and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HF diet, indicative of chronic inflammation. Eight of 12 pairs of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for bacterial species that typically predominate hind gut microbial ecology generated specific PCR products from the fecal DNA samples. The amount of DNA from Lactobacillus gasseri and/or Lactobacillus taiwanensis in the HF group was 6900-fold greater than that in the LF group. Many of these bacteria are bile acid resistant and are capable of bile acid deconjugation. Because bile acids are regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism, the marked increase of gut L. gasseri and/or L. taiwanensis species bacteria with HF feeding may play a role in development of steatohepatitis in this model.

  1. Maternal high fat diet promotion of mammary tumor risk in adult progeny is associated with early expansion of mammary cancer stem-like cells and increased maternal oxidative environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many adult chronic diseases might be programmed during early life by maternal nutritional history. Here, we evaluated effects of maternal high fat diet on mammary gland development and tumor formation in adult progeny. Female Wnt-1 transgenic mice exposed to high fat (HFD, 45% kcal fat) or control C...

  2. Increased Nitroxidative Stress Promotes Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Byoung-Joon Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased nitroxidative stress causes mitochondrial dysfunctions through oxidative modifications of mitochondrial DNA, lipids, and proteins. Persistent mitochondrial dysfunction sensitizes the target cells/organs to other pathological risk factors and thus ultimately contributes to the development of more severe disease states in alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The incidences of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease continuously increase due to high prevalence of metabolic syndrome including hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Many mitochondrial proteins including the enzymes involved in fat oxidation and energy supply could be oxidatively modified (including S-nitrosylation/nitration under increased nitroxidative stress and thus inactivated, leading to increased fat accumulation and ATP depletion. To demonstrate the underlying mechanism(s of mitochondrial dysfunction, we employed a redox proteomics approach using biotin-N-maleimide (biotin-NM as a sensitive biotin-switch probe to identify oxidized Cys residues of mitochondrial proteins in the experimental models of alcoholic and acute liver disease. The aims of this paper are to briefly describe the mechanisms, functional consequences, and detection methods of mitochondrial dysfunction. We also describe advantages and limitations of the Cys-targeted redox proteomics method with alternative approaches. Finally, we discuss various applications of this method in studying oxidatively modified mitochondrial proteins in extrahepatic tissues or different subcellular organelles and translational research.

  3. Oxidative stability examination of irradiated swine for samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formanek, Z.

    1995-01-01

    DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), OBM (Oxygen Bomb Method) methods and POV (Peroxide Value) determination was applied to determine the oxidative stability of lard samples irradiated by a Co 60 gamma source at the dose of 0; 0.75; 2.5kGy. Both of the methods seem to be suitable to determine oxidative stability of fats, because in every case lowering oxidative stability was received with increasing irradiation dose. (R.P.). 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  4. Silibinin Capsules improves high fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in hamsters through modifying hepatic de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chun-Xue; Deng, Jing-Na; Yan, Li; Liu, Yu-Ying; Fan, Jing-Yu; Mu, Hong-Na; Sun, Hao-Yu; Wang, Ying-Hong; Han, Jing-Yan

    2017-08-17

    Silibinin Capsules (SC) is a silybin-phospholipid complex with silybin as the bioactive component. Silybin accounts for 50-70% of the seed extract of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.. As a traditional medicine, silybin has been used for treatment of liver diseases and is known to provide a wide range of hepatoprotective effects. High fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a worldwide health problem. This study was to investigate the role of SC in NAFLD with focusing on its underlying mechanism and likely target. Male hamsters (Cricetidae) received HFD for 10 weeks to establish NAFLD model. NAFLD was assessed by biochemical assays, histology and immunohistochemistry. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and western blot were conducted to gain insight into the mechanism. Hamsters fed HFD for 10 weeks developed fatty liver accompanying with increased triglyceride (TG) accumulation, enhancing de novo lipogenesis, increase in fatty acid (FA) uptake and reducing FA oxidation and TG lipolysis, as well as a decrease in the expression of phospho-adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase α (p-AMPKα) and Sirt 1. SC treatment at 50mg/kg silybin and 100mg/kg silybin for 8 weeks protected hamsters from development of fatty liver, reducing de novo lipogenesis and increasing FA oxidation and p-AMPKα expression, while having no effect on FA uptake and TG lipolysis. SC protected against NAFLD in hamsters by inhibition of de novo lipogenesis and promotion of FA oxidation, which was likely mediated by activation of AMPKα. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Accelerated oxidation processes is biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, M.; Monyem, A.; Van Gerpen, J.

    1999-12-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that can be produced from renewable feedstocks such as vegetable oil and animal fats. These feedstocks are reacted with an alcohol to produce alkyl monoesters that can be used in conventional diesel engines with little or no modification. Biodiesel, especially if produced from highly unsaturated oils, oxidizes more rapidly than diesel fuel. This article reports the results of experiments to track the chemical and physical changes that occur in biodiesel as it oxidizes. These results show the impact of time, oxygen flow rate, temperature, metals, and feedstock type on the rate of oxidation. Blending with diesel fuel and the addition of antioxidants are explored also. The data indicate that without antioxidants, biodiesel will oxidize very quickly at temperatures typical of diesel engines. This oxidation results in increases in peroxide value, acid value, and viscosity. While the peroxide value generally reaches a plateau of about 350 meq/kg ester, the acid value and viscosity increase monotonically as oxidation proceeds.

  6. Rice bran protein hydrolysates reduce arterial stiffening, vascular remodeling and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaphan, Ketmanee; Sangartit, Weerapon; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Greenwald, Stephen E; Kukongviriyapan, Upa

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) contain highly nutritional proteins and antioxidant compounds which show benefits against metabolic syndrome (MetS). Increased arterial stiffness and the components of MetS have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate whether RBPH could alleviate the metabolic disorders, arterial stiffening, vascular remodeling, and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-carbohydrate and high-fat (HCHF) diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard chow and tap water or a HCHF diet and 15 % fructose solution for 16 weeks. HCHF rats were treated orally with RBPH (250 or 500 mg/kg/day) for the final 6 weeks of the experimental period. Rats fed with HCHF diet had hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, increased aortic pulse wave velocity, aortic wall hypertrophy and vascular remodeling with increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. RBPH supplementation significantly alleviated these alterations (P stress was also alleviated after RBPH treatment by decreasing plasma malondialdehyde, reducing superoxide production and suppressing p47 phox NADPH oxidase expression in the vascular tissues of HCHF rats. RBPH increased plasma nitrate/nitrite level and up-regulated eNOS expression in the aortas of HCHF-diet-fed rats, indicating that RBPH increased NO production. RBPH mitigate the deleterious effects of HCHF through potential mechanisms involving enhanced NO bioavailability, anti-ACE, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. RBPH could be used as dietary supplements to minimize oxidative stress and vascular alterations triggered by MetS.

  7. Milk Fat Globule Membrane Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Increasing Uncoupling Protein 1 Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiange Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM, a protein-lipid complex surrounding the fat globules in milk, has many health benefits. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether MFGM could prevent obesity through inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting brown remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT in mice fed with high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND, high-fat diet (HFD, HFD plus MFGM at 100 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW or 400 mg/kg BW for 8 weeks. Results showed that MFGM suppressed body weight gain induced by HFD, reduced white adipose tissue (WAT mass accompanied with the decrease in adipocyte sizes. MFGM was found to have partially improved serum lipid profiles, as well as to have suppressed HFD-induced adipogenesis as shown by reduced expression of peroxisome proliferators-activator receptor-γ (PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c. MFGM also markedly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, showing activation of AMPK pathway. Moreover, MFGM promoted browning of inguinal WAT by upregulation the protein expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in HFD mice. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that MFGM may protect against diet-induced adiposity by suppressing adipogenesis and promoting brown-like transformation in WAT.

  8. Effects of Ad libitum Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Dieting in Middle-Age Male Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherly, Alexander J; Killen, Lauren G; Smith, Ashton F; Waldman, Hunter S; Seltmann, Christie L; Hollingsworth, Angela; O'Neal, Eric K

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the effects of a 3-wk ad libitum, low-carbohydrate (fat (~70% of calories) (LCHF) diet on markers of endurance performance in middle-age, recreationally competitive male runners. All subjects (n = 8) after their normal high-carbohydrate (HC) diet had anthropometric measures assessed and completed five 10-min running bouts at multiple individual race paces in the heat while physiological variables, metabolic variables, and perceptual responses were recorded. After 20 min of rest, participants completed a 5-km time trial on a road course. Subjects then consumed an LCHF diet for 3 wk and returned for repeat testing. Body mass and seven-site skinfold thickness sum decreased by approximately 2.5 kg (P vs 37.3°C ± 0.2°C) in the HC diet but did not differ at any other time with LCHF diet. Heart rate and perceptual measures did not display any consistent differences between treatments excluding thirst sensation for LCHF diet. RER and carbohydrate oxidation declined significantly, whereas fat oxidation increased after LCHF diet for every pace (P fat oxidation from LCHF diet potentially negate expected performance decrement from reduced carbohydrate use late in exercise for nonelite runners. An acute decrease in training capacity is expected; however, if performance improvement is not exhibited after 3 wk, diet cessation is suggested for negative responders.

  9. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.

  10. Toxicological aspects of interesterified fat: Brain damages in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'avila, Lívia Ferraz; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Vey, Luciana Taschetto; Milanesi, Laura Hautrive; Roversi, Karine; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Trevizol, Fabíola; Maurer, H Luana

    2017-07-05

    In recent years, interesterified fat (IF) has been used to replace hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF), rich in trans isomers, being found in processed foods. Studies involving IF have shown deleterious influences on the metabolic system, similarly to HVF, whereas no studies regarding its influence on the central nervous system (CNS) were performed. Rats from first generation born and maintained under supplementation (3g/Kg, p.o.) of soybean-oil or IF until adulthood were assessed on memory, biochemical and molecular markers in the hippocampus. IF group showed higher saturated fatty acids and linoleic acid and lower docosahexaenoic acid incorporation in the hippocampus. In addition, IF supplementation impaired short and long-term memory, which were related to increased reactive species generation and protein carbonyl levels, decreased catalase activity, BDNF and TrkB levels in the hippocampus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that lifelong IF consumption may be related to brain oxidative damage, memory impairments and neurotrophins modifications, which collectively may be present indifferent neurological disorders. In fact, the use of IF in foods was intended to avoid damage from HVF consumption; however this substitute should be urgently reviewed, since this fat can be as harmful as trans fat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Supplementation of Syzygium cumini seed powder prevented obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in high carbohydrate high fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulla, Anayt; Alam, Md Ashraful; Sikder, Biswajit; Sumi, Farzana Akter; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Habib, Zaki Farhad; Mohammed, Mostafe Khalid; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Reza, Hasan Mahmud

    2017-06-02

    Obesity and related complications have now became epidemic both in developed and developing countries. Cafeteria type diet mainly composed of high fat high carbohydrate components which plays a significant role in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the effect of Syzygium cumini seed powder on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high carbohydrate high fat diet (HCHF) induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with HCHF diet ad libitum, and the rats on HCHF diet were supplemented with Syzygium cumini seed powder for 56 days (2.5% w/w of diet). Oral glucose tolerance test, lipid parameters, liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) and lipid peroxidation products were analyzed at the end of 56 days. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were also measured in all groups of rats. Supplementation with Syzygium cumini seed powder significantly reduced body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, and plasma lipids such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL concentration. Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation in HCHF rats improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation also reduced the hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and elevated the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities as well as increased glutathione (GSH) concentration. In addition, histological assessment showed that Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation prevented inflammatory cell infiltration; fatty droplet deposition and fibrosis in liver of HCHFD fed rats. Our investigation suggests that Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation prevents oxidative stress and showed anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activity in liver of HCHF diet fed rats. In addition, Syzygium cumini seed powder may be beneficial in ameliorating insulin

  12. Production of ethoxylated fatty acids derived from Jatropha non-edible oil as a nonionic fat-liquoring agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shattory, Y; Abo-Elwafa, Ghada A; Aly, Saadia M; Nashy, El-Shahat H A

    2012-01-01

    Natural fatty derivatives (oleochemicals) have been used as intermediate materials in several industries replacing the harmful and expensive petrochemicals. Fatty ethoxylates are one of these natural fatty derivatives. In the present work Jatropha fatty acids were derived from the non edible Jatropha oil and used as the fat source precursor. The ethoxylation process was carried out on the derived fatty acids using a conventional cheap catalyst (K₂CO₃) in order to obtain economically and naturally valuable non-ionic surfactants. Ethoxylation reaction was proceeded using ethylene oxide gas in the presence of 1 or 2% K₂CO₃ catalyst at 120 and 145°C for 5, 8 and 12 hours. The prepared products were evaluated for their chemical and physical properties as well as its application as non- ionic fat-liquoring agents in leather industry. The obtained results showed that the number of ethylene oxide groups introduced in the fatty acids as well as their EO% increased as the temperature and time of the reaction increased. The highest ethoxylation number was obtained at 145°C for 8 hr. Also, the prepared ethoxylated products were found to be effective fat-liquors with high HLB values giving stable oil in water emulsions. The fat-liquored leather led to an improvement in its mechanical properties such as tensile strength and elongation at break. In addition, a significant enhancement in the texture of the treated leather by the prepared fat-liquors as indicated from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images was observed.

