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Sample records for increase intrathoracic filling

  1. Venoconstrictor agents mobilize blood from different sources and increase intrathoracic filling during epidural anesthesia in supine humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton-Hicks, M.; Hoeck, A.S.; Stuehmeier, K.D.A.; Arndt, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of dihydroergotamine (DHE) and etilefrine hydrochloride (E) on the regional distribution of /sup 99m/Tc-marked erythrocytes during epidural anesthesia in eight supine men to determine if vasoactive agents with venoconstrictor action would enhance cardiac filling during epidural anesthesia. Radioactivity was recorded with a gamma camera, and its distribution determined in the thorax, abdomen, and limbs. Arterial and central venous pressure, heart rate, and calf volume by plethysmography were measured. During epidural anesthesia with a sensory block up to T4/5, DHE (7.5 micrograms/kg) reduced the radioactivity, i.e., blood volume, in both the innervated (-5.9 +/- 3.5%) and denervated muscle/skin (-16.9 +/- 7%) regions, and increased it in both the intrathoracic (+7.0 +/- 2.3%), and splanchnic vasculature (+4.2 +/- 3.2). In contrast, E (6 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1) decreased the blood volume most markedly in the splanchnic region (-5.4 +/- 0.7%) and increased it in the thorax (+2 +/- 0.6%). All these changes were statistically significant. The combined effects were estimated to be equivalent to a transfusion of nearly 1.01 of blood. Both drugs reversed the hypotensive action of epidural anesthesia. During epidural anesthesia, DHE preferentially constricted the capacitance vessels in skeletal muscle and skin irrespective of the state of innervation, whereas E preferentially constricted the splanchnic vasculature. In the doses used, the two agents replenished in an additive fashion the central circulation during epidural anesthesia

  2. Intrathoracic anastomotic leakage after gastroesophageal cancer resection is associated with increased risk of recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Steen C; Calatayud, Dan; Jensen, Lone S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Intrathoracic anastomotic leakage after intended curative resection for cancer in the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction has a negative impact on long-term survival. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an anastomotic leakage was associated with an increased recurrence......]: 1.17-2.29, P = .004) and all-cause mortality (HR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.23-2.05, P cancer resection....

  3. Intrathoracic splenosis. Intrathorakale Splenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farres, M T [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Zentrales Inst. fuer Radiodiagnostik; Grabenwoeger, F; Dock, W; Klepetko, W [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Roentgenstation

    1989-10-01

    Intrathoracic splenosis is an unusual event after diaphragmatic and splenic rupture, which causes intrathoracic mass lesions. It results from spontaneous autotransplantation of splenic tissue to serous surfaces. On chest X-rays, three different radiological appearances were distinguished: Pulmonary mass lesions, pleural lesions and mediastinal tumors. Since the radiological appearance is nonspecific, a diagnosis may only be suspected together with the characteristic anamnesis. In those cases scintigraphy should be performed because this method may verify the diagnosis. Here we report the radiological and clinical appearances of this entity by one of our own and 13 well-documented cases in the literature. (orig.).

  4. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salem, A.H. [Dept. of Surgery, Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif (Saudi Arabia)

    2000-12-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus is a very rare surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance to prevent gastric gangrene and perforation or gastric obstruction and dilation, which may lead to cardiorespiratory arrest. We report two infants who presented with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. This was associated with recurrent diaphragmatic hernia in one and congenital paraoesophageal hernia in the other. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment are also discussed. (orig.)

  5. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salem, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus is a very rare surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance to prevent gastric gangrene and perforation or gastric obstruction and dilation, which may lead to cardiorespiratory arrest. We report two infants who presented with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. This was associated with recurrent diaphragmatic hernia in one and congenital paraoesophageal hernia in the other. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment are also discussed. (orig.)

  6. Intrathoracic Gastric Volvulus presenting with GIT Bleed

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Kadam; VSV Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in neonatal period is a life-threatening surgical emergency. We report a case of neonate with respiratory distress and GI bleeding who was diagnosed to have congenital diaphragmatic eventration with Intrathoracic gastric volvulus.

  7. Images of the intrathoracic lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez, Patricia; Fernandez, Maria del Pilar; Betancourt, Claudia

    1999-01-01

    The intrathoracic involvement in lymphoma is diverse. It's study and diagnosis requires not only plain chest x-rays but also additional imaging. In this paper we summarize the most frequent findings seen in CAT scan and magnetic resonance permitting better staging and enhancing further treatment options

  8. Pictorial essay of radiological features of benign intrathoracic masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahminan Suut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With increased exposure of patients to routine imaging, incidental benign intrathoracic masses are frequently recognized. Most have classical imaging features, which are pathognomonic for their benignity. The aim of this pictorial review is to educate the reader of radiological features of several types of intrathoracic masses. The masses are categorized based on their location/origin and are grouped into parenchymal, pleural, mediastinal, or bronchial. Thoracic wall masses that invade the thorax such as neurofibromas and lipomas are included as they may mimic intrathoracic masses. All examples are illustrated and include pulmonary hamartoma, pleural fibroma, sarcoidosis, bronchial carcinoid, and bronchoceles together with a variety of mediastinal cysts on plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Sometimes a multimodality approach would be needed to confirm the diagnosis in atypical cases. The study would include the incorporation of radionuclide studies and relevant discussion in a multidisciplinary setting.

  9. Intrathoracic Hernia after Total Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Tashiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic hernias after total gastrectomy are rare. We report the case of a 78-year-old man who underwent total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction for residual gastric cancer. He had alcoholic liver cirrhosis and received radical laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer 3 years ago. Early gastric cancer in the remnant stomach was found by routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We initially performed endoscopic submucosal dissection, but the vertical margin was positive in a pathological result. We performed total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction by laparotomy. For adhesion of the esophageal hiatus, the left chest was connected with the abdominal cavity. A pleural defect was not repaired. Two days after the operation, the patient was suspected of having intrathoracic hernia by chest X-rays. Computed tomography showed that the transverse colon and Roux limb were incarcerated in the left thoracic cavity. He was diagnosed with intrathoracic hernia, and emergency reduction and repair were performed. Operative findings showed that the Roux limb and transverse colon were incarcerated in the thoracic cavity. After reduction, the orifice of the hernia was closed by suturing the crus of the diaphragm with the ligament of the jejunum and omentum. After the second operation, he experienced anastomotic leakage and left pyothorax. Anastomotic leakage was improved with conservative therapy and he was discharged 76 days after the second operation.

  10. Increasing fill volume reduces cardiac performance in peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivarsen, Per; Povlsen, Johan V; Jensen, Jens Dam

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that peritoneal dialysis (PD) affects systemic haemodynamics less than haemodialysis, but little is known about changes in haemodynamics during PD. It is unknown if increasing PD volume causes changes in cardiovascular haemodynamics possibly increasing...

  11. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

  12. Intrathoracic desmoid tumor in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, L.M.; Schey, W.L.; Bassuk, A.; Shrock, P.

    1985-01-01

    The case history of a child with an intrathoracic desmoid tumor is presented. The insidious nature of the tumor's development and its possible relationship to previous surgery are noted. Desmoid tumors are rare in the childhood population and an intrathoracic site as the origin of one has not been reported previously. (orig.)

  13. Intrathoracic lipoma masquerading as subclavian artery trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Munro, P T

    2012-02-03

    A 58 year old man was admitted to the accident and emergency department following an industrial accident in which he sustained a three part fracture dislocation of his right humerus. Chest radiography revealed a large mass in the right upper hemithorax and, when the patient became hypotensive, an emergency thoracotomy was performed. The mass was found to be a massive intrathoracic lipoma. This case shows how preexisting intrathoracic lesions may be mistaken for subclavian or great vessel trauma following violent shoulder girdle injury. The differential diagnosis of traumatic and non-traumatic intrathoracic mass lesions in chest radiography should be considered carefully.

  14. Increasing Polymer Solar Cell Fill Factor by Trap-Filling with F4-TCNQ at Parts Per Thousand Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Manion, Joseph G; Yuan, Mingjian; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; McKeown, George R; Beaupré, Serge; Leclerc, Mario; Sargent, Edward H; Seferos, Dwight S

    2016-08-01

    Intrinsic traps in organic semiconductors can be eliminated by trap-filling with F4-TCNQ. Photovoltaic tests show that devices with F4-TCNQ at parts per thousand concentration outperform control devices due to an improved fill factor. Further studies confirm the trap-filling pathway and demonstrate the general nature of this finding. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Clinical Significance of Diffuse Intrathoracic Uptake on Post-Therapy I-131 Scans in Thyroid Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyun Su; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Sonya Youngju; Park, Hye Lim; Seo, Ye Young; Choi, Woo Hee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and possible cause of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy I-131 scans in thyroid cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed 781 post-therapy scans of 755 thyroid cancer patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy between January and December 2010. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was examined, and clinical patient characteristics including sex, age, regimen for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation (thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human TSH injection), TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg Ab) levels, therapeutic dose of radioactive iodine therapy and prior history of radioactive iodine therapy were recorded.Scan findings were correlated with chest CT, chest radiographs, laboratory tests and/or clinical status. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake without evidence of pathologic condition was categorized as indeterminate. The association between clinical characteristics and intrathoracic uptake were analyzed for negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was demonstrated in 39 out of 755 (5.2 %) patients, among which 3 were confirmed as lung metastasis. The 14 patients that showed high Tg or anti-Tg Ab levels were considered to be at risk of having undetected micrometastasis on other imaging modalities. The remaining 22 were indeterminate (2.9 %). Upon comparison of negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups, TSH stimulation by thyroid hormone withdrawal was shown to be significantly correlated with diffuse intrathoracic uptake (p <0.05). The frequency of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was 5.2 % and could be seen in thyroid cancer patients with underlying lung metastasis as well as those without definite pathologic condition. In the latter, there was a higher frequency for diffusely increased intrathoracic

  16. Increased dependence on slow filling for left ventricular diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease and a depressed systolic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Takashi; Ozaki, Masaharu; Furutani, Yuhji; Yamamoto, Kouzo; Saeki, Atsushi; Satoh, Shinichi; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1990-01-01

    Contributions of rapid filling, slow filling and atrial systole to the left ventricular(LV) filling volume were analyzed with the use of radionuclide ventriculography at rest, both globally and regionally, in 34 patients with isolated disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The patients included 17 with a normal ejection fraction (EF≥50%; group 1) and 17 with a depressed EF (<50%; group 2), and the data were compared with those obtained from 13 normal subjects. A computer program subdivided the LV image into 4 regions, and time-activity curves were constructed globally and regionally by reverse-gating from the R wave. In both groups the contribution of rapid filling to the LV filling volume was decreased significantly in the affected septal and apical regions, and in the global left ventricle compared with that in normal subjects. In group 1, the contribution of atrial systole showed an increase in these affected regions and in the global left ventricle. In contrast, in group 2, the atrial contribution was not increased globally or regionally as much as was expected. However, the contribution of slow filling was either increased significantly or tended to increase in the affected regions and in the global left ventricle. There were negative correlations between the contribution of rapid filling and that of slow filling in the global left ventricle (r=-0.73, p<0.001) and in each of the septal, apical and lateral regions (r≥-0.60, p<0.001), which suggested that the contribution of slow filling as well as of atrial systole undergoes an increase as rapid filling is impaired. Thus, in patients with coronary artery disease, the left ventricle relies on slow filling as well as atrial systole to affect diastolic LV filling in the affected regions and in the global left ventricle in the presence of LV systolic dysfunction. (author)

  17. Intrathoracic manifestations of Rosai-Dorfman disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartin-Ceba, Rodrigo; Golbin, Jason M; Yi, Eunhee S; Prakash, Udaya B S; Vassallo, Robert

    2010-09-01

    Rosai-Dorfman Disease (RDD), also known as Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy (SHML), is a rare monocyte/macrophage proliferative disorder of varied biological behavior. Although cutaneous and lymph node involvement are relatively well-described, intrathoracic manifestations of RDD have only occasionally been reported. We conducted a retrospective computer-assisted search of the Mayo Clinic record from 1976 to 2005 for patients with histopathologic evidence of RDD on organ biopsy. Clinical characteristics were abstracted from charts and thoracic manifestations recorded. Survival was estimated using the national social security database. A total of 21 patients were diagnosed with RDD over a period of 30 years; 9 had intrathoracic manifestations (43%). Main pulmonary symptoms included dyspnea and cough. Age at the time of diagnosis, gender, race, smoking history, mortality and time of survival after diagnosis were no different between RDD patients with and without intrathoracic manifestations. The most common radiographic thoracic manifestation was mediastinal lymphadenopathy (6 patients). Cystic change, interstitial lung disease, and airway disease were radiographically evident in 4 patients. Seven patients were treated at some point in the course of their disease, most commonly with oral corticosteroids. At the time of last follow-up 87% were alive, with a median (IQR) time interval since diagnosis of 8 years (4-9.7). Intrathoracic manifestations of RDD are relatively common and include mediastinal lymphadenopathy, airway disease, pleural effusion, cystic and interstitial lung disease. Although limited in size, this series suggests the prognosis of patients with RDD and intrathoracic manifestations is relatively good.

  18. Neonatal Intrathoracic Stomach without Gastric Volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokka, Sriharsha; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Intrathoracic stomach is a rare and serious congenital abnormality. The anomaly may be complicated by gastric volvulus and can lead to ischemic gastric infarction in the neonate. If diagnosed antenatally, neonatal management can be planned in advance so as to reduce morbidity. This anomaly must be differentiated from the more common congenital diaphragmatic hernia, as associated pulmonary hypoplasia is common in the latter and rare with gastric herniation. We report a case of intrathoracic stomach in a neonate without volvulus, fortunately a rare entity which was managed operatively, and the child has been under regular follow-up.

  19. Acquired intrathoracic kidney in thoracic kyphosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Sadayuki; Kawashima, Akira; Ohuchida, Toshiyuki; Russell, W.J.

    1986-12-01

    Two cases of acquired intrathoracic kidney associated with thoracic kyphosis are reported, with emphasis on the radiographic manifestations. A search of the scientific literature disclosed that the acquired type of this abnormality is rare. The importance of recognizing this entity from a differential diagnostic standpoint is underscored. (author)

  20. Intraventricular filling under increasing left ventricular wall stiffness and heart rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaee, Milad; Lai, Hong Kuan; Schovanec, Joseph; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Nagueh, Sherif

    2015-11-01

    Heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) is a clinical syndrome that is prevalent in over 50% of heart failure patients. HFNEF patients show increased left ventricle (LV) wall stiffness and clinical diagnosis is difficult using ejection fraction (EF) measurements. We hypothesized that filling vortex circulation strength would decrease with increasing LV stiffness irrespective of heart rate (HR). 2D PIV and hemodynamic measurements were acquired on LV physical models of varying wall stiffness under resting and exercise HRs. The LV models were comparatively tested in an in vitro flow circuit consisting of a two-element Windkessel model driven by a piston pump. The stiffer LV models were tested in comparison with the least stiff baseline model without changing pump amplitude, circuit compliance and resistance. Increasing stiffness at resting HR resulted in diminishing cardiac output without lowering EF below 50% as in HFNEF. Increasing HR to 110 bpm in addition to stiffness resulted in lowering EF to less than 50%. The circulation strength of the intraventricular filling vortex diminished with increasing stiffness and HR. The results suggest that filling vortex circulation strength could be potentially used as a surrogate measure of LV stiffness. This research was supported by the Oklahoma Center for Advancement of Science and Technology (HR14-022).

  1. [Robotic-assisted minimally invasive abdominothoracal oesophageal resection with intrathoracic anastomosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egberts, J-H; Aselmann, H; Schafmayer, C; Jünemann, K-P; Becker, T

    2014-02-01

    Ivor Lewis oesophagectomy is one of the approaches used worldwide for treating oesophageal cancer. The adoption of minimally invasive oesophagectomy has increased worldwide since its first description more than 15 years ago. However, minimally invasive oesophagectomy with a chest anastomosis has advantages. By using a four-arm robotic platform, not only the preparation of the gastric tube and mobilisation of the oesophagus but also the intrathoracic anastomosis of the oesophagogastrostomy can be performed in a comfortable and safe way. The indication for oesophageal resection is oesophageal cancer. The operative procedure comprises robotic-assisted abdominothoracal oesophageal resection with reconstruction by a gastric tube and intrathoracic anastomosis (Ivor Lewis procedure). Robotic abdominal and thoracic minimally invasive esophagectomy is feasible, and safe with a complete lymph node dissection. Especially the intrathoracic anastomosis of the oesophagogastrostomy can be performed in a comfortable and safe way. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  3. Stability of an anaerobic single reactor filled with dolomitic limestone with increased organic load of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Ribas Döll

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic single-stage reactor was evaluated to treat vinasse and to evaluate its stability. This bench reactor was filled with dolomitic limestone with a horizontal plug flow to simulate a drainage channel. The experiment lasted 129 days while the reactor was submitted to different applied organic concentrations (chronologically applied: 3.0; 5.0; 12.0; 9.0 and 7.5 g L-1 as COD, chemical oxygen demand. COD removals were 50% and 9% with 3.0 and 7.5 g L-1, respectively. With 12.0 g L-1, reactor efficiency increased to 33%, with an abrupt drop to 3% on the 84th day. Therefore, in order to avoid reactor collapse, a remedial measure was necessary. The system remained in batch without feeding for 19 days (from the 85th to the 104th day with 9.0 g L-1. Afterwards, it was observed that the performance of the system tended to stabilize, reaching 47% with 7.5 g L-1 in the 118th day. At the end of the experiment, the potassium content of the wastewater decreased from 800 mg L-1 to 594 mg L-1 (on an average 25% and calcium and magnesium increased within the reactor liquor. The dissolution of the limestone inside the liquor reactor probably caused this result. After the treatment with limestone, the average pH value of the effluent increased from 4.9 to over 6.0 in all organic concentrations. It could be concluded that the reactor filled with dolomitic limestone in these operational conditions assured a low efficiency in COD removal, potassium reduction, increasing values of pH, alkalinity, calcium and magnesium. The instability was observed when there was increase in organic load to 12 g L-1 with subsequent recovery.

  4. Intrathoracic lipoblastoma presenting with severe respiratory distress

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Motshedi Sekgololo; Risenga Frank Chauke; Peter Shere Ramoroko; Khondker Mofazzal Hossain

    2017-01-01

    Lipoblastoma is a rare benign tumour which originates from an adipose tissue. In this study we report the case of a three year old boy who presented with a large intrathoracic tumour occupying the whole of the left hemithorax. He presented in severe respiratory distress. A chest X-ray showed total opacity of the left hemithorax, and CT-scan showed a low attenuation mass inkeeping with fat in the left hemithorax. A complete resection of a tumour was undertaken, with histopathology report confi...

  5. Intrathoracic kidney. Diagnostic value of CT scan imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillet, A.M.; Escure, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Two cases are reported of an ectopic right kidney that was partially intrathoracic in position. Diagnosis was simple from CT scan imaging appearances, the examination being performed to investigate an intrathoracic mass. Images showed a tissular mass within a fatty zone in sections without contrast and the typical appearance of the kidney on sections with contrast [fr

  6. Intrathoracic Paraspinal Mesothelial Cyst: A Report of Two Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se Won; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki; Paik, Seung Sam; Chung, Won Sang; Chon, Soon Ho

    2010-01-01

    Intrathoracic mesothelial cysts are congenital developmental cysts usually located in the anterior cardiophrenic angle region (so called, pericardial cysts). We report two rare cases of an intrathoracic paraspinal mesothelial cyst which was purely cystic and had no perceptible cyst wall on CT or MRI with histopathologic findings

  7. Intrathoracic application of a vacuum-assisted closure device in managing pleural space infection after lung resection: is it an option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenasskashani, Alireza; Rahnavardi, Mohammad; Yan, Tristan D; McCaughan, Brian C

    2011-08-01

    Empyema after lung resection is a challenging condition to manage and is associated with a high mortality. Intrathoracic application of a vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device is recently introduced as an adjunct in the management of this condition. A best evidence topic was constructed to address whether this approach is effective in successful chest closure and reducing hospital stay. Twenty-three papers were found using the reported search, of which nine papers were identified that provided the best evidence to answer the question. All papers were retrospective and included a total of 69 patients treated with intrathoracic VAC. There was only one cohort study and the rest were either case series or case reports. In a cohort of 19 patients reported by Palmen et al. the average duration of an open window thoracostomy in a group of patients with VAC (n=11) was 39 ± 17 days and in those without VAC (n=8) was 933 ± 1422 days. Median length of VAC treatment was 22 days (range 6-66 days) in a series of 28 patients reported by Saadi et al. Some authors excluded patients with a bronchopleural fistula (BPF) from VAC treatment. However, Groetzner et al. have safely used VAC in patients with BPF after covering the bronchus stump with an intrathoracic muscle flap. The mediastinum and the bronchus can be covered using a polyvinyl-alcohol foam. Polyurethane foam is commonly used to fill the intrathoracic cavity up to the superficial wound. The suggested starting level of negative pressure is as low as -25 mmHg to -75 mmHg depending on the presence or absence of signs of mediastinal traction; this negative pressure can gradually be increased to -125 mmHg over time. The recommended interval between VAC changes is two to five days. Accumulated evidence in this article, although limited, suggests that VAC, as an adjunct to the standard treatment, can potentially alleviate the morbidity and decrease hospital stay in patients with empyema after lung resection. VAC can reduce

  8. Water-filled training tubes increase core muscle activation and somatosensory control of balance during squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditroilo, Massimiliano; O'Sullivan, Rory; Harnan, Brian; Crossey, Aislinn; Gillmor, Beth; Dardis, William; Grainger, Adam

    2018-09-01

    This study examined trunk muscle activation, balance and proprioception while squatting with a water-filled training tube (WT) and a traditional barbell (BB), with either closed (CE) or open eyes (OE). Eighteen male elite Gaelic footballers performed an isometric squat under the following conditions: BB-OE, BB-CE, WT-OE and WT-CE. The activity of rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO) and multifidus (MF) was measured using electromyography, along with sway of the centre of pressure (CoP) using a force platform. Only the EO and the MF muscles exhibited an increased activity with WT (p velocity and range of the CoP increased significantly with WT (p velocity of the CoP was marginally reduced (d = 0.29). WT elicited a greater level core muscle activation and created a greater challenge to postural stability when compared to a BB. It appears that WT does not benefit from vision but emphasises the somatosensory control of balance. The use of WT may be beneficial in those sports requiring development of somatosensory/proprioceptive contribution to balance control.

  9. Intrathoracic Caecal Perforation Presenting as Dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Granier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bochdalek hernia is a congenital defect of the diaphragm that is usually diagnosed in the neonatal period and incidentally in asymptomatic adults. Small bowel incarceration in a right-sided Bochdalek hernia is exceptional for an adult. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman was admitted for acute dyspnea, tachycardia, hypotension, and fever. Five days before, she had been experiencing an episode of diffuse abdominal pain. The admission chest X-ray was interpreted as right pleural effusion and pneumothorax with left mediastinal shift. Chest tube drainage was purulent. The thoracoabdominal CT examination suspected an intestinal incarceration through a right diaphragmatic defect. At laparotomy, a right-sided Bochdalek hernia was confirmed with a complete necrosis of the incarcerated caecum. Ileocaecal resection was performed, but the patient died from delayed septic complications. Conclusion. Intrathoracic perforation of the caecum is a rare occurrence; delayed diagnosis due to misleading initial symptoms may lead to severe complications and poor prognosis.

  10. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-06-01

    Neoplasms of the thoracic cavity are as diverse as the structures and tissues that comprise the thorax. This paper summarizes the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of thoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific diagnostic techniques are evaluated, as is the utility of imaging techniques for clinical staging. Surgery is recommended as the treatment of choice for intrathoracic neoplasms, with exception for multiple tumor masses, metastasis, or poor patient health. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia are discussed individually or in combination with surgery or each other. Prognosis for specific tumors is discussed, as is lymph node involvement as a prognostic indicator. As the use of newer diagnostic procedures become more available in veterinary medicine, it should be possible to offer patients a variety of positive choices that will enhance their survival and quality of life

  11. CT volumetry of intrathoracic space occupying processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberich, W.; Schnabel, K.; Kaick, G. van; Kayser, K.

    1984-01-01

    Preoperative CT volumetry was performed in 39 patients with intrathoracic neoplasms. The results are compared to postoperative volume measures of the surgical preparation. The correlation of both measuring series was very high (rho = .94). The estimated influence of systematic and stochastic errors was only 10 to 15%. The authors outline the consequences for clinical practice: by means of the better quantification in the T category of the TNM system, the surgeon is in a position to make a more precise preoperative planning. The reliable numeric in vivo determination of regression and growth velocity of tumors and/or metastases allows for the first time an exact quantification of control examinations during and after radiotherapy or chemotherapy. This will possibly lead to a more precise individual prognosis. In experimental radiotherapy a more detailed-description of the evolution of experimental tumors in the living animal will be possible by this procedure. (orig.) [de

  12. Intrathoracic lipoblastoma presenting with severe respiratory distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Motshedi Sekgololo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipoblastoma is a rare benign tumour which originates from an adipose tissue. In this study we report the case of a three year old boy who presented with a large intrathoracic tumour occupying the whole of the left hemithorax. He presented in severe respiratory distress. A chest X-ray showed total opacity of the left hemithorax, and CT-scan showed a low attenuation mass inkeeping with fat in the left hemithorax. A complete resection of a tumour was undertaken, with histopathology report confirming the diagnosis of lipoblastoma. The relevant literature review was done. At three and six months follow up, there was no recurrent tumour on imaging and the child had started thriving well.

  13. Intrathoracic Kidney after Blunt Abdominal Trauma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Halis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal trauma is responsible for most genitourinary injuries. The incidence of renal artery injury and intrathoracic kidney is quite low in patients who present with blunt trauma experiencing damage. There are four defined etiologies for intrathoracic kidney, which include real intrathoracic ectopic kidney, eventration of the diaphragm, congenital diaphragmatic herniation, and traumatic diaphragmatic rupture. The traumatic intrathoracic kidney is an extremely rare case. We presented intrathoracic kidney case after traumatic posterior diaphragmatic rupture.

  14. X-ray appearance of intrathoracic lymph nodes in lymphogranulomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorodskaya, M.M.; Antonova, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of clinico-roentgenological data obtained when examining 174 patients with lymphogranulomatosis is carried out. Roentgenological semiotics of the lesions of intrathoracic lymp nodes according to the Rouviere classification supplemented by Zhdanov has been specified. Technique of layer-by-layer examination with an account of roentgenotopography of intrathoracic lymph nodes promoting to their determination is developed. Dynamics of the lymph node changes under treatment is traced. Rarely occurring wide-spread decalcification of prevascular nodes after the radiotherapy is described

  15. Activity of some enzymes of the blood serum during irradiation of intrathoracic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syromyatnikova, E N; Kallistova, L P; Vasil' eva, I G; Korkina, L V; Goncharova, I M; Golovchenko, A G [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Rentgenologii i Radiologii, Moscow (USSR)

    1978-08-01

    Out of 90 patients with intrathoracic tumours (71) and with tumours of other localizations (19 patients - the control) by the end of the radiation therapy course in 13 patients with tumours of the thoracic cavity organs (the lung and esophagus) the activity of creatine phosphokinase increased with simultaneous increase of aspartate aminotransferase in 6 patients and lactate dehydrogenase in one patient. Electrocardiographically pathological shifts in the heart were registered only in 8 out of 13 patients that makes it possible to make a conclusion about the necessity of studying the enzymes of creatine phosphokinase, aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase in patients with intrathoracic tumours during the process and after radiation therapy for the diagnosis of the cardiac muscle affection.

  16. Treatment of a symptomatic intrathoracic internal carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Brown

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic common carotid artery bifurcations are an anatomic anomaly with such rarity that only six cases have been reported to date. The true incidence of and preferred treatment options for a diseased intrathoracic common carotid artery bifurcation or internal carotid artery (ICA have not been clearly described. This case report describes a 72-year-old man who experienced a postoperative right hemispheric stoke after an aortic valve replacement, radiofrequency maze procedure, and left atrial appendage clip. Postoperative cerebrovascular evaluation revealed a severely diseased intrathoracic ICA that was treated by ligation of the diseased proximal ICA and transposition of the distal ICA to the disease-free external carotid artery. The patient provided written consent to present the history, data, and images in this manuscript.

  17. Intrathoracic Manifestations of IgG4-Related Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian Yik Lim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic involvement with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is frequently overlooked in IgG4-related disease patients. In this article we review the intrathoracic findings of IgG4-RD which are variable and protean. IgG4-related disease has been reported to affect the lung parenchyma, pleura, mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes, vasculature, and pericardium within the thorax. Mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy is the most common intrathoracic manifestation of IgG4-RD. Four main patterns of pulmonary disease have been described, including the solid nodular type, the bronchovascular type, the alveolar interstitial type, and the round shaped ground glass type. When feasible, a biopsy should be obtained to confirm the diagnosis. Most lesions show characteristic pathologic findings of IgG4-RD: dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. While this helps establish the diagnosis, the interpretation of pathology findings in the clinical context is key in making an accurate diagnosis. Mimickers of IgG4-RD should be ruled out, before making a diagnosis. The intrathoracic findings of IgG4-RD can be treated effectively with prednisone, but may require additional immunosuppressive therapies, including rituximab.

  18. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ( 99 mTc0 4 ) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99 mTc0 4 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland

  19. Formations, anomalies and variants of the mediastinum and the lung roots in children, simulating enlarged intrathoracic lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Borisova, N.K.

    1983-01-01

    Timely detection of enlarged intrathoracic lymph nodes is of great importance in pediatric practice. Meanwhile there exist various mediastinal and lung root as well as anomalies and variants of their development, which could imitate the mediastinal lymph node hyperplasia. Their diagnosis is individually designed employing a complex of X-ray methods. In recent years the anatomo-physiological development of thoracic organs in children and teenagers has been affected by the acceleration process. Under the latters' impact the phenomenon of an increase in the large pulmonary vessels appeared in children with signs of high physical development, which caused lung root dilatation and produced an impression of the intrathoracic lymph node enlargement. The Valsalva functional tests should be used in combination with X-ray research methods

  20. Usefulness of enhanced breathhold 3D spoiled gradient-echo MRA for intrathoracic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Kadoya, Masumi; Kamimura, Ryoichi; Takashima, Tsutomu

    1999-01-01

    Enhanced Breathhold 3D Spoiled Gradient-echo MRA was very attractive method for not only evaluating relationship between intrathoracic mass and intrathoracic vessels, but also visualizing small pulmonary vessels that could not be detected conventional MRA methods. Moreover, this methods could be applied for evaluating vascularity of the lesions. This method will be accepted as routine pulse sequence for evaluating intrathoracic mass especially malignant tumors. (author)

  1. Hyperthyroidism caused by a toxic intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, R.; Lakshmipathi, N.; Jena, A.; Behari, V.; Chopra, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    The rare presentation of hyperthyroidism caused by an intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland is described. The toxic intrathoracic goiter demonstrated avid uptake of [ 131 I] and [99mTc]pertechnetate, with comparatively faint isotopic accumulation seen in the cervical thyroid. A chest roentgenogram and radioisotope scan should be mandatory in cases of hyperthyroidism having no cervical thyroid enlargement to explore the possibility of a toxic intrathoracic goiter

  2. Skeletal changes mimicking intrathoracic disease on chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelderen, WFC van

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Various chest radiographs are illustrated to demonstrate features where bony changes may mimic intrathoracic disease. To confirm the skeletal origin and nature, further conventional radiographs often suffice, and the need for CT or scintigraphy may therefore be obviated. At the time of presentation for radiography of the chest, further pertinent clinical details can be obtained from the patient by the department staff, as required. All previous radiographs and radiological reports should be readily available. In order to add to the educational value of the 13 cases illustrated, all are presented in quiz format, with the answers and further images included in the text.

  3. Laparoscopic redo fundoplication for intrathoracic migration of wrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshkumar G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic fundoplication is fast emerging as the treatment of choice of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. However, a complication peculiar to laparoscopic surgery for this disease is the intrathoracic migration of the wrap. This article describes a case of a male patient who developed this particular complication after laparoscopic total fundoplication. Following a trauma, wrap migration occurred. The typical history and symptomatology is described. The classical Barium swallow picture is enclosed. Laparoscopic redo fundoplication was carried out. The difficulties encountered are described. Postoperative wrap migration can be suspected clinically by the presence of a precipitating event and typical symptomatology. Confirmation is by a Barium swallow. Treatment is by redo surgery.

  4. Intrathoracic versus cervical anastomosis and predictors of anastomotic leakage after oesophagectomy for cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooszen, J. A. H.; Goense, L.; Gisbertz, S. S.; Ruurda, J. P.; van Hillegersberg, R.; van Berge Henegouwen, M. I.

    2018-01-01

    Studies comparing the anastomotic leak rate in patients with an intrathoracic versus a cervical anastomosis after oesophagectomy are equivocal. The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcome after oesophagectomy in patients with an intrathoracic or cervical anastomosis, and to identify

  5. Cardiac effects of electrically induced intrathoracic autonomic reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A

    1988-06-01

    Electrical stimulation of the afferent components in one cardiopulmonary nerve (the left vagosympathetic complex at a level immediately caudal to the origin of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve) in acutely decentralized thoracic autonomic ganglionic preparations altered cardiac chronotropism and inotropism in 17 of 44 dogs. Since these neural preparations were acutely decentralized, the effects were mediated presumably via intrathoracic autonomic reflexes. The lack of consistency of these reflexly generated cardiac responses presumably were due in part to anatomical variation of afferent axons in the afferent nerve stimulated. As stimulation of the afferent components in the same neural structure caudal to the heart (where cardiopulmonary afferent axons are not present) failed to elicit cardiac responses in any dog, it is presumed that when cardiac responses were elicited by the more cranially located stimulations, these were due to activation of afferent axons arising from the heart and (or) lungs. When cardiac responses were elicited, intramyocardial pressures in the right ventricular conus as well as the ventral and lateral walls of the left ventricle were augmented. Either bradycardia or tachycardia was elicited. Following hexamethonium administration no responses were produced, demonstrating that nicotonic cholinergic synaptic mechanisms were involved in these intrathoracic cardiopulmonary-cardiac reflexes. In six of the animals, when atropine was administered before hexamethonium, reflexly generated responses were attenuated. The same thing occurred when morphine was administered in four animals. In contrast, in four animals following administration of phentolamine, the reflexly generated changes were enhanced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. [Abdominothoracic esophageal resection according to Ivor Lewis with intrathoracic anastomosis : standardized totally minimally invasive technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, N; Walz, M; Ketelhut, M

    2015-05-01

    The clinical and scientific interest in minimally invasive techniques for esophagectomy (MIE) are increasing; however, the intrathoracic esophagogastric anastomosis remains a surgical challenge and lacks standardization. Surgeons either transpose the anastomosis to the cervical region or perform hybrid thoracotomy for stapler access. This article reports technical details and early experiences with a completely laparoscopic-thoracoscopic approach for Ivor Lewis esophagectomy without additional thoracotomy. The extent of radical dissection follows clinical guidelines. Laparoscopy is performed with the patient in a beach chair position and thoracoscopy in a left lateral decubitus position using single lung ventilation. The anvil of the circular stapler is placed transorally into the esophageal stump. The specimen and gastric conduit are exteriorized through a subcostal rectus muscle split incision. The stapler body is placed into the gastric conduit and both are advanced through the abdominal mini-incision transhiatally into the right thoracic cavity, where the anastomosis is constructed. Data were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. A total of 23 non-selected consecutive patients (mean age 69 years, range 46-80 years) with adenocarcinoma (n = 19) or squamous cell carcinoma (n = 4) were surgically treated between June 2010 and July 2013. Neoadjuvant therapy was performed in 15 patients resulting in 10 partial and 4 complete remissions. There were no technical complications and no conversions. Mean operative time was 305 min (range 220-441 min). The median lymph node count was 16 (range 4-42). An R0 resection was achieved in 91 % of patients and 3 anastomotic leaks occurred which were successfully managed endoscopically. There were no postoperative deaths. The intrathoracic esophagogastric anastomosis during minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy can be constructed in a standardized fashion without an additional thoracotomy

  7. Intra-thoracic Sleeve Migration (ITSM): an Underreported Phenomenon After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Alan A; Shoar, Saeed; Khoursheed, Mousa

    2017-08-01

    Despite its technical simplicity, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) complications are increasingly reported. Intra-thoracic sleeve migration (ITSM ) is a rare complication after LSG which has been inconsistently addressed in the literature. The purpose of this study was to emphasize ITSM occurrence after LSG and evaluate the perioperative factors associated with its development. Between January and July 2016, LSG patients diagnosed with ITSM at two bariatric surgery departments were identified. Perioperative factors were assessed for all the patients and compared between two groups, LSG alone and LSG with concomitant hiatal hernia (HH) repair (HHR). A total of 19 patients (6 males and 13 females) were included. Central obesity was present in 18 patients (94.7%). Nine patients (47.4%) had concomitant hiatal hernia repair during their original LSG. Post-LSG GERD (94.7%) (38.9% de novo and 61.1% recurrent) and post-LSG constipation (57.9%) were commonly associated with ITSM. Severe refractory GERD was the most common presentation for ITSM (94.7%), followed by epigastric pain (47.4%), persistent nausea/vomiting (36.8%), and dysphagia (21.1%). Time interval between primary LSG and ITSM diagnosis ranged from 1 day to 3 years. Patients with LSG and concomitant HHR presented with higher post-LSG BMI compared to the LSG patients (37 ± 6.4 kg/m 2 vs. 30.1 ± 6.3 kg/m 2 , p = 0.03). All the patients underwent successful reduction of ITSM and subsequent HHR. Central obesity, chronic constipation, post-LSG GERD, and concomitant HHR are commonly seen in post-laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy intra-thoracic sleeve migration.

  8. Relation of Pericardial Fat, Intrathoracic Fat, and Abdominal Visceral Fat with Incident Atrial Fibrillation (From the Framingham Heart Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jane J.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF). Different fat depots may have differential associations with cardiac pathology. We examined the longitudinal associations between pericardial, intrathoracic, and visceral fat with incident AF. We studied Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation Cohorts who participated in the multi-detector computed tomography sub-study examination 1. We constructed multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models for risk of incident AF. Body mass index (BMI) was included in the multivariable-adjusted model as a secondary adjustment. We included 2,135 participants (53.3% women; mean age 58.8 years). During a median follow-up of 9.7 years, we identified 162 cases of incident AF. Across the increasing tertiles of pericardial fat volume, age- and sex-adjusted incident AF rate per 1000 person-years of follow-up were 8.4, 7.5, and 10.2. Based on an age- and sex-adjusted model, greater pericardial fat [hazard ratio (HR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.34] and intrathoracic fat (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.45) were associated with increased risk of incident AF. The HRs (95% CI) for incident AF were 1.13 (0.99-1.30) for pericardial fat, 1.19 (1.01-1.40) for intrathoracic fat, and 1.09 (0.93-1.28) for abdominal visceral fat after multivariable adjustment. After additional adjustment of BMI, none of the associations remained significant (all p>0.05). Our findings suggest that cardiac ectopic fat depots may share common risk factors with AF, which may have led to a lack of independence in the association between pericardial fat with incident AF. PMID:27666172

  9. Aorto-aortic intrathoracic bypass in surgical treatment of aortic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Perez, F.; Duran Reyes, A.; Bigalli, D.; Filgueira Berobide, J.

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of coarctation of the aorta is 6.5 percent of all congenital heart defects, according to national and international data. There is a restenosis rate of patients after surgery. Factors that influence this evolution depends on the age at which patients underwent surgery for the first time the anatomy of the aortic arch and type of surgical technique. Several procedures can be used to correct the coarctation, which include surgery and balloon catheter dilation. We present here a case of a patient of 22 years old, with a recurrent coarctation of the aorta studied by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. The patient underwent surgery a third time. We used an anterior approach (median sternotomy) and performed an aortic bypass graft, intrathoracic, under cardiopulmonary bypass. Evolved favorably and was discharged on the sixth day of post operative day (Author) [es

  10. Intrathoracic deplacement of the fractured humerus head mimicking lung mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incedayi, M.; Sivrioglu, A.; Candas, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: 79-year-old woman was admitted to emergency department because she had a trauma to her right shoulder. In chest X ray film and CT orientated to her right shoulder; fragmented proximal humeral fracture and right 3. rib fracture, hemopneumothorax, subcutaneous emphysema related to rib fracture were detected. In CT exam which is performed at one month after the trauma was viewed that a well defined, 3.5 cm in diameter, spheric, sharp in medial contour, osseous structure in right hemithorax. The intrathoracic osseous lesion was the fragmented and dislocated humeral head. if we see a bone structure in the lung while we reporting a chest-X-ray in a trauma patient, we have to retain that this structure might be the fractured and dislocated humerus head

  11. A proposed radiological classification of childhood intra-thoracic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Ben J.; Gie, Robert P.; Schaaf, H. Simon; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Donald, Peter R.; Beyers, Nulda; Starke, Jeff R.

    2004-01-01

    One of the obstacles in discussing childhood tuberculosis (TB) is the lack of standard descriptive terminology to classify the diverse spectrum of disease. Accurate disease classification is important, because the correct identification of the specific disease entity has definite prognostic significance. Accurate classification will also improve study outcome definitions and facilitate scientific communication. The aim of this paper is to provide practical guidelines for the accurate radiological classification of intra-thoracic TB in children less than 15 years of age. The proposed radiological classification is based on the underlying disease and the principles of pathological disease progression. The hope is that the proposed classification will clarify concepts and stimulate discussion that may lead to future consensus. (orig.)

  12. Vacuum-assisted closure device: a useful tool in the management of severe intrathoracic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Alend; Perentes, Jean Yannis; Gonzalez, Michel; Tempia, Adrien Caliera; Wang, Yabo; Demartines, Nicolas; Ris, Hans-Beat; Krueger, Thorsten

    2011-05-01

    This study is an evaluation of the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy for the treatment of severe intrathoracic infections complicating lung resection, esophageal surgery, viscera perforation, or necrotizing pleuropulmonary infections. We reviewed the medical records of all patients treated by intrathoracic VAC therapy between January 2005 and December 2008. All patients underwent surgical debridement-decortication and control of the underlying cause of infection such as treatment of bronchus stump insufficiency, resection of necrotic lung, or closure of esophageal or intestinal leaks. Surgery was followed by intrathoracic VAC therapy until the infection was controlled. The VAC dressings were changed under general anesthesia and the chest wall was temporarily closed after each dressing change. All patients received systemic antibiotic therapy. Twenty-seven patients (15 male, median age 64 years) underwent intrathoracic VAC dressings for the management of postresectional empyema (n=8) with and without bronchopleural fistula, necrotizing infections (n=7), and intrathoracic gastrointestinal leaks (n=12). The median length of VAC therapy was 22 days (range 5 to 66) and the median number of VAC changes per patient was 6 (range 2 to 16). In-hospital mortality was 19% (n=5) and was not related to VAC therapy or intrathoracic infection. Control of intrathoracic infection and closure of the chest cavity was achieved in all surviving patients. Vacuum-assisted closure therapy is an efficient and safe adjunct to treat severe intrathoracic infections and may be a good alternative to the open window thoracostomy in selected patients. Long time intervals in between VAC changes and short course of therapy result in good patient acceptance. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, Stephen E.; Done, Stephen L.; Friedman, Seth D.; Feldman, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    Research documents that among children admitted to trauma intensive care units the number of rib fractures sustained indicates the child's likelihood of having and severity of intrathoracic injury. This has been misused in court to argue that children with multiple rib fractures who lack intrathoracic injury have abnormal bone fragility rather than inflicted injury. To determine frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures in cases of child abuse and accidental trauma. We conducted a retrospective review of rib fractures caused by documented abuse or accidents from 2003 to 2010 in children treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and Harborview Medical Center. A senior pediatric radiologist and radiology fellow independently reviewed the imaging. Children with bone demineralization were excluded. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics were used. Seventy-two percent (47/65) of infants and toddlers with rib fractures were abused. Abused children had more rib fractures than accidentally injured children (5.55 vs. 3.11, P = 0.012). However intrathoracic injuries as a whole (55.6% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001) and individual types of intrathoracic injuries were more common with accidents. Rates of other thoracic cage injuries did not differ substantially (27.8% accidents vs. 12.8% abuse, P = 0.064). Intracranial and intra-abdominal injuries and skull fractures were equally frequent, but other extrathoracic fractures were more common with abuse (70.2% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001). Abused infants and toddlers have fewer intrathoracic injuries but more rib fractures than accidentally injured peers. This likely reflects different injury mechanics. Lack of intrathoracic injuries in abused children with rib fractures does not imply bone fragility. (orig.)

  14. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Stephen E. [Kapiolani Children' s Hospital, The Department of Radiology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Done, Stephen L.; Friedman, Seth D. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, The Department' s of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Feldman, Kenneth W. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Pediatrics, General Pediatrics Division, Seattle, WA (United States); Seattle Children' s Protection Program, Children' s Protection Program, M/S M2-10, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Research documents that among children admitted to trauma intensive care units the number of rib fractures sustained indicates the child's likelihood of having and severity of intrathoracic injury. This has been misused in court to argue that children with multiple rib fractures who lack intrathoracic injury have abnormal bone fragility rather than inflicted injury. To determine frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures in cases of child abuse and accidental trauma. We conducted a retrospective review of rib fractures caused by documented abuse or accidents from 2003 to 2010 in children treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and Harborview Medical Center. A senior pediatric radiologist and radiology fellow independently reviewed the imaging. Children with bone demineralization were excluded. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics were used. Seventy-two percent (47/65) of infants and toddlers with rib fractures were abused. Abused children had more rib fractures than accidentally injured children (5.55 vs. 3.11, P = 0.012). However intrathoracic injuries as a whole (55.6% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001) and individual types of intrathoracic injuries were more common with accidents. Rates of other thoracic cage injuries did not differ substantially (27.8% accidents vs. 12.8% abuse, P = 0.064). Intracranial and intra-abdominal injuries and skull fractures were equally frequent, but other extrathoracic fractures were more common with abuse (70.2% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001). Abused infants and toddlers have fewer intrathoracic injuries but more rib fractures than accidentally injured peers. This likely reflects different injury mechanics. Lack of intrathoracic injuries in abused children with rib fractures does not imply bone fragility. (orig.)

  15. Peptidergic modulation of efferent sympathetic neurons in intrathoracic ganglia regulating the canine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A

    1989-05-01

    When either substance P or vasoactive intestinal peptide was injected into an acutely decentralized intrathoracic sympathetic ganglion, short-lasting augmentation of cardiac chronotropism and inotropism was induced. These augmentations were induced before the fall in systemic arterial pressure occurred which was a consequence of these peptides leaking into the systemic circulation in enough quantity to alter peripheral vascular resistance directly. When similar volumes of normal saline were injected into an intrathoracic ganglion, no significant cardiac changes were induced. When substance P or vasoactive intestinal peptide was administered into an intrathoracic ganglion, similar cardiac augmentations were induced either before or after the intravenous administration of hexamethonium. In contrast, when these peptides were injected into an intrathoracic ganglion in which the beta-adrenergic blocking agent timolol (0.1 mg/0.1 ml of normal saline) had been administered no cardiac augmentation occurred. These data imply that in the presence of beta-adrenergic blockade intraganglionic administration of substance P or vasoactive intestinal peptide does not modify enough intrathoracic neurons to alter cardiac chronotropism and inotropism detectably. When neuropeptide Y was injected into an intrathoracic ganglion, no cardiac changes occurred. However, when cardiac augmentations were induced by sympathetic preganglionic axon stimulation these were enhanced following the intraganglionic administration of neuropeptide Y. As this effect occurred after timolol was administered into the ipsilateral ganglia, but not after intravenous administration of hexamethonium, it is proposed that the effects of neuropeptide Y are dependent upon functioning intrathoracic ganglionic nicotinic cholinergic synaptic mechanisms. Intravenous administration of either morphine or [D-ala2,D-leu5]enkephalin acetate did not alter the capacity of the preganglionic sympathetic axons to augment the heart

  16. Ventricular filling slows epicardial conduction and increases action potential duration in an optical mapping study of the isolated rabbit heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Derrick; Mills, Robert W.; Schettler, Jan; Narayan, Sanjiv M.; Omens, Jeffrey H.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; McCullough, A. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanical stimulation can induce electrophysiologic changes in cardiac myocytes, but how mechanoelectric feedback in the intact heart affects action potential propagation remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in action potential propagation and repolarization with increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure from 0 to 30 mmHg were investigated using optical mapping in isolated perfused rabbit hearts. With respect to 0 mmHg, epicardial strain at 30 mmHg in the anterior left ventricle averaged 0.040 +/- 0.004 in the muscle fiber direction and 0.032 +/- 0.006 in the cross-fiber direction. An increase in ventricular loading increased average epicardial activation time by 25%+/- 3% (P action potential duration at 20% repolarization (APD20) but did at 80% repolarization (APD80), from 179 +/- 7 msec to 207 +/- 5 msec (P action potential duration by a load-dependent mechanism that may not involve stretch-activated channels.

  17. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Stephen E; Done, Stephen L; Friedman, Seth D; Feldman, Kenneth W

    2014-10-01

    Research documents that among children admitted to trauma intensive care units the number of rib fractures sustained indicates the child's likelihood of having and severity of intrathoracic injury. This has been misused in court to argue that children with multiple rib fractures who lack intrathoracic injury have abnormal bone fragility rather than inflicted injury. To determine frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures in cases of child abuse and accidental trauma. We conducted a retrospective review of rib fractures caused by documented abuse or accidents from 2003 to 2010 in children treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and Harborview Medical Center. A senior pediatric radiologist and radiology fellow independently reviewed the imaging. Children with bone demineralization were excluded. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics were used. Seventy-two percent (47/65) of infants and toddlers with rib fractures were abused. Abused children had more rib fractures than accidentally injured children (5.55 vs. 3.11, P = 0.012). However intrathoracic injuries as a whole (55.6% vs. 12.8%, P fractures were equally frequent, but other extrathoracic fractures were more common with abuse (70.2% vs. 16.7%, P rib fractures than accidentally injured peers. This likely reflects different injury mechanics. Lack of intrathoracic injuries in abused children with rib fractures does not imply bone fragility.

  18. Intrathoracic versus cervical anastomosis and predictors of anastomotic leakage after oesophagectomy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooszen, J A H; Goense, L; Gisbertz, S S; Ruurda, J P; van Hillegersberg, R; van Berge Henegouwen, M I

    2018-04-01

    Studies comparing the anastomotic leak rate in patients with an intrathoracic versus a cervical anastomosis after oesophagectomy are equivocal. The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcome after oesophagectomy in patients with an intrathoracic or cervical anastomosis, and to identify predictors of anastomotic leakage in a nationwide audit. Between January 2011 and December 2015, all consecutive patients who underwent oesophagectomy for cancer were identified from the Dutch Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Audit. For the comparison between an intrathoracic and cervical anastomosis, propensity score matching was used to adjust for potential confounders. Multivariable logistic regression modelling with backward stepwise selection was used to determine independent predictors of anastomotic leakage. Some 3348 patients were included. After propensity score matching, 654 patients were included in both the cervical and intrathoracic anastomosis groups. An intrathoracic anastomosis was associated with a lower leak rate than a cervical anastomosis (17·0 versus 21·9 per cent; P = 0·025). The percentage of patients with recurrent nerve paresis was also lower (0·6 versus 7·0 per cent; P Risk factors for anastomotic leak were co-morbidities and proximal tumours. © 2018 The Authors. BJS published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of BJS Society Ltd.