  13. School-based study found that physical activity and aerobic fitness predicted increases in total body fat and abdominal fat at a mean age of 9.8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Anton; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Dencker, Magnus

    2018-02-22

    We assessed whether baseline measurements of physical activity, aerobic fitness, body fat and abdominal fat were predictors of changes in body fat measurements over a two-year period. The study comprised of 204 children aged 9.8 ± 0.6 years with a normal body mass distribution, who recruited from four schools in middle-class areas of Malmö, Sweden, from 2001 to 2004. Peak oxygen uptake and physical activity were measured at baseline. Body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and two years later. Physical activity, aerobic fitness and total body fat or abdominal fat were predictors of change in total body fat or abdominal fat over a period of two years. Changes in the percentage of body fat were not related to any of the baseline measurements. Our two-year follow-up of children with a mean age of 9.8 years at baseline showed that physical activity, aerobic fitness and body fat or abdominal fat predicted changes in total body fat or abdominal fat, but not the percentage of body fat. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Protein carbonylation associated to high-fat, high-sucrose diet and its metabolic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lucía; Pazos, Manuel; Molinar-Toribio, Eunice; Sánchez-Martos, Vanesa; Gallardo, José M; Rosa Nogués, M; Torres, Josep L; Medina, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    The present research draws a map of the characteristic carbonylation of proteins in rats fed high-caloric diets with the aim of providing a new insight of the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases derived from the high consumption of fat and refined carbohydrates. Protein carbonylation was analyzed in plasma, liver and skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet by a proteomics approach based on carbonyl-specific fluorescence-labeling, gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Oxidized proteins along with specific sites of oxidative damage were identified and discussed to illustrate the consequences of protein oxidation. The results indicated that long-term HFHS consumption increased protein oxidation in plasma and liver; meanwhile, protein carbonyls from skeletal muscle did not change. The increment of carbonylation by HFHS diet was singularly selective on specific target proteins: albumin from plasma and liver, and hepatic proteins such as mitochondrial carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (ammonia), mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, argininosuccinate synthetase, regucalcin, mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase subunit beta, actin cytoplasmic 1 and mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase 1. The possible consequences that these specific protein carbonylations have on the excessive weight gain, insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease resulting from HFHS diet consumption are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Wire winding increases lifetime of oxide coated cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, W.; Vargo, D.

    1965-01-01

    Refractory-metal heater base wound with a thin refractory metal wire increases the longevity of oxide-coated cathodes. The wire-wound unit is impregnated with the required thickness of metal oxide. This cathode is useful in magnetohydrodynamic systems and in electron tubes.

  16. Ready-to-use supplementary food increases fat mass and BMI in Haitian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L; Henretty, Nicole M; Delnatus, Jacques Raymond; Previl, Windy; Stehl, Tom; Vorkoper, Susan; Bodden, Jaime; Maust, Amanda; Smidt, Rachel; Nash, Marilyn L; Tamimie, Courtney A; Owen, Bridget C; Wolff, Patricia B

    2015-04-01

    In Haiti and other countries, large-scale investments in school feeding programs have been made with marginal evidence of nutrition outcomes. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of a fortified ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF), Mamba, on reduced anemia and improved body composition in school-aged children compared to an unfortified cereal bar, Tablet Yo, and control groups. A cluster, randomized trial with children ages 3-13 y (n = 1167) was conducted in the north of Haiti. Six schools were matched and randomized to the control group, Tablet Yo group (42 g, 165 kcal), or Mamba group (50 g, 260 kcal, and >75% of the RDA for critical micronutrients). Children in the supplementation groups received the snack daily for 100 d, and all were followed longitudinally for hemoglobin concentrations, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance measures: baseline (December 2012), midline (March 2013), and endline (June 2013). Parent surveys were conducted at baseline and endline to examine secondary outcomes of morbidities and dietary intakes. Longitudinal regression modeling using generalized least squares and logit with random effects tested the main effects. At baseline,14.0% of children were stunted, 14.5% underweight, 9.1% thin, and 73% anemic. Fat mass percentage (mean ± SD) was 8.1% ± 4.3% for boys and 12.5% ± 4.4% for girls. In longitudinal modeling, Mamba supplementation increased body mass index z score (regression coefficient ± SEE) 0.25 ± 0.06, fat mass 0.45 ± 0.14 kg, and percentage fat mass 1.28% ± 0.27% compared with control at each time point (P fat mass (regression coefficient ± SEE) 0.73 ± 0.19 kg and fat-free mass 0.62 ± 0.34 kg compared with control (P children. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Rethinking fat as a fuel for endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Jeff S; Noakes, Timothy; Phinney, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    A key element contributing to deteriorating exercise capacity during physically demanding sport appears to be reduced carbohydrate availability coupled with an inability to effectively utilize alternative lipid fuel sources. Paradoxically, cognitive and physical decline associated with glycogen depletion occurs in the presence of an over-abundance of fuel stored as body fat that the athlete is apparently unable to access effectively. Current fuelling tactics that emphasize high-carbohydrate intakes before and during exercise inhibit fat utilization. The most efficient approach to accelerate the body's ability to oxidize fat is to lower dietary carbohydrate intake to a level that results in nutritional ketosis (i.e., circulating ketone levels >0.5 mmol/L) while increasing fat intake for a period of several weeks. The coordinated set of metabolic adaptations that ensures proper interorgan fuel supply in the face of low-carbohydrate availability is referred to as keto-adaptation. Beyond simply providing a stable source of fuel for the brain, the major circulating ketone body, beta-hydroxybutyrate, has recently been shown to act as a signalling molecule capable of altering gene expression, eliciting complementary effects of keto-adaptation that could extend human physical and mental performance beyond current expectation. In this paper, we review these new findings and propose that the shift to fatty acids and ketones as primary fuels when dietary carbohydrate is restricted could be of benefit for some athletes.

  18. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group were fed a control diet (CD or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day. The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AGPICL sintetizados principalmente por el hígado, cumplen funciones relevantes en el organismo. Una dieta alta en grasa (DAG genera un incremento en los niveles de grasa y estrés oxidativo (lipoperoxidación en hígado y una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos. El aceite de oliva extra virgen (AOEV es rico en antioxidantes (polifenoles y tocoferoles que ayudan a prevenir el desarrollo del estrés oxidativo. Este trabajo evaluó el rol del AOEV en la prevención del depósito de grasa, estrés oxidativo hepático y reducción de los AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos generado por una DAG en ratones C57BL/6J. Cuatro grupos experimentales (n=10/grupo fueron alimentados (12 semanas con dieta control (DC o DAG y suplementados con AOEV (100 mg/día. El grupo alimentado con DAG presentó un incremento (p < 0,05 en la acumulación de grasa y estrés oxidativo hepático, acompañado de una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en hígado, eritrocitos y cerebro. La suplementación con AOEV logr

  19. The acute effects of the thermogenic supplement Meltdown on energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and hemodynamic responses in young, healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Matt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a thermogenic supplement, Meltdown, on energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and hemodynamics before and after maximal treadmill exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, 12 male participants underwent two testing sessions after consuming either the Meltdown or placebo supplement. While in a fasted state, participants rested for one hour, orally ingested either Meltdown or placebo and rested for another hour, performed a maximal treadmill exercise test, and then rested for another hour. Throughout the testing protocol, resting energy expenditure (REE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were assessed. In addition, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were assessed before and after exercise. Meltdown increased REE significantly more than placebo at 45 min (1.44 ± 0.25 vs. 1.28 ± 0.23 kcal/min; p = 0.003, 60 min (1.49 ± 0.28 vs. 1.30 ± 0.22 kcal/min; p = 0.025, and 120 min (1.51 ± 0.26 vs. 1.33 ± 0.27 kcals/min; p = 0.014 post-ingestion. Meltdown significantly decreased RER at 30 min (0.84 ± 0.03 vs. 0.91 ± 0.04; p = 0.022 and 45 min post-ingestion (0.82 ± 0.04 vs. 0.89 ± 0.05; p = 0.042, and immediately post-exercise (0.83 ± 0.05 vs. 0.90 ± 0.07; p = 0.009. Furthermore, over the course of the evaluation period, area under the curve assessment demonstrated that REE was significantly increased with Meltdown compared to placebo (992.5 ± 133.1 vs. 895.1 ± 296.1 kcals; p = 0.043, while RER was significantly less than placebo (5.55 ± 0.61 vs. 5.89 ± 0.44; p = 0.002 following ingestion. HR and BP were not significantly affected prior to exercise with either supplement (p > 0.05 and the exercise-induced increases for HR and BP decreased into recovery and were not different between supplements (p > 0.05. These data suggest that Meltdown enhances REE and fat oxidation more than placebo for several hours after ingestion in fully rested and

  20. Palm Oil Consumption Increases LDL Cholesterol Compared with Vegetable Oils Low in Saturated Fat in a Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Neelakantan, Nithya; Wu, Yi; Lote-Oke, Rashmi; Pan, An; van Dam, Rob M

    2015-07-01

    Palm oil contains a high amount of saturated fat compared with most other vegetable oils, but studies have reported inconsistent effects of palm oil on blood lipids. We systematically reviewed the effect of palm oil consumption on blood lipids compared with other cooking oils using data from clinical trials. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library for trials of at least 2 wk duration that compared the effects of palm oil consumption with any of the predefined comparison oils: vegetable oils low in saturated fat, trans fat-containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, and animal fats. Data were pooled by using random-effects meta-analysis. Palm oil significantly increased LDL cholesterol by 0.24 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.13, 0.35 mmol/L; I(2) = 83.2%) compared with vegetable oils low in saturated fat. This effect was observed in randomized trials (0.31 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.42 mmol/L) but not in nonrandomized trials (0.03 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.15, 0.20 mmol/L; P-difference = 0.02). Among randomized trials, only modest heterogeneity in study results remained after considering the test oil dose and the comparison oil type (I(2) = 27.5%). Palm oil increased HDL cholesterol by 0.02 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.01, 0.04 mmol/L; I(2) = 49.8%) compared with vegetable oils low in saturated fat and by 0.09 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.06, 0.11 mmol/L; I(2) = 47.8%) compared with trans fat-containing oils. Palm oil consumption results in higher LDL cholesterol than do vegetable oils low in saturated fat and higher HDL cholesterol than do trans fat-containing oils in humans. The effects of palm oil on blood lipids are as expected on the basis of its high saturated fat content, which supports the reduction in palm oil use by replacement with vegetable oils low in saturated and trans fat. This systematic review was registered with the PROSPERO registry at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42012002601#.VU3wvSGeDRZ as CRD42012002601. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. A shift in myocardial substrate, improved endothelial function, and diminished sympathetic activity may contribute to the anti-anginal impact of very-low-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M F

    2004-01-01

    A new category of anti-anginal drug - exemplified by ranolazine - is believed to work by partially inhibiting cardiac oxidation of fatty acids; oxidation of glucose requires less oxygen per mol of ATP generated, and thus is preferable to fat oxidation when oxygen availability is limiting in underperfused cardiac tissue. Unfortunately, there is no reason to believe that these drugs inhibit fat oxidation selectively in the heart; thus, chronic use of these drugs can be expected to increase body fat stores until the original rate of fat oxidation is restored by mass action - presumably negating the therapeutic benefit in angina, while exacerbating the manifold adverse effects of insulin resistance syndrome. The rational way to decrease cardiac metabolic reliance on fatty acids is to consume a very-low-fat quasi-vegan diet (i.e., 10% fat calories). Indeed, such diets are known to have a rapid and substantial therapeutic impact on anginal symptoms, while concurrently benefiting insulin sensitivity, markedly improving serum lipid profile, promoting leanness, and lessening coronary risk. A reduction in diurnal insulin secretion might also be achieved, which would be expected to decrease sympathetic activity. While reduced myocardial demand for oxygen doubtless contributes to the beneficial impact of such diets on angina, it is likely that improved cardiac perfusion consequent to improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation also plays a role in this regard. Supplemental carnitine, also beneficial in angina, appears to improve utilization of glucose in the ischemic myocardium by lowering elevated acetyl-coA levels and thereby disinhibiting pyruvate dehydrogenase. Certain other nutraceuticals may aid control of angina by improving endothelial function. In the longer term, these measures have the potential to slow or reverse the progression of stenotic lesions that underlie most cases of angina. These safe and relatively inexpensive nutritional strategies for coping with

  2. Increased intra-abdominal fat may lower HDL levels by increasing the fractional catabolic rate of Lp A-I in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajo, Zoltan; Terry, James G; Brinton, Eliot A

    2002-02-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles without apolipoprotein A-II (Lp A-I) may be more anti-atherogenic than HDL with apo A-II (Lp A-I/AII) and Lp A-I is reported selectively to be reduced in cases of intra-abdominal obesity. We explored the mechanisms of this reduction by studying the turnover of Lp A-I and Lp A-I/A-II in postmenopausal women well characterized for total body, regional and sub-regional adiposity by body mass index (BMI), truncal girth ratio, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), respectively. We tested for possible cause-effect relationships by measuring inter-correlations among these variables. Intra-abdominal fat area correlated strongly and positively with the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of Lp A-I (r=0.98, P=0.003). Intra-abdominal fat only showed a non-significant trend toward correlation with the FCR of Lp A-I/A-II (r=0.84, P=0.07), and had no correlation with the production or transport rate (TR) of either Lp A-I or Lp A-I/A-II (r=0.48 and 0.02, respectively, P>0.1). Subjects were studied both with and without estrogen replacement, allowing exploration of a possible interaction of adiposity with estrogen effects on HDL turnover. Response of HDL turnover to estrogen did not correlate with adiposity, except for a parameter of waist to hip ratio (WHR), which predicted the increase in LP A-I TR with estrogen (r=0.84, P=0.04). We conclude that intra-abdominal fat may lower HDL levels by increasing the FCR of Lp A-I, suggesting a mechanism by which central adiposity may be proatherogenic.

  3. Hepatic fat accumulation and regulation of FAT/CD36: an effect of hepatic irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martius, Gesa; Alwahsh, Salamah Mohammad; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans; Ramadori, Giuliano; Malik, Ihtzaz Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is known to induce inflammation and affect fat metabolic pathways. The current study investigates hepatic fat accumulation and fatty acid transportation in a rat model of single dose liver irradiation (25-Gy). Rat livers were selectively irradiated in-vivo (25-Gy), sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Hepatic lipids were studied by colorimetric assays in liver and serum. Intracellular lipids, protein and mRNA were studied by Nile red staining, immunohistology, Western Blot analysis and RT-PCR in liver, respectively. Changes in FAT/CD36 expression were studied in-vitro in a human monocyte cell line U937 after irradiation in presence or absence of infliximab (IFX). Nile Red staining of liver cryosections showed a quick (12-48 h) increase in fat droplets. Accordingly, hepatic triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were elevated. An early increase (3-6 h) in the serum level of HDL-C, TG and cholesterol was measured after single dose irradiation followed by a decrease thereafter. Furthermore, expression of the fat transporter protein FAT/CD36 was increased, immunohistochemistry revealed basolateral and cytoplasmic expression in hepatocytes. Moreover, apolipoprotein-B100, -C3 and enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein-lipase, carnitine-palmitoyltransferase, malonyl-CoA-decarboxylase) involved in fat metabolism were induced at 12-24 h. Early activation of the NFkβ pathway (IκBα) by TNF-α was seen, followed by a significant elevation of serum markers for liver damage (AST and GLDH). TNF-α blockage by anti-TNF-α in cell culture (U937) prevented the increase of FAT/CD36 caused by irradiation. Selective liver irradiation is a model for rapid induction of steatosis hepatis and fat accumulation could be triggered by irradiation-induced inflammatory mediators (e.g. TNF-α). PMID:25197426

  4. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Leads to Greater Body Fat Loss in Overweight/Obese Women than High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Camacho-Cardenosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A moderate hypoxic stimulus is considered a promising therapeutic modality for several pathological states including obesity. There is scientific evidence suggesting that when hypoxia and physical activity are combined, they could provide benefits for the obese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate if exposure to hypoxia combined with two different protocols of high-intensity interval exercise in overweight/obese women was more effective compared with exercise in normoxia. Study participants included 82 overweight/obese women, who started a 12 week program of 36 sessions, and were randomly divided into four groups: (1 aerobic interval training in hypoxia (AitH; FiO2 = 17.2%; n = 13, (2 aerobic interval training in normoxia (AitN; n = 15, (3 sprint interval training in hypoxia (SitH; n = 15, and (4 sprint interval training in normoxia (SitN; n = 18. Body mass, body mass index, percentage of total fat mass, muscle mass, basal metabolic rate, fat, and carbohydrate oxidation, and fat and carbohydrate energy were assessed. Outcomes were measured at baseline (T1, after 18 training sessions (T2, 7 days after the last session (T3, and 4 weeks after the last session (T4. The fat mass in the SitH group was significantly reduced compared with the SitN group from T1 to T3 (p < 0.05 and from T1 to T4 (p < 0.05 and muscle mass increased significantly from T1 to T4 (p < 0.05. Fat mass in the AitH group decreased significantly (p < 0.01 and muscle mass increased (p = 0.022 compared with the AitN group from T1 to T4. All training groups showed a reduction in the percentage of fat mass, with a statistically significant reduction in the hypoxia groups (p < 0.05. Muscle mass increased significantly in the hypoxia groups (p < 0.05, especially at T4. While fat oxidation tended to increase and oxidation of carbohydrates tended to decrease in both hypoxia groups, the tendency was reversed in the normoxia groups. Thus, high-intensity interval

  5. Fatty Liver Accompanies an Increase in Lactobacillus Species in the Hind Gut of C57BL/6 Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Liu, Jun; Jackson, Matthew I.; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Yan, Lin; Combs, Gerald F.

    2013-01-01

    High-fat (HF) diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and changes in the gut microbiome. To test the hypothesis that HF feeding increases certain predominant hind gut bacteria and development of steatohepatitis, C57BL/6 mice were fed an HF (45% energy) or low-fat (LF) (10% energy) diet for 10 wk. At the end of the feeding period, body weights in the HF group were 34% greater than those in the LF group (P < 0.05). These changes were associated with dramatic increases in lipid droplet number and size, inflammatory cell infiltration, and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase protein concentration in the livers of mice fed the HF diet. Consistent with the fatty liver phenotype, plasma leptin and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HF diet, indicative of chronic inflammation. Eight of 12 pairs of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for bacterial species that typically predominate hind gut microbial ecology generated specific PCR products from the fecal DNA samples. The amount of DNA from Lactobacillus gasseri and/or Lactobacillus taiwanensis in the HF group was 6900-fold greater than that in the LF group. Many of these bacteria are bile acid resistant and are capable of bile acid deconjugation. Because bile acids are regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism, the marked increase of gut L. gasseri and/or L. taiwanensis species bacteria with HF feeding may play a role in development of steatohepatitis in this model. PMID:23486979

  6. Tangeretin and 3',4',3,5,6,7,8-heptamethoxyflavone decrease insulin resistance, fat accumulation and oxidative stress in mice fed high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangeretin and heptamethoxyflavone were investigated for their ability to repair metabolic damage caused by high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice. In the first four weeks, induction of obesity was performed and the mice received standard diet (11% kcal from fat) or high-fat diet (45% kcal from fat). After ...

  7. Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Guerre-Millo, Michéle; Flindt, Esben N

    2002-01-01

    Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a non-beta-oxidizable fatty acid analog, which potently regulates lipid homeostasis. Here we evaluate the ability of TTA to prevent diet-induced and genetically determined adiposity and insulin resistance. In Wistar rats fed a high fat diet, TTA administration...... completely prevented diet-induced insulin resistance and adiposity. In genetically obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats TTA treatment reduced the epididymal adipose tissue mass and improved insulin sensitivity. All three rodent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subtypes were activated by TTA...... that a TTA-induced increase in hepatic fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis drains fatty acids from blood and extrahepatic tissues and that this contributes significantly to the beneficial effects of TTA on fat mass accumulation and peripheral insulin sensitivity....

  8. Increased epicardial fat is independently associated with the presence and chronicity of atrial fibrillation and radiofrequency ablation outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovska, Jadranka; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Gross, Barry H.; Patel, Smita [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, UH B1-132 Taubman/Box 0302, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sinno, Mohamad; Oral, Hakan [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine, Electrophysiology Laboratory, Cardiovascular Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Watcharotone, Kuanwong [University of Michigan, Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR), Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jacobson, Jon A. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-15

    To determine whether intrathoracic fat volumes are associated with presence and chronicity of atrial fibrillation (AF) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment outcome. IRB approval was obtained and patient consent was waived for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study. 169 patients with AF (75 non-paroxysmal and 94 paroxysmal) and 62 control patients underwent cardiac CT examination. Extrapericardial (EPFV) and epicardial fat volumes (EFV) were measured on CT, the sum of which is the total intrathoracic fat volume. Associations between these three fat volumes and presence and chronicity of AF, and outcome after RFA, were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. EFV was significantly associated with presence [OR 1.01 (95 % CI 1.003-1.03), p = 0.01], chronicity of AF [1.008 (1.001-1.020), p = 0.03] and AF recurrence after RFA [1.009 (1.001-1.01), p = 0.02] after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. Patients with a larger EFV had a shorter time to AF recurrence (p = 0.017) and a higher rate of recurrence (54 % vs 46 %) (p = 0.002) after RFA. EPFV had no significant associations. Increased epicardial fat is associated with the presence and chronicity of AF, a higher probability of AF recurrence after RFA and a shorter AF-free interval. (orig.)

  9. Obesity decreases the oxidant stress induced by tobacco smoke in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaño, Martha; Pérez-Ramos, J; Esquivel, A; Rivera-Rosales, R; González-Avila, G; Becerril, C; Checa, M; Ramos, C

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and emphysema are associated with low-grade systemic inflammation and oxidant stress. Assuming that the oxidant stress induced by emphysema would be decreased by obesity, we analyzed the oxidant/antioxidant state in a rat model combining both diseases simultaneously. Obesity was induced using sucrose, while emphysema by exposure to tobacco smoke. End-points evaluated were: body weight, abdominal fat, plasma dyslipidemia and malondialdehyde (MDA), insulin and glucose AUC, activities of Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx); lung MnSOD and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) immunostaining, and expression of αV and β6 integrin subunits. In rats with obesity, the body weight, abdominal fat, plasma triglyceride levels, glucose AUC, insulin levels, GST activity, and αV and β6 integrin expressions were amplified. The rats with emphysema had lower values of body weight, abdominal fat, plasma insulin, triglycerides and glucose AUC but higher values of plasma MDA, GPx activity, and the lung expression of the αV and β6 integrins. The combination of obesity and emphysema compared to either condition alone led to diminished body weight, abdominal fat, plasma insulin MDA levels, GPx and GST activities, and αV and β6 integrin expressions; these parameters were all previously increased by obesity. Immunostaining for MnSOD augmented in all experimental groups, but the staining for 3-NT only increased in rats treated with tobacco alone or combined with sucrose. Results showed that obesity reduces oxidant stress and integrin expression, increasing antioxidant enzyme activities; these changes seem to partly contribute to a protective mechanism of obesity against emphysema development.

  10. PDHK-2 deficiency is associated with attenuation of lipase-mediated fat consumption for the increased survival of Caenorhabditis elegans dauers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhee Kim

    Full Text Available In Caenorhabditis elegans, slow fat consumption has been suggested to contribute to the extension of the survival rate during nutritionally adverse conditions. Here, we investigated the potential role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDHK-2, the C. elegans homolog of mammalian PDK, effects on fat metabolism under nutritional conditions. PDHK-2 was expressed at low levels under well-fed conditions but was highly induced during long-term starvation and in the dauer state. This increase in pdhk-2 expression was regulated by both DAF-16 and NHR-49. Dauer-specific induction of PDHK-2 was abolished upon entry into the post-dauer stage. Interestingly, in the long-term dauer state, stored fat levels were higher in daf-2(e1370;pdhk-2 double mutants than in daf-2(e1370, suggesting a positive relationship between PDHK-2 activity and fat consumption. PDHK-2 deficiency has been shown to lead to greater preservation of residual fats, which would be predicted to contribute to survival during the dauer state. A test of this prediction showed that the survival rates of daf-2(e1370;pdhk-2(tm3075 and daf-2(e1370;pdhk-2(tm3086 double mutants were higher than that of daf-2(e1370, suggesting that loss of either the ATP-binding domain (tm3075 or branched chain keto-acid dehydrogenase kinase domain (tm3086 of PDHK-2 leads to reduced fat consumption and thus favors increased dauer survival. This attenuated fat consumption in the long-term dauer state of C. elegans daf-2 (e1370;pdhk-2 mutants was associated with concomitant down-regulation of the lipases ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase, HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase, and C07E3.9 (phospholipase. In contrast, PDHK-2 overexpression in wild-type starved worms induced lipase expression and promoted abnormal dauer formation. Thus, we propose that PDHK-2 serves as a molecular bridge, connecting fat metabolism and survival under nutritionally adverse conditions in C. elegans.