  19. Analysis of radioactivity increase of rad waste filled in fibre-reinforced concrete container regarding external exposure of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratova, D.; Hrncir, T.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the assessment of the external radiation exposure of workers performing the individual tasks associated with disposal of the fibre-reinforced concrete containers in the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce. Models for fibre-reinforced concrete containers with maximum activity allowable for transport and for fibre-reinforced concrete containers contained radionuclides at the common level of activity concentration were created in order to analyze the option of fibre-reinforced concrete containers radioactivity increase. Calculations of individual effective doses have been carried out for three workers who work in the control area of the waste disposal facility dosimetrist, assistant and crane worker. (Authors)

  20. Intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases on high-resolution chest computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C. Isabela S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Vancouver General Hospital]. E-mail: isabela.silva@vch.ca; Mueller, Nestor L. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Vancouver General Hospital. Dept. of Radiology

    2008-05-15

    Intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases are very common. The frequency of intrathoracic manifestations and the patterns of abnormality are variable depending on the type of collagen vascular disease and may simultaneously involve one or more of the following: lung parenchyma, airways, pulmonary vessels, pericardium, and pleura. The most common pulmonary manifestations are diffuse interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary hypertension which together represent the main causes of morbidity and mortality of these patients. Pulmonary, airway and pleural involvement may also be secondary to the disease therapy, or result from bacterial pneumonia or opportunistic infection. In the present review, the authors summarize the main intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases and the differential diagnosis on high-resolution chest computed tomography. (author)

  1. Is intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility correlated to clinical phenotypes and sex in patients with COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camiciottoli G

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gianna Camiciottoli,1 Stefano Diciotti,2 Francesca Bigazzi,1 Simone Lombardo,3 Maurizio Bartolucci,4 Matteo Paoletti,1 Mario Mascalchi,3 Massimo Pistolesi1 1Section of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi,” University of Bologna, Cesena, Italy; 3Radiodiagnostic Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 4Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: A substantial proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD develops various degree of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility. We studied whether the magnitude of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility could be different across clinical phenotypes and sex in COPD. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility measured at paired inspiratory–expiratory low dose computed tomography (CT and its correlation with clinical, functional, and CT-densitometric data were investigated in 69 patients with COPD according to their predominant conductive airway or emphysema phenotypes and according to sex. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was higher in patients with predominant conductive airway disease (n=28 and in females (n=27. Women with a predominant conductive airway phenotype (n=10 showed a significantly greater degree of collapsibility than women with predominant emphysema (28.9%±4% versus 11.6%±2%; P<0.001. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was directly correlated with inspiratory–expiratory volume variation at CT and with forced expiratory volume (1 second, and inversely correlated with reduced CT lung density and functional residual capacity. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was not correlated with cough and wheezing; however, intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility and clinical phenotypes of COPD

  2. Doping porous silicon with erbium: pores filling as a method to limit the Er-clustering effects and increasing its light emission

    KAUST Repository

    Mula, Guido; Printemps, Tony; Licitra, Christophe; Sogne, Elisa; D’ Acapito, Francesco; Gambacorti, Narciso; Sestu, Nicola; Saba, Michele; Pinna, Elisa; Chiriu, Daniele; Ricci, Pier Carlo; Casu, Alberto; Quochi, Francesco; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni; Falqui, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Er clustering plays a major role in hindering sufficient optical gain in Er-doped Si materials. For porous Si, the long-standing failure to govern the clustering has been attributed to insufficient knowledge of the several, concomitant and complex processes occurring during the electrochemical Er-doping. We propose here an alternative road to solve the issue: instead of looking for an equilibrium between Er content and light emission using 1-2% Er, we propose to significantly increase the electrochemical doping level to reach the filling the porous silicon pores with luminescent Er-rich material. To better understand the intricate and superposing phenomena of this process, we exploit an original approach based on needle electron tomography, EXAFS and photoluminescence. Needle electron tomography surprisingly shows a heterogeneous distribution of Er content in the silicon thin pores that until now couldn't be revealed by the sole use of scanning electron microscopy compositional mapping. Besides, while showing that pore filling leads to enhanced photoluminescence emission, we demonstrate that the latter is originated from both erbium oxide and silicate. These results give a much deeper understanding of the photoluminescence origin down to nanoscale and could lead to novel approaches focused on noteworthy enhancement of Er-related photoluminescence in porous silicon.

  3. Doping porous silicon with erbium: pores filling as a method to limit the Er-clustering effects and increasing its light emission

    KAUST Repository

    Mula, Guido

    2017-07-14

    Er clustering plays a major role in hindering sufficient optical gain in Er-doped Si materials. For porous Si, the long-standing failure to govern the clustering has been attributed to insufficient knowledge of the several, concomitant and complex processes occurring during the electrochemical Er-doping. We propose here an alternative road to solve the issue: instead of looking for an equilibrium between Er content and light emission using 1-2% Er, we propose to significantly increase the electrochemical doping level to reach the filling the porous silicon pores with luminescent Er-rich material. To better understand the intricate and superposing phenomena of this process, we exploit an original approach based on needle electron tomography, EXAFS and photoluminescence. Needle electron tomography surprisingly shows a heterogeneous distribution of Er content in the silicon thin pores that until now couldn\\'t be revealed by the sole use of scanning electron microscopy compositional mapping. Besides, while showing that pore filling leads to enhanced photoluminescence emission, we demonstrate that the latter is originated from both erbium oxide and silicate. These results give a much deeper understanding of the photoluminescence origin down to nanoscale and could lead to novel approaches focused on noteworthy enhancement of Er-related photoluminescence in porous silicon.

  4. Early Monitoring of the Viability of the Buried Intrathoracic Omental Flap: A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingerden, Jan J.; Collins, James M. P.; Coret, Elbertus H.; Schröder, Peter J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The value of mobile, high-resolution gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasonography (US) in the immediate postoperative, intensive care setting for monitoring the buried flap and vascular pedicle of the laparoscopic or transdiaphragmatic harvested omentum for intrathoracic reconstruction was

  5. Dumbbell-shaped intrathoracic-extradural haemangioma of the thoracic spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, P M; Abou-Zeid, A; Du Plessis, D; Herwadkar, A; Gnanalingham, K K

    2008-04-01

    Spinal haemangiomas are benign vasoproliferative lesions that are typically intra-osseous and generally asymptomatic, although localized pain can be a symptom. Capillary and cavernous variants have been described. We describe a rare case of a dumbbell-shaped haemangioma of the thoracic spine with both an intraspinal-extradural and intrathoracic component.

  6. Changes of intrathoracic extrapulmonary organs after radiation therapy for lung and esophageal cancer:CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyeong Seop; Kim, Sung Jin; Park, Woo Yoon; Hun, Bae Il; Han, Gi Seok; Cha, Sang Hun; Park, Kil Sun

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the CT findings and incidence of complications occurring in intrathoracic extrapulmonary organs due to radiation therapy. Among 82 patients who underwent chest CT before and after radiation therapy, 23, in whom the procedure provided no evidence of pericardial invasion or pleural effusion before radiation therapy, nor of significant improvement in the tumor after this therapy, were evaulated. Changes in the pericardium, pleura and mediastinal fat were retrospectively assessed. In comparing the CT findings obtained before radiation therapy with those obtained afterwards, changes in the pericardium and pleura were classified as effusion where low density fluid was present and as thickening where there was no fluid. If an increased abundance of soft tissue strands was seen within mediastinal fat, changes in this fat were deemed to have occurred. Among the 23 patients evaluated, changes in the pericardium [thickening (n=3 ; 13.0%) ; effusion (n=8 ; 34.8%)] were found in 11 patients (47.8%), and changes in the pleura [thickening (n=3 ; 13.1%); effusion (n=9 ; 39.1%)] in 12 (52.2%). In no patient with pericardial or pleural effusion was thickening or contrast enhancement of the pericardium or pleura evident. In seven cases(30.4%), soft tissue strands within mediastinal fat had become more abundant. The CT findings which demonstrated complications resulting from radiation therapy were pericardial or pleural thickening or effusion and an increased abundance of soft tissue strands within mediastinal fat. In contrast to previous reports, pericardial and pleural change after radiation therapy was a common finding in our study, occurring in 69.6% of cases

  7. Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration 
in the Diagnosis of Intrathoracic Metastasis from Extrapulmonary Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayuan SUN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA has been widely applied in diagnosing mediastinal and hilar adenopathy. This study is further to evaluate value and safety of EBUS-TBNA in diagnosing intrathoracic metastasis from extrapulmonary malignancy. Methods Prospectively analysis of 41 patients suspected intrathoracic metastasis from previous diagnosed/concurrent extrapulmonary malignancies in Shanghai Chest Hospital, with radiologic findings showing mediastinal/hilar lymph node enlargement or intrapulmonary lesion requiring EBUS-TBNA examination for pathological diagnosis. Results 41 candidate patients enrolled, and 67 mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes and 5 intrapulmonary lesions were aspirated. 14 intrathoracic metastasis, 10 primary lung cancer, 9 reactive lymphadenitis, 4 sarcoid-like reactions, and 1 tuberculosis was diagnosed by EBUS-TBNA. Sensitivity and accuracy of EBUS-TBNA in diagnosing intrathoracic metastasis was 87.50% and 95.12%, respectively. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed in 18 malignant tumors to obtain definite type or origin, twelve intrathoracic metastasis and 6 primary lung cancer were further confirmed. Conclusion EBUS-TBNA is a safe, effective method for the diagnosis of intrathoracic metastasis from extrapulmonary malignancy. IHC can provide additional evidence for distinguishing extrapulmonary malignancy from primary lung cancer.

  8. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  9. Ectopic Intrathoracic Hepatic Tissue and Accessory Lung Lobe Aplasia in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Rachel; Dvorak, Laura; Gardiner, David W; Bahr, Anne

    2015-01-01

    A 6 yr old male Yorkshire terrier was presented for an ~6 yr history of progressive cough and dyspnea. Thoracic radiographs revealed a 6 cm diameter mass within the right caudal thorax. Thoracic ultrasound identified an intrathoracic mass ultrasonographically consistent with liver tissue and a chronic diaphragmatic hernia was suspected. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, but no evidence of a diaphragmatic hernia was identified. Thoracic exploration identified abnormal lung parenchyma. The accessory lung lobe was removed using a stapling devise near its base. The consolidated mass had the gross appearance of liver and was histologically identified as ectopic hepatic tissue. Ectopic hepatic tissue, unlike ectopic splenic and pancreatic tissue, is rare and generally has a subdiaphragmatic distribution. This solitary case report demonstrates that ectopic intrathoracic hepatic tissue should be considered a differential diagnosis for a caudal mediastinal mass.

  10. Rare case of subcutaneous mycosis with intrathoracic extension due to Chaetomium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, R; Vasudevan, B; Badwal, S; Sriram, R; Neema, S; Kharayat, V

    2015-08-01

    A 47-year-old man presented with a 10-year history of multiple lumps over his left upper arm and shoulder and the adjoining left side of his chest and upper back. His medical history included diabetes mellitus type 2. The patient was a farmer and used to lift sacks of grains and fertilizers onto his shoulders as part of his work, although he did not recollect any history of specific trauma. Skin biopsy revealed granulomatous reaction with Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon, while periodic-acid-Schiff and Grocott-Gomori stains confirmed fungal elements. Sabouraud agar grew Chaetomium species, and lactophenol blue mount confirmed the fungus as Chaetomium strumarium. Radiography and computed tomography of the chest revealed intrathoracic extension of the mycetoma. The patient responded well to treatment with oral Itraconazole. Subcutaneous mycosis due to C. strumarium is rarely reported in the literature, and the intrathoracic extension makes it an even rarer entity. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Ganglioneuroma of Posterior Mediastinum in a 6-year-old Girl: Imaging for Pediatric Intrathoracic Incidentaloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chin Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic tumor is a rare entity in the pediatric population and neurogenic tumors account for 40-50% of childhood intrathoracic tumors. They can cause severe symptoms, such as respiratory distress, neurological dysfunction and metabolic disturbances. Posterior mediastinal ganglioneuroma (GN usually occurs in children and can be found accidentally. Precise preoperative diagnosis is very difficult and has a great influence on surgical intervention. Here, we report a 6-year-old girl with a posterior mediastinal GN that was found incidentally on chest radiography. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a right paraspinal tumor with punctuate calcification and intraspinal extension. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed low-grade fluorodeoxyglucose avidity of this tumor. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can characterize GN and positron emission tomography is helpful for differentiating benign or malignant lesions.

  12. 3D intrathoracic region definition and its application to PET-CT analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Bascom, Rebecca; Allen, Thomas W.; Higgins, William E.

    2014-03-01

    Recently developed integrated PET-CT scanners give co-registered multimodal data sets that offer complementary three-dimensional (3D) digital images of the chest. PET (positron emission tomography) imaging gives highly specific functional information of suspect cancer sites, while CT (X-ray computed tomography) gives associated anatomical detail. Because the 3D CT and PET scans generally span the body from the eyes to the knees, accurate definition of the intrathoracic region is vital for focusing attention to the central-chest region. In this way, diagnostically important regions of interest (ROIs), such as central-chest lymph nodes and cancer nodules, can be more efficiently isolated. We propose a method for automatic segmentation of the intrathoracic region from a given co-registered 3D PET-CT study. Using the 3D CT scan as input, the method begins by finding an initial intrathoracic region boundary for a given 2D CT section. Next, active contour analysis, driven by a cost function depending on local image gradient, gradient-direction, and contour shape features, iteratively estimates the contours spanning the intrathoracic region on neighboring 2D CT sections. This process continues until the complete region is defined. We next present an interactive system that employs the segmentation method for focused 3D PET-CT chest image analysis. A validation study over a series of PET-CT studies reveals that the segmentation method gives a Dice index accuracy of less than 98%. In addition, further results demonstrate the utility of the method for focused 3D PET-CT chest image analysis, ROI definition, and visualization.

  13. Extramedullary plasmocytoma of the rhino pharynx associated to intrathoracic mass - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Andrea Silveira de; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Yamashita, Helio Kiitiro

    1996-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 56-year-old while male, who had occipital headache, libido and visual acuity (bitemporal field) reduction as the clinical picture, with progressive evolution within a four years period. The image diagnosis methods (roentgenologic studies, (MRI) demonstrated extensive mass involving the sella, clivus and sphenoid sinus, and an intrathoracic mass on the right. The final diagnosis was extramedullary plasmocytoma with rhinopharynx origin. (author)

  14. Dorsal spinal cord stimulation obtunds the capacity of intrathoracic extracardiac neurons to transduce myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardell, Jeffrey L; Cardinal, René; Vermeulen, Michel; Armour, J Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Populations of intrathoracic extracardiac neurons transduce myocardial ischemia, thereby contributing to sympathetic control of regional cardiac indices during such pathology. Our objective was to determine whether electrical neuromodulation using spinal cord stimulation (SCS) modulates such local reflex control. In 10 anesthetized canines, middle cervical ganglion neurons were identified that transduce the ventricular milieu. Their capacity to transduce a global (rapid ventricular pacing) vs. regional (transient regional ischemia) ventricular stress was tested before and during SCS (50 Hz, 0.2 ms duration at 90% MT) applied to the dorsal aspect of the T1 to T4 spinal cord. Rapid ventricular pacing and transient myocardial ischemia both activated cardiac-related middle cervical ganglion neurons. SCS obtunded their capacity to reflexly respond to the regional ventricular ischemia, but not rapid ventricular pacing. In conclusion, spinal cord inputs to the intrathoracic extracardiac nervous system obtund the latter's capacity to transduce regional ventricular ischemia, but not global cardiac stress. Given the substantial body of literature indicating the adverse consequences of excessive adrenergic neuronal excitation on cardiac function, these data delineate the intrathoracic extracardiac nervous system as a potential target for neuromodulation therapy in minimizing such effects.

  15. Autoaspiration versus manual aspiration in transbronchial needle aspiration in diagnosis of intrathoracic lymphadenopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsarngsuk, Viboon; Pongtippan, Atcharaporn; Juthakarn, Sabaitip; Boonsarngsuk, Wison; Kurimoto, Noriaki

    2009-10-01

    Traditionally, aspiration with high negative pressure is recommended to obtain a specimen in transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA). Undeniably, however, the assistant experiences difficulty in the generation of the negative pressure and precise control of the syringe while performing the procedure. To evaluate the effectiveness of the autoaspiration method created by our plunger lock in comparison with the conventional manual aspiration in the diagnosis of intrathoracic lymphadenopathy by TBNA. A prospective study was conducted on all patients referred for diagnostic TBNA of enlarged intrathoracic lymph nodes. Both automatic and manual aspiration techniques were performed after the needle had been completely inserted into the nodes. The diagnostic yield and the numbers of diagnostic cells or benign lymphoid cells obtained by each technique were compared in the same node. A total of 31 intrathoracic lymph nodes in 24 patients were prospectively studied. Twenty-four nodes (77.4%) were malignancies whereas 7 nodes (22.6%) were benign disease. Adequate lymph node samples were obtained in 30 targets (96.8%), and TBNA revealed definite diagnosis for 25 nodes (80.6%). Both aspiration techniques showed exactly the same diagnostic yield. However, the autoaspiration technique provided significantly more adequate samples than manual aspiration techniques did (P=0.003). The autoaspiration method using our plunger lock was superior to the manual method in obtaining the numbers of adequate samples in TBNA procedures.

  16. Intrathoracic fracture-dislocation of the humerus - case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Carlos Sola Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Shoulder fracture-dislocations are uncommon. Those associated with intrathoracic dislocation are very rare conditions, resulting from high-energy trauma; usually, the affected limb is in an abduction position. In Brazil, there is only one report of a teenager with displacement of the epiphysis into the chest cavity; the present is the first adult patient report of intrathoracic dislocation of the humerus. The authors present the case of a patient female, aged 56 years, who was hit by motorcycle and thrown approximately 5 meters away. She was rescued on site with thoracic, pelvic, and right upper limb trauma. Her chest was drained due to pneumothorax and multiple fractures of ribs; she was diagnosed with fracture-dislocation in four parts, with intrathoracic dislocation of the humeral head. Displaced forearm bones fracture was also diagnosed; the olecranon, scaphoid, and ischiopubic fractures were not displaced. The patient underwent a joint procedure with a cardiothoracic surgery team to remove the humeral head through thoracotomy and chest drainage; subsequently, a partial arthroplasty of the humerus was performed, with graft from the humeral head and fixation of forearm fractures. Conservative treatment was chosen for the other fractures. After three months, all fractures were healed with gradual functional improvement. The patient remained in physiotherapy and orthopedic monitoring, having been discharged from the thoracic surgery; in a severe depressive episode, the patient committed suicide after 11 months of the trauma.

  17. The Accuracy of Plain Radiography in Detection of Traumatic Intrathoracic Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abedi Khorasgani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rapid diagnosis of traumatic intrathoracic injuries leads to improvement in patient management. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic value of chest radiography (CXR in comparison to chest computed tomography (CT scan in diagnosis of traumatic intrathoracic injuries. Methods: Participants of this prospective diagnostic accuracy study included multiple trauma patients over 15 years old with stable vital admitted to emergency department (ED during one year. The correlation of CXR and CT scan findings in diagnosis of traumatic intrathoracic injuries was evaluated using SPSS 20. Screening characteristics of CXR were calculated with 95% CI. Results: 353 patients with the mean age of 35.2 ± 15.8 were evaluated (78.8% male. Age 16-30 years with 121 (34.2%, motorcycle riders with 104 (29.5% cases and ISS < 12 with 185 (52.4% had the highest frequency among patients. Generally, screening performance characteristics of chest in diagnosis of chest traumatic injuries were as follows: sensitivity 50.3 (95% CI: 44.8 – 55.5, specificity 98.9 (95% CI: 99.5 – 99.8, PPV 97.8 (95% CI: 91.5 – 99.6, NPV 66.4 (95% CI: 60.2 – 72.03, PLR 44.5 (95% CI: 11.3 175.3, and NLR 0.5 (95% CI: 0.4 – 0.6. Accuracy of CXR in diagnosis of traumatic intrathoracic injuries was 74.5 (95% CI: 69.6 – 78.9 and its area under the ROC curve was 74.6 (95% CI: 69.3 – 79.8. Conclusion: The screening performance characteristics of CXR in diagnosis of traumatic intrathoracic injuries were higher than 90% in all pathologies except pneumothorax (50.3%. It seems that this matter has a great impact on the general screening characteristics of the test (74.3% accuracy and 50.3%sensitivity. It seems that, plain CXR should be used as an initial screening tool more carefully.

  18. Intrathoracic pressure regulation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a feasibility case-series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nicolas; Parquette, Brent; Ziehr, Jonathon; Yannopoulos, Demetris; Lindstrom, David

    2013-04-01

    Intrathoracic pressure regulation (IPR) is a novel, noninvasive therapy intended to increase cardiac output and blood pressure in hypotensive states by generating a negative end expiratory pressure of -12 cm H2O between positive pressure ventilations. In this first feasibility case-series, we tested the hypothesis that IPR improves End tidal (ET) CO2 during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). ETCO2 was used as a surrogate measure for circulation. All patients were treated initially with manual CPR and an impedance threshold device (ITD). When IPR-trained medics arrived on scene the ITD was removed and an IPR device (CirQLATOR™) was attached to the patient's advanced airway (intervention group). The IPR device lowered airway pressures to -9 mmHg after each positive pressure ventilation for the duration of the expiratory phase. ETCO2, was measured using a capnometer incorporated into the defibrillator system (LifePak™). Values are expressed as mean ± SEM. Results were compared using paired and unpaired Student's t test. p values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. ETCO2 values in 11 patients in the case series were compared pre and during IPR therapy and also compared to 74 patients in the control group not treated with the new IPR device. ETCO2 values increased from an average of 21 ± 1 mmHg immediately before IPR application to an average value of 32 ± 5 mmHg and to a maximum value of 45 ± 5mmHg during IPR treatment (p<0.001). In the control group ETCO2 values did not change significantly. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) rates were 46% (34/74) with standard CPR and ITD versus 73% (8/11) with standard CPR and the IPR device (p<0.001). ETCO2 levels and ROSC rates were significantly higher in the study intervention group. These findings demonstrate that during CPR circulation may be significantly augmented by generation of a negative end expiratory pressure between each breath. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  19. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam About Dental Amalgam Fillings Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... should I have my fillings removed? What is dental amalgam? Dental amalgam is a dental filling material ...

  20. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. Objectives To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. Materials and Methods 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Findings Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Conclusions Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity. PMID:26076368

  1. Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura: a rare but usually benign intrathoracic neoplasm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, Uffe; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Skov, Birgit Guldhammer

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low forced expiratory volume (FEV(1)) and low performance status usually preclude surgical treatment of lung neoplasms. Earlier case reports have suggested that curative, safe surgery is possible in extrapulmonal intrathoracic neoplasms. METHODS: A case report of an 83-year-old women...... with progressing dyspnoea secondary to a huge left-side neoplasm. RESULTS: Work-up reveal an FEV(1) of 0.4 L, and a giant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura. The tumor was surgically removed in toto without complications: weighting approximately 3 kg, and benign histology. The patient was without dyspnoea...

  2. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcomes in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodha, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Aparna; Singh, Varinder

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Micronutrients play an important role in immune function. To our knowledge, there have been no comprehensive studies on the role of micronutrient supplementation in children with tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of micronutrient supplementation in children treated...... with antituberculosis therapy (ATT). DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that used a 2 × 2 factorial design was undertaken at 2 teaching hospitals in Delhi. Children with newly diagnosed intrathoracic tuberculosis were enrolled, and they received ATT together with daily supplementation for 6 mo...

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Hyperthermic Intrathoracic Chemotherapy following Pleurectomy and Decortication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Sugarbaker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei or peritoneal mesothelioma, direct extension of disease through the hemidiaphragm may result in an isolated progression of tumor within the pleural space. We monitored the intrapleural and plasma levels of mitomycin C and doxorubicin by HPLC assay in order to determine the pharmacokinetic behavior of this intracavitary use of chemotherapy. Our results showed a persistent high concentration of intrapleural drug as compared to plasma concentrations. The increased exposure for mitomycin C was 96, and the increased exposure for doxorubicin was 241. When the clearance of chemotherapy from the thoracic cavity was compared to clearance from the abdomen and pelvis, there was a considerably more rapid clearance from the abdomen as compared to the thorax. The pharmacologic study of intrapleural chemotherapy in these patients provides a strong pharmacologic rationale for regional chemotherapy in this group of patients.

  4. Systolic ventricular filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent-Guasp, Francisco; Kocica, Mladen J; Corno, Antonio; Komeda, Masashi; Cox, James; Flotats, A; Ballester-Rodes, Manel; Carreras-Costa, Francesc

    2004-03-01

    The evidence of the ventricular myocardial band (VMB) has revealed unavoidable coherence and mutual coupling of form and function in the ventricular myocardium, making it possible to understand the principles governing electrical, mechanical and energetical events within the human heart. From the earliest Erasistratus' observations, principal mechanisms responsible for the ventricular filling have still remained obscured. Contemporary experimental and clinical investigations unequivocally support the attitude that only powerful suction force, developed by the normal ventricles, would be able to produce an efficient filling of the ventricular cavities. The true origin and the precise time frame for generating such force are still controversial. Elastic recoil and muscular contraction were the most commonly mentioned, but yet, still not clearly explained mechanisms involved in the ventricular suction. Classical concepts about timing of successive mechanical events during the cardiac cycle, also do not offer understandable insight into the mechanism of the ventricular filling. The net result is the current state of insufficient knowledge of systolic and particularly diastolic function of normal and diseased heart. Here we summarize experimental evidence and theoretical backgrounds, which could be useful in understanding the phenomenon of the ventricular filling. Anatomy of the VMB, and recent proofs for its segmental electrical and mechanical activation, undoubtedly indicates that ventricular filling is the consequence of an active muscular contraction. Contraction of the ascendent segment of the VMB, with simultaneous shortening and rectifying of its fibers, produces the paradoxical increase of the ventricular volume and lengthening of its long axis. Specific spatial arrangement of the ascendent segment fibers, their interaction with adjacent descendent segment fibers, elastic elements and intra-cavitary blood volume (hemoskeleton), explain the physical principles

  5. A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Temme, Elisabeth H M; Koeman, Fari T; Noort, Martijn W J; Kremer, Stefanie; Janssen, Anke M

    2011-12-01

    Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without flavor compensation (KCl and yeast extract), on bread consumption and sodium intake compensation by choice of sandwich fillings. A total of 116 participants (age: 21 ± 3 y; BMI: 22 ± 2 kg/m²) consumed a buffet-style breakfast on weekdays for 4 wk. Participants received either regular bread (control group: n = 39), bread whose salt content was gradually lowered each week by 0, 31, 52, and 67% (reduced group: n = 38), or bread whose salt content was also gradually lowered each week but which was also flavor compensated (compensated group: n = 39). A reduction of up to 52% of salt in bread did not lead to lower consumption of bread compared to the control (P = 0.57), whereas less bread was consumed when salt was reduced by 67% (P = 0.006). When bread was flavor compensated, however, a reduction of 67% did not lead to lower consumption (P = 0.69). Salt reduction in bread (with and without flavor compensation) did not induce sodium intake compensation (P = 0.31). In conclusion, a salt reduction of up to 52% in bread or even up to 67% in flavor-compensated bread neither affected bread consumption nor choice of sandwich fillings.

  6. Right sided traumatic diaphragmatic hernia repair with intrathoracic herniation of liver, stomach and transverse colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Patel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic rupture of the right dome of the diaphragm is an uncommon clinical entity. The diagnosis is difficult due to lack of specificity in clinical signs and chest film findings. Clinical incidence of rupture of the right dome of the diaphragm due to blunt trauma is much less common (10% compared to the left (90% and usually associated with more grievous injuries with very high pre hospital mortality thus accounting for rare clinical diagnosis. We report a case of 26 year old male who had the blunt trauma chest referred to us after 7 days of injury with complaints of shortness of breath and vomiting. On investigations the patient was diagnosed as a case of the ruptured right dome of the diaphragm with intrathoracic herniation of the stomach. The patient also had fracture pelvis. Surgical exploration was done through right 6th intercostal space which revealed intrathoracic herniation of the stomach, liver and transverse colon, which were healthy. Contents reduced into the abdomen and diaphragm was repaired. Post operative chest X-ray suggested complete expansion of the right lung with no residual herniation of abdominal contents. Post operative recovery was uneventful with the patient discharged on 14th post operative day.

  7. Correlation between trans and intra-thoracic impedance and conductance in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfatto, Gabriella; Villani, Alessandra; Rosa, Francesco Della; Rella, Valeria; Oldani, Matteo; Giglio, Alessia; Facchini, Mario; Parati, Gianfranco

    2016-04-01

    In chronic heart failure, changes of intra-thoracic impedance (Z0IT) may suggest impending pulmonary congestion; a similar result has been found by measuring trans-thoracic conductance (TFCTT = 1/Z0 = 1/kΩ). We assumed that a relationship could exist between Z0IT and TFCTT. We collected 140 measurements from 70 patients carrying an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/cardiac resynchronization device with the CareLink function (71 ± 9 years, New York Heart Association (NYHA) 2.4 ± 0.9, ejection fraction 31 ± 8%, optimal treatment); they were studied during system alarms and after appropriate treatment (diuretics and/or vasodilators, n = 42) or during clinical stability and at the time of a system alarm (n = 28); correspondent BNP values were obtained. We related Z0IT obtained by the device, with TFCTT obtained with a commercial system. A strong relationship was found between Z0IT and TFCTT. Changes in the variables after treatment or during worsening conditions were of the same direction and order of magnitude, and were related to BNP levels obtained simultaneously. Trans-thoracic conductance, similarly to intra-thoracic impedance, may noninvasively point to pulmonary congestion and be useful in patients not carrying an implanted device. The possibility of remotely obtaining this variable should be evaluated for the telemonitoring of heart failure patients.

  8. Intrathoracic drainage of a perforated prepyloric gastric ulcer with a type II paraoesophageal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonneveld Bas JGL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an incidence of less than 5%, type II paraesophageal hernias are one of the less common types of hiatal hernias. We report a case of a perforated prepyloric gastric ulcer which, due to a type II hiatus hernia, drained into the mediastinum. Case presentation A 61-year old Caucasian man presented with acute abdominal pain. On a conventional x-ray of the chest a large mediastinal air-fluid collection and free intra-abdominal air was seen. Additional computed tomography revealed a large intra-thoracic air-fluid collection with a type II paraesophageal hernia. An emergency upper midline laparotomy was performed and a perforated pre-pyloric gastric ulcer was treated with an omental patch repair. The patient fully recovered after 10 days and continues to do well. Conclusion Type II paraesophageal hernia is an uncommon diagnosis. The main risk is gastric volvulus and possible gastric torsion. Intrathoracic perforation of gastric ulcers due to a type II hiatus hernia is extremely rare and can be a diagnostic and treatment challenge.

  9. The saw-tooth sign as a clinical clue for intrathoracic central airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakajima Akira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The saw-tooth sign was first described by Sanders et al in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as one cause of extrathoracic central airway obstruction. The mechanism of the saw-tooth sign has not been conclusively clarified. The sign has also been described in various extrathoracic central airway diseases, such as in burn victims with thermal injury to the upper airways, Parkinson’s disease, tracheobronchomalacia, laryngeal dyskinesia, and pedunculated tumors of the upper airway. Case presentation A 61-year-old man was referred to our hospital with a two-month history of persistent dry cough and dyspnea. He was diagnosed with lung cancer located in an intrathoracic central airway, which was accompanied by the saw-tooth sign on flow-volume loops. This peculiar sign repeatedly improved and deteriorated, in accordance with the waxing and waning of central airway stenosis by anti-cancer treatments. Conclusion This report suggests that the so-called saw-tooth sign may be found even in intrathoracic central airway obstruction due to lung cancer.

  10. Exercise Training Reduces Intrathoracic Fat Regardless of Defective Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, Sanna M; Motiani, Kumail K; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Savolainen, Anna; Saunavaara, Virva; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Kapanen, Jukka; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2017-07-01

    Epicardial (EAT) and pericardial (PAT) fat masses and myocardial triglyceride content (MTC) are enlarged in obesity and insulin resistance. We studied whether the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) similarly decrease ectopic fat in and around the heart and whether the decrease is similar in healthy subjects and subjects with defective glucose tolerance (DGT). A total of 28 healthy men (body mass index = 20.7-30.0 kg·m, age = 40-55 yr) and 16 men with DGT (body mass index = 23.8-33.5 kg·m, age = 43-53 yr) were randomized into HIIT and MICT interventions for 2 wk. EAT and PAT were determined by computed tomography and MTC by H-MRS. At baseline, DGT subjects had impaired aerobic capacity and insulin sensitivity and higher levels of whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT (P < 0.05, all) compared with healthy subjects. In the whole group, HIIT increased aerobic capacity (HIIT = 6%, MICT = 0.3%; time × training P = 0.007) and tended to improve insulin sensitivity (HIIT = 24%, MICT = 8%) as well as reduce MTC (HIIT = -42%, MICT = +23%) (time × training P = 0.06, both) more efficiently compared with MICT, and without differences in the training response between the healthy and the DGT subjects. However, both training modes decreased EAT (-5%) and PAT (-6%) fat (time P < 0.05) and not differently between the healthy and the DGT subjects. Whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT masses are enlarged in DGT. Both HIIT and MICT effectively reduce EAT and PAT in healthy and DGT subjects, whereas HIIT seems to be superior as regards improving aerobic capacity, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and MTC.

  11. Continuous positive airway pressure breathing increases the spread of sensory blockade after low-thoracic epidural injection of lidocaine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.A.; Gielen, M.J.M.; Giele, J.L.P.

    2006-01-01

    Factors affecting the distribution of sensory blockade after epidural injection of local anesthetics remain incompletely clarified. To evaluate if increasing intrathoracic pressure affects the spread of thoracic epidural anesthesia, we randomized 20 patients who received an epidural catheter at the

  12. Intrathoracic Lipomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Gozubuyuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipomlar liposarkom, teratom ve hamartom ile benzer radyolojik özellikler gösterdigi ayirici tanida akilda bulundurulmasi gerektigi, diyaframa yakin lezyonlarin ise diyafram hernileri ile kolayca karistirilabilecegi bilinen bir konudur Ancak bilgisayarli tomografi ve manyetik rezonans görüntülüme yardimi ile diyafram hernisi ayrimi kolayca yapilabilmektedir. Ayrica yukarda belitilen diger patolojilerde bilgisayarli tomografi ile yapilan taramalarda lezyon sinirlari içinde çok daha yüksek dansiteler (>50HU saptanmakta, malign durumlarda tümörün çevre dokulara invazyonu gösterilebilmektedir. Tüm bu ileri radyolojik görüntülemelere ragmen, tani halen doku rezeksiyonu ile saglanabilmektedir. radyolojik hasta takibin de belli sorunlari vardir. Ancak video yardimli cerrahideki gelismeler bu tür lezyonlarin tani ve tedavisinde çok daha az morbid bir seçenek olarak karsimiza çikmakta, uzun süreli radyolojik takibin mali, radyoaktif etkilenme, malignite riski altindaki hastanin anksiete sorunlarindan kurtulma olanagi saglamaktadir.Bu nedenlerden dolayi radyolojik taramalarda saptanip, semptomsuz ve radyolojik malignite süphesi göstermeyen her hastaya mutlaka cerrahi önerilmesinin bir kez daha düsünülmesini ya da olanak varsa daha az invaziv olan video yardimli cerrahi seçeneginin zorlanmasinda yarar oldugu kanisindayim. Saygilarimla.

  13. Analysis of primary intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cysts a rare clinical entity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Ullah, M.K.; Imran, M.; Bilal, A.; Khan, M.A.; Ali, S.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anatomic location of cysts, operative characteristics of intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cyst and to determine the outcome of aggressive surgical interventions. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Thoracic Surgery Unit Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar from 1st July 2008 to 30th June 2011. Methodology: All patients admitted to Thoracic unit from July 2008 to June 2011 with intra thoracic hydatid cysts were evaluated prospectively as to age, sex, symptoms, diagnostic procedures, anatomic location of cysts, surgical procedures, complications, and outcomes. Chest radiography, computed tomography, and thoracic and abdominal ultrasonography had been performed preoperatively in all of them. Bronchoscopy and spirometry was also performed in all patients for assessment and operability. Echocardiography had been used in 2 patients to determine the contiguity of the cyst to the pericardium. Cystectomy and wide resection were the chief operative procedures. Most of the patients were having cysts in the pulmonary parenchyma only 10 patients had intrathoracic cysts in extrapulmonary locations. This group of patients was included in the study. We excluded patients who had a parenchymal cyst that had perforated to the pleura, myocardial hydatid and patients who had experienced transdiaphragmatic transmission. Results: Total of 149 patients were operated for hydatid cystectomy, out of these 139 patients had pulmonary hydatid and 10 patients had intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cysts. These 10 patients constitute our study group; out of these 7 were men and 3 women whose mean age was 39.14 ± 16.8 years (range, 16-69 years). Eight (80%) of these were symptomatic, most commonly with chest pain, two patients were asymptomatic. There were 2 (20%) mediastinal hydatid, 2 (20%) diaphragmatic, 2 (20%) pericardial, 2 (20%) oblique fissure, and 1 (10%) each in chest wall and pleural hydatid in our study. Albendazole (10 mg/kg) was

  14. Intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis: appearance on /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid marrow scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronn, L.J.; Paquelet, J.R.; Tetalman, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Imaging of the bone marrow by radionuclide scanning was performed using colloids, which are phagocytized by the reticuloendothelial cells of the marrow, or radioiron, which is incorporated into reticulocytes. The use of the former radiopharmaceutical is based on the assumption, generally valid except in aplastic states or after irradiation, that the distribution of hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial tissue in the marrow is similar. Regardless of the method used, active adult marrow is normally distributed only in the axial skeleton and proximal humeri and femurs. Marrow imaging has been used in the evaluation of myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic states, malignancy metastatic to marrow, and hemolytic anemia. We report a case of thalassemia major in which the diagnosis of intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis was confirmed with the /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid bone marrow scan

  15. Late presentation of a right Bochdalek hernia with a right intrathoracic stomach and organoaxial torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shehri, Mohammed A.; Al-Binali, Ali M.; Eid, Waleed A.; Osinowo, Olu A.; Mohammed, Nabil E.

    2005-01-01

    A postero-lateral hernia through the foramen of Bochdalek is a rare type of congenital diaphragmatic hernia CDH. The incidence of Bochdalek hernia on the right side is 10-20% compared to the left side, and herniation of the stomach into the right pleural cavity is extremely rare. We report a case of right-sided Bochdalek hernia with a right intrathoracic stomach and organo-axial torsion misdiagnosed initially, and treated as a case of hyperactive airway disease. The child had a right thoracotomy, excision of the hernia sac that contained the stomach, greater omentum and part of the liver, reduction of the viscera into the abdominal cavity and simple closure of the diaphragmatic defect. Recovery was uneventful. This case highlights the consequences of late diagnosis and the effectiveness of surgical relief. A new clinico-anatomical classification of Bochdalek hernia is presented. (author)

  16. Acute Intrathoracic Gastric Volvulus due to Diaphragmatic Hernia: A Rare Emergency Easily Overlooked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Hun Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute intrathoracic gastric volvulus occurs when the stomach undergoes organoaxial torsion in the chest due to either concomitant enlargement of the hiatus or a diaphragmatic hernia. Iatrogenic diaphragmatic hernia can occur after hiatal hernia repair and other surgical procedures, such as nephrectomy, esophagogastrectomy and splenopancreatectomy. We describe a 49-year-old woman who presented to our emergency department with acute moderate epigastric soreness and vomiting. She had undergone extensive gynecologic surgery including splenectomy 1 year before. The chest radiograph obtained in the emergency department demonstrated an elevated gastric air-fluid level in the left lower lung field. An urgent gastroscopy showed twisted structural abnormality of the stomach body. A computed tomography scan demonstrated the distended stomach, located in the left lower hemithorax through a left diaphragmatic defect. Emergent transthoracic repair was performed. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and the patient did not experience any pain or difficulty with eating.

  17. In vivo regional quantitation of intrathoracic /sup 99m/Tc using SPECT: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, D.; Jaszczak, R.; Coleman, R.E.; Greer, K.; Lischko, M.

    1982-01-01

    A whole-body single-photon emission computed tomographic system (SPECT) was used to quantitate the activities of a series of /sup 99m/Tc point sources in the dog's thorax and to evaluate attenuation of a uniform esophageal line source containing a known concentration of /sup 99m/Tc. A first-order attenuation correction and an empirically derived attenuation coefficient of 0.09 cm-1 were used in the SPECT analyses of the intrathoracic point sources. The relationship between SPECT measurements of multiple point-source activities and the same sources measured in air was linear over a range of 100 to 1000 muCi (slope 1.08; R2 coefficient of determination 0.97). These data are sufficiently accurate to allow an estimate of the regional activity of radiopharmaceutical in the dog's thorax and justify their use in experimental quantitation of regional pulmonary perfusion

  18. Sodium fill of FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective

  19. Increased Release of Mercury from Dental Amalgam Fillings due to Maternal Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields as a Possible Mechanism for the High Rates of Autism in the Offspring: Introducing a Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi Gh.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO, factors such as growing electricity demand, ever-advancing technologies and changes in social behaviour have led to steadily increasing exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields. Dental amalgam fillings are among the major sources of exposure to elemental mercury vapour in the general population. Although it was previously believed that low levels are mercury (i.g. release of mercury from dental amalgam is not hazardous, now numerous data indicate that even very low doses of mercury cause toxicity. There are some evidence indicating that perinatal exposure to mercury is significantly associated with an increased risk of developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Furthermore, mercury can decrease the levels of neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, noreprenephrine, and acetylcholine in the brain and cause neurological problems. On the other hand, a strong positive correlation between maternal and cord blood mercury levels is found in some studies. We have previously shown that exposure to MRI or microwave radiation emitted by common mobile phones can lead to increased release of mercury from dental amalgam fillings. Moreover, when we investigated the effects of MRI machines with stronger magnetic fields, our previous findings were confirmed. As a strong association between exposure to electromagnetic fields and mercury level has been found in our previous studies, our findings can lead us to this conclusion that maternal exposure to electromagnetic fields in mothers with dental amalgam fillings may cause elevated levels of mercury and trigger the increase in autism rates. Further studies are needed to have a better understanding of the possible role of the increased mercury level after exposure to electromagnetic fields and the rate of autism spectrum disorders in the offspring.

  20. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  1. Grab a Cup, Fill It Up! An Intervention to Promote the Convenience of Drinking Water and Increase Student Water Consumption During School Lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L; Gortmaker, Steven L; Carter, Jill E; Howe, M Caitlin W; Reiner, Jennifer F; Cradock, Angie L

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated a low-cost strategy for schools to improve the convenience and appeal of drinking water. We conducted a group-randomized, controlled trial in 10 Boston, Massachusetts, schools in April through June 2013 to test a cafeteria-based intervention. Signage promoting water and disposable cups were installed near water sources. Mixed linear regression models adjusting for clustering evaluated the intervention impact on average student water consumption over 359 lunch periods. The percentage of students in intervention schools observed drinking water during lunch nearly doubled from baseline to follow-up compared with controls (+ 9.4%; P convenience by providing cups can increase student water consumption.

  2. Pyothorax induced by an intrathoracic foreign body in a miniature dachshund: Migration of a popsicle stick from the stomach

    OpenAIRE

    CHOI, Yi-Don; HAN, Hyun-Jung

    2017-01-01

    A four-year-old dachshund presented with a two-week history of pyrexia, depression, and cough. Four months earlier, the owner observed the dog swallow a whole popsicle stick, but the animal showed no clinical signs at that time. Radiography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography confirmed an intrathoracic linear foreign body and pleural effusion in the right thorax. The pleural fluid was bloody and purulent, and contained inflammatory cells and Escherichia coli. The dog was diagnosed with ...

  3. [Comparison of two quantitative methods of endobronchial ultrasound real-time elastography for evaluating intrathoracic lymph nodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X W; Yang, J Y; Zheng, X X; Wang, L; Zhu, L; Li, Y; Xiong, H K; Sun, J Y

    2017-06-12

    Objective: To compare the clinical value of two quantitative methods in analyzing endobronchial ultrasound real-time elastography (EBUS-RTE) images for evaluating intrathoracic lymph nodes. Methods: From January 2014 to April 2014, EBUS-RTE examination was performed in patients who received EBUS-TBNA examination in Shanghai Chest Hospital. Each intrathoracic lymph node had a selected EBUS-RTE image. Stiff area ratio and mean hue value of region of interest (ROI) in each image were calculated respectively. The final diagnosis of lymph node was based on the pathologic/microbiologic results of EBUS-TBNA, pathologic/microbiologic results of other examinations and clinical following-up. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were evaluated for distinguishing malignant and benign lesions. Results: Fifty-six patients and 68 lymph nodes were enrolled in this study, of which 35 lymph nodes were malignant and 33 lymph nodes were benign. The stiff area ratio and mean hue value of benign and malignant lesions were 0.32±0.29, 0.62±0.20 and 109.99±28.13, 141.62±17.52, respectively, and statistical differences were found in both of those two methods ( t =-5.14, P methods can be used for analyzing EBUS-RTE images quantitatively, having the value of differentiating benign and malignant intrathoracic lymph nodes, and the stiff area ratio is better than the mean hue value between the two methods.

  4. Pre-clinical heterotopic intrathoracic heart xenotransplantation: a possibly useful clinical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abicht, Jan-Michael; Mayr, Tanja; Reichart, Bruno; Buchholz, Stefan; Werner, Fabian; Lutzmann, Isabelle; Schmoeckel, Michael; Bauer, Andreas; Thormann, Michael; Langenmayer, Martin; Herbach, Nadja; Pohla, Heike; Herzog, Rudolf; McGregor, Christopher G A; Ayares, David; Wolf, Eckhard; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Baehr, Andrea; Kind, Alexander; Hagl, Christian; Ganswindt, Ute; Belka, Claus; Guethoff, Sonja; Brenner, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    As a step towards clinical cardiac xenotransplantation, our experimental heterotopic intrathoracic xenotransplantation model offers a beating and ejecting donor heart while retaining the recipient's native organ as a backup in case of graft failure. Clinically applicable immunosuppressive regimens (IS) were investigated first, then treatments known to be effective in hypersensitized patients or those with recalcitrant rejection reactions. Consecutive experiments were carried out between 2009 and 2013. Twenty-one genetically modified pigs (GGTA1-knockout/hCD46/± thrombomodulin, in one case HLA-E instead) were used as donors. In all experiments, two cycles of immunoabsorption reduced preformed antibodies. Recipient baboons were divided into two groups according to IS regimen: In group one (n = 10), pre-treatment started either one (anti-CD20) or four weeks (anti-CD20 plus the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib) prior to transplantation. The extended conventional (as for allotransplantation) immunosuppressive maintenance regimen included anti-thymocyte globuline, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, methylprednisolone and weekly anti-CD20. In group two (n = 11), myeloablative pre-treatment as in multiple myeloma patients (long and short regimens) was added to extended conventional IS; postoperative total thoracic and abdominal lymphoid irradiation (TLI; single dose of 600 cGY) was used to further reduce antibody-producing cells. In the perioperative course, the surgical technique was safely applied: 19 baboons were weaned off extracorporeal circulation and 17 extubated. Nine animals were lost in the early postoperative course due to causes unrelated to surgical technique or IS regimen. Excluding these early failures, median graft survival times of group 1 and 2 were 18.5 (12-50) days and 16 (7-35) days. Necropsy examination of group 1 donor organs revealed hypertrophy of the left ventricular wall in the six longer-lasting grafts; myocardial histology confirmed pre

  5. Review of fill mining technology in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K. H.; Hedley, D. G.F.

    1980-05-15

    The Canadian mining industry has a long history of being in the fore-front in developing new technology in underground hardrock mines. Examples include the development of hydraulic and cemented fills, undercut-and-fill, mechanized cut-and-fill, post pillar, vertical retreat and blasthole mining methods. The evolution of this technology is briefly described in an historical review. Backfill serves many functions, although it is generally considered in terms of its support capabilities. These functions, mainly related to the mining method used, are evaluated in regard to regional support, pillar support, fill roof, working floor, dilution control and waste disposal. With the advent of blasthole and vertical retreat methods for pillar recovery operations, the freestanding height of backfill walls has assumed greater importance. Consequently, more attention is being given to what fill properties are required to achieve fill wall exposures up to 25 m wide by 90 m high. With the large increases in energy costs, alternatives to partially replace Portland cement in fill are being examined. The validation of mining concepts and the interaction of backfill is perhaps best evaluated by in-situ measurements. Examples are given of stress, deformation and fill pressure measurements in longitudinal cut-and-fill, post pillar mining and blasthole stoping with delayed fill which were taken in several mines in Canada. Finally, the overall design procedure used in deciding mining method, stope and pillar dimensions, sequence of extraction, fill properties and support systems at a new mine is described.

  6. Gas-Filled Capillary Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration -- Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetus in congenital intrathoracic disorders: preliminary observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiang; Ashtari, M.; Leonidas, J.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Schneider Children' s Hospital, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, NY (United States); Chan Ying [Fetal-Maternal Medicine, Schneider Children' s Hospital, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, NY (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Background and objective. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide high-quality images of the intrathoracic organs. We studied the ability of MRI to define spatial relationships of the fetal lungs and measured lung volume in two cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), one of severe oligohydramnios secondary to bilateral cystic renal dysplasia and one case of prenatal chylothorax. Patients and methods. We performed pelvic MRI using single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) pulse sequence in four pregnant women referred because of abnormal prenatal ultrasound (US) findings associated with pulmonary hypoplasia. Results. The exact anatomic position of the contents of the hernia in CDH, including the position of the liver, was better defined with MRI. Pleural effusions were identified as well as the renal abnormality in the case of oligohydramnios. Lung volume was measured and the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia was quantified in every case. Lung-to-thorax ratio was calculated in the case of fetal chylothorax. Conclusion. Ongoing work suggests that MRI can provide additional detailed quantitative information in prenatal disorders associated with fetal lung compression and resulting hypoplasia. Correlation of fetal lung volume with postnatal management and outcome may affect prognosis in these cases. (orig.)

  8. Prediction of quantitative intrathoracic fluid volume to diagnose pulmonary oedema using LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urooj, Shabana; Khan, M; Ansari, A Q; Lay-Ekuakille, Aimé; Salhan, Ashok K

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary oedema is a life-threatening disease that requires special attention in the area of research and clinical diagnosis. Computer-based techniques are rarely used to quantify the intrathoracic fluid volume (IFV) for diagnostic purposes. This paper discusses a software program developed to detect and diagnose pulmonary oedema using LabVIEW. The software runs on anthropometric dimensions and physiological parameters, mainly transthoracic electrical impedance (TEI). This technique is accurate and faster than existing manual techniques. The LabVIEW software was used to compute the parameters required to quantify IFV. An equation relating per cent control and IFV was obtained. The results of predicted TEI and measured TEI were compared with previously reported data to validate the developed program. It was found that the predicted values of TEI obtained from the computer-based technique were much closer to the measured values of TEI. Six new subjects were enrolled to measure and predict transthoracic impedance and hence to quantify IFV. A similar difference was also observed in the measured and predicted values of TEI for the new subjects.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetus in congenital intrathoracic disorders: preliminary observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiang; Ashtari, M.; Leonidas, J.C.; Chan Ying

    2001-01-01

    Background and objective. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide high-quality images of the intrathoracic organs. We studied the ability of MRI to define spatial relationships of the fetal lungs and measured lung volume in two cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), one of severe oligohydramnios secondary to bilateral cystic renal dysplasia and one case of prenatal chylothorax. Patients and methods. We performed pelvic MRI using single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) pulse sequence in four pregnant women referred because of abnormal prenatal ultrasound (US) findings associated with pulmonary hypoplasia. Results. The exact anatomic position of the contents of the hernia in CDH, including the position of the liver, was better defined with MRI. Pleural effusions were identified as well as the renal abnormality in the case of oligohydramnios. Lung volume was measured and the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia was quantified in every case. Lung-to-thorax ratio was calculated in the case of fetal chylothorax. Conclusion. Ongoing work suggests that MRI can provide additional detailed quantitative information in prenatal disorders associated with fetal lung compression and resulting hypoplasia. Correlation of fetal lung volume with postnatal management and outcome may affect prognosis in these cases. (orig.)

  10. Laparoscopic management of totally intra-thoracic stomach with chronic volvulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toydemir, Toygar; Çipe, Gökhan; Karatepe, Oğuzhan; Yerdel, Mehmet Ali

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent laparoscopic repair of intra-thoracic gastric volvulus (IGV) and to assess the preoperative work-up. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database of patient medical records identified 14 patients who underwent a laparoscopic repair of IGV. The procedure included reduction of the stomach into the abdomen, total sac excision, reinforced hiatoplasty with mesh and construction of a partial fundoplication. All perioperative data, operative details and complications were recorded. All patients had at least 6 mo of follow-up. RESULTS: There were 4 male and 10 female patients. The mean age and the mean body mass index were 66 years and 28.7 kg/m2, respectively. All patients presented with epigastric discomfort and early satiety. There was no mortality, and none of the cases were converted to an open procedure. The mean operative time was 235 min, and the mean length of hospitalization was 2 d. There were no intraoperative complications. Four minor complications occurred in 3 patients including pleural effusion, subcutaneous emphysema, dysphagia and delayed gastric emptying. All minor complications resolved spontaneously without any intervention. During the mean follow-up of 29 mo, one patient had a radiological wrap herniation without volvulus. She remains symptom free with daily medication. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic management of IGV is a safe but technically demanding procedure. The best outcomes can be achieved in centers with extensive experience in minimally invasive esophageal surgery. PMID:24124329

  11. The extraosseal intrathoracic radiopaque bone cyst in West Highland White Terrier – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valent Ledecký

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this report was to present a clinical case and diagnostics of intrathoracic bone cyst as well as successful outcome of the surgical treatment in a male, 3-year-old West Highland White Terrier dog, weighing 6.9 kg. The dog was admitted in a very poor condition with clinical signs of severe dyspnoea that developed during about one month period of time before admission to our clinic. The dog underwent physical examination and further examinations including radiological examination which revealed a radiopaque mass formation in the cranial mediastinum. Ultrasonographic examination showed the presence of fluid; following thoracentesis revealed pseudochylous fluid. The bone cyst was surgically removed and more than 10 months after surgery the dog’s health was very good without any difficulties. Bone cysts in dogs are infrequent; this was the first case at our clinic and presented a successful treatment.

  12. Filling a Conical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  13. A Case of Unrecognized Intrathoracic Placement of a Subclavian Central Venous Catheter in a Patient with Large Traumatic Hemothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Wallin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional recommendations suggest placement of a subclavian central venous catheter (CVC ipsilateral to a known pneumothorax to minimize risk of bilateral pneumothorax. We present the case of a 65-year-old male with a right hemopneumothorax who was found to have intrathoracic placement of his right subclavian CVC at thoracotomy despite successful aspiration of blood and transduction of central venous pressure (CVP. We thus recommend extreme caution with the interpretation of CVC placement by blood aspiration and CVP measurement alone in patients with large volume ipsilateral hemothorax.