  11. Supplementing five-point body condition score with body fat percentage increases the sensitivity for assessing overweight status of small to medium sized dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arai T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gebin Li,1 Peter Lee,1 Nobuko Mori,1 Ichiro Yamamoto,1 Koh Kawasumi,1 Hisao Tanabe,2 Toshiro Arai11Department of Veterinary Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 2Komazawa Animal Hospital, Tokyo, JapanBackground and methods: Currently, five-point body condition scoring (BCS is widely used by veterinarians and clinicians to assess adiposity in dogs in Japan. However, BCS score assignment is subjective in nature, and most clinicians do not score with half points, instead preferring to round off values, thereby rendering less accurate assessments. Therefore, we sought to determine whether assessing body fat percentage using simple morphometric measurements and supplementing this with five-point BCS can have increased sensitivity for detecting increasing adiposity in overweight small-medium sized dog breeds via plasma metabolite validation.Results: Overall, lean body fat percentage was determined to be 15%–22% for male (non-neutered/neutered dogs and 15%–25% for female (nonspayed/spayed. Dogs categorized as overweight by BCS had significantly higher levels of nonesterified fatty acids (P = 0.005, whereas animals categorized as overweight by BCS + body fat percentage were observed to have significantly higher levels of nonesterified fatty acids (P = 0.006, total cholesterol (P = 0.029, and triglycerides (P = 0.001 than lean animals. The increased sensitivity due to body fat percentage for gauging alterations in plasma metabolite levels may be due to increased correlation strength. Body fat percentage correlated positively with plasma insulin (r = 0.627, P = 0.002, nonesterified fatty acids (r = 0.674, P < 0.001, total cholesterol (r = 0.825, P < 0.0001, triglycerides (r = 0.5823, P < 0.005, blood urea nitrogen (r = 0.429, P < 0.05, creatinine (r = 0.490, P = 0.021, and total protein (r = 0.737, P< 0.0001 levels, which all tend to increase as a result of increasing adiposity

  12. Reirradiation of mixed-oxide fuel pins at increased temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, L.A.; Weber, E.T.

    1976-05-01

    Mixed-oxide fuel pins from EBR-II irradiations were reirradiated in the General Electric Test Reactor (GETR) at higher temperatures than experienced in EBR-II to study effects of the increased operating temperatures on thermal/mechanical and chemical behavior. The response of a mixed-oxide fuel pin to a power increase after having operated at a lower power for a significant portion of its life-time is an area of performance evaluation where little information currently exists. Results show that the cladding diameter changes resulting from the reirradiation are strongly dependent upon both prior burnup level and the magnitude of the temperature increase. Results provide the initial rough outlines of boundaries within which mixed-oxide fuel pins can or cannot tolerate power increases after substantial prior burnup at lower powers

  13. Increased formate overflow is a hallmark of oxidative cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser, Johannes; Schuster, Anne; Pietzke, Matthias; Vande Voorde, Johan; Athineos, Dimitris; Oizel, Kristell; Burgos-Barragan, Guillermo; Wit, Niek; Dhayade, Sandeep; Morton, Jennifer P; Dornier, Emmanuel; Sumpton, David; Mackay, Gillian M; Blyth, Karen; Patel, Ketan J; Niclou, Simone P; Vazquez, Alexei

    2018-04-10

    Formate overflow coupled to mitochondrial oxidative metabolism\\ has been observed in cancer cell lines, but whether that takes place in the tumor microenvironment is not known. Here we report the observation of serine catabolism to formate in normal murine tissues, with a relative rate correlating with serine levels and the tissue oxidative state. Yet, serine catabolism to formate is increased in the transformed tissue of in vivo models of intestinal adenomas and mammary carcinomas. The increased serine catabolism to formate is associated with increased serum formate levels. Finally, we show that inhibition of formate production by genetic interference reduces cancer cell invasion and this phenotype can be rescued by exogenous formate. We conclude that increased formate overflow is a hallmark of oxidative cancers and that high formate levels promote invasion via a yet unknown mechanism.

  14. Mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior conserve more fat despite increased exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Layla; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-20

    Physical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise would increase food consumption, build lean mass, and reduce fat mass, but that these effects would likely differ between HR and C lines or between the sexes. We compared wheel running, cage activity, food consumption, and body composition between HR and C lines for young adults of both sexes, and examined interrelationships of those traits across 6 days of wheel access. Before wheel testing, HR mice weighed less than C, primarily due to reduced lean mass, and females were lighter than males, entirely due to lower lean mass. Over 6 days of wheel access, all groups tended to gain small amounts of lean mass, but lose fat mass. HR mice lost less fat than C mice, in spite of much higher activity levels, resulting in convergence to a fat mass of ~1.7 g for all 4 groups. HR mice consumed more food than C mice (with body mass as a covariate), even accounting for their higher activity levels. No significant sex-by-linetype interactions were observed for any of the foregoing traits. Structural equation models showed that the four sex-by-linetype groups differed considerably in the complex phenotypic architecture of these traits. Interrelationships among traits differed by genetic background and sex, lending support to the idea that recommendations regarding weight management, diet, and exercise may need to be tailored to the individual level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain transcriptional responses to high-fat diet in Acads-deficient mice reveal energy sensing pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Kruger

    Full Text Available How signals from fatty acid metabolism are translated into changes in food intake remains unclear. Previously we reported that mice with a genetic inactivation of Acads (acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, short-chain, the enzyme responsible for mitochondrial beta-oxidation of C4-C6 short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, shift consumption away from fat and toward carbohydrate when offered a choice between diets. In the current study, we sought to indentify candidate genes and pathways underlying the effects of SCFA oxidation deficiency on food intake in Acads-/- mice.We performed a transcriptional analysis of gene expression in brain tissue of Acads-/- and Acads+/+ mice fed either a high-fat (HF or low-fat (LF diet for 2 d. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed three top-scoring pathways significantly modified by genotype or diet: oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and CREB signaling in neurons. A comparison of statistically significant responses in HF Acads-/- vs. HF Acads+/+ (3917 and Acads+/+ HF vs. LF Acads+/+ (3879 revealed 2551 genes or approximately 65% in common between the two experimental comparisons. All but one of these genes were expressed in opposite direction with similar magnitude, demonstrating that HF-fed Acads-deficient mice display transcriptional responses that strongly resemble those of Acads+/+ mice fed LF diet. Intriguingly, genes involved in both AMP-kinase regulation and the neural control of food intake followed this pattern. Quantitative RT-PCR in hypothalamus confirmed the dysregulation of genes in these pathways. Western blotting showed an increase in hypothalamic AMP-kinase in Acads-/- mice and HF diet increased, a key protein in an energy-sensing cascade that responds to depletion of ATP.Our results suggest that the decreased beta-oxidation of short-chain fatty acids in Acads-deficient mice fed HF diet produces a state of energy deficiency in the brain and that AMP-kinase may be the cellular energy

  16. Effect of High-Fat Diet upon Inflammatory Markers and Aortic Stiffening in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Bento Chaves Santana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in lifestyle such as increase in high-fat food consumption are an important cause for vascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of ACE and TGF-β in the aorta stiffness induced by high-fat diet. C57BL/6 male mice were divided in two groups according to their diet for 8 weeks: standard diet (ST and high-fat diet (HF. At the end of the protocol, body weight gain, adipose tissue content, serum lipids and glucose levels, and aorta morphometric and biochemical measurements were performed. Analysis of collagen fibers by picrosirius staining of aorta slices showed that HF diet promoted increase of thin (55% and thick (100% collagen fibers deposition and concomitant disorganization of these fibers orientations in the aorta vascular wall (50%. To unravel the mechanism involved, myeloperoxidase (MPO and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE were evaluated by protein expression and enzyme activity. HF diet increased MPO (90% and ACE (28% activities, as well as protein expression of ACE. TGF-β was also increased in aorta tissue of HF diet mice after 8 weeks. Altogether, we have observed that the HF diet-induced aortic stiffening may be associated with increased oxidative stress damage and activation of the RAS in vascular tissue.

  17. Obese super athletes: fat-fueled migration in birds and bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2018-03-07

    Migratory birds are physiologically specialized to accumulate massive fat stores (up to 50-60% of body mass), and to transport and oxidize fatty acids at very high rates to sustain flight for many hours or days. Target gene, protein and enzyme analyses and recent -omic studies of bird flight muscles confirm that high capacities for fatty acid uptake, cytosolic transport, and oxidation are consistent features that make fat-fueled migration possible. Augmented circulatory transport by lipoproteins is suggested by field data but has not been experimentally verified. Migratory bats have high aerobic capacity and fatty acid oxidation potential; however, endurance flight fueled by adipose-stored fat has not been demonstrated. Patterns of fattening and expression of muscle fatty acid transporters are inconsistent, and bats may partially fuel migratory flight with ingested nutrients. Changes in energy intake, digestive capacity, liver lipid metabolism and body temperature regulation may contribute to migratory fattening. Although control of appetite is similar in birds and mammals, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating seasonal changes in fuel store set-points in migrants remain poorly understood. Triacylglycerol of birds and bats contains mostly 16 and 18 carbon fatty acids with variable amounts of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 depending on diet. Unsaturation of fat converges near 70% during migration, and unsaturated fatty acids are preferentially mobilized and oxidized, making them good fuel. Twenty and 22 carbon n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may affect membrane function and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling. However, evidence for dietary PUFA as doping agents in migratory birds is equivocal and requires further study. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Influence of thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum cholesterol and triglycerides in young pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the effect of feeding thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum fatty acid and cholesterol concentration in young pigs, 102 barrows (6.67 ± 0.03 kg BW) were divided into 3 groups and randomly assigned to dietary tr...

  19. Oxidized low density lipoprotein increases RANKL level in human vascular cells. Involvement of oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazière, Cécile, E-mail: maziere.cecile@chu-amiens.fr [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France); Salle, Valéry [Internal Medicine, North Hospital University, Place Victor Pauchet, Amiens 80000 (France); INSERM U1088 (EA 4292), SFR CAP-Santé (FED 4231), University of Picardie – Jules Verne (France); Gomila, Cathy; Mazière, Jean-Claude [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •Oxidized LDL enhances RANKL level in human smooth muscle cells. •The effect of OxLDL is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT. •UVA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and buthionine sulfoximine also increase RANKL level. •All these effects are observed in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. -- Abstract: Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL) and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been shown to play a role not only in bone remodeling but also in inflammation, arterial calcification and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In human smooth muscle cells, Cu{sup 2+}-oxidized LDL (CuLDL) 10–50 μg/ml increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RANKL level in a dose-dependent manner, whereas OPG level was not affected. The lipid extract of CuLDL reproduced the effects of the whole particle. Vivit, an inhibitor of the transcription factor NFAT, reduced the CuLDL-induced increase in RANKL, whereas PKA and NFκB inhibitors were ineffective. LDL oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO-LDL), or other pro-oxidant conditions such as ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation, incubation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis{sub ,} also induced an oxidative stress and enhanced RANKL level. The increase in RANKL in pro-oxidant conditions was also observed in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Since RANKL is involved in myocardial inflammation, vascular calcification and plaque rupture, this study highlights a new mechanism whereby OxLDL might, by generation of an oxidative stress, exert a deleterious effect on different cell types of the arterial wall.

  20. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208) participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA). Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187) and ACOX1 (rs17583163) genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation. PMID:24647074

  1. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Bouchard-Mercier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208 participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA. Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187 and ACOX1 (rs17583163 genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation.

  2. Effects of increasing crude glycerol and dried distillers grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duttlinger, A J; Derouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Houser, T A; Sulabo, R C

    2012-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary crude glycerol and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on growing-finishing pig performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality. We hypothesized that because dietary crude glycerol has been observed to increase carcass SFA, it might ameliorate the negative effects of DDGS on fat quality. The 97-d study was conducted at a commercial swine research facility in southwestern Minnesota with 1,160 barrows (initial BW = 31.0 ± 1.1 kg). Pigs were blocked by initial BW, and pens were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 7 replications per treatment. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of crude glycerol (0, 2.5, or 5%) and DDGS (0 or 20%). All corn-soybean meal-based diets contained 3% added fat (choice white grease). There were no glycerol × DDGS interactions for any response criteria evaluated. Increasing dietary glycerol did not affect finishing pig growth performance. Adding 20% DDGS to the diet did not affect ADG; however, finishing pigs fed diets with added DDGS had greater (2.47 vs. 2.41 kg/d; P = 0.02) ADFI and poorer (0.39 vs. 0.40; P = 0.01) G:F than pigs not fed DDGS. Feeding increasing dietary glycerol or 20% DDGS did not affect carcass characteristics. For carcass fat quality, feeding 20% DDGS resulted in decreased (P carcass fat iodine value, whereas feeding crude glycerol did not influence growth performance, carcass characteristics, and had a minor influence on fatty acids of carcass fat. Both of these biofuel coproducts can be used in combination without affecting finishing pig performance or carcass traits; however, feeding crude glycerol did not fully mitigate the increased unsaturation of carcass fat observed when feeding DDGS.

  3. Irvingia gabonensis fat: nutritional properties and effect of increasing amounts on the growth and lipid metabolism of young rats wistar sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Linder

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs are generally considered to increase plasma cholesterol. It has also been claimed that they increase cardio-vascular disease, although the claim that some of SFAs can increase HDL-cholesterol is poorly documented. Irvingia gabonensis kernels after being dried and crushed they are generally used to prepare a sticky and aromatic soup very much consumed in Cameroun and West Africa countries. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of dika nut fat on the growing and lipids metabolism of young rats. Method For The nutritional evaluation related to the performances of growth and the analysis of increasing amounts of dika nut fat (0; 5.1; 7.34 and 13.48% in young rats of wistar sp. The animals were taken individually out of metabolic cage for each ration 5 repetitions per sex (males and females were carried out. Results The results obtained during the 3 weeks of treatment shows that the performances of consumption were positive. A highly significant increase (P Conclusion This study shows that the increasing amount of dika nut fat alter significantly cholesterol and triglyceride at high dose diet, but also increase HDL-cholesterol.

  4. Effect of interval training intensity on fat oxidation, blood lactate and the rate of perceived exertion in obese men

    OpenAIRE

    Alkahtani, Shaea A; King, Neil A; Hills, Andrew P; Byrne, Nuala M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of 4-week moderate- and high-intensity interval training (MIIT and HIIT) on fat oxidation and the responses of blood lactate (BLa) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Methods Ten overweight/obese men (age?=?29 ?3.7?years, BMI?=?30.7 ?3.4?kg/m2) participated in a cross-over study of 4-week MIIT and HIIT training. The MIIT training sessions consisted of 5-min cycling stages at mechanical workloads 20% above and 20% below 45%VO2...

  5. High-fat diet-induced insulin resistance does not increase plasma anandamide levels or potentiate anandamide insulinotropic effect in isolated canine islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orison O Woolcott

    Full Text Available Obesity has been associated with elevated plasma anandamide levels. In addition, anandamide has been shown to stimulate insulin secretion in vitro, suggesting that anandamide might be linked to hyperinsulinemia.To determine whether high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance increases anandamide levels and potentiates the insulinotropic effect of anandamide in isolated pancreatic islets.Dogs were fed a high-fat diet (n = 9 for 22 weeks. Abdominal fat depot was quantified by MRI. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Fasting plasma endocannabinoid levels were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All metabolic assessments were performed before and after fat diet regimen. At the end of the study, pancreatic islets were isolated prior to euthanasia to test the in vitro effect of anandamide on islet hormones. mRNA expression of cannabinoid receptors was determined in intact islets. The findings in vitro were compared with those from animals fed a control diet (n = 7.Prolonged fat feeding increased abdominal fat content by 81.3±21.6% (mean±S.E.M, P<0.01. In vivo insulin sensitivity decreased by 31.3±12.1% (P<0.05, concomitant with a decrease in plasma 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (from 39.1±5.2 to 15.7±2.0 nmol/L but not anandamide, oleoyl ethanolamide, linoleoyl ethanolamide, or palmitoyl ethanolamide. In control-diet animals (body weight: 28.8±1.0 kg, islets incubated with anandamide had a higher basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as compared with no treatment. Islets from fat-fed animals (34.5±1.3 kg; P<0.05 versus control did not exhibit further potentiation of anandamide-induced insulin secretion as compared with control-diet animals. Glucagon but not somatostatin secretion in vitro was also increased in response to anandamide, but there was no difference between groups (P = 0.705. No differences in gene expression of CB1R or CB2R between groups were found.In canines, high-fat diet

  6. Changes in peak fat oxidation in response to different doses of endurance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Reichkendler, M H; Auerbach, P

    2015-01-01

    enzymes determined by Western blotting. PFO increased in both MOD [1.2 mg/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/min, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08:2.3, P = 0.03] and HIGH (1.8 mg/kg FFM/min, CI: 0.6:2.9, P ..., and mitochondrial oxphos complexes II-V increased similarly in MOD and HIGH. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with backward elimination of individual variables correlated with changes in PFO revealed increases in cycling efficiency, FFM, and VO2 peak as the remaining associated variables. In conclusion......, PFO during exercise increased with both moderate- and high-dose endurance training. Increases in PFO were mainly predicted by changes in VO2 peak, FFM, and cycling efficiency, and less with skeletal muscle mitochondrial enzymes....

  7. Apparent and true ileal and total tract digestibility of fat in canola press-cake or canola oil and effects of increasing dietary fat on amino acid and energy digestibility in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2017-06-01

    Digestibility of remaining oil in canola press-cake (CPC) may be lower than that of extracted, liquid canola oil (CO) because oil may be partly entrapped in the CPC matrix. To determine true digestibility of fat in ingredients, endogenous fat losses should be estimated. Dietary fat may interact with digestion of other dietary components. To test these hypotheses, 10 ileal-cannulated pigs (initial BW, 25.4 kg) were fed 10 diets for 8 periods in a 10 × 8 Youden square. A basal diet was formulated based on wheat, barley, and canola meal. The 4 CPC and 4 CO test diets were prepared by replacing identical portion of basal diet with 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% CPC, or 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% CO, respectively, to match the fat content of CPC diet with CO diet at each fat level. An N-free diet based on corn starch was prepared to measure basal endogenous losses of AA. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) were calculated for each diet. True ileal digestibility (TID) and true total tract (TTTD) digestibility of AEE in CPC and CO, and total endogenous losses of AEE were estimated by regressing apparent digestible AEE (g/kg of DMI) against dietary AEE intake (g/kg of DM) at the total tract and distal ileum, respectively. The mean AID and ATTD of AEE in CPC diets were 78.9% and 61.5%, which were lower ( digestible AEE content in CPC and CO diets increased linearly ( 0.05) total tract or ileal endogenous losses of AEE. The TID and TTTD of AEE in CPC were 92.3% and 94.5%, respectively, lower ( digestibility (SID) of CP, Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp, and quadratically increased ( digestibility of AEE in CPC than in CO indicates that fat digestibility of CPC should be considered to predict its nutritional value accurately. Dietary inclusion of CO may increase digestibility of CP and energy originating from the balance of the diet.

  8. Antiobesity and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ibervillea sonorae in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet with Fructose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ramírez, Fabiola; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N.; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Galaviz-Hernández, Carlos; Paniagua-Castro, Norma

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity. PMID:22174560

  9. Antiobesity and hypoglycaemic effects of aqueous extract of Ibervillea sonorae in mice fed a high-fat diet with fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ramírez, Fabiola; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Galaviz-Hernández, Carlos; Paniagua-Castro, Norma

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity.

  10. Antiobesity and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ibervillea sonorae in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet with Fructose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Rivera-Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity.

  11. Pomegranate extract and exercise provide additive benefits on improvement of immune function by inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress in high-fat-diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Pang, Wentao; Zhang, Ziyi; Zhao, Jialong; Wang, Xin; Liu, Ye; Wang, Xun; Feng, Zhihui; Zhang, Yong; Sun, Wenyan; Liu, Jiankang

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is reported to be associated with immune dysfunction and a state of low-grade, chronic inflammation. Either pomegranate extract (PomE) or exercise (Ex) has been shown to have antiobesity, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Nevertheless, no study has addressed the additive benefits of PomE and Ex on the restoration of obesity-induced immune defects. The present work aims to study the effect of PomE and Ex as a combined intervention on immune function and the underlying mechanism involved in inflammation and oxidative stress in rats with high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that the combination of PomE and Ex showed additive benefits on inhibition of HFD-induced body weight increase and improvement of HFD-induced immune dysfunction, including (a) attenuating the abnormality of histomorphology of the spleen, (b) increasing the ratio of the CD4+:CD8+ T cell subpopulations in splenocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), (c) inhibition of apoptosis in splenocytes and PBMC, (d) normalizing peritoneal macrophage phenotypes and (e) restoring immunomodulating factors in serum. We also find that immune dysfunction in HFD-fed rats was associated with increased inflammatory cytokine secretion and oxidative stress biomarkers, and that the combination of PomE and Ex effectively inhibited the inflammatory response and decreased oxidative damage. The effect of PomE and Ex as a combined intervention is greater than the effect of either PomE or Ex alone, showing that PomE and Ex may be additively effective in improving immune function in HFD-fed rats by inhibiting inflammation and decreasing oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Percent body fat and BMI in indigenous and mestizo children from South, Centre and North Mexico derived from bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and deuterium oxide dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, Mauro E; Ramirez-Lopez, Erik; Ramos-Salas, Je; Bourges, Hector; Espinoza, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background. Body mass index (BMI) is an international standard to evaluate nutritional status but has the inability to distinguish fat mass from fat free mass, especially with regards to ethnicity. Mexico is the eight country in ethnic diversity in the world. The changes in fat mass and fat free mass offers the possibility to evaluate the effects of intervention programs in shorter periods. Objective. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between body composition and anthropometric characteristics of indigenous and mestizo Mexican children. Subject and Methods. A total of 1618 male and female indigenous (n = 498) and mestizo (n = 1120) children 7-9 years, were selected by stratified multiple stage cluster sampling. Indigenous groups and States were: Tarahumaras (Chihuahua), Mayos (Sonora), Nahuas (Puebla), Otomíes (Hidalgo), Tzotziles (Chiapas) and Mayas (Yucatan Peninsula). Mestizos form the same regions were included. Fat free mass and fat mass were obtained from a previously reported BIA cross validated equation using deuterium oxide dilution from 339 children from the same population, groups and regions. Results. The indigenous groups had 18.5 + 5.9 % fat compared to 23.5 + 8.4 in the mestizos (p<0.0001). Nahuas had the lowest % fat (p<0.0001) with 16.5 + 5.7, compared to Mayos, Tarahumaras and Mayas that had 18.6 + 6.2, 19.0 + 6.3 and 18.0 + 6.5 respectively. Mestizos form the Centre, North, and South had the highest levels of % body fat (p<0.001) with 25.4 + 7.7, 21.9 + 8.2, and 20.5 + 7.8, respectively. In indigenous children (n = 498) the 5th percentile (95% CI) corresponded to 9 (8,10) % body fat, while for Mestizos (n = 1120), the 5th percentile was 10 (9,11). Using this percentile, only one third of the children approximately of both groups would be classified as thin by WHO and IOTF classifications. Conclusion. Indigenous children had lower body fat than mestizos, however, the relationship of BMI to % body fat

  13. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic index affect substrate oxidation during a controlled weight cycle in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlhöfer, J; Lagerpusch, M; Enderle, J; Eggeling, B; Braun, W; Pape, D; Müller, M J; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-09-01

    Because both, glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content of the diet increase insulin levels and could thus impair fat oxidation, we hypothesized that refeeding a low GI, moderate-carbohydrate diet facilitates weight maintenance. Healthy men (n=32, age 26.0±3.9 years; BMI 23.4±2.0 kg/m(2)) followed 1 week of controlled overfeeding, 3 weeks of caloric restriction and 2 weeks of hypercaloric refeeding (+50, -50 and +50% energy requirement) with low vs high GI (41 vs 74) and moderate vs high CHO intake (50% vs 65% energy). We measured adaptation of fasting macronutrient oxidation and the capacity to supress fat oxidation during an oral glucose tolerance test. Changes in fat mass were measured by quantitative magnetic resonance. During overfeeding, participants gained 1.9±1.2 kg body weight, followed by a weight loss of -6.3±0.6 kg and weight regain of 2.8±1.0 kg. Subjects with 65% CHO gained more body weight compared with 50% CHO diet (Pfat oxidation when compared with a low-GI diet (Pfat oxidation was associated with regain in fat mass (r=0.43, Pcarbohydrate content affect substrate oxidation and thus the regain in body weight in healthy men. These results argue in favor of a lower glycemic load diet for weight maintenance after weight loss.