  14. Short-term and long-term outcomes of intrathoracic vacuum therapy of empyema in debilitated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Sziklavari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This retrospective study analyzed the effectiveness of intrathoracic negative pressure therapy for debilitated patients with empyema and compared the short-term and long-term outcomes of three different intrapleural vacuum-assisted closure (VAC techniques. Methods We investigated 43 consecutive (preseptic patients with poor general condition (Karnofsky index ≤ 50 % and multimorbidity (≥ 3 organ diseases or immunosuppression, who had been treated for primary, postoperative, or recurrent pleural empyema with VAC in combination with open window thoracostomy (OWT-VAC with minimally invasive technique (Mini-VAC, and instillation (Mini-VAC-Instill. Results The overall duration of intrathoracic vacuum therapy was 14 days (5–48 days. Vacuum duration in the Mini-VAC and Mini-VAC-Instill groups (12.4 ± 5.7 and 10.4 ± 5.4 days was significantly shorter (p = 0.001 than in the group treated with open window thoracostomy (OWT-VAC (20.3 ± 9.4 days. No major complication was related to intrathoracic VAC therapy. Chest wall closure rates were significantly higher in the Mini-VAC and Mini-VAC-Instill groups than in the OWT-VAC group (p = 0.034 and p = 0.026. Overall, the mean postoperative length of stay in hospital (LOS was 21 days (median 18, 6–51 days. LOS was significantly shorter (p = 0.027 in the Mini-VAC-Instill group (15.1 ± 4.8 than in the other two groups (23.8 ± 12.3 and 22.7 ± 1.5. Overall, the 30-day and 60-day mortality rates were 4.7 % (2/43 and 9.3 % (4/43, and none of the deaths was related to infection. Conclusions For debilitated patients, immediate minimally invasive intrathoracic vacuum therapy is a safe and viable alternative to OWT. Mini-VAC-Instill may have the fastest clearance and healing rates of empyema.

  15. Usefulness of SPECT/CT in the Diagnosis of Intrathoracic Goiter versus Metastases From Cancer of the Breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümcke, Christine Elisabeth; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2007-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman was referred because of local reoccurrence of cancer of the breast. Chest x-ray showed a mediastinal tumor with dislocation of the trachea to the right. A Tc-99m pertechnetate scan showed irregular tracer uptake in an enlarged left lobe of the thyroid gland. Ultrasound confirmed...... the diagnosis of a nodular goiter with intrathoracic growth of the left lobe. A SPECT/CT scan of the mediastinum clearly showed that the soft tissue tumor was the left lobe of the thyroid gland, and not lymphatic metastases....

  16. A Rare Cause of Right-Sided Air Bubble on Chest Radiograph: Intrathoracic Gastric Volvulus Related to Morgagni Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Sahin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni hernia is a rare disorder in adulthood, and most of the cases are asymptomatic. Symptomatic cases are extremely rare and present with life-threatening complications. Early diagnosis and surgery are lifesaving. We hereby present an adult case of symptomatic Morgagni hernia. Diaphragmatic herniation of the stomach and mesenteroaxial rotation led to intrathoracic gastric volvulus in this case. A right-sided air bubble on a chest radiogram was the only finding leading to the suspicion of diaphragmatic hernia. Computed tomography in the diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernias is of great importance.

  17. Intrathoracic stomach mimicking bone metastasis from thyroid cancer in whole-body iodine-131 scan diagnosed by SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gomez, Francisco Javier; Riva-Perez, Pablo Antonio de la; Calvo-Moron, Cinta; Bujan-Lloret, Cristina; Cambil-Molina, Teresa; Castro-Montano, Juan [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Virgen Macarena University Hospital, Sevilla (Spain)

    2017-05-15

    The whole-body iodine-131 scintigraphy is an imaging technique in monitoring patients with a history of thyroid cancer. Although the rate of false positives is negligible, it is not nonexistent. We report the case of an intervened and treated patient for thyroid cancer with good clinical and biochemical response. Scintigraphic findings were consistent with unsuspected bone metastasis. Fused SPECT/CT data allowed accurate diagnosis of giant diaphragmatic hernia associated with intrathoracic stomach, a very rare pathology that can lead to false positive results. (author)

  18. Short-term and long-term outcomes of intrathoracic vacuum therapy of empyema in debilitated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziklavari, Zsolt; Ried, Michael; Zeman, Florian; Grosser, Christian; Szöke, Tamas; Neu, Reiner; Schemm, Rudolf; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan

    2016-10-21

    This retrospective study analyzed the effectiveness of intrathoracic negative pressure therapy for debilitated patients with empyema and compared the short-term and long-term outcomes of three different intrapleural vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) techniques. We investigated 43 consecutive (pre)septic patients with poor general condition (Karnofsky index ≤ 50 %) and multimorbidity (≥ 3 organ diseases) or immunosuppression, who had been treated for primary, postoperative, or recurrent pleural empyema with VAC in combination with open window thoracostomy (OWT-VAC) with minimally invasive technique (Mini-VAC), and instillation (Mini-VAC-Instill). The overall duration of intrathoracic vacuum therapy was 14 days (5-48 days). Vacuum duration in the Mini-VAC and Mini-VAC-Instill groups (12.4 ± 5.7 and 10.4 ± 5.4 days) was significantly shorter (p = 0.001) than in the group treated with open window thoracostomy (OWT)-VAC (20.3 ± 9.4 days). No major complication was related to intrathoracic VAC therapy. Chest wall closure rates were significantly higher in the Mini-VAC and Mini-VAC-Instill groups than in the OWT-VAC group (p = 0.034 and p = 0.026). Overall, the mean postoperative length of stay in hospital (LOS) was 21 days (median 18, 6-51 days). LOS was significantly shorter (p = 0.027) in the Mini-VAC-Instill group (15.1 ± 4.8) than in the other two groups (23.8 ± 12.3 and 22.7 ± 1.5). Overall, the 30-day and 60-day mortality rates were 4.7 % (2/43) and 9.3 % (4/43), and none of the deaths was related to infection. For debilitated patients, immediate minimally invasive intrathoracic vacuum therapy is a safe and viable alternative to OWT. Mini-VAC-Instill may have the fastest clearance and healing rates of empyema.

  19. Intrathoracic versus cervical anastomosis after resection of esophageal cancer: a matched pair analysis of 72 patients in a single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, Christian D; Binnebösel, Marcel; Otto, Jens; Boehm, Gabriele; von Trotha, Klaus T; Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Conze, Joachim; Neumann, Ulf P; Jansen, Marc

    2012-08-06

    The aim of this study was to analyze the early postoperative outcome of esophageal cancer treated by subtotal esophageal resection, gastric interposition and either intrathoracic or cervical anastomosis in a single center study. 72 patients who received either a cervical or intrathoracic anastomosis after esophageal resection for esophageal cancer were matched by age and tumor stage. Collected data from these patients were analyzed retrospectively regarding morbidity and mortality rates. Anastomotic leakage rate was significantly lower in the intrathoracic anastomosis group than in the cervical anastomosis group (4 of 36 patients (11%) vs. 11 of 36 patients (31%); p = 0.040). The hospital stay was significantly shorter in the intrathoracic anastomosis group compared to the cervical anastomosis group (14 (range 10-110) vs. 26 days (range 12 - 105); p = 0.012). Wound infection and temporary paresis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve occurred significantly more often in the cervical anastomosis group compared to the intrathoracic anastomosis group (28% vs. 0%; p = 0.002 and 11% vs. 0%; p = 0.046). The overall In-hospital mortality rate was 6% (4 of 72 patients) without any differences between the study groups. The present data support the assumption that the transthoracic approach with an intrathoracic anastomosis compared to a cervical esophagogastrostomy is the safer and more beneficial procedure in patients with carcinoma of the lower and middle third of the esophagus due to a significant reduction of anastomotic leakage, wound infection, paresis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and shorter hospital stay.

  20. Tension-filled Governance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Tim Holst

    on the statesituated tension-filled functional relationship between legitimation and accumulation, the study both historically and theoretically reworks this approach and reapplies it for the post-1970s/1990s governance period. It asks whether and to what extent governance has served as a distinctive post- 1970s/1990s...

  1. filled neutron detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boron trifluoride (BF3) proportional counters are used as detectors for thermal neutrons. They are characterized by high neutron sensitivity and good gamma discriminating properties. Most practical BF3 counters are filled with pure boron trifluoride gas enriched up to 96% 10B. But BF3 is not an ideal proportional counter ...

  2. Gas filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, C.

    1993-01-01

    The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

  3. A case of an adenocarcinoma of the stomach after successful radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the lower intrathoracic esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonari, Kazuhide; Uchida, Yuzo; Fujishima, Norihiko

    1988-01-01

    A case of a gastric cancer which developed 3 years and 11 months after radiotherapy for esophageal cancer is reported. A 76-year-old man with a squamous cell carcinoma of the lower intrathoracic esophagus had received 50 Gy of irradiation as treatment. Thereafter, signs of the esophageal cancer disappeared radiologically and endoscopically, and a pathological biopsy of secimens taken from the site revealed no futher cancer cells. The patient remained well for 3 years and 11 months after radiotherapy, at which time he again was admitted to hospital, having been diagnosed as having a gastric cancer. On admission, an upper G-I series showed a shadow defect along the lesser curvature of the upper-middle stomach but no evidence of any stenosis in the lower intrathoracic esophagus. Endoscopically, the mucosal surface of the esophagus was normal, and biopsy specimens taken from the site in the esophagus that had been treated with irradiation 3 years 11 months ago revealed no recurrence of his esophageal cancer. Endoscopical examination of the stomach showed an infiltrative tumor with ulceration, and a subsequent histological examination revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Upon a laparotomy, a metastasis was detected in the perigastric and paraaortic lymphnodes and the cancer had invaded the retroperitoneum. The stomach could not be removed and he died 3 months after the laparotomy. (author)

  4. Evaluations of Factors Predicting the Need for an Extra-Cervical Approach for Intra-Thoracic Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadrizadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intra-thoracic goiter refers to the extension of enlarged thyroid tissue into the thoracic inlet. This condition can produce symptoms of compression on adjacent organs and can sometimes be accompanied by malignant transformation. Therefore surgical treatment is almost always necessary. In order to remove the pathology with the fewest post-operative complications, selection of the appropriate surgical approach is essential. In this study we aimed to detect the criteria which help us select the best therapeutic approach.   Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 82 patients with intra-thoracic goiter were investigated. Their data were extracted from medical records and analyzed using SPSS software.   Results: Overall 82 patients, 18 (21% males and 64 (78% females with mean age of 56.38 years were studied. The most common clinical symptoms were mass (95% and dyspnea (73%. In most patients, the surgical approach was cervical (90.2%, while 9.8% of patients required an extra-cervical approach. Post-operation complications were observed in 17.1% of patients; the most common being transient recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (4.9%. Malignancy was reported in the histopathology of seven patients (8.5%. The most common malignant histopathology was papillary thyroid carcinoma (7.3%. Extension of the thyroid tissue below the uppermost level of the aortic arch was significantly correlated with the need for an extra-cervical approach to surgery (P

  5. Epicardial distribution of ST segment and T wave changes produced by stimulation of intrathoracic ganglia or cardiopulmonary nerves in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, P; Cardinal, R; Nadeau, R A; Armour, J A

    1991-06-01

    Sixty-three ventricular epicardial electrograms were recorded simultaneously in 8 atropinized dogs during stimulation of acutely decentralized intrathoracic autonomic ganglia or cardiopulmonary nerves. Three variables were measured: (1) isochronal maps representing the epicardial activation sequence, (2) maps depicting changes in areas under the QRS complex and T wave (regional inhomogeneity of repolarization), and (3) local and total QT intervals. Neural stimulations did not alter the activation sequence but induced changes in the magnitude and polarity of the ST segments and T waves as well as in QRST areas. Stimulation of the same neural structure in different dogs induced electrical changes with different amplitudes and in different regions of the ventricles, except for the ventral lateral cardiopulmonary nerve which usually affected the dorsal wall of the left ventricle. Greatest changes occurred when the right recurrent, left intermediate medial, left caudal pole, left ventral lateral cardiopulmonary nerves and stellate ganglia were stimulated. Local QT durations either decreased or did not change, whereas total QT duration as measured using a root-mean-square signal did not change, indicating the regional nature of repolarization changes. Taken together, these data indicate that intrathoracic efferent sympathetic neurons can induce regional inhomogeneity of repolarization without prolonging the total QT interval.

  6. Dye filled security seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member

  7. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  8. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  9. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K K; Lee, Y H; Cho, O K; Park, C Y [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  10. Pyothorax induced by an intrathoracic foreign body in a miniature dachshund: Migration of a popsicle stick from the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yi-Don; Han, Hyun-Jung

    2017-08-10

    A four-year-old dachshund presented with a two-week history of pyrexia, depression, and cough. Four months earlier, the owner observed the dog swallow a whole popsicle stick, but the animal showed no clinical signs at that time. Radiography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography confirmed an intrathoracic linear foreign body and pleural effusion in the right thorax. The pleural fluid was bloody and purulent, and contained inflammatory cells and Escherichia coli. The dog was diagnosed with pyothorax induced by a foreign body, and was treated successfully by surgical removal of the foreign body, partial lung lobectomy, thoracic lavage, and antibiotics. The foreign body was identified as a popsicle stick that the dog had eaten.

  11. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  12. Incremento del índice de dientes permanentes cariados, perdidos por caries y obturados, entre escolares de Loja, España Increasing decayed, missing, and filled teeth index among school children in Loja, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Almagro-Nievas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar variables clínicas, socioeconómicas y de hábitos alimentarios e higiénicos, predictoras del incremento del índice (DMFT, por sus siglas en inglés de dientes definitivos que están cariados, ausentes por caries y obturados en la cohorte de escolares de la localidad de Loja, Granada, España, en un trienio (1994-1997. Material y métodos. Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo sobre 812 alumnos a los que se les realizó una exploración dental siguiendo la metodología recomendada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Para la construcción de modelos se usa la metodología de regresión logística. Resultado. El índice DMFT de toda la cohorte pasó de 1.86 a 4.5 (en el trienio y en los miembros de la cohorte de 12 años, de 3.71 a 4.47. El DMFT medio está asociado con el incremento del DMFT final. La asistencia al colegio 3 tiene un riesgo relativo (RR de 0.69 (IC 95% 0.60-0.8 frente a la asistencia al colegio 4, y un RR de 0.78 (IC 95% 0.67-0.90 frente a la asistencia al colegio 5. Conclusión. En el modelo final se encontró que el riesgo de incrementar la caries es por el DMFT medio del trienio, y que el factor protector es la asistencia al colegio 3. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlObjective. To identify the clinical, socioeconomic, dietary, and hygienic predictors of the increasing Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT index, in a cohort of school children in Loja, Granada, Spain, during a three-year period (1994-1997. Material and methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 812 students to measure the DMFT index, using the methods recommended by the World Health Organization. Statistical analysis was conducted using logistic regression models. Results. During the study period, the DMFT index increased from 1.86 to 4.5 for the study cohort as a whole, and from 3.71 to 4.47 among twelve-year olds. The DMFT at mid-period was

  13. Method to increase the safety of a final storage site in a salt cavern filled with solidified radioactive waste with regard to unforeseen rock movements and/or water ingress into cavities of the final storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, R.; Rudolph, G.; Kroebel, R.

    1986-01-01

    The wastes of weak or average radio-activity (e.g. T) are stored in barrels in a salt mine. In order to prevent leaching of the waste after the ingress of water into the salt mine, the intermediate spaces between the barrels are filled with a concrete grout. This grout consists of a water/bentonite/cement mixture, to which sand may be added, and which hardens. It forms a monolithic block. (orig./PW)

  14. Method to increase the safety of a final storage site in a salt cavern filled with solidified radioactive waste with regard to unforeseen rock movements and/or water ingress into cavities of the final storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, R.; Rudolph, G.; Kroebel, R.

    1980-01-01

    The wastes of weak or average radio-activity (e.g. T) are stored in barrels in a salt mine. In order to prevent leaching of the waste after the ingress of water into the salt mine, the intermediate spaces between the barrels are filled with a concrete grout. This grout consists of a water/bentonite/cement mixture, to which sand may be added, and which hardens. It forms a monolithic block. (DG) [de

  15. Detection of intrathoracic infectious lesions using {sup 111}In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic bicyclic anhydride-IgG ({sup 111}In-DTPA-IgG) scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Tomohiro; Goto, Hajime; Wada, Hiroo; Yuasa, Kazumi; Iguchi, Mari; Okamura, Tatsuru; Ieki, Ryuji; Suzuki, Kenzo [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome General Hospital (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The utility of {sup 111}In-DTPA-IgG imaging for the detection of intrathoracic lesions was evaluated in 10 patients with the suspicion of inflammatory or infectious diseases. They were intravenously administered 40 or 80 MBq of {sup 111}In-DTPA-IgG, and scanned after 24 or 48 hours. Of these, 8 cases, consisted of 4 cases with pneumonia and 2 cases with lung abscess and one case of pulmonary tuberculosis and one of a tuberculous pleuritis, showed true positive results. Others were one false negative case of pneumonia and one true negative case of lung cancer. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 88.9% and 100%, respectively. There were no cases which showed side effects or abnormal laboratory findings caused by the radiopharmaceuticals administered. Thus, {sup 111}In-DTPA-IgG imaging is a useful tool for the detection of intrathoracic infectious lesions. (author)

  16. Detection of intrathoracic infectious lesions using 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic bicyclic anhydride-IgG (111In-DTPA-IgG) scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Tomohiro; Goto, Hajime; Wada, Hiroo; Yuasa, Kazumi; Iguchi, Mari; Okamura, Tatsuru; Ieki, Ryuji; Suzuki, Kenzo

    1998-01-01

    The utility of 111 In-DTPA-IgG imaging for the detection of intrathoracic lesions was evaluated in 10 patients with the suspicion of inflammatory or infectious diseases. They were intravenously administered 40 or 80 MBq of 111 In-DTPA-IgG, and scanned after 24 or 48 hours. Of these, 8 cases, consisted of 4 cases with pneumonia and 2 cases with lung abscess and one case of pulmonary tuberculosis and one of a tuberculous pleuritis, showed true positive results. Others were one false negative case of pneumonia and one true negative case of lung cancer. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 88.9% and 100%, respectively. There were no cases which showed side effects or abnormal laboratory findings caused by the radiopharmaceuticals administered. Thus, 111 In-DTPA-IgG imaging is a useful tool for the detection of intrathoracic infectious lesions. (author)

  17. Thoracic injury rule out criteria and NEXUS chest in predicting the risk of traumatic intra-thoracic injuries: A diagnostic accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Saeed; Radfar, Fatemeh; Baratloo, Alireza

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of NEXUS chest and Thoracic Injury Rule out criteria (TIRC) models in predicting the risk of intra-thoracic injuries following blunt multiple trauma. In this diagnostic accuracy study, using the 2 mentioned models, blunt multiple trauma patients over the age of 15 years presenting to emergency department were screened regarding the presence of intra-thoracic injuries that are detectable via chest x-ray and screening performance characteristics of the models were compared. In this study, 3118 patients with the mean (SD) age of 37.4 (16.9) years were studied (57.4% male). Based on TIRC and NEXUS chest, respectively, 1340 (43%) and 1417 (45.4%) patients were deemed in need of radiography performance. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of TIRC were 98.95%, 62.70%, 21.19% and 99.83%. These values were 98.61%, 59.94%, 19.97% and 99.76%, for NEXUS chest, respectively. Accuracy of TIRC and NEXUS chest models were 66.04 (95% CI: 64.34-67.70) and 63.50 (95% CI: 61.78-65.19), respectively. TIRC and NEXUS chest models have proper and similar sensitivity in prediction of blunt traumatic intra-thoracic injuries that are detectable via chest x-ray. However, TIRC had a significantly higher specificity in this regard. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gas-filled hohlraum fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, M.A.; Gobby, P.L.; Foreman, L.R.; Bush, H. Jr.; Gomez, V.M.; Moore, J.E.; Stone, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have fabricated and fielded gas-filled hohlraums at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nova laser. Fill pressures of 1--5 atmospheres have been typical. We describe the production of the parts, their assembly and fielding. Emphasis is placed on the production of gas-tight polyimide windows and the fielding apparatus and procedure

  19. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.; Cachim, P.B.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.

    2014-04-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. CT-guided transthoracic cutting needle biopsy of intrathoracic lesions: Comparison between coaxial and single needle technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Reng-Hong; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Lee, Wei-Jing; Chang, Shih-Chin; Chen, Chia-Huei; Fung, Jui-Lung; Wang, Yen-Jen; Mak, Chee-Wai

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the complication rates and diagnostic accuracy of two different CT-guided transthoracic cutting needle biopsy techniques: coaxial method and single needle method. Methods: This study involved 198 consecutive subjects with 198 intrathoracic lesions. The first 98 consecutive subjects received a single needle cutting technique and the next 100 consecutive subjects received a coaxial technique. Both groups were compared in relation the diagnostic accuracy and complication rates. Results: No significant difference was found between the two groups concerning patient characteristics, lesions and procedure variables. There was a borderline statistical difference in the incidence of pneumothorax at within 24-h post biopsy between patients in the single needle group (5%) and the coaxial group (13%) (P = 0.053). Little difference was found in the pneumothorax rate at immediately post biopsy between the two groups, which was 28% in the single needle group and 31% in the coaxial group. There was no significant difference in the hemoptysis rate between the two groups, which was 9.2% in the single needle group and 11% in the coaxial group. Both techniques yielded an overall diagnostic accuracy of 98% for malignant lesions with similar sensitivity (single needle: 96.9% vs. coaxial: 96.4%) and specificity (single needle: 100% vs. coaxial: 100%). Conclusion: There is little difference in the pneumothorax rates and bleeding complications between patients who either received a single needle or a coaxial transthoracic cutting biopsy. Both techniques produce an overall diagnostic accuracy of 98% for malignant lesions.

  2. Transdiaphragmatic extension of a retroperitoneal lipoma into the intrathoracic extrapleural space via the lumbocostal trigone in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Emily S; Heng, Hock Gan; Freeman, Lynetta J; Childress, Michael O

    2012-04-15

    An 8-year-old 12.2-kg (26.9-lb) spayed female American Cocker Spaniel was referred for evaluation of abdominal discomfort and a suspected intra-abdominal lipoma with possible invasion into the thorax. Physical examination revealed a tense abdomen, and the margins of a large abdominal mass could be appreciated. Abdominal imaging revealed a mass of fat opacity in the abdominal and thoracic cavities. Computed tomography with precontrast and postcontrast peritoneograms was used to determine whether the masses connected via a diaphragmatic defect. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a retroperitoneal lipomatous mass that had focally invaded the hypaxial musculature and had extended across the dorsolateral aspect of the diaphragm via the lumbocostal trigone into the intrathoracic extrapleural space. Surgical resection required transdiaphragmatic thoracotomy. Histologic examination of excised tissue confirmed the preoperative diagnosis of a lipoma. The dog recovered from surgery with no complications and had no disease recurrence for at least 32 months after surgical resection. The defect of the lumbocostal trigone is also called the foramen of Bochdalek in humans, and it is recognized as a common location for congenital diaphragmatic hernia. A lumbocostal trigone hernia may be considered as a differential diagnosis for bicavitary masses in dogs, particularly in the absence of a history of trauma.

  3. Neoplastic pleural effusion and intrathoracic metastasis of a scapular osteosarcoma in a dog: a multidisciplinary integrated diagnostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Luis; Mortier, Jeremy; Ressel, Lorenzo; Finotello, Riccardo; Silvestrini, Paolo; Piviani, Martina

    2017-06-01

    A 10-year-old, female spayed mixed-breed or cross-bred dog was referred to the Small Animal Teaching Hospital of the University of Liverpool due to tachypnea, dyspnea, and pleural effusion not responding to diuretics and antibiotics. The chest was drained and cytology of the pleural fluid was consistent with a modified transudate with presence of atypical cells initially attributed to mesothelial hyperplasia and dysplasia. Computed tomography detected, in addition to the bilateral pleural effusion, diffuse pleural thickening, multiple pleural and pulmonary nodules, and a mineralized and lytic mass in the left scapula. Imaging findings were suggestive of a primary bone tumor with intrathoracic metastasis. Cytology of the left scapular and pleural masses revealed a malignant neoplasm highly suggestive of osteosarcoma. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of a positive cytochemical reaction for alkaline phosphatase on prestained cytology slides. This finding prompted review of the initial interpretation of the pleural effusion cytology. The presence of neoplastic osteoblasts in the thoracic fluid was identified by a combination of cytochemistry, cell pellet immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy findings. In this report, a multidisciplinary integrated diagnostic approach was used to diagnose and confirm a neoplastic pleural effusion due to osteosarcoma metastasis in a dog. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  4. Radiopacity of root filling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer-Olsen, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    A method for measuring the radiopacity of root filling materials is described. Direct measurements were made of the optic density values of the materials in comparison with a standard curve relating optic density to the thickness of an aluminium step wedge exposed simultaneously. By proper selection of film and conditions for exposure and development, it was possible to obtain a near-linear standard curve which added to the safety and reproducibility of the method. The technique of radiographic assessment was modified from clinical procedures in evaluating the obturation in radiographs, and it was aimed at detecting slits or voids between the dental wall and the filling material. This radiographic assessment of potensial leakage was compared with actual in vitro lekage of dye (basic fuchsin) into the roots of filled teeth. The result of the investigation show that root filling materials display a very wide range of radiopacity, from less than 3 mm to more than 12 mm of aluminium. It also seem that tooth roots that appear to be well obturated by radiographic evaluation, stand a good chance of beeing resistant to leakage in vitro, and that the type of filling material rather than its radiographic appearance, determines the susceptibility of the filled tooth to leakage in vitro. As an appendix the report contains a survey of radiopaque additives in root filling materials

  5. Sorption of Np (Ⅴ) on Beishan granite fracture filling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Tao; Wang Bo; Bao Liangjin; Zhou Duo; Long Haoqi; Song Zhixin; Chen Xi

    2012-01-01

    The sorption behaviors of Np (Ⅴ) on the granite fracture filling materials were studied by batch experiments under anaerobic in Beishan groundwater. The impact of pH of groundwater, CO 3 2- , humic acid and different components of granite fracture filling materials on sorption of Np (Ⅴ) was investigated. The results show that the granite fracture filling materials have strong capacity of Np (Ⅴ) adsorption. The value of K d , for Np (Ⅴ) sorption on the granite fracture filling materials is 843 mL/g. With the increase of pH, the value of K d increases at first and then decreases. K d of Np sorption on granite fracture filling materials in the presence of CO 3 2- and humic acid decreases. The chlorite and feldspar are major contributors to the sorption of Np (Ⅴ) on Beishan granite fracture filling materials. (authors)

  6. Filling the gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Pernille; Linnebjerg, Sofie; Mullins, Michael Finbarr

    2018-01-01

    Training and knowledge of lighting is an increasingly sought-after professional quality in Denmark and Sweden. However, technological development in the lighting field has been in recent years extremely rapid, not least in Scandinavia. This has led to a situation, where users, designers, specifie...

  7. Modelling of time delay of electrical breakdown for nitrogen-filled tubes at pressures of 6.6 and 13.3 mbar in the increase region of the memory curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesic, N T; Ristic, G S; Pejovic, M M; Karamarkovic, J P

    2008-01-01

    Experimentally measured electrical breakdown time delay data versus the afterglow period (representing 'memory curves') for nitrogen-filled tubes at pressures of 6.6 and 13.3 mbar have been shown. The influence of N( 4 S) nitrogen atoms on secondary electron emission from the cathode (the SEE process) in late afterglow has been discussed. N( 4 S) atom concentration decay over relaxation time τ, N( 4 S)(τ), has been analysed by a numerical model and two analytical models. N( 4 S) decay analytical models are combined with different yield models that describe the SEE process by N( 4 S) and these combinations are employed to fit the experimental data. It has been shown that in late afterglow solving of very simple analytical equations instead of numerical solving of partial differential equations for N( 4 S)(τ) fitting can be used and that the combination of the first and the second order of the SEE process by N( 4 S) in yield modelling should be used in the case of 13.3 mbar pressure.

  8. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.

    2011-05-01

    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  9. Better building of valley fills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1980-03-01

    Current US regulations for building valley fills or head of hollow fills to hold excess spoil resulting from contour mining are meeting with considerable opposition, particularly from operators in steep-slope areas. An alternative method has been submitted to the Office of Surface Mining by Virgina. Known as the zoned concept method, it has already been used successfully in building water-holding dams and coal refuse embankments on sloping terrain. The ways in which drainage and seepage are managed are described.

  10. Dielectric-filled radiofrequency linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehl, R J; Keinigs, R K; Pogue, E W [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    High current, high brightness electron beam accelerators promise to open up dramatic new applications. Linear induction accelerators are currently viewed as the appropriate technology for these applications. A concept by Humphries and Hwang may permit radiofrequency accelerators to fulfill the same functions with greater simplicity and enhanced flexibility. This concept involves the replacement of vacuum rf cavities with dielectric filled ones. Simple analysis indicates that the resonant frequencies are reduced by a factor of ({epsilon}{sub 0}/{epsilon}){sup 1/2} while the stored energy is increased by {epsilon}/{epsilon}{sub 0}. For a high dielectric constant like water, this factor can approach 80. A series of numerical calculations of simple pill-box cavities was performed. Eigenfunctions and resonant frequencies for a full system configuration, including dielectric material, vacuum beamline, and a ceramic window separating the two have been computed. These calculations are compared with the results of a small experimental cavity which have been constructed and operated. Low power tests show excellent agreement. (author). 4 figs., 8 refs.

  11. Effects of selective attention on perceptual filling-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Weerd, P; Smith, E; Greenberg, P

    2006-03-01

    After few seconds, a figure steadily presented in peripheral vision becomes perceptually filled-in by its background, as if it "disappeared". We report that directing attention to the color, shape, or location of a figure increased the probability of perceiving filling-in compared to unattended figures, without modifying the time required for filling-in. This effect could be augmented by boosting attention. Furthermore, the frequency distribution of filling-in response times for attended figures could be predicted by multiplying the frequencies of response times for unattended figures with a constant. We propose that, after failure of figure-ground segregation, the neural interpolation processes that produce perceptual filling-in are enhanced in attended figure regions. As filling-in processes are involved in surface perception, the present study demonstrates that even very early visual processes are subject to modulation by cognitive factors.

  12. The effect of tube filling on the electronic properties of Fe filled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linganiso, Ella C.; Chimowa, George; Franklyn, Paul J.; Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Coville, Neil J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: HRTEM image of a twisted CNT filled with a bent single crystal of Fe. Insets from top to bottom show the power spectra of the corresponding regions, indicating the twisting of the Fe lattice. Inset in the top right shows the relative angling of the lattice fringes to accommodate the twisting of the Fe. Highlights: ► Synthesis of Fe filled CNTs with Fe content varying from 3 to 35%. ► TEM analysis indicates that Fe in the tubes is in contact with the CNTs. ► TEM analysis reveals that α-Fe crystallizes after CNT formation. ► Temperature dependent electronic transport measurements performed. ► Conductivity varies with the % Fe filling in the CNTs. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes filled with Fe nanostructures (Fe-CNTs) were synthesized using an injection method in a 1-stage horizontal CVD furnace and a bubbling method in a 2-stage horizontal CVD reactor. Fe-CNTs were obtained through the pyrolysis of a mixture of dichlorobenzene and ferrocene in 5%H 2 /Ar. Metal impurities from the Fe-CNTs were removed using 1 M HCl solution. CNTs filled with crystalline Fe nanoparticles, nanorods and nanowires were obtained using these procedures. An intimate interaction between the Fe and the CNT was established by HRTEM studies. The α-Fe phase was observed to be the most dominant fraction found in the synthesized Fe-CNTs. The Fe 2 O 3 residue obtained from the TGA analysis revealed the amount of Fe filled inside the CNTs and this ranged between 3 and 31% by mass after purification. The temperature dependence of the conductivity in the temperature range between 2.5 and 100 K for an entangled network of Fe-CNTs was measured. An increase in conductivity due to the increased Fe filling inside the CNTs with increased temperature was observed. The observed temperature dependence was explained in terms of variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanisms. A transition from Efros–Shklovskii behavior at low % Fe filling of the CNTs to Mott 3D VRH behavior at

  13. Therapy monitoring using dynamic MRI: Analysis of lung motion and intrathoracic tumor mobility before and after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plathow, Christian [Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Hof, Holger; Kuhn, Sabine [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Therapy, Clinic for Thoracic Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany); Puderbach, Michael; Ley, Sebastian; Biederer, Juergen; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Claussen, Claus D.; Schaefer, Juergen [Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Huber, Peter E. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Therapy, Clinic for Thoracic Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Tuengerthal, Siegfried [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    A frequent side effect after radiotherapy of lung tumors is a decrease of pulmonary function accompanied by dyspnea due to developing lung fibrosis. The aim of this study was to monitor lung motion as a correlate of pulmonary function and intrathoracic tumor mobility before and after radiotherapy (RT) using dynamic MRI (dMRI). Thirty-five patients with stage I non-small-cell lung carcinoma were examined using dMRI (trueFISP; three images/s). Tumors were divided into T1 and T2 tumors of the upper, middle and lower lung region (LR). Maximum craniocaudal (CC) lung dimensions and tumor mobility in three dimensions were monitored. Vital capacity (VC) was measured and correlated using spirometry. Before RT, the maximum CC motion of the tumor-bearing hemithorax was 5.2{+-}0.9 cm if the tumor was located in the lower LR (middle LR: 5.5{+-}0.8 cm; upper LR: 6.0{+-}0.6 cm). After RT, lung motion was significantly reduced in the lower LR (P<0.05). Before RT, the maximum CC tumor mobility was significantly higher in tumors of the lower LR 2.5{+-}0.6 vs. 2.0{+-}0.3 cm (middle LR; P<0.05) vs. 0.7{+-}0.2 cm (upper LR; P<0.01). After RT, tumor mobility was significantly reduced in the lower LR (P<0.01) and in T2 tumor patients (P<0.05). VC showed no significant changes. dMRI is capable of monitoring changes in lung motion that were not suspected from spirometry. This might make the treatment of side effects possible at a very early stage. Changes of lung motion and tumor mobility are highly dependent on the tumor localization and tumor diameter. (orig.)

  14. Therapy monitoring using dynamic MRI: Analysis of lung motion and intrathoracic tumor mobility before and after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plathow, Christian; Hof, Holger; Kuhn, Sabine; Puderbach, Michael; Ley, Sebastian; Biederer, Juergen; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Claussen, Claus D.; Schaefer, Juergen; Huber, Peter E.; Tuengerthal, Siegfried

    2006-01-01

    A frequent side effect after radiotherapy of lung tumors is a decrease of pulmonary function accompanied by dyspnea due to developing lung fibrosis. The aim of this study was to monitor lung motion as a correlate of pulmonary function and intrathoracic tumor mobility before and after radiotherapy (RT) using dynamic MRI (dMRI). Thirty-five patients with stage I non-small-cell lung carcinoma were examined using dMRI (trueFISP; three images/s). Tumors were divided into T1 and T2 tumors of the upper, middle and lower lung region (LR). Maximum craniocaudal (CC) lung dimensions and tumor mobility in three dimensions were monitored. Vital capacity (VC) was measured and correlated using spirometry. Before RT, the maximum CC motion of the tumor-bearing hemithorax was 5.2±0.9 cm if the tumor was located in the lower LR (middle LR: 5.5±0.8 cm; upper LR: 6.0±0.6 cm). After RT, lung motion was significantly reduced in the lower LR (P<0.05). Before RT, the maximum CC tumor mobility was significantly higher in tumors of the lower LR 2.5±0.6 vs. 2.0±0.3 cm (middle LR; P<0.05) vs. 0.7±0.2 cm (upper LR; P<0.01). After RT, tumor mobility was significantly reduced in the lower LR (P<0.01) and in T2 tumor patients (P<0.05). VC showed no significant changes. dMRI is capable of monitoring changes in lung motion that were not suspected from spirometry. This might make the treatment of side effects possible at a very early stage. Changes of lung motion and tumor mobility are highly dependent on the tumor localization and tumor diameter. (orig.)

  15. Intrathoracic Goiter. A Case Report Bocio endotorácico. Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Puerto Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland in the anterolateral part of the neck. It is estimated that approximately 3 % of the population worldwide suffer from this condition, although the incidence of nodular goiter has decreased in some countries due to the intake of iodized salt and iodine-rich food. A case of a 59 year-old female patient who attended consultation with an enlargement of the neck, accompanied by weakness, palpitations and dysphagia is presented. After being examined, she underwent surgery which confirmed the diagnosis of intrathoracic goiter. Since this is a rare pathology, it is of scientific interest for professionals dealing with the study and treatment of thyroid conditions.Se denomina bocio al aumento de volumen de la glándula tiroides en la región antero-lateral del cuello. Se calcula que aproximadamente el 3 % de los pobladores del mundo lo tienen, aunque la incidencia del bocio nodular ha disminuido debido a la ingestión en algunos países de sal yodada y alimentos ricos en yodo. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 59 años que acudió a consulta por presentar aumento de volumen del cuello, acompañado de decaimiento, palpitaciones y disfagia, la cual después de ser estudiada en consulta fue intervenida quirúrgicamente, en la que se corroboró el diagnóstico de un bocio endotorácico. Por ser esta patología poco frecuente, se considera de interés científico para los profesionales dedicados al estudio y tratamiento de las afecciones tiroideas.

  16. Does quantifying epicardial and intrathoracic fat with noncontrast computed tomography improve risk stratification beyond calcium scoring alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzandeh, Farshad; Chang, Su Min; Muhyieddeen, Kamil; Zaid, Rashid R; Trevino, Alejandro R; Xu, Jiaqiong; Nabi, Faisal; Mahmarian, John J

    2013-01-01

    Noncontrast cardiac computed tomography allows calculation of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and measurement of epicardial adipose tissue (EATv) and intrathoracic fat (ITFv) volumes. It is unclear whether fat volume information contributes to risk stratification. Cardiac computed tomography was performed in 760 consecutive patients with acute chest pain admitted thorough the emergency department. None had prior coronary artery disease. CACS was calculated using the Agatston method. EATv and ITFv were semiautomatically calculated. Median patient follow-up was 3.3 years. Mean patient age was 54.4±13.7 years and Framingham risk score 8.2±8.2. The 45 patients (5.9%) with major acute cardiac events (MACE) were older (64.8±13.9 versus 53.7±13.4 years), more frequently male (60% versus 40%), and had a higher median Framingham risk score (16 versus 4) and CACS (268 versus 0) versus those without events (all PEATv (154 versus 116 mL) and ITFv (330 versus 223 mL), and a higher prevalence of EATv >125 mL (67% versus 44%) and ITFv >250 mL (64% versus 42%) (all PEATv, and ITFv were all independently associated with MACE. CACS was associated with MACE after adjustment for fat volumes (PEATv and ITFv improved the risk model only in patients with CACS >400. CACS and fat volumes are independently associated with MACE in acute chest pain patients and beyond that provided by clinical information alone. Although fat volumes may add prognostic value in patients with CACS >400, CACS is most strongly correlated with outcome.

  17. Intrathoracic esophageal replacement in the dog with the use of an artificial esophagus composed of a collagen sponge with a double-layered silicone tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y; Nakamura, T; Shimizu, Y; Matsumoto, K; Takimoto, Y; Kiyotani, T; Sekine, T; Ueda, H; Liu, Y; Tamura, N

    1999-08-01

    Intrathoracic esophageal replacement with an artificial esophagus is considered difficult. We attempted to replace the intrathoracic esophagus with an artificial esophagus composed of a collagen sponge with a double-layered silicone tube and examined the state of host tissue regeneration. A 5-cm long gap was created in the intrathoracic esophagus in 9 dogs and repaired by interposition of our prosthesis. The dogs were fed only by intravenous hyperalimentation for 28 days. The silicone tube was removed at 29 days after the operation, and oral feeding was reintroduced. One dog was put to death at each of the following times: 1, 2, 3, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after the operation. One dog is still surviving without problems after more than 26 months. One dog died of malnutrition at 10 months. In all dogs, the host regenerated tissue had replaced the resulting gap at the time of silicone tube removal. The mucosa had fully regenerated within 3 months and the glands within 12 months. The process of stenosis and shrinkage was complete within 3 months and did not advance thereafter. The lamina muscularis mucosae were observed as islets of smooth muscle within 12 months. Although the skeletal muscle regenerated close to the anastomoses, it did not extend to the middle of the regenerated esophagus even after 24 months. Use of a collagen sponge with a double-layered silicone tube was shown to be feasible even in the thorax and to allow the regenerated host tissue, consisting of the mucosa, glands, and lamina muscularis mucosae, to replace the esophageal gap.

  18. BLR1 and FCGR1A transcripts in peripheral blood associate with the extent of intrathoracic tuberculosis in children and predict treatment outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenum, Synne; Bakken, Rasmus; Dhanasekaran, S

    2016-01-01

    children with intrathoracic tuberculosis (TB), we performed blood transcriptome kinetic analysis during ATT to explore 1) the association between transcriptional biomarkers in whole blood (WB) and the extent of TB disease at diagnosis and treatment outcomes at 2 and 6 months, and 2) the potential...... of the biomarkers to predict treatment response at 2 and 6 months. We present the first data on the association between transcriptional biomarkers and the extent of TB disease as well as outcome of ATT in children: Expression of three genes down-regulated on ATT (FCGR1A, FPR1 and MMP9) exhibited a positive...

  19. Increasing the fill factor of inverted P3HT:PCBM solar cells through surface modification of Al-doped ZnO via phosphonic acid-anchored C60 SAMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubhan, Tobias [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Salinas, Michael; Halik, Marcus [Organic Materials and Devices (OMD)-Institute of Polymer Materials, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Ebel, Alexander; Hirsch, Andreas [Institute for Organic Chemistry II, Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Krebs, Frederick C. [Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Brabec, Christoph J. [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern), Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    The influence of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) electron extraction layers modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on inverted polymer solar cells is investigated. It is found that AZO modification with phosphonic acid-anchored Fullerene-SAMs leads to a reduction of the series resistance, while increasing the parallel resistance. This results in an increased efficiency from 2.9 to 3.3%. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Triolo, A; Desmedt, A; Pieper, J K; Lo Celso, F; Triolo, R; Negroni, F; Arrighi, V; Qian, H; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface. (orig.)

  1. Community study of the relative impact of HIV-1 and HIV-2 on intrathoracic tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, R; Gustafson, P; Gomes, VF

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection is associated with an increased incidence of and mortality from tuberculosis. Few community studies have examined the effect of HIV-2 on tuberculosis. METHODS: We investigated the association between HIV-1, HIV-2 and active tuberculosis in four districts (population 42...

  2. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Tas, N.R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because

  3. Space-filling polyhedral sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, Peter

    2016-06-21

    Solid sorbents, systems, and methods for pumping, storage, and purification of gases are disclosed. They derive from the dynamics of porous and free convection for specific gas/sorbent combinations and use space filling polyhedral microliths with facial aplanarities to produce sorbent arrays with interpenetrating interstitial manifolds of voids.

  4. Linfadenitis intratorácica, falla respiratoria y muerte por tuberculosis Fatal respiratory failure due to tuberculous intrathoracic lymphadenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Vélez

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available

    La Iinfadenitis tuberculosa del adulto afecta los ganglios intratorácicos sólo en 5-7% de los casos y generalmente produce poco compromiso sistémico. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 21 anos que murió en Insuficiencia respiratoria debida a la obstrucción bronquial causada por grandes adenopatias hiliares y mediastinales y derrame pleural masivo bilateral. La Incidencia de tuberculosis pulmonar en Medellín durante 1986 fue de 85.3 casos nuevos por 100.000 habitantes, de los cuales muere aproximadamente 8-9% por ano. De la mortalidad en general, menos del 20¡0 se debe a Insuficiencia respiratoria. No se encontraron Informes en la literatura médica de obstrucción bronquial por Iinfadenopatia tuberculosa como causa de muerte. Se piensa que las malas condIcIones socioeconómicas, el consumo de narcóticos y la coexistencia de enfermedades venéreas, contribuyeron al curso fulminante de esta paciente. Se pretende llamar la atención acerca de esta presentación atípica y agresiva de la tuberculosis, especialmente en pacientes que pudieran estar inmunocomprometidos.

    Tuberculous Iymphadenitis in adults affects intrathoracic lymph nodes in only 5- 7% of the cases and It usually does not produce Important systemic involvement. The case of a 21 year-old woman who died of respiratory insufficiency due to bronchial obstruction caused by large hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathies and bilateral massive pleural effusion is presented. The incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 85.3 new cases per 100.000 inhabitants in 1986, in Medellín, Colombia. Mortality can be calculated between 8-9% per year and, of them, only 2% die as a result of respiratory insufficiency. No previous report9 of fatal bronchial obstruction due to tuberculosis Iymphadenopathy

  5. Evaluation of tuberculosis diagnostics in children: 1. Proposed clinical case definitions for classification of intrathoracic tuberculosis disease. Consensus from an expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Stephen M; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Amanullah, Farhana; Browning, Renee; Cardenas, Vicky; Casenghi, Martina; Cuevas, Luis E; Gale, Marianne; Gie, Robert P; Grzemska, Malgosia; Handelsman, Ed; Hatherill, Mark; Hesseling, Anneke C; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kampmann, Beate; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Lienhardt, Christian; Lighter-Fisher, Jennifer; Madhi, Shabir; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Marais, Ben J; McNeeley, David F; Menzies, Heather; Mitchell, Charles; Modi, Surbhi; Mofenson, Lynne; Musoke, Philippa; Nachman, Sharon; Powell, Clydette; Rigaud, Mona; Rouzier, Vanessa; Starke, Jeffrey R; Swaminathan, Soumya; Wingfield, Claire

    2012-05-15

    There is a critical need for improved diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, particularly in young children with intrathoracic disease as this represents the most common type of tuberculosis in children and the greatest diagnostic challenge. There is also a need for standardized clinical case definitions for the evaluation of diagnostics in prospective clinical research studies that include children in whom tuberculosis is suspected but not confirmed by culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A panel representing a wide range of expertise and child tuberculosis research experience aimed to develop standardized clinical research case definitions for intrathoracic tuberculosis in children to enable harmonized evaluation of new tuberculosis diagnostic technologies in pediatric populations. Draft definitions and statements were proposed and circulated widely for feedback. An expert panel then considered each of the proposed definitions and statements relating to clinical definitions. Formal group consensus rules were established and consensus was reached for each statement. The definitions presented in this article are intended for use in clinical research to evaluate diagnostic assays and not for individual patient diagnosis or treatment decisions. A complementary article addresses methodological issues to consider for research of diagnostics in children with suspected tuberculosis.

  6. Evaluation of Tuberculosis Diagnostics in Children: 1. Proposed Clinical Case Definitions for Classification of Intrathoracic Tuberculosis Disease. Consensus From an Expert Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Stephen M.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Amanullah, Farhana; Browning, Renee; Cardenas, Vicky; Casenghi, Martina; Cuevas, Luis E.; Gale, Marianne; Gie, Robert P.; Grzemska, Malgosia; Handelsman, Ed; Hatherill, Mark; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kampmann, Beate; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Lienhardt, Christian; Lighter-Fisher, Jennifer; Madhi, Shabir; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Marais, Ben J.; McNeeley, David F.; Menzies, Heather; Mitchell, Charles; Modi, Surbhi; Mofenson, Lynne; Musoke, Philippa; Nachman, Sharon; Powell, Clydette; Rigaud, Mona; Rouzier, Vanessa; Starke, Jeffrey R.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Wingfield, Claire

    2012-01-01

    There is a critical need for improved diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, particularly in young children with intrathoracic disease as this represents the most common type of tuberculosis in children and the greatest diagnostic challenge. There is also a need for standardized clinical case definitions for the evaluation of diagnostics in prospective clinical research studies that include children in whom tuberculosis is suspected but not confirmed by culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A panel representing a wide range of expertise and child tuberculosis research experience aimed to develop standardized clinical research case definitions for intrathoracic tuberculosis in children to enable harmonized evaluation of new tuberculosis diagnostic technologies in pediatric populations. Draft definitions and statements were proposed and circulated widely for feedback. An expert panel then considered each of the proposed definitions and statements relating to clinical definitions. Formal group consensus rules were established and consensus was reached for each statement. The definitions presented in this article are intended for use in clinical research to evaluate diagnostic assays and not for individual patient diagnosis or treatment decisions. A complementary article addresses methodological issues to consider for research of diagnostics in children with suspected tuberculosis. PMID:22448023

  7. Optimization of foam-filled bitubal structures for crashworthiness criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yong; Sun, Guangyong; Li, Guangyao; Luo, Zhen; Li, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The paper aims to optimize foam-filled bitubal squared column for crashworthiness. ► It explores different formulations and configurations of design. ► The optimal foam-filled bitubal column is better than foam-filled monotubal column. ► The optimal foam-filled bitubal column is better than empty bitubal column. -- Abstract: Thin-walled structures have been widely used as key components in automobile and aerospace industry to improve the crashworthiness and safety of vehicles while maintaining overall light-weight. This paper aims to explore the design issue of thin-walled bitubal column structures filled with aluminum foam. As a relatively new filler material, aluminum foam can increase crashworthiness without sacrificing too much weight. To optimize crashworthiness of the foam-filled bitubal square column, the Kriging meta-modeling technique is adopted herein to formulate the objective and constraint functions. The genetic algorithm (GA) and Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II) are used to seek the optimal solutions to the single and multiobjective optimization problems, respectively. To compare with other thin-walled configurations, the design optimization is also conducted for empty bitubal column and foam-filled monotubal column. The results demonstrate that the foam-filled bitubal configuration has more room to enhance the crashworthiness and can be an efficient energy absorber.

  8. Changes in pulmonary function and influencing factors after high-dose intrathoracic radio(chemo)therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Christina [University Clinic Giessen and Marburg, Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Marburg (Germany); Ruppiner Kliniken GmbH, Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Neuruppin (Germany); Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Vorwerk, Hilke [University Clinic Giessen and Marburg, Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Marburg (Germany); Schmidt, Michael; Huhnt, Winfried; Blank, Eyck; Sidow, Dietrich; Buchali, Andre [Ruppiner Kliniken GmbH, Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Neuruppin (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Using prospectively collected patient-related, dose-related, and pulmonary function test (PFT) data before radiotherapy (RT) and at several follow-up visits after RT, the time course of PFT changes after high-dose radio(chemo)therapy and influencing factors were analyzed. From April 2012 to October 2015, 81 patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), or esophageal carcinoma where treated with high-dose radio(chemo)therapy. PFT data were collected before treatment and 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months after RT. The influence of patient- and treatment-related factors on PFT was analyzed. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) constantly declined during follow-up (p = 0.001). In total, 68% of patients had a reduced FEV1 at 6 months. Mean vital capacity (VC) didn't change during follow-up (p > 0.05). Mean total lung capacity (TLC) showed a constant decline after RT (p = 0.026). At 6 months, 60% of patients showed a decline in VC and 73% in TLC. The mean diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) declined at 6 and 12 weeks, but recovered slightly at 6 months (p < 0.0005). At 6 months, 86% of patients had a reduced DLCO. After treatment, the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} in the blood (pCO{sub 2}) was increased and pO{sub 2} was decreased (p > 0.05). Only the pretreatment PFT classification had a significant influence on the post-RT FEV1. DLCO seems to be the most reliable indicator for lung tissue damage after thoracic RT. Ventilation parameters appear to be less reliable. Concerning patient- or treatment-related factors, no reliable conclusion can be drawn regarding which factors may be relevant. (orig.) [German] Patientenbezogene, therapiebezogene und Lungenfunktionsdaten (''pulmonary function test'', PFT) wurden vor Radiotherapie (RT) und an verschiedenen Nachsorgeterminen nach RT prospektiv gesammelt, um PFT-Veraenderungen sowie Einflussfaktoren nach Hochdosis-Radio(chemo)therapie zu

  9. Experimental investigation of bubble formation during capillary filling of SiO2 nanoslits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Persson, Karl Fredrik; Bruus, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    in the filling speed. In nanoslits with heights below 100 nm, pinned bubbles are continuously formed at the advancing liquid meniscus. This observed increase in bubble density, which increases the fluidic resistance, quantitatively coincides with an observed reduction of the filling speed during filling...

  10. Zeolite-filled silicone rubber membranes. Experimental determination of concentration profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Hennepe, H.J.C.; Boswerger, W.B.F.; Bargeman, D.; Bargeman, D.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Permeant concentrations in silicalite-filled silicone rubber membranes during pervaporation of propanol/water mixtures were measured using multi-layered membranes. Experimentally determined concentration profiles show that the propanol concentration in the silicalite-filled membrane increases with

  11. Hard-to-fill vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2010-09-29

    Skills for Health has launched a set of resources to help healthcare employers tackle hard-to-fill entry-level vacancies and provide sustainable employment for local unemployed people. The Sector Employability Toolkit aims to reduce recruitment and retention costs for entry-level posts and repare people for employment through pre-job training programmes, and support employers to develop local partnerships to gain access to wider pools of candidates and funding streams.

  12. Selection and specification criteria for fills for cut-and-fill mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, E. G.

    1980-05-15

    Because of significant differences in placement and loading conditions, the ideal fill material for a cut-and-fill operation has different characteristics to those for a fill for a filled open stoping operation. The differing requirements of the two mining operations must be understood and accounted for in establishing fill selection and specification criteria. Within the paper, aspects of the particular requirements of cut-and-fill mining are analyzed and related to the specific fill tests and properties required. Emphasis is placed upon the role of fill in ground support, though this cannot be isolated from overall fill performance. Where appropriate, test data are introduced and areas requiring continuing research highlighted.

  13. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.72 Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.... Uncontrolled surface drainage may not be directed over the outslope of the fill. (2) Runoff from areas above the fill and runoff from the surface of the fill shall be diverted into stabilized diversion channels...

  14. Multiple scattering theory for space filling potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, W.H.; Brown, R.G.; Nesbet, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Multiple scattering theory (MST) provides an efficient technique for solving the wave equation for the special case of muffin-tin potentials. Here MST is extended to treat space filling non-muffin tin potentials and its validity, accuracy and efficiency are tested by application of the two dimensional empty lattice test. For this test it is found that the traditional formulation of MST does not coverage as the number of partial waves is increased. A simple modification of MST, however, allows this problem to be solved exactly and efficiently. 15 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Technology of hardening fills for mined spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simek, P.; Holas, M.; Chyla, A.; Pech, P.

    1985-01-01

    The technology is described of hardening fills for mined spaces of uranium deposits in North Bohemian chalk. A special equipment was developed for the controlled preparation of a hardening mixture. The composition of the fill is determined by the strength of the filled rock, expecially by the standard strength, i.e., the minimal strength of the filling under uniaxial pressure. The said parameter determines the consumption of binding materials and thereby the total costs of the filling. A description is presented of the filling technology, including rabbit tube transport of the mixture and quality control. (Pu)

  16. Charge balancing fill rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, J.L.; Blum, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    A fill rate monitor has been developed for the NSLS storage rings to allow machine tuning over a very large dynamic range of beam current. Synchrotron light, focused on a photodiode, produces a signal proportional to the beam current. A charge balancing circuit processes the diode current, creating an output signal proportional to the current injected into the ring. The unit operates linearly over a dynamic range of 120 dB and can resolve pulses of injected beam as small as 1 μA

  17. Bio-inspired dental fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhle, Hans; Bunk, Oliver; Buser, Stefan; Krastl, Gabriel; Zitzmann, Nicola U.; Ilgenstein, Bernd; Beckmann, Felix; Pfeiffer, Franz; Weiger, Roland; Müller, Bert

    2009-08-01

    Human teeth are anisotropic composites. Dentin as the core material of the tooth consists of nanometer-sized calcium phosphate crystallites embedded in collagen fiber networks. It shows its anisotropy on the micrometer scale by its well-oriented microtubules. The detailed three-dimensional nanostructure of the hard tissues namely dentin and enamel, however, is not understood, although numerous studies on the anisotropic mechanical properties have been performed and evaluated to explain the tooth function including the enamel-dentin junction acting as effective crack barrier. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with a spatial resolution in the 10 μm range allows determining the size and orientation of the constituents on the nanometer scale with reasonable precision. So far, only some dental materials, i.e. the fiber reinforced posts exhibit anisotropic properties related to the micrometer-size glass fibers. Dental fillings, composed of nanostructures oriented similar to the natural hard tissues of teeth, however, do not exist at all. The current X-ray-based investigations of extracted human teeth provide evidence for oriented micro- and nanostructures in dentin and enamel. These fundamental quantitative findings result in profound knowledge to develop biologically inspired dental fillings with superior resistance to thermal and mechanical shocks.

  18. Computed tomography versus water-soluble contrast swallow in the detection of intrathoracic anastomotic leak complicating esophagogastrectomy (Ivor Lewis): a prospective study in 97 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Christiane; Mal, Frederic; Perniceni, Thierry; Bouzar, Nadia; Lenoir, Stephane; Gayet, Brice; Palau, Robert

    2010-04-01

    Water-soluble contrast swallow (CS) is usually performed before refeeding for anastomosis assessment after esophagectomy with intrathoracic anastomosis but the sensitivity of CS is low. Another diagnostic approach is based on analysis of computed tomography (CT) scan with oral contrast and of CT mediastinal air images. We undertook to compare them prospectively. Ninety-seven patients with an esophageal carcinoma operated by intrathoracic anastomosis were included prospectively in a study based on a CT scan at postoperative day 3 (without oral and intravenous contrast) and CT scan and CS at day 7. CT scan analysis consisted of assessing contrast and air leakage. In case of doubt, an endoscopy was done. A diagnosis of anastomotic leak was made in 13 patients (13.4%), in 2 cases before day 7 and in 3 beyond day 7. At day 3, 94 CT scans were performed, but the diagnostic value was poor. In 95 patients with both CS and CT scan at day 7, CS disclosed a leak in 5 of 11, and CT scan was abnormal in 8 of 11. Leakage of contrast and/or presence of mediastinal gas had the best negative predictive value (95.8%). Endoscopy was done in 16 patients with only mediastinal gas at day 7 CT scan. It disclosed a normal anastomosis in 11, fibrin deposits in 4, and a leak in 1. In comparison with CS only, CT at day 7 improves the sensitivity and negative predictive value for diagnosing an anastomotic leak. In case of doubt endoscopy is advisable. This approach provides an accurate assessment of the anastomosis before refeeding.

  19. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  20. 7 CFR 58.923 - Filling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling containers. 58.923 Section 58.923 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.923 Filling containers. (a) The filling of small containers with product shall be done in a sanitary manner. The containers shall not contaminate or detract from the quality of the product in any way...

  1. Hormonal changes in the grains of rice subjected to water stress during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Zhang, J; Wang, Z; Zhu, Q; Wang, W

    2001-09-01

    Lodging-resistant rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars usually show slow grain filling when nitrogen is applied in large amounts. This study investigated the possibility that a hormonal change may mediate the effect of water deficit that enhances whole plant senescence and speeds up grain filling. Two rice cultivars showing high lodging resistance and slow grain filling were field grown and applied with either normal or high amount nitrogen (HN) at heading. Well-watered and water-stressed (WS) treatments were imposed 9 days post anthesis to maturity. Results showed that WS increased partitioning of fixed (14)CO(2) into grains, accelerated the grain filling rate but shortened the grain filling period, whereas the HN did the opposite way. Cytokinin (zeatin + zeatin riboside) and indole-3-acetic acid contents in the grains transiently increased at early filling stage and WS treatments hastened their declines at the late grain filling stage. Gibberellins (GAs; GA(1) + GA(4)) in the grains were also high at early grain filling but HN enhanced, whereas WS substantially reduced, its accumulation. Opposite to GAs, abscisic acid (ABA) in the grains was low at early grain filling but WS remarkably enhanced its accumulation. The peak values of ABA were significantly correlated with the maximum grain filling rates (r = 0.92**, P water stress during grain filling, especially a decrease in GAs and an increase in ABA, enhances the remobilization of prestored carbon to the grains and accelerates the grain filling rate.

  2. Microhardness of bulk-fill composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kelić, Katarina; Matić, Sanja; Marović, Danijela; Klarić, Eva; Tarle, Zrinka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine microhardness of high- and low-viscosity bulk-fill composite resins and compare it with conventional composite materials. Four materials of high-viscosity were tested, including three bulk-fills: QuiXfi l (QF), x-tra fil (XTF) and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEBCF), while nanohybrid composite GrandioSO (GSO) served as control. The other four were low-viscosity composites, three bulk-fill materials: Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR), Venus Bulk Fill (VBF) and ...

  3. GRAVITY PIPELINE TRANSPORT FOR HARDENING FILLING MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid KROUPNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In underground mining of solid minerals becoming increasingly common development system with stowing hardening mixtures. In this case the natural ore array after it is replaced by an artificial excavation of solidified filling mixture consisting of binder, aggregates and water. Such a mixture is prepared on the surface on special stowing complexes and transported underground at special stowing pipelines. However, it is transported to the horizons of a few kilometers, which requires a sustainable mode of motion of such a mixture in the pipeline. Hardening stowing mixture changes its rheological characteristics over time, which complicates the calculation of the parameters of pipeline transportation. The article suggests a method of determining the initial parameters of such mixtures: the status coefficient, indicator of transportability, coefficient of hydrodynamic resistance to motion of the mixture. These indicators characterize the mixture in terms of the possibility to transport it through pipes. On the basis of these indicators is proposed methodology for calculating the parameters of pipeline transport hardening filling mixtures in drift mode when traffic on the horizontal part of the mixture under pressure column of the mixture in the vertical part of the backfill of the pipeline. This technique allows stable operation is guaranteed to provide pipeline transportation.

  4. Left ventricular filling under elevated left atrial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Manikantam; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Left atrial pressure (LAP) is elevated in diastolic dysfunction, where left ventricular (LV) filling is impaired due to increase in ventricular stiffness. The impact of increasing LAP and LV stiffness on intraventricular filling hemodynamics remains unclear. We conducted particle image velocimetry and hemodynamics measurements in a left heart simulator (LHS) under increasing LAP and LV stiffness at a heart rate of 70 bpm. The LHS consisted of a flexible-walled LV physical model fitted within a fluid-filled chamber. LV wall motion was generated by a piston pump that imparted pressure fluctuations in the chamber. Resistance and compliance elements in the flow loop were adjusted to obtain bulk physiological hemodynamics in the least stiff LV model. Two LV models of increasing stiffness were subsequently tested under unchanged loop settings. LAP was varied between 5-20 mm Hg for each LV model, by adjusting fluid level in a reservoir upstream of the LV. For constant LV stiffness, increasing LAP lowered cardiac output (CO), while ejection fraction (EF) and E/A ratio were increased. For constant LAP, increasing LV stiffness lowered CO and EF, and increased E/A ratio. The implications of these altered hemodynamics on intraventricular filling vortex characteristics will be presented.

  5. Operation feedback of hydrogen filling station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregassame, S.; Barral, K.; Allidieres, L.; Charbonneau, T.; Lacombe, Y.

    2004-01-01

    One of the technical challenges of hydrogen technology is the development of hydrogen infrastructures which satisfy either safety requirements and reliability of filling processes. AIR LIQUIDE realized an hydrogen filling station in Sassenage (France) operational since September 2003. This station is able to fill 3 buses a day up to 350bar by equilibrium with high pressure buffers. In parallel with commercial stations, the group wanted to create a testing ground in real conditions running with several objectives: validate on a full scale bench a simulation tool able to predict the temperature of both gas and cylinder's materials during filling processes; define the best filling procedures in order to reach mass, temperature and filling time targets; analyse the temperature distribution and evolution inside the cylinder; get a general knowledge about hydrogen stations from safety and reliability point of view; operate the first full scale refuelling station in France. The station is also up-graded for 700bar filling from either a liquid hydrogen source or a gas booster, with cold filling possibility. This paper presents the results concerning 350bar filling : thermal effects, optimal filling procedures and influence of parameters such as climatic conditions are discussed. (author)

  6. Bulk-fill resin-based composites: an in vitro assessment of their mechanical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, N; Bucuta, S; Draenert, M

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the mechanical performance of seven bulk-fill RBCs (Venus Bulk Fill, Heraeus Kulzer; SureFil SDR flow, Dentsply Caulk; x-tra base and x-tra fil, VOCO; Filtek Bulk Fill, 3M ESPE; SonicFill, Kerr; Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, Ivoclar Vivadent) by determining their flexural strength (σ), reliability (Weibull parameter, m), flexural modulus (Eflexural), indentation modulus (YHU), Vickers hardness (HV), and creep (Cr). The significant highest flexural strengths were measured for SonicFill, x-tra base, and x-tra fil, while x-tra base, SureFil SDR flow, and Venus Bulk Fill showed the best reliability. The differences among the materials became more evident in terms of Eflexural and YHU, with x-tra fil achieving the highest values, while Filtek Bulk Fill and Venus Bulk Fill achieved the lowest. The enlarged depth of cure in bulk-fill RBCs seems to have been realized by enhancing the materials' translucency through decreasing the filler amount and increasing the filler size. The manufacturer's recommendation to finish a bulk-fill RBC restoration by adding a capping layer made of regular RBCs is an imperative necessity, since the modulus of elasticity and hardness of certain materials (SureFil SDR flow, Venus Bulk Fill, and Filtek Bulk Fill) were considerably below the mean values measured in regular nanohybrid and microhybrid RBCs. The class of bulk-fill RBCs revealed similar flexural strength values as the class of nanohybrid and microhybrid RBCs, and significantly higher values when compared to flowable RBCs. The modulus of elasticity (Eflexural), the indentation modulus (YHU), and the Vickers hardness (HV) classify the bulk-fill RBCs as between the hybrid RBCs and the flowable RBCs; in terms of creep, bulk-fill and the flowable RBCs perform similarly, both showing a significantly lower creep resistance when compared to the nanohybrid and microhybrid RBCs.

  7. Bulk-fill resin composites: polymerization contraction, depth of cure, and gap formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, A R; Havndrup-Pedersen, C; Honoré, D; Pedersen, M K; Pallesen, U

    2015-01-01

    The bulk-filling of deep, wide dental cavities is faster and easier than traditional incremental restoration. However, the extent of cure at the bottom of the restoration should be carefully examined in combination with the polymerization contraction and gap formation that occur during the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk-fill materials produced a significantly larger depth of cure and polymerization contraction. Although most of the bulk-fill materials exhibited a gap formation similar to that of the conventional resin composite, two of the low-viscosity bulk-fill resin composites, x-tra base and Venus Bulk Fill, produced larger gaps.

  8. Optimal decentralized valley-filling charging strategy for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kangkang; Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao; Wang, Hewu; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Li, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An implementable charging strategy is developed for electric vehicles connected to a grid. • A two-dimensional pricing scheme is proposed to coordinate charging behaviors. • The strategy effectively works in decentralized way but achieves the systematic valley filling. • The strategy allows device-level charging autonomy, and does not require a bidirectional communication/control network. • The strategy can self-correct when confronted with adverse factors. - Abstract: Uncoordinated charging load of electric vehicles (EVs) increases the peak load of the power grid, thereby increasing the cost of electricity generation. The valley-filling charging scenario offers a cheaper alternative. This study proposes a novel decentralized valley-filling charging strategy, in which a day-ahead pricing scheme is designed by solving a minimum-cost optimization problem. The pricing scheme can be broadcasted to EV owners, and the individual charging behaviors can be indirectly coordinated. EV owners respond to the pricing scheme by autonomously optimizing their individual charge patterns. This device-level response induces a valley-filling effect in the grid at the system level. The proposed strategy offers three advantages: coordination (by the valley-filling effect), practicality (no requirement for a bidirectional communication/control network between the grid and EV owners), and autonomy (user control of EV charge patterns). The proposed strategy is validated in simulations of typical scenarios in Beijing, China. According to the results, the strategy (1) effectively achieves the valley-filling charging effect at 28% less generation cost than the uncoordinated charging strategy, (2) is robust to several potential affecters of the valley-filling effect, such as (system-level) inaccurate parameter estimation and (device-level) response capability and willingness (which cause less than 2% deviation in the minimal generation cost), and (3) is compatible with

  9. Iron filled carbon nanostructures from different precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, S.; Borowiak-Palen, E.; Bachmatiuk, A.; Ruemmeli, M.H.; Gemming, T.; Kalenczuk, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we present a study on the synthesis of different nanostructures with one single-step in situ filling (encapsulation) via carbon vapor deposition (CVD). Ferrocene, acetylferrocene and iron (II) nitrate as iron precursors were explored. The application of each of these compounds resulted in different carbon nanomaterials such as: iron filled multiwalled carbon nanotubes with a low filling ratio (Fe-MWCNT), iron filled nanocapsules and unfilled MWCNT. The as-produced samples were purified by high temperature annealing and acid treatment. The purified materials were characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy

  10. Characterization of Low Density Glass Filled Epoxies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quesenberry, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the experimental determination and modeling of several thermophysical and mechanical properties of glass filled epoxy composite systems for potential use as electronic potting compounds...

  11. Effect of via depth on the TSV filling process for different current densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zhao, Zhipeng; Nie, Nantian; Wang, Fuliang; Zhu, Wenhui

    2018-04-01

    Through-silicon-via (TSV) filling with optimum electrodeposition parameters is still a challenge in the industry, especially for via with different depths. Herein, the effects of via depth on optimum current density and filling patterns were investigated. It was found that the deeper the via, the lower the optimum current density. At low current density (4 mA cm-2), the via depth only affects the size of the defect, but does not change the filling pattern. However, at medium current density (7 mA cm-2), the filling pattern changes from super-conformal filling to sub-conformal filling with the increase of via depth, the pinch-off position remaining constant at a depth of about 70 µm from the top surface. Simulations of the TSV filling process using COMSOL modeling software revealed that the local concentration of additives, which is affected by the via depth, determine the morphology of the electrodeposition, matching well the experimental results.

  12. 7 CFR 58.730 - Filling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling containers. 58.730 Section 58.730 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.730 Filling containers. Hot fluid cheese from the cookers may be held in hotwells or hoppers... shall effectively measure the desired amount of product into the pouch or container in a sanitary manner...

  13. Selective filling of Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Noordegraaf, Danny; Sørensen, Thorkild

    2005-01-01

    A model for calculating the time necessary for filling one or more specific holes in a photonic crystal fibre is made. This model is verified for water, and its enabling potential is illustrated by a polymer application. Selective filling of the core in an air-guide photonic crystal fibre...

  14. Investigating the effect of aeration powder filling on the actual compacting press; Eareto jutenho no jikki press deno hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, M. [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Nagoya (Japan); Urata, I. [Toyota Motor Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1998-05-15

    The authors proposed an aeration filling method as a new filling method in order to obtain uniform and high speed filling by carrying out basic experiments on powder material filling using a visual apparatus. In this study, the aeration powder filling was applied to the product compacting on the actual compacting press, and its evaluation was carried out. As a result, the following effects were confirmed. The weight scattering was reduced to about 70% in the high speed filling and about 50% in the low speed filling. The maximum density was reduced to about 30% in the high speed filling and about 25% in the low speed filling. The maximum thickness difference was reduced to 65% in the high speed filling and about 20% in the low speed filling. The aeration powder effect was stronger in the high speed filling than that in the low speed filling. The weight and size accuracy of the components were increased by the aeration powder filling. The pause and the shaking operation were discarded in the front part of the powder box, thus the filling time could be remarkable shortened. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Use of differentials and fill-ups at Reconcavo basin, Brazil; Utilizacao de diferenciais e fill-ups na bacia do Reconcavo Baiano, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Jose Antonio Diniz; Ribeiro, Eluzai Evangelista [PETROBRAS, BA (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao da Bahia. Div. de Tecnicas e Operacoes

    1994-07-01

    To publish results of the insertable valves and differential-type casing accessories with an insert fill-up wells drilled at the Bahia Drilling. This has provided an increase in casing running speed, resulting in a cost reduction of the operations due to non-interruption of running operation for fill-up with drilling fluid. (author)

  16. Raman spectra of filled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, S.M.; Behera, S.N.; Sarangi, S.N.; Entel, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Raman spectra of a metallic carbon nanotube filled with atoms or molecules have been investigated theoretically. It is found that there will be a three way splitting of the main Raman lines due to the interaction of the nanotube phonon with the collective excitations (plasmons) of the conduction electrons of the nanotube as well as its coupling with the phonon of the filling material. The positions and relative strengths of these Raman peaks depend on the strength of the electron-phonon interaction, phonon frequency of the filling atom and the strength of interaction of the nanotube phonon and the phonon of the filling atoms. Careful experimental studies of the Raman spectra of filled nanotubes should show these three peaks. It is also shown that in a semiconducting nanotube the Raman line will split into two and should be observed experimentally

  17. Thermal Degradation of Lead Monoxide Filled Polymer Composite Radiation Shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harish, V.; Nagaiah, N.

    2011-01-01

    Lead monoxide filled Isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the thermo gravimetric analysis of the composites done to understand their thermal properties especially the effect of filler concentration on the thermal stability and degradation rate of composites. Pristine polymer exhibits single stage degradation whereas filled composites exhibit two stage degradation processes. Further, the IDT values as well as degradation rates decrease with the increased filler content in the composite.

  18. Color of bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutcigil, Çağatay; Barutcigil, Kubilay; Özarslan, Mehmet Mustafa; Dündar, Ayşe; Yilmaz, Burak

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the color stability of novel bulk-fill composite resins. Color measurements of a nanohybrid composite resin (Z550) and 3 bulk-fill composite resins (BLK, AFX, XTF; n = 45) were performed before polymerization. After polymerization, color measurements were repeated and specimens were immersed in distilled water or red wine, or coffee. Color change [CIEDE2000 (ΔE 00 )] was calculated after 24 h, 1 and 3 weeks. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). Color changes observed after polymerization were significant for all groups. Color changes observed in distilled water for Z550 and AFX were significant. Color changes after stored in red wine and coffee were significant for all groups. Bulk-fill composite resin color change increased over time for all groups in red wine and coffee (P composite resin and bulk-fill composite resins. AFX had the highest color change in distilled water. The color of tested bulk-fill composite resins significantly changed after immersion in beverages and over time. Color change observed with the nanohybrid composite resin after 1 week was stable. Clinicians should keep in mind that tested composite resins may change color when exposed to water and significantly change color immediately after they are polymerized. In addition, the color change continues over time should the patient is a coffee and/or red wine consumer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Elution of monomer from different bulk fill dental composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Cebe, Fatma; Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Cetin, Ali Rıza; Arpag, Osman Fatih; Ozturk, Bora

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the elution of Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA, and Bis-EMA monomers from six bulk fill composite resins over four different time periods, using HPLC. Six different composite resin materials were used in the present study: Tetric Evo Ceram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY), X-tra Fill (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany), Sonic Fill (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA), Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE Dental Product, St. Paul, MN), SDR (Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany), EQUIA (GC America INC, Alsip, IL). The samples (4mm thickness, 5mm diameter) were prepared and polymerized for 20s with a light emitted diode unit. After fabrication, each sample was immediately immersed in 75wt% ethanol/water solution used as extraction fluid and stored in the amber colored bottles at room temperature. Ethanol/water samples were taken (0.5mL) at predefined time intervals:10m (T1), 1h (T2), 24h (T3) and 30 days (T4). These samples were analyzed by HPLC. The obtained data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD at significance level of pcomposites (pcomposite resins in all time periods and the amount of eluted monomers was increased with time. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Parameter analysis on the ultrasonic TSV-filling process and electrochemical characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuliang; Ren, Xinyu; Wang, Yan; Zeng, Peng; Zhou, Zhaohua; Xiao, Hongbin; Zhu, Wenhui

    2017-10-01

    As one of the key technologies in 3D packaging, through silicon via (TSV) interconnection technology has become a focus recently. In this paper, an electrodeposition method for TSV filling with the assistance of ultrasound and additives are introduced. Two important parameters i.e. current density and ultrasonic power are studied for TSV filling process and electrochemical properties. It is found that ultrasound can improve the quality of TSV-filling and change the TSV-filling mode. The experimental results also indicate that the filling rate enhances more significantly with decreasing current density under ultrasonic conditions than under silent conditions. In addition, according to the voltammetry curve, the increase of ultrasonic power can significantly increase the current density of cupric reduction, and decrease the thickness of diffusion layer. So that the reduction speed of copper ions is accelerated, resulting in a higher TSV-filling rate.

  1. Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    -filled stacked area graphs; i.e., graphs that feature stacked areas that are filled with small-typed text. Since these graphs allow for computing the text layout automatically, it is possible to include large amounts of textual detail with very little effort. We discuss the most important challenges and some...... solutions for the design of text-filled stacked area graphs with the help of an exemplary visualization of the genres, publication years, and titles of a database of several thousand PC games....

  2. To Fill or Not to Fill: Sensitivity Analysis of the Influence of Resolution and Hole Filling on Point Cloud Surface Modeling and Individual Rockfall Event Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Olsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring unstable slopes with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS has been proven effective. However, end users still struggle immensely with the efficient processing, analysis, and interpretation of the massive and complex TLS datasets. Two recent advances described in this paper now improve the ability to work with TLS data acquired on steep slopes. The first is the improved processing of TLS data to model complex topography and fill holes. This processing step results in a continuous topographic surface model that seamlessly characterizes the rock and soil surface. The second is an advance in the automated interpretation of the surface model in such a way that a magnitude and frequency relationship of rockfall events can be quantified, which can be used to assess maintenance strategies and forecast costs. The approach is applied to unstable highway slopes in the state of Alaska, U.S.A. to evaluate its effectiveness. Further, the influence of the selected model resolution and degree of hole filling on the derived slope metrics were analyzed. In general, model resolution plays a pivotal role in the ability to detect smaller rockfall events when developing magnitude-frequency relationships. The total volume estimates are also influenced by model resolution, but were comparatively less sensitive. In contrast, hole filling had a noticeable effect on magnitude-frequency relationships but to a lesser extent than modeling resolution. However, hole filling yielded a modest increase in overall volumetric quantity estimates. Optimal analysis results occur when appropriately balancing high modeling resolution with an appropriate level of hole filling.

  3. Droplet Measurement below Single-Layer Grid Fill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitkovic Pavol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main part of the heat transfer in a cooling tower is in a fill zone. This one is consist of a cooling fill. For the cooling tower is used a film fill or grid fill or splash fill in the generally. The grid fill has lower heat transfer performance like film fill usually. But their advantage is high resistance to blockage of the fill. The grid fill is consisted with independent layers made from plastic usually. The layers consist of several bars connected to the different shapes. For experiment was used the rhombus shape. The drops diameter was measured above and below the Grid fill.

  4. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joppa, L. N.; O'Connor, Brian; Visconti, Piero

    2016-01-01

    increase to 10,000 times the background rate should species threatened with extinction succumb to pressures they face (4). Reversing these trends is a focus of the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its 20 Aichi Targets and is explicitly incorporated...... into the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We identify major gaps in data available for assessing global biodiversity threats and suggest mechanisms for closing them....

  5. Biopharmaceutical formulations for pre-filled delivery devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezek, Jan; Darton, Nicholas J; Derham, Barry K; Royle, Nikki; Simpson, Iain

    2013-06-01

    Pre-filled syringes are becoming an increasingly popular format for delivering biotherapeutics conveniently and cost effectively. The device design and stable liquid formulations required to enable this pre-filled syringe format are technically challenging. In choosing the materials and process conditions to fabricate the syringe unit, their compatibility with the biotherapeutic needs to be carefully assessed. The biothereaputic stability demanded for the production of syringe-compatible low-viscosity liquid solutions requires critical excipient choices to be made. The purpose of this review is to discuss key issues related to the stability aspects of biotherapeutics in pre-filled devices. This includes effects on both physical and chemical stability due to a number of stress conditions the product is subjected to, as well as interactions with the packaging system. Particular attention is paid to the control of stability by formulation. We anticipate that there will be a significant move towards polymer primary packaging for most drugs in the longer term. The timescales for this will depend on a number of factors and hence will be hard to predict. Formulation will play a critical role in developing successful products in the pre-filled syringe format, particularly with the trend towards concentrated biotherapeutics. Development of novel, smart formulation technologies will, therefore, be increasingly important.

  6. PERVAPORATION USING ADSORBENT-FILLED MEMBRANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membranes containing selective fillers, such as zeolites and activated carbon, can improve the separation by pervaporation. Applications of adsorbent-filled membranes in pervaporation have been demonstrated by a number of studies. These applications include removal of organic co...

  7. Dural sinus filling defect: intrasigmoid encephalocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatag, Ozan; Cosar, Murat; Kizildag, Betul; Sen, Halil Murat

    2013-01-01

    Filling defects of dural venous sinuses are considered to be a challenging problem especially in case of symptomatic patients. Many lesions have to be ruled out such as sinus thrombosis, arachnoid granulations and tumours. Encephalocele into dural sinus is also a rare cause of these filling defects of dural sinuses. Here, we report an extremely rare case with spontaneous occult invagination of temporal brain tissue into the left sigmoid sinus and accompanying cerebellar ectopia. PMID:24311424

  8. Relationships between the climate change and the grain filling of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Z.; Jiang, D.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is based on the material in a grain filling rate experiment of winter wheat and hourly weather data organised by Xinghua city of Jiangsu Province. The aims are to objectively evaluate the possible influences of the temperature, precipitation, sunshine at the different time of the same day on the grain filling rate of winter wheat. The grain filling rate evaluation model of climate change is firstly developed, and then, the model calculation results are compared with the observed data. The along the changes of the microclimate, changes of the grain filling rate of winter wheat, which is not same in the gradual, rapid and slow increase stages. The changes in grain filling rate of winter wheat, which were caused by variations of temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration, showed periodic fluctuation. Variation in temperature resulted in 1.36 g d/sup -1/(10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change; variation in precipitation resulted in -1.35 g d/sup -1/. (10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change; and variation in sunshine duration resulted in 0.07 g d/sup -1/ (10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change. Three samples showed a grain filling rate change of 0.08 g d/sup -1/(10a)/sup -1/. These findings indicate that the increase in temperature and sunshine duration caused the elevation of grain filling rate, whereas the increase in precipitation decreased the grain filling rate. Therefore, monitoring and predication capability of Meteorological disasters, such as drought caused by high temperature, should be strengthened to ensure the favourable weather condition and improve the grain filling rate through scientific methods such as artificial precipitation. (author)

  9. The relationship between polyamines and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available The grain weight of wheat is strongly influenced by filling. Polyamines (PA are involved in regulating plant growth. However, the effects of PA on wheat grain filling and its mechanism of action are unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between PAs and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling. Three PAs, spermidine (Spd, spermine (Spm, and putrescine (Put, were exogenously applied, and the grain filling characteristics and changes in endogenous PA and hormones, i.e., indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, zeatin (Z + zeatin riboside (ZR, abscisic acid (ABA, ethylene (ETH and gibberellin 1+4 (GAs, were quantified during wheat grain filling. Exogenous applications of Spd and Spm significantly increased the grain filling rate and weight, but exogenous Put had no significant effects on these measures. Exogenous Spd and Spm significantly increased the endogenous Spd, Spm, Z+ZR, ABA, and IAA contents and significantly decreased ETH evolution in grains. The endogenous Spd, Spm and Z+ZR contents were positively and significantly correlated with the grain filling rate and weight of wheat, and the endogenous ETH evolution was negatively and significantly correlated with the wheat grain filling rate and weight. Based upon these results, we concluded that PAs were involved in the balance of hormones that regulated the grain filling of wheat.

  10. The Relationship between Polyamines and Hormones in the Regulation of Wheat Grain Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Gu, Dandan; Wu, Wei; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liao, Yuncheng

    2013-01-01

    The grain weight of wheat is strongly influenced by filling. Polyamines (PA) are involved in regulating plant growth. However, the effects of PA on wheat grain filling and its mechanism of action are unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between PAs and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling. Three PAs, spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm), and putrescine (Put), were exogenously applied, and the grain filling characteristics and changes in endogenous PA and hormones, i.e., indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z) + zeatin riboside (ZR), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ETH) and gibberellin 1+4 (GAs), were quantified during wheat grain filling. Exogenous applications of Spd and Spm significantly increased the grain filling rate and weight, but exogenous Put had no significant effects on these measures. Exogenous Spd and Spm significantly increased the endogenous Spd, Spm, Z+ZR, ABA, and IAA contents and significantly decreased ETH evolution in grains. The endogenous Spd, Spm and Z+ZR contents were positively and significantly correlated with the grain filling rate and weight of wheat, and the endogenous ETH evolution was negatively and significantly correlated with the wheat grain filling rate and weight. Based upon these results, we concluded that PAs were involved in the balance of hormones that regulated the grain filling of wheat. PMID:24205154

  11. Assessment of periapical health, quality of root canal filling, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty three teeth were found to have short root canal fillings, whereas 74 teeth had adequate root canal fillings, and the remaining 10 teeth had over extended root canal filling. A significant correlation was observed between the length of root filling and apical periodontitis (P = 0,023). Inadequately dense root canal filling was ...

  12. The intraventricular filling vortex under heightened aortic blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Nicholas; Gaddam, Manikantam; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Hypertension, or high aortic blood pressure, can induce structural changes in the left ventricle (LV) such as concentric hypertrophy. Previous studies have identified that the intraventricular filling vortex serves as an effective means of blood transport during diastolic filling. However, a fundamental understanding of how hypertension affects this vortex is unavailable. This knowledge can be useful for improving diagnosis and treatment of related heart disease conditions, including hypertensive heart failure. In this experimental study, we hypothesized that the circulation of the filling vortex would diminish with increased aortic pressure. Using a LV physical model within a left heart simulator, we performed hemodynamic measurements to acquire pressure and volumetric inflow profiles and 2D particle image velocimetry to visualize the intraventricular flow fields. Peak aortic pressures of 120 mm Hg, 140 mm Hg, and 160 mm Hg were each tested at heart rates of 70, 100, and 110 beats per minute, under: 1) reduced ejection fraction (EF), and 2) constant EF. Our results indicate that peak vortex circulation is reduced under elevated aortic pressures. Hemodynamics and characteristics of the intraventricular filling vortex in all examined experimental cases will be presented.

  13. Topological materials discovery using electron filling constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru; Po, Hoi Chun; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2018-01-01

    Nodal semimetals are classes of topological materials that have nodal-point or nodal-line Fermi surfaces, which give them novel transport and topological properties. Despite being highly sought after, there are currently very few experimental realizations, and identifying new materials candidates has mainly relied on exhaustive database searches. Here we show how recent studies on the interplay between electron filling and nonsymmorphic space-group symmetries can guide the search for filling-enforced nodal semimetals. We recast the previously derived constraints on the allowed band-insulator fillings in any space group into a new form, which enables effective screening of materials candidates based solely on their space group, electron count in the formula unit, and multiplicity of the formula unit. This criterion greatly reduces the computation load for discovering topological materials in a database of previously synthesized compounds. As a demonstration, we focus on a few selected nonsymmorphic space groups which are predicted to host filling-enforced Dirac semimetals. Of the more than 30,000 entires listed, our filling criterion alone eliminates 96% of the entries before they are passed on for further analysis. We discover a handful of candidates from this guided search; among them, the monoclinic crystal Ca2Pt2Ga is particularly promising.

  14. NSLS-II filling pattern measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Hu; Dalesio, L.B.; Kiman Ha; Pinayev, I.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-bunch injection will be deployed at NSLS-II. High bandwidth diagnostic beam monitors with high speed digitizers are used to measure bunch-by-bunch charge variation. In order to minimize intensity-correlated orbit oscillations due to uneven bunch patterns, we need to measure the filling pattern (also named bunch pattern or bunch structure). This paper focuses on filling pattern measurements: how to measure bunch structure and make this information available in EPICS-based control system. This measurement requires combination of 3 types of beam monitors (Wall Current Monitor, Fast Current Transformer and Beam Position Monitor), data acquisition and controls (fast digitizer, EPICS software, etc.) and Event Timing system. High-bandwidth filling pattern monitor requires high-speed digitizer to sample its analog output signal. The evaluation results of commercial fast digitizer Agilent Acqiris and high bandwidth detector Bergoz FCT are presented. We have also tested the algorithm software for filling pattern measurement as well as the interface to event timing system. It appears that filling pattern measurement system is well understood and the tests for control hardware and software have given good results

  15. Improving the support characteristics of hydraulic fill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corson, D. R.; Dorman, K. R.; Sprute, R. H.

    1980-05-15

    Extensive laboratory and field testing has defined the physical properties of hydraulic fill. Effect of void ratio on percolation rate has been quantified, and tests were developed to estimate waterflow through fill material in a given state underground. Beneficial effect on fill's support capability through addition of cement alone or in conjunction with vibratory compaction has been investigated. Two separate field studies in operating cut-and-fill mines measured vein-wall deformation and loads imposed on backfilled stopes. Technology has been developed that will effectively and efficiently dewater and densify ultra-fine-grained slurries typical of metal mine hydraulic backfill. At least two operators are using this electrokinetic technique to dewater slimes collected in underground sumps or impoundments. This technique opens up the possibility of using the total unclassified tailings product as a hydraulic backfill. Theoretical enhancement of ground support and rock-burst control through improved support capability will be tested in a full-scale mine stope installation. Both a horizontal layer and a vertical column of high modulus fill will be placed in an attempt to reduce stope wall closure, support more ground pressure, and lessen rock-burst occurrence.

  16. Study on characteristics of coupled cavity chain filled with plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianqing; Xiao Shu; Mo Yuanlong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, by using rigorous field analysis, a coupled-cavity (CC) chain filled with plasma has been analyzed. How the hybrid wave between the cavity mode and plasma mode is formed has been studied. The periodical CC chain filled with plasma demonstrates periodical TG modes with a cutoff frequency of zero. When the plasma density increase to a large scale, the cavity mode of the CC chain overlaps the TG mode, these two modes couple with each other and form the hybrid modes. In the case of hybrid modes, the 'cold' bandwidth and the 'warm' bandwidth expand, and the coupled impedance increases about 5 times larger than that of the vacuum. As a whole, the slow wave characteristics are improved substantially due to the formation of the hybrid mode

  17. Electroactive thermoset shape memory polymer nanocomposite filled with nanocarbon powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, Jinsong; Lan, Xin; Liu, Yanju; Du, Shanyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns an electroactive thermoset styrene-based shape memory polymer (SMP) nanocomposite filled with nanosized (30 nm) carbon powders. With an increase of the incorporated nanocarbon powders of the SMP composite, its glass transition temperature (T g ) decreases and storage modulus increases. Due to the high micro-porosity and homogeneous distributions of nanocarbon powders in the SMP matrix, the SMP composite shows good electrical conductivity with a percolation of about 3.8%. This percolation threshold is slightly lower than that of many other carbon-based conductive polymer composites. Consequently, due to the relatively high electrical conductivity, a sample filled with 10 vol% nanocarbon powders shows a good electroactive shape recovery performance heating by a voltage of 30 V above a transition temperature of 56–69 °C

  18. Fissure fillings from Finnsjoen and Studsvik Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E.-L.; Larsson, S.Aa.

    1982-12-01

    Samples were taken from cores and collected at different levels. The bedrock at Finnsjoen is a Svecokarelian granite-granodiorite, the most frequent mineral in the fissures being calcite. The water from boreholes have a mean S 18 O value of -12 per thousand and saturated by calcite. Isotopically three different groups of calcite have been distinguished. Ages of 29+-13x10 3 years to 79+-25x10 3 years were estimated. Two generations of quartz were recognized the minerals prehnite and lanmontite were found Most fissure filling materials have cation exchange capacities. The bedrock at Studsvik is a Svecokarelian gneiss of sedimentary type which is migmatized with calcite and chlorite as fissure filling minerals. Most fissure fillings are thin and simple Claby minerals of smectite type are also frequent. (G.B.)

  19. One-dimensional Gromov minimal filling problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Alexandr O; Tuzhilin, Alexey A

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a new branch in the theory of one-dimensional variational problems with branching extremals, the investigation of one-dimensional minimal fillings introduced by the authors. On the one hand, this problem is a one-dimensional version of a generalization of Gromov's minimal fillings problem to the case of stratified manifolds. On the other hand, this problem is interesting in itself and also can be considered as a generalization of another classical problem, the Steiner problem on the construction of a shortest network connecting a given set of terminals. Besides the statement of the problem, we discuss several properties of the minimal fillings and state several conjectures. Bibliography: 38 titles.

  20. Neural correlates of the processing of unfilled and filled pauses

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Robert; Fransson, Peter; Ingvar, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneously produced Unfilled Pauses (UPs) andFilled Pauses (FPs) were played to subjects in an fMRI experiment. While both stimuli resulted in increased activity in the Primary Auditory Cortex, FPs, unlike UPs, also elicited modulation in the Supplementary Motor Area, Brodmann Area 6. This observation provides neurocognitive confirmation of the oft-reported difference between FPs and other kinds of speech disfluency and also could provide a partial explanation for the previously reported b...

  1. Concrete Cracking Prediction Including the Filling Proportion of Strand Corrosion Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Dai, Lizhao; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhang, Jianren

    2016-01-01

    The filling of strand corrosion products during concrete crack propagation is investigated experimentally in the present paper. The effects of stirrups on the filling of corrosion products and concrete cracking are clarified. A prediction model of crack width is developed incorporating the filling proportion of corrosion products and the twisting shape of the strand. Experimental data on cracking angle, crack width, and corrosion loss obtained from accelerated corrosion tests of concrete beams are presented. The proposed model is verified by experimental data. Results show that the filling extent of corrosion products varies with crack propagation. The rust filling extent increases with the propagating crack until a critical width. Beyond the critical width, the rust-filling extent remains stable. Using stirrups can decrease the critical crack width. Stirrups can restrict crack propagation and reduce the rust filling. The tangent of the cracking angle increases with increasing corrosion loss. The prediction of corrosion-induced crack is sensitive to the rust-filling extent. PMID:28772367

  2. Inverse Relation between Condition of Heart Failure and Intrathoracic Impedance Measured by Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator—A case report—

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Matsushita, MD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient was a 78-year-old man with dilated cardiomyopathy. His cardio-thoracic ratio was 60.4% and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was 33%. He had been repeatedly admitted for congestive heart failure. He underwent implantation of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD for ventricular fibrillation. We compared the values of BNP and shock impedance stored by the ICD. The correlation coefficient (p-value between BNP and shock impedance was −0.700 (p < 0.0005, increase of BNP and shock impedance was −0.778 (p < 0.0001, percent increase of BNP and shock impedance was −0.767 (p < 0.0005. In conclusion, there is an inverse relation between BNP and shock impedance, and measurements of shock impedance may be useful in the management of congestive heart failure.

  3. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using...... Class II, 4 SDR-CeramX mono+ and 6 CeramXmono+-only restorations. The main reasons for failurewere tooth fracture (6) and secondary caries (4). The annual failure rate (AFR) for all restorations (Class I and II) was for the bulk-filled-1.1% and for the resin composite-only restorations 1...

  4. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  5. Creep of granulated loose-fill insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    This report presents a proposal for a standardised method for creep tests and the necessary theoretical framework that can be used to describe creep of a granulated loose-fill material. Furthermore results from a round robin test are shown. The round robin test was carried out in collaboration...... with SP-Building Physics in Sweden and VTT Building Technology in Finland. For the round robin test a cellulosic fibre insulation material was used. The proposed standardised method for creep tests and theories are limited to cases when the granulated loose-fill material is exposed to a constant...

  6. Is increased positive end-expiratory pressure the culprit? Autoresuscitation in a 44-year-old man after prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Henning; Oelmann, Katrin; Stangl, Robert; Michels, Guido

    2016-12-20

    The phenomenon of autoresuscitation is rare, yet it is known to most emergency physicians. However, the pathophysiology of the delayed return of spontaneous circulation remains enigmatic. Among other causes hyperinflation of the lungs and excessively high positive end-expiratory pressure have been suggested, but reports including cardiopulmonary monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are scarce to support this hypothesis. We report a case of autoresuscitation in a 44-year-old white man after 80 minutes of advanced cardiac life support accompanied by continuous capnometry and repeated evaluation by ultrasound and echocardiography. After prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation, refractory electromechanical dissociation on electrocardiogram and ventricular akinesis were recorded. In addition, a precipitous drop in end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide was noted and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was discontinued. Five minutes after withdrawal of all supportive measures his breathing resumed and a perfusing rhythm ensued. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology of autoresuscitation is hampered by a lack of reports including extensive cardiopulmonary monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a preclinical setting. In this case, continuous capnometry was combined with repetitive ultrasound evaluation, which ruled out most assumed causes of autoresuscitation. Our observation of a rapid decline in end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide supports the hypothesis of increased intrathoracic pressure. Continuous capnometry can be performed easily during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, also in a preclinical setting. Knowledge of the pathophysiologic mechanisms may lead to facile interventions to be incorporated into cardiopulmonary resuscitation algorithms. A drop in end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, for example, might prompt disconnection of the ventilation to allow left ventricular filling. Further reports and research on this topic

  7. The structure of filled skutterudites and the local vibration behavior of the filling atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiaojuan [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science, Dongguan 523808 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zong, Peng-an [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Chen, Xihong [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Tao, Juzhou, E-mail: taoj@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science, Dongguan 523808 (China); Lin, He, E-mail: linhe@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Both of atomic pair distribution function (PDF) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments have been carried out on unfilled and Yb-filled skutterudites Yb{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (x=0, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25) samples. The structure refinements on PDF data confirm the large amplitude vibration of Yb atom and the dependence of Yb vibration amplitude on the filling content. Temperature dependent EXAFS experiment on filled skutterudites have been carried out at Yb L{sub Ⅲ}-edge in order to explore the local vibration behavior of filled atom. EXAFS experiments show that the Einstein temperature of the filled atom is very low (70.9 K) which agrees with the rattling behavior.

  8. Toughening Mechanisms in Silica-Filled Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Binay S.

    and modeled fracture energy results. Furthermore, the contribution of microcracking was most prevalent at lower filler contents which suggests that the presence of microcracking may account for the previously unexplained improvements in fracture behavior attained in silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites at low filler contents. Secondly, surface modification through the application of three different propriety surface treatments ("A", "B" and "C") was found to greatly influence the processibility and fracture behavior of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites. B-treated silica nanoparticles were found to readily form micron-scale agglomerates, settled during nanocomposite curing and showed no improvement in fracture toughness with increasing filler content. In contrast, the nanocomposites consisting of A-treated and C-treated silica nanoparticles yielded morphologies primarily containing well-dispersed nanoparticles. Therefore, fracture toughness improved with increasing filler content. Finally, particle porosity was found to have no significant effect on fracture behavior for the range of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites investigated. Lower density porous silica nanoparticles were just as effective toughening agents as higher density non-porous silica nanoparticles. Consequently, the potential exists for the use of toughened-epoxies in lightweight structural applications.

  9. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a newly started Ph.D. project with the aim of simulating the form filling ability of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) taking into account the form geometry, reinforcement configuration, casting technique, and the rheological properties of the concrete. Comparative studies...

  10. Stock keeping unit fill rate specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R. H.; Syntetos, A. A.; Babai, M. Z.

    2017-01-01

    The fill rate is the most widely applied service level measure in industry and yet there is minimal advice available on how it should be differentiated on an individual Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) basis given that there is an overall system target service level. The typical approach utilized in

  11. New Skeletal-Space-Filling Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Frank H.

    1977-01-01

    Describes plastic, skeletal molecular models that are color-coded and can illustrate both the conformation and overall shape of small molecules. They can also be converted to space-filling counterparts by the additions of color-coded polystyrene spheres. (MLH)

  12. Safety distances for hydrogen filling stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsen, A J C M; Kooi, E S

    2006-01-01

    In the context of spatial planning the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment asked the Centre for External Safety of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) to advice on safe distances pertaining to hydrogen filling stations. The RIVM made use of

  13. Banach spaces that realize minimal fillings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednov, B. B.; Borodin, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    It is proved that a real Banach space realizes minimal fillings for all its finite subsets (a shortest network spanning a fixed finite subset always exists and has the minimum possible length) if and only if it is a predual of L 1 . The spaces L 1 are characterized in terms of Steiner points (medians). Bibliography: 25 titles. (paper)

  14. INS gas-filled recoil isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, M.; Nomura, T.; Kawakami, H.

    1986-09-01

    The characteristics and performance of a small sized gas-filled recoil isotope separator recently made at INS are described. The total efficiency and the ΔBρ/Bρ values have been measured using low velocity 16 O, 40 Ar and 68 As ions and found to be 10 and 5 %, respectively. The Z-dependence of the mean charge is discussed. (author)

  15. Stability of fruit bases and chocolate fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Natali Miquelim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Syrups with high sugar content and dehydrated fruits in its composition can be added to chocolate fillings to reduce the need of artificial flavor and dyes attributing a natural appeal to the product. Fruit bases were produced with lyophilized strawberry, passion fruit, and sliced orange peel. Rheological dynamic oscillatory tests were applied to determine the products stability and tendency of shelf life. Values of G´ G´´ were found for orange flavor during the 90 days of storage. It was observed that shear stress values did not vary significantly suggesting product stability during the studied period. For all fillings, it was found a behavior similar to the fruit base indicating that it has great influence on the filling behavior and its stability. The use of a sugar matrix in fillings provided good shelf life for the fruit base, which could be kept under room temperature conditions for a period as long as one year. The good stability and storage conditions allow the use of fruit base for handmade products as well as for industrialized products.

  16. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi

  17. Effect of filling ratio on premixed methane/air explosion in an open-end pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Guo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The propagation characteristics of premixed methane/air explosion under different filling ratios (20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, and 100% were studied using an experimental system. The results indicate that the peak overpressure showed a decreasing trend at the initial stage but then showed an increasing trend until reaching its maximum value under different filling ratios. As the explosion propagated to the open end, the overpressure showed a downtrend. At this point, the flame speed initially increased along the pipe but then dropped dramatically. In addition, the explosion overpressure and flame speed increased with the increase of filling ratio. However, when the filling ratio reached 50%, the explosion overpressure and flame speed tended to be stable and the increase was not obvious. These results will be of great importance in evaluating the explosive damage to equipment and human personnel working in coal mines or other chemical industries.

  18. Safety Distances for hydrogen filling stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthijsen, A. J. C. M.; Kooi, E. S.

    2005-07-01

    In the Netherlands there is a growing interest in using natural gas as a transport fuel. The most important drivers behind this development are formed by poor inner city air quality and the decision to close several LPG filling stations. Dwellings are not allowed within the safety distances of 45 or 110 meters from the tanker filling point of these LPG stations, depending on the capacity of the station. Another driver is global warming. We are carrying out a study on station supply, compression, storage and filling for natural gas stations, and a similar, simultaneous study on hydrogen as a followup to our risk analysis for the hydrogen filling station in Amsterdam. Here, three buses drive on hydrogen as part of the European CUTE project. Driving on natural gas is an important step in the transition to cars on hydrogen. This study was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Spatial Planning, Housing and the Environment to advise on external safety aspects of future hydrogen filling stations. According to Dutch law homes may not be built within an individual risk contour of 10-6 per year of a dangerous object, such as a plant with hazardous materials or a filling station. An individual risk contour of 10-6 is represented by a line around a dangerous object that connects locations with an individual risk level of 10-6 per year. An individual 'located' within this contour line has a chance of one per million per year or more to be killed as a result of an accident caused by this object. The longest distance between the object and such a contour is called a 'safety distance'. A study on safety distances is now in progress for different kinds of hydrogen filling stations (e. g. gaseous and liquid hydrogen) and for different capacities, such as big, medium and small stations. The focus is on different kinds of hydrogen production and the hydrogen supply of the filling station. To decide on the design and supply of the hydrogen station, we examined the

  19. Electromagnetic radiations from laser interaction with gas-filled Hohlraum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Yang, Yongmei; Li, Tingshuai; Yi, Tao; Wang, Chuanke; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun

    2018-01-01

    The emission of intensive electromagnetic pulse (EMP) due to laser-target interactions at the ShenGuang-III laser facility has been evaluated by probes. EMP signals measured using the small discone antennas demonstrated two variation trends including a bilateral oscillation wave and a unilateral oscillation wave. The new trend of unilateral oscillation could be attributed to the hohlraum structure and low-Z gas in the hohlraum. The EMP waveform showed multiple peaks when the gas-filled hohlraum was shot by the high-power laser. Comparing the EMP signals with the verification of stimulated Raman scattering energy and hard x-ray energy spectrum, we found that the intensity of EMP signals decreased with the increase of the hohlraum size. The current results are expected to offer preliminary information to study physical processes on laser injecting gas-filled hohlraums in the National Ignition Facility implementation.

  20. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  1. Water sorption and solubility of bulk-fill composites polymerized with a third generation LED LCU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba MİSİLLİ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the degree of water sorption and solubility in bulk-fills after curing with a polywave light source. A total of 120 disc-shaped specimens (8 mm diameter; 4 mm depth were prepared from three regular bulk-fill materials (X-tra Fil, Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill, SonicFill, and a control material (Filtek Z250, cured in 3 different modes (standard: 1000 mW/cm2-20 s; high power: 1400 mW/cm2-12 s; xtra power: 3200 mW/cm2-6 s using a third generation light-emitting diode light curing unit. Water sorption and solubility levels of the specimens were measured according to the ISO 4049:2009 specification after storing in distilled water for 30 days. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test (p < 0.05. The Z250 sample exposed to high power presented a higher sorption compared to the X-tra Fil and SonicFill samples. In xtra power mode, the values of Z250 and SonicFill were similar to each other and higher compared to those of X-tra Fil. Only SonicFill exhibited significantly different sorption values depending on the curing mode, the highest of which was achieved when using the xtra power mode. The highest solubility values were obtained for SonicFill. No statistically significant differences were found among other groups. No significant correlation was detected between water sorption and solubility. The traditional composite group exhibited a higher water sorption values than the bulk-fills. The reduction in polymerization time significantly increased the sorption of SonicFill. SonicFill showed the highest water solubility value among the composites tested.

  2. COMSOL Multiphysics Model for HLW Canister Filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesterson, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is building a Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is being temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. Wastes containing high concentrations of Al2O3 and Na2O can contribute to nepheline (generally NaAlSiO4) crystallization, which can sharply reduce the chemical durability of high level waste (HLW) glass. Nepheline crystallization can occur during slow cooling of the glass within the stainless steel canister. The purpose of this work was to develop a model that can be used to predict temperatures of the glass in a WTP HLW canister during filling and cooling. The intent of the model is to support scoping work in the laboratory. It is not intended to provide precise predictions of temperature profiles, but rather to provide a simplified representation of glass cooling profiles within a full scale, WTP HLW canister under various glass pouring rates. These data will be used to support laboratory studies for an improved understanding of the mechanisms of nepheline crystallization. The model was created using COMSOL Multiphysics, a commercially available software. The model results were compared to available experimental data, TRR-PLT-080, and were found to yield sufficient results for the scoping nature of the study. The simulated temperatures were within 60 ºC for the centerline, 0.0762m (3 inch) from centerline, and 0.2286m (9 inch) from centerline thermocouples once the thermocouples were covered with glass. The temperature difference between the experimental and simulated values reduced to 40 ºC, 4 hours after the thermocouple was covered, and down to 20 ºC, 6 hours after the thermocouple was covered

  3. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level m...