  14. Influence of the Form of Administration of Chlorogenic Acids on Oxidative Stress Induced by High fat Diet in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budryn, G; Zaczyńska, D; Żyżelewicz, D; Grzelczyk, J; Zduńczyk, Z; Juśkiewicz, J

    2017-06-01

    Green coffee is one of health-promoting supplements of the diet, applied in the form of either preparations or enriched food products. Its positive impact is manifested by mitigation of the development of certain tumors, e.g., in the colon and liver, and type 2 diabetes. Many studies proved that chlorogenic acids are the main active substances in green coffee. The bioavailability of these compounds depends among others on their interactions with other components of the diet, mainly proteins. When they are used as food ingredients, their bioavailability is additionally decreased because of the decomposition or interactions with other ingredients during food processing. The undesirable changes may be limited among others by microencapsulation, for example with β-cyclodextrin. In this study, rats were fed the pro-oxidative high fat diet, which was supplemented with chlorogenic acids from green coffee that were used in four forms such as: a purified extract, complexes of chlorogenic acids and β-cyclodextrin, and bread supplemented with either the extract or the β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex. Chlorogenic acids added to bread because of the reduced absorption from the crumb in the small intestine and increased passage to the colon, contributed to the beneficial modification of enzymatic activities of intestinal microbiota. When added directly to the diet, they contributed to the improved antioxidant status in the liver and kidneys, lowered glucose level and increased HDL level. A high ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione in the liver and a high concentration of antioxidants in the blood serum were observed after administration of chlorogenic acids in the form of inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin, indicating that microencapsulation increased their bioaccessibility due to the limited interactions with other components of the diet.

  15. Plasma amino acid levels are elevated in young, healthy low birth weight men exposed to short-term high-fat overfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Amalie; Hellgren, Lars; Brøns, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) individuals exhibit a disproportionately increased, incomplete fatty acid oxidation and a decreased glucose oxidation, compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals, and furthermore have an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We...... and after a 5‐day high‐fat, high‐calorie diet. We demonstrated that LBW and NBW men increased plasma alanine levels and decreased valine and leucine/isoleucine levels in response to overfeeding. Also, LBW men had higher alanine, proline, methionine, citrulline, and total amino acid levels after overfeeding...

  16. Neuromedin U receptor 2 knockdown in the paraventricular nucleus modifies behavioral responses to obesogenic high-fat food and leads to increased body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzon, C R; Johnson, S B; McCue, D L; Li, D; Green, T A; Hommel, J D

    2014-01-31

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved neuropeptide which regulates food intake and body weight. Transgenic mice lacking NMU are hyperphagic and obese, making NMU a novel target for understanding and treating obesity. Neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2) is a high-affinity receptor for NMU found in discrete regions of the central nervous system, in particular the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), where it may be responsible for mediating the anorectic effects of NMU. We hypothesized that selective knock down of NMUR2 in the PVN of rats would increase their sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of food resulting in increased intake and preference for high-fat obesogenic food. To this end, we used viral-mediated RNAi to selectively knock down NMUR2 gene expression in the PVN. In rats fed a standard chow, NMUR2 knockdown produced no significant effect on food intake or body weight. However, when the same rats were fed a high-fat diet (45% fat), they consumed significantly more food, gained more body weight, and had increased feed efficiency relative to controls. Furthermore, NMUR2 knockdown rats demonstrated significantly greater binge-type food consumption of the high-fat diet and showed a greater preference for higher-fat food. These results demonstrate that NMUR2 signaling in the PVN regulates consumption and preference for high-fat foods without disrupting feeding behavior associated with non-obesogenic standard chow. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Niacin increases adiponectin and decreases adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Wanders

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity.Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2 (-/- (niacin receptor(-/- mice.Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2 (-/- mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion. However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice.Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner.

  18. Texture of low-fat Iranian White cheese as influenced by gum tragacanth as a fat replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, J; Khosrowshahi, A; Madadlou, A; Aziznia, S

    2007-09-01

    The effect of different concentrations of gum tragacanth on the textural characteristics of low-fat Iranian White cheese was studied during ripening. A batch of full-fat and 5 batches of low-fat Iranian White cheeses with different gum tragacanth concentrations (without gum or with 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1 g of gum/kg of milk) were produced to study the effects of fat content reduction and gum concentration on the textural and functional properties of the product during ripening. Cheese samples were analyzed with respect to chemical, color, and sensory characteristics, rheological parameters (uniaxial compression and small-amplitude oscillatory shear), and microstructure. Reducing the fat content had an adverse effect on cheese yield, sensory characteristics, and the texture of Iranian White cheese, and it increased the instrumental hardness parameters (i.e., fracture stress, elastic modulus, storage modulus, and complex modulus). However, increasing the gum tragacanth concentration reduced the values of instrumental hardness parameters and increased the whiteness of cheese. Although when the gum concentration was increased, the low-fat cheese somewhat resembled its full-fat counterpart, the interaction of the gum concentration with ripening time caused visible undesirable effects on cheese characteristics by the sixth week of ripening. Cheeses with a high gum tragacanth concentration became very soft and their solid texture declined somewhat.

  19. Increased 5S rRNA oxidation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qunxing; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhang, Bing; Soriano, Augusto; Burns, Roxanne; Markesbery, William R

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that oxidative stress is involved in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is one of the most abundant molecules in most cells and is affected by oxidative stress in the human brain. Previous data have indicated that total rRNA levels were decreased in the brains of subjects with AD and mild cognitive impairment concomitant with an increase in rRNA oxidation. In addition, level of 5S rRNA, one of the essential components of the ribosome complex, was significantly lower in the inferior parietal lobule (IP) brain area of subjects with AD compared with control subjects. To further evaluate the alteration of 5S rRNA in neurodegenerative human brains, multiple brain regions from both AD and age-matched control subjects were used in this study, including IP, superior and middle temporal gyro, temporal pole, and cerebellum. Different molecular pools including 5S rRNA integrated into ribosome complexes, free 5S rRNA, cytoplasmic 5S rRNA, and nuclear 5S rRNA were studied. Free 5S rRNA levels were significantly decreased in the temporal pole region of AD subjects and the oxidation of ribosome-integrated and free 5S rRNA was significantly increased in multiple brain regions in AD subjects compared with controls. Moreover, a greater amount of oxidized 5S rRNA was detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus of AD subjects compared with controls. These results suggest that the increased oxidation of 5S rRNA, especially the oxidation of free 5S rRNA, may be involved in the neurodegeneration observed in AD.

  20. Circulating biologically active oxidized phospholipids show on-going and increased oxidative stress in older male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbo Liu

    2013-01-01

    Significance: Oxidatively modified phospholipids are increased in the circulation during common, mild oxidant stresses of aging, or in male compared to female animals. Turnover of these biologically active phospholipids by rapid transport into liver and kidney is unchanged, so circulating levels reflect continuously increased production.

  1. Daily supplementation with fresh pomegranate juice increases paraoxonase 1 expression and activity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Luna, D; Martínez-Hinojosa, E; Cancino-Diaz, J C; Belefant-Miller, H; López-Rodríguez, G; Betanzos-Cabrera, G

    2018-02-01

    Studies have found that pomegranate juice (PJ) consumption increases the binding of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to paraoxonase 1 (PON1), thus increasing the catalytic activity of this enzyme. PON1 is an antioxidant arylesterase synthesized in the liver and transported in plasma in association with HDL. Decreased levels of PON1 are associated with higher levels of cholesterol. We determined the effects of PJ on body weight, cholesterol, and triacylglycerols through 5 months of supplementation. In addition, the effect of PJ on pon1 gene expression in the liver was also measured by RT-qPCR as well as the activity in serum by a semiautomated method using paraoxon as a substrate. CD-1 mice were either fed a control diet or were fed a high-fat diet 1.25% (wt/wt) cholesterol, 0.5% (wt/wt) sodium cholate, and 15% (wt/wt) saturated fat. 300 μL of PJ containing 0.35 mmol total polyphenols was administered by oral gavage to half of the high fat mice daily. The rest of the high fat mice and the control mice were administered with 300 μL of water. PJ-supplemented animals had significantly higher levels of expression of pon1 compared to the unsupplemented group. PJ-supplemented animals had twice the PON1 activity of the unsupplemented group. In addition, PJ-supplemented animals had the lowest body weight and significantly reduced cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, although the tricylglycerol levels were not consistently decreased. These results suggest that PJ protects against the effects of a high-fat diet in body weight, and cholesterol levels.

  2. Green‐wave surfing increases fat gain in a migratory ungulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Arthur D.; Merkle, Jerod A.; McWhirter, Douglas E.; Cook, John G.; Cook, Rachel C.; White, P.J.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2018-01-01

    Each spring, migratory herbivores around the world track or ‘surf’ green waves of newly emergent vegetation to distant summer or wet‐season ranges. This foraging tactic may help explain the great abundance of migratory herbivores on many seasonal landscapes. However, the underlying fitness benefits of this life‐history strategy remain poorly understood. A fundamental prediction of the green‐wave hypothesis is that migratory herbivores obtain fitness benefits from surfing waves of newly emergent vegetation more closely than their resident counterparts. Here we evaluate whether this behavior increases body‐fat levels – a critically important correlate of reproduction and survival for most ungulates – in elk Cervus elaphus of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Using satellite imagery and GPS tracking data, we found evidence that migrants (n = 23) indeed surfed the green wave, occupying sites 12.7 days closer to peak green‐up than residents (n = 16). Importantly, individual variation in surfing may help account for up to 6 kg of variation in autumn body‐fat levels. Our findings point to a pathway for anthropogenic changes to the green wave (e.g. climate change) or migrants’ ability to surf it (e.g. development) to impact migratory populations. To explore this possibility, we evaluated potential population‐level consequences of constrained surfing with a heuristic model. If green‐wave surfing deteriorates by 5–15 days from observed, our model predicts up to a 20% decrease in pregnancy rates, a 2.5% decrease in population growth, and a 30% decrease in abundance over 50 years. By linking green‐wave surfing to fitness and illustrating potential effects on population growth, our study provides new insights into the evolution of migratory behavior and the prospects for the persistence of migratory ungulate populations in a changing world.

  3. High fat diet and inflammation - modulation of Haptoglobin level in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stefania eSpagnuolo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and dietary fats are well known risk factors for the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The analysis of specific markers, whose brain level can be affected by diet, might contribute to unveil the intersection between inflammation/obesity and neurodegeneration. Haptoglobin (Hpt is an acute phase protein, which acts as antioxidant by binding free Haemoglobin (Hb, thus neutralizing its pro-oxidative action. We previously demonstrated that Hpt plays critical functions in brain, modulating cholesterol trafficking in neuroblastoma cell lines, beta-amyloid (Aβ uptake by astrocyte, and limiting Aβ toxicity on these cells. A major aim of this study was to evaluate whether a long term (12 or 24 weeks high-fat diet (HFD influences Hpt and Hb expression in rat hippocampus. We also assessed the development of obesity-induced inflammation by measuring hippocampal level of TNF-alpha, and the extent of protein oxidation by titrating nitro-tyrosine (N-Tyr. Hpt concentration was lower (p<0.001 in hippocampus of HFD rats than in control animals, both in the 12 and in the 24 weeks fed groups. HFD was also associated in hippocampus with the increase of Hb level (p<0.01, inflammation and protein oxidative modification, as evidenced by the increase in the concentration of TNF-alpha and nitro-tyrosine. In fact, TNF-alpha concentration was higher in rats receiving HFD for 12 (p<0.01 or 24 weeks (p<0.001 compared to those receiving the control diet. N-Tyr concentration was more elevated in hippocampus of HFD than in control rats in both 12 weeks (p=0.04 and 24 weeks groups (p=0.01, and a positive correlation between Hb and N-Tyr concentration was found in each group. Finally, we found that the treatment of the human glioblastoma-astrocytoma cell line U-87 MG with cholesterol and fatty acids, such as palmitic and linoleic acid, significantly impairs (p<0.001 Hpt secretion in the extracellular compartment.We hypothesize that the HFD-dependent decrease of

  4. The effect of exercise on obesity, body fat distribution and risk for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, Julia H; Micklesfield, Lisa K

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), while exercise is known to reduce body fatness and attenuate the risk of T2D. The aim of this chapter is to examine the interactions between exercise, obesity and body fat distribution, and the risk for T2D. Firstly, we show that body fatness, in particular visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation, is associated with insulin resistance and incident T2D. We then show that aerobic exercise of sufficient intensity and volume results in a decrease in body fat and VAT. Conversely, sedentary behavior and physical inactivity are associated with increased body fat and VAT. Finally, the chapter examines the interaction between physical activity (PA), obesity and risk for T2D and shows that both obesity and PA are significant independent predictors of incident T2D, but the magnitude of risk imparted by high levels of body fat is much greater than that of low levels of PA. Further, we show that obese physically active individuals are at greater risk for incident T2D than normal-weight physically inactive individuals. The mechanisms underlying this complex interaction include the ability of exercise to increase free fatty acid oxidation to match high rates of lipolysis associated with obesity, as well as the effects of exercise on adipokine, cytokine and myokine secretion. Exercise, of sufficient volume and intensity, is therefore recommended to reduce obesity, centralization of body fat, and risk of T2D.