  4. Effect of fill volume on solidification characteristics of DI (deionized) water in a spherical capsule – An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, P.; Cheralathan, M.; Velraj, R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the solidification characteristics of water, as the PCM (phase change material), due to the effect of fill volume of PCM in a spherical capsule. The experiments were conducted with the spherical capsule, filling it with water of 80, 85, 90, 92 and 95 percentage of its full volume and immersing it in a constant temperature bath maintained at various temperatures. It was observed that the increase in fill volume had a significant influence in reducing the degree of supercooling and it was eliminated with 95% fill volume. Further, the increase in fill volume had a considerable effect in advancing the commencement of solidification. Increasing the temperature potential enhanced the heat flux during the solidification of first 50% of PCM mass and its effect was more pronounced at higher fill volumes. The heat flux was increased several fold particularly at 95% fill volume making it highly suitable for applications that demand large cooling load in a short duration. Hence the proper selection of fill volume and temperature driving potential is essential to achieve overall energy efficiency while designing the CTES (cool thermal energy storage) system. - Highlights: • Supercooling was eliminated with 95% fill volume at all surrounding bath temperature. • The effect of higher fill volume is more pronounced with higher temperature potential. • 50% mass is solidified in 10% of solidification duration with 95% fill volume at −12 °C. • Several fold increase in heat flux is achieved with 95% fill volume at −12 °C. • Combination of fill volume and temperature potential is essential for good design.

  5. Afterimage watercolors: an exploration of contour-based afterimage filling-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, Simon J; van Lier, Rob

    2013-01-01

    We investigated filling-in of colored afterimages and compared them with filling-in of "real" colors in the watercolor illusion. We used shapes comprising two thin adjacent undulating outlines of which the inner or the outer outline was chromatic, while the other was achromatic. The outlines could be presented simultaneously, inducing the original watercolor effect, or in an alternating fashion, inducing colored afterimages of the chromatic outlines. In Experiment 1, using only alternating outlines, these afterimages triggered filling-in, revealing an "afterimage watercolor" effect. Depending on whether the inner or the outer outline was chromatic, filling-in of a complementary or a similarly colored afterimage was perceived. In Experiment 2, simultaneous and alternating presentations were compared. Additionally, gray and black achromatic contours were tested, having an increased luminance contrast with the background for the black contours. Compared to "real" color filling-in, afterimage filling-in was more easily affected by different luminance settings. More in particular, afterimage filling-in was diminished when high-contrast contours were used. In the discussion we use additional demonstrations in which we further explore the "watercolor afterimage." All in all, comparisons between both types of illusions show similarities and differences with regard to color filling-in. Caution, however, is warranted in attributing these effects to different underlying processing differences.

  6. Impact of detector-element active-area shape and fill factor on super-resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Craig Hardie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In many undersampled imaging systems, spatial integration from the individual detector elements is the dominant component of the system point spread function (PSF. Conventional focal plane arrays (FPAs utilize square detector elements with a nearly 100% fill factor, where fill factor is defined as the fraction of the detector element area that is active in light detection. A large fill factor is generally considered to be desirable because more photons are collected for a given pitch, and this leads to a higher signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR. However, the large active area works against super-resolution (SR image restoration by acting as an additional low pass filter in the overall PSF when modeled on the SR sampling grid. A high fill factor also tends to increase blurring from pixel cross-talk. In this paper, we study the impact of FPA detector-element shape and fill factor on SR. A detailed modulation transfer function analysis is provided along with a number of experimental results with both simulated data and real data acquired with a midwave infrared (MWIR imaging system. We demonstrate the potential advantage of low fill factor detector elements when combined with SR image restoration. Our results suggest that low fill factor circular detector elements may be the best choice. New video results are presented using robust adaptive Wiener filter SR processing applied to data from a commercial MWIR imaging system with both high and low detector element fill factors.

  7. Cardiovascular responses to apneic facial immersion during altered cardiac filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journeay, W Shane; Reardon, Francis D; Kenny, Glen P

    2003-06-01

    The hypothesis that reduced cardiac filling, as a result of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and postexercise hypotension (PEH), would attenuate the reflex changes to heart rate (HR), skin blood flow (SkBF), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) normally induced by facial immersion was tested. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular control mechanisms associated with apneic facial immersion during different cardiovascular challenges. Six subjects randomly performed 30-s apneic facial immersions in 6.0 +/- 1.2 degrees C water under the following conditions: 1) -20 mmHg LBNP, 2) +40 mmHg lower body positive pressure (LBPP), 3) during a period of PEH, and 4) normal resting (control). Measurements included SkBF at one acral (distal phalanx of the thumb) and one nonacral region of skin (ventral forearm), HR, and MAP. Facial immersion reduced HR and SkBF at both sites and increased MAP under all conditions (P filling during LBNP and PEH significantly attenuated the absolute HR nadir observed during the control immersion (P facial immersion can be attenuated when cardiac filling is compromised.

  8. Flammability of Gas-Filled Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushkov Valentin Anatol'evich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of flame propagation on the horizontal surface of gas-filled polymers are considered depending on the concentration of oxygen in the oxidizer flow. The values of the coefficients in the expression describing relationship between the rate of flame propagation on the surface of foams and oxygen concentration are obtained. It was shown that with the mass content of reactive organophosphorus compounds reaching 4.0...5.9%, non-smoldering resole foam plastics with high performance characteristics are obtained. It was found that in order to obtain moderately combustible polyurethane foams based on oxyethylated phosphorus-containing polyols, the phosphorus concentration should not exceed 3 % of mass. To obtain flame-retardant urea-formaldehyde foam cellular plastics, the concentration of phosphorus should not exceed 0.3 % of mass. Physical-mechanical properties and flammability indices of developed gas-filled polymers based on reactive oligomers are presented.

  9. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2007-01-01

    to the prospects of improving the structural quality, working environment, productivity, and architectural appearance. However, especially in vertical applications there is a great unused potential. Controlling the casting process is important in many different industries such as the metal, plastic, and food...... the framework of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). CFD is applied to simulate the homogeneous form filling characteristics, i.e. the form filling ability and flow patterns, taking into account the rheological properties and casting technique. It is assumed that the rheological properties of SCC follow...... dimensions. For the heterogeneous flow phenomena, this project focusses on the assessment of blocking, which is of special interest in relation to high quality and complicated structures with a dense reinforcement configuration. A phenomenological micro-mechanical model has been developed, which introduces...

  10. Rainwater drained through fully filled pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, B; Koestel, P

    1989-02-01

    The conventional rainwater drainage system according to DIN 1986 always seems to be a point of problemacy in the building services as far as the occupancy of installation shafts and ducts is at stake. The excavation work and the necessary gravity lines are considered to be expensive. The consideration of the necessary slope complicates the installation additionally. Basing on those considerations, the raindraining system with fully filled pipes has been developed. DIN 1986, edition June 1988, part 1, point 6.1.1 allows to install rainwater pipes operated as planned, fully filled without slope. An enterprise specialised in building services investigated all system laws because only by a hydraulically exact balance, the function of the rainwater drainage system operated by negative and positive pressure can be insured. The results of those investigations are integrated in a computer program developed for this purpose.

  11. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-07-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  12. Moon - 'Ghost' craters formed during Mare filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Hartmann, W. K.; Wood, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    This paper discusses formation of 'pathological' cases of crater morphology due to interaction of craters with molten lavas. Terrestrial observations of such a process are discussed. In lunar maria, a number of small impact craters (D less than 10 km) may have been covered by thin layers of fluid lavas, or formed in molten lava. Some specific lunar examples are discussed, including unusual shallow rings resembling experimental craters deformed by isostatic filling.

  13. Mobile myelographic filling defects: Spinal cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoiardo, M.; Cimino, C.; Passerini, A.; La Mantia, L.

    1986-03-01

    Cysticercosis usually affects the brain and is easily demonstrated by CT. Spinal cysticercosis is much rarer and is usually diagnosed only at surgery. Myelographic demonstration of multiple rounded filling defects, some of which were mobile, allowed diagnosis of spinal extramedullary cysticercosis in an unsuspected case. The literature on spinal cysticercosis is briefly reviewed. Diagnosis is important in view of the recent development of medical treatment.

  14. The partially filled viscous ring damper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfriend, K. T.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of a spinning satellite with a partially filled viscous ring damper is investigated. It is shown that there are two distinct modes of motion, the nutation-synchronous mode and spin-synchronous mode. From an approximate solution of the equations of motion a time constant is obtained for each mode. From a consideration of the fluid dynamics several methods are developed for determining the damping constant.

  15. Pulse formation of gas-filled counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Teshima, Kazunori; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hasai, Hiromi

    1991-01-01

    The pulse formation of gas-filled counter has been calculated by simple models for the proportional and self-quenching streamer (SQS) modes. Calculated pulse shapes of counter output have accurately reproduced the observed ones for both modes. As a result, it is shown that the special density distribution of ion pairs in a streamer can be estimated with the rising part of observed pulse shape, using the model. (author)

  16. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.

    2015-09-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The workshop was organized by SEG, and its partner sponsors were Saudi Aramco (gold sponsor), ExxonMobil, and CGG. Read More: http://library.seg.org/doi/10.1190/tle34091106.1

  17. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-01-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  18. Boron filled siloxane polymers for radiation shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouriau, Andrea; Robison, Tom; Shonrock, Clinton; Simmonds, Steve; Cox, Brad; Pacheco, Adam; Cady, Carl

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the present work was to evaluate changes to structure-property relationships of 10B filled siloxane-based polymers when exposed to nuclear reactor radiation. Highly filled polysiloxanes were synthesized with the intent of fabricating materials that could shield high neutron fluences. The newly formulated materials consisted of cross-linked poly-diphenyl-methylsiloxane filled with natural boron and carbon nanofibers. This polymer was chosen because of its good thermal and chemical stabilities, as well as resistance to ionizing radiation thanks to the presence of aromatic groups in the siloxane backbone. Highly isotopically enriched 10B filler was used to provide an efficient neutron radiation shield, and carbon nanofibers were added to improve mechanical strength. This novel polymeric material was exposed in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Labs to five different neutron/gamma fluxes consisting of very high neutron fluences within very short time periods. Thermocouples placed on the specimens recorded in-situ temperature changes during radiation exposure, which agreed well with those obtained from our MCNP simulations. Changes in the microstructural, thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties were evaluated by SEM, DSC, TGA, FT-IR NMR, solvent swelling, and uniaxial compressive load measurements. Our results demonstrate that these newly formulated materials are well-suitable to be used in applications that require exposure to different types of ionizing conditions that take place simultaneously.

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL FILLING OF DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krauß

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new approach for a more detailed post processing and filling of digital elevation models (DEMs in urban areas is presented. To reach the required specifications in a first step the errors in digital surface models (DSMs generated by dense stereo algorithms are analyzed and methods for detection and classification of the different types of errors are implemented. Subsequently the classified erroneous areas are handled in separate manner to eliminate outliers and fill the DSM properly. The errors which can be detected in DSMs range from outliers – single pixels or small areas containing extremely high or low values – over noise from mismatches, single small holes to occlusions, where large areas are not visible in one of the images of the stereo pair. To validate the presented method artificial DSMs are generated and superimposed with all different kinds of described errors like noise (small holes cut in, outliers (small areas moved up/down, occlusions (larger areas beneath steep walls and so on. The method is subsequently applied to the artificial DSMs and the resulting filled DSMs are compared to the original artificial DSMs without the introduced errors. Also the method is applied to stereo satellite generated DSMs from the ISPRS Comission 1 WG4 benchmark dataset and the results are checked with the also provided first pulse laser DSM data. Finally the results are discussed, strengths and weaknesses of the approach are shown and suggestions for application and optimization are given.

  20. CT findings of intrathoracic mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong Hwa; Choi, Kyu Ok; Lee, Jong Doo

    1989-01-01

    8 patients with pathologically proven pleural mesothelioma (5 localized type, 3 diffuse type), and 1 patient with malignant pericardial mesothelioma, were examined by computed tomography (CT), and obtained some results as follows: 1. Pleural Mesothelioma a. Localized pleural mesothelioma 4 cases were benign and 1 case was malignant in microscopic examination. CT showed invariably sharply marginated pleura-based soft tissue mass and the density of the mass was variable, homogenous in small tumor but inhomogenous with low density area in larger ones, and even calcification was seen in one of them. The angle of pleura-mass interface was obtuse in only one small tumor and acute with smooth taping end in four lager tumor. b. Diffuse pleural mesothelioma (DPM) Multiple nodular pleural masses encompassing nearly entire lung were seen with associated multiple subpleural parenchymal nodule and localized axial interstitial thickening in two case. Protruding chest wall mass with destruction of rib was seen in previous pneumonectomized thorax. Minimal pleural effusion/thickening was also seen in all. 2. Pericardial mesothelioma Pericardial fluid and multiple nodular masses, which occupied pericardial sac up to superior sinus were well delineated on CT. It had been misinterpreted as pericardial effusion for years on echocardiogram

  1. Comparative study on nutrient removal of agricultural non-point source pollution for three filter media filling schemes in eco-soil reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuyi; Xie, Qingjie; Fang, Longxiang; Su, Hang

    2016-08-01

    Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution have been increasingly recognized as a major contributor to the deterioration of water quality in recent years. The purpose of this article is to investigate the discrepancies in interception of nutrients in agricultural NPS pollution for eco-soil reactors using different filling schemes. Parallel eco-soil reactors of laboratory scale were created and filled with filter media, such as grit, zeolite, limestone, and gravel. Three filling schemes were adopted: increasing-sized filling (I-filling), decreasing-sized filling (D-filling), and blend-sized filling (B-filling). The systems were intermittent operations via simulated rainstorm runoff. The nutrient removal efficiency, biomass accumulation and vertical dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution were defined to assess the performance of eco-soil. The results showed that B-filling reactor presented an ideal DO for partial nitrification-denitrification across the eco-soil, and B-filling was the most stable in the change of bio-film accumulation trends with depth in the three fillings. Simultaneous and highest removals of NH4(+)-N (57.74-70.52%), total nitrogen (43.69-54.50%), and total phosphorus (42.50-55.00%) were obtained in the B-filling, demonstrating the efficiency of the blend filling schemes of eco-soil for oxygen transfer and biomass accumulation to cope with agricultural NPS pollution.

  2. Study of a low-dose capsule filling process by dynamic and static tests for advanced process understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranzinger, S; Faulhammer, E; Scheibelhofer, O; Calzolari, V; Biserni, S; Paudel, A; Khinast, J G

    2018-04-05

    Precise filling of capsules with doses in the mg-range requires a good understanding of the filling process. Therefore, we investigated the various process steps of the filling process by dynamic and static mode tests. Dynamic tests refer to filling of capsules in a regular laboratory dosator filling machine. Static tests were conducted using a novel filling system developed by us. Three grades of lactose excipients were filled into size 3 capsules with different dosing chamber lengths, nozzle diameters and powder bed heights, and, in the dynamic mode, with two filling speeds (500, 3000 caps/h). The influence of the gap at the bottom of the powder container on the fill weight and variability was assessed. Different gaps resulted in a change in fill weight in all materials, although in different ways. In all cases, the fill weight of highly cohesive Lactohale 220 increased when decreasing the gap. Furthermore, experiments with the stand-alone static test tool indicated that this very challenging powder could successfully be filled without any pre-compression in the range of 5 mg-20 mg with acceptable RSDs. This finding is of great importance since for very fine lactose powders high compression ratios (dosing-chamber-length-to-powder-bed height compression ratios) may result in jamming of the piston. Moreover, it shows that the static mode setup is suitable for studying fill weight and variability. Since cohesive powders, such as Lactohale 220, are hard to fill, we investigated the impact of vibration on the process. Interestingly, we found no correlation between the reported fill weight changes in dynamic mode at 3000 cph and static mode using similar vibration. However, we could show that vibrations during sampling in the static mode dramatically reduced fill weight variability. Overall, our results indicate that by fine-tuning instrumental settings even very challenging powders can be filled with a low-dose dosator capsule filling machine. This study is a

  3. Characterization of subvisible particle formation during the filling pump operation of a monoclonal antibody solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Arpan; Colandene, James; Bradford, Victor; Perkins, Melissa

    2011-10-01

    Characterization and control of aggregate and subvisible particle formation during fill-finish process steps are important for biopharmaceutical products. The filling step is of key importance as there is no further filtration of the drug product beyond sterile filtration. Filling processes can impact product quality by introducing physical stresses such as shear, friction, and cavitation. Other detrimental factors include temperature generated in the process of filling, foaming, and contact with filling system materials, including processing aids such as silicone oil. Certain pumps may shed extrinsic particles that may lead to heterogeneous nucleation-induced aggregation. In this work, microflow imaging, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), and turbidimetry were utilized to quantify subvisible particles, aggregation, and opalescence, respectively. The filling process was performed using several commonly used filling systems, including rotary piston pump, rolling diaphragm pump, peristaltic pump, and time-pressure filler. The rolling diaphragm pump, peristaltic pump, and time-pressure filler generated notably less protein subvisible particles than the rotary piston pump, although no change in aggregate content by SEC was observed by any pump. An extreme increase in subvisible particles was also reflected in an increase in turbidity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Soil and minespoil fill as media for renovation of nitrogen and phosphorus in domestic wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.E.; Reneau, R.B. Jr.; Hagedorn, C.

    1998-01-01

    Development of US Appalachian coal mining regions has been hampered by lack of domestic waste disposal technologies suited to fills. The suitability of on-site wastewater treatment and disposal systems (OSWTDS) in fill material is uncertain due to the effects of surface mining on soil physical properties. This research evaluated the potential for renovation of N and P present in domestic wastewater by fills from mining operations. N and P were chosen because of their potential adverse environmental impacts. Soil-fill (a mixture of Jefferson, fine-loamy, siliceous, mesic Typic Hapludult and Muskingom, fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Dystrochrept soils) and minespoil (spoil)-fill (blasted rock material associated with the Taggart Marker and Low Splint Bench coal seams of the Upper Middle Wise Formation) were used. Septic tank effluent (STE) and sand filter effluent (SFE) were applied to spoil-fill columns at four loading rates and spoil-fill columns at one loading rate for a period of 20 wk. Renovation of wastewater was assessed by determining the concentration of N and P present in column leachate. Reduction of inorganic N(NO 3 - + NH 4 + ), based on N/Cl ratios ranged from 14.9 to 32.1% after the varying application rates of STE and SFE passed through the soil columns. However, leachate NO 3 - -N concentrations were still above the 10 mg -1 drinking water standard. The quantity of P emerging from the spoil-fill columns (3.0 mg PL -1 ) was higher than anticipated and may be related to the indigenous P present in the minespoil. Sorption of P in the spoil-fill column decreased with increased STE and SFE application (reduction ranged from 99.1 to 74.4%). Results from this study indicate that there is potential for renovating wastewater in OSWTDS in selected soil-fill areas in reclaimed minelands. 33 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Iterative and variational homogenization methods for filled elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Taha

    Elastomeric composites have increasingly proved invaluable in commercial technological applications due to their unique mechanical properties, especially their ability to undergo large reversible deformation in response to a variety of stimuli (e.g., mechanical forces, electric and magnetic fields, changes in temperature). Modern advances in organic materials science have revealed that elastomeric composites hold also tremendous potential to enable new high-end technologies, especially as the next generation of sensors and actuators featured by their low cost together with their biocompatibility, and processability into arbitrary shapes. This potential calls for an in-depth investigation of the macroscopic mechanical/physical behavior of elastomeric composites directly in terms of their microscopic behavior with the objective of creating the knowledge base needed to guide their bottom-up design. The purpose of this thesis is to generate a mathematical framework to describe, explain, and predict the macroscopic nonlinear elastic behavior of filled elastomers, arguably the most prominent class of elastomeric composites, directly in terms of the behavior of their constituents --- i.e., the elastomeric matrix and the filler particles --- and their microstructure --- i.e., the content, size, shape, and spatial distribution of the filler particles. This will be accomplished via a combination of novel iterative and variational homogenization techniques capable of accounting for interphasial phenomena and finite deformations. Exact and approximate analytical solutions for the fundamental nonlinear elastic response of dilute suspensions of rigid spherical particles (either firmly bonded or bonded through finite size interphases) in Gaussian rubber are first generated. These results are in turn utilized to construct approximate solutions for the nonlinear elastic response of non-Gaussian elastomers filled with a random distribution of rigid particles (again, either firmly

  6. Study of the Peak Shear Strength of a Cement-Filled Hard Rock Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Cheng-Xue; Sun, Fu-Ting

    2018-03-01

    The peak shear strength of a cement-filled hard rock joint is studied by theoretical analysis and laboratory testing. Based on the concept of the shear resistance angle, by combining the statistical method and fractal theory, three new parameters are proposed to characterize the three-dimensional joint morphology, reflecting the effects of the average roughness, multi-scale asperities and the dispersion degree of the roughness distribution. These factors are independent of the measurement scale, and they reflect the anisotropy of the joint roughness. Compressive shear tests are conducted on cement-filled joints. Because joints without cement can be considered special cement-filled joints in which the filling degree of cement is zero, they are also tested. The cement-filled granite joint fails primarily along the granite-cement interfaces. The filling degree of cement controls the joint failure and affects its mechanical behaviour. With a decrease in the filling degree of cement, the joint cohesion decreases; however, the dilatancy angle and the basic friction angle of the interface increase. As the filling degree approaches zero, the cohesion approaches zero, while the dilatancy angle and the basic friction angle increase to those of the joint without cement. A set of formulas is proposed to evaluate the peak shear strength of the joints with and without cement. The formulas are shown to be reasonable by comparison with the tested peak shear strength, and they reflect the anisotropy of the strength. This research deepens the understanding of cement-filled joints and provides a method to evaluate their peak shear strength.

  7. Fissure fillings from Gideaa, central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E.L.; Larsson, S.Aa.

    1983-08-01

    The most frequent fissure filling minerals at Gideaa are calcite, chlorite, pyrite, laumontite, stilbite, smectite, quartz and epidote. Potentially young minerals, i.e. minerals which can be formed during present conditions, are smectite, calcite and quartz, Equilibrium calculations show that these minerals can be stable in the water analysed from Gideaa. In borehole Gi 2, the water exhibits a greater equilibrium with existing minerals in the fissures than water from Gi 4. This is due to the recharge of the water in Gi 4 and discharge of the water in Gi 2. When carbonate saturated water penetrated through the bedrock, calcite precipitated within the more superficial portions of the rock. However, both calcite and zeolite fissures fillings are associated with certain zones in the drill holes. A large number of fractures can be concluded to be of post-Jotnian age. Stilbite, calcite and smectite are associated with these fractures. Laumontite can also be assumed to belong here. The dolerites in the area exhibit a high fracture frequency but a relatively low hydraulic conductivity. This is due to the fact that smectite is very prevalent in the dolerite fractures, Several generations of fracturefilling minerals (above all calcite) have been found in a single fracture. Stable isotope analyses of fissure filling calcites indicate that there are three different groups of calcite. Most of the calcites could not have been precipitated from water of present-day isotope composition at Gideaa, whereas recent calcite may be found in one of the groups. Another group of calcite was precipitated during hydro-thermal conditions.(author)

  8. Hydraulic fracturing of rock-fill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie WANG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The condition in which hydraulic fracturing in core of earth-rock fill dam maybe induced, the mechanism by which the reason of hydraulic fracturing canbe explained, and the failure criterion by which the occurrence of hydraulicfracturing can be determined, were investigated. The condition dependson material properties such as, cracks in the core and low permeability ofcore soil, and “water wedging” action in cracks. An unsaturated core soiland fast impounding are the prerequisites for the formation of “waterwedging” action. The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing can be explainedby fracture mechanics. The crack propagation induced by water pressuremay follow any of mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II. Based on testingresults of a core soil, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing was suggested,from which mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing in the core of rock-fill damwere discussed. The results indicated that factors such as angle betweencrack surface and direction of principal stress, local stress state at thecrack, and fracture toughness KIC of core soil may largely affect theinduction of hydraulic fracturing and the mode of the propagation of thecrack.The condition in which hydraulic fracturing in core of earth-rock fill dam maybe induced, the mechanism by which the reason of hydraulic fracturing canbe explained, and the failure criterion by which the occurrence of hydraulicfracturing can be determined, were investigated. The condition dependson material properties such as, cracks in the core and low permeability ofcore soil, and “water wedging” action in cracks. An unsaturated core soiland fast impounding are the prerequisites for the formation of “waterwedging” action. The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing can be explainedby fracture mechanics. The crack propagation induced by water pressuremay follow any of mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II. Based on testingresults of a core soil, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing

  9. Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Ferromagnetic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Leonhardt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNT filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods for their synthesis and discuss the influence of selected growth parameters. In addition we evaluate possible growth mechanisms involved in their formation. Moreover we show their identified structural and magnetic properties. On the basis of these properties we present different application possibilities. Some selected examples reveal the high potential of these materials in the field of medicine and nanotechnology.

  10. Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Ferromagnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissker, Uhland; Hampel, Silke; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Büchner, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods for their synthesis and discuss the influence of selected growth parameters. In addition we evaluate possible growth mechanisms involved in their formation. Moreover we show their identified structural and magnetic properties. On the basis of these properties we present different application possibilities. Some selected examples reveal the high potential of these materials in the field of medicine and nanotechnology. PMID:28883334

  11. Le déficit de filles

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    de la population est une tendance plus récente. C. Le déficit de filles. Le déséquilibre du ratio hommes-femmes en Inde. D. R. O. I. T. S. D. E. S. F. E. M. M. E. S. E. T. P. A. R. T. IC. I. P. A. T. IO. N. C. I. T. O. Y. E. N. N. E. CENTRE DE. RECHERCHES. POUR LE. DÉVELOPPEMENT. INTERNATIONAL. CRDI : Jason Taylor ...

  12. Evaluation of Flowable Fill Surface Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    general, traditional flowable fill is a low- viscosity , grout-like, cementitious blend commonly composed of portland cement, fine aggregate, and water...93.7 45.0 19.6 % Finer No. 200 7.0 0.5 9.1 % Gravel 2.2 0.0 56.1 % Sand 90.8 99.5 34.8 % Silt 3.2 < 0.5 6.8 % Clay 3.8 < 0.5 2.3 Fineness Modulus

  13. Effect of the insulation materials filling on the thermal performance of sintered hollow bricks under the air-conditioning intermittent operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoping Hou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Wall insulation performance is an important factor affecting building energy consumption and indoor comfortable level. This study proposes that the insulation materials are filled into the cavities of the sintered hollow brick to replace the single insulation layer. The physical models of typical walls were built by the hollow bricks filled with expanding polystyrene board (EPS in cavities and wall thermal performance is numerically analyzed by the Finite Volume Method under air-conditioning intermittent operation, which conforms to the actual operation rules of air-conditioning. Results show that filling EPS in cavities is beneficial to improve the thermal performance of the bricks, and the larger the EPS filling ratio, the higher the thermal performance improvement. The EPS filling ratio increase has the higher sensitivity on inner surface heat flow under the low EPS filling ratio, and filling EPS in the external cavities is optimum with the decrement rate 5.92% higher than filling EPS in internal cavities for the EPS filling ratio of 20%, while filling EPS in internal and external cavities simultaneously is optimum with decrement rate 2.45%–6.87% higher than that with filling EPS in the internal cavities for the EPS filling ratio of 40%–80%. Keywords: Insulation filling ratio, Insulation filling location, Thermal performance, Sintered hollow bricks

  14. Scaffold filling, contig fusion and comparative gene order inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rounsley Steve

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a trend in increasing the phylogenetic scope of genome sequencing without finishing the sequence of the genome. Increasing numbers of genomes are being published in scaffold or contig form. Rearrangement algorithms, however, including gene order-based phylogenetic tools, require whole genome data on gene order or syntenic block order. How then can we use rearrangement algorithms to compare genomes available in scaffold form only? Can the comparative evidence predict the location of unsequenced genes? Results Our method involves optimally filling in genes missing from the scaffolds, while incorporating the augmented scaffolds directly into the rearrangement algorithms as if they were chromosomes. This is accomplished by an exact, polynomial-time algorithm. We then correct for the number of extra fusion/fission operations required to make scaffolds comparable to full assemblies. We model the relationship between the ratio of missing genes actually absent from the genome versus merely unsequenced ones, on one hand, and the increase of genomic distance after scaffold filling, on the other. We estimate the parameters of this model through simulations and by comparing the angiosperm genomes Ricinus communis and Vitis vinifera. Conclusions The algorithm solves the comparison of genomes with 18,300 genes, including 4500 missing from one genome, in less than a minute on a MacBook, putting virtually all genomes within range of the method.

  15. Scaffold filling, contig fusion and comparative gene order inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Adriana; Zheng, Chunfang; Zhu, Qian; Albert, Victor A; Rounsley, Steve; Sankoff, David

    2010-06-04

    There has been a trend in increasing the phylogenetic scope of genome sequencing without finishing the sequence of the genome. Increasing numbers of genomes are being published in scaffold or contig form. Rearrangement algorithms, however, including gene order-based phylogenetic tools, require whole genome data on gene order or syntenic block order. How then can we use rearrangement algorithms to compare genomes available in scaffold form only? Can the comparative evidence predict the location of unsequenced genes? Our method involves optimally filling in genes missing from the scaffolds, while incorporating the augmented scaffolds directly into the rearrangement algorithms as if they were chromosomes. This is accomplished by an exact, polynomial-time algorithm. We then correct for the number of extra fusion/fission operations required to make scaffolds comparable to full assemblies. We model the relationship between the ratio of missing genes actually absent from the genome versus merely unsequenced ones, on one hand, and the increase of genomic distance after scaffold filling, on the other. We estimate the parameters of this model through simulations and by comparing the angiosperm genomes Ricinus communis and Vitis vinifera. The algorithm solves the comparison of genomes with 18,300 genes, including 4500 missing from one genome, in less than a minute on a MacBook, putting virtually all genomes within range of the method.

  16. Numerical analysis of concrete-filled tubes with stiffening plates under large deformation axial loading

    OpenAIRE

    Albareda Valls, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Concrete-filled tubes have been increasingly used these recent decades thanks to their improved structural behavior, especially under compression.Concrete filling in these sections improves ¡ts compressive strength thanks to lateral pressure coming from confinement effect provided by the steel tube. At elevated percentages of loading,concrete suffers an important volumetric expansion, which is clearly restricted by the tube. Therefore, the core is subjected to a severe lateral pressure tha...

  17. Investigation of gating parameter, temperature and density effects on mold filling in the lost foam casting (LFC process by direct observation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sharifi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mold filling sequence of A356 aluminum alloy was investigated with the aid of direct observation method (photography method. The results show that increase of the foam density causes decrease of the filling rate and increase of the filling time. Foam density has more pronounced effect on mold filling rate rather than pouring temperature. Gating design also affects the profile of molten metal advancement in the mold. The results show that the higher filling rate was obtained with G2 gating than with other gating system. Regarding the mold filling pattern, G3 gating system has more effective contact interface than G2 gating system and has lower filling time. Filling time in G4 gating and G1 gating system are nearly the same.

  18. Effect of bulk-fill base material on fracture strength of root-filled teeth restored with laminate resin composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, N A; Maghaireh, G A; Ghannam, A S; Palamara, J E

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of using a bulk-fill flowable base material on fracture strength and fracture patterns of root-filled maxillary premolars with MOD preparations restored with laminate restorations. Fifty extracted maxillary premolars were selected for the study. Standardized MOD cavities with endodontic treatment were prepared for all teeth, except for intact control. The teeth were divided randomly into five groups (n=10); (Group 1) sound teeth, (Group 2) unrestored teeth; (Group 3) MOD cavities with Vitrebond base and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal); (Group 4) MOD cavities with 2mm GIC base (Fuji IX GP) and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal) open laminate, (Group 5) MOD cavities were restored with 4mm of bulk-fill flowable base material (SDR) and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal). All teeth were thermocycled and subjected to a 45° ramped oblique load in a universal testing machine. Fracture load and fracture patterns were recorded. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Dunnett's T3 test. Restoration in general increased the fracture strength compared to unrestored teeth. The fracture strength of group 5 (bulk-fill) was significantly higher than the fracture strength of the GIC laminate groups and not significantly different from the intact teeth (355±112N, P=0.118). The type of failure was unfavorable for most of the groups, with the majority being mixed failures. The use of a bulk-fill flowable base material significantly increased the fracture strength of extracted root-filled teeth with MOD cavities; however it did not improve fracture patterns to more favorable ones. Investigating restorative techniques that may improve the longevity of root-filled premolar teeth restored with direct resin restorations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Liquid-filled ionization chamber temperature dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, L. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: luciaff@usc.es; Gomez, F. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Iglesias, A. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pardo, J. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pazos, A. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pena, J. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Zapata, M. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2006-05-10

    Temperature and pressure corrections of the read-out signal of ionization chambers have a crucial importance in order to perform high-precision absolute dose measurements. In the present work the temperature and pressure dependences of a sealed liquid isooctane filled ionization chamber (previously developed by the authors) for radiotherapy applications have been studied. We have analyzed the thermal response of the liquid ionization chamber in a {approx}20 deg. C interval around room temperature. The temperature dependence of the signal can be considered linear, with a slope that depends on the chamber collection electric field. For example, a relative signal slope of 0.27x10{sup -2}K{sup -1} for an operation electric field of 1.67x10{sup 6}Vm{sup -1} has been measured in our detector. On the other hand, ambient pressure dependence has been found negligible, as expected for liquid-filled chambers. The thermal dependence of the liquid ionization chamber signal can be parametrized within the Onsager theory on initial recombination. Considering that changes with temperature of the detector response are due to variations in the free ion yield, a parametrization of this dependence has been obtained. There is a good agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical model from the Onsager framework.

  20. Fissure fillings from the Klipperaas study site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E.L.

    1986-07-01

    The Klipperaas study site is located within the Smaaland-Vaermland granitoid belt in southern Sweden. The area investigated can be subdivided into blocks with different hydraulic character and fracture frequency of the rocks. A fissure filling, study has been carried out within the area. This includes identification of the minerals, mineral frequency, textures within the fissures and isotope analyses of calcites. Four generation of fissure fillings, within the time space c. 1600 M.a. to present, has been distinguished. These are 1) quartz; 2) epidote + muscovite and adularia + hematite; 3) calcite + chlorite +/hematite; 4) calcite, clay minerals and Fe-oxyhydroxide. It is observed that the surface water affect the uppermost part of the bedrock resulting in calcite dissolution, break down of pyrite and precipitation of Fe-oxyhydroxide. It is also obvious from the fracture calcite frequency that calcite dissolution is more intensive close to and within the fracture zones. There, Fe-oxyhydroxide can be found down to at least 400 m depth. This gives valuable information about the physic-chemical character of the groundwater within the bedrock. Several fracture zones have been reactivated. It is also suspected that relatively late movements have taken place causing crushing of the rock and only a slight cementation of the crushed material is visible. Some of the fracture zones correspond to mafic dikes. These zones exhibit lower hydraulic conductivity than other zones due to fracture sealing by clay minerals but also by chlorite and calcite. (author)

  1. Filling behaviour of wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretek, I.; Lucyshyn, T.; Holzer, C.

    2017-01-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPC) are a young generation of composites with rapidly growing usage within the plastics industry. The advantages are the availability and low price of the wood particles, the possibility of partially substituting the polymer in the mixture and sustainable use of the earth’s resources. The current WPC products on the market are to a large extent limited to extruded products. Nowadays there is a great interest in the market for consumer products in more use of WPC as an alternative to pure thermoplastics in injection moulding processes. This work presents the results of numerical simulation and experimental visualisation of the mould filling process in injection moulding of WPC. The 3D injection moulding simulations were done with the commercial software package Autodesk® Moldflow® Insight 2016 (AMI). The mould filling experiments were conducted with a box-shaped test part. In contrast to unfilled polymers the WPC has reduced melt elasticity so that the fountain flow often does not develop. This results in irregular flow front shapes in the moulded part, especially at high filler content.

  2. Fratura epifisiolise da extremidade proximal do úmero com luxação intratorácica: relato de caso Epiphysiolysis fracture of the proximal end of the humerus with intrathoracic dislocation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Guiotti Filho

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A fratura da extremidade proximal do úmero com luxação intratorácica foi relatada em 1949 por West, em que a fratura era, somente, do tubérculo maior. Desde então, poucos casos foram relatados na literatura, a maioria constituída por pessoas idosas, prevalecendo como indicação terapêutica artroplastia parcial. Os autores relatam o caso de um adolescente de 14 anos de idade, sexo masculino, que apresentou fratura epifisiolise da extremidade proximal do úmero com luxação intratorácica em decorrência de acidente ciclístico e que foi submetido a tratamento cirúrgico com redução, osteossíntese e reinserção do manguito rotador. A recuperação da cabeça do úmero totalmente desvitalizada e o acompanhamento do processo de necrose e revas cularização durante seis anos, em paciente adolescente, parece não terem sido previamente relatados.Fracture of the proximal end of the humerus with intrathoracic dislocation was reported in 1949 by West, and the fracture was only a fracture of the greater tubercle. Few cases have since been published, and most of them in elderly individuals, partial arthroplasty prevailing as the therapy indication. The authors report the case of a 14 year old boy who presented with an epiphysiolysis fracture of the proximal end of the humerus with intrathoracic dislocation resulting from a bicycle accident. The boy was submitted to surgical treatment with reduction, osteosynthesis, and reinsertion of the rotator cuff. The totally devitalized humeral head recovery and the monitoring of the necrosis and revascularization process for a period of six years in a teenager patient seems to have never been reported before.

  3. SORPTION, DIFFUSION AND PERMEATION OF 1,1,1- TRICHLOROETHANE THROUGH ADSORBENT-FILLED POLYMERIC MEMBRANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addition of hydrophobic absorbents such as activated carbon into polymeric mebranes increased the sorption capacity for 1,1,1-trichloroethane premeability of the mebranes used in the Pervaporation mode. Water permeability also increased for all filled membranes due to increased w...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to the...

  5. 33 CFR 183.564 - Fuel tank fill system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tank fill system. 183.564...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.564 Fuel tank fill system. (a) Each fuel fill opening must be located so that a gasoline overflow of up to five...

  6. 46 CFR 98.25-65 - Filling density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filling density. 98.25-65 Section 98.25-65 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... § 98.25-65 Filling density. (a) The filling density, or the percent ratio of the liquefied gas that may...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended...

  8. 46 CFR 98.25-50 - Filling and discharge pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with a secondary remote control of a type acceptable to the Commandant. (c) The excess flow, internal... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filling and discharge pipes. 98.25-50 Section 98.25-50... § 98.25-50 Filling and discharge pipes. (a) Filling connections shall be provided with one of the...

  9. Properties and Characterization of Kenaf-Filled Natural Rubber Latex Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fikri Abdul Karim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf powder was incorporated with natural rubber latex (NRL compound and foamed to make natural rubber latex foam (NRLF by using a well known technique called the Dunlop method. Different loadings of kenaf powder were added to NRL compound and was foamed to make NRLF. The mechanical properties, density, compression, thermal, and micro-structural characterization of control NRLF and kenaf incorporated NRLF were studied. Increasing content of kenaf reduced the tensile strength, elongation at break, and compressive strength of a NRLF. Modulus at 100% elongation and density of the NRLF increased with an increase in filler loading. Higher kenaf loading indicated higher elasticity of kenaf-filled NRLF, but the recovery percentage of kenaf-filled NRLF decreased with increasing kenaf loading. From thermogravimetric analysis (TGA result, an increase in the amount of kenaf loading from 1 to 7 phr increased the thermal stability of kenaf-filled NRLF. Morphological and micro-structural characterization performed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed that kenaf powder filled up the micro-sized pores in the open cell structure of kenaf-filled NRLF.

  10. Fill and spill drives runoff connectivity over frozen ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, A. E.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2018-03-01

    Snowmelt-runoff processes on frozen ground are poorly understood at the hillslope scale. This is especially true for hillslopes on the northern Great Plains of North America where long periods of snow-covered frozen ground with very shallow slopes mask any spatial patterns and process controls on connectivity and hillslope runoff generation. This study examines a 4.66 ha (46,600 m2) hillslope on the northern Great Plains during the 2014 spring snowmelt season to explore hillslope runoff processes. Specifically, we explore the spatial patterns of runoff production source areas and examine how surface topography and patterns of snow cover, snow water equivalent, soil water content, and thawed layer depth - which we measured on a 10 m grid across our 46,600 m2 hillslope - affect melt water partitioning and runoff connectivity. A key question was whether or not the controls on connectivity are consistent with the fill and spill mechanism found in rain-dominated and unfrozen soil domains. The contrast between the slow infiltration rates into frozen soil and the relatively fast rates of snowmelt delivery to the soil surface resulted in water accumulation in small depressions under the snowpack. Consequently, infiltration was minimal over the 12 day melt period. Instead, nested filling of micro- and meso-depressions was followed by macro-scale, whole-slope spilling. This spilling occurred when large patches of ponded water exceeded the storage capacity behind downslope micro barriers in the surface topography, and flows from them coalesced to drive a rapid increase in runoff at the hillslope outlet. These observations of ponded water and flowpaths followed mapable fill and spill locations based on 2 m resolution digital topographic analysis. Interestingly, while surface topography is relatively unimportant under unfrozen conditions at our site because of low relief and high infiltrability, surface topography shows episodically critical importance for connectivity and

  11. Lift-and-fill face lift: integrating the fat compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrich, Rod J; Ghavami, Ashkan; Constantine, Fadi C; Unger, Jacob; Mojallal, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Recent discovery of the numerous fat compartments of the face has improved our ability to more precisely restore facial volume while rejuvenating it through differential superficial musculoaponeurotic system treatment. Incorporation of selective fat compartment volume restoration along with superficial musculoaponeurotic system manipulation allows for improved control in recontouring while addressing one of the key problems in facial aging, namely, volume deflation. This theory was evaluated by assessing the contour changes from simultaneous face "lifting" and "filling" through fat compartment-guided facial fat transfer. A review of 100 face-lift patients was performed. All patients had an individualized component face lift with fat grafting to the nasolabial fold, deep malar, and high/lateral malar fat compartment locations. Photographic analysis using a computer program was conducted on oblique facial views preoperatively and postoperatively, to obtain the most projected malar contour point. Two independent observers visually evaluated the malar prominence and nasolabial fold improvements based on standardized photographs. Nasolabial fold improved by at least one grade in 81 percent and by over one grade in 11 percent. Malar prominence average projection increase was 13.47 percent and the average amount of lift was 12.24 percent. The malar prominence score improved by at least one grade in 62 percent of the patients postoperatively, and 9 percent had a greater than one grade improvement. Twenty-eight percent of the patients had a convex malar prominence postoperatively compared with 6 percent preoperatively. Malar prominence improved by at least one grade in 63 percent and by over one grade in 10 percent. The lift-and-fill face lift merges two key concepts in facial rejuvenation: (1) effective tissue manipulation by means of lifting and tightening in differential vectors according to original facial asymmetry and shape; and (2) selective fat compartment filling

  12. Processes of arroyo filling in northern New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Vincent, Kirk R.; Griffin, Eleanor R.; Scott, Michael L.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Auble, Gregor T.

    2015-01-01

    We documented arroyo evolution at the tree, trench, and arroyo scales along the lower Rio Puerco and Chaco Wash in northern New Mexico, USA. We excavated 29 buried living woody plants and used burial signatures in their annual rings to date stratigraphy in four trenches across the arroyos. Then, we reconstructed the history of arroyo evolution by combining trench data with arroyo-scale information from aerial imagery, light detection and ranging (LiDAR), longitudinal profiles, and repeat surveys of cross sections. Burial signatures in annual rings of salt cedar and willow dated sedimentary beds greater than 30 cm thick with annual precision. Along both arroyos, incision occurred until the 1930s in association with extreme high flows, and subsequent filling involved vegetation development, channel narrowing, increased sinuosity, and finally vertical aggradation. A strongly depositional sediment transport regime interacted with floodplain shrubs to produce a characteristic narrow, trapezoidal channel. The 55 km study reach along the Rio Puerco demonstrated upstream progression of arroyo widening and filling, but not of arroyo incision, channel narrowing, or floodplain vegetation development. We conclude that the occurrence of upstream progression within large basins like the Rio Puerco makes precise synchrony across basins impossible. Arroyo wall retreat is now mostly limited to locations where meanders impinge on the arroyo wall, forming hairpin bends, for which entry to and exit from the wall are stationary. Average annual sediment storage within the Rio Puerco study reach between 1955 and 2005 was 4.8 × 105 t/yr, 16% of the average annual suspended sediment yield, and 24% of the long-term bedrock denudation rate. At this rate, the arroyo would fill in 310 yr.

  13. Optical properties study of nano-composite filled D shape photonic crystal fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaiyakumar, R.; Mohamed Junaid, K. A.; Janani, T.; Maheswar, R.; Yupapin, P.; Amiri, I. S.

    2018-06-01

    With the nano-composite materials gaining momentum in the optical field, a new nano-composite filled D shape Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) is designed and the various optical properties are investigated with help of Finite Element Method. In the proposed structure the D-shape PCF is made up of silica with embedded silver nanoparticles and air holes are distributed along the fibre. The designed fibre shows various optical properties such as dispersion, birefringence, beat length and loss with respect to wavelength and compared with different filling factor like 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5. From our estimation and comparative analysis, it has been proved that the fibre loss has been decreased with increasing filling factor. Further this also showed flat dispersion at maximum filling factor.

  14. Validation Studies of Temperature Distribution and Mould Filling Process for Composite Skeleton Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work authors showed selected results of simulation and experimental studies on temperature distribution during solidification of composite skeleton casting and mould filling process (Fig. 4, 5, 6. The basic subject of the computer simulation was the analysis of ability of metal to fill the channels creating the skeleton shape and prepared in form of a core. Analysis of filling for each consecutive levels of the skeleton casting was conducted for simulation results and real casting. The skeleton casting was manufactured according to proposed technology (Fig. 5. Number of fully filled nodes in simulation was higher than obtained in experimental studies. It was observed in the experiment, that metal during pouring did not flow through the whole channel section, what enabled possibilities of reducing the channel section and pointed out the necessity of local pressure increase.

  15. Optical properties study of nano-composite filled D shape photonic crystal fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Udaiyakumar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the nano-composite materials gaining momentum in the optical field, a new nano-composite filled D shape Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF is designed and the various optical properties are investigated with help of Finite Element Method. In the proposed structure the D-shape PCF is made up of silica with embedded silver nanoparticles and air holes are distributed along the fibre. The designed fibre shows various optical properties such as dispersion, birefringence, beat length and loss with respect to wavelength and compared with different filling factor like 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5. From our estimation and comparative analysis, it has been proved that the fibre loss has been decreased with increasing filling factor. Further this also showed flat dispersion at maximum filling factor. Keywords: Nanoparticles, Nano-composite, Dispersion, Birefringence, Beat length

  16. Colloid transport in model fracture filling materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, S.; Garcia-Garcia, S.; Jonsson, M.

    2010-12-01

    Colloid transport in model fracture filling materials Susanna Wold*, Sandra García-García and Mats Jonsson KTH Chemical Science and Engineering Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden *Corresponding author: E-mail: wold@kth.se Phone: +46 8 790 6295 In colloid transport in water-bearing fractures, the retardation depends on interactions with the fracture surface by sorption or filtration. These mechanisms are difficult to separate. A rougher surface will give a larger area available for sorption, and also when a particle is physically hindered, it approaches the surface and enables further sorption. Sorption can be explained by electrostatics were the strongest sorption on minerals always is observed at pH below pHpzc (Filby et al., 2008). The adhesion of colloids to mineral surfaces is related to the surface roughness according to a recent study (Darbha et al., 2010). There is a large variation in the characteristics of water-bearing fractures in bedrock in terms of aperture distribution, flow velocity, surface roughness, mineral distributions, presence of fracture filling material, and biological and organic material, which is hard to implement in modeling. The aim of this work was to study the transport of negatively charged colloids in model fracture filling material in relation to flow, porosity, mineral type, colloid size, and surface charge distribution. In addition, the impact on transport of colloids of mixing model fracture filling materials with different retention and immobilization capacities, determined by batch sorption experiments, was investigated. The transport of Na-montmorillonite colloids and well-defined negatively charged latex microspheres of 50, 100, and 200 nm diameter were studied in either columns containing quartz or quartz mixed with biotite. The ionic strength in the solution was exclusively 0.001 and pH 6 or 8.5. The flow rates used were 0.002, 0.03, and 0.6 mL min-1. Sorption of the colloids on the model fracture

  17. Filling bore-holes with explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfredsson, S H

    1965-03-02

    In this device for filling boreholes formed in a rock formation with particulate explosive, the explosive is conveyed into the hole by means of a pressure fluid through a tube which has a lesser diameter than the hole. The tube is characterized by a lattice work arranged externally on it, and having a structure adapted to allow passage of a pressure fluid returning between the tube and the wall of the hole, but retaining particles of explosive entrained by the returning pressure fluid. In another arrangement of the device, the lattice work has the form of a brush, including filaments or bristles which are dimensioned to bridge the spacing between the tube and the wall of the hole. (12 claims)

  18. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  19. Internal Accident Report: fill it out!

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    It is important to report all accidents, near-misses and dangerous situations so that they can be avoided in the future.   Reporting these events allows the relevant services to take appropriate action and implement corrective and preventive measures. It should be noted that the routing of the internal accident report was recently changed to make sure that the people who need to know are informed. Without information, corrective action is not possible. Without corrective action, there is a risk that the events will recur. As soon as you experience or see something amiss, fill out an internal accident report! If you have any questions the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. The HSE Unit

  20. Neutron transmission measurements on hydrogen filled microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyrnjaja, Eva; Hummel, Stefan; Keding, Marcus; Smolle, Marie-Theres; Gerger, Joachim; Zawisky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Hollow microspheres are promising candidates for future hydrogen storage technologies. Although the physical process for hydrogen diffusion through glass is well understood, measurements of static quantities (e.q. hydrogen pressure inside the spheres) as well as dynamic properties (e.g. diffusion rate of hydrogen through glass) are still difficult to handle due to the small size of the spheres (d≈15μm). For diffusion rate measurements, the long-term stability of the experiment is also mandatory due to the relatively slow diffusion rate. In this work, we present an accurate and long-term stable measurement technique for static and dynamic properties, using neutron radiography. Furthermore, possible applications for hydrogen filled microspheres within the scope of radiation issues are discussed

  1. LHC Abort Gap Filling by Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Fartoukh, Stéphane David; Shaposhnikova, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Safe operation of the LHC beam dump relies on the possibility of firing the abort kicker at any moment during beam operation. One of the necessary conditions for this is that the number of particles in the abort gap should be below some critical level defined by quench limits. Various scenarios can lead to particles filling the abort gap. Time scales associated with these scenarios are estimated for injection energy and also coast where synchrotron radiation losses are not negligible for uncaptured particle motion. Two cases are considered, with RF on and RF off. The equilibrium distribution of lost particles in the abort gap defines the requirements for maximum tolerable relative loss rate and as a consequence the minimum acceptable longitudinal lifetime of the proton beam in collision.

  2. Effect of Opalescence(®) bleaching gels on the elution of bulk-fill composite components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Lena; Reichl, Franz-Xaver; Rothmund, Lena; He, Xiuli; Yang, Yang; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Kehe, Kai; Polydorou, Olga; Hickel, Reinhard; Högg, Christof

    2016-02-01

    Bleaching treatments can affect release of components from conventional composites. In this continuing study the influence of two different bleaching gels on the elution of bulk-fill composite components was investigated. The composites Tetric EvoCeram(®) Bulk Fill, QuiXFil™ and X-tra fil were treated with the bleaching gels Opalescence PF 15% (PF 15%) for 5 h and PF 35% (PF 35%) for 30 min and then stored in methanol and water for 24 h and 7 d. The eluates were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Unbleached specimens were used as control group. A total of 7 different elutable substances have been identified from the investigated composites after bleaching-treatment. Three of them were methacrylates: 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA). Compared to the unbleached controls an increase in elution after PF 15%-treatment of following compounds was found: HEMA (Tetric EvoCeram(®) Bulk Fill), TEGDMA (QuiXFil™, X-tra fil) and 4-N,N-dimethylaminobenzoic acid butyl ethoxy ester (DMABEE) (Tetric EvoCeram(®) Bulk Fill, QuiXFil™, X-tra fil). Following compounds showed a reduction in elution after PF 35%-treatment compared to controls: TEGDMA (QuiXFil™) and DMABEE (Tetric EvoCeram(®) Bulk Fill). The highest concentration of HEMA was 0.22 mmol/l (Tetric EvoCeram(®) Bulk Fill, methanol, 7 d, PF 15%), the highest concentration of TEGDMA was 0.3 mmol/l (X-tra fil, water, 7 d, PF 15%) and the highest concentration of DMABEE was 0.05 mmol/l (QuiXFil™, water, 7 d, PF 35%). PF 15% and PF 35% can lead to reduced and/or increased elution of some bulk-fill components, compared to unbleached bulk-fill composites. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level...... measure. The main result shows how the order and volume fill rates are related in magnitude. Earlier results derived for a single-item, single-stage, continuous review inventory system with backordering and constant lead times controlled by a base-stock policy are extended in different directions...

  4. Improved gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Maxey, D.V.; Carter, J.G.

    Improved binary and tertiary gas mixture for gas-filled particle detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one gas or mixture of two gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a gas (Ar) having a very small cross section at and below about 0.5 eV; whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electron field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  5. Testing the responses of four wheat crop models to heat stress at anthesis and grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Asseng, Senthold; Liu, Leilei; Tang, Liang; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Higher temperatures caused by future climate change will bring more frequent heat stress events and pose an increasing risk to global wheat production. Crop models have been widely used to simulate future crop productivity but are rarely tested with observed heat stress experimental datasets. Four wheat models (DSSAT-CERES-Wheat, DSSAT-Nwheat, APSIM-Wheat, and WheatGrow) were evaluated with 4 years of environment-controlled phytotron experimental datasets with two wheat cultivars under heat stress at anthesis and grain filling stages. Heat stress at anthesis reduced observed grain numbers per unit area and individual grain size, while heat stress during grain filling mainly decreased the size of the individual grains. The observed impact of heat stress on grain filling duration, total aboveground biomass, grain yield, and grain protein concentration (GPC) varied depending on cultivar and accumulated heat stress. For every unit increase of heat degree days (HDD, degree days over 30 °C), grain filling duration was reduced by 0.30-0.60%, total aboveground biomass was reduced by 0.37-0.43%, and grain yield was reduced by 1.0-1.6%, but GPC was increased by 0.50% for cv Yangmai16 and 0.80% for cv Xumai30. The tested crop simulation models could reproduce some of the observed reductions in grain filling duration, final total aboveground biomass, and grain yield, as well as the observed increase in GPC due to heat stress. Most of the crop models tended to reproduce heat stress impacts better during grain filling than at anthesis. Some of the tested models require improvements in the response to heat stress during grain filling, but all models need improvements in simulating heat stress effects on grain set during anthesis. The observed significant genetic variability in the response of wheat to heat stress needs to be considered through cultivar parameters in future simulation studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Permeability of Granite Including Macro-Fracture Naturally Filled with Fine-Grained Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Yoshitaka; Kato, Masaji; Niri, Ryuhei; Kohno, Masanori; Sato, Toshinori; Fukuda, Daisuke; Sato, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Manabu

    2018-03-01

    Information on the permeability of rock is essential for various geoengineering projects, such as geological disposal of radioactive wastes, hydrocarbon extraction, and natural hazard risk mitigation. It is especially important to investigate how fractures and pores influence the physical and transport properties of rock. Infiltration of groundwater through the damage zone fills fractures in granite with fine-grained minerals. However, the permeability of rock possessing a fracture naturally filled with fine-grained mineral grains has yet to be investigated. In this study, the permeabilities of granite samples, including a macro-fracture filled with clay and a mineral vein, are investigated. The permeability of granite with a fine-grained mineral vein agrees well with that of the intact sample, whereas the permeability of granite possessing a macro-fracture filled with clay is lower than that of the macro-fractured sample. The decrease in the permeability is due to the filling of fine-grained minerals and clay in the macro-fracture. It is concluded that the permeability of granite increases due to the existence of the fractures, but decreases upon filling them with fine-grained minerals.

  7. Experimental investigation on temperature distribution of foamed concrete filled steel tube column under standard fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, B.; Mohammad, S.; Lee, Y. H.; Shek, P. N.; Kadir, M. A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Standard fire test was carried out on 3 hollow steel tube and 6 foamed concrete filled steel tube columns. Temperature distribution on the columns was investigated. 1500 kg/m3 and 1800 kg/m3 foamed concrete density at 15%, 20% and 25% load level are the parameters considered. The columns investigated were 2400 mm long, 139.7 mm outer diameter and 6 mm steel tube thickness. The result shows that foamed concrete filled steel tube columns has the highest fire resistance of 43 minutes at 15% load level and low critical temperature of 671 ºC at 25% load level using 1500 kg/m3 foamed concrete density. Fire resistance of foamed concrete filled column increases with lower foamed concrete strength. Foamed concrete can be used to provide more fire resistance to hollow steel column or to replace normal weight concrete in concrete filled columns. Since filling hollow steel with foamed concrete produce column with high fire resistance than unfilled hollow steel column. Therefore normal weight concrete can be substituted with foamed concrete in concrete filled column, it will reduces the self-weight of the structure because of its light weight at the same time providing the desired fire resistance.

  8. Characterization and Expression Patterns of microRNAs Involved in Rice Grain Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yanxiu; Zhang, Jing; Li, Junzhou; Liu, Yanxia; Zhao, Yafan; Zhao, Quanzhi

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are upstream gene regulators of plant development and hormone homeostasis through their directed cleavage or translational repression of the target mRNAs, which may play crucial roles in rice grain filling and determining the final grain weight and yield. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was performed to survey the dynamic expressions of miRNAs and their corresponding target genes at five distinct developmental stages of grain filling. In total, 445 known miRNAs and 45 novel miRNAs were detected with most of them expressed in a developmental stage dependent manner, and the majority of known miRNAs, which increased gradually with rice grain filling, showed negatively related to the grain filling rate. Detailed expressional comparisons revealed a clear negative correlation between most miRNAs and their target genes. It was found that specific miRNA cohorts are expressed in a developmental stage dependent manner during grain filling and the known functions of these miRNAs are involved in plant hormone homeostasis and starch accumulation, indicating that the expression dynamics of these miRNAs might play key roles in regulating rice grain filling. PMID:23365650

  9. Effects of supporting electrolytes on copper electroplating for filling through-hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chien-Hung; Lu, Chun-Wei; Huang, Su-Mei; Dow, Wei-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The through-holes of a printed circuit boardare directly filled by copper electroplating using single organic additive. → The inhibiting strength of the additive on copper deposition is related to a supporting electrolyte. → H 2 SO 4 strongly enhances the inhibiting strength of the additive and results in a conformal deposition, whereas Na 2 SO 4 and K 2 SO 4 do not affect the inhibiting strength and lead to good filling capability. - Abstract: The filling of micron through-holes (THs) in a printed circuit board (PCB) by copper electroplating was investigated in this study. The role of supporting electrolytes, such as H 2 SO 4 , Na 2 SO 4 and K 2 SO 4 , was explored using practical TH filling plating and linear-sweep voltammetry (LSV) analysis of plating solutions. The copper could selectively fill THs using one organic additive, namely, tetranitroblue tetrazolium chloride (TNBT), as an inhibitor. The inhibiting strength of TNBT depended on the supporting electrolytes. Although H 2 SO 4 could enhance the inhibiting strength of TNBT, it also decreased the filling capability of the copper plating solution; Na 2 SO 4 and K 2 SO 4 did not enhance the inhibiting strength of TNBT but they increased the filling capability of the copper plating solution. Additionally, the protons could chemically interact with TNBT to form precipitate, whereas sodium and potassium ions did not easily interact with TNBT. The filling capability of the copper plating solution using Na 2 SO 4 and K 2 SO 4 as supporting electrolytes could be greatly improved by adding a small amount of bis(3-sulfopropyl)-disulfide (SPS) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with a molecular weight of 600.

  10. Filled aperture concepts for the Terrestrial Planet Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.

    2003-02-01

    Filled aperture telescopes can deliver a real, high Strehl image which is well suited for discrimination of faint planets in the vicinity of bright stars and against an extended exo-zodiacal light. A filled aperture offers a rich variety of PSF control and diffraction suppression techniques. Filled apertures are under consideration for a wide spectral range, including visible and thermal-IR, each of which offers a significant selection of biomarker molecular bands. A filled aperture visible TPF may be simpler in several respects than a thermal-IR nuller. The required aperture size (or baseline) is much smaller, and no cryogenic systems are required. A filled aperture TPF would look and act like a normal telescope - vendors and users alike would be comfortable with its design and operation. Filled aperture telescopes pose significant challenges in production of large primary mirrors, and in very stringent wavefront requirements. Stability of the wavefront control, and hence of the PSF, is a major issue for filled aperture systems. Several groups have concluded that these and other issues can be resolved, and that filled aperture options are competitive for a TPF precursor and/or for the full TPF mission. Ball, Boeing-SVS and TRW have recently returned architecture reviews on filled aperture TPF concepts. In this paper, I will review some of the major considerations underlying these filled aperture concepts, and suggest key issues in a TPF Buyers Guide.

  11. Surface Patterning Using Diazonium Ink Filled Nanopipette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Yu, Yun; Blanchard, Pierre-Yves; Mirkin, Michael V

    2015-11-03

    Molecular grafting of diazonium is a widely employed surface modification technique. Local electrografting of this species is a promising approach to surface doping and related properties tailoring. The instability of diazonium cation complicates this process, so that this species was generated in situ in many reported studies. In this Article, we report the egress transfer of aryl diazonium cation across the liquid/liquid interface supported at the nanopipette tip that can be used for controlled delivery this species to the external aqueous phase for local substrate patterning. An aryl diazonium salt was prepared with weakly coordinating and lipophilic tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion stable as a solid and soluble in low polarity media. The chemically stable solution of this salt in 1,2-dichloroethane can be used as "diazonium ink". The ink-filled nanopipette was employed as a tip in the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) for surface patterning with the spatial resolution controlled by the pipette orifice radius and a few nanometers film thickness. The submicrometer-size grafted spots produced on the HOPG surface were located and imaged with the atomic force microscope (AFM).

  12. [Creep of amalgam fillings under clasp rests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, L; Jung, T; West, M

    1989-10-01

    A clinically realistic experiment was set up to obtain information on the amount of vertical settling of clasp rests in amalgam restorations under functional loading. Mesioocclusal cavities were prepared in 16 lower molar specimens cast in brass. The cavities were filled with amalgam and provided with a mesial rest seat. A constant load of 100 N was applied via a simplified (experimental) saddle to a cobalt-chromium E-clasp cast to the saddle. The duration of the load corresponded to 160 days of clinical function. The chronological course of vertical displacement was analyzed mathematically. According to this result the process can be divided into three components: settling immediately upon load initiation (mean value 96 microns, transition creep (mean value 25 microns) and creep ata constant rate (mean value 15 microns). The mean overall vertical displacement of the rests was 136 microns, the maximum value 287 microns. These findings suggest that vertical settling of a clasp rest into its seat in an amalgam restoration may eventually result in significant changes in occlusion and may almost completely exhaust gingival resilience.

  13. Polymer deformation and filling modes during microembossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Harry D.; King, William P.

    2004-12-01

    This work investigates the initial stages of polymer deformation during hot embossing micro-manufacturing at processing temperatures near the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polymer films having sufficient thickness such that polymer flow is not supply limited. Several stages of polymer flow can be observed by employing stamp geometries of various widths and varying imprint conditions of time and temperature to modulate polymer viscosity. Experiments investigate conditions affecting cavity filling phenomena, including apparent polymer viscosity. Stamps with periodic ridges of height and width 4 µm and periodicity 30, 50 and 100 µm emboss trenches into polymethyl methacrylate films at Tg - 10 °C time, temperature and load are correlated with replicated polymer shape, height and imprinted area. Polymer replicates are measured by atomic force microscopy and inspected by scanning electron microscopy. Cavity size and the temperature dependence of polymer viscosity significantly influence the nature of polymer deformation in hot embossing micro-manufacturing and must be accounted for in rational process design.

  14. Turbulent flow in a partially filled pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Henry; Cregan, Hope; Dodds, Jonathan; Poole, Robert; Dennis, David

    2017-11-01

    Turbulent flow in a pressure driven pipe running partially full has been investigated using high-speed 2D-3C Stereoscopic Particle Imaging Velocimetry. With the field-of-view spanning the entire pipe cross section we are able to reconstruct the full three dimensional quasi-instantaneous flow field by invoking Taylor's hypothesis. The measurements were carried out over a range of flow depths at a constant Reynolds number based on hydraulic diameter and bulk velocity of Re = 32 , 000 . In agreement with previous studies, the ``velocity dip'' phenomenon, whereby the location of the maximum streamwise velocity occurs below the free surface was observed. A mean flow secondary current is observed near the free surface with each of the counter-rotating rollers filling the half-width of the pipe. Unlike fully turbulent flow in a rectangular open channel or pressurized square duct flow where the secondary flow cells appear in pairs about a corner bisector, the mean secondary motion observed here manifests only as a single pair of vortices mirrored about the pipe vertical centreline.

  15. Effect of filling surface-treated pyrolytic char on resistivity of rubber films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattraporn Yamkaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, natural rubber (NR films filled with pyrolytic tire char, carbon black N234 and N330 were compared for their electrical resistivity. The filler loading was varied to be 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of dry rubber content. The effect of surfactant which is 2 %w/v sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS was also investigated. In the experiments, it was necessary to disperse the pyrolytic char in ethyl alcohol while disperse carbon black (CB in ammonium hydroxide solution prior to mixing with the rubber latex and the filled NR film was prepared by casting the mixture on a plate. It was found that increasing the amount of pyrolytic char in the NR film could lower its resistivity. The surfactant, SDS, could help better dispersion of both CB and pyrolytic char, thereby decreasing the resistivity. In a separate experiment where hexane vapor was absorbed in NR film without surfactant, in the first 30 seconds, the rate of increasing resistivity of the CB-filled film was not seen as clearly as that of pyrolytic-char-filled film. For the films with surfactant, the slow increase in resistivity of the NR films filled with N330 and pyrolytic char during adsorbing hexane vapor was observed.

  16. High pressure gas-filled cermet spark gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avilov, Eh.A.; Yur'ev, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The results of modernization of the R-48 and R-49 spark gaps making it possible to improve their electrical characteristics are presented. The design is described and characteristics of gas-filled cermet spark gaps are presented. By the voltage rise time of 5-6 μs in the Marx generator scheme they provide for the pulse break-through voltage of 120 and 150 kV. By the voltage rise time of 0.5-1 μs the break-through voltage of these spark gaps may be increased up to 130 and 220 kV. The proper commutation time is equal to ≤ 0.5 ns. Practical recommendations relative to designing cermet spark gaps are given [ru

  17. Charge fluctuation in Ce-based filled-skutterudite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogi, M; Niki, H; Mukuda, H; Kitaoka, Y; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2009-01-01

    We carried out 121,123 Sb nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurement on CeOs 4 Sb 12 to investigate an anomaly observed in ReOs 4 Sb 12 . The full width of half maximum of the NQR spectrum shows a step-like increase at 115 K with decreasing temperature (T). The nuclear spin-spin relaxation rate 1/T 2 also shows a divergence at the same T. These results are considered to be caused by a distribution of the electric field gradient (EFG) and its fluctuation, which might arise from a small deformation of the cage which consists of twelve Sb. It is considered that the anomaly observed in ReOs 4 Sb 12 at T ∼ 120 K is originated from an unique crystal structure of the filled skutterudite.

  18. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total demanded quantity the order fill rate would be the preferred service...... level measure. The main result shows how the order and volume fill rates are related in magnitude. Earlier results derived for a single-item, single-stage, continuous review inventory system with backordering and constant lead times controlled by a base-stock policy are extended in different directions...... extensions consider more general inventory control review policies with backordering, as well as some relations between service measures. A particularly important result in the paper concerns an alternative service measure, the customer order fill rate, and shows how this measure always exceeds the other two...

  19. Intelligent electric vehicle charging: Rethinking the valley-fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Keenan; Temple, William G.; Zhang, K. Max

    This study proposes an intelligent PEV charging scheme that significantly reduces power system cost while maintaining reliability compared to the widely discussed valley-fill method of aggregated charging in the early morning. This study considers optimal PEV integration into the New York Independent System Operator's (NYISO) day-ahead and real-time wholesale energy markets for 21 days in June, July, and August of 2006, a record-setting summer for peak load. NYISO market and load data is used to develop a statistical Locational Marginal Price (LMP) and wholesale energy cost model. This model considers the high cost of ramping generators at peak-load and the traditional cost of steady-state operation, resulting in a framework with two competing cost objectives. Results show that intelligent charging assigns roughly 80% of PEV load to valley hours to take advantage of low steady-state cost, while placing the remaining 20% equally at shoulder and peak hours to reduce ramping cost. Compared to unregulated PEV charging, intelligent charging reduces system cost by 5-16%; a 4-9% improvement over the flat valley-fill approach. Moreover, a Charge Flexibility Constraint (CFC), independent of market modeling, is constructed from a vehicle-at-home profile and the mixture of Level 1 and Level 2 charging infrastructure. The CFC is found to severely restrict the ability to charge vehicles during the morning load valley. This study further shows that adding more Level 2 chargers without regulating PEV charging will significantly increase wholesale energy cost. Utilizing the proposed intelligent PEV charging method, there is a noticeable reduction in system cost if the penetration of Level 2 chargers is increased from 70/30 to 50/50 (Level 1/Level 2). However, the system benefit is drastically diminished for higher penetrations of Level 2 chargers.

  20. Curing characteristics of flowable and sculptable bulk-fill composites

    OpenAIRE

    Miletic, Vesna; Pongpruenska, Pong; De Munck, Jan; Brooks, Neil R; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine and correlate the degree of conversion (DC) with Vickers hardness (VH) and translucency parameter (TP) with the depth of cure (DoC) of five bulk-fill composites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six specimens per group, consisting of Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill ("TEC Bulk," Ivoclar Vivadent), SonicFill (Kerr), SDR Smart Dentin Replacement ("SDR," Dentsply), Xenius base ("Xenius," StickTech; commercialized as EverX Posterior, GC), Filtek Bul...

  1. Electromechanical stability of electro-active silicone filled with high permittivity particles undergoing large deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Zhang, Zhen; Leng, Jinsong; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an expression for the permittivity of electro-active silicone undergoing large deformation with high permittivity particles filled uniformly has been proposed. Two expressions are proposed for the permittivity, one based on experimental tests and the other based on the theory of composite material. By applying the thermodynamic model incorporating linear dielectric permittivity and nonlinear hyperelastic performance, the mechanical performance and electromechanical stability of the coupling system constituted by silicone filled with PMN–PT have been studied. The results show that the critical electric field decreases, namely the stability performance of the system declines when the content of PMN–PT c(v) increases and the electrostrictive coefficients increase. The results are beneficial for us to understand deeply the influence of the filled particle on the stability performance of silicone and to guide the design and manufacture of actuators and sensors based on dielectric elastomers

  2. Modeling of the quantum dot filling and the dark current of quantum dot infrared photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameen, Tarek A.; El-Batawy, Yasser M.; Abouelsaood, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    A generalized drift-diffusion model for the calculation of both the quantum dot filling profile and the dark current of quantum dot infrared photodetectors is proposed. The confined electrons inside the quantum dots produce a space-charge potential barrier between the two contacts, which controls the quantum dot filling and limits the dark current in the device. The results of the model reasonably agree with a published experimental work. It is found that increasing either the doping level or the temperature results in an exponential increase of the dark current. The quantum dot filling turns out to be nonuniform, with a dot near the contacts containing more electrons than one in the middle of the device where the dot occupation approximately equals the number of doping atoms per dot, which means that quantum dots away from contacts will be nearly unoccupied if the active region is undoped

  3. [Cermet cements for milk tooth fillings. Preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickel, R; Petschelt, A; Voss, A

    1989-06-01

    106 Ketac-Silver fillings in deciduous molars were reevaluated after 1 to 3.3 years, i.e. 25 month on the average. About 90% of 50 occlusal fillings and about 84% of 56 multisurface restorations were unchanged. Without claiming statistical evidence for their conclusiveness, we consider these results as an indication that cermet cements are a useful alternative to amalgam fillings in deciduous teeth, particularly since the life of these fillings is limited to the time until the milk tooth is physiologically lost.

  4. Method for automatic filling of nuclear fuel rod cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezold, H.

    1979-01-01

    Prior to welding the zirconium alloy cladding tubes with end caps, they are automatically filled with nuclear fuel tablets and ceramic insulating tablets. The tablets are introduced into magazine drums and led through a drying oven to a discharging station. The empty cladding tubes are removed from this discharging station and filled with tablets. A filling stamp pushes out the columns of tablets in the magazine tubes of the magazine drum into the cladding tube. Weight and measurement of length determine the filled state of the cladding tube. The cladding tubes are then led to the welding station via a conveyor belt. (DG) [de

  5. Initial settlements of rock fills on soft clay

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Truls Martens

    2012-01-01

    Rock fills that hit the seabed will remold the underlying material. If this material is a clay with sufficiently low shear strength, it will adopt rheological properties, causing flow through the rock fill, and contributing to the initial settlements of the rock fill in addition to conventional consolidation theory. The settlements of the rocks depend upon the height of the rock fill and how the rocks have been laid out. This is due to the viscosity of the clay, and the fact that clay is thix...

  6. Technical quality of root canal fillings performed in a dental school and the associated retention of root-filled teeth: a clinical follow-up study over a 5-year period.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, F M

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the technical quality of root canal fillings performed in a dental school and to investigate the associated effect on the survival\\/retention of root-filled teeth. A review of case notes of patients who had root canal treatment performed in the department of Restorative Dentistry, University Dental School and Hospital, Cork, Ireland was carried out. The technical quality of the root canal filling was described according to its relationship with the radiographic apex on a post-treatment radiograph. Tooth status at review was defined as \\'tooth present\\' or \\'tooth absent\\' based on the presence or absence of the root-filled tooth recorded in the treatment records at a review appointment following placement of the root canal filling. One hundred and forty-eight teeth (129 patients) were considered. Of these, 69.6% (n = 103) were of acceptable technical quality, 23.6% (n = 35) were under-extended, and 6.8% (n = 10) were overextended. An increased number of intra-treatment radiographs to confirm the relationship of the canal preparation to the radiographic apex and operator experience were significant predictors of adequate root canal fillings (P < 0.05). Eighty-three per cent (n = 123) of teeth were present at a review appointment held an average of 40 months following completion of treatment (12-60 months). The technical quality of the root canal filling was the only significant factor in predicting tooth survival (P < 0.05), while the presence of pre-treatment periapical pathology had no significant effect on survival of the root-filled tooth. Determination and maintenance of the working length of the canal system is an important feature in producing good quality root canal fillings, which in turn, is associated with increased likelihood of survival\\/retention of root-filled teeth.

  7. Estimation of water-filled and air-filled porosity in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    Water content and porosity vary considerably within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Measurement of these quantities has been based on core samples. A log-based approach offers the advantage of in-situ measurements, continuous throughout the borehole. This paper describes an algorithm which determines the air-filled and water-filled porosities from density and dielectric logs. The responses of density and dielectric logs are formulated in terms of the matrix properties, air-filled porosity and water-filled porosity. Porosity values obtained from logs from borehole USW G-2 are in reasonable agreement with estimates from core determinations

  8. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L

    2015-11-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)×spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulation, and grain dimensions interacted strongly with each other. Furthermore, larger carpels, a faster grain filling rate, earlier and longer grain filling, more grain water, faster grain water absorption and loss rates, and larger grain dimensions were associated with higher grain weight. Frequent quantitative trait locus (QTL) coincidences between these traits were observed, particularly those on chromosomes 2A, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5DL, and 7B, each of which harboured 16-49 QTLs associated with >12 traits. Analysis of the allelic effects of coincident QTLs confirmed their physiological relationships, indicating that the complex but orderly grain filling processes result mainly from pleiotropy or the tight linkages of functionally related genes. After grain filling, distal grains within spikelets were smaller than basal grains, primarily due to later grain filling and a slower initial grain filling rate, followed by synchronous maturation among different grains. Distal grain weight was improved by increased assimilate availability from anthesis. These findings provide deeper insight into grain weight determination in wheat, and the high level of QTL coincidences allows simultaneous improvement of multiple grain filling traits in breeding. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Arch Bridges in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielian Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past 20 years, great progress has been achieved in China in the construction of concrete-filled steel tube (CFST arch bridges and concrete arch bridges with a CFST skeleton. The span of these bridges has been increasing rapidly, which is rare in the history of bridge development. The large-scale construction of expressways and high-speed railways demands the development of long-span arch bridges, and advances in design and construction techniques have made it possible to construct such bridges. In the present study, the current status, development, and major innovative technologies of CFST arch bridges and concrete arch bridges with a CFST skeleton in China are elaborated. This paper covers the key construction technologies of CFST arch bridges, such as the design, manufacture, and installation of steel tube arch trusses, the preparation and pouring of in-tube concrete, and the construction of the world’s longest CFST arch bridge—the First Hejiang Yangtze River Bridge. The main construction technologies of reinforced concrete arch bridges are also presented, which include cable-stayed fastening-hanging cantilever assembly, adjusting the load by means of stay cables, surrounding the concrete for arch rib pouring, and so forth. In addition, the construction of two CFST skeleton concrete arch bridges—the Guangxi Yongning Yong River Bridge and the Yunnan–Guangxi Railway Nanpan River Bridge—is discussed. CFST arch bridges in China have already gained a world-leading position; with the continuous innovation of key technologies, China will become the new leader in promoting the development of arch bridges. Keywords: Concrete-filled steel tube (CFST arch bridge, Steel-reinforced concrete arch bridge, Cable-stayed fastening-hanging cantilever assembly, Vacuum-assisted pouring in-tube concrete, Adjusting load by stay cables

  10. Using Habit Reversal to Decrease Filled Pauses in Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Carolyn; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of simplified habit reversal in reducing filled pauses that occur during public speaking. Filled pauses consist of "uh," "um," or "er"; clicking sounds; and misuse of the word "like." After baseline, participants received habit reversal training that consisted of…

  11. Theory Of Dewetting In A Filled Elastomer Under Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Steven T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of dewetting between elastomeric binder and filler particles of highly filled elastomer under multiaxial tension and resulting dilatation of elastomer. Study directed toward understanding and predicting nonlinear stress-vs.-strain behavior of filled elastomeric rocket propellant, also applicable to rubber in highly loaded tire or in damping pad.

  12. Predicting heat transfer in long, R-134a filled thermosyphons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grooten, M.H.M.; Geld, van der C.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    When traditional air-to-air cooling is too voluminous, heat exchangers with long thermosyphons offer a good alternative. Experiments with a single thermosyphon with a large length-to-diameter ratio (188) and filled with R-134a are presented and analyzed. Saturation temperatures, filling ratios, and

  13. Radiodiagnosis of filled retention bronchial cysts and lung tuberculomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudz', A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Radiological semiotics of filled retention bronchial cysts in 23 patients and of lung tuberculomes in 52 is studied on the basis of the data on roentgenography, tomography and bronchography. Characteristic radiological signs of retention bronchial cysts and tuberculomes are determined. Significance of each radiological sign for differential diagnosis of filled retention bronchial cysts and lung tuberculomes is estimated

  14. CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORIDA FILL MATERIALS AND SOILS 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Foundation Fill Data Base project of the Foundation Fill Materials Specifications Task Area of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). Work included determination of radon concentrations...

  15. Simulation of mould filling process for composite skeleton castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dziuba

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work authors showed selected results of simulation and experimental studies on temperature distribution during solidification of skeleton casting and mould filling process. The aim of conducted simulations was the choice of thermal and geometrical parameters for the needs of designed calculations of the skeleton castings and the estimation of the guidelines for the technology of manufacturing. The subject of numerical simulation was the analysis of ability of filling the channels of core by liquid metal at estability technological parameters.. Below the assumptions and results of the initial simulated calculations are presented. The total number of the nodes in the casting was 1920 and of the connectors was 5280 what gave filling of 100% for the nodes and 99,56% for the connectors in the results of the simulation. Together it resulted as 99,78 % of filling the volume of the casting. The nodes and connectors were filled up to the 30 level of the casting in the simulation. The all connectors were filled up to the 25 level of the casting in the simulation. Starting from the 25 level individual connectors at the side surface of the casting weren’t filled up. The connectors weren’t supplied by multi-level getting system. The differences of filling the levels are little (maximally 5 per cent.

  16. The automatic liquid nitrogen filling system for GDA detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition, no physical access to the beam hall is required during routine filling operation. The system consists of ... PSI with the manual valve (MV) on the dewar kept open. For filling the detectors on one ... sequence the opening/closing of the valves depending upon the outlet temperature. By monitoring the time taken for ...

  17. Method and apparatus for filling cryogenic liquid cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remes, S.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for filling a portable cryogenic liquid cylinder from a large stand tank. The invention employs a regulator valve to perform an automatic throttling function whereby the pressure in the liquid cylinder is maintained at a value slightly lower than the upstream pressure in the stand tank. This significantly reduces filling losses due to flashing

  18. Gap filling strategies and error in estimating annual soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil respiration (Rsoil) is one of the largest CO2 fluxes in the global carbon (C) cycle. Estimation of annual Rsoil requires extrapolation of survey measurements or gap-filling of automated records to produce a complete time series. While many gap-filling methodologies have been employed, there is ...

  19. Rapid filling of pipelines with the SPH particle method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Q.; Zhang, L.X.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports the development and application of a SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) based simulation of rapid filling of pipelines, for which the rigid-column model is commonly used. In this paper the water-hammer equations with a moving boundary are used to model the pipe filling process,

  20. Rapid filling of pipelines with the SPH particle method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Q.; Zhang, L.X.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports the development and application of a SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) based simulation of rapid filling of pipelines, for which the rigid-column model is commonly used. In this paper the water-hammer equations with a moving boundary are used to model the pipe filling process,

  1. Process for automatic filling of nuclear fuel rod cans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezold, H.

    1977-01-01

    A drying section is inserted in the production line for the automation of the filling process for fuel rods with nuclear fuel pellets. The pellets are taken in a drum magazine to a drying furnace and then pushed out one after the other into the can to be filled. (TK) [de

  2. 46 CFR 151.03-21 - Filling density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filling density. 151.03-21 Section 151.03-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-21 Filling density. The ratio, expressed as...

  3. Excavation/Fill/Soil Disturbance, Self-Study #31419

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogin, Phillip W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    This course, Excavation/Fill/Soil Disturbance Self-Study (#31419), presents an overview of the hazards, controls, and requirements that affect safe excavations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An overview of the LANL excavation/fill/soil disturbance permit (EXID permit) approval process is also presented, along with potholing requirements for planning and performing excavations at LANL.

  4. Microbiological studies on bacterial isolates from penicillins filling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aseptic processing is a critical method for the preparation of thermolabile sterile parenteral drug products. Sterile β-lactam antibiotics are extremely deactivated by heat, so the method of choice for their processing is through aseptic filling. The consequences of contamination on aseptically-filled products are harmful to the ...

  5. 27 CFR 4.72 - Metric standards of fill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metric standards of fill. 4.72 Section 4.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Fill for Wine § 4.72 Metric...

  6. Water balance of an earth fill built of organic clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birle Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents investigations on the water balance of an earth fill built of organic clay in humid climate. As the organic soil used for the fill contains geogenetically elevated concentrations of arsenic, particular attention is paid on the seepage flow through the fill. The test fill is 5 m high, 30 m long and 25 m wide. The fill consists of the organic clay compacted at water contents wet and dry of Proctor Optimum covered by a drainage mat and a 60 cm thick top layer. For the determination of the water balance extensive measuring systems were installed. The seepage at the bottom measured so far was less than 2 % of the precipitation. The interflow in the drainage mat above the compacted organic clay was of similar magnitude. The estimated evapotranspiration reached approx. 84 % of the precipitation. According to these measurements the percolation is much lower than the percolation of many landfill covers in humid climates.

  7. Development of gap filling technique in HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Hitoshi; Saito, Akira; Ishii, Takashi; Toguri, Satohito; Okihara, Mitsunobu; Iwasa, Kengo

    2016-01-01

    HLW is supposed to be disposed underground at depths more than 300 m in Japan. Buffer is an artificial barrier that controls radionuclides migrating into the groundwater. The buffer would be made of a natural swelling clay, bentonite. Construction technology for the buffer has been studied for many years, but studies for the gaps surrounding the buffer are little. The proper handling of the gaps is important for guaranteeing the functions of the buffer. In this paper, gap filling techniques using bentonite pellets have been developed in order to the gap having the same performance as the buffer. A new method for manufacturing high-density spherical pellets has been developed to fill the gap higher density ever reported. For the bentonite pellets, the filling performance and how to use were determined. And full-scale filling tests provided availability of the bentonite pellets and filling techniques. (author)

  8. Magnetically Active and Coated Gadolinium-Filled Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Fidiani, Elok; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Wolter, Anja U. B.; Maier, Diana; Buechner, Bernd; Hampel, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Gd-filled carbon nanotubes (which include the so-called gadonanotubes(1)) have been attracting much interest due to their potential use in medical diagnostic applications. In the present work, a vacuum filling method was performed to confine gadolinium(III) iodide in carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Filling yields in excess of 50% were obtained. Cleaning and dosing of the external walls was undertaken, as well as the study of the filled CNT magnetic properties. Overall, we found that the encapsulating procedure can lead to reduction of the lanthanide metal and induce disorder in the initial GdI3-type structure. Notwithstanding, the magnetic response of the material is not compromised, retaining a strong paramagnetic response and an effective magnetic moment of similar to 6 mu B. Our results may entice further investigation into whether an analogous Gd3+ to Gd2+ reduction takes place in other Gd-filled CNT systems.

  9. Magnetically Active and Coated Gadolinium-Filled Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Fidiani, Elok

    2013-08-15

    Gd-filled carbon nanotubes (which include the so-called gadonanotubes(1)) have been attracting much interest due to their potential use in medical diagnostic applications. In the present work, a vacuum filling method was performed to confine gadolinium(III) iodide in carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Filling yields in excess of 50% were obtained. Cleaning and dosing of the external walls was undertaken, as well as the study of the filled CNT magnetic properties. Overall, we found that the encapsulating procedure can lead to reduction of the lanthanide metal and induce disorder in the initial GdI3-type structure. Notwithstanding, the magnetic response of the material is not compromised, retaining a strong paramagnetic response and an effective magnetic moment of similar to 6 mu B. Our results may entice further investigation into whether an analogous Gd3+ to Gd2+ reduction takes place in other Gd-filled CNT systems.

  10. Simulations of fill tube effects on the implosion of high-foot NIF ignition capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, T R; Hurricane, O A; Berzak-Hopkins, L F; Callahan, D A; Casey, D T; Clark, D; Dewald, E L; Doeppner, T; Haan, S W; Hammel, B A; Harte, J A; Hinkel, D E; Kozioziemski, B J; Kritcher, A L; Ma, T; Nikroo, A; Pak, A E; Parham, T G; Park, H-S; Patel, P K

    2016-01-01

    Encouraging results have been obtained using a strong first shock during the implosion of carbon-based ablator ignition capsules. These “high-foot” implosion results show that capsule performance deviates from 1D expectations as laser power and energy are increased. A possible cause of this deviation is the disruption of the hot spot by jets originating in the capsule fill tube. Nominally, a 10 μm outside diameter glass (SiO 2 ) fill tube is used in these implosions. Simulations indicate that a thin coating of Au on this glass tube may lessen the hotspot disruption. These results and other mitigation strategies will be presented. (paper)

  11. Simulations of fill tube effects on the implosion of high-foot NIF ignition capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. R.; Hurricane, O. A.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D.; Dewald, E. L.; Doeppner, T.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Harte, J. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Kritcher, A. L.; Ma, T.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A. E.; Parham, T. G.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Remington, B. A.; Salmonson, J. D.; Springer, P. T.; Weber, C. R.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Kline, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Encouraging results have been obtained using a strong first shock during the implosion of carbon-based ablator ignition capsules. These “high-foot” implosion results show that capsule performance deviates from 1D expectations as laser power and energy are increased. A possible cause of this deviation is the disruption of the hot spot by jets originating in the capsule fill tube. Nominally, a 10 μm outside diameter glass (SiO2) fill tube is used in these implosions. Simulations indicate that a thin coating of Au on this glass tube may lessen the hotspot disruption. These results and other mitigation strategies will be presented.

  12. Crystallization and melting behavior of isotactic polypropylene composites filled by zeolite supported β-nucleator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Juan; Li, Gu; Tan, Nanshu; Ding, Qian; Mai, Kancheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The supported calcium pimelate β-zeolite was prepared. ► The β-nucleation of zeolite was enhanced dramatically through reaction. ► High β-phase content iPP composites were obtained by introducing the β-zeolite into iPP. - Abstract: In order to prepare the zeolite filled β-iPP composites, the calcium pimelate as β-nucleator supported on the surface of zeolite (β-zeolite) was prepared by the interaction between calcified zeolite and pimelic acid. The β-nucleation, crystallization behavior and melting characteristic of zeolite, calcified zeolite and β-zeolite filled iPP composites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffractometer. The results indicated that addition of the zeolite and calcified zeolite as well as β-zeolite increased the crystallization temperature of iPP. The zeolite and calcified zeolite filled iPP composites mainly crystallized in the α-crystal form and the strong β-heterogeneous nucleation of β-zeolite results in the formation of only β-crystal in β-zeolite filled iPP composites. The zeolite filled β-iPP composites with high β-crystal contents (above 0.90) can be easily obtained by adding β-zeolite into iPP matrix.

  13. Effects of microstructure and filling ratio on electromagnetic properties of Co microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, N.; Jiang, J.T.; Yuan, Y.; Liu, C.; Xu, C.Y.; Zhen, L.

    2017-01-01

    Cobalt microspheres with diameters of 1.5–3.5 µm were synthesized by a liquid phase reduction method. The effects of hydrogen annealing on microstructure evolution and electromagnetic properties of Co microspheres were investigated. The influence of filling ratio on the electromagnetic properties of specimens containing Co microspheres as fillers was also examined. The results indicated that the annealing leads to increase in Co microspheres' permittivity as the improved conductivity that developed during annealing contributes to enhanced dielectric relaxation. High filling ratio is found to be favorable for achieving high electromagnetic properties and thus higher electromagnetic absorbing performances, which is of technical significant for application in low frequency band. Coatings containing 30, 45 and 50 vol% Co particles as fillers present excellent EMA performance, even very thin thickness is applied. High electromagnetic wave absorbing efficiency of −10 dB was observed at thickness of 1.5 mm in C band and the electromagnetic wave absorption bandwidth reaches up to 6.3 GHz (6.7–13 GHz) when the filling volume is 45 vol%. - Highlights: • An EABW up to 6.1 GHz was obtained in a thin coating using Co particle as fillers. • The electromagnetic properties can be tailored via annealing and filling ratio. • High filling ratio is favorable to excellent EMA performance.

  14. Filling Source Feedthrus with Alumina/Molybdenum CND50 Cermet: Experimental, Theoretical, and Computational Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STUECKER, JOHN N.; CESARANO III, JOSEPH; CORRAL, ERICA LORRANE; SHOLLENBERGER, KIM ANN; ROACH, R. ALLEN; TORCZYNSKI, JOHN R.; THOMAS, EDWARD V.; VAN ORNUM, DAVID J.

    2001-01-01

    This report is a summary of the work completed in FY00 for science-based characterization of the processes used to fabricate cermet vias in source feedthrus. In particular, studies were completed to characterize the CND50 cermet slurry, characterize solvent imbibition, and identify critical via filling variables. These three areas of interest are important to several processes pertaining to the production of neutron generator tubes. Rheological characterization of CND50 slurry prepared with 94ND2 and Sandi94 primary powders were also compared. The 94ND2 powder was formerly produced at the GE Pinellas Plant and the Sandi94 is the new replacement powder produced at CeramTec. Processing variables that may effect the via-filling process were also studied and include: the effect of solids loading in the CND50 slurry; the effect of milling time; and the effect of Nuosperse (a slurry ''conditioner''). Imbibition characterization included a combination of experimental, theoretical, and computational strategies to determine solvent migration though complex shapes, specifically vias in the source feedthru component. Critical factors were determined using a controlled set of experiments designed to identify those variables that influence the occurrence of defects within the cermet filled via. These efforts were pursued to increase part production reliability, understand selected fundamental issues that impact the production of slurry-filled parts, and validate the ability of the computational fluid dynamics code, GOMA, to simulate these processes. Suggestions are made for improving the slurry filling of source feedthru vias

  15. Mechanical evaluation of bone gap filled with rigid formulations castor oil polyurethane and chitosan in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Crispim Moreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Often fractures of long bones in horses are comminuted and form bone gaps, which represent a major challenge for the fixation of these fractures by loss of contact between the fragments. Bone grafts help in treating this kind of fracture and synthetic materials have been gaining ground because of the limitations of autologous and heterologous grafts. In this study were performed compressive non destructive test in 10 bones with complete cross-bone gap in mid-diaphyseal of the third metacarpal bone of horses. Using a mechanism of "crossing" the 10 bones were used in the three groups (control, castor oil poliuretane and chitosan according to the filling material. After the test with maximum load of 1000N bone had a gap filled by another material and the test was repeated. Deformations caused on the whole bone, plate and bone tissue near and distant of gap were evaluated, using strain gauges adhered to the surface at these locations. There was a reduction in bone deformation from 14% (control to 3,5% and 4,8% by filling the gap with Chitosan and castor oil respectively, and a reduction of strain on the plate of 96% and 85% by filling gap with chitosan and castor respectively. An increase in intensity and direction of deformations occurred in bone near to gap after its filling; however, there was no difference in bone deformations occurring far the gap.

  16. Experimental investigation on No-Vent Fill (NVF) process using liquid Nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Cheol; Seo, Man Su; Yoo, Dong Gyu; Jeong, Sang Kwon

    2014-01-01

    For a long-term space mission, filling process of cryogenic liquid propellant is operated on a space vehicle in space. A vent process during transfer and filling of cryogenic propellant is needed to maintain the fuel tank pressure at a safe level due to its volatile characteristic. It is possible that both liquid and vapor phases of the cryogenic propellant are released simultaneously to outer space when the vent process occurs under low gravity environment. As a result, the existing filling process with venting not only accompanies wasting liquid propellant, but also consumes extra fuel to compensate for the unexpected momentum originated from the vent process. No-Vent Fill (NVF) method, a filling procedure without a venting process of cryogenic liquid propellant, is an attractive technology to perform a long-term space mission. In this paper, the preliminary experimental results of the NVF process are described. The experimental set-up consists of a 9-liter cryogenic liquid receiver tank and a supply tank. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is used to simulate the behavior of cryogenic propellant. The whole situation in the receiver tank during NVF is monitored. The major experimental parameter in the experiment is the mass flow rate of the liquid nitrogen. The experimental results demonstrate that as the mass flow rate is increased, NVF process is conducted successfully. The quality and the inlet temperature of the injected LN2 are affected by the mass flow rate. These parameters determine success of NVF.

  17. Sorption of phenanthrene and benzene on differently structural kerogen: Important role of micropore-filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yulong; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Shale was thermally treated to obtain a series of kerogen with varied maturation. Their chemical, structural and porous properties were related to the sorption and/or desorption behaviors of phenanthrene and benzene. As the treatment temperature increases, aliphatic and carbonyl carbon of the kerogen samples decrease, while their aromaticity and maturation increase. Meanwhile, the isothermal nonlinearity of phenanthrene and benzene increases whereas the sorption capacity and micropore adsorption volumes (V o,d ) initially increase and then decrease. The V o,d of benzene is significantly correlated with, but higher than that of phenanthrene, suggesting similar micropore filling mechanism and molecular sieve effect. The benzene desorption exhibits hysteresis, which is related to the pore deformation of the kerogen and the entrapment of solute in the kerogen matrix. The V o,d of phenanthrene and benzene on the kerogen samples accounts for 23–46% and 36–65% of the maximum sorption volumes, respectively, displaying the importance of the micropore filling. -- Highlights: • The microporosity estimated by benzene vapor differs greatly from that by N 2 . • The micropore volume changes with kerogen maturation. • The phenanthrene or benzene sorption is related to the microporosity of kerogen. • Higher adsorption volume for benzene than for phenanthrene suggests molecular sieve effect. • The pore-filling plays an important role in the sorption of phenanthrene and benzene. -- The sorption behaviors of benzene and phenanthrene are related to the microporosity of the differently matured kerogen, indicating the importance of pore-filling

  18. Flame Retardancy and Mechanical Properties of Kenaf Filled Polypropylene (PP) Containing Ammonium Polyphosphate (APP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atikah Ismail; Azman Hassan; Aznizam Abu Bakar; Jawaid, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as flame retardant and kenaf as fillers on flammability, thermal and mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP) composites were determined. Test specimens were prepared by using a co-rotating twin screw extruder for the compounding process followed by injection molding. The flame retardancy of the composites was determined by using limiting oxygen index (LOI) test. Addition of flame retardant into kenaf-PP composites significantly increased the LOI values that indicated the improvement of flame retardancy. Thermogravimetric analysis was done to examine the thermal stability of the composites. The addition of kenaf fiber in PP composites decreased the thermal stability significantly but the influence of APP on thermal properties of the kenaf-filled PP composites was not significant. The flexural strength and modulus of composites increased with the addition of APP into kenaf filled PP composite. The addition of APP into kenaf filled PP causes increase in the impact strength while increasing the APP content in the kenaf filled PP composite show decrease in impact strength. (author)

  19. Sound Transmission Properties of Mineral-filled High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE and Wood-HDPE Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birm-June Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wood plastic composites (WPCs offer various advantages and potential as a competitive alternative to conventional noise barriers. For this purpose, the influence of composite formulation on the sound transmission loss (TL of WPCs needs to be fully understood. In TL testing, stiffness and surface density are major factors influencing the sound insulation property of filled plastics and WPCs. Experimental TL values decreased as sound frequency increased; and the TL values increased after passing a certain frequency level. The comparison of experimental TL curves among filled composites showed that the addition of fillers led to an increase in resonance frequency and TL values. However, at high filling levels, the stiffness decrease led to TL reductions. The experimental TL curves of filled composites, composed of mass law and stiffness law predictions, were well approximated with their combined TL predictions.

  20. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE SONICFILL™ METHOD FOR LATERAL FILLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae BARANOV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of bulk-fill type fillings realized with SONICFill™ over an 18 month interval, on a batch of patients with different ages and occupations. Materials and methods: the study was performed on a batch of 73 patients who addressed the Clinical of OdontologyEndodontics within the Platform of Practical Training (PIP of the Faculty of Dental Medicine of the ”Apollonia” University of Iaşi, between Octomber 1, 2014 - May 1, 2016, subjected to 91 bulk-fill fillings with SonicFill™ on the posterior teeth. Results and discussion: out of the total number of 73 patients, 56 came from the urban environment, and 17 - from the rural medium, the highest ratio being represented by the 21-30 year age group (45%, closely followed by the 31-40 year one (40%. As for gender distribution within the batch, nearly two-thirds are women, the rest being men. The education level influenced patients’ decision – that of accepting a new method of filling application. As to the types of teeth to which restorations were applied, the highest ratio is represented by lower molars (41%, followed by upper molars (23% and mandibular premolars (20%, the lowest number of restorations being applied to maxillary premolars. Out of the total number of 91 bulk-fill restorations, 28 were applied over a base filling while, in 63 restorations, the basic filling was absent. Conclusions: The SonicFill ™ system for bulk-fill posterior restorations has a number of advantages, such as: high photopolymerization depth, significant reduction of setting contraction, better composite adaptation to the cavity walls, long-term predictable clinical results.

  1. Utilization of crushed radioactive concrete for mortar to fill waste container void space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Kazuhiko; Oguri, Daiichiro; Ueki, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Minimizing the volume of radioactive waste generated during dismantling of nuclear power plants is a matter of great importance. In Japan waste forms buried in a shallow burial disposal facility as low level radioactive waste must be solidified by cement or other materials with adequate strength and must provide no harmful opening. The authors have developed an improved method to minimize radioactive waste volume by utilizing radioactive concrete for fine aggregate for mortars to fill void space in waste containers. Tests were performed with pre-placed concrete waste and with filling mortar using recycled fine aggregate produced from concrete. It was estimated that the improved method substantially increases the waste fill ratio in waste containers, thereby decreasing the total volume of disposal waste. (author)

  2. Photonic crystal fiber sensing characteristics research based on alcohol asymmetry filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fu-quan; Luo, Yan; Li, Hai-tao; Peng, Bao-jin

    2018-02-01

    A new type of Sagnac fiber temperature sensor based on alcohol asymmetric filling photonic crystal fiber is proposed. First, the corrosion of photonic crystal fiber and the treatment of air hole collapse are carried out. Then, the asymmetric structure of photonic crystal fiber is filled with alcohol, and then the structure is connected to the Sagnac interference ring. When the temperature changes, the thermal expansion effect of filling alcohol will lead to the change of birefringence of photonic crystal fiber, so that the interference spectrum of the sensor will drift along with the change of temperature. The experimental results show that the interference red shift will occur with the increase of temperature, and the temperature sensitivity is 0.1864nm/ °C. The sensor has high sensitivity to temperature. At the same time, the structure has the advantages of high stability, anti electromagnetic interference and easy to build. It provides a new method for obtaining birefringence in ordinary photonic crystal fibers.

  3. Relaxation and filling of the left ventricle assessed by Doppler echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myreng, Y.

    1990-01-01

    In patients with coronary disease the Doppler method described in the present work was capable of detecting a delayed left ventricular (LV) relaxation and a shift of LV filling from early towards late diastole. This might reflect changes in LV diastolic function due to myocardial ischemia. Furthermore, the method allowed monitoring of changes during treatment with atenolol and verapamil. These changes indicated that atenolol and verapamil were able to partially correct the relaxation abnormailty and increase the relative contribution of early diastolic filling. Although all the numerous variables that influence LV transmitral filling could be controlled in this noninvasive clinical study, the results suggest that antianginal drugs may have beneficial effect on diastolic function in coronary disease. 62 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Light propagation in gas-filled kagomé hollow core photonic crystal fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sílvia M. G.; Facão, Margarida; Ferreira, Mário F. S.

    2018-04-01

    We study the propagation of light in kagomé hollow core photonic crystal fibres (HC-PCFs) filled with three different noble gases, namely, helium, xenon and argon. Various properties, including the guided modes, the group-velocity dispersion, and the nonlinear parameter were determined. The zero dispersion wavelength and the nonlinear parameter vary with the gas pressure which may be used to tune the generation of new frequencies using the same pump laser and the same fibre. In the case of the kagomé HC-PCF filled with xenon, the zero dispersion wavelength shifts from 693 to 1973 nm when the pressure is increased from 1 to 150bar, while the effective Kerr nonlinearity becomes comparable to that of silica. We have simulated the propagation of femtosecond pulses launched at 790 nm in order to study the generation of supercontinuum and UV light in kagomé HC-PCFs filled with the noble gases.

  5. Simulation and experimental verification of the filling process of semi-solid die forging for cup shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo TAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The filling mold process of semi-solid alloy blank influences severely the forming and properties of finished piece. In this paper, DEFORM is applied to simulate the process of cup-type 6061 alloy die forging casting. The influences of the temperature of semi-solid alloy blank, preheating temperature, and downward press speed of pressure head on process of mold filling and velocity field are investigated. The results show that the mold filling of semi-solid alloy paste smoothly fills along the whole of mould cavity in “total wall thickness” form when the temperature of semi-solid alloy blank is 620 ℃, preheating temperature of pressure head is 200 ℃ and speed of pressure head is 40 mm/s. Along with the increase of the preheating temperature of pressure head, the filling process of the semi-solid alloy paste trends toward stable when the temperature of semi-solid alloy blank is 620 ℃ and the speed of pressure head is 20 mm/s. Along with the increasing of the temperature of semi-solid alloy, the process of mould filling becomes off balance and the liquid becomes turbulent flow. The velocity field in the process of mould filling affects severely the structure uniformity of the finished product.

  6. Quality of root fillings performed with two root filling techniques. An in vitro study using micro-CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, L; Wenzel, A; Wegge-Larsen, AM

    2013-01-01

    -section images from Micro-computed Tomography scans. Results. All root canal fillings had voids. Permutation test showed no statistically significant difference between the two root filling techniques in relation to presence of voids (p = 0.092). A statistically significant difference in obturation time between...

  7. The water-filled versus air-filled status of vessels cut open in air: the 'Scholander assumption' revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.T. Tyree; H. Cochard; P. Cruziat

    2003-01-01

    When petioles of transpiring leaves are cut in the air, according to the 'Scholander assumption', the vessels cut open should fill with air as the water is drained away by continued transpiration, The distribution of air-filled vessels versus distance from the cut surface should match the distribution of lengths of 'open vessels', i.e. vessels cut...

  8. Characterization of vegetative and grain filling periods of winter wheat by stepwise regression procedure. II. Grain filling period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In wheat, rate and duration of dry matter accumulation and remobilization depend on genotype and growing conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the most appropriate polynomial regression of stepwise regression procedure for describing grain filling period in three winter wheat cultivars. The stepwise regression procedure showed that grain filling is a complex biological process and that it is difficult to offer a simple and appropriate polynomial equation that fits the pattern of changes in dry matter accumulation during the grain filling period, i.e., from anthesis to maximum grain weight, in winter wheat. If grain filling is to be represented with a high power polynomial, quartic and quintic equations showed to be most appropriate. In spite of certain disadvantages, a cubic equation of stepwise regression could be used for describing the pattern of winter wheat grain filling.

  9. Cementless Hip Stem Anteversion in the Dysplastic Hip: A Comparison of Tapered Wedge vs Metaphyseal Filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Naofumi; Jinno, Tetsuya; Koga, Daisuke; Hagino, Tetsuo; Okawa, Atsushi; Haro, Hirotaka

    2017-05-01

    Appropriate stem anteversion is important for achieving stability of the prosthetic joint in total hip arthroplasty. Anteversion of a cementless femoral stem is affected by the femoral canal morphology and varies according to stem geometry. We investigated the difference and variation of the increase in anteversion between 2 types of cementless stems, and the correlation between each stem and the preoperative femoral anteversion. We retrospectively compared 2 groups of hips that underwent total hip arthroplasty using a metaphyseal filling stem (78 hips) or a tapered wedge stem (83 hips). All the patients had osteoarthritis due to hip dysplasia. Computed tomography was used to measure preoperative femoral anteversion at 5 levels and postoperative stem anteversion. The increase in anteversion of the tapered wedge stem group (22.7° ± 11.6°) was more than that of the metaphyseal filling stem group (17.2° ± 8.3°; P = .0007). The variation of the increase in the tapered wedge stem group was significantly larger than that in the metaphyseal filling stem group (P = .0016). The metaphyseal filling stem group was more highly and positively correlated with femoral anteversion than the tapered wedge stem group. Femoral anteversion affects stem anteversion differently according to stem geometry. The tapered wedge stems had greater variation of the increase in anteversion than did the metaphyseal filling stems. Based on the results of this study, it is difficult to preoperatively estimate the increase in stem anteversion for tapered wedge stems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased epicardial fat is independently associated with the presence and chronicity of atrial fibrillation and radiofrequency ablation outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovska, Jadranka; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Gross, Barry H.; Patel, Smita [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, UH B1-132 Taubman/Box 0302, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sinno, Mohamad; Oral, Hakan [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine, Electrophysiology Laboratory, Cardiovascular Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Watcharotone, Kuanwong [University of Michigan, Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR), Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jacobson, Jon A. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-15

    To determine whether intrathoracic fat volumes are associated with presence and chronicity of atrial fibrillation (AF) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment outcome. IRB approval was obtained and patient consent was waived for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study. 169 patients with AF (75 non-paroxysmal and 94 paroxysmal) and 62 control patients underwent cardiac CT examination. Extrapericardial (EPFV) and epicardial fat volumes (EFV) were measured on CT, the sum of which is the total intrathoracic fat volume. Associations between these three fat volumes and presence and chronicity of AF, and outcome after RFA, were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. EFV was significantly associated with presence [OR 1.01 (95 % CI 1.003-1.03), p = 0.01], chronicity of AF [1.008 (1.001-1.020), p = 0.03] and AF recurrence after RFA [1.009 (1.001-1.01), p = 0.02] after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. Patients with a larger EFV had a shorter time to AF recurrence (p = 0.017) and a higher rate of recurrence (54 % vs 46 %) (p = 0.002) after RFA. EPFV had no significant associations. Increased epicardial fat is associated with the presence and chronicity of AF, a higher probability of AF recurrence after RFA and a shorter AF-free interval. (orig.)