  5. Nivalenol induces oxidative stress and increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effect in intestinal epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Regno, Marisanta; Adesso, Simona; Popolo, Ada [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Quaroni, Andrea [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Veterinary Research Tower, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853–6401 (United States); Autore, Giuseppina [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Severino, Lorella [Department of Pathology and Animal Health, Division of Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Marzocco, Stefania, E-mail: smarzocco@unisa.it [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites often found as contaminants in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, and the consumption of food or feed contaminated by mycotoxins represents a major risk for human and animal health. Reactive oxygen species are normal products of cellular metabolism. However, disproportionate generation of reactive oxygen species poses a serious problem to bodily homeostasis and causes oxidative tissue damage. In this study we analyzed the effect of two trichothecenes mycotoxins: nivalenol and deoxynivalenol, alone and in combination, on oxidative stress in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Our results indicate the pro-oxidant nivalenol effect in IEC-6, the stronger pro-oxidant effect of nivalenol when compared to deoxynivalenol and, interestingly, that nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidative effects. Mechanistic studies indicate that the observed effects were mediated by NADPH oxidase, calcium homeostasis alteration, NF-kB and Nrf2 pathways activation and by iNOS and nitrotyrosine formation. The toxicological interaction by nivalenol and deoxynivalenol reported in this study in IEC-6, points out the importance of the toxic effect of these mycotoxins, mostly in combination, further highlighting the risk assessment process of these toxins that are of growing concern. - Highlights: • Nivalenol induces oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). • Nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effects in IECs. • Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol trigger antioxidant response IECs. • These results indicate the importance of mycotoxins co-contamination.

  6. Fat metabolism during exercise in patients with mitochondrial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard; Orngreen, Mette Cathrine; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2009-01-01

    . Fat metabolism was determined by means of indirect calorimetry and stable isotope technique in patients and healthy subjects. Patients carried various types and loads (mean [SE], 72% [5%]) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in skeletal muscle. All subjects exercised at the same absolute workload......OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with defects of the respiratory chain have metabolic adaptations that promote a preferential use of fats or carbohydrates, similar to what is observed in metabolic myopathies affecting glycolysis or fat oxidation. DESIGN: Causation and case-control study...... (mean [SE], 65 [10] W), corresponding to 72% (in patients) and 30% (in healthy subjects) of maximum oxygen consumption. SETTING: Neuromuscular research unit. PARTICIPANTS: Ten patients with mtDNA mutations and 10 sex-matched healthy subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fat turnover, plasma concentrations...

  7. Fatty liver accompanies an increase of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the hind gut of C57/BL mice fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-fat diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which also induces changes in the gut microbiome. This study tested the hypothesis that high-fat feeding increases certain predominate hind gut bacteria in a C57BL/6 mouse model o...

  8. Serum Polychlorinated Biphenyls Increase and Oxidative Stress Decreases with a Protein-Pacing Caloric Restriction Diet in Obese Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng; Zuo, Li; Ward, Emery; Arciero, Paul J

    2017-01-10

    The purposes were to compare the effects of a: (1) 12-week P-CR weight loss (WL) diet (Phase 1) between obese men and women and; (2) 52-week modified P-CR (mP-CR) vs. heart healthy (HH) weight maintenance (WM) diet (Phase 2) on serum PCBs and oxidative stress biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS; total antioxidant capacity, TAC) in 40 obese participants (men, n = 21; women, n = 19). Participants received dietary counseling and monitoring of compliance. PCBs, TBARS, and TAC were assessed at weeks -1 (CON), 12 (WL), and 64 (WM). Following WL (Week 12), concomitant with reductions in TBARS (0.24 ± 0.15 vs. 0.18 ± 0.11 µM; p 0.42, p < 0.05) and negatively correlated with body weight, fat mass, and abdominal fat ( r < -0.46, p < 0.02). Our results support mobilization of stored PCBs as well as enhanced redox status following a 12-week P-CR WL diet. Additionally, a 52-week mP-CR WM diet demonstrated an advantage in preventing weight gain relapse accompanied by an increase in circulating PCBs compared to a traditional HH diet.

  9. An increase in visceral fat is associated with a decrease in the taste and olfactory capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Fernandez-Garcia

    Full Text Available Sensory factors may play an important role in the determination of appetite and food choices. Also, some adipokines may alter or predict the perception and pleasantness of specific odors. We aimed to analyze differences in smell-taste capacity between females with different weights and relate them with fat and fat-free mass, visceral fat, and several adipokines.179 females with different weights (from low weight to morbid obesity were studied. We analyzed the relation between fat, fat-free mass, visceral fat (indirectly estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis with visceral fat rating (VFR, leptin, adiponectin and visfatin. The smell and taste assessments were performed through the "Sniffin' Sticks" and "Taste Strips" respectively.We found a lower score in the measurement of smell (TDI-score (Threshold, Discrimination and Identification in obese subjects. All the olfactory functions measured, such as threshold, discrimination, identification and the TDI-score, correlated negatively with age, body mass index (BMI, leptin, fat mass, fat-free mass and VFR. In a multiple linear regression model, VFR mainly predicted the TDI-score. With regard to the taste function measurements, the normal weight subjects showed a higher score of taste functions. However a tendency to decrease was observed in the groups with greater or lesser BMI. In a multiple linear regression model VFR and age mainly predicted the total taste scores.We show for the first time that a reverse relationship exists between visceral fat and sensory signals, such as smell and taste, across a population with different body weight conditions.

  10. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  11. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  12. Diet-induced obesity associated with steatosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanhua; Rideout, Drew; Rakita, Steven; Lee, James; Murr, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Obesity induces steatosis and increases oxidative stress, as well as chronic inflammation in the liver. The balance between lipogenesis and lipolysis is disrupted in obese animals. At a cellular level, the changes in metabolic sensors and energy regulators are poorly understood. We hypothesized that diet-induced steatosis increases oxidative stress, inflammation, and changes the metabolic regulators to promote energy storage in mice. The setting was a university-affiliated basic science research laboratory. Four-week-old C57BL mice were fed a high-fat diet (n = 8) or regular chow (n = 8) for 7 weeks. The liver sections were stained for fat content and immunofluorescence. Liver homogenates were used for protein analysis by immunoblotting and mRNA analysis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The gels were quantified using densitometry P ≤ .05 was considered significant. The high-fat diet upregulated protein kinase-C atypical isoforms ζ and λ and decreased glucose tolerance and the interaction of insulin receptor substrate 2 with phosphoinositide kinase-3. The high-fat diet increased the transcriptional factors liver X receptor (4321 ± 98 versus 2981 ± 80) and carbohydrate response element-binding protein (5132 ± 135 versus 3076 ± 91), the lipogenesis genes fatty acid binding protein 5, stearoyl-co-enzyme A desaturase-1, and acetyl-co-enzyme A carboxylase protein, and fatty acid synthesis. The high-fat diet decreased 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (2561 ± 78 versus 1765 ± 65), glucokinase-3β (2.214 ± 34 versus 3356 ± 86), and SIRT1 (2015 ± 76 versus 3567 ± 104) and increased tumor necrosis factor-α (3415 ± 112 versus 2042 ± 65), nuclear factor kappa B (5123 ± 201 versus 2562 ± 103), cyclooxygenase-2 (4230 ± 113 versus 2473 ± 98), nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (3501 ± 106 versus 1600 ± 69) and reactive oxygen species production (all P high-fat diet impairs glucose tolerance and hepatic

  13. Influence of muscle fiber type composition on early fat accumulation under high-fat diet challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ning; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yee, Grace M; Kitajima, Yoichiro; Katagiri, Sayaka; Kojima, Motoyasu; Anzai, Keizo; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Hamilton, James A

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether differences in muscle fiber types affect early-stage fat accumulation, under high fat diet challenge in mice. Twelve healthy male C57BL/6 mice experienced with short-term (6 weeks) diet treatment for the evaluation of early pattern changes in muscular fat. The mice were randomly divided into two groups: high fat diet (n = 8) and normal control diet (n = 4). Extra- and intra-myocellular lipid (EMCL and IMCL) in lumbar muscles (type I fiber predominant) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle (type II fiber predominant) were determined using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Correlation of EMCL, IMCL and their ratio between TA and lumbar muscles was evaluated. EMCL increased greatly in both muscle types after high fat diet. IMCL in TA and lumbar muscles increased to a much lower extent, with a slightly greater increase in TA muscles. EMCLs in the 2 muscles were positively correlated (r = 0.84, p = 0.01), but IMCLs showed a negative relationship (r = -0.84, p = 0.01). In lumbar muscles, high fat diet significantly decreased type I fiber while it increased type II fiber (all p≤0.001). In TA muscle, there was no significant fiber type shifting (p>0.05). Under short-time high fat diet challenge, lipid tends to initially accumulate extra-cellularly. In addition, compared to type II dominant muscle, Type I dominant muscle was less susceptible to IMCL accumulation but more to fiber type shifting. These phenomena might reflect compensative responses of skeletal muscle to dietary lipid overload in order to regulate metabolic homeostasis.

  14. Folate Deficiency Is Associated With Oxidative Stress, Increased Blood Pressure, and Insulin Resistance in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Kožich, V.; Krijt, J.; Sokolová, J.; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Šimáková, Miroslava; Mlejnek, Petr; Šilhavý, Jan; Oliyarnyk, O.; Kazdová, L.; Kurtz, T. W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2013), s. 135-140 ISSN 0895-7061 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NS10036; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10019; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0505; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10067 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : blood pressure * ectopic fat accumulation * folate deficiency * homocysteine * hypertension * oxidative stress * spontaneously hypertensive rat Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.402, year: 2013

  15. Differential effects of restricted versus unlimited high-fat feeding in rats on fat mass, plasma hormones and brain appetite regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, T; Chen, H; Morris, M J

    2009-07-01

    The rapid rise in obesity has been linked to altered food consumption patterns. There is increasing evidence that, in addition to total energy intake, the macronutrient composition of the diet may influence the development of obesity. The present study aimed to examine the impact of high dietary fat content, under both isocaloric and hypercaloric conditions, compared with a low fat diet, on adiposity, glucose and lipid metabolism, and brain appetite regulators in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of three diets: control (14% fat), ad lib high-fat palatable (HFD, 35% fat) or high-fat palatable restricted (HFD-R, matched to the energy intake of control) and were killed in the fasting state 11 weeks later. Body weight was increased by 28% in unrestricted HFD fed rats, with an almost tripling of caloric intake and fat mass (P < 0.001) and double the plasma triglycerides of controls. Glucose intolerance and increased insulin levels were observed. HFD-R animals calorie matched to control had double their fat mass, plasma insulin and triglycerides (P < 0.05). Only ad lib consumption of the HFD increased the hypothalamic mRNA expression of the appetite-regulating peptides, neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin. Although restricted consumption of palatable HFD had no significant impact on hypothalamic appetite regulators or body weight, it increased adiposity and circulating triglycerides, suggesting that the proportion of dietary fat, independent of caloric intake, affects fat deposition and the metabolic profile.

  16. Diabetes increases mortality after myocardial infarction by oxidizing CaMKII

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Min; Guan, Xiaoqun; Luczak, Elizabeth D.; Lang, Di; Kutschke, William; Gao, Zhan; Yang, Jinying; Glynn, Patric; Sossalla, Samuel; Swaminathan, Paari D.; Weiss, Robert M.; Yang, Baoli; Rokita, Adam G.; Maier, Lars S.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes increases oxidant stress and doubles the risk of dying after myocardial infarction, but the mechanisms underlying increased mortality are unknown. Mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes developed profound heart rate slowing and doubled mortality compared with controls after myocardial infarction. Oxidized Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (ox-CaMKII) was significantly increased in pacemaker tissues from diabetic patients compared with that in nondiabeti...