  11. LHC Report: Good fills but also some technical glitches

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    During the recent summer weeks the LHC continued running with 1380 bunches, gently pushing up the peak luminosity by reducing the beam sizes and increasing the bunch intensities. This smooth operation was temporarily interrupted by some cryogenics problems and some disturbances to the electrical network.   So far, the LHC has delivered 2.5 fb-1 luminosities to both ATLAS and CMS, giving physicists a steady flow of data to work on. A record peak luminosity (2.4 × 1033 cm-2s-1) was achieved by using smaller-than-nominal beam sizes from the injector chain and increased bunch intensities. The bunch intensities are now up to 1.35 × 1011 protons per bunch, which is well above the nominal value of 1.15 × 1011 protons. Unfortunately, after a series of good fills, a cold compressor unit stopped working early on Saturday morning, 13 August, causing problems to the cryogenic cooling system at point 8. The system needed about three days of repair and cool-down time in order to ...

  12. Transport rates and concentration gradients during grain filling in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.B.; Gifford, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Short-term mass transport rates into wheat ears were calculated at mid grain fill from 32 PO 4 translocation velocities and sieve tube sap concentrations in the peduncle. Over a wide range of velocities (8.5 to 170 cm/hr), sieve tube sap concentrations (514 to 1050 milliosmolal) and grains per ear (20 to 54 in intact ears, as few as 7 in partially degrained ears), there were no evident differences in the rate of mass transport per grain through the peduncle. Increased sieve tube sap concentration was accompanied in the endosperm cavity sap by increased sucrose concentration, but amino acid concentration and total osmolality remained essentially constant. Thus the rate of transport into the grains appeared to remain constant in spite of altered concentration gradients across the crease tissues of the grain and changing sucrose concentration in the endosperm cavity. The constancy of endosperm cavity sap osmolality suggests that osmoregulatory processes in the grain may play a role in regulating transport rate into the grain

  13. Effect of Nanosilica Filled Polyurethane Composite Coating on Polypropylene Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yern Chee Ching

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic based polyurethane (PU coatings with various amounts of nanosilica contents were prepared using solution casting method. The nanosilica (SiO2 particles used are around 16 nm in diameter. The friction and wear test was conducted using the reciprocating wear testing machine. The tests were performed at rotary speed of 100 rpm and 200 rpm with load of 0.1 kg to 0.4 kg under 1 N interval. The effect of the PU/nano-SiO2 composite coating on friction and wear behavior of polypropylene substrate was investigated and compared. The worn surface of coating film layer after testing was investigated by using an optical microscope. The introduction of PU/nanosilica composite coating containing 3 wt% of nano-SiO2 content gives the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate to PP substrate. Both the friction and wear rate of PP substrate coated with >3 wt% of nano-SiO2 filled PU coating would increase with the increasing of applied load and sliding time.

  14. Exploring the impact of an automated prescription-filling device on community pharmacy technician workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kristin E.; Chui, Michelle Anne; Kieser, Mara A.; Williams, Staci M.; Sutter, Susan L.; Sutter, John G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore community pharmacy technician workflow change after implementation of an automated robotic prescription-filling device. Methods At an independent community pharmacy in rural Mayville, WI, pharmacy technicians were observed before and 3 months after installation of an automated robotic prescription-filling device. The main outcome measures were sequences and timing of technician workflow steps, workflow interruptions, automation surprises, and workarounds. Results Of the 77 and 80 observations made before and 3 months after robot installation, respectively, 17 different workflow sequences were observed before installation and 38 after installation. Average prescription filling time was reduced by 40 seconds per prescription with use of the robot. Workflow interruptions per observation increased from 1.49 to 1.79 (P = 0.11), and workarounds increased from 10% to 36% after robot use. Conclusion Although automated prescription-filling devices can increase efficiency, workflow interruptions and workarounds may negate that efficiency. Assessing changes in workflow and sequencing of tasks that may result from the use of automation can help uncover opportunities for workflow policy and procedure redesign. PMID:21896459

  15. Geomechanical investigations for the designing of cemented filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, P.

    1980-05-15

    Laboratory and in situ investigations have led to the identification of the main geomechanical parameters that condition the stability of the cemented fill in the Gavorrano pyrite mine (Tuscany, Italy); such parameters were used for working out a satisfactory mining method. The pyrite is mined with the descending horizontal slice method with integral cemented filling which is obtained by throwing a mixture of limestone aggregates and cement into the mined voids. The laboratory geomechanical investigations carried out on fill samples have pointed out that the physical and mechanical characteristics are highly variable and this is essentially due to the fact that the fill is cast into place by compressed air. In particular, it was pointed out that the strength depends upon the cement content and upon the porosity according to a power law. The in situ measurements of the convergence between the roof and the floor, and the load measurements pointed out the considerable importance of the horizontal and vertical joints that cross the fill mass and that are inevitably brought about by a discontinuity of the fill. The results of the study made it possible to adopt an acceptable geomechanical behaviour model of the fill. On the basis of this model the mining pattern was deeply modified, the width and the height of the slices were considerably enlarged and thus the output was improved.

  16. Modeling and Fault Simulation of Propellant Filling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yunchun; Liu Weidong; Hou Xiaobo

    2012-01-01

    Propellant filling system is one of the key ground plants in launching site of rocket that use liquid propellant. There is an urgent demand for ensuring and improving its reliability and safety, and there is no doubt that Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a good approach to meet it. Driven by the request to get more fault information for FMEA, and because of the high expense of propellant filling, in this paper, the working process of the propellant filling system in fault condition was studied by simulating based on AMESim. Firstly, based on analyzing its structure and function, the filling system was modular decomposed, and the mathematic models of every module were given, based on which the whole filling system was modeled in AMESim. Secondly, a general method of fault injecting into dynamic system was proposed, and as an example, two typical faults - leakage and blockage - were injected into the model of filling system, based on which one can get two fault models in AMESim. After that, fault simulation was processed and the dynamic characteristics of several key parameters were analyzed under fault conditions. The results show that the model can simulate effectively the two faults, and can be used to provide guidance for the filling system maintain and amelioration.

  17. Photostabilization of wood flour filled HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Laurent M. Matuana

    2002-01-01

    Wood/plastic composites are increasingly examined for non-structural building applications. As outdoor applications become more widespread, durability becomes an issue. Ultraviolet exposure can lead to photodegradation, resulting in a change in appearance and/or mechanical properties. Photodegradation can be slowed through the addition of photostabilizers. This study...

  18. Radio resource management using geometric water-filling

    CERN Document Server

    He, Peter; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng

    2014-01-01

    This brief introduces the fundamental theory and development of managing radio resources using a water-filling algorithm that can optimize system performance in wireless communication. Geometric Water-Filling (GWF) is a crucial underlying tool in emerging communication systems such as multiple input multiple output systems, cognitive radio systems, and green communication systems. Early chapters introduce emerging wireless technologies and provide a detailed analysis of water-filling. The brief investigates single user and multi-user issues of radio resource management, allocation of resources

  19. Measuring Item Fill-Rate Performance in a Finite Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The standard treatment of fill rate relies on stationary and serially independent demand over an infinite horizon. Even if demand is stationary, managers are held accountable for performance over a finite horizon. In a finite horizon, the fill rate is a random variable. Studying the distribution is relevant because a vendor may be subject to financial penalty if she fails to achieve her target fill rate over a specified finite period. It is known that for a zero lead time, base-stock model, t...

  20. Fill Rates of Single-Stage and Multistage Supply Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew J. Sobel

    2004-01-01

    A supply system's fill rate is the fraction of demand that is met from on-hand inventory. This paper presents formulas for the fill rate of periodic review supply systems that use base-stock-level policies. The first part of the paper contains fill-rate formulas for a single-stage system and general distributions of demand. When demand is normally distributed, an exact expression uses only the standard normal distribution and density functions, and a good approximation uses only the standard ...

  1. Biocompatibility of root-end filling materials: recent update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Saxena

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of a root-end filling is to establish a seal between the root canal space and the periradicular tissues. As root-end filling materials come into contact with periradicular tissues, knowledge of the tissue response is crucial. Almost every available dental restorative material has been suggested as the root-end material of choice at a certain point in the past. This literature review on root-end filling materials will evaluate and comparatively analyse the biocompatibility and tissue response to these products, with primary focus on newly introduced materials.

  2. Structural and Quantitative Investigation of Perovskite Pore Filling in Mesoporous Metal Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shany Gamliel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite light absorbers have attracted much attention in the field of solar cells due to their optoelectronic characteristics that enable high power conversion efficiencies. Perovskite-based solar cells’ efficiency has increased dramatically from 3.8% to more than 20% in just a few years, making them a promising low-cost alternative for photovoltaic applications. The deposition of perovskite into a mesoporous metal oxide is an influential factor affecting solar cell performance. Full coverage and pore filling into the porous metal oxide are important issues in the fabrication of highly-efficient mesoporous perovskite solar cells. In this work, we carry out a structural and quantitative investigation of CH3NH3PbI3 pore filling deposited via sequential two-step deposition into two different mesoporous metal oxides—TiO2 and Al2O3. We avoid using a hole conductor in the perovskite solar cells studied in this work to eliminate undesirable end results. Filling oxide pores with perovskite was characterized by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS in Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM on cross-sectional focused ion beam (FIB lamellae. Complete pore filling of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite into the metal oxide pores was observed down to X-depth, showing the presence of Pb and I inside the pores. The observations reported in this work are particularly important for mesoporous Al2O3 perovskite solar cells, as pore filling is essential for the operation of this solar cell structure. This work presents structural and quantitative proof of complete pore filling into mesoporous perovskite-based solar cells, substantiating their high power conversion efficiency.

  3. Nd:YAG laser in endodontics: filling-material edge bordering on a root channel laser cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, Andrei V.; Sinelnik, Yuri A.; Moroz, Boris T.; Pavlovskaya, Irina V.

    1997-12-01

    For the very first time it is represented a study of filling material edge bordering upon root channel cavity modified with a laser. As a filling material it is used a glass ionomer cement. It is demonstrated that Nd:YAG laser radiation effects on increase of grade of edge bordering on the average of 20 - 30% at temperature rise of no more than 2 - 3 degrees in periodontium area in a period of operation.

  4. Effect of tooth brushing on gloss retention and surface roughness of five bulk-fill resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Catherine; Kreplak, Laurent; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Labrie, Daniel; Shimokawa, Carlos Alberto Kenji; Price, Richard Bengt

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effects of tooth brushing on five bulk-fill resin based composites (RBCs). Ten samples of Filtek Supreme Enamel (control), Filtek One Bulk Fill, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill 2, SDR flow+, and Admira Fusion X-tra were light cured for 20 seconds using the Valo Grand curing light. After 24 hours storage in air at 37°C, specimens were brushed in a random order using Colgate OpticWhite dentifrice and a soft toothbrush. Surface gloss was measured prior to brushing, after 5,000, 10,000 and 15,000 back and forth brushing cycles. Surface roughness was measured after 15,000 brushing cycles using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and selected scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken. The data was examined using ANOVA and pair-wise comparisons using Scheffe's post-hoc multiple comparison tests (α = 0.05). Surface gloss decreased and the surface roughness increased after brushing. Two-way ANOVA showed that both the RBC and the number of brushing cycles had a significant negative effect on the gloss. One-way ANOVA showed that the RBC had a significant effect on the roughness after 15,000 brushing cycles. For both gloss and roughness, brushing had the least effect on the nano-filled control and nano-filled bulk-fill RBC, and the greatest negative effect on Admira Fusion X-tra. The SEM images provided visual agreement. There was an excellent linear correlation (R 2  = 0.98) between the logarithm of the gloss and roughness. After brushing, the bulk-fill RBCs were all rougher than the control nano-filled RBC. The nano-filled bulk-fill RBC was the least affected by brushing. Bulk-fill RBCs lose their gloss faster and become rougher than the nanofilled conventional RBC, Filtek Supreme Ultra. The nanofilled bulk-fill RBC was the least affected by tooth brushing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The filling of the Ria de Gernika (Bay of Biscay) since the late Holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, A.; Rodriguez-Lazaro, J.; Weber, O.; Jouanneau, J.M.; Pujos, M.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the recent sedimentation of the ria de Gernika (Bay of Biscay) is undertaken to characterise different steps of its Holocene filling. Sedimentological and micropalaeontological analysis of six cores sampled in the ria, completed with absolute dating ( 14 C, and based upon 210 Pb exc.), allow us to identify three phases in the filling of the ria that are limited by two transgressive shifts (3500 and 2500 yr. B.P.) already described in other areas of the Bay of Biscay. In the first phase, lithologies as well as benthic foraminifera and ostracode assemblages are typical of coastal marine palaeo-environment. During the second phase the euryhaline waters progressively occupy the central area of the estuary. Here the presence of allochthonous micro-fauna, particularly of planktonic foraminifera, indicates an increase of exchanges with marine waters that can reach the inner areas of the estuarine system. The last phase (2500 yr. B.P. to the present), which corresponds to the recent and active sedimentation, is marked by an impoverishment of the micro-faunas, the filling of some channels and the increase of salt marshes. The estimated sedimentation rate for the upper decimeters of the cores (0.73-1.29 cm.yr -1 ) shows faster sedimentary filling of the ria with anthropic action evidenced by the presence of metallic contaminants and hypohaline micro-fauna. (authors)

  6. When to fill a tube with thermal enhancers and when to leave it empty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, Louis; Silva, Alexandre K. da

    2007-01-01

    The present paper answers the fundamental question of when to use thermal enhancers in a heat transfer system such as an externally heated pipe and when to leave it empty. The objective is to maximize the heat transfer rate from the pipe to the cold fluid drawn into the pipe by a fixed pressure drop. Three types of thermal enhancers are considered: (i) porous medium fillings, (ii) internal fins and (iii) insertion of high conductivity solid particles (i.e. solid-liquid mixture). The performance of each thermal enhancer technique is compared with the performance of the empty pipe subject to the same pumping power. The results show that the use of thermal enhancers is not always profitable in terms of increasing the heat transfer rate. The analysis leads to novel limits in which the use of thermal enhancers are recommended so that the heat transfer rate increases for all three types of fillings. It is shown that these limits are related to the properties of the solid enhancer and also to the pressure drop availability. In the case of porous filling, for example, the profitability in terms of heat transfer gain is strongly related to the thermal conductivity of the filling and its permeability

  7. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, F.; Villette, B. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Michel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Petrasso, R. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Giraldez, E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Tassin, V.; Depierreux, S.; Gauthier, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Seytor, P.; Lasinski, B.; Park, H. S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Williams, E.; and others

    2014-07-15

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  8. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, F.; Tassin, V.; Depierreux, S.; Gauthier, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Seytor, P.; Villette, B.; Lasinski, B.; Park, H. S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Williams, E.; Michel, P.; Frenje, J.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V.; Sorce, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Nikroo, A.; Giraldez, E.

    2014-07-01

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  9. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, F.; Villette, B.; Michel, P.; Petrasso, R.; Stoeckl, C.; Giraldez, E.; Tassin, V.; Depierreux, S.; Gauthier, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Seytor, P.; Lasinski, B.; Park, H. S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Williams, E.

    2014-01-01

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results

  10. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Tassin, V. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Depierreux, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Gauthier, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Masson-Laborde, P. E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Monteil, M. C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Seytor, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Villette, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Lasinski, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Park, H. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ross, J. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Doeppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hinkel, D. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wallace, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Williams, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Michel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frenje, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu-Johnson, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Li, C. K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Glebov, V. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Sorce, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Stoeckl, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Giraldez, E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-07-25

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  11. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A in cream-filled cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anunciaçao, L L; Linardi, W R; do Carmo, L S; Bergdoll, M S

    1995-07-01

    Cakes were baked with normal ingredients and filled with cream, inoculated with different size enterotoxigenic-staphylococcal inocula. Samples of the cakes were incubated at room temperature and put in the refrigerator. Samples of cake and filling were taken at different times and analyzed for staphylococcal count and presence of enterotoxin. The smaller the inoculum, the longer the time required for sufficient growth (10(6)) to occur for production of detectable enterotoxin. Enterotoxin added to the cake dough before baking (210 degrees C, 45 min) did not survive the baking. The presence of enterotoxin in the contaminated cream filling indicated this as the cause of staphylococcal food poisoning from cream-filled cakes. Refrigeration of the cakes prevented the growth of the staphylococci.

  12. 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of hohlraums including fill tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J.; Hammel, B. A.; Macphee, A. G.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    Measurements of fill tube perturbations from hydro growth radiography (HGR) experiments on the National Ignition Facility show spoke perturbations in the ablator radiating from the base of the tube. These correspond to the shadow of the 10 μm diameter glass fill tube cast by hot spots at early time. We present 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of these experiments which include the fill tube. Meshing techniques are described which were employed to resolve the fill tube structure and associated perturbations in the simulations. We examine the extent to which the specific illumination geometry necessary to accommodate a backlighter in the HGR experiment contributes to the spoke pattern. Simulations presented include high resolution calculations run on the Trinity machine operated by the Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES) partnership. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Beeswax as dental filling on a neolithic human tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Federico; Tuniz, Claudio; Coppa, Alfredo; Mancini, Lucia; Dreossi, Diego; Eichert, Diane; Turco, Gianluca; Biasotto, Matteo; Terrasi, Filippo; De Cesare, Nicola; Hua, Quan; Levchenko, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of prehistoric dentistry has been limited to a few cases, the most ancient dating back to the Neolithic. Here we report a 6500-year-old human mandible from Slovenia whose left canine crown bears the traces of a filling with beeswax. The use of different analytical techniques, including synchrotron radiation computed micro-tomography (micro-CT), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating, Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), has shown that the exposed area of dentine resulting from occlusal wear and the upper part of a vertical crack affecting enamel and dentin tissues were filled with beeswax shortly before or after the individual's death. If the filling was done when the person was still alive, the intervention was likely aimed to relieve tooth sensitivity derived from either exposed dentine and/or the pain resulting from chewing on a cracked tooth: this would provide the earliest known direct evidence of therapeutic-palliative dental filling.

  14. Beeswax as dental filling on a neolithic human tooth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bernardini

    Full Text Available Evidence of prehistoric dentistry has been limited to a few cases, the most ancient dating back to the Neolithic. Here we report a 6500-year-old human mandible from Slovenia whose left canine crown bears the traces of a filling with beeswax. The use of different analytical techniques, including synchrotron radiation computed micro-tomography (micro-CT, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS radiocarbon dating, Infrared (IR Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, has shown that the exposed area of dentine resulting from occlusal wear and the upper part of a vertical crack affecting enamel and dentin tissues were filled with beeswax shortly before or after the individual's death. If the filling was done when the person was still alive, the intervention was likely aimed to relieve tooth sensitivity derived from either exposed dentine and/or the pain resulting from chewing on a cracked tooth: this would provide the earliest known direct evidence of therapeutic-palliative dental filling.

  15. Mechanical behaviour of dental composite filling materials using digital holography

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, J.M.; Lopes, H.; Vaz, M.A.P.; Campos, J.C. Reis

    2010-01-01

    One of the most common clinical problems in dentistry is tooth decay. Among the dental filling materials used to repair tooth structure that has been destroyed by decay are dental amalgam and composite materials based on acrylics. Dental amalgam has been used by dentists for the past 150 years as a dental restorative material due to its low cost, ease of application, strength, durability, and bacteriostatic effects. However its safety as a filling material has been questioned due to th...

  16. Simulation of mould filling process for composite skeleton castings

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dziuba; M. Cholewa

    2008-01-01

    In this work authors showed selected results of simulation and experimental studies on temperature distribution during solidification of skeleton casting and mould filling process. The aim of conducted simulations was the choice of thermal and geometrical parameters for the needs of designed calculations of the skeleton castings and the estimation of the guidelines for the technology of manufacturing. The subject of numerical simulation was the analysis of ability of filling the channels of c...

  17. Time effects of water drainage from deposited back-fill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranski, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    Time effects of water drainage from deposited back-fill in mine excavations are considered. The time dependence of drainage from the deposited material was determined from ''in situ'' measurements with the aid of radioisotope gauges. The measurements were performed for given drainage conditions and practically constant grain size composition. It was found that in a few hours after the end of the back-filling operation the mechanical properties of the deposited material are practically constant. (author)

  18. Method for filling a reactor with a catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for filling a reactor with a catalyst for the carbonylation of carbonylated compounds in the gas phase. According to said method, a SILP catalyst is covered with a filling agent which is liquid under normal conditions and is volatile under carbonylation reaction...... conditions, and a thus-treated catalyst is introduced into the reactor and the reactor is sealed....

  19. Countering Stryker’s Punch: Algorithmically Filling the Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Bennett

    2017-01-01

    Two current digital image editing programs are examined in the context of filling in missing visual image data from hole-punched United States Farm Security Administration (FSA) negatives. Specifically, Photoshop's Content-Aware Fill feature and GIMP's Resynthesizer plugin are evaluated and contrasted against comparable images. A possible automated workflow geared towards large scale editing of similarly hole-punched negatives is also explored. Finally, potential future research based upon th...

  20. Grain filling parameters and yield components in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Brdar Milka; Kobiljski Borislav; Balalić-Kraljević Marija

    2006-01-01

    Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced by number of grains per unit area and grain weight, which is result of grain filling duration and rate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between grain filling parameters in 4 wheat genotypes of different earliness and yield components. Nonlinear regression estimated and observed parameters were analyzed. Rang of estimated parameters corresponds to rang of observed parameters. Stepwise MANOVA indicated that the ...

  1. Vibration characteristics of teak wood filled steel tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danawade, Bharatesh Adappa; Malagi, Ravindra Rachappa

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine fundamental frequency and damping ratio of teak wood filled steel tubes. Mechanically bonded teak wood filled steel tubes have been evaluated by experimental impact hammer test using modal analysis. The results of impact hammer test were verified and validated by finite element tool ANSYS using harmonic analysis. The error between the two methods was observed to be within acceptable limit.

  2. Is a three-dimensional-printed tooth filling possible?

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammet Kerim Ayar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Three-dimensional (3-D) printing is seen as an innovative production process in many fields of dentistry and medicine. But implantation of this novel production process into the treatment of decayed teeth in dentistry remains lacking. Destruction of dental tissues as a result of dental caries is generally treated with dental resin composite fillings. However, a 3-D-printed tooth filling approach, which could be an alternative to traditional approaches, has a potential to reduce ...

  3. Gap-filling meteorological variables with Empirical Orthogonal Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Gap-filling or modelling surface-atmosphere fluxes critically depends on an, ideally continuous, availability of their meteorological driver variables, such as e.g. air temperature, humidity, radiation, wind speed and precipitation. Unlike for eddy-covariance-based fluxes, data gaps are not unavoidable for these measurements. Nevertheless, missing or erroneous data can occur in practice due to instrument or power failures, disturbance, and temporary sensor or station dismounting for e.g. agricultural management or maintenance. If stations with similar measurements are available nearby, using their data for imputation (i.e. estimating missing data) either directly, after an elevation correction or via linear regression, is usually preferred over linear interpolation or monthly mean diurnal cycles. The popular implementation of regional networks of (partly low-cost) stations increases both, the need and the potential, for such neighbour-based imputation methods. For repeated satellite imagery, Beckers and Rixen (2003) suggested an imputation method based on empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). While exploiting the same linear relations between time series at different observation points as regression, it is able to use information from all observation points to simultaneously estimate missing data at all observation points, provided that never all observations are missing at the same time. Briefly, the method uses the ability of the first few EOFs of a data matrix to reconstruct a noise-reduced version of this matrix; iterating missing data points from an initial guess (the column-wise averages) to an optimal version determined by cross-validation. The poster presents and discusses lessons learned from adapting and applying this methodology to station data. Several years of 10-minute averages of air temperature, pressure and humidity, incoming shortwave, longwave and photosynthetically active radiation, wind speed and precipitation, measured by a regional (70 km by

  4. Slow Waves in Fractures Filled with Viscous Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, Valeri

    2008-01-08

    Stoneley guided waves in a fluid-filled fracture generally have larger amplitudes than other waves, and therefore, their properties need to be incorporated in more realistic models. In this study, a fracture is modeled as an infinite layer of viscous fluid bounded by two elastic half-spaces with identical parameters. For small fracture thickness, I obtain a simple dispersion equation for wave-propagation velocity. This velocity is much smaller than the velocity of a fluid wave in a Biot-type solution, in which fracture walls are assumed to be rigid. At seismic prospecting frequencies and realistic fracture thicknesses, the Stoneley guided wave has wavelengths on the order of several meters and an attenuation Q factor exceeding 10, which indicates the possibility of resonance excitation in fluid-bearing rocks. The velocity and attenuation of Stoneley guided waves are distinctly different at low frequencies for water and oil. The predominant role of fractures in fluid flow at field scales is supported by permeability data showing an increase of several orders of magnitude when compared to values obtained at laboratory scales. These data suggest that Stoneley guided waves should be taken into account in theories describing seismic wave propagation in fluid-saturated rocks.

  5. Modeling Antarctic Subglacial Lake Filling and Drainage Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Christine F.; Werder, Mauro A.; Nowicki, Sophie; Walker, Ryan T.

    2016-01-01

    The growth and drainage of active subglacial lakes in Antarctica has previously been inferred from analysis of ice surface altimetry data. We use a subglacial hydrology model applied to a synthetic Antarctic ice stream to examine internal controls on the filling and drainage of subglacial lakes. Our model outputs suggest that the highly constricted subglacial environment of our idealized ice stream, combined with relatively high rates of water flow funneled from a large catchment, can combine to create a system exhibiting slow-moving pressure waves. Over a period of years, the accumulation of water in the ice stream onset region results in a buildup of pressure creating temporary channels, which then evacuate the excess water. This increased flux of water beneath the ice stream drives lake growth. As the water body builds up, it steepens the hydraulic gradient out of the overdeepened lake basin and allows greater flux. Eventually this flux is large enough to melt channels that cause the lake to drain. Lake drainage also depends on the internal hydrological development in the wider system and therefore does not directly correspond to a particular water volume or depth. This creates a highly temporally and spatially variable system, which is of interest for assessing the importance of subglacial lakes in ice stream hydrology and dynamics.

  6. Investigating Liquid Leak from Pre-Filled Syringes upon Needle Shield Removal: Effect of Air Bubble Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Edwin; Maa, Yuh-Fun; Overcashier, David; Hsu, Chung C

    2011-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of headspace air pressure in pre-filled syringes on liquid leak (dripping) from the syringe needle upon needle shield removal. Drip tests to measure drip quantity were performed on syringes manually filled with 0.5 or 1.0 mL of various aqueous solutions. Parameters assessed included temperature (filling and test), bulk storage conditions (tank pressure and the type of the pressurized gas), solution composition (pure water, 0.9% sodium chloride, and a monoclonal antibody formulation), and testing procedures. A headspace pressure analyzer was used to verify the drip test method. Results suggested that leakage is indeed caused by headspace pressure increase, and the temperature effect (ideal gas expansion) is a major, but not the only, factor. The dissolved gases in the liquid bulk prior to or during filling may contribute to leakage, as these gases could be released into the headspace due to solubility changes (in response to test temperature and pressure conditions) and cause pressure increase. Needle shield removal procedures were found to cause dripping, but liquid composition played little role. Overall, paying attention to the processing history (pressure and temperature) of the liquid bulk is the key to minimize leakage. The headspace pressure could be reduced by decreasing liquid bulk storage pressure, filling at a higher temperature, or employing lower solubility gas (e.g., helium) for bulk transfer and storage. Leakage could also be mitigated by simply holding the syringe needle pointing upward during needle shield removal. Substantial advances in pre-filled syringe technology development, particularly in syringe filling accuracy, have been made. However, there are factors, as subtle as how the needle shield (or tip cap) is removed, that may affect dosing accuracy. We recently found that upon removal of the tip cap from a syringe held vertically with needle pointed downwards, a small amount of solution, up to 3-4% of

  7. Fluid dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thete, Sumeet; Appathurai, Santosh; Gao, Haijing; Basaran, Osman

    2012-11-01

    Bottle filling is ubiquitous in industry. Examples include filling of bottles with shampoos and cleaners, engine oil and pharmaceuticals. In these examples, fluid flows out of a nozzle to fill bottles in an assembly line. Once the required volume of fluid has flowed out of the nozzle, the flow is shut off. However, an evolving fluid thread or string may remain suspended from the nozzle following flow shut-off and persist. This stringing phenomenon can be detrimental to a bottle filling operation because it can adversely affect line speed and filling accuracy by causing uncertainty in fill volume, product loss and undesirable marring of the bottles' exterior surfaces. The dynamics of stringing are studied numerically primarily by using the 1D, slender-jet approximation of the flow equations. A novel feature entails development and use of a new boundary condition downstream of the nozzle exit to expedite the computations. While the emphasis is on stringing of Newtonian fluids and use of 1D approximations, results will also be presented for situations where (a) the fluids are non-Newtonian and (b) the full set of equations are solved without invoking the 1D approximation. Phase diagrams will be presented that identify conditions for which stringing can be problematic.

  8. Filling high aspect ratio trenches by superconformal chemical vapor deposition: Predictive modeling and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjiao B.; Abelson, John R.

    2014-11-01

    Complete filling of a deep recessed structure with a second material is a challenge in many areas of nanotechnology fabrication. A newly discovered superconformal coating method, applicable in chemical vapor deposition systems that utilize a precursor in combination with a co-reactant, can solve this problem. However, filling is a dynamic process in which the trench progressively narrows and the aspect ratio (AR) increases. This reduces species diffusion within the trench and may drive the component partial pressures out of the regime for superconformal coating. We therefore derive two theoretical models that can predict the possibility for filling. First, we recast the diffusion-reaction equation for the case of a sidewall with variable taper angle. This affords a definition of effective AR, which is larger than the nominal AR due to the reduced species transport. We then derive the coating profile, both for superconformal and for conformal coating. The critical (most difficult) step in the filling process occurs when the sidewalls merge at the bottom of the trench to form the V shape. Experimentally, for the Mg(DMADB)2/H2O system and a starting AR = 9, this model predicts that complete filling will not be possible, whereas experimentally we do obtain complete filling. We then hypothesize that glancing-angle, long-range transport of species may be responsible for the better than predicted filling. To account for the variable range of species transport, we construct a ballistic transport model. This incorporates the incident flux from outside the structure, cosine law re-emission from surfaces, and line-of-sight transport between internal surfaces. We cast the transport probability between all positions within the trench into a matrix that represents the redistribution of flux after one cycle of collisions. Matrix manipulation then affords a computationally efficient means to determine the steady-state flux distribution and growth rate for a given taper angle. The

  9. Relationship of radionuclide measurements of left ventricular diastolic filling in patients with type I diabetes mellitus to subsequent clinical cardiac disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, K.; Gerson, M.C.; Khoury, J.C.; Fischer, E.A.; Smith, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates left ventricular diastolic filling (LVDF) in patients with type I diabetes mellitus (DM) in order to identify increased risk for subsequent cardiac events. The authors obtained radionuclide ventriculograms in 54 patients with type I DM. Median follow-up for cardiac complications was 63 months. We assessed peak filling rate (PFR; in end diastolic volume [EDV] per second), first 1/2 filling fraction (1/2 FF), and first 1/2 filling fraction/R-R interval (1/2 FF/R-R) by analysis of convariance to account for effects of age and R-R interval. Cardiac complications ere found in 15 of 54 patients

  10. Experimental Study and Application of Inorganic Solidified Foam Filling Material for Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous combustion of residual coal in a gob due to air leakage poses a major risk to mining safety. Building an airtight wall is an effective measure for controlling air leakage. A new type of inorganic solidified foam-filled material was developed and its physical and chemical properties were analyzed experimentally. The compressive strength of this material increased with the amount of sulphoaluminate cement. With an increasing water–cement ratio, the initial setting time was gradually extended while the final setting time firstly shortened and then extended. The change in compressive strength had the opposite tendency. Additionally, as the foam expansion ratio increased, the solidification time tended to decrease but the compressive strength remained approximately constant. With an increase in foam production, the solidification time increased and the compressive strength decreased exponentially. The results can be used to determine the optimal material ratios of inorganic solidified foam-filled material for coal mines, and filling technology for an airtight wall was designed. A field application of the new material demonstrated that it seals crossheadings tightly, leaves no fissures, suppresses air leakage to the gob, and narrows the width of the spontaneous combustion and heat accumulation zone.

  11. Starch accumulation in hulless barley during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xu-Guang; Qi, Jun-Cang; Hui, Hong-Shan; Lin, Li-Hao; Wang, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Starch consists of two types of molecules: amylose and amylopectin. The objective of this study was increase understanding about mechanisms related to starch accumulation in hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain by measuring temporal changes in (i) grain amylose and amylopectin content, (ii) starch synthase activity, and (iii) the relative expressions of key starch-related genes. The amylopectin/amylose ratio gradually declined in both Beiqing 6 and Kunlun 12. In both cultivars, the activities of adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, soluble starch synthase (SSS), granule bound starch synthase (GBSS), and starch branching enzyme (SBE) increased steadily during grain filling, reaching their maximums 20-25 days after anthesis. The activities of SSS and SBE were greater in Ganken 5 than in either Beiqing 6 or Kunlun 12. The expression of GBSS I was greater in Beiqing 6 and Kunlun 12 than in Ganken 5. In contrast, the expression of SSS I, SSS II and SBE I was greater in Ganken 5 than in Beiqing 6 and Kunlun 12. The peak in GBSS I expression was later than that of SSS I, SSS II, SBE IIa and SBE IIb. The GBSS I transcript in Kunlun 12 was expressed on average 90 times more than the GBSS II transcript. The results suggest that SBE and SSS may control starch synthesis at the transcriptional level, whereas GBSS I may control starch synthesis at the post transcriptional level. GBSS I is mainly responsible for amylose synthesis whereas SSS I and SBE II are mainly responsible for amylopectin synthesis in amyloplasts.

  12. Recent developments in inorganically filled carbon nanotubes: successes and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjal K Gautam, Pedro M F J Costa, Yoshio Bando, Xiaosheng Fang, Liang Li, Masataka Imura and Dmitri Golberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are a unique class of nanomaterials that can be imagined as rolled graphene sheets. The inner hollow of a CNT provides an extremely small, one-dimensional space for storage of materials. In the last decade, enormous effort has been spent to produce filled CNTs that combine the properties of both the host CNT and the guest filling material. CNTs filled with various inorganic materials such as metals, alloys, semiconductors and insulators have been obtained using different synthesis approaches including capillary filling and chemical vapor deposition. Recently, several potential applications have emerged for these materials, such as the measurement of temperature at the nanoscale, nano-spot welding, and the storage and delivery of extremely small quantities of materials. A clear distinction between this class of materials and other nanostructures is the existence of an enormous interfacial area between the CNT and the filling matter. Theoretical investigations have shown that the lattice mismatch and strong exchange interaction of CNTs with the guest material across the interface should result in reordering of the guest crystal structure and passivation of the surface dangling bonds and thus yielding new and interesting physical properties. Despite preliminary successes, there remain many challenges in realizing applications of CNTs filled with inorganic materials, such as a comprehensive understanding of their growth and physical properties and control of their structural parameters. In this article, we overview research on filled CNT nanomaterials with special emphasis on recent progress and key achievements. We also discuss the future scope and the key challenges emerging out of a decade of intensive research on these fascinating materials.

  13. High Fill-Factor Transport Experiments on the HCX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prost, L R; Seidl, P A; Lund, S M

    2004-01-01

    Heavy-ion induction linacs have application as drivers for high energy density physics studies and ultimately as drivers for inertial fusion energy. Experiments on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL explore heavy-ion beam transport at high fill factors (i.e., the ratio of the maximum transverse extent of the beam to the physical aperture). The fill factor has a large impact on the cost of multi-beam induction accelerators, the 80% fill factor compared with 60% would reduce the cost of an HIF driver by about 1/3. With a coasting low-emittance 1 MeV K + beam, transport through ten electrostatic quadrupoles was achieved at high beam fill factor (80%) without observed emittance growth and with little beam loss ((le) 1%), even though the initial beam distribution is neither ideal nor in thermal equilibrium, see Figure. While 10 quadrupoles are too few for settling questions of emittance evolution in a long system, they are very relevant for studying the rapid initial evolution of the emittance and beam profile that is expected in the front end of an accelerator. Studies at higher fill factors are planned, so that the failure mode can be established. Good envelope control was achieved, suggesting that, in a longer lattice of similar design, rematching only every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) will be sufficient. Agreement was reached between an improved envelope model and the data. Improvements to the model are: realistic quadrupole fringe fields based on 3D field calculations; quadrupole E z from the 3D lattice structure and corresponding radial focusing force; and corrections due to the grounded slit plates of the intercepting diagnostics that short out the self-field of the beam near those plates. We also find that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics

  14. Setting of loose-fill insulation materials in walls; Saetningsfri indblaesning af loesfyldsisolering i vaegge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, T.V.

    2001-07-01

    The report describes material behaviour, which significantly influences the settling of loose-fill insulation materials. The specific application presented here is loose-fill insulation material injected in walls as thermal insulation. The physical formulation of the issue to be discussed is that the mass is kept in position in the cavity by frictional forces, which counteracts the settling but complicates injection. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is a possibility that decreased friction will be able to release settling. Cellulose loose-fill material injected in a 0.1 m thick and 1 m wide gypsum wall with a minimum density of 48 kg/m3 was found not to settle if kept at a constant relative humidity, RH 50 %. A minimum density of 53 kg/m3 is necessary if the thickness of the wall is increased from 0.1 m to 0.3 m. If changing the constant environment from RH 50 % to RH 80 % a minimum density of 63 kg/m3 is necessary. Furthermore, results so far show that cellulose loose-fill material spread on the attic floor will have a density after settling of 48 kg /M3 for a constant RH 50 %, corresponding to 43 kg/m3 dry material. The results were found by using a model and tests. (au)

  15. Adapting to warmer climate through prolonged maize grain filling period in the US Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P.; Zhuang, Q.; Jin, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Climate warming is expected to negatively impact the US food productivity. How to adapt to the future warmer environment and meet the rising food requirement becomes unprecedented urgent. Continuous satellite observational data provides an opportunity to examine the historic responses of crop plants to climate variation. Here 16 years crop growing phases information across US Midwest is generated based on satellite observations. We found a prolonged grain-filling period during 2000-2015, which could partly explain the increasing trend in Midwest maize yield. This longer grain-filling period might be resulted from the adoption of longer maturity group varieties or more resistant varieties to temperature variation. Other management practice changes like advance in planting date could be also an effective way of adapting future warmer climate through lowering the possibility of exposure to heat and drought stresses. If the progress in breeding technology enables the maize grain-filling period to prolong with the current rate, the maize grain filling length could be longer and maize yield in Midwest could adapt to future climate despite of the warming.

  16. Influence of increment thickness on radiant energy and microhardness of bulk-fill resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacolak, Gamze; Turkun, L Sebnem; Boyacioglu, Hayal; Ferracane, Jack L

    2018-03-30

    Determining the energy transferred at the bottom of eleven bulk-fill resin composites, comparing top and bottom microhardness's and evaluating the correlation between microhardness and radiant energy were aimed. Samples were placed over the bottom sensor of a visible light transmission spectrophotometer and polymerized for 20 s. The bottom and top Knoop microhardness were measured. Paired t-test and correlation analysis were used for statistics (p≤0.05). In all groups, the bottom radiant energy decreased significantly with increasing thickness. For groups of Aura 2 mm, X-tra Fil 2 and 4 mm, SDR 2 and 4 mm, X-tra Base 2 mm no significant difference was found between top and bottom microhardness. For the bottom levels of Aura, X-tra Fil, Filtek Bulk-Fill Posterior, SDR, X-tra Base groups no significant difference was found between the microhardness's of 2 and 4 mm thicknesses. For X-tra Fil, Tetric Evo Ceram Bulk-Fill, Filtek Bulk-Fill Flowable and Z100 groups radiant energy affected positively the microhardness.

  17. Changes in Activities of Glutamine Synthetase during Grain Filling and Their Relation to Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-xun JIN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Four japonica rice varieties differed in cooking and eating qualities were used in a pot experiment to study the relationship between the activities of glutamine synthetase during grain filling and rice quality. The activities of glutamine synthetase gradually increased and then declined as a single peak curve in the course of grain filling. The 15th day after heading was a turning point, before which the enzymatic activities in the inferior rice varieties with high protein content were higher than those in the superior rice varietie with low protein content, and after which it was converse. The activity of glutamine synthetase in grain was correlated with the taste meter value, peak viscosity and breakdown negatively at the early stage of grain filling whereas positively at the middle and late stages. Moreover, it was correlated with the protein content of rice grain and setback positively at the early stage and negatively at the middle and late stages. The correlation degree varied with the course of grain filling. From 15 days to 20 days after heading was a critical stage, in which the direction of correlation between the activity of glutamine synthetase and taste meter value and RVA properties of rice changed.

  18. Sandstone-filled normal faults: A case study from central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Giuseppe; Alsop, G. Ian; Grippa, Antonio; Zvirtes, Gustavo; Phillip, Ruy Paulo; Hurst, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    Despite the potential of sandstone-filled normal faults to significantly influence fluid transmissivity within reservoirs and the shallow crust, they have to date been largely overlooked. Fluidized sand, forcefully intruded along normal fault zones, markedly enhances the transmissivity of faults and, in general, the connectivity between otherwise unconnected reservoirs. Here, we provide a detailed outcrop description and interpretation of sandstone-filled normal faults from different stratigraphic units in central California. Such faults commonly show limited fault throw, cm to dm wide apertures, poorly-developed fault zones and full or partial sand infill. Based on these features and inferences regarding their origin, we propose a general classification that defines two main types of sandstone-filled normal faults. Type 1 form as a consequence of the hydraulic failure of the host strata above a poorly-consolidated sandstone following a significant, rapid increase of pore fluid over-pressure. Type 2 sandstone-filled normal faults form as a result of regional tectonic deformation. These structures may play a significant role in the connectivity of siliciclastic reservoirs, and may therefore be crucial not just for investigation of basin evolution but also in hydrocarbon exploration.

  19. Development and characterization of hyaluronic acid-lysine nanoparticles with potential as innovative dermal filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Carneiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Skin aging causes changes such as wrinkles and flaccidity leading to a large demand for aesthetic procedures, including dermal filling. A key agent in dermal filling is hyaluronic acid (HA, which is a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan. However, it is a hydrophilic macromolecule that experiences great difficulty in crossing the skin barrier causing most commercial formulations containing it to be injectable, which in turn brings risks since they involve an invasive technique. In that sense, the aim of this study was to develop and characterize nanoparticles obtained from ionic interaction between HA and lysine (Lys for use as a potential agent of dermal filling for topical application, increasing and improving its applicability and safety. To this end, nanoparticles were obtained by dripping of Lys over HA under magnetic stirring. A nanometric size was confirmed and a suitable surface charge was obtained by zeta potential. Nanoparticles were almost spherical in shape with a smooth surface. Interaction between raw materials for preparing nanoparticles was studied by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy and an ionic interaction was confirmed. These physicochemical features suggest that obtained nanoparticles can be further used as a topical dermal filling.

  20. Mechanical and biodegradable properties of porous titanium filled with poly-L-lactic acid by modified in situ polymerization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Masaaki; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Ishii, Daisuke

    2011-10-01

    Porous titanium (pTi) can possess a low Young's modulus equal to that of human bone, depending on its porosity. However, the mechanical strength of pTi deteriorates greatly with increasing porosity. On the other hand, certain medical polymers exhibit biofunctionalities, which are not possessed intrinsically by metallic materials. Therefore, a biodegradable medical polymer, poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), was used to fill in the pTi pores using a modified in-situ polymerization technique. The mechanical and biodegradable properties of pTi filled with PLLA (pTi/PLLA) as fabricated by this technique and the effects of the PLLA filling were evaluated in this study. The pTi pores are almost completely filled with PLLA by the developed process (i.e., technique). The tensile strength and tensile Young's modulus of pTi barely changes with the PLLA filling. However, the PLLA filling improves the compressive 0.2% proof stress of pTi having any porosity and increases the compressive Young's modulus of pTi having relatively high porosity. This difference between the tensile and compressive properties of pTi/PLLA is considered to be caused by the differing resistances of PLLA in the pores to tensile and compressive deformations. The PLLA filled into the pTi pores degrades during immersion in Hanks' solution at 310 K. The weight loss due to PLLA degradation increases with increasing immersion time. However, the rate of weight loss of pTi/PLLA during immersion decreases with increasing immersion time. Hydroxyapatite formation is observed on the surface of pTi/PLLA after immersion for ≥8 weeks. The decrease in the weight-loss rate may be caused by weight gain due to hydroxyapatite formation and/or the decrease in contact area with Hanks' solution caused by its formation on the surface of pTi/PLLA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Raman spectroscopic assessment of degree of conversion of bulk-fill resin composites--changes at 24 hours post cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Par, M; Gamulin, O; Marovic, D; Klaric, E; Tarle, Z

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine degree of conversion (DC) of solid and flowable bulk-fill composites immediately and after 24 hours and investigate the variations of DC at surface and depths up to 4 mm. Eight bulk-fill composites (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill [shades IVA and IVB], Quixfil, X-tra fil, Venus Bulk Fill, X-tra Base, SDR, Filtek Bulk Fill) were investigated, and two conventional composites (GrandioSO, X-Flow) were used as controls. The samples (n = 5) were cured for 20 seconds with irradiance of 1090 mW/cm(2). Raman spectroscopic measurements were made immediately after curing on sample surfaces and after 24 hours of dark storage at surface and at incremental depths up to 4 mm. Mean DC values were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test for dependent samples. Surface DC values immediately after curing ranged from 59.1%-71.8%, while the 24-hour postcure values ranged from 71.3%-86.1%. A significant increase of DC was observed 24 hours post cure for all bulk-fill composites, which amounted from 11.3% to 16.9%. Decrease of DC through depths up to 4 mm varied widely among bulk-fill composites and ranged from 2.9% to 19.7%. All bulk-fill composites presented a considerable 24-hour postcure DC increase and clinically acceptable DC at depths up to 4 mm. Conventional control composites were sufficiently cured only up to 2 mm, despite significant postcure polymerization.

  2. Use of landsat ETM+ SLC-off segment-based gap-filled imagery for crop type mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, S.K.; Craig, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Failure of the Scan Line Corrector (SLC) on the Landsat ETM+ sensor has had a major impact on many applications that rely on continuous medium resolution imagery to meet their objectives. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Cropland Data Layer (CDL) program uses Landsat imagery as the primary source of data to produce crop-specific maps for 20 states in the USA. A new method has been developed to fill the image gaps resulting from the SLC failure to support the needs of Landsat users who require coincident spectral data, such as for crop type mapping and monitoring. We tested the new gap-filled method for a CDL crop type mapping project in eastern Nebraska. Scan line gaps were simulated on two Landsat 5 images (spring and late summer 2003) and then gap-filled using landscape boundary models, or segment models, that were derived from 1992 and 2002 Landsat images (used in the gap-fill process). Various date combinations of original and gap-filled images were used to derive crop maps using a supervised classification process. Overall kappa values were slightly higher for crop maps derived from SLC-off gap-filled images compared to crop maps derived from the original imagery (0.3–1.3% higher). Although the age of the segment model used to derive the SLC-off gap-filled product did not negatively impact the overall agreement, differences in individual cover type agreement did increase (−0.8%–1.6% using the 2002 segment model to −5.0–5.1% using the 1992 segment model). Classification agreement also decreased for most of the classes as the size of the segment used in the gap-fill process increased.

  3. Understanding the safety and tolerability of facial filling therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichova, Daniela; Borovaya, Alyona; Ruzicka, Thomas; Thomas, Peter; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2014-09-01

    Aesthetic medicine represents an emerging field for many specialties. Nowadays, a plethora of approaches are available to rejuvenate the human body and face, the latter being a frequent target for the placement of filling substances to correct wrinkles and volume loss. Nevertheless, based on the many products on the market, treating clinicians must pay specific attention to the properties of the respective materials, their associated side effects and any specific handling requirements to prevent potential short- and long-term adverse events. Types of filling materials, including biodegradable and non-biodegradable products, related complications, their conservative and invasive treatment options, as well as prevention strategies are described in this review. A profound knowledge of the facial anatomy as well as extensive experience with the various filling techniques and suitable materials for the respective areas remains crucial to prevent adverse events associated with filling procedures to the human face. Since side effects such as malar edema and foreign body granuloma do affect patients physically and psychologically to a significant extent and their successful treatment still remains challenging, further in depth studies on the tolerability of many filling materials utilized are required.

  4. Implications of Earth analogs to Martian sulfate-filled Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R. M.; Powers, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate-filled fractures in fine-grained sediments on Mars are interpreted to be the result of fluid movement during deep burial. Fractures in the Dewey Lake (aka Quartermaster) Formation of southeastern New Mexico and west Texas are filled with gypsum that is at least partially synsedimentary. Sulfate in the Dewey Lake takes two principal forms: gypsum cement and gypsum (mainly fibrous) that fills fractures ranging from horizontal to vertical. Apertures are mainly mm-scale, though some are > 1 cm. The gypsum is antitaxial, fibrous, commonly approximately perpendicular to the wall rock, and displays suture lines and relics of the wall rock. Direct evidence of synsedimentary, near-surface origin includes gypsum intraclasts, intraclasts that include smaller intraclasts that contain gypsum clasts, intraclasts of gypsum with suture lines, gypsum concentrated in small desiccation cracks, and intraclasts that include fibrous gypsum-filled fractures that terminate at the eroded clast boundary. Dewey Lake fracture fillings suggest that their Martian analogs may also have originated in the shallow subsurface, shortly following the deposition of Martian sediments, in the presence of shallow aquifers.

  5. Hydroxyapatite clay for gap filling and adequate bone ingrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, M; Terayama, K; Ito, M; Takei, T; Kitagawa, E

    1995-03-01

    In uncemented total hip arthroplasty, a complete filling of the gap between femoral prosthesis and the host bone is difficult and defects would remain, because the anatomy of the reamed intramedullary canal cannot fit the prosthesis. Therefore, it seems practical to fill the gap with a clay containing hydroxyapatite (HA), which has an osteoconductive character. The clay (HA clay) is made by mixing HA granules (size 0.1 mm or more) having a homogeneous pore distribution and a porosity of 35-48 vol%, and a viscous substance such as a saline solution of sodium alginate (SSSA). In the first experiment, the ratio of HA granules and sodium alginate in SSSA is set for the same handling properties of HA clay and polymethylmethacrylate bone cement (standard viscosity) before hardening. As a result, the ratio is set for 55 wt% of HA in the clay and 12.5 wt% of sodium alginate in SSSA (i.e., HA:sodium alginate:saline solution = 9.8:1:7). In the second study, the gap between the femoral stem and bone model is completely filled with HA clay. However, the gap is not filled only with HA granules or HA granules mixed with saline solution. In the third animal experiment, using an unloaded model, histology shows that HA clay has an osteoconductive property bridging the gap between the implant and the cortical bone without any adverse reaction. HA clay is considered a useful biomaterial to fill the gap with adequate bone ingrowth.

  6. Depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedalino, Inaam; Hartup, Grant R; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, manufacturers have introduced flowable composite resins that reportedly can be placed in increments of 4 mm or greater. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins (SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Venus Bulk Fill) and a conventional flowable composite resin (Revolution Formula 2). Depth of cure was measured in terms of bottom-maximum Knoop hardness number (KHN) ratios and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4049 scrape technique. Shades A2 and A3 of SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Revolution Formula 2 were tested. Venus Bulk Fill was tested in its only available shade (universal). Specimens in thicknesses of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm were polymerized for 20 or 40 seconds, and a hardness tester was used to determine the hardness ratios for each shade at each thickness. For the scraping technique, after specimens were exposed to the curing light, unpolymerized composite resin was removed with a plastic instrument, the polymerized composite was measured, and the length was divided by 2 per ISO guidelines. According to the KHN ratios and the scrape test, Venus Bulk Fill predictably exceeded the manufacturer's claim of a 4-mm depth of cure at both 20 and 40 seconds of curing time. The overall results for depth of cure showed that Venus Bulk Fill ≥ SureFil SDR Flow ≥ Grandio Flow ≥ Revolution Formula 2.

  7. Simultaneous in vivo comparison of water-filled and air-filled pressure measurement catheters: Implications for good urodynamic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, A; Abrams, P; Bevan, W; Ellis-Jones, J; Gray, J; Hassine, A; Williams, J; Hashim, H

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the pressure readings obtained from air-filled catheters (AFCs) are the same as the readings from simultaneously inserted water-filled catheters (WFCs). It also aimed to make any possible recommendations for the use of AFCs to conform to International Continence Society (ICS) Good Urodynamic Practices (GUP). Female patients undergoing urodynamic studies in a single center had water-filled and air-filled catheters simultaneously measuring abdominal and intravesical pressure during filling with saline and during voiding. The pressures recorded by each system at each event during the test were compared using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analyses. 62 patients were recruited, of whom 51 had pressures that could be compared during filling, and 23 during voiding. On average, the pressures measured by the two systems were not significantly different during filling and at maximum flow, but the values for a given patient were found to differ by up to 10 cmH 2 O. This study shows that AFCs and WFCs cannot be assumed to register equal values of pressure. It has further shown that even when the p det readings are compared with their value at the start of a test, a divergence of values of up to 10 cmH 2 O remains. If AFCs are used, care must be taken to compensate for any p det variations that occur during patient movement. Before AFCs are adopted, new normal values for resting pressures need to be developed to allow good quality AFC pressure readings to be made. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:926-933, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Effects of PASP-KT-NAA on the grain-filling of maize in different accumulated temperature zones of Hilongjiang Province, Norheast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Jun; Dong, Zhi-Qiang; Gao, Jiao; Chen, Chuan-Xiao; Jiao, Liu; Xie, Zhen-Xing

    2013-02-01

    Taking the two maize varieties Zhengdan 958 and Fengdan 3 grown on the three accumulated temperature zones (I, II and III) in Heilongjiang Provice as test materials, a field investigation was made in 2010 and 2011 to study the effects of PASP-KT-NAA (PKN), a compound of exogenous plant growth regulators, on the grain filling and yield of the varieties under different environmental temperatures. From zone I to III, the air temperature at the grain filling stage had a decreasing trend, with the average minimum temperature being 12.16, 11.40, and 9.56, respectively. The effective accumulated temperature at the mid-ate amt sae stage of grain filling was too low to be sufficient for grain filling, which severely affected the grain filling process. Applying N, P and K promoted the dry matter accumulation of maize grain and the grain filling rate in the three zones, delayed the peak time (Tmax) of the grain filling rate of Fengdan 3 but advanced that of Zhengdan 958, promoted the growth capacity at peak time of grain filling rate and the maximum grain filling rate of the two varieties, and shortened their active grain filling period. Applying N, P, and K increased the grain yield of the two varieties in the three zones obviously, and, as compared with those in zones I and II , the grain yields of Zhengdan 958 and Fengdan 3 in zone III were increased by 8.2% and 5.1% , and 3.4% and 0.8% , respectively. Therefore, applying N, P and K could help maize utilizing the limited accumulation temperature, improve the grain filling rate, decrease the grain water content, and ultimately, increase the maize yield.

  9. Gap filling strategies for long term energy flux data sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.

    2001-01-01

    At present a network of over 100 field sites are measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, on a nearly continuous basis. Gaps in the long term measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux must be filled before these data can be used...... for hydrological and meteorological applications. We adapted methods of gap filling for NEE (net ecosystem exchange of carbon) to energy fluxes and applied them to data sets available from the EUROFLUX and AmeriFlux eddy covariance databases. The average data coverage for the sites selected was 69% and 75......% for latent heat (lambdaE) and sensible heat (H). The methods were based on mean diurnal variations (half-hourly binned means of fluxes based on previous and subsequent days, MDV) and look-up tables for fluxes during assorted meteorological conditions (LookUp), and the impact of different gap filling methods...

  10. Radioactive waste slurry dehydrating and drum filling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihashi, Toshio; Abe, Kazuaki; Hasegawa, Akira

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a device for simultaneously filling and dehydrating radioactive waste in a waste can without the necessity of a special device for dehydration. Constitution: This device includes a radioactive waste storage tank, a pump for supplying the waste from the tank to a can, a drain tube having a filter at the lower end and installed displaceable in the axial direction of the can, and a drain pump. The slurry stored in the radioactive waste storage tank is supplied by the pump to the can, and the feedwater in the slurry is removed by another pump through a drain pipe having a filter which does not pass solid content from the can. Accordingly, as the slurry is filled in the can, the feedwater contained therein is removed. Consequently, it can simultaneously dehydrate and fill the dehydrated waste in the can. (Yoshihara, H.)

  11. Process and part filling control in micro injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Schoth, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The influence of process parameters on μ-injection molding (μIM) and on μ-injection molded parts has been investigated using Design of Experiments. A mold with a sensor applied at injection location was used to monitor actual injection pressure and to determine the cavity filling time. Flow markers...... position was measured on the polymer μ-parts to evaluate filling behavior of the polymer melt flowing through μ-features. Experimental results obtained under different processing conditions were evaluated to correlate the process parameter levels influence on the selected responses. Results showed...... that the injection speed in one of the most influencing process parameters on the μIM process and on the μ-parts filling....

  12. Gas-filled hohlraum experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Juan C.; Goldman, S.R.; Kline, J.L.; Dodd, E.S.; Gautier, C.; Grim, G.P.; Hegelich, B.M.; Montgomery, D.S.; Lanier, N.E.; Rose, H.; Schmidt, D.W.; Workman, J.B.; Braun, D.G.; Dewald, E.L.; Landen, O.L.; Campbell, K.M.; Holder, J.P.; MacKinnon, A.J.; Niemann, C.; Schein, J.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments done at the National Ignition Facility laser [J. A. Paisner, E. M. Campbell, and W. Hogan, Fusion Technol. 26, 755 (1994)] using gas-filled hohlraums demonstrate a key ignition design feature, i.e., using plasma pressure from a gas fill to tamp the hohlraum-wall expansion for the duration of the laser pulse. Moreover, our understanding of hohlraum energetics and the ability to predict the hohlraum soft-x-ray drive has been validated in ignition-relevant conditions. Finally, the laser reflectivity from stimulated Raman scattering in the fill plasma, a key threat to hohlraum performance, is shown to be suppressed by choosing a design with a sufficiently high ratio of electron temperature to density

  13. A liquid filled light distributor and a method of use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    the proximal end is arranged to be in optical communication with a light source and wherein the refractive index of the tube wall is n1 and the refractive index of the fluid is n2 and n1/n2 light from the light source travels along the longitudinal direction of the tubular body and that a part......The present invention relates to liquid filled light distributor comprising an elongated tubular body with a tube wall defining an in inner lumen filled with a liquid, said tubular body having -a proximal end closed by first closing means -a distal end closed by second closing means. Wherein...... of the light is emitted through the tube wall along at least a part of the tubular body. Further a method of use for the liquid filled light distributor is provided....

  14. Vehicle type affects filling of fractional laser-ablated channels imaged by optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Uffe Høgh; Mogensen, Mette; Haedersdal, Merete

    2017-01-01

    Ablative fractional laser (AFXL) is an emerging method that enhances topical drug delivery. Penetrating the skin in microscopic, vertical channels, termed microscopic treatment zones (MTZs), the fractional technique circumvents the skin barrier and allows increased uptake of topically applied dru...... was overall greater for more superficial MTZs. In conclusion, vehicle type affects filling of MTZs, which may be of importance for AFXL-assisted drug delivery....

  15. Spectral radiative property control method based on filling solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Y.; Liu, L.H.; Hsu, P.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling thermal radiation by tailoring spectral properties of microstructure is a promising method, can be applied in many industrial systems and have been widely researched recently. Among various property tailoring schemes, geometry design of microstructures is a commonly used method. However, the existing radiation property tailoring is limited by adjustability of processed microstructures. In other words, the spectral radiative properties of microscale structures are not possible to change after the gratings are fabricated. In this paper, we propose a method that adjusts the grating spectral properties by means of injecting filling solution, which could modify the thermal radiation in a fabricated microstructure. Therefore, this method overcomes the limitation mentioned above. Both mercury and water are adopted as the filling solution in this study. Aluminum and silver are selected as the grating materials to investigate the generality and limitation of this control method. The rigorous coupled-wave analysis is used to investigate the spectral radiative properties of these filling solution grating structures. A magnetic polaritons mechanism identification method is proposed based on LC circuit model principle. It is found that this control method could be used by different grating materials. Different filling solutions would enable the high absorption peak to move to longer or shorter wavelength band. The results show that the filling solution grating structures are promising for active control of spectral radiative properties. -- Highlights: • A filling solution grating structure is designed to adjust spectral radiative properties. • The mechanism of radiative property control is studied for engineering utilization. • Different grating materials are studied to find multi-functions for grating

  16. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N.

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  17. Les mobiles de participation des filles au football et autonomisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude vise à connaître les mobiles qui conditionnent les filles béninoises à pratiquer le football et à les analyser pour développer l'autonomisation des filles en rapport avec les défis du millénaire. Pour ce faire 108 joueuses, dont la moyenne d'âge est de 17 ans, réparties dans 9 équipes parmi les 17 équipes que ...

  18. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherlitsyn, A A; Kovalchuk, B M; Pedin, N N

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  19. Gas-filled hohlraum experiments at the national ignition facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, J. C. (Juan C.); Gautier, D. C. (Donald Cort); Goldman, S. R. (Sanford R.); Grimm, B. M.; Hegelich, B. M. (Bjorn M.); Kline, J. L. (John L.); Montgomery, D. S. (David S.); Lanier, N. E. (Nicholas E.); Rose, H. A. (Harvey A.); Schmidt, D. M. (David M.); Swift, D. C.; Workman, J. B. (Jonathan B.); Alvarez, Sharon; Bower, Dan.; Braun, Dave.; Campbell, K. (Katherine); DeWald, E.; Glenzer, S. (Siegfried); Holder, J. (Joe P.); Kamperschroer, J. H. (James H.); Kimbrough, Joe (Joseph R.); Kirkwood, Robert (Bob); Landen, O. L. (Otto L.); Mccarville, Tom (Tomas J.); Macgowan, B.; Mackinnon, A.; Niemann, C.; Schein, J.; Schneider, M; Watts, Phil; Young, Ben-li [number : znumber] 194154; Young B.

    2004-01-01

    The summary of this paper is: (1) We have fielded on NIF a gas-filled hohlraum designed for future ignition experiments; (2) Wall-motion measurements are consistent with LASNEX simulations; (3) LPI back-scattering results have confounded expectations - (a) Stimulated Brillouin (SBS) dominates Raman (SRS) for any gas-fill species, (b) Measured SBS time-averaged reflectivity values are high, peak values are even higher, (c) SRS and SBS peak while laser-pulse is rising; and (4) Plasma conditions at the onset of high back-scattering yield high SBS convective linear gain - Wavelengths of the back-scattered light is predicted by linear theory.

  20. Effect of Different Filling Materials in Anammox Bacteria Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ÖZGÜN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox is a process that ammonium as electron donor is oxidized to nitrogen gas using nitrite as electron acceptor. Compared to conventional nitrification-denitrification processes, this process is used less oxygen and no organic material (methanol, glucose. However, the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria (11-30 days is disadvantages. Therefore, batch reactors have been carried out in these bacteria enrichment. In this study continuously operated upflow anaerobic sludge reactor (UASB using different filling materials disposing of sensitive and slow-growing Anammox bacteria out of the system is purposed. Design and Methods: System is operated up-flow column reactor at 2 days hydraulic retention time (HRT in 45 days. In this study, ceramic stones and Linpor filling material are used. Using synthetic wastewater containing ammonium and nitrite, Ar/CO2 anaerobic conditions (95/5% supplied with gas. System is operated at a temperature 253 C in UASB. Temperature, pH, ammonia-nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen are measured. Results: Both filling material reactors are operated in 45 days. Ceramic stones filling reactor is observed quickly reaches 90% were used reactor ammonium removal. The ammonium nitrogen removal was slower in Linpor filling materials reactor. Nitrite removal is reached up to 90% in both the reactor. When compared to the stoichiometric equation in Linpor was composed of large amounts of nitrate. At the end of 25 days the results were similar to ceramic stone filling reactor with Linpor filling material reactors. Conclusions and Original Value: Anammox process as from nitrogen removal processes was discovered in 1995. Anammox bacteria that make up this process due to very low growth rates of microbial bacteria in the system must be kept in the system. Most of the studies in the literature, these bacteria enrichment stage is started instead of a continuous batch reactor system. In this study

  1. Three-dimensional wedge filling in ordered and disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenall, M J; Parry, A O; Romero-Enrique, J M

    2004-01-01

    We investigate interfacial structural and fluctuation effects occurring at continuous filling transitions in 3D wedge geometries. We show that fluctuation-induced wedge covariance relations that have been reported recently for 2D filling and wetting have mean-field or classical analogues that apply to higher-dimensional systems. Classical wedge covariance emerges from analysis of filling in shallow wedges based on a simple interfacial Hamiltonian model and is supported by detailed numerical investigations of filling within a more microscopic Landau-like density functional theory. Evidence is presented that classical wedge covariance is also obeyed for filling in more acute wedges in the asymptotic critical regime. For sufficiently short-ranged forces mean-field predictions for the filling critical exponents and covariance are destroyed by pseudo-one-dimensional interfacial fluctuations. We argue that in this filling fluctuation regime the critical exponents describing the divergence of length scales are related to values of the interfacial wandering exponent ζ(d) defined for planar interfaces in (bulk) two-dimensional (d = 2) and three-dimensional (d = 3) systems. For the interfacial height l w ∼ θ-α) -β w , with θ the contact angle and α the wedge tilt angle, we find β w = ζ(2)/2(1-ζ(3)). For pure systems (thermal disorder) we recover the known result β w = 1/4 predicted by interfacial Hamiltonian studies whilst for random-bond disorder we predict the universal critical exponent β ∼ even in the presence of dispersion forces. We revisit the transfer matrix theory of three-dimensional filling based on an effective interfacial Hamiltonian model and discuss the interplay between breather, tilt and torsional interfacial fluctuations. We show that the coupling of the modes allows the problem to be mapped onto a quantum mechanical problem as conjectured by previous authors. The form of the interfacial height probability distribution function predicted by

  2. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N. [Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Academichesky Avenue, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-15

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of {>=}1 MeV at the current of Almost-Equal-To 100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of Almost-Equal-To 5 kJ with the peak power of {>=}100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  3. Modelling of the filling up of a porous plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, R.; Gama, R.M.S. da.

    1985-01-01

    A generalization of Darcy's law is constructed using Mixture Theory to describe the transient flow of an incompressible fluid through a rigid solid porous matrix. The model is used to study the process of filling-up of an one dimensional unsaturated porous medium that is mathematically described by a system of nonlinear hyperbolic equations that is non-homogeneous due to the drag force between the fluid and the solid matrix. The system is analysed throughly and solved numerically using the Glimm-Chorin method with a splitting to treat the non-homogeneous term. The results are discussed and shown to describe well the filling-up process. (Author) [pt

  4. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  5. Dynamic compaction with high energy of sandy hydraulic fills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelalfa Houssam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A case study about the adoption of the dynamic compaction technique with high energy in a sandy hydraulic fill is presented. The feasibility of this technique to ensure the stability of the caisson workshop and to minimize the risk of liquefaction during manufacture. This Article is interested to establish diagnostic of dynamic compaction test, basing on the results of SPT tests and quality control as well as the details of work of compaction and the properties of filling materials. A theory of soil response to a high-energy impact during dynamic compaction is proposed.

  6. Spectral interpolation - Zero fill or convolution. [image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M. L.

    1977-01-01

    Zero fill, or augmentation by zeros, is a method used in conjunction with fast Fourier transforms to obtain spectral spacing at intervals closer than obtainable from the original input data set. In the present paper, an interpolation technique (interpolation by repetitive convolution) is proposed which yields values accurate enough for plotting purposes and which lie within the limits of calibration accuracies. The technique is shown to operate faster than zero fill, since fewer operations are required. The major advantages of interpolation by repetitive convolution are that efficient use of memory is possible (thus avoiding the difficulties encountered in decimation in time FFTs) and that is is easy to implement.

  7. Gas-filled hohlraum experiments at the national ignition facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.C.; Gautier, D.C.; Goldman, S.R.; Grimm, B.M.; Hegelich, B.M.; Kline, J.L.; Montgomery, D.S.; Lanier, N.E.; Rose, H.A.; Schmidt, D.M.; Swift, D.C.; Workman, J.B.; Alvarez, Sharon; Bower, Dan; Braun, Dave; Campbell, K.; DeWald, E.; Glenzer, S.; Holder, J.; Kamperschroer, J.H.; Kimbrough, Joe; Kirkwood, Robert; Landen, O.L.; Mccarville, Tom; Macgowan, B.; Mackinnon, A.; Niemann, C.; Schein, J.; Schneider, M.; Watts, Phil; Young, Ben-li; Young B.

    2004-01-01

    The summary of this paper is: (1) We have fielded on NIF a gas-filled hohlraum designed for future ignition experiments; (2) Wall-motion measurements are consistent with LASNEX simulations; (3) LPI back-scattering results have confounded expectations - (a) Stimulated Brillouin (SBS) dominates Raman (SRS) for any gas-fill species, (b) Measured SBS time-averaged reflectivity values are high, peak values are even higher, (c) SRS and SBS peak while laser-pulse is rising; and (4) Plasma conditions at the onset of high back-scattering yield high SBS convective linear gain - Wavelengths of the back-scattered light is predicted by linear theory.

  8. Low pressure gas filling of laser fusion microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J.C.; Dressler, J.L.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    In our laser fusion microsphere production, large, thin gel-microspheres are formed before the chemicals are fused into glass. In this transient stage,, the gel-microspheres are found to be highly permeable to argon and many other inert gases. When the gel transforms to glass, the argon gas, for example, is trapped within to form argon filled, fusion target quality, glass microspheres. On the average, the partial pressure of the argon fills attained in this process is around 2 x 10 4 Pa at room temperature

  9. Experimental study of strontium sorption on fissure filling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, T E; Cui, Daqing [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-12-01

    We have carried out a comparative study of sorption and desorption of strontium in groundwater on separated magnetic and size fractions of fissure filling material taken from natural fissures in granitic rock. Complete reversibility of the sorption process was demonstrated by identical Freundlich isotherms, isotopic exchangeability and pH dependence of the distribution coefficients Rd. The sorption was found to be strongly pH dependent in the range 3-11. The pH effect can be accommodated in the sorption model by considering the surface areas and surface charges of the minerals in the fissure filling material. 20 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs.

  10. Experimental study of strontium sorption on fissure filling material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.; Cui, Daqing

    1994-12-01

    We have carried out a comparative study of sorption and desorption of strontium in groundwater on separated magnetic and size fractions of fissure filling material taken from natural fissures in granitic rock. Complete reversibility of the sorption process was demonstrated by identical Freundlich isotherms, isotopic exchangeability and pH dependence of the distribution coefficients Rd. The sorption was found to be strongly pH dependent in the range 3-11. The pH effect can be accommodated in the sorption model by considering the surface areas and surface charges of the minerals in the fissure filling material. 20 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Evaluation of cavity size, kind, and filling technique of composite shrinkage by finite element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Toloo; Alaghehmad, Homayoon; Moodi, Ehsan

    2018-01-01

    Cavity preparation reduces the rigidity of tooth and its resistance to deformation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dimensional changes of the repaired teeth using two types of light cure composite and two methods of incremental and bulk filling by the use of finite element method. In this computerized in vitro experimental study, an intact maxillary premolar was scanned using cone beam computed tomography instrument (SCANORA, Switzerland), then each section of tooth image was transmitted to Ansys software using AUTOCAD. Then, eight sizes of cavity preparations and two methods of restoration (bulk and incremental) using two different types of composite resin materials (Heliomolar, Brilliant) were proposed on software and analysis was completed with Ansys software. Dimensional change increased by widening and deepening of the cavities. It was also increased using Brilliant composite resin and incremental filling technique. Increase in depth and type of filling technique has the greatest role of dimensional change after curing, but the type of composite resin does not have a significant role.

  12. Comparative X-ray studies on the behaviour of amalgam and gold fillings at the margins in the approximal space as a function of time of residence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Within the framework of this thesis, X-ray pictures have been made of 430 gold or amalgam fillings in order to measure the gap between approximal cavity margin and filling margin. With amalgam fillings, the gap width measured after a residence time of half a year was 9.3 μm and widened to 136.9 μm after 8 years, which represents an increase to the 14-fold. The gap widths measured with gold inlays only doubled within this period, increasing from 38.8 μm after half a year to 77.4 μm after 8 years. The number of retention spots found in the approximal-cervical space with amalgam fillings was at least twice that found for gold fillings. From this it is concluded that gold inlays are by far the better solution for dental restorations. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Production and construction technology of C100 high strength concrete filled steel tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanli; Sun, Jinlin; Yin, Suhua; Liu, Yu

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of the amount of cement, water cement ratio and sand ratio on compressive strength of C100 concrete was studied. The optimum mix ratio was applied to the concrete filled steel tube for the construction of Shenyang Huangchao Wanxin mansion. The results show that the increase of amount of cement, water cement ratio can improve the compressive strength of C100 concrete but increased first and then decreased with the increase of sand ratio. The compressive strength of C100 concrete can reach 110MPa with the amount of cement 600kg/m3, sand ratio 40% and water cement ratio 0.25.

  14. Water absorption and biodegradation kinetics of highly filled EOC-FS biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zykova, A. K.; Pantyukhov, P. V.; Platov, Yu. T.; Bobojonova, G. A.; Ramos, C. Chaverri; Popov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper analyzes the water absorption and biodegradation kinetics in highly filled biocomposites based on ethylene-octene copolymer (EOC) and oil flax straw (FS). It is shown that adding the filler to EOC increases the water absorption from 0 to 22%. The tendency can be explained both by the low interfacial adhesion of EOC to FS and by the hydrophilic nature of the filler. According to biodegradation tests (10 months), the mass of pure EOC remains unchanged, suggesting that it fails to biodegrade in the environment. Increasing the filler content increases the weight loss of the composites and the degree of microbiological contamination (fungi filaments, bacteria) as evidenced by optical microscopy.

  15. Mechanical and morphological properties of kenaf powder filled natural rubber latex foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Ahmad Fikri Abdul, E-mail: a.fikri-89@yahoo.com; Ariff, Zulkifli Mohamad [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Ismail, Hanafi [Cluster for Polymer Composites (CPC), Science and Engineering Research Centre, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia,14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This research is carried out by incorporate kenaf powder with natural rubber latex (NRL) compound and is foamed to make natural rubber latex foam (NRLF) by using a well known technique called Dunlop method. Different loading of kenaf powder was added to NRL compound and was foamed to make NRLF. The tensile properties, and morphology of kenaf filled NRLF was studied. Increase in kenaf loading reduced the tensile strength and elongation at break and of a compound. Modulus at 100% elongation of the compound increased with increased in filler loading. The morphological and micro structural characterization has been performed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  16. Mechanical and morphological properties of kenaf powder filled natural rubber latex foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, Ahmad Fikri Abdul; Ariff, Zulkifli Mohamad; Ismail, Hanafi

    2015-01-01

    This research is carried out by incorporate kenaf powder with natural rubber latex (NRL) compound and is foamed to make natural rubber latex foam (NRLF) by using a well known technique called Dunlop method. Different loading of kenaf powder was added to NRL compound and was foamed to make NRLF. The tensile properties, and morphology of kenaf filled NRLF was studied. Increase in kenaf loading reduced the tensile strength and elongation at break and of a compound. Modulus at 100% elongation of the compound increased with increased in filler loading. The morphological and micro structural characterization has been performed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  17. Structural, electronic, and thermal properties of indium-filled InxIr4Sb12 skutterudites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M. K.; Li, Jun; Subramanian, M. A.

    2018-06-01

    The "phonon-glass/electron-crystal" approach has been implemented through incorporation of "rattlers" into skutterudite void sites to increase phonon scattering and thus increase the thermoelectric efficiency. Indium filled IrSb3 skutterudites are reported for the first time. Polycrystalline samples of InxIr4Sb12 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) were prepared by solid-state reaction under a gas mixture of 5% H2 and 95% Ar. The solubility limit of InxIr4Sb12 was found to be close to 0.18. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction refinements reveal all InxIr4Sb12 phases crystallized in body-centered cubic structure (space group : Im 3 bar) with ∼8% antimony site vacancy and with indium partially occupying the 16f site. Unlike known rattler filled skutterudites, under synthetic conditions employed, indium filling in IrSb3 significantly increases the electrical resistivity and decreases the Seebeck coefficient (n-type) while reducing the thermal conductivity by ∼30%. The resultant power factor offsets the decrease in total thermal conductivity giving rise to a substantial decrease in ZT. Principal thermoelectric properties of InxM4Sb12 (M = Co, Rh, Ir) phases are compared. As iridium is a 5d transition metal, zero field cooled (ZFC) magnetization were performed to unravel the effect of spin-orbit interaction on the electronic properties. These results serve to advance the understanding of filled skutterudites, and provide additional insight on the less explored smaller "rattlers" and their influence on key thermoelectric properties.

  18. The Young's Modulus, Fracture Stress, and Fracture Strain of Gellan Hydrogels Filled with Whey Protein Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cherry Wing Yu; Ikeda, Shinya

    2017-05-01

    Texture modifying abilities of whey protein microparticles are expected to be dependent on pH during heat-induced aggregation of whey protein in the microparticulation process. Therefore, whey protein microparticles were prepared at either pH 5.5 or 6.8 and their effects on small and large deformation properties of gellan gels containing whey protein microparticles as fillers were investigated. The majority of whey protein microparticles had diameters around 2 μm. Atomic force microscopy images showed that whey protein microparticles prepared at pH 6.8 partially collapsed and flatted by air-drying, while those prepared at pH 5.5 did not. The Young's modulus of filled gels adjusted to pH 5.5 decreased by the addition of whey protein microparticles, while those of filled gels adjusted to pH 6.8 increased with increasing volume fraction of filler particles. These results suggest that filler particles were weakly bonded to gel matrices at pH 5.5 but strongly at pH 6.8. Whey protein microparticles prepared at pH 5.5 showed more enhanced increases in the Young's modulus than those prepared at pH 6.8 at volume fractions between 0.2 and 0.4, indicating that microparticles prepared at pH 5.5 were mechanically stronger. The fracture stress of filled gels showed trends somewhat similar to those of the Young's modulus, while their fracture strains decreased by the addition of whey protein microparticles in all examined conditions, indicating that the primary effect of these filler particles was to enhance the brittleness of filled gels. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Polyamines and ethylene interact in rice grains in response to soil drying during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingting; Xu, Yunji; Wang, Jingchao; Wang, Zhiqin; Yang, Jianchang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the interaction between polyamines and ethylene may mediate the effects of soil drying on grain filling of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Two rice cultivars were pot grown. Three treatments, well-watered, moderate soil drying (MD), and severe soil drying (SD), were imposed from 8 d post-anthesis until maturity. The endosperm cell division rate, grain-filling rate, and grain weight of earlier flowering superior spikelets showed no significant differences among the three treatments. However, those of the later flowering inferior spikelets were significantly increased under MD and significantly reduced under SD when compared with those which were well watered. The two cultivars showed the same tendencies. MD increased the contents of free spermidine (Spd) and free spermine (Spm), the activities of S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase and Spd synthase, and expression levels of polyamine synthesis genes, and decreased the ethylene evolution rate, the contents of 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and hydrogen peroxide, the activities of ACC synthase, ACC oxidase, and polyamine oxidase, and the expression levels of ethylene synthesis genes in inferior spikelets. SD exhibited the opposite effects. Application of Spd, Spm, or an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis to rice panicles significantly reduced ethylene and ACC levels, but significantly increased Spd and Spm contents, grain-filling rate, and grain weight of inferior spikelets. The results were reversed when ACC or an inhibitor of Spd and Spm synthesis was applied. The results suggest that a potential metabolic interaction between polyamines and ethylene biosynthesis responds to soil drying and mediates the grain filling of inferior spikelets in rice.

  20. Creep deformation of restorative resin-composites intended for bulk-fill placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safty, S; Silikas, N; Watts, D C

    2012-08-01

    To determine the creep deformation of several "bulk-fill" resin-composite formulations in comparison with some other types. Six resin-composites; four bulk-fill and two conventional were investigated. Stainless steel split molds (4 mm × 6 mm) were used to prepare cylindrical specimens for creep testing. Specimens were thoroughly irradiated with 650 mW cm(-2). A total of 10 specimens for each material were divided into two groups (n = 5) according to the storage condition; Group A stored dry at 37 °C for 24h and Group B stored in distilled water at 37 °C in an incubator for 24h. Each specimen was loaded (20 MPa) for 2h and unloaded for 2h. The strain deformation was recorded continuously for 4h. Statistical analysis was performed using a two-way ANOVA followed by one-way ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc test at a significance level of a = 0.05. The maximum creep strain % ranged from 0.72% up to 1.55% for Group A and the range for Group B increased from 0.79% up to 1.80% due to water sorption. Also, the permanent set ranged from 0.14% up to 0.47% for Group A and from 0.20% up to 0.59% for Group B. Dependent on the material and storage condition, the percentage of creep strain recovery ranged between 64% and 81%. Increased filler loading in the bulk-fill materials decreased the creep strain magnitude. Creep deformation of all studied resin-composites increased with wet storage. The "bulk-fill" composites exhibited an acceptable creep deformation and within the range exhibited by other resin-composites. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CALCULATION OF THE HEAT TREATMENT AND FREEZING OF BAKERY PRODUCTSWITH FILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Kutsakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Bakery products are used on a daily basis. The quality of bakery products directly depends on the duration of baking. Today bread-baking enterprises have no direct guidelines on determining when the product is ready. Certain theoretical guidelines to determine the baking time depending on operating parameters would considerably improve both the baking itself and the quality of the end product. To date there have not been established any methods of calculating the time needed to bake such complex multi-layered food as bakery products with filling. This article features the methods of calculating the baking time when it comes to products with filling, e. g. buns. The inaccuracy of calculating the baking time within the experiment comes to 5-7 %. The suggested methods are general in nature and, therefore, can be applied for all kinds of symmetric multi-layer products. In recent years the market of bakery products has been reshaped, that is a new sector has entered the market, namely the production of frozen pastry of various recipes. It should be noted that to date fillings for bakery products contain numerous water binding additives of plant and animal origin, which results in increasing the share of the bound water in a filling, which in turn decreases (in some cases rather significantly the cryoscopic temperature of a bakery product and, accordingly, reduces the time needed to freeze such a product. The existing schemes to calculate the freezing time do not take into account that this method leads to the increased consumption of energy needed to make such a product. The article presents the solution, which is the calculation of the freezing time of bakery products with filling considering the decreasing cryoscopic temperature of a filling of a bakery product, e. g. that of a bun. The inaccuracy of calculating the freezing time within the experiment comes to less then 8 %. The suggested methods are general in nature and, therefore, can

  2. Impact of fill-level in twin-screw granulation on critical quality attributes of granules and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Robin; Moll, Klaus-Peter; Krumme, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2017-06-01

    In a previous study a change of the fill-level in the barrel exerted a huge influence on the twin-screw granulation (TSG) process of a high drug loaded, simplified formulation. The present work investigated this influence systematically. The specific feed load (SFL) indicating the mass per revolution as surrogate parameter for the fill-level was applied and the correlation to the real volumetric fill level of an extruder could be demonstrated by a newly developed method. A design of experiments was conducted to examine the combined influence of SFL and screw speed on the process and on critical quality attributes of granules and tablets. The same formulation was granulated at constant liquid level with the same screw configuration and led to distinctively different results by only changing the fill-level and the screw speed. The power consumption of the extruder increased at higher SFLs with hardly any influence of screw speed. At low SFL the median residence time was mainly fill-level dependent and at higher SFL mainly screw speed dependent. Optimal values for the product characteristics were found at medium values for the SFL. Granule size distributions shifted from mono-modal and narrow shape to broader and even bimodal distributions of larger median granule sizes, when exceeding or falling below a certain fill-level. Deviating from the optimum fill-level, tensile strength of tablets decreased by about 25% and disintegration times of tablets increased for more than one third. At low fill-levels, material accumulation in front of the kneading zone was detected by pressure measurements and was assumed to be responsible for the unfavored product performance. At high fill-levels, granule consolidation due to higher propensity of contact with the result of higher material temperature was accounted for inferior product performance. The fill-level was found to be an important factor in assessment and development of twin-screw granulation processes as it impacted

  3. 21 CFR 1306.13 - Partial filling of prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partial filling of prescriptions. 1306.13 Section 1306.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS Controlled... by revising paragraph (a), effective June 1, 2010. For the convenience of the user, the revised text...

  4. Fire Response of Concrete Filled Hollow Steel Sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyman, Simon; Virdi, Kuldeep

    2011-01-01

    Advanced and simplified methods of analysis and design for the fire resistance of structural elements and assemblages of structures have been developed in recent years. Some simplified methods for the fire design of concrete filled tubes have appeared in Eurocode 4 part 1.2. Experience to date in...... hollow sections....

  5. Gap filling strategies for long term energy flux data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.; Anthoni, P.; Aubinet, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Burba, G.; Ceulemans, R.; Clement, R.; Dolman, H.; Granier, A.; Gross, P.; Grünwald, T.; Hollinger, D.; Jensen, N.O.; Katul, G.; Keronen, P.; Kowalski, A.; Lai, C.T.; Law, B.E.; Meyers, T.; Moncrieff, J.; Moors, E.J.; Munger, J.W.; Pilegaard, K.; Rebmann, C.; Suyker, A.; Tenhunen, J.; Tu, K.

    2001-01-01

    At present a network of over 100 field sites are measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, on a nearly continuous basis. Gaps in the long term measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux must be filled before these data can be used

  6. A water-filled radio frequency accelerating cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehl, R.J.; Keinigs, R.K.; Pogue, E.W.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to study water-filled resonant cavities as a high-energy density source to drive high-current accelerator configurations. Basic considerations lead to the expectation that a dielectric-filled cavity should be able to store up to e/e o as much energy as a vacuum one with the same dimensions and thus be capable of accelerating a proportionately larger amount of charge before cavity depletion occurs. During this project, we confirmed that water-filled cavities with e/e o = 60-80 did indeed behave with the expected characteristics, in terms of resonant TM modes and cavity Q. We accomplished this result with numerical cavity eigenvalue codes; fully electromagnetic, two-dimensional, particle-in-cell codes; and, most significantly, with scaled experiments performed in water-filled aluminum cavities. The low-power experiments showed excellent agreement with the numerical results. Simulations of the high-field, high-current mode of operation indicated that charged-particle loss on the dielectric windows, which separate the cavity from the beamline, must be carefully controlled to avoid significant distortion of the axial fields

  7. Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines | Brouckaert | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Excreta (faeces and urine) that are deposited into a pit latrine are subject to biodegradation, which substantially reduces the volume that remains. On the other hand, other matter that is not biodegradable usually finds itsway into pit latrines. The net filling rate is thus dependent on both the rate of addition of material and its ...

  8. Experimental Study of Goaf Filling Materials Based on Red Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Mangen; Gao, Xiaozhen; Guo, Taoming; Hu, Xinping

    2018-01-01

    Red mud as soild waste is difficult to treatment. Goaf filling materials can make a large use of red mud. By the experimental study,we find that the red mud, fly ash, ground slag and desulfida-tion gypsum can be used to make goaf filling materials based on the principle of alkali excitation and metalion stability.Through the control variable method, we find that the optimal proportion of goaf filling materials based on red mud is red mud 55%, fly ash 30%, cement 7.5%, fly ash 2.5%, desulfurization gypsum 5%, admixture 1%, and water solid ratio=1:1.2.The 28days final material strength was 2.0 MPa,which achives the technical specification requirements.Through the test of SEM, XRD and IR, it is indicated that the strength formation of goaf filling material based on red mud is from the unformed linking hydration products of amorphous alkali excitation system. With curing time from 3 to 7 days, the unformed linking hydration products grown a lot of vitreous hydration products. When hydration reaction basicly finished after 28 days, the hydration products have developed into a large volume of massive vitreous with an extremely dense structure. The Ca2SiO3 mineral phase is significantly reduced, which is participate in hydration reactions. The decrease of Ca2SiO3 indicates that the Si-O bond in the system have been ruptured and reorganized.

  9. Form Filling with SCC in a Vertical Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from two different vertical form filling experiments with SCC that have been completed as part of the experimental work in an ongoing Ph.D project. The project is carried out at the Danish Technological Institute in collaboration with the Technical...

  10. Constructing Delaunay triangulations along space-filling curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.; Fiat, A.; Sanders, P.

    2009-01-01

    Incremental construction con BRIO using a space-filling curve order for insertion is a popular algorithm for constructing Delaunay triangulations. So far, it has only been analyzed for the case that a worst-case optimal point location data structure is used which is often avoided in implementations.

  11. Methodology for teaching facial filling with hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira Ruiz, R; Laruccia, M M; Gerenutti, M

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the importance of the methodization in teaching facial dermal filling on the training of physicians who intend to work or are already working in the area of facial aesthetics. The methodology is based on the procedures performed in Iz Clinic of Plastic Surgery from 2007 to 2010, where the results of the use of dermal filling products were observed. We chose the hyaluronic acid for the methodization of education. Even being a safe procedure, the dermal filling needs to be done by trained professionals because some complications may occur. The theoretical discussion of facial anatomy, physiology and classification of aging, rheological characteristics of products and application techniques underpin the practical part, in which the live demo or supervision of the procedure is performed. The idealization of classes, both theoretical and practical, proposed in this work proved to be of great value in teaching physicians. The success of this method can be seen from the results achieved by students and by observing the drop in reports of adverse effects. After learning the techniques of facial dermal filling with products based on hyaluronic acid, a doctor may perform this therapy with other fillers, with harmonious results.

  12. Gaussian Filtering with Tapered Oil-Filled Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Anna Chiara; Scolari, Lara; Weirich, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A tunable Gaussian filter based on a tapered oil-filled photonic crystal fiber is demonstrated. The filter is centered at X=1364nm with a bandwidth (FWHM) of 237nm. Tunability is achieved by changing the temperature of the filter. A shift of 210nm of the central wavelength has been observed...

  13. Understanding the viscoelastic behavior of silica filled rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the understanding the viscoelastic behavior of silica filled Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) using different sizes/surface areas in three different regions of deformation that will be developed in 3 chapters. The characterization of the samples used in this work is described in

  14. Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Canning, John; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres reduces the scattering from air–glass interfaces during Bragg grating writing in many layered photonic crystal fibres. Within experimental uncertainty, the grating index modulation of a grating written in germanium-doped photonic crystal fibre with 10 rings...

  15. Evaluation of various filling techniques in distal canals of mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of various filling techniques in distal canals of mandibular molars instrumented with different single-file nickel-titanium systems. ... Comparisons between groups were applied using Student's t-test or one-way ANOVA for normally distributed data. The Mann-Whitney U-test or Kruskal-Wallis test was used when ...

  16. A Preliminary Assessment of Groundwater Samples around a Filling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a preliminary assessment of groundwater samples around a filling station in Diobu area of Port Harcourt for four years at intervals of two years with a view to determine the level of groundwater pollution. It examines the physiochemical, major ions and heavy metal aspect of groundwater quality around the study ...

  17. Ultrasonically determined fill pressure and density in closed spherical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaki, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted in which the D 2 fill pressure has been determined for several closed millimeter-size aluminum and beryllium shells. The vibrational resonance frequency spectrum of the shells was used to calculate the sound velocity of the interior gas. This velocity, along with the equation-of-state, determined the gas pressure and density. The accuracy in determining the fill conditions is within 0.5% in both pressure and density for near critical density (ρ approx-gt 9 mol/L) gas over a wide range of temperatures (190 K to 300 K). Reduced accuracy was apparent at low density. An attempt was made to determine the fill density of one shell by acoustic observation of the dew point temperature. While this temperature was recorded very accurately, the uncertainty in the saturated vapor density curve near the critical point yielded inaccurate results. These methods were shown to be unaffected by small deviations in the sphericity of the gas-filled cavity

  18. Environmental Impact Assessment of Petrol and Gas Filling Stations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated pollutants emissions from filling stations and their impact on the air quality. Gas monitors were employed to identify the different pollutants present in the ambient air of the study areas. The results showed that the most prominent pollutants present in the ambient air are the volatile organic compounds ...

  19. Calculation of piping loads due to filling procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swidersky, Harald; Thiele, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Filling procedures in piping systems are usually not load cases that are studied by fluid dynamic and structure dynamic analyses with respect to the integrity of pipes and supports. Although, their frequency is higher than that of postulated accidental transients, therefore they have to be considered for fatigue analyses. The piping and support loads due to filling procedures are caused by the density differences if the transported fluids, for instance in flows with the transport of gas bubbles. The impact duration of the momentum forces is defined by the flow velocity and the length of discontinuities in the piping segments. Filling procedures end very often with a shock pressure, caused by the impact and decelerating of the fluid front at smaller cross sections. The suitability of the thermally hydraulics program RELAP/MOD3.3 for the calculation of realistic loads from filling procedures was studied, the results compared with experimental data. It is shown that dependent on the discretization level the loads are partial significantly underestimated.

  20. Capillary filling of miniaturized sources for electrospray mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arscott, Steve; Gaudet, Matthieu; Brinkmann, Martin; Ashcroft, Alison E; Blossey, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Capillary slot-based emitter tips are a novel tool for use in electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry of large biomolecules. We have performed a combined theoretical and experimental study of capillary filling in micron-sized slots with the aim of developing a rational design procedure for miniaturized electrospray sources, ultimately enabling the integration of ESI into laboratory-on-a-chip devices

  1. Laboratory tests on fungal resistance of wood filled polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2002-01-01

    A standard method for determining the durability of structural wood was modified for testing the fungal resistance of composites made from high density polyethylene filled with 50% wood flour. Moisture content, mechanical properties, and weight loss were measured over 12 weeks exposure to brown-and white-rot fungi. Mechanical properties were decreased, but irreversible...

  2. The Effects of Iron Filling On Some Mechanical and Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    sawdust of particle size 1.18mm and iron fillings of size 300µm, 20g binder (urea formaldehyde) concentration, hot ... The water absorption and thickness swell test results showed that the .... of this type of magnetic material include: easier.

  3. 7 CFR 2902.20 - Fluid-filled transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... transformers. Electric power transformers that are designed to utilize a synthetic ester-based dielectric (non... transformers. Electric power transformers that are designed to utilize a vegetable oil-based dielectric (non... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fluid-filled transformers. 2902.20 Section 2902.20...

  4. Prevalence of low back pain among filling stations attendants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 12 months prevalence of LBP prior to the study, severity of LBP, history of LBP, causative factors and management of LBP and its effect on filling stations attendant's activities and activities of daily living. It was adapted from a previous study Titled Prevalence of Low Back Pain among Traffic Warden in Lagos state. The data ...

  5. Molecular investigations on grain filling rate under terminal heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain yield under post anthesis high temperature stress is largely influenced by grain filling rate (GFR). To investigate molecular basis of this trait, a set of 111 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Raj 4014, a heat sensitive genotype and WH 730, heat tolerant cultivar was phenotyped during 2009-2010 and ...

  6. Evaluation of ac conductivity behaviour of graphite filled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composites of epoxy resin having different amounts of graphite particles have been prepared by solution casting method. Temperature dependence of dielectric constant, tan and a.c. conductivity was measured in the frequency range, 1–20 kHz, temperature range, 40–180°C for 0.99, 1.96 and 2.91 wt% graphite filled ...

  7. Earthquake induced liquefaction analysis of Tendaho earth-fill dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fill dam, which is part of Tendaho Dam and Irrigation Project; the largest irrigation project in Ethiopia to date. The dam is located in the most seismic part of Ethiopia and was originally designed to be founded on potentially liquefiable alluvium ...

  8. On Love's approximation for fluid-filled elastic tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caroli, E.; Mainardi, F.

    1980-01-01

    A simple procedure is set up to introduce Love's approximation for wave propagation in thin-walled fluid-filled elastic tubes. The dispersion relation for linear waves and the radial profile for fluid pressure are determined in this approximation. It is shown that the Love approximation is valid in the low-frequency regime. (author)

  9. 27 CFR 5.53 - Certificate of nonstandard fill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificate of nonstandard fill. 5.53 Section 5.53 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Requirements for Withdrawal...

  10. 27 CFR 4.46 - Certificate of nonstandard fill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificate of nonstandard fill. 4.46 Section 4.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Requirements for Withdrawal of Wine From...

  11. Filling of recovered mining areas using solidifying backfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman Róbert

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the possibilities for filling recovered mining areas using solidifying backfill .The article describes the preparation of the backfill (backfill formulation with an eventual application using low quality sands, wastes from treatment plants and ash from power plants etc now to transport it as well as its application in practice. Advantageous and disadvantageous of this method are also mentioned.Several factors must be taken info consideration during the preparation process of the backfill mixture. Firstly, the quantities of each individual component must be constantly regulated. Secondly, the properties of each component must be respected. In addition, the needs of the pipeline transport system and the specific conditions of the recovered area to be filled must also be considered.Hydraulic transport and pneumo-hydraulic pipeline transport are used for handling the backfill. Pumps for transporting the solidifying backfill have to carry out demanding tasks.Due to the physical-mechanical properties of the backfill, only highly powerful pumps can be considered. Piston type pumps such as Abel Simplex and Duplex pumps with capacities of up to 100 m3.h-1 and operating pressures of up to 16 MPa would be suitable.This method has been applied abroad for different purposes. For example, solid backfill was used in the Hamr mine during exploitation of uranium using the room-and-pillar system mining method.In the Ostrava–Karvina Coal field, backfill was used in decontamination work, filling areas in a zone of dangerous deformations and for creating a dividing stratum during thick seam mining.Research info the use of solidifying backfill was also done in the Walsum mine in Germany. The aim of this research was:- to investigate the possibilities of filling a collapsing area in a working face using a solidifying mixture of power plant ash and water,- to verify whether towing pipelines proposed by the DMT corporation would be

  12. Mechanical behavior of cellular borosilicate glass with pressurized Ar-filled closed pores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Matsumaru, Koji; Yang Jianfeng; Fu Zhengyi; Ishizaki, Kozo

    2012-01-01

    High strength borosilicate foams were fabricated by melting glass powder under high-pressure argon gas and subsequent heat treatment of the glass bulk at atmospheric pressure. In the first step, borosilicate glass powder was melted at 1100 °C for 1 h by capsule-free hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) under a high gas pressure of 10–70 MPa. Pressurized Ar-filled spherical pores were introduced into the glass, and argon atoms were dissolved in the glass network structure. The expansion of argon-filled pores and the release of the dissolved Ar gas resulted in the formation of pressurized Ar-filled closed pores by isothermal heat treatment at 800 °C for 10 min. A high porosity of up to 80% with a bimodal distribution of micro-size cells was obtained for the resultant cellular borosilicate glass. By increasing the total gas pressure from 10 to 70 MPa, the compressive strength and the Young’s modulus were increased considerably from 15 to 52 MPa and from 4.1 to 12.6 GPa, respectively, which can be substantially attributed to the high collapse stress from the high enclosed gas pressure. The cellular glass with a high porosity showed a large failure strain under uniaxial compression.

  13. Rock fill in a KBS-3 repository. Rock material for filling of shafts and ramps in a KBS-3V repository in the closure phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, Roland

    2008-09-01

    cause an increase by 100%. Earthquakes can not cause liquefaction of densely compacted rock fill. The hydraulic conductivity of normally graded crushed rock is, for achievable densities and without adding fines, about E-5 m/s, while addition of fines can reduce it to E-7 m/s. The mineralogy is important for minimizing degradation of the buffer clay and canisters. Hence, the content of sulphur-bearing minerals should be low and the amount of carbonates at minimum for avoiding risk of dissolution and formation of larger voids in the backfill. The content of potassium-bearing minerals should not exceed normal values for keeping the rate of conversion of smectite in the buffer to illite low, especially in tunnels and openings close to the deposition area

  14. Rock fill in a KBS-3 repository. Rock material for filling of shafts and ramps in a KBS-3V repository in the closure phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland (Geodevelopment International AB/SWECO AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    cause an increase by 100%. Earthquakes can not cause liquefaction of densely compacted rock fill. The hydraulic conductivity of normally graded crushed rock is, for achievable densities and without adding fines, about E-5 m/s, while addition of fines can reduce it to E-7 m/s. The mineralogy is important for minimizing degradation of the buffer clay and canisters. Hence, the content of sulphur-bearing minerals should be low and the amount of carbonates at minimum for avoiding risk of dissolution and formation of larger voids in the backfill. The content of potassium-bearing minerals should not exceed normal values for keeping the rate of conversion of smectite in the buffer to illite low, especially in tunnels and openings close to the deposition area

  15. Dental Glass Ionomer Cements as Permanent Filling Materials? – Properties, Limitations and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Lohbauer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GICs are clinically attractive dental materials that have certain unique properties that make them useful as restorative and luting materials. This includes adhesion to moist tooth structures and base metals, anticariogenic properties due to release of fluoride, thermal compatibility with tooth enamel, biocompatibility and low toxicity. The use of GICs in a mechanically loaded situation, however, has been hampered by their low mechanical performance. Poor mechanical properties, such as low fracture strength, toughness and wear, limit their extensive use in dentistry as a filling material in stress-bearing applications. In the posterior dental region, glass ionomer cements are mostly used as a temporary filling material. The requirement to strengthen those cements has lead to an ever increasing research effort into reinforcement or strengthening concepts.

  16. Investigation of Stress-Strain-Time Relationships of Concrete Filled Steel Tube Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Seçer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, time dependent creep and shrinkage behaviors of concrete filled steel box section columns are investigated by using various methods. Time dependent behavior is examined by using effective modulus method, age-adjusted effective modulus method, creep rate method and Dischinger method. Shrinkage and creep strains are modeled using ACI 209 specification. In the study, in order to investigate time dependent behavior numerically, a concrete filled steel box section column is selected in a twenty story building and the time dependent stress decrease in concrete and stress increase in steel box section and the changes in strain components are calculated. Stress – time, strain – time and strain components – time graphics are shown and the advantages and the disadvantages of the numerical methods in modeling the time dependent behavior are revealed respectively.

  17. First results from Tyrex, the new polarized-3He filling station at ILL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, K.H.; Chung, R.; Guillard, V.; Humblot, H.; Jullien, D.; Lelievre-Berna, E.; Petoukhov, A.; Tasset, F.

    2005-01-01

    A new filling station for nuclear polarisation of 3 He gas has been constructed at the ILL, Grenoble. The 'Tyrex' machine uses metastability-exchange optical pumping for polarising the 3 He gas at about 1 mbar pressure. The gas is then compressed up to several bars via a hydraulic titanium-alloy piston compressor. The machine can provide about 1.5 bar-l/h of polarised gas--an order-of-magnitude increase over the first filling station installed at the ILL in 1996. The compressed, polarised gas is used for polarising neutron beams for condensed-matter and fundamental physics experiments. First results are presented and examples of implementations on existing neutron instruments at ILL are described

  18. EVALUATION OF DIELECTRIC CURING MONITORING INVESTIGATING LIGHT-CURING DENTAL FILLING COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Steinhaus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the evaluation of a dielectric analysis (DEA method monitoring the curing behaviour of a light curing dental filling material in real-time. The evaluation is to extract the influence of light intensity on the photo-curing process of dental composite filling materials. The intensity change is obtained by measuring the curing process at different sample depth. It could be shown that increasing sample thickness, and therefore exponentially decreasing light intensity, causes a proportional decrease in the initial curing rate. Nevertheless, the results give rise to the assumption that lower illumination intensities over a long period cause higher overall conversion, and thus better mechanical properties. This would allow for predictions of the impact of different curing-rates on the final mechanical properties.

  19. Dynamics of Dispersive Wave Generation in Gas-Filled Photonic Crystal Fiber with the Normal Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of Raman and unique pressure-tunable dispersion is the characteristic feature of gas-filled photonic crystal fiber (PCF, and its zero dispersion points can be extended to the near-infrared by increasing gas pressure. The generation of dispersive wave (DW in the normal group velocity dispersion (GVD region of PCF is investigated. It is demonstrated that considering the self-steepening (SS and introducing the chirp of the initial input pulse are two suitable means to control the DW generation. The SS enhances the relative average intensity of blue-shift DW while weakening that of red-shift DW. The required propagation distance of DW emission is markedly varied by introducing the frequency chirp. Manipulating DW generation in gas-filled PCF by the combined effects of either SS or chirp and three-order dispersion (TOD provides a method for a concentrated transfer of energy into the targeted wavelengths.

  20. Dry sliding wear behaviour of organo-modified montmorillonite filled epoxy nanocomposites using Taguchi's techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashmi; Renukappa, N.M.; Suresha, B.; Devarajaiah, R.M.; Shivakumar, K.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Successful fabrication of OMMT filled epoxy nanocomposites by high-shear mixing mehod. → Systematic tribological behaviour of the nanocomposites was made using Taguchi method. → Worn surface morphologies of the samples were discussed for different wear mechanisms. → Generation of wear data for sliding/bearing parts for different industries. -- Abstract: The aim of the research article is to study the dry sliding wear behaviour of epoxy with different wt.% of organo-modified montmorillonite (OMMT) filled nanocomposites. An orthogonal array (L 9 ) was used to investigate the influence of tribological parameters. The results indicate that the sliding distance emerges as the most significant factor affecting wear rate of epoxy nanocomposites. Experimental results showed that the inclusion of 5 wt.% OMMT nanofiller increased the wear resistance of the epoxy nanocomposite significantly. Furthermore, the worn surfaces of the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study the wear mechanisms and to correlate them with the wear test results.