  17. IMPACT OF IMPROVED FAT-MEAT PRODUCTS CONSUMPTION ON ANTHROPOMETRIC MARKERS AND NUTRIENT INTAKES OF MALE VOLUNTEERS AT INCREASED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celada, Paloma; Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Ruperto, Mar; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-08-01

    meat products have been recognized to be adequate matrix for incorporating functional ingredients. The impact of meat products formulated by replacing animal fat with a combination of olive, linseed and fish oils on energy and nutrient intakes and anthropometric measurements were tested in a non-randomized-controlled- sequential study. eighteen male volunteers at high-CVD risk consumed weekly 200 g frankfurters and 250 g pâtés during three 4-wk periods (reduced fat (RF); n3-enriched- RF (n-3RF), and normal fat (NF)), separated by 4-wk washout. Energy and nutrient intakes, healthy eating index (HEI), and anthropometric changes were evaluated. body fat mass rate-of-change and the waist/ hip ratio significantly differs (p = 0.018 and p = 0.031, respectively) between periods, decreasing body fat mass, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio in RF period and increasing body fat mass in NF one (all p = 0.05). Significant inverse correlations were observed between rate- of-change of BMI and ideal body weight with dietary carbohydrate/SFA ratio in n-3RF period (p = 0.003 and p = 0.006, respectively). Initial diets presented low HEIs (means Product consumption improved dietary Zn, Ca, retinol equivalent, folate and vitamin B12 contents in all periods, and ameliorated n-3 PUFA contents and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio over the n-3RF period. improved-fat meat products appear as functional foods for overweight/obeses since their consumption improved selected body-fat markers, without affecting HEI, macronutrient and energy but their n-3 PUFA and n6/n3 ratio intakes. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Increases in weight during chronic stress are partially associated with a switch in food choice towards increased carbohydrate and saturated fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Clifford J; Campbell, Iain C; Troop, Nick

    2014-01-01

    We examined if stress associated changes in weight and dietary restraint are associated with changes in the composition of foods consumed. Participants were 38 healthy women on a taught postgraduate university course. Data were obtained at the beginning of the semester and 15 weeks later just prior to a written course exam (the stressor). By using a within subject design, we measured the composition of food consumed, body mass index (BMI), levels of dietary restraint and salivary cortisol. In the larger study from which these data were obtained, it was shown that the effect of increased cortisol secretion on weight gain was mediated by a reduction in dietary restraint. The present data show that increased cortisol secretion, reduced dietary restraint and increased caloric intake, account for 73% of the variance in change in BMI. Further regression analysis indicated that the change in dietary restraint mediated the effect of change in cortisol on change in BMI. Final analysis revealed that the effect of these changes in dietary restraint on weight are partially mediated by increased caloric intake from carbohydrate and saturated fat, that is, a change in dietary composition partially accounts for the link between increased cortisol secretion through heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity resulting in weight gain. These data are consistent with a 'comfort food hypothesis', as they suggest that chronic stress can promote reward associated behaviour through reduced dietary restraint and consumption of food containing more carbohydrate and saturated fat. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  19. Body Mass Index Is Associated with Increased Creatinine Clearance by a Mechanism Independent of Body Fat Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchman, Fernando; Tong, Jenny; Utzschneider, Kristina M.; Zraika, Sakeneh; Udayasankar, Jayalakshmi; McNeely, Marguerite J.; Carr, Darcy B.; Leonetti, Donna L.; Young, Bessie A.; de Boer, Ian H.; Boyko, Edward J.; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y.; Kahn, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Although obesity has been, in general, associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, visceral adiposity has been suggested to be associated with reduced glomerular filtration. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the differential effects of obesity and body fat distribution on glomerular filtration. Design and Setting: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the Japanese-American community in Seattle, Washington. Participants: We studied a representative sample of second-generation Japanese-American men and women with normal glucose tolerance (n = 124) and impaired glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) (n = 144) residing in King County, Washington. Main Outcome Measures: Glomerular filtration rate was estimated by 24-h urinary creatinine clearance, body size by body mass index (BMI), and intra-abdominal fat (IAF), sc fat (SCF), and lean thigh areas by CT scan. Results: Creatinine clearance was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.429; P creatinine clearance and BMI remained significant after adjustments for IAF, SCF areas, and fasting insulin levels (r = 0.337; P creatinine clearance after adjusting for BMI. Creatinine clearance increased with increasing BMI after adjusting for fasting insulin, fasting glucose, IAF and SCF areas in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (r = 0.432; P metabolism (r = 0.471; P creatinine clearance in nondiabetic subjects. Lean body mass, rather than adiposity, may explain this association. PMID:19584179

  20. Impact of nutrient excess and endothelial nitric oxide synthase on the plasma metabolite profile in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Sansbury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An increase in calorie consumption is associated with the recent rise in obesity prevalence. However, our current understanding of the effects of nutrient excess on major metabolic pathways appears insufficient to develop safe and effective metabolic interventions to prevent obesity. Hence, we sought to identify systemic metabolic changes caused by nutrient excess and to determine how endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS—which has anti-obesogenic properties—affects systemic metabolism by measuring plasma metabolites. Wild-type (WT and eNOS transgenic (eNOS-TG mice were placed on low fat or high fat diets for six weeks, and plasma metabolites were measured using an unbiased metabolomic approach. High fat feeding in WT mice led to significant increases in fat mass, which was associated with significantly lower plasma levels of 1,5-anhydroglucitol, lysophospholipids, 3-dehydrocarnitine, and bile acids, as well as branched chain amino acids (BCAAs and their metabolites. Plasma levels of several lipids including sphingomyelins, stearoylcarnitine, dihomo-linoleate and metabolites associated with oxidative stress were increased by high fat diet. In comparison with low fat-fed WT mice, eNOS-TG mice showed lower levels of several free fatty acids, but in contrast, the levels of bile acids, amino acids, and BCAA catabolites were increased. When placed on a high fat diet, eNOS overexpressing mice showed remarkably higher levels of plasma bile acids and elevated levels of plasma BCAAs and their catabolites compared with WT mice. Treatment with GW4064, an inhibitor of bile acid synthesis, decreased plasma bile acid levels but was not sufficient to reverse the anti-obesogenic effects of eNOS overexpression. These findings reveal unique metabolic changes in response to high fat diet and eNOS overexpression and suggest that the anti-obesity effects of eNOS are likely independent of changes in the bile acid pool.

  1. Effects of Dietary Fibre (Pectin) and/or Increased Protein (Casein or Pea) on Satiety, Body Weight, Adiposity and Caecal Fermentation in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L; Gratz, Silvia W; Peinado, Diana I; Thomson, Lynn M; Garden, Karen E; Williams, Patricia A; Richardson, Anthony J; Ross, Alexander W

    2016-01-01

    Dietary constituents that suppress appetite, such as dietary fibre and protein, may aid weight loss in obesity. The soluble fermentable dietary fibre pectin promotes satiety and decreases adiposity in diet-induced obese rats but effects of increased protein are unknown. Adult diet-induced obese rats reared on high fat diet (45% energy from fat) were given experimental diets ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group): high fat control, high fat with high protein (40% energy) as casein or pea protein, or these diets with added 10% w/w pectin. Dietary pectin, but not high protein, decreased food intake by 23% and induced 23% body fat loss, leading to 12% lower final body weight and 44% lower total body fat mass than controls. Plasma concentrations of satiety hormones PYY and total GLP-1 were increased by dietary pectin (168% and 151%, respectively) but not by high protein. Plasma leptin was decreased by 62% on pectin diets and 38% on high pea (but not casein) protein, while plasma insulin was decreased by 44% on pectin, 38% on high pea and 18% on high casein protein diets. Caecal weight and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the caecum were increased in pectin-fed and high pea protein groups: caecal succinate was increased by pectin (900%), acetate and propionate by pectin (123% and 118%, respectively) and pea protein (147% and 144%, respectively), and butyrate only by pea protein (309%). Caecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased by pectin (down 78%) but increased by pea protein (164%). Therefore, the soluble fermentable fibre pectin appeared more effective than high protein for increasing satiety and decreasing caloric intake and adiposity while on high fat diet, and produced a fermentation environment more likely to promote hindgut health. Altogether these data indicate that high fibre may be better than high protein for weight (fat) loss in obesity.

  2. Supplementation with antioxidant-rich extra virgin olive oil prevents hepatic oxidative stress and reduction of desaturation capacity in mice fed a high-fat diet: Effects on fatty acid composition in liver and extrahepatic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Angel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Marambio, Macarena; Espinosa, Alejandra; Mayer, Susana; Romero, Nalda; Barrera M Sc, Cynthia; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in mice on the reduction of desaturase and antioxidant enzymatic activities in liver, concomitantly with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) profiles in liver and extrahepatic tissues induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male mice C57 BL/6 J were fed with a control diet (CD; 10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or an HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 wk. Animals were supplemented with 100 mg/d EVOO with different antioxidant contents (EVOO I, II, and III). After the intervention, blood and several tissues were analyzed. Dietary supplementation with EVOO with the highest antioxidant content and antioxidant capacity (EVOO III) significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and the plasmatic metabolic alterations caused by HFD and produced a normalization of oxidative stress-related parameters, desaturase activities, and LCPUFA content in tissues. Data suggest that dietary supplementation with EVOO III may prevent oxidative stress and reduction of biosynthesis and accretion of ω-3 LCPUFA in the liver of HFD-fed mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxidized trilinoleate and tridocosahexaenoate induce pica behavior and change locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Fuki; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Umeno, Aya; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Kurata, Kenji; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2013-01-01

    Pica behavior, a behavior that is characterized by eating a nonfood material such as kaolin and relates to the degree of discomfort in animals, and the variations of locomotor activity of rats after eating deteriorated fat and oil extracted from instant noodles were examined in our previous study. The result shows that oxidized fat and oil with at least 100 meq/kg in peroxide value (PV) increase pica behavior and decrease locomotor activity. In the present study, the same two behaviors were measured using autoxidized trilinoleate (tri-LA) and tridocosahexaenoate (tri-DHA) as a model of vegetable and fish oil, respectively, to compare fatty acid differences against the induction of two behaviors. The oxidized levels of tri-LA and tri-DHA were analyzed with PV and p-anisidine value (AnV), the method to analyze secondary oxidized products. The oxidation levels of respective triacylglycerol (TAG) samples were carefully adjusted to make them having almost the same PV and AnV. As the results, 600 or more meq/kg in PV of both TAGs significantly increased the consumption of kaolin pellets compared to the control group. Furthermore, 300 or more meq/kg in PV of tri-LA and 200 or more meq/kg in PV of tri-DHA demonstrated significant decrease in locomotor activity compared to control group. These results would indicate that the oxidized TAG having the same PV and/or AnV would induce the same type of pica behavior and locomotor activity. Furthermore, that the structure of oxidized products might not be important and the amount of hydroperoxide group and/or aldehyde group in deteriorated fats and oils might affect the pica behavior and locomotor activity were thought.

  4. Murine FATP alleviates growth and biochemical deficiencies of yeast fat1Delta strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirusso, C C; Connell, E J; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2000-01-01

    following incubation of the cells with exogenous oleate. Expression of either Fat1p or murine FATP from a plasmid in a fat1Delta strain restored these phenotypic and biochemical deficiencies. Fat1p and FATP restored growth of fat1Delta cells in the presence of cerulenin and under hypoxic conditions....... Furthermore, fatty-acid transport was restored and was found to be chain length specific: octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid was transported in a Fat1p- and FATP-independent manner while the long-chain fatty acids myristate, palmitate, and oleate required either Fat1p or FATP for maximal levels of transport....... Lignoceryl CoA synthetase activities were restored to wild-type levels in fat1Delta strains expressing either Fat1p or FATP. Fat1p or FATP also restored wild-type levels of beta-oxidation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids. These data show that Fat1p and FATP are functionally equivalent when expressed...

  5. Long term highly saturated fat diet does not induce NASH in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippi Céline

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is hampered by the lack of a suitable model. Our aim was to investigate whether long term high saturated-fat feeding would induce NASH in rats. Methods 21 day-old rats fed high fat diets for 14 weeks, with either coconut oil or butter, and were compared with rats feeding a standard diet or a methionine choline-deficient (MCD diet, a non physiological model of NASH. Results MCDD fed rats rapidly lost weight and showed NASH features. Rats fed coconut (86% of saturated fatty acid or butter (51% of saturated fatty acid had an increased caloric intake (+143% and +30%. At the end of the study period, total lipid ingestion in term of percentage of energy intake was higher in both coconut (45% and butter (42% groups than in the standard (7% diet group. No change in body mass was observed as compared with standard rats at the end of the experiment. However, high fat fed rats were fattier with enlarged white and brown adipose tissue (BAT depots, but they showed no liver steatosis and no differ